WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrating line detector

  1. A hemispherical photoelectron spectrometer with 2-dimensional delay-line detector and integrated spin-polarization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plucinski, L.; Oelsner, A.; Matthes, F.; Schneider, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Photoelectron spectrometers usually allow detection of either spin-resolved energy-distribution curves (EDCs) at single emission angle, or 2D angle-vs.-energy images without spin-resolution. We have combined the two detection schemes into one spectrometer system which permits simultaneous detection of a 1D spin-resolved EDC and a 2D angular map. A state-of-the-art hemispherical analyzer is used as an energy filter. Its original scintillator detector has been replaced by a delay-line-detector (DLD), and part of the electron beam is allowed to pass through to reach the spin-polarized low energy electron diffraction (SPLEED) spin-detector mounted subsequently. The electron-optics between DLD and SPLEED contains a 90 o deflector to feature simultaneous detection of in-plane and out-of-plane spin components. These electron-optics have been optimized for high transmission to reduce acquisition times in the spin-resolved mode.

  2. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  3. Performance of the first ANTARES detector line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruijn, R.; Kooijman, P.; Lim, G.; De Wolf, E. [Univ Amsterdam, Inst Hoge Energiefys, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam, (Netherlands); Ageron, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Escoffier, S.; Hallewell, G.; Lambard, G.; Lavalle, J.; Lelaizant, G.; Louis, F.; Melissas, M.; Payre, P.; Reed, C. [CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, F-13288 Marseille 9, (France); Ageron, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Escoffier, S.; Hallewell, G.; Lambard, G.; Lavalle, J.; Lelaizant, G.; Louis, F.; Melissas, M.; Payre, P.; Reed, C. [Univ Aix Marseille 2, F-13288 Marseille 9, (France); Aguilar, J.A.; Bigongiari, C.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Salesa, F.; Toscano, S.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [Univ Valencia, CSIC, IFIC Inst Fis Corpuscular, Edificios Invest Paterna, Valencia 46071, (Spain); Albert, A.; Castel, D.; Drouhin, D.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Guillard, G. [Univ Houte Alsace, GRPHE, F-68093 Mulhouse, (France); Anton, G.; Auer, R.; Eberl, T.; Fehr, F.; Graf, K.; Hossl, J.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kopper, C.; Kretschmer, W.; Kuch, S.; Lahmann, R.; Laschinsky, H.; Loucatos, S.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Ostasch, R.; Richardt, C.; Schoeck, F.; Shanidze, R. [Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, (Germany); Anvar, S.; Druillole, F.; Lamare, P.; Le Provost, H. [CEA Saclay, Direct Sci Mat, Inst Rech Fondamentales Univers, Serv Elect Detecteurs et Informat, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we report on the data recorded with the first Antares detector line. The line was deployed on 14 February 2006 and was connected to the readout 2 weeks later. Environmental data for one and a half years of running are shown. Measurements of atmospheric muons from data taken from selected runs during the first 6 months of operation are presented. Performance figures in terms of time residuals and angular resolution are given. Finally the angular distribution of atmospheric muons is presented and from this the depth profile of the muon intensity is derived. (authors)

  4. Line integral on engineering mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryanto, L. H.

    2018-01-01

    Definite integral is a basic material in studying mathematics. At the level of calculus, calculating of definite integral is based on fundamental theorem of calculus, related to anti-derivative, as the inverse operation of derivative. At the higher level such as engineering mathematics, the definite integral is used as one of the calculating tools of line integral. the purpose of this is to identify if there is a question related to line integral, we can use definite integral as one of the calculating experience. The conclusion of this research says that the teaching experience in introducing the relation between both integrals through the engineer way of thinking can motivate and improve students in understanding the material.

  5. On-line radioactivity detector for HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last ten years the technique of high performance liquid chromotography (HPLC) has become extensively employed for the separation and quantitation of various biological, organic, and inorganic substances. The use of HPLC for the separation of various metabolic compounds has become routine. The major problem of analyzing the metabolism process is that the quantitation is accomplished by the use of radioactive substrates. Until recently the only method to quantitate these radioactive compounds eluting from the HPLC was by collecting fractions at preset times, removing aliquots and quantitating in a liquid scintillation counter. Once the radioactivity present in each fraction was determined, the results were plotted on a graph and the area of each of the radioactive peaks was determined. This entire process required from 3-20 hours. The introduction of the flow through radioactivity detector enable the investigator to directly quantitate the radioactive peaks as they elute from the HPLC in real time and at about one-tenth the original cost of the previous methods. The detection limits of this technique are dependent on the residence time of the sample in the flow cell and the type of flow cell used for the analysis. Using a 2.5 ml liquid flow cell, (mixing with liquid scintillation solution), base line resolution can be obtained for peaks 1.5 minutes apart, and a sensitivity of 70 dpm for tritium and 30 dpm for carbon-14 can be achieved

  6. Vertical integration technologies for vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on the use of vertical integration (3D) technologies in the design of hybrid or monolithic pixel detectors in view of applications to silicon vertex trackers (SVTs) at the future high luminosity colliders. After a short introduction on the specifications of next-generation SVTs, the paper will discuss the general features of 3D microelectronic processes and the benefits they can provide to the design of pixel detectors for high energy physics experiments.

  7. On line ultrasonic integrated backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landini, L.; Picano, E.; Mazzarisi, A.; Santarelli, F.; Benassi, A.; De Pieri, G.

    1988-01-01

    A new equipment for on-line evaluation of index based on two-dimensional integrated backscatter from ultrasonic images is described. The new equipment is fully integrated into a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus which provides a simultaneous display of conventional information together with parameters of tissue characterization. The system has been tested with a backscattering model of microbubbles in polysaccharide solution, characterized by a physiological exponential time decay. An exponential fitting to the experimental data was performed which yielded r=0.95

  8. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  9. The laser integration line (LIL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, A.

    2006-01-01

    The laser integration line (LIL) was originally built to validate the technological choices made for the Megajoule laser that is being built nearby. The LIL is made up of a single line composed of 8 laser beams. Each laser beam consists of 4 main modules: 1) the impulse generator that delivers a 40 mm * 40 mm square cross section infrared laser beam (λ = 1053 nm); 2) the amplification module that involves 2 steps in power amplifying, the output signal is a laser impulse of 5 ns of time duration carrying an energy of 20.10 3 Joule at a wavelength of 1053 nm; 3) the transport line that leads 4 elementary laser beams through a system of 6 mirrors; and 4) the optical block of the focusing and frequency conversion system (SCF). The purpose of SCF is twofold, first to turn the 4 infrared elementary beams into 4 ultraviolet (λ = 351 nm) beams thanks to 2 KDP (potassium di-hydrogeno-phosphate) crystals, and secondly to merge and focus the 4 elementary beams on a unique spot of the target thanks to diffraction gratings with curved slits. (A.C.)

  10. Systems integration for the L* detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The L* is proposed as one of two large detectors to be installed at interaction points of the Superconducting Super Collider. The principal feature of the L* is a large solenoidal magnet which provides the field necessary for particle tracking within the device. This approach is based on the L3, a somewhat smaller detector presently in operation at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The detector is made up of four major subsystems: central tracker, electromagnetic calorimeter, hadron calorimeter, and muon chambers. These systems will deliver over 300,000 channels of electronic signals requiring massive computing systems for high speed data processing. The configuration of the L* represents a significant challenge for design, fabrication, construction and installation. It has an outer diameter of 24 meters and an overall length of 53 meters. The size and weight of the major components requires large facilities for on-site fabrication and assembly. The detector is to be installed in an experimental hall 55 meters below ground level. Precision alignment and calibration requires special fixtures and support structures which are continuously monitored. Present plans call for installation to be completed in early 1999. The L* collaboration consists of a worldwide team of scientists and engineers representing over 100 institutions. Major national centers have been established in the US to be the focal point for the collaboration: the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (for the Hadron Calorimeter and Engineering Coordination), Los Alamos National Laboratory (for the Central Tracker), and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (for the Muon Chamber). This presentation describes the principal features of the detector and it's supporting facilities. Systems integration activities involved in the design and planning of the project are discussed

  11. Note on the integration of the ILD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, C.; Jore, M.

    2009-05-01

    The ILD, the international large detector concept, is one of several detector concepts that are studied for the International Linear Collider. This note summarises part of the studies done on the integration of the ILD detector and gives details on the actual status of the overall integration. This document describes the assembly of the sub-detectors (according to their differences) that are the hadronic calorimeter (HCal), the electronic calorimeter (ECal), the time projection chamber (TPC), the end-cap calorimeters and the inner detectors. A proposal for the cabling scheme and the possible opening scenarios is made

  12. Development of a fast multi-line x-ray CT detector for NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, T.; Nachtrab, F.; Schlechter, T.; Mühlbauer, J.; Schröpfer, S.; Firsching, M.; Uhlmann, N.; Neubauer, H.; Ernst, J.; Schweiger, T.; Oberst, M.; Meyer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Typical X-ray detectors for non-destructive testing (NDT) are line detectors or area detectors, like e.g. flat panel detectors. Multi-line detectors are currently only available in medical Computed Tomography (CT) scanners. Compared to flat panel detectors, line and multi-line detectors can achieve much higher frame rates. This allows time-resolved 3D CT scans of an object under investigation. Also, an improved image quality can be achieved due to reduced scattered radiation from object and detector themselves. Another benefit of line and multi-line detectors is that very wide detectors can be assembled easily, while flat panel detectors are usually limited to an imaging field with a size of approx. 40 × 40 cm 2 at maximum. The big disadvantage of line detectors is the limited number of object slices that can be scanned simultaneously. This leads to long scan times for large objects. Volume scans with a multi-line detector are much faster, but with almost similar image quality. Due to the promising properties of multi-line detectors their application outside of medical CT would also be very interesting for NDT. However, medical CT multi-line detectors are optimized for the scanning of human bodies. Many non-medical applications require higher spatial resolutions and/or higher X-ray energies. For those non-medical applications we are developing a fast multi-line X-ray detector.In the scope of this work, we present the current state of the development of the novel detector, which includes several outstanding properties like an adjustable curved design for variable focus-detector-distances, conserving nearly uniform perpendicular irradiation over the entire detector width. Basis of the detector is a specifically designed, radiation hard CMOS imaging sensor with a pixel pitch of 200 μ m. Each pixel has an automatic in-pixel gain adjustment, which allows for both: a very high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range. The final detector is planned to have 256 lines of

  13. Airplane Ice Detector Based on a Microwave Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phong; Arndt, G. Dickey; Carl, James R.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic instrument that could detect the potentially dangerous buildup of ice on an airplane wing is undergoing development. The instrument is based on a microwave transmission line configured as a capacitance probe: at selected spots, the transmission-line conductors are partly exposed to allow any ice and/or liquid water present at those spots to act as predominantly capacitive electrical loads on the transmission line. These loads change the input impedance of the transmission line, as measured at a suitable excitation frequency. Thus, it should be possible to infer the presence of ice and/or liquid water from measurements of the input impedance and/or electrical parameters related to the input impedance. The sensory transmission line is of the microstrip type and thus thin enough to be placed on an airplane wing without unduly disturbing airflow in flight. The sensory spots are small areas from which the upper layer of the microstrip has been removed to allow any liquid water or ice on the surface to reach the transmission line. The sensory spots are spaced at nominal open-circuit points, which are at intervals of a half wavelength (in the transmission line, not in air) at the excitation frequency. The excitation frequency used in the experiments has been 1 GHz, for which a half wavelength in the transmission line is .4 in. (.10 cm). The figure depicts a laboratory prototype of the instrument. The impedance-related quantities chosen for use in this version of the instrument are the magnitude and phase of the scattering parameter S11 as manifested in the in-phase (I ) and quadrature (Q) outputs of the phase detector. By careful layout of the transmission line (including the half-wavelength sensor spacing), one can ensure that the amplitude and phase of the input to the phase detector keep shifting in the same direction as ice forms on one or more of the sensor areas. Although only one transmission-line sensor strip is used in the laboratory version, in a

  14. Signal integrity analysis on discontinuous microstrip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Qingyang; Dai, Yawen; Chen, Zipeng

    2013-01-01

    In high speed PCB design, microstirp lines were used to control the impedance, however, the discontinuous microstrip line can cause signal integrity problems. In this paper, we use the transmission line theory to study the characteristics of microstrip lines. Research results indicate that the discontinuity such as truncation, gap and size change result in the problems such as radiation, reflection, delay and ground bounce. We change the discontinuities to distributed parameter circuits, analysed the steady-state response and transient response and the phase delay. The transient response cause radiation and voltage jump.

  15. A passive integrating charcoal detector for indoor radon survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lianqing; Ren Tianshan; Li Guiyun

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the principle, design, calibration and characteristics of a passive integrating charcoal detector for measuring average radon concentration indoors. The uncertainties of the detector are also evaluated. Under conditions of room temperature at 17 deg C and relative humidity at 30%, the minimum limit of detection is 0.16 pCi/1 for 72 hours exposure. Besides higher sensitivity, the other advantages of this detector are passive, simple and less expensive. It requires no power and makes no noise and gives no interference to daily activities of the residents of dwellings being surveyed. Therefore the detector is suitable for a large-scale survey of radon levels indoors

  16. Status of fully integrated GaAs particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Breibach, J.; Kubicki, Th.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Maesing, Th.; Rente, C.; Roeper, Ch.; Siemes, A.

    1999-01-01

    GaAs strip detectors are of interest because of their radiation hardness at room temperature and the high absorption coefficient of GaAs for x-rays. The detectors currently under development will be used in the VLQ-experiment at the H1 experiment at the HERA collider. This will be the first high energy physics experiment where GaAs detectors will be used. The detectors have a sensitive area of 5 x 4 cm with a pitch of 62 μ m. Due to the high density of channels the biasing resistors and coupling capacitors are integrated. For the resistors a resistive layer made of Cermet is used. The properties of the first fully integrated strip detector are presented

  17. Feasibility studies of microelectrode silicon detectors with integrated electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Lusiani, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Pignatel, G.U.; Rama, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Sandrelli, F.; Speziali, V.; Svelto, F.; Zorzi, N.

    2002-01-01

    We describe our experience on design and fabrication, on high-resistivity silicon substrates, of microstrip detectors and integrated electronics, devoted to high-energy physics experiments and medical/industrial imaging applications. We report on the full program of our collaboration, with particular regards to the tuning of a new fabrication process, allowing for the production of good quality transistors, while keeping under control the basic detector parameters, such as leakage current. Experimental results on JFET and bipolar transistors are presented, and a microstrip detector with an integrated JFET in source-follower configuration is introduced

  18. 3D circuit integration for Vertex and other detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    High Energy Physics continues to push the technical boundaries for electronics. There is no area where this is truer than for vertex detectors. Lower mass and power along with higher resolution and radiation tolerance are driving forces. New technologies such as SOI CMOS detectors and three dimensional (3D) integrated circuits offer new opportunities to meet these challenges. The fundamentals for SOI CMOS detectors and 3D integrated circuits are discussed. Examples of each approach for physics applications are presented. Cost issues and ways to reduce development costs are discussed.

  19. A tewlve detector coincidence spectrometer for on-line and off-line measurements of nuclear g-factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfter, I.; Bodenstedt, E.; Hamer, B.; Hoff, J. van den; Knichel, W.; Muenning, H.; Piel, S.; Schueth, J.; Sajok, R.

    1992-01-01

    A twelve detector γ-γ directional correlation setup is described which has been designed and constructed for high precision on-line and off-line IPAC measurements. A ring of twelve BaF 2 detectors which may be replaced by Ge detectors is arranged around a superconducting magnet providing a maximum magnetic field of 4.5 T. In on-line experiments the magnetic field has the direction of the beam which passes through a central bore of the magnet. The data acquisition system stores directly the Esub(γ 1 )-Esub(γ 2 ) coincidence matrices for all 66 two-detector combinations in two 8 Mbyte RAMs, one for each of the two field directions. This allows a very fast data evaluation with a small on-line computer. The apparatus got into operation one-and-a-halve years ago and revealed excellent properties. (orig.)

  20. Integration of the CMS Phase 1 Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kornmayer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    During the extended year-end technical stop 2016/17 the CMS Pixel Detector has been replaced. The new Phase 1 Pixel Detector is designed for a luminosity that could exceed $\\text{L} = 2x10^{34} cm^{−2}s^{−1}$. With one additional layer in the barrel and the forward region of the new detector, combined with the higher hit rates as the LHC luminosity increases, these conditions called for an upgrade of the data acquisition system, which was realised based on the $\\mu$TCA standard. This contribution focuses on the experiences with integration of the new detector readout and control system and reports on the operational performance of the CMS Pixel detector.

  1. Realization of the electrical Sentinel 4 detector integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, M.; Hohn, R.; Skegg, M.; Woffinden, C.; Reulke, R.

    2017-09-01

    The detectors of the Sentinel 4 multi spectral imager are operated in flight at 215K while the analog electronics is operated at ambient temperature. The detector is cooled by means of a radiator. For thermal reasons no active component has been allowed in the cooled area closest to the detector as the passive radiator is restricted in its size. For thermal decoupling of detector and electronics a long distance between detector and electronics is considered ideal as thermal conductivity decreases with the length of the connection. In contradiction a short connection between detector and electronics is ideal for the electronic signals. Only a short connection ensures the signal integrity of both the weak detector output signal but similarly also the clock signals for driving the detector. From a mechanical and thermal point of view the connection requires a certain minimum length. The selected solution serves all these needs but had to approach the limits of what is electrically, mechanically and thermally feasible. In addition, shielding from internal (self distortion) and external distorting signals has to be realized for the connection between FEE(Front End Electronics) and detectors. At the time of the design of the flex it was not defined whether the mechanical structure between FEE and FPA (Focal Plane Assembly) would act as a shielding structure. The physical separation between CCD detector and the Front-end Electronics, the adverse EMI environment in which the instrument will be operated in (the location of the instrument on the satellite is in vicinity to a down-link K-band communication antenna of the S/C) require at least the video output signals to be shielded. Both detectors (a NIR and a UVVIS detector) are sensitive to contamination and difficult to be cleaned in case of any contamination. This brings up extreme cleanliness requirements for the detector in manufacturing and assembly. Effectively the detector has to be kept in an ISO 5 environment and

  2. Double gated-integrator for shaping nuclear radiation detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new shaper, the double gated-integrator, for shaping nuclear radiation detector signals is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The double gated-integrator consists of a pre-filter and two cascaded gated integrators. Two kinds of pre-filters were considered: a rectangular one and an exponential one. The results of the theoretical calculation show that the best figure of demerit for the double gated-integrator with exponential pre-filter is 1.016. This means that its noise to signal ratio is only 1.6% worse than that it is for infinite cusp shaping. The practical realization of the exponential pre-filter and that of the double gated integrator, both in analogue and in digital way, is very simple. Therefore, the double gated-integrator with exponential pre-filter could be a promising solution for shaping nuclear radiation detector signals

  3. Characterization of the in-flight degradation of the INTEGRAL/SPI detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonjou, V.; Roques, J.P.; Ballmoos, P. von; Jean, P.; Knodlseder, J.; Skinner, G.; Thevenin, A.; Weidenspointner, G.

    2005-01-01

    SPI is a high spectral resolution gamma ray telescope which was launched on 2002 October 17 on-board INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory). The SPI camera consists of 19 high-purity germanium detectors that cover an energy range of 20 keV-8 MeV with an energy resolution of 2-8 keV FWHM. We describe the methods used for the determination of the effects of radiation damage on the SPI detectors. Degradation rate and recovery by annealing are quantified. Using instrumental background lines due to radioisotopes from natural decay chains and from cosmic ray interactions, we found that the variations of detectors efficiency are low. Finally, the impact of the detector degradation on the energy calibration has been investigated

  4. GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

  5. Integrated nuclear radiation detector and monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biehl, B.L.; Lieberman, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    A battery powered device which can continuously monitor and detect nuclear radiation utilizing fully integrated circuitry and which is provided with an alarm which alerts persons when the radiation level exceeds a predetermined threshold

  6. Fully integrated CMOS pixel detector for high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanstraelen, G.; Debusschere, I.; Claeys, C.; Declerck, G.

    1989-01-01

    A novel type of position and energy sensitive, monolithic pixel array with integrated readout electronics is proposed. Special features of the design are a reduction of the number of output channels and of the amount of output data, and the use of transistors on the high resistivity silicon. The number of output channels for the detector array is reduced by handling in parallel a number of pixels, chosen as a function of the time resolution required for the system, and by the use of an address decoder. A further reduction of data is achieved by reading out only those pixels which have been activated. The pixel detector circuit will be realized in a 3 μm p-well CMOS process, which is optimized for the full integration of readout electronics and detector diodes on high resistivity Si. A retrograde well is formed by means of a high energy implantation, followed by the appropriate temperature steps. The optimization of the well shape takes into account the high substrate bias applied during the detector operation. The design is largely based on the use of MOS transistors on the high resistivity silicon itself. These have proven to perform as well as transistors on standard doped substrate. The basic building elements as well as the design strategy of the integrated pixel detector are presented in detail. (orig.)

  7. Particle detector goes on line soon in Japan

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    Belle, a detector intended to explain the imbalance between matter and antimatter in the universe is scheduled to be moved to the collision point of KEK's new electron-positron collider in February 1999.

  8. On-line evaluation of position-sensitive detector (PSD) diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansfield, R.F.D.; McIntyre, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The amount of raw data accumulated in a single-crystal diffraction experiment using a two-dimensional Position Sensitive Detector is usually so large that it is impracticable to store it. It is therefore necessary to reduce each local three-dimensional array of counts to a Bragg intensity, in a time not longer than the average time that one reflection is active. The statistically optimum procedure comprises an estimation of the background from a large number of counts, and an integration of peak intensity within a suitable three-dimensional envelope. A typical on-line method is described, using as an example the D19 diffractometer at the Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL) high-flux reactor. Current methods of PSD data reduction are reviewed. These fall into three groups according to the basis of the method used to find the integration envelope: (a) statistical criteria, (b) three-dimensional sigma(I)/I analysis, and (c) pre-calculation of the resolution function. On-line data reduction imposes special requirements on diagnostics to check the precision of the reduced data, especially at the start of an experiment, when any peculiarities must be identified and allowed for in the data-reduction procedure. The diagnostic possibilities resulting from the comparison of local with global characteristics of the background and the integration envelope are discussed. (author)

  9. INTEGRAL/SPI γ-ray line spectroscopy. Response and background characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland; Siegert, Thomas; Greiner, Jochen; Krause, Martin; Kretschmer, Karsten; Lang, Michael; Pleintinger, Moritz; Strong, Andrew W.; Weinberger, Christoph; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2018-03-01

    Context. The space based γ-ray observatory INTEGRAL of the European Space Agency (ESA) includes the spectrometer instrument "SPI". This is a coded mask telescope featuring a 19-element Germanium detector array for high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy, encapsulated in a scintillation detector assembly that provides a veto for background from charged particles. In space, cosmic rays irradiate spacecraft and instruments, which, in spite of the vetoing detectors, results in a large instrumental background from activation of those materials, and leads to deterioration of the charge collection properties of the Ge detectors. Aim. We aim to determine the measurement characteristics of our detectors and their evolution with time, that is, their spectral response and instrumental background. These incur systematic variations in the SPI signal from celestial photons, hence their determination from a broad empirical database enables a reduction of underlying systematics in data analysis. For this, we explore compromises balancing temporal and spectral resolution within statistical limitations. Our goal is to enable modelling of background applicable to spectroscopic studies of the sky, accounting separately for changes of the spectral response and of instrumental background. Methods: We use 13.5 years of INTEGRAL/SPI data, which consist of spectra for each detector and for each pointing of the satellite. Spectral fits to each such spectrum, with independent but coherent treatment of continuum and line backgrounds, provides us with details about separated background components. From the strongest background lines, we first determine how the spectral response changes with time. Applying symmetry and long-term stability tests, we eliminate degeneracies and reduce statistical fluctuations of background parameters, with the aim of providing a self-consistent description of the spectral response for each individual detector. Accounting for this, we then determine how the

  10. A Minor Modification of Leading Edge Discriminator Circuitry with a Delay Line for Baseline Restoration of Scintillation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, N

    2003-01-01

    Multi-channel neutron time-of-flight detector arrays LaNSA, T-ion, Medusa, and Mandala, have been used for neutron spectroscopy in inertial confinement fusion experiments. These multi-channel neutron detector arrays consist of many identical scintillation detectors (842 ∼ 1024 channel), data acquisition electronics (discriminators, time-to digital converters, and controller). Each detector element is operated in neutron counting mode. Time-of-flight of individual detected neutrons are recorded by time to digital converters. The energy of each detected neutrons is determined from its time-of-flight. The accurate time measurement (Δt ∼ 0.5 ns) and straightforward statistical features of the data obtained with these systems provides good integrity and reliability. The elements detector used in these systems are organic scintillators coupled with photo multiplier tubes. A scintillation detector operated in particle-counting mode requires finite recovery time after each detection event. The recovery time is determined by the time responses of scintillators, photo multiplier tubes, and the dead times of following discriminators and time-to digital converters. The harsh gamma ray background environment of fast ignitor experiments requires detectors that have fast recovery times. In high intensity laser experiments (I > 10 19 W/cm 2 ), strong gamma ray bursts are produced by relativistic laser plasma interactions. Prior to the neutron signal, these strong gamma ray bursts hit the detectors and interfere with the detection of following neutron signals. In these situations, the recovery time of the system after preceding gamma ray bursts is determined mainly by the base line shift of the PMT signal (due to slower decay components of scintillators ''after glow''). Discriminators cannot detect following signal pulses until the proceeding burst decays below its threshold voltage. The base line shift caused by the after glow prolongs the recovery time of the discriminators

  11. Integrated Miniature Arrays of Optical Biomolecule Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Lin, Ying; Le, Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Integrated miniature planar arrays of optical sensors for detecting specific biochemicals in extremely small quantities have been proposed. An array of this type would have an area of about 1 cm2. Each element of the array would include an optical microresonator that would have a high value of the resonance quality factor (Q . 107). The surface of each microresonator would be derivatized to make it bind molecules of a species of interest, and such binding would introduce a measurable change in the optical properties of the microresonator. Because each microresonator could be derivatized for detection of a specific biochemical different from those of the other microresonators, it would be possible to detect multiple specific biochemicals by simultaneous or sequential interrogation of all the elements in the array. Moreover, the derivatization would make it unnecessary to prepare samples by chemical tagging. Such interrogation would be effected by means of a grid of row and column polymer-based optical waveguides that would be integral parts of a chip on which the array would be fabricated. The row and column polymer-based optical waveguides would intersect at the elements of the array (see figure). At each intersection, the row and column waveguides would be optically coupled to one of the microresonators. The polymer-based waveguides would be connected via optical fibers to external light sources and photodetectors. One set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the row waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the sources to the resonators; the other set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the column waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the microresonators to the photodetectors. Each microresonator could be addressed individually by row and column for measurement of its optical transmission. Optionally, the chip could be fabricated so that each microresonator would lie inside a microwell, into which a microscopic liquid sample could be dispensed.

  12. Operational experience with the GEM detector assembly lines for the CMS forward muon upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Vai, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration has been developing large-area Triple-GEM detectors to be installed in the muon endcap regions of the CMS experiment in 2019 to maintain forward muon trigger and tracking performance at the HL-LHC. Ten pre-production detectors were built at CERN to commission the first assembly line and the quality controls. These were installed in the CMS detector in early 2017 and are currently participating in the 2017 LHC run. The collaboration has prepared several additional assembly and quality control lines for distributed mass production of 160 GEM detectors at various sites worldwide. During 2017, these additional production sites have been optimizing construction techniques and quality control procedures and validating them against common specifications by constructing additional pre-production detectors. Using the specific experience from one production site as an example, we discuss how the quality controls make use of independent hardware and trained personnel to ensure fast and reliable pro...

  13. A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, Francesco; Ferranti, Giacomo; Mahler, Dylan H.; Sibson, Philip; Kennard, Jake E.; Santamato, Alberto; Sinclair, Gary; Bonneau, Damien; Thompson, Mark G.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.

    2018-04-01

    Optical homodyne detection has found use as a characterisation tool in a range of quantum technologies. So far implementations have been limited to bulk optics. Here we present the optical integration of a homodyne detector onto a silicon photonics chip. The resulting device operates at high speed, up 150 MHz, it is compact and it operates with low noise, quantified with 11 dB clearance between shot noise and electronic noise. We perform on-chip quantum tomography of coherent states with the detector and show that it meets the requirements for characterising more general quantum states of light. We also show that the detector is able to produce quantum random numbers at a rate of 1.2 Gbps, by measuring the vacuum state of the electromagnetic field and applying off-line post processing. The produced random numbers pass all the statistical tests provided by the NIST test suite.

  14. Assessment of integrated solar ultraviolet radiation by PM-355 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Elhadidy, M.A.; Shaahid, S.M.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2000-01-01

    The increase in environmental solar UV radiation due to depletion of ozone layer is a recent challenge to human health (skin cancer and eye effects) in countries having clear skies. Therefore, applying integrated, passive and inexpensive techniques to assess solar UV radiation is very much essential. Measurements of environmental solar UV radiation in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia area were carried out for a period of two months in the summer period in 1996 using two techniques in parallel namely: passive nuclear track detectors and active solar UV radiometers. Some of the nuclear track detectors were mounted in different conditions such as: under shadow band, on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays. Others were mounted on perpendicular, tilted and horizontal surfaces in sunlight. All detectors were attached to a wooden background of the same thickness (0.5 cm) to eliminate interference of the heat effect of various support materials and have uniformity of the support materials. The assessment was carried out for different periods extending from two to nine weeks continuously. The investigated period covered the hottest months in Saudi Arabia (July and August) when the sky was clear of clouds. The results indicate linear correlation between alpha track diameters and the integrated exposure to solar UV as measured by the solar UV radiometer for all nuclear track detector positions and orientations. The highest slope has been observed for the detectors placed on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays and the lowest from detectors oriented under the shadow band on horizontal position (measuring the diffused UV radiation only). The results show that most of the measured UV radiation (60%) were from the diffused UV radiation. The characteristics of the upper layer of the detectors are changed after chemical etching very quickly, with increase in the exposure time to UV solar radiation at certain orientation. The results encourage the use of nuclear track

  15. Assessment of integrated solar ultraviolet radiation by PM-355 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Elhadidy, M.A.; Shaahid, S.M.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2000-06-01

    The increase in environmental solar UV radiation due to depletion of ozone layer is a recent challenge to human health (skin cancer and eye effects) in countries having clear skies. Therefore, applying integrated, passive and inexpensive techniques to assess solar UV radiation is very much essential. Measurements of environmental solar UV radiation in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia area were carried out for a period of two months in the summer period in 1996 using two techniques in parallel namely: passive nuclear track detectors and active solar UV radiometers. Some of the nuclear track detectors were mounted in different conditions such as: under shadow band, on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays. Others were mounted on perpendicular, tilted and horizontal surfaces in sunlight. All detectors were attached to a wooden background of the same thickness (0.5 cm) to eliminate interference of the heat effect of various support materials and have uniformity of the support materials. The assessment was carried out for different periods extending from two to nine weeks continuously. The investigated period covered the hottest months in Saudi Arabia (July and August) when the sky was clear of clouds. The results indicate linear correlation between alpha track diameters and the integrated exposure to solar UV as measured by the solar UV radiometer for all nuclear track detector positions and orientations. The highest slope has been observed for the detectors placed on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays and the lowest from detectors oriented under the shadow band on horizontal position (measuring the diffused UV radiation only). The results show that most of the measured UV radiation (60%) were from the diffused UV radiation. The characteristics of the upper layer of the detectors are changed after chemical etching very quickly, with increase in the exposure time to UV solar radiation at certain orientation. The results encourage the use of nuclear track

  16. Two-path plasmonic interferometer with integrated detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Aizin, Gregory

    2016-03-29

    An electrically tunable terahertz two-path plasmonic interferometer with an integrated detection element can down convert a terahertz field to a rectified DC signal. The integrated detector utilizes a resonant plasmonic homodyne mixing mechanism that measures the component of the plasma waves in-phase with an excitation field that functions as the local oscillator in the mixer. The plasmonic interferometer comprises two independently tuned electrical paths. The plasmonic interferometer enables a spectrometer-on-a-chip where the tuning of electrical path length plays an analogous role to that of physical path length in macroscopic Fourier transform interferometers.

  17. Integrated model for line balancing with workstation inventory management

    OpenAIRE

    Dilip Roy; Debdip khan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we address the optimization of an integrated line balancing process with workstation inventory management. While doing so, we have studied the interconnection between line balancing and its conversion process. Almost each and every moderate to large manufacturing industry depends on a long and integrated supply chain, consisting of inbound logistic, conversion process and outbound logistic. In this sense an approach addresses a very general problem of integrated line balancing....

  18. On-line estimator/detector design for a plutonium nitrate concentrator unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.; Rozsa, R.B.

    1979-04-01

    In this report we consider the design of a nonlinear estimator to be used in conjunction with on-line detectors for a plutonium/concentrator. Using a complex state-of-the-art process model to simulate realistic data, we show that the estimator performance using a simplified process model is adequate over a wide range of operation. The estimator is used to simulate and characterize some on-line diversion detectors, i.e., detectors designed to indicate if some of the critical special nuclear material in process is stolen or diverted from the unit. Several different diversion scenarios are presented. Simulation results indicate that the estimators and detectors yielded reasonable performance for the scenarios investigated

  19. Collider detector beam line test table: a structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leininger, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus which sweeps calorimeter and endwall modules through the beam during testing is called a beam line test table. Because of rather stringent requirements for the physical positioning of the modules an analysis is done here to determine the modifications to the current test table design which will minimize deflections of the table under load

  20. A two-dimensional detector with delay line readout for slow neutron fields measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheremukhina, G.A.; Chernenko, S.P.; Ivanov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the description of a two-dimensional detector of slow neutrons together with its readout and data acquisition electronics based on a PC/AT> The detector with a sensitive area of 260x140 mm 2 is based on a high pressure multiwire proportional chamber with delay line readout and gas filling of 3.0 atm. 3 He + propane. 25 refs.; 10 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Status of readout integrated circuits for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cheng, J. E. and others

    2001-09-01

    In this report, we describe the current status of readout integrated circuits developed for radiation detectors, along with new technologies being applied to this field. The current status of ASCIC chip development related to the readout electronics is also included in this report. Major sources of this report are from product catalogs and web sites of the related industries. In the field of semiconductor process technology in Korea, the current status of the multi-project wafer(MPW) of IDEC, the multi-project chip(MPC) of ISRC and other domestic semiconductor process industries is described. In the case of other countries, the status of the MPW of MOSIS in USA and the MPW of EUROPRACTICE in Europe is studied. This report also describes the technologies and products of readout integrated circuits of industries worldwide

  2. Fabrication of an integrated ΔE-E-silicon detector by wafer bonding using cobalt disilicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thungstroem, G.; Veldhuizen, E.J. van; Westerberg, L.; Norlin, L.-O.; Petersson, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    The problem concerning mechanical stability of thin self-supporting ΔE detector in a ΔE-E semiconductor detector telescope, has been solved by integrating both detectors into one unit. We show here a low-cost method to integrate the detectors by wafer bonding using cobalt disilicide. The ΔE-detector has a thickness of 6.5 μm and the E detector 290 μm with an area of 24.8 mm 2 . The system was characterized with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrical measurement, particle measurement and two-dimensional electrical simulation. (orig.)

  3. Fabrication of an integrated {Delta}E-E-silicon detector by wafer bonding using cobalt disilicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thungstroem, G. [Mid-Sweden Univ., Sundsvall (Sweden). Dept. of Inf. Technol.]|[Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Electronics, Electrum 229, S-164 40 Kista (Sweden); Veldhuizen, E.J. van [Uppsala University, Department of Radiation Science, Box 535, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Westerberg, L. [Uppsala University, The Svedberg Laboratory, Box 533, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Norlin, L.-O. [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Frescativaegen 24, S-104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Petersson, C.S. [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Electronics, Electrum 229, S-164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    The problem concerning mechanical stability of thin self-supporting {Delta}E detector in a {Delta}E-E semiconductor detector telescope, has been solved by integrating both detectors into one unit. We show here a low-cost method to integrate the detectors by wafer bonding using cobalt disilicide. The {Delta}E-detector has a thickness of 6.5 {mu}m and the E detector 290 {mu}m with an area of 24.8 mm{sup 2}. The system was characterized with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrical measurement, particle measurement and two-dimensional electrical simulation. (orig.).

  4. Design and implementation of a simple on-line time-activity curve detector for [O-15] water PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenweber, S.D.; Hichwa, R.D.; Ponto, L.L.B.

    1996-01-01

    A simple, automated on-line detector system has been fabricated and implemented to detect the arterial time-activity curve (TAC) for water PET studies. This system offers two significant improvements over existing systems: a pump mechanism is not required to control arterial blood flow through the detector and dispersion correction of the time-activity curve is unnecessary. The positrons emanating from a thin-walled, 0.134 cm inner-diameter plastic tube are detected by a 0.5 cm wide by 1.0 cm long by 0.1 cm thick plastic scintillator mounted to a miniature PMT. Photon background is shielded by a 2.0 cm thick cylindrical lead shield. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) calculated from the TAC determined by 1-second automated sampling was compared to that calculated from every 5-second integrated manual samples. Improvements in timing resolution (1-sec vs. 5-sec) cause small but significant differences between the two sampling methods. Dispersion is minimized due to small tubing diameters, short lengths of tubing between the radial arterial sampling site and the detector and the presence of a 3-way valve 10 cm proximal to the detector

  5. A self contained Linux based data acquisition system for 2D detectors with delay line readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, D.; Toledo, J.; Klora, A.C.; Ramos-Lerate, I.; Martinez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a fast and self-contained data acquisition system for 2D gas-filled detectors with delay line readout. It allows the realization of time resolved experiments in the millisecond scale. The acquisition system comprises of an industrial PC running Linux, a commercial time-to-digital converter and an in-house developed histogramming PCI card. The PC provides a mass storage for images and a graphical user interface for system monitoring and control. The histogramming card builds images with a maximum count rate of 5 MHz limited by the time-to-digital converter. Histograms are transferred to the PC at 85 MB/s. This card also includes a time frame generator, a calibration channel unit and eight digital outputs for experiment control. The control software was developed for easy integration into a beamline, including scans. The system is fully operational at the Spanish beamline BM16 at the ESRF in France, the neutron beamlines Adam and Eva at the ILL in France, the Max Plank Institute in Stuttgart in Germany, the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and at the future ALBA synchrotron in Spain. Some representative collected images from synchrotron and neutron beamlines are presented

  6. Discrimination of Charged Particles in a Neutral Beam Line by Using a Solid Scintillation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong-Kwan; Ko, Jewou; Liu, Dong [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In the past several decades, many studies have been conducted to search for non-baryonic dark matter, such as weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs). In the search for WIMPs, charged particles incident on the detector are background particles because WIMPs are neutral. Charged particles originate from various sources, such as cosmic rays and laboratory materials surrounding the main detector. Therefore, a veto that discriminates charged particles can improve the particle detection efficiency of the entire experiment for detecting WIMPs. Here, we investigate in the thickness range of 1 mm to 5 mm, the optimal thickness of a polystyrene scintillator as a charged particle veto detector. We found that 3-mm-thick polystyrene provides the best performance to veto charged particles and the charged-particle background in the search for the WIMP signal. Furthermore, we fabricated 3-mm-thick and 5-mm-thick polystyrene charged particle veto detectors that will be used in an underground laboratory in the search for WIMP dark matter. After exposing those detectors are the actual beam line, we compared the rate of charged particles measured using those detectors and the rate simulated through a Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. A Neutron Sensitive Microchannel Plate Detector with Cross Delay Line Readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Kevin D.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Crow, Lowell; Diawara, Yacouba; Feller, W. Bruce; Iverson, Erik B.; Martin, Adrian; Robertson, J. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Microchannel plates containing neutron absorbing elements such as boron and gadolinium in the bulk glass are used as the sensing element in high spatial resolution, high rate neutron imaging systems. In this paper we describe one such device, using both 10 B and natural Gd, which employs cross delay line signal readout, with time-of-flight capability. This detector has a measured spatial resolution under 40 m FWHM, thermal neutron efficiency of 19%, and has recorded rates in excess of 500 kHz. A physical and functional description is presented, followed by a discussion of measurements of detector performance and a brief survey of some practical applications.

  8. AAVS1-Targeted Plasmid Integration in AAV Producer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxia; Frederick, Amy; Martin, John M; Scaria, Abraham; Cheng, Seng H; Armentano, Donna; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Vincent, Karen A

    2017-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) producer cell lines are created via transfection of HeLaS3 cells with a single plasmid containing three components (the vector sequence, the AAV rep and cap genes, and a selectable marker gene). As this plasmid contains both the cis (Rep binding sites) and trans (Rep protein encoded by the rep gene) elements required for site-specific integration, it was predicted that plasmid integration might occur within the AAVS1 locus on human chromosome 19 (chr19). The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration in AAVS1 might be correlated with vector yield. Plasmid integration sites within several independent cell lines were assessed via Southern, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR analyses. In the Southern analyses, the presence of fragments detected by both rep- and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that for several mid- and high-producing lines, plasmid DNA had integrated into the AAVS1 locus. Analysis with puroR and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that integration in AAVS1 was a more widespread phenomenon. High-producing AAV2-secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) lines (masterwell 82 [MW82] and MW278) were evaluated via FISH using probes specific for the plasmid, AAVS1, and a chr19 marker. FISH analysis detected two plasmid integration sites in MW278 (neither in AAVS1), while a total of three sites were identified in MW82 (two in AAVS1). An inverse PCR assay confirmed integration within AAVS1 for several mid- and high-producing lines. In summary, the FISH, Southern, and PCR data provide evidence of site-specific integration of the plasmid within AAVS1 in several AAV producer cell lines. The data also suggest that integration in AAVS1 is a general phenomenon that is not necessarily restricted to high producers. The results also suggest that plasmid integration within the AAVS1 locus is not an absolute requirement for a high vector yield.

  9. A novel readout integrated circuit for ferroelectric FPA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Piji; Li, Lihua; Ji, Yulong; Zhang, Jia; Li, Min; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yanbo; Li, Songying

    2017-11-01

    Uncooled infrared detectors haves some advantages such as low cost light weight low power consumption, and superior reliability, compared with cryogenically cooled ones Ferroelectric uncooled focal plane array(FPA) are being developed for its AC response and its high reliability As a key part of the ferroelectric assembly the ROIC determines the performance of the assembly. A top-down design model for uncooled ferroelectric readout integrated circuit(ROIC) has been developed. Based on the optical thermal and electrical properties of the ferroelectric detector the RTIA readout integrated circuit is designed. The noise bandwidth of RTIA readout circuit has been developed and analyzed. A novel high gain amplifier, a high pass filter and a low pass filter circuits are designed on the ROIC. In order to improve the ferroelectric FPA package performance and decrease of package cost a temperature sensor is designed on the ROIC chip At last the novel RTIA ROIC is implemented on 0.6μm 2P3M CMOS silicon techniques. According to the experimental chip test results the temporal root mean square(RMS)noise voltage is about 1.4mV the sensitivity of the on chip temperature sensor is 0.6 mV/K from -40°C to 60°C the linearity performance of the ROIC chip is better than 99% Based on the 320×240 RTIA ROIC, a 320×240 infrared ferroelectric FPA is fabricated and tested. Test results shows that the 320×240 RTIA ROIC meets the demand of infrared ferroelectric FPA.

  10. Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at cryogenic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, E; Aja, B; de la Fuente, L; Artal, E

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures. A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.

  11. Improvement of the instrumental line shape of X-ray spectrometers with Si(Li) - detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdikov, V.V.; Zajtsev, E.A.; Iokhin, B.S.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of decreasing the background of the X-ray spectrometer detector using the rise-time pulse selection method was investigated. Si(Li)-detectors of 10 and 25 mm 2 square were investigated. Spectrometer channel was composed of ORTEC-472 amplifier and ULTIMA/2 multichannel analyzer on the base of NOVA-3 minicomputer. The energy resolution was equal to 300 eV on 14 KeV line. The pulses of detection allowing were transmitted to analog-to-digital converter. The detection was allowed if front photopeak square) were measured at 17.4, 20.3 and 59.6 keV. 4-6-fold decrease of X-factor was obtained without any loss of detection efficiency. The combination of the method with collimation of radiation in the centre of the detector gives an extremely low value of X-factor which agress with theretical estimations

  12. Integration of Single-Photon Sources and Detectors on GaAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Enrica Digeronimo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum photonic integrated circuits (QPICs on a GaAs platform allow the generation, manipulation, routing, and detection of non-classical states of light, which could pave the way for quantum information processing based on photons. In this article, the prototype of a multi-functional QPIC is presented together with our recent achievements in terms of nanofabrication and integration of each component of the circuit. Photons are generated by excited InAs quantum dots (QDs and routed through ridge waveguides towards photonic crystal cavities acting as filters. The filters with a transmission of 20% and free spectral range ≥66 nm are able to select a single excitonic line out of the complex emission spectra of the QDs. The QD luminescence can be measured by on-chip superconducting single photon detectors made of niobium nitride (NbN nanowires patterned on top of a suspended nanobeam, reaching a device quantum efficiency up to 28%. Moreover, two electrically independent detectors are integrated on top of the same nanobeam, resulting in a very compact autocorrelator for on-chip g(2(τ measurements.

  13. Use of GEANT4 vs. MCNPX for the characterization of a boron-lined neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ende, B.M. van der; Atanackovic, J.; Erlandson, A.; Bentoumi, G.

    2016-06-01

    This work compares GEANT4 with MCNPX in the characterization of a boron-lined neutron detector. The neutron energy ranges simulated in this work (0.025 eV to 20 MeV) are the traditional domain of MCNP simulations. This paper addresses the question, how well can GEANT4 and MCNPX be employed for detailed thermal neutron detector characterization? To answer this, GEANT4 and MCNPX have been employed to simulate detector response to a {sup 252}Cf energy spectrum point source, as well as to simulate mono-energetic parallel beam source geometries. The {sup 252}Cf energy spectrum simulation results demonstrate agreement in detector count rate within 3% between the two packages, with the MCNPX results being generally closer to experiment than are those from GEANT4. The mono-energetic source simulations demonstrate agreement in detector response within 5% between the two packages for all neutron energies, and within 1% for neutron energies between 100 eV and 5 MeV. Cross-checks between the two types of simulations using ISO-8529 {sup 252}Cf energy bins demonstrates that MCNPX results are more self-consistent than are GEANT4 results, by 3–4%.

  14. Integrating Robot Task Planning into Off-Line Programming Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Kroszynski, Uri

    1988-01-01

    a system architecture for integrated robot task planning. It identifies and describes the components considered necessary for implementation. The focus is on functionality of these elements as well as on the information flow. A pilot implementation of such an integrated system architecture for a robot......The addition of robot task planning in off-line programming systems aims at improving the capability of current state-of-the-art commercially available off-line programming systems, by integrating modeling, task planning, programming and simulation together under one platform. This article proposes...... assembly task is discussed....

  15. Stability of a line receiver (0-T) preamplifier, connected to a capacitive detector via a transmission line

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G; Fedyakin, N; Ramaioli, P; Shuvalov, R S

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the stability of a line receiver (0-T) preamplifier proposed to readout the ionization signal of the ATLAS LAr electromagnetic calorimeter. The transport of detector signal to the preamplifier input via a cable is analyzed on the basis of classical theory of wave propagation in transmission lines. It is shown that the analysis of stability can be reduced to the examination of zeros of the expression Z sub i sub n +Z sub D sub C , where Z sub i sub n is the input impedance of the 0-T and Z sub D sub C is the impedance of the detector plus cable, as seen by the preamplifier. An experimental method to measure the preamplifier input impedance in a range 1-200 MHz is described. The stability function Z sub i sub n +Z sub D sub C was built by using the combination of experimental data (Z sub i sub n) and calculations (Z sub D sub C) and was used to analyze the stability of two versions of 0-T preamplifier at different experimental conditions. It is illustrated that if the vector end of this semiempirical...

  16. Development of readout electronics for monolithic integration with diode strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosticka, B.J.; Wrede, M.; Zimmer, G.; Kemmer, J.; Hofmann, R.; Lutz, G.

    1984-03-01

    Parallel in - serial out analog readout electronics integrated with silicon strip detectors will bring a reduction of two orders of magnitude in external electronics. The readout concept and the chosen CMOS technology solve the basic problem of low noise and low power requirements. A hybrid solution is an intermediate step towards the final goal of monolithic integration of detector and electronics. (orig.)

  17. Line-robust statistics for continuous gravitational waves: safety in the case of unequal detector sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keitel, David; Prix, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The multi-detector F-statistic is close to optimal for detecting continuous gravitational waves (CWs) in Gaussian noise. However, it is susceptible to false alarms from instrumental artefacts, for example quasi-monochromatic disturbances (‘lines’), which resemble a CW signal more than Gaussian noise. In a recent paper (Keitel et al 2014 Phys. Rev. D 89 064023), a Bayesian model selection approach was used to derive line-robust detection statistics for CW signals, generalizing both the F-statistic and the F-statistic consistency veto technique and yielding improved performance in line-affected data. Here we investigate a generalization of the assumptions made in that paper: if a CW analysis uses data from two or more detectors with very different sensitivities, the line-robust statistics could be less effective. We investigate the boundaries within which they are still safe to use, in comparison with the F-statistic. Tests using synthetic draws show that the optimally-tuned version of the original line-robust statistic remains safe in most cases of practical interest. We also explore a simple idea on further improving the detection power and safety of these statistics, which we, however, find to be of limited practical use. (paper)

  18. Integration and installation of the CMS pixel barrel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kastli, Hans-Christian

    2008-01-01

    A 66 million pixel detector has been installed in 2008 into the CMS experiment at CERN. The development and construction time took more than 10 years. In this paper the assembly of the barrel detector is described. A simple but effective method to accomplish a survey of the module positions during assembly is discussed. Furthermore the insertion and commissioning of the CMS pixel barrel detector which took place in July 2008 is illustrated.

  19. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A; Heath, R M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Nappi, C

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events. (paper)

  20. On-line statistical processing of radiation detector pulse trains with time-varying count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolopoulos, G.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is of primary importance for the correct interpretation of nuclear measurements, due to the inherent random nature of radioactive decay processes. This paper discusses the application of statistical signal processing techniques to the random pulse trains generated by radiation detectors. The aims of the presented algorithms are: (i) continuous, on-line estimation of the underlying time-varying count rate θ(t) and its first-order derivative dθ/dt; (ii) detection of abrupt changes in both of these quantities and estimation of their new value after the change point. Maximum-likelihood techniques, based on the Poisson probability distribution, are employed for the on-line estimation of θ and dθ/dt. Detection of abrupt changes is achieved on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio statistical test. The properties of the proposed algorithms are evaluated by extensive simulations and possible applications for on-line radiation monitoring are discussed

  1. On-line use of the 168/E emulator at the CERN ISR SFM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertuzzi, C.; Drijard, D.; Frehse, H.; Gavillet, P.; Gokieli, R.; Innocenti, P.G.; Messerli, R.; Mornacchi, G.; Norton, A.; Porte, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The Split Field Magnet Detector at the CERN ISR has been used in recent years to study events with a high transverse momentum charged particle. As a first level computer based trigger a linear estimate of the track momentum by fixed point arithmethic was calculated on-line by a minicomputer. In addition appreciable further rejection was obtained by off-line filtering on the IBM-370/168, using pattern recognition and a fit of the triggering particle in the magnetic field. The availability of the 168/E emulator makes it possible to transfer the proven methods used off-line to real time data reduction. Preliminary results on filter efficiency and speed for an experiment triggering on a high Psub(T) hadron at 10 to 20 0 with respect to the outgoing beam (Exp. R 419) are given. Possible improvements and extensions are discussed. (orig.)

  2. A unified approach to stochastic integration on the real line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas; Graversen, Svend-Erik; Pedersen, Jan

    Stochastic integration on the predictable σ-field with respect to σ-finite L0-valued measures, also known as formal semimartingales, is studied. In particular, the triplet of such measures is introduced and used to characterize the set of integrable processes. Special attention is given to Lévy...... processes indexed by the real line. Surprisingly, many of the basic properties break down in this situation compared to the usual R+ case....

  3. Integrated circuit for processing a low-frequency signal from a seismic detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malashevich, N. I.; Roslyakov, A. S.; Polomoshnov, S. A., E-mail: S.Polomoshnov@tsen.ru; Fedorov, R. A. [Research and Production Complex ' Technological Center' of the Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    Specific features for the detection and processing of a low-frequency signal from a seismic detector are considered in terms of an integrated circuit based on a large matrix crystal of the 5507 series. This integrated circuit is designed for the detection of human movements. The specific features of the information signal, obtained at the output of the seismic detector, and the main characteristics of the integrated circuit and its structure are reported.

  4. Optimization of Proton CT Detector System and Image Reconstruction Algorithm for On-Line Proton Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Young Lee

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to optimize a proton computed tomography system (pCT for proton range verification and to confirm the pCT image reconstruction algorithm based on projection images generated with optimized parameters. For this purpose, we developed a new pCT scanner using the Geometry and Tracking (GEANT 4.9.6 simulation toolkit. GEANT4 simulations were performed to optimize the geometric parameters representing the detector thickness and the distance between the detectors for pCT. The system consisted of four silicon strip detectors for particle tracking and a calorimeter to measure the residual energies of the individual protons. The optimized pCT system design was then adjusted to ensure that the solution to a CS-based convex optimization problem would converge to yield the desired pCT images after a reasonable number of iterative corrections. In particular, we used a total variation-based formulation that has been useful in exploiting prior knowledge about the minimal variations of proton attenuation characteristics in the human body. Examinations performed using our CS algorithm showed that high-quality pCT images could be reconstructed using sets of 72 projections within 20 iterations and without any streaks or noise, which can be caused by under-sampling and proton starvation. Moreover, the images yielded by this CS algorithm were found to be of higher quality than those obtained using other reconstruction algorithms. The optimized pCT scanner system demonstrated the potential to perform high-quality pCT during on-line image-guided proton therapy, without increasing the imaging dose, by applying our CS based proton CT reconstruction algorithm. Further, we make our optimized detector system and CS-based proton CT reconstruction algorithm potentially useful in on-line proton therapy.

  5. Energy expressions in density-functional theory using line integrals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, R.; Baerends, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we will address the question of how to obtain energies from functionals when only the functional derivative is given. It is shown that one can obtain explicit expressions for the exchange-correlation energy from approximate exchange-correlation potentials using line integrals along

  6. Integrated optical delay lines for time-division multiplexers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Kleijn, E.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of integrated optical delay lines (DLs) for application in optical time-division multiplexers. The investigated DLs are formed by spirally folded waveguides. The components were designed in a generic approach and fabricated in multi-project wafer runs on an

  7. Quantum mechanics on the half-line using path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Menikoff, R.; Sharp, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    We study the Feynman path-integral formalism for the constrained problem of a free particle moving on the half-line. It is shown that the effect of the boundary condition at the origin can be incorporated into the path integral by a simple modification of the action. The small-time behavior of the Green's function can be obtained from the stationary-phase evaluation of our expression for the path integral, which in this case includes contributions from both the direct and reflected classical paths

  8. Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; White, Ian M; Suter, Jonathan D; Zourob, Mohammed; Fan, Xudong

    2007-02-01

    We developed a novel miniaturized and multiplexed, on-capillary, refractive index (RI) detector using liquid core optical ring resonators (LCORRs) for future development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) devices. The LCORR employs a glass capillary with a diameter of approximately 100 mum and a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The circular cross section of the capillary forms a ring resonator along which the light circulates in the form of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The WGM has an evanescent field extending into the capillary core and responds to the RI change due to the analyte conducted in the capillary, thus permitting label-free measurement. The resonating nature of the WGM enables repetitive light-analyte interaction, significantly enhancing the LCORR sensitivity. This LCORR architecture achieves dual use of the capillary as a sensor head and a CE fluidic channel, allowing for integrated, multiplexed, and noninvasive on-capillary detection at any location along the capillary. In this work, we used electro-osmotic flow and glycerol as a model system to demonstrate the fluid transport capability of the LCORRs. In addition, we performed flow speed measurement on the LCORR to demonstrate its flow analysis capability. Finally, using the LCORR's label-free sensing mechanism, we accurately deduced the analyte concentration in real time at a given point on the capillary. A sensitivity of 20 nm/RIU (refractive index units) was observed, leading to an RI detection limit of 10-6 RIU. The LCORR marries photonic technology with microfluidics and enables rapid on-capillary sample analysis and flow profile monitoring. The investigation in this regard will open a door to novel high-throughput CE devices and lab-on-a-chip sensors in the future.

  9. Comparison of multi-pole shaping and delay line clipping pre-amplifiers for position sensitive NaI(Tl) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifelder, R.; Karp, J.S.; Wear, J.A.; Lockyer, N.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Surti, S.; Berg, R. van

    1998-01-01

    NaI(Tl) position sensitive detectors have been used in medical imaging for many years. For PET applications without collimators, the high counting rates place severe demands on such large area detectors. The NaI(Tl) detectors in the PENN-PET scanners are read-out via photomultiplier tubes and preamplifiers. Those preamplifiers use a delay-line clipping technique to shorten the characteristic 240 ns fall time of the NaI(Tl) signal. As an alternative, the authors have investigated a pole-zero network to shorten the signal followed by a multi-pole shaper to produce a symmetric signal suitable for high counting rates. This has been compared to the current design by measuring the energy and spatial resolution of a single detector as a function of different preamplifier designs. Data were taken over a range of ADC integration times and countrates. The new design shows improved energy resolution with short integration times. Effects on spatial resolution and deadtime are reported for large position sensitive detectors at different countrates

  10. Semiconductor tracker final integration and commissioning in the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree

    2008-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is part of the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It is located between the Pixel detector and the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). During 2006 and 2007, the SCT was installed in its final position inside the ATLAS detector. The SCT barrel was lowered in 2006 and was tested for connectivity and noise. Common tests with the TRT to look for pick-up noise and grounding issues were also performed. The SCT end-caps were installed during summer 2007 and will undergo similar checks. The results from the various tests done before and after installation will be presented here.

  11. In-line X-ray lensless imaging with lithium fluoride film detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfigli, F.; Cecilia, A.; Bateni, S. Heidari; Nichelatti, E.; Pelliccia, D.; Somma, F.; Vagovic, P.; Vincenti, M.A.; Baumbach, T.; Montereali, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present preliminary in-line X-ray lensless projection imaging results at a synchrotron facility by using novel solid-state detectors based on non-destructive readout of photoluminescent colour centres in lithium fluoride thin films. The peculiarities of LiF radiation detectors are high spatial resolution on a large field of view, wide dynamic range, versatility and simplicity of use. These properties offered the opportunity to test a broadband X-ray synchrotron source for lensless projection imaging experiments at the TopoTomo beamline of the ANKA synchrotron facility by using a white beam spectrum (3–40 keV). Edge-enhancement effects were observed for the first time on a test object; they are discussed and compared with simulations, on the basis of the colour centre photoluminescence linear response found in the investigated irradiation conditions. -- Highlights: ► We performed broadband X-ray imaging at synchrotron by novel LiF imaging detectors. ► X-ray phase contrast experiments on LiF crystals and thin films were performed. ► Photoluminescent high-quality X-images on a LiF film only 1 μm thick were obtained. ► Edge-enhancement effects were detected and compared with simulations. ► A linearity of colour centre fluorescence response of LiF film was found

  12. Integration of a Fire Detector into a Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.

    1972-01-01

    A detector sensitive to only the ultraviolet radiation emitted by flames has been selected as the basic element of the NASA Skylab fire detection system. It is sensitive to approximately 10(exp -12)W of radiation and will detect small flames at distances in excess of 3m. The performance of the detector was verified by experiments in an aircraft flying zero-gravity parabolas to simulate the characteristics of a fire which the detector must sense. Extensive investigation and exacting design was necessary to exclude all possible sources of false alarms. Optical measurements were made on all the spacecraft windows to determine the amount of solar radiation transmitted. The lighting systems and the onboard experiments also were appraised for ultraviolet emissions. Proton-accelerator tests were performed to determine the interaction of the Earth's trapped radiation belts with the detectors and the design of the instrument was modified to negate these effects.

  13. Integrated model for line balancing with workstation inventory management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Roy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the optimization of an integrated line balancing process with workstation inventory management. While doing so, we have studied the interconnection between line balancing and its conversion process. Almost each and every moderate to large manufacturing industry depends on a long and integrated supply chain, consisting of inbound logistic, conversion process and outbound logistic. In this sense an approach addresses a very general problem of integrated line balancing. Research works reported in the literature so far mainly deals with minimization of cost for inbound and outbound logistic subsystems. In most of the cases conversion process has been ignored. We suggest a generic approach for linking the balancing of the line of production in the conversion area with the customers’ rate of demand in the market and for configuring the related stock chambers. Thus, the main aim of this paper is to translate the underlying problem in the form of mixed nonlinear programming problem and design the optimum supply chain so that the total inventory cost and the cost of balancing loss of the conversion process is jointly minimized and ideal cycle time of the production process is determined along with ideal sizes of the stock chambers. A numerical example has been added to demonstrate the suitability of our approach.

  14. Technology for the compatible integration of silicon detectors with readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, G.

    1984-01-01

    Compatible integration of detectors and readout electronics on the same silicon substrate is of growing interest. As the methods of microelectronics technology have already been adapted for detector fabrication, a common technology basis for detectors and readout electronics is available. CMOS technology exhibits most attractive features for the compatible realization of readout electronics when advanced LSI processing steps are combined with detector requirements. The essential requirements for compatible integration are the availability of high resistivity (100)-oriented single crystalline silicon substrate, the formation of suitably doped areas for MOS circuits and the isolation of the low voltage circuit from the detector operated at much higher supply voltage. Junction isolation as a first approach based on present production technology and dielectric isolation based on an advanced SOI-LSI technology are discussed as the most promising solutions for present and future applications, respectively. (orig.)

  15. Reducing image noise in computed tomography (CT) colonography: effect of an integrated circuit CT detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Leng, Shuai; Michalak, Gregory J; Vrieze, Thomas J; Duan, Xinhui; Qu, Mingliang; Shiung, Maria M; McCollough, Cynthia H; Fletcher, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether the integrated circuit (IC) detector results in reduced noise in computed tomography (CT) colonography (CTC). Three hundred sixty-six consecutive patients underwent clinically indicated CTC using the same CT scanner system, except for a difference in CT detectors (IC or conventional). Image noise, patient size, and scanner radiation output (volume CT dose index) were quantitatively compared between patient cohorts using each detector system, with separate comparisons for the abdomen and pelvis. For the abdomen and pelvis, despite significantly larger patient sizes in the IC detector cohort (both P 0.18). Based on the observed image noise reduction, radiation dose could alternatively be reduced by approximately 20% to result in similar levels of image noise. Computed tomography colonography images acquired using the IC detector had significantly lower noise than images acquired using the conventional detector. This noise reduction can permit further radiation dose reduction in CTC.

  16. Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Juan; Bourderionnet, Jerome; Lloret, Juan; Combrié, Sylvain; Gasulla, Ivana; Xavier, Stephane; Sales, Salvador; Colman, Pierre; Lehoucq, Gaelle; Dolfi, Daniel; Capmany, José; De Rossi, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a tunable delay line with a chip-size footprint is a crucial step towards the full implementation of integrated microwave photonic signal processors. Achieving a large and tunable group delay on a millimetre-sized chip is not trivial. Slow light concepts are an appropriate solution, if propagation losses are kept acceptable. Here we use a low-loss 1.5 mm-long photonic crystal waveguide to demonstrate both notch and band-pass microwave filters that can be tuned over the 0-50-GHz spectral band. The waveguide is capable of generating a controllable delay with limited signal attenuation (total insertion loss below 10 dB when the delay is below 70 ps) and degradation. Owing to the very small footprint of the delay line, a fully integrated device is feasible, also featuring more complex and elaborate filter functions.

  17. Pad readout for gas detectors using 128-channel integrated preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Drees, A.; Glassel, P.

    1988-01-01

    A novel two-dimensional readout scheme for gas detectors is presented which uses small metal pads with 2.54 mm pitch as an anode. The pads are read out via 128-channel VLSI low-noise preamplifier/multiplexer chips. These chips are mounted on 2.8x2.8 cm/sup 2/ modules which are directly plugged onto the detector backplane, daisy-chained with jumpers and read out sequentially. The readout has been successfully tested with a low-pressure, two-step, TMAE-filled UV-RICH detector prototype. A single electron efficiently of >90% was observed at moderate chamber gains (<10/sup 6/). The method offers high electronic amplification, low noise, and high readout speed with a very flexible and compact design, suited for space-limited applications

  18. Parameters affecting temporal resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mor, I; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Feldman, G; Goldberg, M B; Brandis, M; Dangendorf, V; Tittelmeier, K; Bromberger, B; Weierganz, M

    2013-01-01

    The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the E n = 1–10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system

  19. The accuracy of k1-standardized INAA applied to a gold-lined well-type detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, M.

    2000-01-01

    The k 1 -method for standardization in INAA specifically tackles the problem of the interpretation of gamma-ray spectra as obtained with highly efficient detectors, as opposed to the k 0 -method. Results obtained from three NIST reference materials, measured after neutron activation with a gold-lined well-type detector, are presented. It is concluded that the accuracy of the method is better than 1%. (author)

  20. The Galactic 511 keV line: analysis and interpretation of Integral observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonjou, V.

    2005-09-01

    Ever since the discovery of the 511 keV annihilation line emission from the galactic center region in the late seventies, the origin of galactic positrons has been the topic of a vivid scientific debate. It is also one of the prime scientific objectives of the imaging spectrometer SPI on board ESA's INTEGRAL observatory. In this thesis first a description of the most important SPI sub-system is given - the detector plane. Procedures for detector energy calibration and detector degradation analysis are developed. The determination of instrumental background models, a crucial aspect of data analysis, is elaborated. These background models are then applied to deriving sky maps and spectra of unprecedented quality of the Galactic positron annihilation radiation. The emission is centered on the galactic center with a spatial resolution of 8 degrees (FWHM), a second spatial component appears clearly: the galactic disc. The ray energy has been measured with unprecedented accuracy: 511.0 ± 0.03 keV for a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 2.07 ± 0.1 keV. The total galactic flux ranges from 1.09 to 2.43 10 -3 ph.cm -2 .s -1 including uncertainties on spatial distribution. Finally, the implications of these observations for the production of positrons by various Galactic populations are discussed

  1. Detector line spread functions determined analytically by transport of Compton recoil electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veld, A.A. van't; Luijk, P. van; Praamstra, F.; Hulst, P.C. van der

    2001-01-01

    To achieve the maximum benefit of conformal radiation therapy it is necessary to obtain accurate knowledge of radiation beam penumbras based on high-resolution relative dosimetry of beam profiles. For this purpose there is a need to perform high-resolution dosimetry with well-established routine dosimeters, such as ionization chambers or diodes. Profiles measured with these detectors must be corrected for the dosimeter's nonideal response, caused by finite dimensions and, in the case of an ionization chamber, the alteration of electron transport and a contribution of electrons recoiled in the chamber wall and the central electrode. For this purpose the line spread function (LSF) of the detector is needed. The experimental determination of LSFs is cumbersome and restricted to the specific detector and beam energy spectrum used. Therefore, a previously reported analytical model [Med. Phys. 27, 923-934 (2000)] has been extended to determine response profiles of routine dosimeters: shielded diodes and, in particular, ionization chambers, in primary dose slit beams. The model combines Compton scattering of incident photons, the transport of recoiled electrons by Fermi-Eyges small-angle multiple scattering theory, and functions to limit electron transport. It yields the traveling direction and the energy of electrons upon incidence on the detector surface. In the case of ionization chambers, geometrical considerations are then sufficient to calculate the relative amount of ionization in chamber air, i.e., the detector response, as a function of the detector location in the slit beam. In combination with the previously reported slit beam dose profiles, the LSF can then readily be derived by reconstruction techniques. Since the spectral contributions are preserved, the LSF of a dosimeter is defined for any beam for which the effective spectrum is known. The detector response profiles calculated in this study have been verified in a telescopic slit beam geometry, and were

  2. Detectors on Edge Nodes against False Data Injection on Transmission Lines of Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available False data injection (FDI attack is a hot topic in large-scale Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs, which can cause bad state estimation of controllers. In this paper, we focus on FDI detection on transmission lines of the smart grid. We propose a novel and effective detection framework to identify FDI attacks. Different from the previous methods, there are multi-tier detectors which utilize edge nodes such as the programmable logic controllers (PLCs instead of the central controller to detect attacks. The proposed framework can decrease the transmission time of data to reduce the latency of decisions because many sensory data need not be transmitted to the central controller for detection. We also develop a detection algorithm which utilizes classifiers based on machine learning to identify FDI. The training process is split from every edge node and is placed on the central node. The detectors are lightweight and are properly adopted in our detection framework. Our simulation experiments show that the proposed detection framework can provide better detection results than the existing detection approaches.

  3. Integration of Detectors Into a Large Experiment: Examples From ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Froidevaux, D

    2011-01-01

    Integration of Detectors Into a Large Experiment: Examples From ATLAS andCMS, part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B2: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 2: Systems and Applications'. This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '5 Integration of Detectors Into a Large Experiment: Examples From ATLAS and CMS' with the content: 5 Integration of Detectors Into a Large Experiment: Examples From ATLAS and CMS 5.1 Introduction 5.1.1 The context 5.1.2 The main initial physics goals of ATLAS and CMS at the LHC 5.1.3 A snapshot of the current status of the ATLAS and CMS experiments 5.2 Overall detector concept and magnet systems 5.2.1 Overall detector concept 5.2.2 Magnet systems 5.2.2.1 Rad...

  4. Reactor neutrinos study: integration and characterization of the Nucifer detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffiot, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The major advances done in the understanding of neutrinos properties and in detector technology have opened the door to a new discipline: the Applied Antineutrino Physics. Indeed, this particle has the great advantage to carry information from its emission place without perturbation. Because neutrinos are inextricably linked to nuclear processes, new applications are in nuclear safeguards. In this context, the Nucifer project aims to test a small electron-antineutrino detector to be installed a few 10 meters from a reactor core for monitoring its thermal power and for testing the sensitivity to the plutonium content. Moreover, recent re-analysis of previous short-distance reactor-neutrino experiments shows a significant discrepancy between measured and expected neutrino count rates. Among the various hypotheses a new phenomenon as the existence of a fourth sterile neutrino can explain this anomaly. To be able to count neutrinos and get the corresponding energy spectrum, the detection is based on the inverse beta decay in about 850 kg of doped liquid scintillator. The experimental challenge is to operate such a small detector in a high background place, due to the closeness with the surface and the reactor radiations. The detector is now finished and data taking has begun at the Osiris research reactor in Saclay since April 2012. Sadly, unexpected low liquid attenuation length and high gamma background level prevented us to highlight neutrinos. We are now waiting for a liquid change and a new lead wall to study reactor monitoring and to test the sterile neutrino hypothesis. (author) [fr

  5. A monolithically fabricated gas chromatography separation column with an integrated high sensitivity thermal conductivity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaanta, Bradley C; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Hua

    2010-01-01

    The monolithic integration of a high sensitivity detector with a gas chromatography (GC) separation column creates many potential advantages over the discrete components of a traditional chromatography system. In miniaturized high-speed GC systems, component interconnections can cause crucial errors and loss of fidelity during detection and analysis. A monolithically integrated device would eliminate the need to create helium-tight interconnections, which are bulky and labor intensive. Additionally, batch fabrication of integrated devices that no longer require expensive and fragile detectors can decrease the cost of micro GC systems through economies of scale. We present the design, fabrication and operation of a monolithic GC separation column and detector. Our device is able to separate nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide within 30 s. This method of device integration could be applied to the existing wealth of column geometries and chemistries designed for specialized applications.

  6. A feasibility study of a PET/MRI insert detector using strip-line and waveform sampling data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Chen, C-T; Eclov, N; Ronzhin, A; Murat, P; Ramberg, E; Los, S; Wyrwicz, Alice M; Li, Limin; Kao, C-M

    2015-06-01

    We are developing a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector by using silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) on a strip-line and high speed waveform sampling data acquisition. In this design, multiple SiPMs are connected on a single strip-line and signal waveforms on the strip-line are sampled at two ends of the strip to reduce readout channels while fully exploiting the fast time response of SiPMs. In addition to the deposited energy and time information, the position of the hit SiPM along the strip-line is determined by the arrival time difference of the waveform. Due to the insensitivity of the SiPMs to magnetic fields and the compact front-end electronics, the detector approach is highly attractive for developing a PET insert system for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to provide simultaneous PET/MR imaging. To investigate the feasibility, experimental tests using prototype detector modules have been conducted inside a 9.4 Tesla small animal MRI scanner (Bruker BioSpec 94/30 imaging spectrometer). On the prototype strip-line board, 16 SiPMs (5.2 mm pitch) are installed on two strip-lines and coupled to 2 × 8 LYSO scintillators (5.0 × 5.0 × 10.0 mm 3 with 5.2 mm pitch). The outputs of the strip-line boards are connected to a Domino-Ring-Sampler (DRS4) evaluation board for waveform sampling. Preliminary experimental results show that the effect of interference on the MRI image due to the PET detector is negligible and that PET detector performance is comparable with the results measured outside the MRI scanner.

  7. Visualizing Vector Fields Using Line Integral Convolution and Dye Advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Johnson, Christopher R.; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    1996-01-01

    We present local and global techniques to visualize three-dimensional vector field data. Using the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) method to image the global vector field, our new algorithm allows the user to introduce colored 'dye' into the vector field to highlight local flow features. A fast algorithm is proposed that quickly recomputes the dyed LIC images. In addition, we introduce volume rendering methods that can map the LIC texture on any contour surface and/or translucent region defined by additional scalar quantities, and can follow the advection of colored dye throughout the volume.

  8. Integrated on-line accelerator modeling at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowling, B.A.; Shoaee, H.; Van Zeijts, J.; Witherspoon, S.; Watson, W.

    1995-01-01

    An on-line accelerator modeling facility is currently under development at CEBAF. The model server, which is integrated with the EPICS control system, provides coupled and 2nd-order matrices for the entire accelerator, and forms the foundation for automated model- based control and diagnostic applications. Four types of machine models are provided, including design, golden or certified, live, and scratch or simulated model. Provisions are also made for the use of multiple lattice modeling programs such as DIMAD, PARMELA, and TLIE. Design and implementation details are discussed. 2 refs., 4 figs

  9. Analysis of international intercomparisons results organized by Japan for integrating 222Rn-220Rn detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yunyun; Cui Hongxing; Zhang Qingzhao; Shang Bing; Su Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To guarantee the quality of measurements with the radon-thoron discriminative detectors of our laboratory. Methods: LD-P radon-thoron discriminative detector participated in the international intercomparison for integrating radon/thoron detectors organized by National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS, Japan). Detectors were sent to NIRS for exposure. Radon intercomparison was conducted with radon chamber providing three levels of exposure: low, medium and high levels. Thoron intercomparison was carried out at thoron chamber, which also provided three levels of exposure: low, medium and high levels. Detectors were posted back to our laboratory for etching and analysis after exposure. Then the measured values were submitted to NIRS. Finally the reference values were informed of us. Results: The relative percent difference (RPD) between the measured value and the reference value for radon was -13.8%, -14.4% and -17.1% at low, medium and high levels respectively, and that of thoron were -14.4%, 8.9% and -3.2% at three levels respectively. Conclusions: Both radon and thoron measurement of our detectors rank as 'Category Ⅰ' in the 4th international intercomparisons for integrating radon/thoron detectors with the NIRS radon/thoron chambers. (authors)

  10. Integrated electronic device for processing impulses from neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, Mihai; Pirvu, Ion

    2009-01-01

    The developing of nuclear power is a key factor in decreasing energy Romania's dependence on imports of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas). An important point in achieving this goal is to use the experience acquired in the design and use of the equipment produced with the participation of INR specialists for Cernavoda NPP, Units 1 and 2. The design based on Surface Mount Technology (SMT) and the implementation of electronic interface modules of computer processing and detectors of radiation or nuclear particles contribute both to modernize and increase the performance of equipment. (authors)

  11. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, 1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field

  12. Suspended Integrated Strip-line Transition Design for Highly Integrated Radar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    technology. The measured results show good correlation to the simulated results with a return loss and insertion loss of less than 10 dB and greater...SSS); Suspended Integrated Strip-line (SISL) RF packaging; Ultra-wideband (UWB). Introduction The next generation of highly integrated radar...RF Circuit Design,” Second Edition, Pearson Education, 2009. 3. B. Ma, A. Chousseaud, and S. Toutain, “A new design of compact planar microstrip

  13. Photo-Detectors Integrated with Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. L. Figueiredo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on photo-detectors consisting of an optical waveguide that incorporates a resonant tunneling diode (RTD. Operating at wavelengths around 1.55 μm in the optical communications C band we achieve maximum sensitivities of around 0.29 A/W which is dependent on the bias voltage. This is due to the nature of RTD nonlinear current-voltage characteristic that has a negative differential resistance (NDR region. The resonant tunneling diode photo-detector (RTD-PD can be operated in either non-oscillating or oscillating regimes depending on the bias voltage quiescent point. The oscillating regime is apparent when the RTD-PD is biased in the NDR region giving rise to electrical gain and microwave self-sustained oscillations Taking advantage of the RTD’s NDR distinctive characteristics, we demonstrate efficient detection of gigahertz (GHz modulated optical carriers and optical control of a RTD GHz oscillator. RTD-PD based devices can have applications in generation and optical control of GHz low-phase noise oscillators, clock recovery systems, and fiber optic enabled radio frequency communication systems.

  14. Design of a synchrotron radiation detector for the test beam lines at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the particle- and momentum-tagging instrumentation required for the test beam lines of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) was designed to provide electron tagging at momentum above 75 GeV. In a parallel effort to the three test beam lines at the SSC, schedule demands required testing and calibration operations to be initiated at Fermilab. Synchrotron radiation detectors also were to be installed in the NM and MW beam lines at Femilab before the test beam lines at the SSC would become operational. The SRD is the last instrument in a series of three used in the SSC test beam fines. It follows a 20-m drift section of beam tube downstream of the last silicon strip detector. A bending dipole just in of the last silicon strip detector produces the synchrotron radiation that is detected in a 50-mm-square cross section NaI crystal. A secondary scintillator made of Bicron BC-400 plastic is used to discriminate whether it is synchrotron radiation or a stray particle that causes the triggering of the NaI crystal's photo multiplier tube (PMT)

  15. Integrated circuit detector technology in abdominal CT: added value in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsbach, Fabian; Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Rätzer, Susan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to assess the effect of an integrated circuit (IC) detector for abdominal CT on image quality. In the first study part, an abdominal phantom was scanned with various extension rings using a CT scanner equipped with a conventional discrete circuit (DC) detector and on the same scanner with an IC detector (120 kVp, 150 effective mAs, and 75 effective mAs). In the second study part, 20 patients were included who underwent abdominal CT both with the IC detector and previously at similar protocol parameters (120 kVp tube current-time product and 150 reference mAs using automated tube current modulation) with the DC detector. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection. Image quality in the phantom was higher for images acquired with the IC compared with the DC detector. There was a gradually increasing noise reduction with increasing phantom sizes, with the highest (37% in the largest phantom) at 75 effective mAs (p < 0.001). In patients, noise was overall significantly (p = 0.025) reduced by 6.4% using the IC detector. Similar to the phantom, there was a gradual increase in noise reduction to 7.9% in patients with a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or lower (p = 0.008). Significant correlation was found in patients between noise and abdominal diameter in DC detector images (r = 0.604, p = 0.005), whereas no such correlation was found for the IC detector (r = 0.427, p = 0.060). Use of an IC detector in abdominal CT improves image quality and reduces image noise, particularly in overweight and obese patients. This noise reduction has the potential for dose reduction in abdominal CT.

  16. Development of multi-channel gated integrator and PXI-DAQ system for nuclear detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jie; Su Hong; Chen Zhiqiang; Dong Chengfu; Qian Yi; Gao Shanshan; Zhou Chaoyang; Lu Wan; Ye Ruiping; Ma Junbing

    2010-01-01

    A multi-channel gated integrator and PXI based data acquisition system have been developed for nuclear detector arrays with hundreds of detector units. The multi-channel gated integrator can be controlled by a programmable GI controller. The PXI-DAQ system consists of NI PXI-1033 chassis with several PXI-DAQ cards. The system software has a user-friendly GUI which is written in C language using LabWindows/CVI under Windows XP operating system. The performance of the PXI-DAQ system is very reliable and capable of handling event rate up to 40 kHz.

  17. Beam tests of an integrated prototype of the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00397348

    2016-09-19

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is intended to measure protons scattered at small angles from the ATLAS interaction point. To this end, a combination of 3D Silicon pixel tracking modules and Quartz-Cherenkov time-of-flight (ToF) detectors is installed 210m away from the interaction point at both sides of ATLAS. Beam tests with an AFP prototype detector combining tracking and timing sub-detectors and a common readout have been performed at the CERN-SPS test-beam facility in November 2014 and September 2015 to complete the system integration and to study the detector performance. The successful tracking-timing integration was demonstrated. Good tracker hit efficiencies above 99.9% at a sensor tilt of 14{\\deg}, as foreseen for AFP, were observed. Spatial resolutions in the short pixel direction with 50 {\\mu}m pitch of 5.5 +/- 0.5 {\\mu}m per pixel plane and of 2.8 +/- 0.5 {\\mu}m for the full four-plane tracker at 14{\\deg} were found, largely surpassing the AFP requirement of 10 {\\mu}m. The timing detector...

  18. The GOTTHARD charge integrating readout detector: design and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozzanica, A; Bergamaschi, A; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Henrich, B; Johnson, I; Valeria, R; Schmitt, B; Xintian, S; Graafsma, H; Lohmann, M

    2012-01-01

    A charge integrating readout ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) for silicon strip sensors has been developed at PSI in collaboration with DESY. The goal of the project is to provide a charge integrating readout system able to cope with the pulsed beam of XFEL machines and at the same time to retain the high dynamic range and single photon resolution performances typical for photon counting systems. The ASIC, designed in IBM 130 nm CMOS technology, takes advantage of its three gain stages with automatic stage selection to achieve a dynamic range of 10000 12 keV photons and a noise better than 300 e.n.c.. The 4 analog outputs of the ASIC are optimized for speed, allowing frame rates higher than 1 MHz, without compromises on linearity and noise performances. This work presents the design features of the ASIC, and reports the characterization results of the chip itself.

  19. Assembly and Integration Process of the First High Density Detector Array for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqiong; Choi, Steve; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Crowley, Kevin T.; Salatino, Maria; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroicTransition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol. Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.

  20. A monolithically integrated detector-preamplifier on high-resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.; Spieler, H.

    1990-02-01

    A monolithically integrated detector-preamplifier on high-resistivity silicon has been designed, fabricated and characterized. The detector is a fully depleted p-i-n diode and the preamplifier is implemented in a depletion-mode PMOS process which is compatible with detector processing. The amplifier is internally compensated and the measured gain-bandwidth product is 30 MHz with an input-referred noise of 15 nV/√Hz in the white noise regime. Measurements with an Am 241 radiation source yield an equivalent input noise charge of 800 electrons at 200 ns shaping time for a 1.4 mm 2 detector with on-chip amplifier in an experimental setup with substantial external pickup

  1. Signal and noise analysis in TRION-Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Fast Neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vartsky, D; Feldman, G; Mor, I; Goldberg, M B; Bar, D; Dangendorf, V

    2009-01-01

    TRION is a sub-mm spatial resolution fast neutron imaging detector, which employs an integrative optical time-of-flight technique. The detector was developed for fast neutron resonance radiography, a method capable of detecting a broad range of conventional and improvised explosives. In this study we have analyzed in detail, using Monte-Carlo calculations and experimentally determined parameters, all the processes that influence the signal and noise in the TRION detector. In contrast to event-counting detectors where the signal-to-noise ratio is dependent only on the number of detected events (quantum noise), in an energy-integrating detector additional factors, such as the fluctuations in imparted energy, number of photoelectrons, system gain and other factors will contribute to the noise. The excess noise factor (over the quantum noise) due to these processes was 4.3, 2.7, 2.1, 1.9 and 1.9 for incident neutron energies of 2, 4, 7.5, 10 and 14 MeV, respectively. It is shown that, even under ideal light collection conditions, a fast neutron detection system operating in an integrative mode cannot be quantum-noise-limited due to the relatively large variance in the imparted proton energy and the resulting scintillation light distributions.

  2. Gaussian process tomography for the analysis of line-integrated measurements in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dong

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear fusion research, a variety of diagnostics have been devised for the measurements of different physical quantities, such as electromagnetic radiation in different wavelength intervals. The radiation, including the soft X-ray spectral range, H α emission as well as others, can be recorded by specifically designed detectors with different sampling frequencies. Commonly, only the line-integrated observations are possible due to the fact that the detectors have to view the plasma from a position outside of the plasma. Therefore, tomography algorithms have been developed to infer the local information of the targeted physical variable from a number of line-integrated data. This thesis presents a Bayesian Gaussian Process Tomographic (GPT) method applied to both soft X-ray and bolometer systems. For the ill-posed inversion problem of reconstructing a 2D emissivity distribution from a number of noisy line-integrated data, Bayesian probability theory can provide a posterior probability distribution about many possible solutions centered at a single most probable solution. The combination of Gaussian Process (GP) prior and multivariate normal (MVN) likelihood enables the posterior probability to be a MVN distribution which provides both the solution and its associated uncertainty. The GP prior enforces the regularization on smoothness by adjusting the length-scale defined in a covariance function. Particularly, a non-stationary GP has been developed to improve the accuracy of reconstruction by using locally adaptive length-scales to take into account the varying smoothness at different positions. The parameters embedded in the model assumption can be optimized through maximizing a joint probability of them based on a Bayesian Occam's razor formalism. In contrast with other tomographic techniques, this method is analytic and non-iterative, thus it can be fast enough for real-time applications under an approximate optimization state. The uncertainty of the

  3. Demonstration of a time-integrated short line of sight neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R., E-mail: raspberry@lanl.gov; Danly, C.; Fatherley, V. E.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Christensen, K.; Fittinghoff, D.; Grim, G. P.; Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Skulina, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is an important diagnostic for understanding implosions of deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility. While the detectors for the existing system must be positioned 28 m from the source to produce sufficient imaging magnification and resolution, recent testing of a new short line of sight neutron imaging system has shown sufficient resolution to allow reconstruction of the source image with quality similar to that of the existing NIS on a 11.6 m line of sight. The new system used the existing pinhole aperture array and a stack of detectors composed of 2 mm thick high-density polyethylene converter material followed by an image plate. In these detectors, neutrons enter the converter material and interact with protons, which recoil and deposit energy within the thin active layer of the image plate through ionization losses. The described system produces time-integrated images for all neutron energies passing through the pinhole. We present details of the measurement scheme for this novel technique to produce energy-integrated neutron images as well as source reconstruction results from recent experiments at NIF.

  4. Added value of integrated circuit detector in head CT: objective and subjective image quality in comparison to conventional detector design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Andreas; Bender, Benjamin; Spira, Daniel; Schabel, Christoph; Bhadelia, Rafeeque; Claussen, Claus; Ernemann, Ulrike; Brodoefel, Harald

    2014-12-01

    A new computed tomography (CT) detector with integrated electric components and shorter conducting pathways has recently been introduced to decrease system inherent electronic noise. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential benefit of such integrated circuit detector (ICD) in head CT by comparing objective and subjective image quality in low-dose examinations with a conventional detector design. Using a conventional detector, reduced-dose noncontrast head CT (255 mAs; effective dose, 1.7 mSv) was performed in 25 consecutive patients. Following transition to ICD, 25 consecutive patients were scanned using identical imaging parameters. Images in both groups were reconstructed with iterative reconstruction (IR) and filtered back projection (FBP) and assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative image quality. Acquisition of head CT using ICD increased signal-to-noise ratio of gray and white matter by 14% (10.0 ± 1.6 vs. 11.4 ± 2.5; P = .02) and 17% (8.2 ± 0.8 vs. 9.6 ± 1.5; P = .000). The associated improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio was 12% (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.2 ± 0.6; P = .121). In addition, there was a 51% increase in objective image sharpness (582 ± 85 vs. 884.5 ± 191; change in HU/Pixel; P < .000). Compared to standard acquisitions, subjective grading of noise and overall image quality scores were significantly improved with ICD (2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; P < .000; 2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; P = .001). Moreover, streak artifacts in the posterior fossa were substantially reduced (2.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.7 ± 0.5; P = .004). At the same radiation level, acquisition of head CT with ICD achieves superior objective and subjective image quality and provides potential for significant dose reduction. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.; Paolozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Pucci, C.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.; Casali, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Bianconi, D.; Baruffaldi, F.; Perilli, E.; Massa, F.

    2006-06-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell/spl reg/ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported as well.

  6. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell $^{\\circledR}$ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  7. Recent results from the development of silicon detectors with integrated electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F. E-mail: dallabe@dit.unitn.it; Boscardin, M.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bisogni, M.G.; Bosisio, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciacchi, M.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Novelli, M.; Piemonte, C.; Rachevskaia, I.; Rama, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Ronchin, S.; Sandrelli, F.; Simi, G.; Speziali, V.; Rosso, V.; Traversi, G.; Zorzi, N

    2004-02-01

    In the past few years we have developed a technological process allowing for the fabrication of radiation detectors with integrated electronics on high-resistivity silicon substrates. We report on some recent results relevant to the process optimisation and to device/circuit characterization.

  8. Recent results from the development of silicon detectors with integrated electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bisogni, M.G.; Bosisio, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciacchi, M.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Novelli, M.; Piemonte, C.; Rachevskaia, I.; Rama, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Ronchin, S.; Sandrelli, F.; Simi, G.; Speziali, V.; Rosso, V.; Traversi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years we have developed a technological process allowing for the fabrication of radiation detectors with integrated electronics on high-resistivity silicon substrates. We report on some recent results relevant to the process optimisation and to device/circuit characterization

  9. Integrating health impact assessment into the triple bottom line concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Mary; Potter, Jenny-Lynn

    2004-01-01

    This theoretical study explores the links between the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) concept and the principles of HIA and considers the potential role of HIA to provide a mechanism for integrating health concerns within a broader agenda of government and business. TBL is a framework linked to the broader sustainability agenda that underpins and reviews environmental, economic and social performance of organizations. In its simplest form, TBL acts as a tool for reporting to stakeholders/shareholders organizational performance and the nature of the impacts on the community. The links to HIA are clear as both seek to determine the impact (potential and actual) on the health and well-being of the population. The study found that TBL can operate at four levels within organizations ranging from reporting through to full integration with the organization's goals and practices. Health is narrowly defined and there are tensions about how to undertake the social accountability functions. The study shows the potential role for HIA within the broader policy and accountability agenda. As health is one of the main outcomes of an organization's activities it needs to be taken into account at all levels of activity

  10. Design and characterization of integrated front-end transistors in a micro-strip detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simi, G.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Morganti, M.; U. Pignatel, G.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Rizzo, G.; Speziali, V.; Zorzi, N.

    2002-01-01

    We present the developments in a research program aimed at the realization of silicon micro-strip detectors with front-end electronics integrated in a high resistivity substrate to be used in high-energy physics, space and medical/industrial imaging applications. We report on the fabrication process developed at IRST (Trento, Italy), the characterization of the basic wafer parameters and measurements of the relevant working characteristics of the integrated transistors and related test structures

  11. A new semicustom integrated bipolar amplifier for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1989-01-01

    The QPA02 is a four channel DC coupled two stage transimpedance amplifier designed at Fermilab on a semicustom linear array (Quickchip 2S) manufactured by Tektronix. The chip was developed as a silicon strip amplifier but may have other applications as well. Each channel consists of a preamplifier and a second stage amplifier/sharper with differential output which can directly drive a transmission line (90 to 140 ohms). External bypass capacitors are the only discrete components required. QPA02 has been tested and demonstrated to be an effective silicon strip amplifier. Other applications may exist which can use this amplifier or a modified version of this amplifier. For example, another design is now in progress for a wire chamber amplifier, QPA03, to be reported later. Only a relatively small effort was required to modify the design and layout for this application. 11 figs

  12. An integrated 3D design, modeling and analysis resource for SSC detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGiacomo, N.J.; Adams, T.; Anderson, M.K.; Davis, M.; Easom, B.; Gliozzi, J.; Hale, W.M.; Hupp, J.; Killian, K.; Krohn, M.; Leitch, R.; Lajczok, M.; Mason, L.; Mitchell, J.; Pohlen, J.; Wright, T.

    1989-01-01

    Integrated computer aided engineering and design (CAE/CAD) is having a significant impact on the way design, modeling and analysis is performed, from system concept exploration and definition through final design and integration. Experience with integrated CAE/CAD in high technology projects of scale and scope similar to SSC detectors leads them to propose an integrated computer-based design, modeling and analysis resource aimed specifically at SSC detector system development. The resource architecture emphasizes value-added contact with data and efficient design, modeling and analysis of components, sub-systems or systems with fidelity appropriate to the task. They begin with a general examination of the design, modeling and analysis cycle in high technology projects, emphasizing the transition from the classical islands of automation to the integrated CAE/CAD-based approach. They follow this with a discussion of lessons learned from various attempts to design and implement integrated CAE/CAD systems in scientific and engineering organizations. They then consider the requirements for design, modeling and analysis during SSC detector development, and describe an appropriate resource architecture. They close with a report on the status of the resource and present some results that are indicative of its performance. 10 refs., 7 figs

  13. Integrating robust timetabling in line plan optimization for railway systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraeve, Sofie; Bull, Simon Henry; Vansteenwegen, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    We propose a heuristic algorithm to build a railway line plan from scratch that minimizes passenger travel time and operator cost and for which a feasible and robust timetable exists. A line planning module and a timetabling module work iteratively and interactively. The line planning module......, but is constrained by limited shunt capacity. While the operator and passenger cost remain close to those of the initially and (for these costs) optimally built line plan, the timetable corresponding to the finally developed robust line plan significantly improves the minimum buffer time, and thus the robustness...... creates an initial line plan. The timetabling module evaluates the line plan and identifies a critical line based on minimum buffer times between train pairs. The line planning module proposes a new line plan in which the time length of the critical line is modified in order to provide more flexibility...

  14. Wearable Fall Detector using Integrated Sensors and Energy Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungmook; Hong, Seungki; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Sangkyu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2015-11-01

    Wearable devices have attracted great attentions as next-generation electronic devices. For the comfortable, portable, and easy-to-use system platform in wearable electronics, a key requirement is to replace conventional bulky and rigid energy devices into thin and deformable ones accompanying the capability of long-term energy supply. Here, we demonstrate a wearable fall detection system composed of a wristband-type deformable triboelectric generator and lithium ion battery in conjunction with integrated sensors, controllers, and wireless units. A stretchable conductive nylon is used as electrodes of the triboelectric generator and the interconnection between battery cells. Ethoxylated polyethylenimine, coated on the surface of the conductive nylon electrode, tunes the work function of a triboelectric generator and maximizes its performance. The electrical energy harvested from the triboelectric generator through human body motions continuously recharges the stretchable battery and prolongs hours of its use. The integrated energy supply system runs the 3-axis accelerometer and related electronics that record human body motions and send the data wirelessly. Upon the unexpected fall occurring, a custom-made software discriminates the fall signal and an emergency alert is immediately sent to an external mobile device. This wearable fall detection system would provide new opportunities in the mobile electronics and wearable healthcare.

  15. Vertically integrated circuit development at Fermilab for detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R; Deptuch, G; Hoff, J; Khalid, F; Lipton, R; Shenai, A; Trimpl, M; Zimmerman, T

    2013-01-01

    Today vertically integrated circuits, (a.k.a. 3D integrated circuits) is a popular topic in many trade journals. The many advantages of these circuits have been described such as higher speed due to shorter trace lenghts, the ability to reduce cross talk by placing analog and digital circuits on different levels, higher circuit density without the going to smaller feature sizes, lower interconnect capacitance leading to lower power, reduced chip size, and different processing for the various layers to optimize performance. There are some added advantages specifically for MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors) in High Energy Physics: four side buttable pixel arrays, 100% diode fill factor, the ability to move PMOS transistors out of the diode sensing layer, and a increase in channel density. Fermilab began investigating 3D circuits in 2006. Many different bonding processes have been described for fabricating 3D circuits [1]. Fermilab has used three different processes to fabricate several circuits for specific applications in High Energy Physics and X-ray imaging. This paper covers some of the early 3D work at Fermilab and then moves to more recent activities. The major processes we have used are discussed and some of the problems encountered are described. An overview of pertinent 3D circuit designs is presented along with test results thus far.

  16. Study, simulation and modelling of a gamma photon detector placed on an integral-type eccentric orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diallo, N.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray lines are the signature of nuclear reactions and other high-energy processes that take place in the Universe. Their measurement and study provide invaluable information on many important problems in high energy astrophysics, including particle acceleration, physics of compact objects and nucleosynthesis. However the observation of astronomical gamma-ray sources has to be performed above the atmosphere because the Earth's atmosphere is opaque to gamma-rays. Unfortunately at these altitudes, spatial high energy electromagnetic radiation (X and gamma rays) detectors are exposed to intense parasite fluxes of radiation and particles induced by primary galactic cosmic rays. These fluxes as well radiation and secondary particles they generate, constitute a considerable source of background which limits their performances. Our study has been done in the framework of the INTEGRAL mission, a gamma-ray astronomy mission of the European Space Agency. INTEGRAL is devoted to the observation of celestial gamma-ray sources. It consists of two main instruments: an imager IBIS and a high resolution germanium spectrometer SPI (ΔE/E = 1.6 10 -3 at 1.3 MeV). We studied the hadronic component of the SPI background. This component is due to the radioactive decay of unstable nuclides produced by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with the materials of SPI. It consists of a continuum with gamma ray lines superimposed. To study nuclear processes, Monte Carlo simulations have been performed with the nuclear code TIERCE developed at CEA/DAM. We used the GEANT Monte Carlo code developed at CERN to simulate the germanium detectors response. Background reduction techniques as PSD (Pulse Shape Discrimination) and energetic signatures have been applied in well chosen energy ranges to reduce the background. and improve the SPI sensitivity. With the estimated SPI narrow-line sensitivity level, SPI would be able to detect many gamma ray limes emitted in the active galactic sites

  17. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  18. Eight plane IPND [Integration Prototype Near Detector] mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND

  19. Integrated input protection against discharges for Micro Pattern Gas Detectors readout ASICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiutowski, T.; Dąbrowski, W.; Koperny, S.; Wiącek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Immunity against possible random discharges inside active detector volume of MPGDs is one of the key aspects that should be addressed in the design of the front-end electronics. This issue becomes particularly critical for systems with high channel counts and high density readout employing the front-end electronics built as multichannel ASICs implemented in modern CMOS technologies, for which the breakdown voltages are in the range of a few Volts. The paper presents the design of various input protection structures integrated in the ASIC manufactured in a 350 nm CMOS process and test results using an electrical circuit to mimic discharges in the detectors.

  20. Mechanical integration studies for the CLIC vertex and inner tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Villarejo Bermudez, M.A.; Gerwig, H.

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the CLIC Conceptual Design Report, work has proceeded in order to establish a preliminary mechanical design for the innermost CLIC detector region. This note proposes a design for the main Carbon-Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) structural elements of the inner detectors, for the beam pipe and their supports. It also describes an assembly sequence for the integration of the sensors and the mechanical components. Mechanical simulations of different structural elements and a material budget estimation are appended. Details of a proposed cabling layout for all the subdetectors are included.

  1. Testing and Integration of the Service Cylinders for the CMS Phase 1 pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ngadiuba, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The present 3-layer CMS pixel detector will be replaced with a new 4-layer pixel system, referred to as Phase~1 upgrade, during the LHC extended technical stop in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded detector will allow to maintain the excellent tracking performance of CMS at the upcoming higher luminosity conditions at the LHC. The addition of an extra layer, closer to the beam pipe, demands a complete redesign of its services. The barrel pixel detector is attached to four half cylinders which carry the services along the beam pipe, accommodate the cooling lines and house the electronics for detector readout and control. The service cylinders are a complex system in design as well as in production due to the large number of channels and tight space requirements. In this document we present the design of the system and discuss the construction and testing of the service cylinders for the barrel pixel detector. Furthermore, we present results of the testing and calibrations carried out with a set of new digital dete...

  2. A four-detector spectrometer for e--γ PAC on-line with the ISOLDE-CERN isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.G.; Correia, J.G.; Melo, A.A.; Silva, M.F. da; Soares, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    A four-detector e - -γ spectrometer has been installed on-line with the ISOLDE isotope separator. The spectrometer consists of two magnetic lenses for detection of conversion electrons, and two BaF 2 scintillators for γ-ray detection. The spectrometer has been equipped with a 20 kV pre-acceleration system which enables detection of conversion electrons down to 2 keV. Implantation and measurement can be performed simultaneously on a large temperature range by heating or cooling the sample holder. The advantages of using the e - -γ PAC technique on-line at ISOLDE are discussed. (orig.)

  3. An Integration Framework Tool for ATCA Chassis in the ATLAS Detector Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Robert Graham

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is scheduled to undergo a major upgrade in 2022. The ATLAS collaboration will do major modifications to the detector to account for the increased luminosity. More specifically, a large proportion of the current front-end electronics, on the Tile Calorimeter sub-detector, will be upgraded and relocated to the backend. A Demonstrator program has been established as a proof of principle. A new system will be required to house, manage and connect this new hardware. The proposed solution will be an Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) which will not only house but also allow advanced management features and control at a hardware level by integrating the ATCA chassis into the Detector Control System. (paper)

  4. ATLAS Detector Simulation in the Integrated Simulation Framework applied to the W Boson Mass Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Ritsch, Elmar; Froidevaux, Daniel; Salzburger, Andreas

    One of the cornerstones for the success of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a very accurate Monte Carlo detector simulation. However, a limit is being reached regarding the amount of simulated data which can be produced and stored with the computing resources available through the worldwide LHC computing grid (WLCG). The Integrated Simulation Framework (ISF) is a novel approach to detector simula- tion which enables a more efficient use of these computing resources and thus allows for the generation of more simulated data. Various simulation technologies are combined to allow for faster simulation approaches which are targeted at the specific needs of in- dividual physics studies. Costly full simulation technologies are only used where high accuracy is required by physics analyses and fast simulation technologies are applied everywhere else. As one of the first applications of the ISF, a new combined simulation approach is developed for the generation of detector calibration samples ...

  5. Integrated High-Rate Transition Radiation Detector and Tracking Chamber for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-6 \\\\ \\\\Over the past five years, RD-6 has developed a transition radiation detector and charged particle tracker for high rate operation at LHC. The detector elements are based on C-fibre reinforced kapton straw tubes of 4~mm diameter filled with a Xenon gas mixture. Detailed measurements with and without magnetic field have been performed in test beams, and in particular have demonstrated the possibility of operating straw tubes at very high rate (up to 20~MHz) with accurate drift-time measurement accuracy. A full-scale engineering prototype containing 10~000 straws is presently under assembly and will be accurately measured with a powerful X-ray tube. Integrated front-end electronics with fast readout have been designed and successfully operated in test beam. \\\\ \\\\Finally extensive simulations performed for ATLAS have shown that such a detector will provide powerful pattern recognition, accurate momentum measurements, efficient level-2 triggering and excellent electron identification, even at the highe...

  6. Implementation of the ALEPH detector simulation code using UNIX with on-line graphics display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, M.J.; Georgiopoulos, C.H.; Mermikides, M.E.; Streets, J.

    1989-01-01

    GALEPH, the detector simulation program of the ALEPH detector was ported to an ETA10 running under ATandT UNIX System 5. The program on the ETA10 can be driven using standard UNIX socket connections between the ETA and a Silicon Graphics Iris-3020 workstation. The simulated data on the ETA are transferred, using the machine independent binary format EPIO, and displayed on the workstation using a locally developed software package for the visualization of the ALEPH detector. The client (Iris-3020) can also pass parameters to the server (ETA10) and thus interactively change the type of events produced using the same socket connection. (orig.)

  7. Integrating robust timetabling in line plan optimization for railway systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraeve, Sofie; Bull, Simon Henry; Lusby, Richard Martin

    The line planning problem in rail is to select a number of lines froma potential pool which provides sufficient passenger capacity and meetsoperational requirements, with some objective measure of solution linequality. We model the problem of minimizing the average passenger systemtime, including...... frequency-dependent estimates for switching between lines,working with the Danish rail operator DSB and data for Copenhagen commuters.We present a multi-commodity flow formulation for the problemof freely routing passengers, coupled to discrete line-frequency decisionsselecting lines from a predefined pool...

  8. Integrability detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, it is important to recall the quote of Albert Einstein [43] regarding the ... present time, however, such a program looks like an attempt to breathe in .... is confined and mapping recovered the memory of the initial conditions through x0.

  9. Study of an on-line filtering system for the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fede, E.

    2001-01-01

    The first chapter presents today's knowledge about particle physics and a description of the main decay channels and physical signatures associated to the Higgs boson is given. The second chapter is dedicated to the LHC accelerator with a focus on the ATLAS detector and its sub-detectors. The third chapter presents ATLAS triggering system and its data acquisition system. In the fourth chapter the functionalities required for an adequate event filtering system concerning physics issues and data managing are described. The design of a prototype based on a fleet of PC computers linked through an Ethernet network is presented in the fifth chapter

  10. A 64-channel integrated circuit for signal readout from coordinate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulchenko, V.; Shekhtman, L.; Zhulanov, V.

    2017-01-01

    A specialized integrated circuit was developed for the readout of signal from coordinate detectors of different types, including gas micro-pattern detectors and silicon microstrip detectors. The ASIC includes 64 channels, each containing a low-noise charge-sensitive amplifier with a connectable feedback capacitor and resistor, and fast reset of the feedback capacitor. Each channel of the ASIC also contains 100 cells of analogue memory where the signal can be stored at a rate of 10 MHz. The pitch of input pads is 50 μm and the chip size is 5× 5 mm 2 . The equivalent noise charge of the ASIC channel is about 2000 electrons with 10 pF capacitance at the input and maximal signal before saturation corresponds to 2× 10 6 electrons. The first application for this ASIC is the detector for imaging of explosions at a synchrotron radiation beam (DIMEX), where it has to substitute the old and slower APC128 ASIC. The full-size electronics including 8 ASICs for 512 channels was assembled and tested.

  11. A Multilayer Perceptron-Based Impulsive Noise Detector with Application to Power-Line-Based Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Chien, Ying-Ren

    2018-04-10

    For power-line-based sensor networks, impulsive noise (IN) will dramatically degrade the data transmission rate in the power line. In this paper, we present a multilayer perceptron (MLP)-based approach to detect IN in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based baseband power line communications (PLCs). Combining the MLP-based IN detection method with the outlier detection theory allows more accurate identification of the harmful residual IN. For OFDM-based PLC systems, the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the received signal makes detection of harmful residual IN more challenging. The detection mechanism works in an iterative receiver that contains a pre-IN mitigation and a post-IN mitigation. The pre-IN mitigation is meant to null the stronger portion of IN, while the post-IN mitigation suppresses the residual portion of IN using an iterative process. Compared with previously reported IN detectors, the simulation results show that our MLP-based IN detector improves the resulting bit error rate (BER) performance.

  12. The Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field in Terms of a Line Integral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    An exact line integral representation Is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by a magnetic Hertzian dipole. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation...

  13. An Exact Line Integral Representation of the Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    An exact line integral representation is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian dipoles. The positions of source and observation points can be almost arbitrary. Numerical examples...... are presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation....

  14. Measurement of Scattering Cross Section with a Spectrophotometer with an Integrating Sphere Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigalas, A K; Wang, Lili; Karpiak, V; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Choquette, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A commercial spectrometer with an integrating sphere (IS) detector was used to measure the scattering cross section of microspheres. Analysis of the measurement process showed that two measurements of the absorbance, one with the cuvette placed in the normal spectrometer position, and the second with the cuvette placed inside the IS, provided enough information to separate the contributions from scattering and molecular absorption. Measurements were carried out with microspheres with different diameters. The data was fitted with a model consisting of the difference of two terms. The first term was the Lorenz-Mie (L-M) cross section which modeled the total absorbance due to scattering. The second term was the integral of the L-M differential cross section over the detector acceptance angle. The second term estimated the amount of forward scattered light that entered the detector. A wavelength dependent index of refraction was used in the model. The agreement between the model and the data was good between 300 nm and 800 nm. The fits provided values for the microsphere diameter, the concentration, and the wavelength dependent index of refraction. For wavelengths less than 300 nm, the scattering cross section had significant spectral structure which was inversely related to the molecular absorption. This work addresses the measurement and interpretation of the scattering cross section for wavelengths between 300 nm and 800 nm.

  15. Characterization of the imaging performance of the simultaneously counting and integrating X-ray detector CIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Johannes

    2010-01-15

    The CIX detector is a direct converting hybrid pixel detector designed for medical X-ray imaging applications. Its de ning feature is the simultaneous operation of a photon counter as well as an integrator in every pixel cell. This novel approach o ers a dynamic range of more than five orders of magnitude, as well as the ability to directly obtain the average photon energy from the measured data. Several CIX 0.2 ASICs have been successfully connected to CdTe, CdZnTe and Si sensors. These detector modules were tested with respect to the imaging performance of the simultaneously counting and integrating concept under X-ray irradiation. Apart from a characterization of the intrinsic benefits of the CIX concept, the sensor performance was also investigated. Here, the two parallel signal processing concepts offer valuable insights into material related effects like polarization and temporal response. The impact of interpixel coupling effects like charge-sharing, Compton scattering and X-ray fluorescence was evaluated through simulations and measurements. (orig.)

  16. Characterization of the imaging performance of the simultaneously counting and integrating X-ray detector CIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The CIX detector is a direct converting hybrid pixel detector designed for medical X-ray imaging applications. Its de ning feature is the simultaneous operation of a photon counter as well as an integrator in every pixel cell. This novel approach o ers a dynamic range of more than five orders of magnitude, as well as the ability to directly obtain the average photon energy from the measured data. Several CIX 0.2 ASICs have been successfully connected to CdTe, CdZnTe and Si sensors. These detector modules were tested with respect to the imaging performance of the simultaneously counting and integrating concept under X-ray irradiation. Apart from a characterization of the intrinsic benefits of the CIX concept, the sensor performance was also investigated. Here, the two parallel signal processing concepts offer valuable insights into material related effects like polarization and temporal response. The impact of interpixel coupling effects like charge-sharing, Compton scattering and X-ray fluorescence was evaluated through simulations and measurements. (orig.)

  17. 3D integration technology for hybrid pixel detectors designed for particle physics and imaging experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, D.; Berthelot, A.; Cuchet, R.; Chantre, C.; Campbell, M.; Tick, T.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are now widely used in particle physics experiments and are becoming established at synchrotron light sources. They have also stimulated growing interest in other fields and, in particular, in medical imaging. Through the continuous pursuit of miniaturization in CMOS it has been possible to increase the functionality per pixel while maintaining or even shrinking pixel dimensions. The main constraint on the more extensive use of the technology in all fields is the cost of module building and the difficulty of covering large areas seamlessly. On another hand, in the field of electronic component integration, a new approach has been developed in the last years, called 3D Integration. This concept, based on using the vertical axis for component integration, allows improving the global performance of complex systems. Thanks to this technology, the cost and the form factor of components could be decreased and the performance of the global system could be enhanced. In the field of radiation imaging detectors the advantages of 3D Integration come from reduced inter chip dead area even on large surfaces and from improved detector construction yield resulting from the use of single chip 4-side buttable tiles. For many years, numerous R and centres and companies have put a lot of effort into developing 3D integration technologies and today, some mature technologies are ready for prototyping and production. The core technology of the 3D integration is the TSV (Through Silicon Via) and for many years, LETI has developed those technologies for various types of applications. In this paper we present how one of the TSV approaches developed by LETI, called TSV last, has been applied to a readout wafer containing readout chips intended for a hybrid pixel detector assembly. In the first part of this paper, the 3D design adapted to the read-out chip will be described. Then the complete process flow will be explained and, finally, the test strategy adopted and

  18. The Galactic 511 keV line: analysis and interpretation of Integral observations; L'annihilation des positrons galactiques: analyse et interpretation des donnees INTEGRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonjou, V

    2005-09-15

    Ever since the discovery of the 511 keV annihilation line emission from the galactic center region in the late seventies, the origin of galactic positrons has been the topic of a vivid scientific debate. It is also one of the prime scientific objectives of the imaging spectrometer SPI on board ESA's INTEGRAL observatory. In this thesis first a description of the most important SPI sub-system is given - the detector plane. Procedures for detector energy calibration and detector degradation analysis are developed. The determination of instrumental background models, a crucial aspect of data analysis, is elaborated. These background models are then applied to deriving sky maps and spectra of unprecedented quality of the Galactic positron annihilation radiation. The emission is centered on the galactic center with a spatial resolution of 8 degrees (FWHM), a second spatial component appears clearly: the galactic disc. The ray energy has been measured with unprecedented accuracy: 511.0 {+-} 0.03 keV for a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 2.07 {+-} 0.1 keV. The total galactic flux ranges from 1.09 to 2.43 10{sup -3} ph.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} including uncertainties on spatial distribution. Finally, the implications of these observations for the production of positrons by various Galactic populations are discussed.

  19. FE-I4 Firmware Development and Integration with FELIX for the Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Amitabh; Sharma, Abhishek; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    CERN has planned a series of upgrades for the LHC. The last in this current series of planned upgrades is designated the HL-LHC. At the same time, the ATLAS Experiment will be extensively changed to meet the challenges of this upgrade (termed as the “Phase-II” upgrade). The Inner Detector will be completely rebuilt for the phase-II. The TRT, SCT and Pixel will be replaced by the all-silicon tracker, termed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). The read-out of this future ITk detector is an engineering challenge for the routing of services and quality of the data. This document describes the FPGA firmware development that integrates the GBT, Elink and Rx-Tx Cores for communication between the FE-I4 modules and the FELIX read-out system.

  20. Zenith distribution and flux of atmospheric muons measured with the 5-line ANTARES detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubertg, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Berting, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunnerg, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenweing, J. -P.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kretschmer, W.; Loehner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The ANTARES high-energy neutrino telescope is a three-dimensional array of about 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 mooring lines installed in the Mediterranean Sea. Between February and November 2007 it acquired data in a 5-line configuration. The zenith angular distribution of the

  1. Development of a rapid multi-line detector for industrial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtrab, Frank; Firsching, Markus; Hofmann, Thomas; Uhlmann, Norman; Neubauer, Harald; Nowak, Arne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the development of a rapid multi-row detector is optimized for industrial computed tomography. With a high frame rate, high spatial resolution and the ability to use up to 450 kVp it is particularly suitable for applications such as fast acquisition of large objects, inline CT or time-resolved 4D CT. (Contains PowerPoint slides). [de

  2. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marcelo E; Sztejnberg, Manuel L; González, Sara J; Thorp, Silvia I; Longhino, Juan M; Estryk, Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    A rhodium self-powered neutron detector (Rh SPND) has been specifically developed by the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) of Argentina to measure locally and in real time thermal neutron fluxes in patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this work, the thermal and epithermal neutron response of the Rh SPND was evaluated by studying the detector response to two different reactor spectra. In addition, during clinical trials of the BNCT Project of the CNEA, on-line neutron flux measurements using the specially designed detector were assessed. The first calibration of the detector was done with the well-thermalized neutron spectrum of the CNEA RA-3 reactor thermal column. For this purpose, the reactor spectrum was approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the thermal energy range. The second calibration was done at different positions along the central axis of a water-filled cylindrical phantom, placed in the mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam of CNEA RA-6 reactor. In this latter case, the RA-6 neutron spectrum had been well characterized by both calculation and measurement, and it presented some marked differences with the ideal spectrum considered for SPND calibrations at RA-3. In addition, the RA-6 neutron spectrum varied with depth in the water phantom and thus the percentage of the epithermal contribution to the total neutron flux changed at each measurement location. Local (one point-position) and global (several points-positions) and thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities were determined from these measurements. Thermal neutron flux was also measured during BNCT clinical trials within the irradiation fields incident on the patients. In order to achieve this, the detector was placed on patient's skin at dosimetric reference points for each one of the fields. System stability was adequate for this kind of measurement. Local mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities and global thermal and mixed

  3. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Marcelo E.; Sztejnberg, Manuel L.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Longhino, Juan M.; Estryk, Guillermo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1429 (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1429, Argentina and CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1033 (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1429 (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: A rhodium self-powered neutron detector (Rh SPND) has been specifically developed by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina to measure locally and in real time thermal neutron fluxes in patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this work, the thermal and epithermal neutron response of the Rh SPND was evaluated by studying the detector response to two different reactor spectra. In addition, during clinical trials of the BNCT Project of the CNEA, on-line neutron flux measurements using the specially designed detector were assessed. Methods: The first calibration of the detector was done with the well-thermalized neutron spectrum of the CNEA RA-3 reactor thermal column. For this purpose, the reactor spectrum was approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the thermal energy range. The second calibration was done at different positions along the central axis of a water-filled cylindrical phantom, placed in the mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam of CNEA RA-6 reactor. In this latter case, the RA-6 neutron spectrum had been well characterized by both calculation and measurement, and it presented some marked differences with the ideal spectrum considered for SPND calibrations at RA-3. In addition, the RA-6 neutron spectrum varied with depth in the water phantom and thus the percentage of the epithermal contribution to the total neutron flux changed at each measurement location. Local (one point-position) and global (several points-positions) and thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities were determined from these measurements. Thermal neutron flux was also measured during BNCT clinical trials within the irradiation fields incident on the patients. In order to achieve this, the detector was placed on patient's skin at dosimetric reference points for each one of the fields. System stability was adequate for this kind of measurement. Results: Local mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities and

  4. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Marcelo E.; Sztejnberg, Manuel L.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Longhino, Juan M.; Estryk, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A rhodium self-powered neutron detector (Rh SPND) has been specifically developed by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina to measure locally and in real time thermal neutron fluxes in patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this work, the thermal and epithermal neutron response of the Rh SPND was evaluated by studying the detector response to two different reactor spectra. In addition, during clinical trials of the BNCT Project of the CNEA, on-line neutron flux measurements using the specially designed detector were assessed. Methods: The first calibration of the detector was done with the well-thermalized neutron spectrum of the CNEA RA-3 reactor thermal column. For this purpose, the reactor spectrum was approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the thermal energy range. The second calibration was done at different positions along the central axis of a water-filled cylindrical phantom, placed in the mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam of CNEA RA-6 reactor. In this latter case, the RA-6 neutron spectrum had been well characterized by both calculation and measurement, and it presented some marked differences with the ideal spectrum considered for SPND calibrations at RA-3. In addition, the RA-6 neutron spectrum varied with depth in the water phantom and thus the percentage of the epithermal contribution to the total neutron flux changed at each measurement location. Local (one point-position) and global (several points-positions) and thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities were determined from these measurements. Thermal neutron flux was also measured during BNCT clinical trials within the irradiation fields incident on the patients. In order to achieve this, the detector was placed on patient's skin at dosimetric reference points for each one of the fields. System stability was adequate for this kind of measurement. Results: Local mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities and global

  5. Industrial development of neutron detectors, fission chambers, self powered detectors, ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constans, H.; Coville, P.; Guerre, J.

    1975-01-01

    Reactor control requires the determination of neutron flux at all times. The needed characteristics lead to use of several types of detectors: boron lined counters, boron lined ionization chambers, fission ionization chambers and self powered detectors. The principle of the reaction involved the fabrication requirements, the different modes of utilization and the characteristics obtained are examined for each detector. The problem of electric connections in the active area has been solved by developing ''integrated cables'' [fr

  6. Integrated sensor array for on-line monitoring micro bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    The “Fed��?batch on a chip��?��?project, which was carried out in close cooperation with the Technical University of Delft, aims to miniaturize and parallelize micro bioreactors suitable for on-line screening of micro-organisms. This thesis describes an electrochemical sensor array which has been

  7. Integral method of treatment of experimental data from radiochemical solar neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Kopylov, A.V.; Streltsov, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is made of the statistical errors in solar neutrino detection by radiochemical detectors at different times of exposure. It is shown that short exposures (tau/sub e/ = one-half to one half-life) give minimal one-year error. The possibility is considered of the detection of the solar neutrino flux variation due to annual changes of the Earth-Sun distance. The integral method of treatment of the experimental data is described. Results are given of the statistical treatment of computer simulated data

  8. Mechanical integration of the detector components for the CBM silicon tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasylyev, Oleg; Niebur, Wolfgang [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment (CBM) at FAIR is designed to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities. The central detector component, the Silicon Tracking System (STS) is based on double-sided micro-strip sensors. In order to achieve the physics performance, the detector mechanical structures should be developed taking into account the requirements of the CBM experiments: low material budget, high radiation environment, interaction rates, aperture for the silicon tracking, detector segmentation and mounting precision. A functional plan of the STS and its surrounding structural components is being worked out from which the STS system shape is derived and the power and cooling needs, the connector space requirements, life span of components and installation/repair aspects are determined. The mechanical integration is at the point of finalizing the design stage and moving towards production readiness. This contribution shows the current processing state of the following engineering tasks: construction space definition, carbon ladder shape and manufacturability, beam-pipe feedthrough structure, prototype construction, cable routing and modeling of the electronic components.

  9. Intercomparisons for integrating the radon-thoron detector of NIRP, China with NIRS, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yunyun; Cui, Hongxing; Zhang, Qingzhao; Shang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Intercomparisons play an important role in maintaining a reasonable and accurate standard of measurement and quality. Integrating the radon-thoron detector of the National Institute for Radiological Protection (NIRP), China has continuously been a subject of four rounds of international intercomparisons organised by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Japan during 2007-12. The intercomparisons were held at NIRS. The exercises included different exposures for both radon and thoron. The results of the intercomparison for the detectors of NIRP for both radon and thoron exposures were in the range of ±20 % from the reference value and were categorised as 'Category I' in the intercomparison carried out in 2011. The radon and thoron results of the LD-P detector in four rounds of intercomparison exercises were summarised, and uncertainties of all the radon and thoron results of NIRP were within the acceptable range of 30 % in environment. Radon and thoron measurement results between NIRP and NIRS were basically in agreement. (authors)

  10. The electro-mechanical integration of the NA62 GigaTracker time tagging pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Morel, M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Carassiti, V; Ceccucci, A; Daguin, J; Fiorini, M; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Mapelli, A; Marchetto, F; Noy, M; Nuessle, G; Perktold, L; Petagna, P; Riedler, P

    2010-01-01

    The NA62 GigaTracker is a low mass time tagging hybrid pixel detector operating in a beam with a particle rate of 750 MHz. It consists of three stations with a sensor size of 60 × 27mm2 containing 18000 pixels, each 300 × 300μm2. The active area is connected to a matrix of 2 × 5 pixel ASICs, which time tag the arrival of the particles with a binning of 100 ps. The detector operates in vacuum at -20 to 0°C and the material budget per station must be below 0.5% X0. Due to the high radiation environment of 2 × 1014 1 MeV neutron equivalent cm−2/yr−1 it is planned to exchange the detector modules regularly. The low material budget, cooling requirements and the request for easy module access has driven the electro-mechanical integration of the GigaTracker, which is presented in this paper

  11. Meandered-line antenna with integrated high-impedance surface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forman, Michael A.

    2010-09-01

    A reduced-volume antenna composed of a meandered-line dipole antenna over a finite-width, high-impedance surface is presented. The structure is novel in that the high-impedance surface is implemented with four Sievenpiper via-mushroom unit cells, whose area is optimized to match the meandered-line dipole antenna. The result is an antenna similar in performance to patch antenna but one fourth the area that can be deployed directly on the surface of a conductor. Simulations demonstrate a 3.5 cm ({lambda}/4) square antenna with a bandwidth of 4% and a gain of 4.8 dBi at 2.5 GHz.

  12. Radiation hardness assessment of the charge-integrating hybrid pixel detector JUNGFRAU 1.0 for photon science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmann-Smith, J. H., E-mail: jsmith@magnet.fsu.edu; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Jaggi, A.; Maliakal, D.; Mayilyan, D.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, Ch.; Schädler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Cartier, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETHZ, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Medjoubi, K. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin–BP 48, 91192 GIF-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2015-12-15

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications in free electron lasers, particularly SwissFEL, and synchrotron light sources. JUNGFRAU is an automatic gain switching, charge-integrating detector which covers a dynamic range of more than 10{sup 4} photons of an energy of 12 keV with a good linearity, uniformity of response, and spatial resolving power. The JUNGFRAU 1.0 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) features a 256 × 256 pixel matrix of 75 × 75 μm{sup 2} pixels and is bump-bonded to a 320 μm thick Si sensor. Modules of 2 × 4 chips cover an area of about 4 × 8 cm{sup 2}. Readout rates in excess of 2 kHz enable linear count rate capabilities of 20 MHz (at 12 keV) and 50 MHz (at 5 keV). The tolerance of JUNGFRAU to radiation is a key issue to guarantee several years of operation at free electron lasers and synchrotrons. The radiation hardness of JUNGFRAU 1.0 is tested with synchrotron radiation up to 10 MGy of delivered dose. The effect of radiation-induced changes on the noise, baseline, gain, and gain switching is evaluated post-irradiation for both the ASIC and the hybridized assembly. The bare JUNGFRAU 1.0 chip can withstand doses as high as 10 MGy with minor changes to its noise and a reduction in the preamplifier gain. The hybridized assembly, in particular the sensor, is affected by the photon irradiation which mainly shows as an increase in the leakage current. Self-healing of the system is investigated during a period of 11 weeks after the delivery of the radiation dose. Annealing radiation-induced changes by bake-out at 100 °C is investigated. It is concluded that the JUNGFRAU 1.0 pixel is sufficiently radiation-hard for its envisioned applications at SwissFEL and synchrotron beam lines.

  13. A CMOS Integrating Amplifier for the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Jones, J.P. Jr.; Young, G.R.; Moscone, C.G.

    1997-11-01

    A CMOS integrating amplifier has been developed for use in the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. The amplifier, consisting of a charge-integrating amplifier followed by a variable gain amplifier (VGA), is an element of a photon measurement system comprising a photomultiplier tube, a wideband, gain of 10 amplifier, the integrating amplifier, and an analog memory followed by an ADC and double correlated sampling implemented in software. The integrating amplifier is designed for a nominal full scale input of 160 pC with a gain of 20 mV/pC and a dynamic range of 1000:1. The VGA is used for equalizing gains prior to forming analog sums for trigger purposes. The gain of the VGA is variable over a 3:1 range using a 5 bits digital control, and the risetime is held to approximately 20 ns using switched compensation in the VGA. Details of the design and results from several prototype devices fabricated in 1.2 microm Orbit CMOS are presented. A complete noise analysis of the integrating amplifier and the correlated sampling process is included as well as a comparison of calculated, simulated and measured results

  14. A CMOS Integrating Amplifier for the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Jones, J.P. Jr.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moscone, C.G. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A CMOS integrating amplifier has been developed for use in the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. The amplifier, consisting of a charge-integrating amplifier followed by a variable gain amplifier (VGA), is an element of a photon measurement system comprising a photomultiplier tube, a wideband, gain of 10 amplifier, the integrating amplifier, and an analog memory followed by an ADC and double correlated sampling implemented in software. The integrating amplifier is designed for a nominal full scale input of 160 pC with a gain of 20 mV/pC and a dynamic range of 1000:1. The VGA is used for equalizing gains prior to forming analog sums for trigger purposes. The gain of the VGA is variable over a 3:1 range using a 5 bits digital control, and the risetime is held to approximately 20 ns using switched compensation in the VGA. Details of the design and results from several prototype devices fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS are presented. A complete noise analysis of the integrating amplifier and the correlated sampling process is included as well as a comparison of calculated, simulated and measured results.

  15. An Analysis of Delay-based and Integrator-based Sequence Detectors for Grid-Connected Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    -signal cancellation operators are the main members of the delay-based sequence detectors. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical and experimental comparative study between integrator and delay based sequence detectors. The theoretical analysis is conducted based on the small-signal modelling......Detecting and separating positive and negative sequence components of the grid voltage or current is of vital importance in the control of grid-connected power converters, HVDC systems, etc. To this end, several techniques have been proposed in recent years. These techniques can be broadly...... classified into two main classes: The integrator-based techniques and Delay-based techniques. The complex-coefficient filter-based technique, dual second-order generalized integrator-based method, multiple reference frame approach are the main members of the integrator-based sequence detector and the delay...

  16. Leak detectors for organic Rankine cycle power plants: On-line and manual methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertus, R. J.; Pool, K. H.; Kindle, C. H.; Sullivan, R. G.; Shannon, D. W.; Pierce, D. D.

    1984-10-01

    Two leak detector systems were designed, built, and tested at a binary-cycle (organic Rankine cycle) geothermal plant. One system is capable of detecting water in hydrocarbon streams down to 100 ppm liquid water ion liquid isobutane. The magnitude of the leak is estimated from the frequency at which solenoid-operated valve opens and closes. The second system can detect the presence of isobutane on water or brine streams down to 2 ppm liquid isobutane in liquid water or brine. The unit first cools the liquid stream if necessary then reduces the pressure in an expansion chamber so the hydrocarbon will vaporize. In brine streams flashed CO2 carries the hydrocarbon to a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR). The NDIR was modified to be highly selective for isobutane. One can estimate the size of a leak knowing the total gas-to-liquid ratio entering the leak detection system and the concentration of hydrocarbon in the gas phase.

  17. A segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics for a PET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Chesi, Enrico Guido; Joram, C; Mathot, S; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, P; Ciocia, F; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Vilardi, I; Argentieri, A; Corsi, F; Dragone, A; Pasqua, D

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and test results of a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics. Both the photodetector and its VLSI readout electronics are custom designed and have been tailored to the requirements of a recently proposed novel geometrical concept of a Positron Emission Tomograph. Emphasis is put on the PET specific features of the device. The detector has been fabricated in the photocathode facility at CERN.

  18. Optical scatterometry system for detecting specific line edge roughness of resist gratings subjected to detector noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yen-Min; Li, Jia-Han; Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Wang, Fu-Min; Shen, Yu-Tian; Tsai, Kuen-Yu; Shieh, Jason J; Chen, Alek C

    2014-01-01

    The Fourier scatterometry model was used to measure the ZEP 520A electron beam resist lines with specific line edge roughness (LER). By obtaining the pupils via an objective lens, the angle-resolved diffraction spectrum was collected efficiently without additional mechanical scanning. The concavity of the pupil was considered as the weight function in specimen recognition. A series of white noises was examined in the model, and the tolerant white noise levels for different system numerical apertures (NAs) were reported. Our numerical results show that the scatterometry model of a higher NA can identify a target with a higher white noise level. Moreover, the fabricated ZEP 520A electron beam resist gratings with LER were measured by using our model, and the fitting results were matched with scanning electron microscope measurements. (paper)

  19. A MWPC with a cathode coupled delay line read-out as radioactivity detector for DNA repair studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Del Guerra, A.; Massai, M.M.; Ragadini, M.; Spandre, G.; Tonelli, G.

    1981-01-01

    A non selective method for the isolation of DNA repair-deficient mutants in mammalian cells is discussed. The method requires radioactive labelling of the short DNA sequences synthesized during repair of damaged regions. Mutants should be recognized by the absence of radioactive incorporation into their DNA. A multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) is proposed as a suitable radioactivity detector. The performance of a MWPC prototype with a cathode coupled delay line read-out is described and is shown to be adequate for this application. The main advantages of a MWPC are reviewed with respect to other methods used for β - radioactivity counting of biological samples, such as liquid scintillators or autoradiography: the proposed detection method is non destructive for the cells, which are being kept alive for further biological studies, furthermore many cell clones can be screened within a reasonable time. (orig.)

  20. Picosecond wide-field time-correlated single photon counting fluorescence microscopy with a delay line anode detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Le Marois, Alix; Suhling, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.suhling@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Becker, Wolfgang; Smietana, Stefan [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Milnes, James; Conneely, Thomas [Photek Ltd., 26 Castleham Rd, Saint Leonards-on-Sea TN38 9NS (United Kingdom); Jagutzki, Ottmar [Institut für Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We perform wide-field time-correlated single photon counting-based fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with a crossed delay line anode image intensifier, where the pulse propagation time yields the photon position. This microchannel plate-based detector was read out with conventional fast timing electronics and mounted on a fluorescence microscope with total internal reflection (TIR) illumination. The picosecond time resolution of this detection system combines low illumination intensity of microwatts with wide-field data collection. This is ideal for fluorescence lifetime imaging of cell membranes using TIR. We show that fluorescence lifetime images of living HeLa cells stained with membrane dye di-4-ANEPPDHQ exhibit a reduced lifetime near the coverslip in TIR compared to epifluorescence FLIM.

  1. Measurement of collision integral cross-sections of double-photon Compton effect using a single gamma ray detector: A response matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddi, M.B.; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The collision integral cross-sections of double-photon Compton process are measured experimentally for 662 keV incident gamma photons. The measurements are successfully carried out using a single gamma ray detector, and do not require the complicated slow-fast coincidence technique used till now for observing this higher order quantum electrodynamics (QED) process. The energy spectra of one of the two final photons, originating in this process, in direction of the gamma ray detector are observed as a long tail to the single-photon Compton line on lower side of the full energy peak in the observed spectra. An inverse response matrix converts the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to a true photon spectrum. This also results in extraction of events originating from double-photon Compton interactions. The present measured values of collision integral cross-section, although of same magnitude, deviate from the corresponding values obtained from the theory. In view of the magnitude of deviations, in addition to small value of probability of occurrence of this process, the agreement of measured values with theory is reasonably acceptable

  2. A 12-bit SAR ADC integrated on a multichannel silicon drift detector readout IC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schembari, F., E-mail: filippo.schembari@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, via Golgi 40, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bellotti, G.; Fiorini, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, via Golgi 40, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    A 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) addressed to Silicon-Drift Detectors (SDDs) multichannel readout ASICs for X- and gamma-ray applications is presented. Aiming at digitizing output multiplexed data from the upstream analog filters banks, the converter must ensure 11-bit accuracy and a sampling frequency of about 5 MS/s. The ADC architecture is the charge-redistribution (CR) successive-approximation register (SAR). A fully differential topology has also been chosen for better rejection of common-mode noise and disturbances. The internal DAC is made of binary-scaled capacitors, whose bottom plates are switched by the SAR logic to perform the binary search of the analog input value by means of the monotonic switching scheme. The A/D converter is integrated on SFERA, a multichannel ASIC fabricated in a standard CMOS 0.35 μm 3.3 V technology and it occupies an area of 0.42 mm{sup 2}. Simulated static performance shows monotonicity over the whole input–output characteristic. The description of the circuit topology and of inner blocks architectures together with the experimental characterization is here presented. - Highlights: • X- and γ-ray spectroscopy front-ends need to readout a high number of detectors. • Design efforts are increasingly oriented to compact and low-power ASICs. • A possible solution is the on-chip integration of the analog-to-digital converter. • A 12-bit CR successive-approximation-register ADC has been developed. • It is a suitable candidate as the digitizer to be integrated in multichannel ASICs.

  3. Integration of a hydraulic production plant in a weak power system on a long radial line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lariviere, P. [Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, 5655 de Marseille, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Racine, M. [Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, C.P. 10 000, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    Integrating power plants on long lines and weak power systems requires some care. To this effect, a study was conducted to determine if severe disturbances could result when a hydraulic production plant is integrated along a very long radial transmission line. Frequency responses were evaluated to identify possible resonant system operating conditions. Many events such as faults, transformer energyzing and line opening were investigated. All power plant synchronous machines were represented including exciter and governor regulators. Impact of dynamic modeling of the load was examined. The study demonstrates that the overall protective strategy implemented will limit worst overvoltage constraints imposed to equipment and load within an acceptable level. (author)

  4. DOUBLE-SHELL TANK WASTE TRANSFER LINE ENCASEMENT INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGY STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOWER, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    The report provides various alternative methods of performing integrity assessment inspections of buried Hanford Double Shell Tank waste transfer line encasements, and provides method recommendations as an alternative to costly encasement pneumatic leak testing. A schedule for future encasement integrity assessments is also included

  5. A planar micro-flame ionization detector with an integrated guard electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuipers, W J; Müller, J

    2008-01-01

    The flame ionization detector (FID) quantifies small concentrations of organic compounds by flame ionization of hydrocarbons and measurement of the resulting ion current. The ion current represents the number of carbon atoms in the sample gas. The miniaturization of the FID by MEMS technology (µFID) is expected to increase its use, because of reduced oxyhydrogen consumption. This loosens safety precautions and makes portable applications possible. In contrast to a former µFID design, the current planar µFID is designed to prevent environmental air from entering the system and deteriorating the measurement signal. The oxyhydrogen flame burns in the silicon plane of an almost completely encapsulating glass–silicon–glass sandwich. Only a small opening remains for removal of the exhaust gas from the system. In between the detector electrodes, a guard electrode is integrated to intercept and by-pass leak currents past the picoammeter, which then only measures the ion current. Due to the design of the guard electrode, small leak currents are still measured by the picoammeter. Yet, these leak currents can be corrected for to obtain the ion current. Measurements of the ion current as a function of the applied voltage and the sample gas flow show expected FID behaviour

  6. Integrating Controls Frameworks: Control Systems for NA62 LAV Detector Test Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Oliver; Golonka, Piotr; Gonzalez-Berges, Manuel; Milcent, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    The detector control system for the NA62 experiment at CERN, to be ready for physics data-taking in 2014, is going to be built based on control technologies recommended by the CERN Engineering group. A rich portfolio of the technologies is planned to be showcased and deployed in the final application, and synergy between them is needed. In particular two approaches to building controls application need to play in harmony: the use of the high-level application framework called UNICOS, and a bottom-up approach of development based on the components of the JCOP Framework. The aim of combining the features provided by the two frameworks is to avoid duplication of functionality and minimize the maintenance and development effort for future controls applications. In the paper the result of the integration efforts obtained so far are presented; namely the control applications developed for beam-testing of NA62 detector prototypes. Even though the delivered applications are simple, significant conceptual and developm...

  7. INTEGRATING CONTROLS FRAMEWORKS: CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR NA62 LAV DETECTOR TEST BEAMS

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, O; Golonka, P; Gonzalez-Berges, M; Milcent, H

    2011-01-01

    The detector control system for the NA62 experiment at CERN, to be ready for physics data-taking in 2014, is going to be built based on control technologies recommended by the CERN Engineering group. A rich portfolio of the technologies is planned to be showcased and deployed in the final application, and synergy between them is needed. In particular two approaches to building controls application need to play in harmony: the use of the high-level application framework called UNICOS, and a bottom-up approach of development based on the components of the JCOP Framework. The aim of combining the features provided by the two frameworks is to avoid duplication of functionality and minimize the maintenance and development effort for future controls applications. In the paper the result of the integration efforts obtained so far are presented; namely the control applications developed for beam-testing of NA62 detector prototypes. Even though the delivered applications are simple, significant conceptual and developm...

  8. Data reduction pipeline for the CHARIS integral-field spectrograph I: detector readout calibration and data cube extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Rizzo, Maxime; Groff, Tyler; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Greco, Johnny P.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Limbach, Mary Anne; Galvin, Michael; Loomis, Craig; Knapp, Gillian; McElwain, Michael W.; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Currie, Thayne; Mede, Kyle; Tamura, Motohide; Takato, Naruhisa; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2017-10-01

    We present the data reduction pipeline for CHARIS, a high-contrast integral-field spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope. The pipeline constructs a ramp from the raw reads using the measured nonlinear pixel response and reconstructs the data cube using one of three extraction algorithms: aperture photometry, optimal extraction, or χ2 fitting. We measure and apply both a detector flatfield and a lenslet flatfield and reconstruct the wavelength- and position-dependent lenslet point-spread function (PSF) from images taken with a tunable laser. We use these measured PSFs to implement a χ2-based extraction of the data cube, with typical residuals of ˜5% due to imperfect models of the undersampled lenslet PSFs. The full two-dimensional residual of the χ2 extraction allows us to model and remove correlated read noise, dramatically improving CHARIS's performance. The χ2 extraction produces a data cube that has been deconvolved with the line-spread function and never performs any interpolations of either the data or the individual lenslet spectra. The extracted data cube also includes uncertainties for each spatial and spectral measurement. CHARIS's software is parallelized, written in Python and Cython, and freely available on github with a separate documentation page. Astrometric and spectrophotometric calibrations of the data cubes and PSF subtraction will be treated in a forthcoming paper.

  9. DARKNESS: A Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector Integral Field Spectrograph for High-contrast Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Seth R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Walter, Alex B.; Strader, Paschal; Fruitwala, Neelay; Bockstiegel, Clint; Szypryt, Paul; Ulbricht, Gerhard; Coiffard, Grégoire; Bumble, Bruce; Cancelo, Gustavo; Zmuda, Ted; Treptow, Ken; Wilcer, Neal; Collura, Giulia; Dodkins, Rupert; Lipartito, Isabel; Zobrist, Nicholas; Bottom, Michael; Shelton, J. Chris; Mawet, Dimitri; van Eyken, Julian C.; Vasisht, Gautam; Serabyn, Eugene

    2018-06-01

    We present DARKNESS (the DARK-speckle Near-infrared Energy-resolving Superconducting Spectrophotometer), the first of several planned integral field spectrographs to use optical/near-infrared Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) for high-contrast imaging. The photon counting and simultaneous low-resolution spectroscopy provided by MKIDs will enable real-time speckle control techniques and post-processing speckle suppression at frame rates capable of resolving the atmospheric speckles that currently limit high-contrast imaging from the ground. DARKNESS is now operational behind the PALM-3000 extreme adaptive optics system and the Stellar Double Coronagraph at Palomar Observatory. Here, we describe the motivation, design, and characterization of the instrument, early on-sky results, and future prospects.

  10. Development and Integration of on-line Data Analysis for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE detector setup is a dedicated experiment in Heavy Ion Physics, located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)/ Geneva. Its various sub-detectors are electronically read out by a few millions of channels and are expected to provide a huge sample of data for the investigation of strongly interacting matter. A data rate of up to 25 GByte/s imposes a challenge to both storage facilities and subsequent data analysis. On-line data processing is applied in order to reduce the data volume and selection of interesting events is suggested to increase the valuable information in the recorded data. In general, trigger systems cover the task of event selection. As the first signal needs to be available immediately after the collision, often a multi-level triggering scheme is applied. Fast detectors are deployed to generate different levels of hardware triggers. Subsequent software triggers accomplish event selection on the basis of on-line analysis. A High-Lev...

  11. Tests of innovative photon detectors and integrated electronics for the large-area CLAS12 ring-imaging Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contalbrigo, M., E-mail: contalbrigo@fe.infn.it

    2015-07-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab. Its aim is to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and a densely packed and highly segmented photon detector. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). Extensive tests have been performed on Hamamatsu H8500 and novel flat multi-anode photomultipliers under development and on various types of silicon photomultipliers. A large scale prototype based on 28 H8500 MA-PMTs has been realized and tested with few GeV/c hadron beams at the T9 test-beam facility of CERN. In addition a small prototype was used to study the response of customized SiPM matrices within a temperature interval ranging from 25 down to −25 °C. The preliminary results of the individual photon detector tests and of the prototype performance at the test-beams are here reported.

  12. The Detector Control System of the ATLAS SemiCondutor Tracker during Macro-Assembly and Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A; Basiladze, S; Bates, R L; Bell, P; Bingefors, N; Böhm, J; Brenner, R; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Clark, A; Codispoti, G; Colijn, A P; D'Auria, S; Dorholt, O; Doherty, F; Ferrari, P; Ferrère, D; Górnicki, E; Koperny, S; Lefèvre, R; Lindquist, L-E; Malecki, P; Mikulec, B; Mohn, B; Pater, J; Pernegger, H; Phillips, P; Robichaud-Véronneau, A; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Sandaker, H; Sfyrla, A; Stanecka, E; Stastny, J; Viehhauser, G; Vossebeld, J; Wells, P

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is one of the largest existing semiconductor detectors. It is situated between the Pixel detector and the Transition Radiation Tracker at one of the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During 2006-2007 the detector was lowered into the ATLAS cavern and installed in its final position. For the assembly, integration and commissioning phase, a complete Detector Control System (DCS) was developed to ensure the safe operation of the tracker. This included control of the individual powering of the silicon modules, a bi-phase cooling system and various types of sensors monitoring the SCT environment and the surrounding test enclosure. The DCS software architecture, performance and operational experience will be presented in the view of a validation of the DCS for the final SCT installation and operation phase.

  13. A comparative analysis of OTF, NPS, and DQE in energy integrating and photon counting digital x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: One of the benefits of photon counting (PC) detectors over energy integrating (EI) detectors is the absence of many additive noise sources, such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that thresholding voltage gains to detect individual x rays actually generates an unexpected source of white noise in photon counters. Methods: To distinguish the two detector types, their point spread function (PSF) is interpreted differently. The PSF of the energy integrating detector is treated as a weighting function for counting x rays, while the PSF of the photon counting detector is interpreted as a probability. Although this model ignores some subtleties of real imaging systems, such as scatter and the energy-dependent amplification of secondary quanta in indirect-converting detectors, it is useful for demonstrating fundamental differences between the two detector types. From first principles, the optical transfer function (OTF) is calculated as the continuous Fourier transform of the PSF, the noise power spectra (NPS) is determined by the discrete space Fourier transform (DSFT) of the autocovariance of signal intensity, and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is found from combined knowledge of the OTF and NPS. To illustrate the calculation of the transfer functions, the PSF is modeled as the convolution of a Gaussian with the product of rect functions. The Gaussian reflects the blurring of the x-ray converter, while the rect functions model the sampling of the detector. Results: The transfer functions are first calculated assuming outside noise sources such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise are negligible. It is demonstrated that while OTF is the same for two detector types possessing an equivalent PSF, a frequency-independent (i.e., ''white'') difference in their NPS exists such that NPS PC ≥NPS EI and hence DQE PC ≤DQE EI . The necessary and sufficient condition for equality is that the PSF

  14. The ADAQ framework: An integrated toolkit for data acquisition and analysis with real and simulated radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    The ADAQ framework is a collection of software tools that is designed to streamline the acquisition and analysis of radiation detector data produced in modern digital data acquisition (DAQ) systems and in Monte Carlo detector simulations. The purpose of the framework is to maximize user scientific productivity by minimizing the effort and expertise required to fully utilize radiation detectors in a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. By using a single set of tools to span the real and simulation domains, the framework eliminates redundancy and provides an integrated workflow for high-fidelity comparison between experimental and simulated detector performance. Built on the ROOT data analysis framework, the core of the ADAQ framework is a set of C++ and Python libraries that enable high-level control of digital DAQ systems and detector simulations with data stored into standardized binary ROOT files for further analysis. Two graphical user interface programs utilize the libraries to create powerful tools: ADAQAcquisition handles control and readout of real-world DAQ systems and ADAQAnalysis provides data analysis and visualization methods for experimental and simulated data. At present, the ADAQ framework supports digital DAQ hardware from CAEN S.p.A. and detector simulations performed in Geant4; however, the modular design will facilitate future extension to other manufacturers and simulation platforms. - Highlights: • A new software framework for radiation detector data acquisition and analysis. • Integrated acquisition and analysis of real-world and simulated detector data. • C++ and Python libraries for data acquisition hardware control and readout. • Graphical program for control and readout of digital data acquisition hardware. • Graphical program for comprehensive analysis of real-world and simulated data.

  15. The ADAQ framework: An integrated toolkit for data acquisition and analysis with real and simulated radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, Zachary S., E-mail: hartwig@mit.edu

    2016-04-11

    The ADAQ framework is a collection of software tools that is designed to streamline the acquisition and analysis of radiation detector data produced in modern digital data acquisition (DAQ) systems and in Monte Carlo detector simulations. The purpose of the framework is to maximize user scientific productivity by minimizing the effort and expertise required to fully utilize radiation detectors in a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. By using a single set of tools to span the real and simulation domains, the framework eliminates redundancy and provides an integrated workflow for high-fidelity comparison between experimental and simulated detector performance. Built on the ROOT data analysis framework, the core of the ADAQ framework is a set of C++ and Python libraries that enable high-level control of digital DAQ systems and detector simulations with data stored into standardized binary ROOT files for further analysis. Two graphical user interface programs utilize the libraries to create powerful tools: ADAQAcquisition handles control and readout of real-world DAQ systems and ADAQAnalysis provides data analysis and visualization methods for experimental and simulated data. At present, the ADAQ framework supports digital DAQ hardware from CAEN S.p.A. and detector simulations performed in Geant4; however, the modular design will facilitate future extension to other manufacturers and simulation platforms. - Highlights: • A new software framework for radiation detector data acquisition and analysis. • Integrated acquisition and analysis of real-world and simulated detector data. • C++ and Python libraries for data acquisition hardware control and readout. • Graphical program for control and readout of digital data acquisition hardware. • Graphical program for comprehensive analysis of real-world and simulated data.

  16. Development of signal processing electronics for self powered neutron detector signal with built-in on-line insulation monitoring [Paper No.:E3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amitabha; Chaganty, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    Self powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) are employed to monitor in-core neutron flux in nuclear reactors for control, safety and mapping of in-core neutron flux. The d.c. current produced by SPND is converted into a proportional d.c. voltage, which in turn is used for various purposes stated above. This paper describes various features of the SPND amplifier developed in the Electronics Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). It also outlines the principle of working of on-line monitoring of insulation resistance (IR) of the detector and associated mineral insulated (MI) and soft cables. The amplifier generates an alarm in case of the IR of the detector and the cable assembly falls below an accepted value or the cable is not connected to the amplifier and relieves the operator from periodic and manual checking of each of the individual detectors and ensures the validity of the signal for further processing. (author). 3 figs

  17. On-line generation of three-dimensional core power distribution using incore detector signals to monitor safety limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Wook; Lee, Ki Bog; Na, Man Gyun; Lee, Yoon Joon

    2004-01-01

    It is essential in commercial reactors that the safety limits imposed on the fuel pellets and fuel clad barriers, such as the Linear Power Density (LPD) and the Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR), are not violated during reactor operations. In order to accurately monitor the safety limits of current reactor states, a detailed three-dimensional (3D) core power distribution should be estimated from the in-core detector signals. In this paper, we propose a calculation methodology for detailed 3D core power distribution, using in-core detector signals and core monitoring constants such as the 3D Coupling Coefficients (3DCC), node power fraction, and pin-to-node factors. Also, the calculation method for several core safety parameters is introduced. The core monitoring constants for the real core state are promptly provided by the core design code and on-line MASTER(Multi-purpose Analyzer for Static and Transient Effects of Reactors), coupled with the core monitoring program. Through the plant computer, core state variables, which include reactor thermal power, control rod bank position, boron concentration, inlet moderator temperature, and flow rate, are supplied as input data for MASTER. MASTER performs the core calculation based on the neutron balance equation and generates several core monitoring constants corresponding to the real core state in addition to the expected core power distribution. The accuracy of the developed method is verified through a comparison with the current CECOR method. Because in all the verification calculation cases the proposed method shows a more conservative value than the best estimated value and a less conservative one than the current CECOR and COLSS methods, it is also confirmed that this method secures a greater operating margin through the simulation of the YGN-3 cycle-1 core from the viewpoint of the power peaking factor for the LPD and the pseudo hot pin axial power distribution for the DNBR calculation

  18. Optimization of the integration time of pulse shape analysis for dual-layer GSO detector with different amount of Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi

    2008-01-01

    For a multi-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector using different decay times, pulse shape analysis based on two different integration times is often used to distinguish scintillators in DOI direction. This method measures a partial integration and a full integration, and calculates the ratio of these two to obtain the pulse shape distribution. The full integration time is usually set to integrate full width of the scintillation pulse. However, the optimum partial integration time is not obvious for obtaining the best separation of the pulse shape distribution. To make it clear, a theoretical analysis and experiments were conducted for pulse shape analysis by changing the partial integration time using a scintillation detector of GSOs with different amount of Ce. A scintillation detector with 1-in. round photomultiplier tube (PMT) optically coupled GSO of 1.5 mol% (decay time: 35 ns) and that of 0.5 mol% (decay time: 60 ns) was used for the experiments. The signal from PMT was digitally integrated with partial (50-150 ns) and full (160 ns) integration times and ratio of these two was calculated to obtain the pulse shape distribution. In the theoretical analysis, partial integration time of 50 ns showed largest distance between two peaks of the pulse shape distribution. In the experiments, it showed maximum at 70-80 ns of partial integration time. The peak to valley ratio showed the maximum at 120-130 ns. Because the separation of two peaks is determined by the peak to valley ratio, we conclude the optimum partial integration time for these combinations of GSOs is around 120-130 ns, relatively longer than the expected value

  19. A Design of a PET Detector Using Micro-Channel Plate Photomultipliers with Transmission-Line Readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Frisch, H; Chen, C-T; Genat, J-F; Tang, F; Moses, W W; Choong, W S; Kao, C-M

    2010-01-01

    A computer simulation study has been conducted to investigate the feasibility of a positron emission tomography (PET) detector design by using micro-channel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tubes (PMT) with transmission-line (TL) read-out and waveform sampling. The detector unit consisted of a 24×24 array of pixelated LSO crystals, each of which was 4×4×25 mm(3) in size, and two 102×102 mm(2) MCP-PMTs coupled to both sides of the scintillator array. The crystal (and TL) pitch was 4.25 mm and reflective medium was inserted between the crystals. The transport of the optical photons inside the scintillator were simulated by using the Geant4 package. The output pulses of the MCP-PMT/TL unit were formed by applying the measured single photo-electron response of the MCP-PMT/TL unit to each individual photon that interacts with the photo-cathode of the MCP-PMT. The waveforms of the pulses at both ends of the TL strips were measured and analyzed to produce energy and timing information for the detected event. An experimental setup was developed by employing a Photonis Planacon MCP-PMT (XP85022) and a prototype TL board for measuring the single photo-electron response of the MCP-PMT/TL. The simulation was validated by comparing the predicted output pulses to measurements obtained with a single MCP-PMT/TL coupled to an LSO crystal exposed to 511 keV gamma rays. The validated simulation was then used to investigate the performance of the proposed new detector design. Our simulation result indicates an energy resolution of ~11% at 511 keV. When using a 400-600 keV energy window, we obtain a coincidence timing resolution of ~323 ps FWHM and a coincidence detection efficiency of ~40% for normally-incident 511keV photons. For the positioning accuracy, it is determined by the pitch of the TLs (and crystals) in the direction normal to the TLs and measured to be ~2.5 mm in the direction parallel to the TLs. The energy and timing obtained at the front- and back-end of the scintillator

  20. Integration sites of Epstein-Barr virus genome on chromosomes of human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuu, K.D.; Chen, Y.J.; Wang-Wuu, S. [Institute of Genetics, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1994-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the pathogen of infectious mononucleosis. The viral genome is present in more than 95% of the African cases of Burkitt lymphoma and it is usually maintained in episomal form in the tumor cells. Viral integration has been described only for Nanalwa which is a Burkitt lymphoma cell line lacking episomes. In order to examine the role of EBV in the immortalization of human Blymphocytes, we investigated whether the EBV integration into the human genome is essential. If the integration does occur, we would like to know whether the integration is randomly distributed or whether the viral DNA integrates preferentially at certain sites. Fourteen in vitro immortalized human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a biotinylated EBV BamHI w DNA fragment as probe. The episomal form of EBV DNA was found in all cells of these cell lines, while only about 65% of the cells have the integrated viral DNA. This might suggest that integration is not a pre-requisite for cell immortalization. Although all chromosomes, except Y, have been found with integrated viral genome, chromsomes 1 and 5 are the most frequent EBV DNA carrier (p<0.05). Nine chromosome bands, namely, 1p31, 1q31, 2q32, 3q13, 3q26, 5q14, 6q24, 7q31 and 12q21, are preferential targets for EBV integration (p<0.001). Eighty percent of the total 938 EBV hybridization signals were found to be at G-band-positive area. This suggests that the mechanism of EBV integration might be different from that of the retroviruses, which specifically integrate to G-band-negative areas. Thus, we conclude that the integration of EBV to host genome is non-random and it may have something to do with the structure of chromosome and DNA sequences.

  1. Entanglement entropy in integrable field theories with line defects II. Non-topological defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunfeng

    2017-08-01

    This is the second part of two papers where we study the effect of integrable line defects on bipartite entanglement entropy in integrable field theories. In this paper, we consider non-topological line defects in Ising field theory. We derive an infinite series expression for the entanglement entropy and show that both the UV and IR limits of the bulk entanglement entropy are modified by the line defect. In the UV limit, we give an infinite series expression for the coefficient in front of the logarithmic divergence and the exact defect g-function. By tuning the defect to be purely transmissive and reflective, we recover correctly the entanglement entropy of the bulk and with integrable boundary respectively.

  2. Integrated Circuit Interconnect Lines on Lossy Silicon Substrate with Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sarhan M. Musa,; Matthew N. O. Sadiku

    2014-01-01

    The silicon substrate has a significant effect on the inductance parameter of a lossy interconnect line on integrated circuit. It is essential to take this into account in determining the transmission line electrical parameters. In this paper, a new quasi-TEM capacitance and inductance analysis of multiconductor multilayer interconnects is successfully demonstrated using finite element method (FEM). We specifically illustrate the electrostatic modeling of single and coupled in...

  3. Preliminary Characterization Tests of Detectors of on-Line Monitor Systems of the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-Therapy (CNAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hadron-therapy is an effective technique used to treat tumors that are located between or nearby vital organs. The Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO has been realized as the first facility in Italy to treat very difficult tumors with protons and Carbon ions. The on-line monitor system for CNAO has been developed by the Department of Physics of the University of Torino and Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN. The monitoring system performs the on-line checking of the beam intensity, dimension, and beam position. Materials and Methods The monitor system is based on parallel plate ionization chambers and is composed of five ionization chambers with the anodes fully integrated or segmented in pixels or strips that are placed in two boxes. A series of measurements were performed that involve the background current and the detectors have been characterized by means of a series of preliminary testes in order to verify reproducibility and uniformity of the chambers using an X-ray source. Results The measured background currents for StripX, StripY and Pixel chambers are five orders of magnitude smaller than the nominal treatment current. The reproducibility error of chambers is less than 1%. The analysis of the uniformity showed that the monitor devices have a spread in gain that varies, but only about 2%. Conclusion The reproducibility and the uniformity values are considered as a good result, taking into account that the X-ray energy range is several orders of magnitude smaller than the particle energies used at CNAO.

  4. Development of an integrated four-channel fast avalanche-photodiode detector system with nanosecond time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjie; Li, Qiuju; Chang, Jinfan; Ma, Yichao; Liu, Peng; Wang, Zheng; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. E.; Xu, Wei; Tao, Ye; Wu, Chaoqun; Zhou, Yangfan

    2017-10-01

    A four-channel nanosecond time-resolved avalanche-photodiode (APD) detector system is developed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation. It uses a single module for signal processing and readout. This integrated system provides better reliability and flexibility for custom improvement. The detector system consists of three parts: (i) four APD sensors, (ii) four fast preamplifiers and (iii) a time-digital-converter (TDC) readout electronics. The C30703FH silicon APD chips fabricated by Excelitas are used as the sensors of the detectors. It has an effective light-sensitive area of 10 × 10 mm2 and an absorption layer thickness of 110 μm. A fast preamplifier with a gain of 59 dB and bandwidth of 2 GHz is designed to readout of the weak signal from the C30703FH APD. The TDC is realized by a Spartan-6 field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) with multiphase method in a resolution of 1ns. The arrival time of all scattering events between two start triggers can be recorded by the TDC. The detector has been used for nuclear resonant scattering study at both Advanced Photon Source and also at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. For the X-ray energy of 14.4 keV, the time resolution, the full width of half maximum (FWHM) of the detector (APD sensor + fast amplifier) is 0.86 ns, and the whole detector system (APD sensors + fast amplifiers + TDC readout electronics) achieves a time resolution of 1.4 ns.

  5. Repetitive MEGAMP per microsecond di/dt pulsers for driving sub-ohm transmission line neutrino particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    With the advent of low-cost honeycomb extrusions of polypropylene sheets, transmission line flash chambers have become highly attractive candidates for large particle detector arrays. This has brought about the need for repetitive pulse systems that must provide exceptionally high peak currents, low levels of spurious radiation, high reliability, and shot life in excess of 10 7 . Each module of 10 flash chambers requires a peak current of 20 kA with a current di/dt greater than 1 MA/μs. The pulser output must develop approx. = 7 kV across a load of 0.5 Ω with a pulse width of 500 ns. The complete system will require 40 pulsers run in parallel for a combined current output of 1.4 MA peak with a system di/dt of 40 MA/μs. The repetition rate will be up to 2 Hz. This paper describes the development of such a system, its unique voltage and current diagnostics, and the impact of the physical limitations of present component technology on lifetime, reliability, maintainability, and pulse fidelity

  6. Degenerate variational integrators for magnetic field line flow and guiding center trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, C. L.; Finn, J. M.; Burby, J. W.; Kraus, M.; Qin, H.; Tang, W. M.

    2018-05-01

    Symplectic integrators offer many benefits for numerically approximating solutions to Hamiltonian differential equations, including bounded energy error and the preservation of invariant sets. Two important Hamiltonian systems encountered in plasma physics—the flow of magnetic field lines and the guiding center motion of magnetized charged particles—resist symplectic integration by conventional means because the dynamics are most naturally formulated in non-canonical coordinates. New algorithms were recently developed using the variational integration formalism; however, those integrators were found to admit parasitic mode instabilities due to their multistep character. This work eliminates the multistep character, and therefore the parasitic mode instabilities via an adaptation of the variational integration formalism that we deem "degenerate variational integration." Both the magnetic field line and guiding center Lagrangians are degenerate in the sense that the resultant Euler-Lagrange equations are systems of first-order ordinary differential equations. We show that retaining the same degree of degeneracy when constructing discrete Lagrangians yields one-step variational integrators preserving a non-canonical symplectic structure. Numerical examples demonstrate the benefits of the new algorithms, including superior stability relative to the existing variational integrators for these systems and superior qualitative behavior relative to non-conservative algorithms.

  7. Darboux integrability and rational reversibility in cubic systems with two invariant straight lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cozma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We find conditions for a singular point O(0,0 of a center or a focus type to be a center, in a cubic differential system with two distinct invariant straight lines. The presence of a center at O(0,0 is proved by using the method of Darboux integrability and the rational reversibility.

  8. On-line fuel and control rod integrity management in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Irina; Sihver, Lembit

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance of fuel and control rod integrity in a BWR core is essential to maintain a safe and reliable operation of a nuclear power plant. An accurate and prompt way to monitor fuel integrity in a reactor core during reactor operation is by using on-line measurements of the gamma emitting noble gas activities in the off-gas system. The integrity of control rods can be efficiently followed by on-line measurements of the helium (He) concentration in the off-gases. This method also gives information about fuel rod failures since He is used as a fill gas in the fuel rods. To survey fuel and control rod integrity during reactor operation, a system consisting of combined gamma and He on-line measurements in the off-gases should be used. Such a system can detect and follow the behavior of fuel and control rod failures. In addition, it can separate fuel failures from control rod failures since fuel rods contain both He and gamma emitting noble gases, while control rods only contain He. Moreover, the system is able to distinguish primary fuel failures from degradation of already existing ones. In this paper we present a combined system for on-line measurements of He and gamma emitting noble gases in the reactor off-gas system and measuring experiences from different BWRs. (author)

  9. IR finite one-loop box scalar integral with massless internal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplancic, G.; Nizic, B.

    2002-01-01

    The IR finite one-loop box scalar integral with massless internal lines has been recalculated. The result is very compact, simple and valid for arbitrary values of the relevant kinematic variables. It is given in terms of only two dilogarithms and a few logarithms, all of very simple arguments. (orig.)

  10. The SAURON project : XVIII. The integrated UV-line-strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, Martin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Sohn, Young-Jong; Thomas, Daniel; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry from guest investigator programmes on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite, optical photometry from the MDM Observatory and optical integral-field spectroscopy from SAURON, we explore the UV-line-strength relations of the

  11. Ultrafast method of calculating the dynamic spectral line shapes for integrated modelling of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsa, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    An ultrafast code for spectral line shape calculations is presented to be used in the integrated modelling of plasmas. The code is based on the close analogy between two mechanisms: (i) Dicke narrowing of the Doppler-broadened spectral lines and (ii) transition from static to impact regime in the Stark broadening. The analogy makes it possible to describe the dynamic Stark broadening in terms of an analytical functional of the static line shape. A comparison of new method with the widely used Frequency Fluctuating Method (FFM) developed by the Marseille University group (B. Talin, R. Stamm, et al.) shows good agreement, with the new method being faster than the standard FFM by nearly two orders of magnitude. The method proposed may significantly simplify the radiation transport modeling and opens new possibilities for integrated modeling of the edge and divertor plasma in tokamaks. (author)

  12. Label-free silicon photonic biosensor system with integrated detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongjin; Mestas, Santano P.; Yuan, Guangwei; Safaisini, Rashid; Dandy, David S.

    2010-01-01

    An integrated, inexpensive, label-free photonic waveguide biosensor system with multi-analyte capability has been implemented on a silicon photonics integrated circuit from a commercial CMOS line and tested with nanofilms. The local evanescent array coupled (LEAC) biosensor is based on a new physical phenomenon that is fundamentally different from the mechanisms of other evanescent field sensors. Increased local refractive index at the waveguide’s upper surface due to the formation of a biological nanofilm causes local modulation of the evanescent field coupled into an array of photodetectors buried under the waveguide. The planar optical waveguide biosensor system exhibits sensitivity of 20%/nm photocurrent modulation in response to adsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA) layers less than 3 nm thick. In addition to response to BSA, an experiment with patterned photoresist as well as beam propagation method simulations support the evanescent field shift principle. The sensing mechanism enables the integration of all optical and electronic components for a multi-analyte biosensor system on a chip. PMID:19606292

  13. Label-free silicon photonic biosensor system with integrated detector array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongjin; Mestas, Santano P; Yuan, Guangwei; Safaisini, Rashid; Dandy, David S; Lear, Kevin L

    2009-08-07

    An integrated, inexpensive, label-free photonic waveguide biosensor system with multi-analyte capability has been implemented on a silicon photonics integrated circuit from a commercial CMOS line and tested with nanofilms. The local evanescent array coupled (LEAC) biosensor is based on a new physical phenomenon that is fundamentally different from the mechanisms of other evanescent field sensors. Increased local refractive index at the waveguide's upper surface due to the formation of a biological nanofilm causes local modulation of the evanescent field coupled into an array of photodetectors buried under the waveguide. The planar optical waveguide biosensor system exhibits sensitivity of 20%/nm photocurrent modulation in response to adsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA) layers less than 3 nm thick. In addition to response to BSA, an experiment with patterned photoresist as well as beam propagation method simulations support the evanescent field shift principle. The sensing mechanism enables the integration of all optical and electronic components for a multi-analyte biosensor system on a chip.

  14. A fast integrated readout system for a cathode pad photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, M. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)); Lovell, M. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)); Chesi, E. (CERN, ECP Div., Geneva (Switzerland)); Racz, A. (CERN, ECP Div., Geneva (Switzerland)); Seguinot, J. (Coll. de France, Paris (France)); Ypsilantis, T. (Coll. de France, Paris (France)); Arnold, R. (CRN, Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Guyonnet, J.L. (CRN, Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Egger, J. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)); Gabathuler, K. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland))

    1994-04-01

    A fast integrated electronic chain is presented to read out the cathode pad array of a multiwire photon detector for a fast RICH counter. Two VLSI circuits have been designed and produced. An analog eight channel, low noise, fast, bipolar, current preamplifier and discriminator chip serves as front-end electronics. It has an rms equivalent noise current of 10 nA (2000 e[sup -]), 50 MHz bandwidth with 10 mW of power consumption per channel. Two analogue chips are coupled to a digital 16 channels CMOS readout chip, operating at 20 MHz, that provides a pipelined delay of 1.3 [mu]s and zero suppression with a power consumption of about 6 mW per channel. Readout of a 4000 pad sector requires 3-4 [mu]s depending on the number of hit pads. The full RICH counter is made up of many of such sectors (the prototype has three fully equipped sectors), read out in parallel. The minimum time to separate successive hits on the same pad is about 70 ns. The time skew of the full chain is about 15 ns. (orig.)

  15. A novel integrated circuit for semiconductor radiation detectors with sparse readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yacong; Chen Zhognjian; Lu Wengao; Zhao Baoying; Ji Lijiu

    2008-01-01

    A novel fully integrated CMOS readout circuit for semiconductor radiation detector with sparse readout is presented. The new sparse scheme is: when one channel is being read out, the trigger signal from other channels is delayed and then processed. Therefore, the dead time is reduced and so is the error rate. Besides sparse readout, sequential readout is also allowed, which means the analog voltages and addresses of all the channels are read out sequentially once there is a channel triggered. The circuit comprises Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA), pulse shaper, peak detect and hold circuit, and digital logic. A test chip of four channels designed in a 0.5 μ DPTM CMOS technology has been taped out. The results of post simulation indicate that the gain is 79.3 mV/fC with a linearity of 99.92%. The power dissipation is 4 mW per channel. Theory analysis and calculation shows that the error probability is approximately 2.5%, which means a reduction of about 37% is obtained compared with the traditional scanning scheme, assuming a 16-channel system with a particle rate of 100 k/s per channel. (authors)

  16. Synthetic radiation diagnostics in PIConGPU. Integrating spectral detectors into particle-in-cell codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pausch, Richard; Burau, Heiko; Huebl, Axel; Steiniger, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Debus, Alexander; Widera, Rene; Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present the in-situ far field radiation diagnostics in the particle-in-cell code PIConGPU. It was developed to close the gap between simulated plasma dynamics and radiation observed in laser plasma experiments. Its predictive capabilities, both qualitative and quantitative, have been tested against analytical models. Now, we apply this synthetic spectral diagnostics to investigate plasma dynamics in laser wakefield acceleration, laser foil irradiation and plasma instabilities. Our method is based on the far field approximation of the Lienard-Wiechert potential and allows predicting both coherent and incoherent radiation spectrally from infrared to X-rays. Its capability to resolve the radiation polarization and to determine the temporal and spatial origin of the radiation enables us to correlate specific spectral signatures with characteristic dynamics in the plasma. Furthermore, its direct integration into the highly-scalable GPU framework of PIConGPU allows computing radiation spectra for thousands of frequencies, hundreds of detector positions and billions of particles efficiently. In this talk we will demonstrate these capabilities on resent simulations of laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) and high harmonics generation during target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA).

  17. Ion-implanted capacitively coupled silicon strip detectors with integrated polysilicon bias resistors processed on a 100 mm wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, I.; Lindgren, J.; Orava, R.; Tuuva, T.; Voutilainen, M.; Brenner, R.; Andersson, M.; Leinonen, K.; Ronkainen, H.

    1991-01-01

    Double-sided silicon strip detectors with integrated coupling capacitors and polysilicon resistors have been processed on a 100 mm wafer. A detector with an active area of 19x19 mm 2 was connected to LSI readout electronics and tested. The strip pitch of the detector is 25 μm on the p-side and 50 μm on the n-side. The readout pitch is 50 μm on both sides. The number of readout strips is 774 and the total number of strips is 1161. On the p-side a signal-to-noise of 35 has been measured using a 90 Sr β-source. The n-side has been studied using a laser. (orig.)

  18. Exact analytical solution of the convolution integral equation for a general profile fitting function and Gaussian detector kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vicente, F.; Rodriguez, C.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in the metrology of radiation fields is the problem of the measurement of dose profiles in regions where the dose gradient is large. In such zones, the 'detector size effect' may produce experimental measurements that do not correspond to reality. Mathematically it can be proved, under some general assumptions of spatial linearity, that the disturbance induced in the measurement by the effect of the finite size of the detector is equal to the convolution of the real profile with a representative kernel of the detector. In this work the exact relation between the measured profile and the real profile is shown, through the analytical resolution of the integral equation for a general type of profile fitting function using Gaussian convolution kernels. (author)

  19. Fully integrated InGaAs/InP single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Xiaolei; Ma Jian; Jin Ge; Chen Zengbing; Zhang Jun; Pan Jianwei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Liu Jianhong; Wang Quan; Du Debing [Anhui Quantum Communication Technology Co., Ltd., Hefei, Anhui 230088 (China)

    2012-08-15

    InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) working in the regime of GHz clock rates are crucial components for the high-speed quantum key distribution (QKD). We have developed for the first time a compact, stable, and user-friendly tabletop InGaAs/InP single-photon detector system operating at a 1.25 GHz gate rate that fully integrates functions for controlling and optimizing SPAD performance. We characterize the key parameters of the detector system and test the long-term stability of the system for continuous operation of 75 h. The detector system can substantially enhance QKD performance and our present work paves the way for practical high-speed QKD applications.

  20. Noise characterization of silicon strip detectors-comparison of sensors with and without integrated jfet source-follower.

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomini, Gabriele

    Noise is often the main factor limiting the performance of detector systems. In this work a detailed study of the noise contributions in different types of silicon microstrip sensors is carried on. We investigate three sensors with double-sided readout fabricated by different suppliers for the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC, in addition to detectors including an integrated JFET Source-Follower as a first signal conditioning stage. The latter have been designed as an attempt at improving the performance when very long strips, obtained by gangling together several sensors, are required. After a description of the strip sensors and of their operation, the “static” characterization measurements performed on them (current and capacitance versus voltage and/or frequency) are illustrated and interpreted. Numerical device simulation has been employed as an aid in interpreting some of the measurement results. The commonly used models for expressing the noise of the detector-amplifier system in terms of its relev...

  1. On Line Service Composition in the Integrated Clinical Environment for eHealth and Medical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valls, Marisol; Touahria, Imad Eddine

    2017-06-08

    Medical and eHealth systems are progressively realized in the context of standardized architectures that support safety and ease the integration of the heterogeneous (and often proprietary) medical devices and sensors. The Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) architecture appeared recently with the goal of becoming a common framework for defining the structure of the medical applications as concerns the safe integration of medical devices and sensors. ICE is simply a high level architecture that defines the functional blocks that should be part of a medical system to support interoperability. As a result, the underlying communication backbone is broadly undefined as concerns the enabling software technology (including the middleware) and associated algorithms that meet the ICE requirements of the flexible integration of medical devices and services. Supporting the on line composition of services in a medical system is also not part of ICE; however, supporting this behavior would enable flexible orchestration of functions (e.g., addition and/or removal of services and medical equipment) on the fly. iLandis one of the few software technologies that supports on line service composition and reconfiguration, ensuring time-bounded transitions across different service orchestrations; it supports the design, deployment and on line reconfiguration of applications, which this paper applies to service-based eHealth domains. This paper designs the integration between ICE architecture and iLand middleware to enhance the capabilities of ICE with on line service composition and the time-bounded reconfiguration of medical systems based on distributed services. A prototype implementation of a service-based eHealth system for the remote monitoring of patients is described; it validates the enhanced capacity of ICE to support dynamic reconfiguration of the application services. Results show that the temporal cost of the on line reconfiguration of the eHealth application is bounded

  2. The Decoration Operator: A Foundation for On-Line Dimensional Data Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Riis, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    The changing data requirements of today's dynamic business environments are not handled well by current On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) systems. Physically integrating unexpected, external data into OLAP cubes, i.e., the data warehousing approach, is a long and time-consuming process, making...... logical, on-the-fly, integration the better choice in many situations. However, OLAP systems have no operations for integrating existing multidimensional cube data with external data. In this paper we present a novel multidimensional algebra operator, the decoration operator, which allows external data...... to be integrated in OLAP cubes as new dimensions, i.e., the cube is ``decorated'' with new dimensions which can subsequently be used just as the regular dimensions. We formally specify the semantics of the decoration operator, ensuring that semantic problems do not occur in the data integration process. We also...

  3. Design and characterization of radiation resistant integrated circuits for the LHC particle detectors using deep sub-micron CMOS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anelli, Giovanni Maria

    2000-01-01

    The electronic circuits associated with the particle detectors of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have to work in a highly radioactive environment. This work proposes a methodology allowing the design of radiation resistant integrated circuits using the commercial sub-micron CMOS technology. This method uses the intrinsic radiation resistance of ultra-thin grid oxides, the technology of enclosed layout transistors (ELT), and the protection rings to avoid the radio-induced creation of leakage currents. In order to check the radiation tolerance level, several test structures have been designed and tested with different radiation sources. These tests have permitted to study the physical phenomena responsible for the damages induced by the radiations and the possible remedies. Then, the particular characteristics of ELT transistors and their influence on the design of complex integrated circuits has been explored. The modeling of the W/L ratio, the asymmetries (for instance in the output conductance) and the performance of ELT couplings have never been studied yet. The noise performance of the 0.25 μ CMOS technology, used in the design of several integrated circuits of the LHC detectors, has been characterized before and after irradiation. Finally, two integrated circuits designed using the proposed method are presented. The first one is an analogic memory and the other is a circuit used for the reading of the signals of one of the LHC detectors. Both circuits were irradiated and have endured very high doses practically without any sign of performance degradation. (J.S.)

  4. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T.; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface

  5. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T. E-mail: thierry.gys@cern.ch; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K

    2000-07-11

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface.

  6. An Exact Line Integral Representation of the Physical Optics Far Field from Plane PEC Scatterers Illuminnated by Hertzian Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Meincke, Peter; Jørgensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    We derive a line integral representation of the physical optics scattered far field that yields the exact same result as the conventional surface radiation integral. This representation applies to a perfectly electrically conducting plane scatterer illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian...... dipoles. The source and observation points can take on almost arbitrary positions. To illustrate the exactness and efficiency of the new line integral, numerical comparisons with the conventional surface radiation integral are carried out....

  7. Study, simulation and modelling of a gamma photon detector placed on an integral-type eccentric orbit; Etude, simulation et modelisation d'un detecteur de photons gamma place sur une orbite excentrique de type integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, N

    1999-07-01

    Gamma-ray lines are the signature of nuclear reactions and other high-energy processes that take place in the Universe. Their measurement and study provide invaluable information on many important problems in high energy astrophysics, including particle acceleration, physics of compact objects and nucleosynthesis. However the observation of astronomical gamma-ray sources has to be performed above the atmosphere because the Earth's atmosphere is opaque to gamma-rays. Unfortunately at these altitudes, spatial high energy electromagnetic radiation (X and gamma rays) detectors are exposed to intense parasite fluxes of radiation and particles induced by primary galactic cosmic rays. These fluxes as well radiation and secondary particles they generate, constitute a considerable source of background which limits their performances. Our study has been done in the framework of the INTEGRAL mission, a gamma-ray astronomy mission of the European Space Agency. INTEGRAL is devoted to the observation of celestial gamma-ray sources. It consists of two main instruments: an imager IBIS and a high resolution germanium spectrometer SPI ({delta}E/E = 1.6 10{sup -3} at 1.3 MeV). We studied the hadronic component of the SPI background. This component is due to the radioactive decay of unstable nuclides produced by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with the materials of SPI. It consists of a continuum with gamma ray lines superimposed. To study nuclear processes, Monte Carlo simulations have been performed with the nuclear code TIERCE developed at CEA/DAM. We used the GEANT Monte Carlo code developed at CERN to simulate the germanium detectors response. Background reduction techniques as PSD (Pulse Shape Discrimination) and energetic signatures have been applied in well chosen energy ranges to reduce the background. and improve the SPI sensitivity. With the estimated SPI narrow-line sensitivity level, SPI would be able to detect many gamma ray limes emitted in the active

  8. {sup 3}He Replacement for Nuclear Safeguards Applications- an integrated test program to compare alternative neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H. O.; Henzlova, D.; Evans, L. G.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Marlow, J. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Safeguards Science and Technology Group, Los Alamos, (United States)

    2011-12-15

    During the past several years, the demand for {sup 3}He gas has far exceeded the gas supply. This shortage of {sup 3}He gas is projected to continue into the foreseeable future. There is a need for alternative neutron detectors that do not require {sup 3}He gas. For more than four decades, neutron detection has played a fundamental role in the safeguarding and control of nuclear materials at production facilities, fabrication plants and storage sites worldwide. Neutron measurements for safeguards applications have requirements that are unique to the quantitative assay of special nuclear materials. These neutron systems measure the neutron multiplicity distributions from each spontaneous fission and/or induced fission event. The neutron time correlation counting requires that two or more neutrons from a single fission event be detected. The doubles and triples neutron counting rate depends on the detector efficiency to the 2nd and 3rd power, respectively, so low efficiency systems will not work for the coincidence measurements, and any detector instabilities are greatly amplified. In the current test program, we will measure the alternative detector properties including efficiency, die-away time, multiplicity precision, gamma sensitivity, dead-time, and we will also consider the detector properties that would allow commercial production to safeguards scale assay systems. This last step needs to be accomplished before the proposed technologies can reduce the demand on {sup 3}He gas in the safeguards world. This paper will present the methodology that includes MCNPX simulations for comparing divergent detector types such as {sup 10}B lined proportional counters with {sup 3}He gas based systems where the performance metrics focus on safeguards applications.

  9. The Maia Spectroscopy Detector System: Engineering for Integrated Pulse Capture, Low-Latency Scanning and Real-Time Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.; Siddons, D.; Dunn, P.A.; Kuczewski, A.J.; Dodanwela, R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Ryan, C.G.; De Geronimo, G.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Pinelli, D.; Pfeffer, M.; Davey, P.; Jensen, M.; de Jonge, M.D.; Howard, D.L.; Kusel, M.; McKinlay, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Maia detector system is engineered for energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and elemental imaging at photon rates exceeding 10 7 /s, integrated scanning of samples for pixel transit times as small as 50 (micro)s and high definition images of 10 8 pixels and real-time processing of detected events for spectral deconvolution and online display of pure elemental images. The system developed by CSIRO and BNL combines a planar silicon 384 detector array, application-specific integrated circuits for pulse shaping and peak detection and sampling and optical data transmission to an FPGA-based pipelined, parallel processor. This paper describes the system and the underpinning engineering solutions.

  10. Development of a custom on-line ultrasonic vapour analyzer and flow meter for the ATLAS inner detector, with application to Cherenkov and gaseous charged particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhroob, M.; Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Bozza, G.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Degeorge, C.; Deterre, C.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Favre, G.; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Hasib, A.; Katunin, S.; Langevin, N.; Lombard, D.; Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; O'Rourke, A.; Pearson, B.; Robinson, D.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Strauss, M.; Vacek, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-03-01

    Precision sound velocity measurements can simultaneously determine binary gas composition and flow. We have developed an analyzer with custom microcontroller-based electronics, currently used in the ATLAS Detector Control System, with numerous potential applications. Three instruments monitor C3F8 and CO2 coolant leak rates into the nitrogen envelopes of the ATLAS silicon microstrip and Pixel detectors. Two further instruments will aid operation of the new thermosiphon coolant recirculator: one of these will monitor air leaks into the low pressure condenser while the other will measure return vapour flow along with C3F8/C2F6 blend composition, should blend operation be necessary to protect the ATLAS silicon tracker under increasing LHC luminosity. We describe these instruments and their electronics.

  11. Dielectrophoresis microsystem with integrated flow cytometers for on-line monitoring of sorting efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Peter Kalsen

    2006-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) and flow cytometry are powerful technologies and widely applied in microfluidic systems for handling and measuring cells and particles. Here, we present a novel microchip with a DEP selective filter integrated with two microchip flow cytometers (FCs) for on-line monitoring...... of cell sorting processes. On the microchip, the DEP filter is integrated in a microfluidic channel network to sort yeast cells by positive DER The two FCs detection windows are set upstream and downstream of the DEP filter. When a cell passes through the detection windows, the light scattered by the cell...

  12. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  13. Rolled-up transmission line structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Huang, Wen

    2015-04-28

    A rolled-up transmission line structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC) comprises a multilayer sheet in a rolled configuration comprising multiple turns about a longitudinal axis, where the multilayer sheet comprises a conductive pattern layer on a strain-relieved layer. The conductive pattern layer comprises a first conductive film and a second conductive film separated from the first conductive film in a rolling direction. In the rolled configuration, the first conductive film surrounds the longitudinal axis, and the second conductive film surrounds the first conductive film. The first conductive film serves as a signal line and the second conductive film serves as a conductive shield for the rolled-up transmission line structure.

  14. Self-Powered Neutron Detector Qualification for Absolute On-Line In-Pile Neutron Flux Measurements in BR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, L.; Wéber, M.

    2003-06-01

    A set of ten Self-Powered Neutron Detectors with Co, Rh and Ag emitters has been irradiated in several channels of the BR2 research reactor at SCK•CEN aiming at a comparison of their performance as thermal neutron flux detectors under various conditions. To allow for a correct interpretation of their signals, all detector sensitivity contributions (prompt and delayed) were calculated using a dedicated Monte Carlo model. The various contributions were also measured separately; the agreement between calculated and experimental data, including data from activation dosimetry, was excellent. Detailed neutron flux profiles were obtained from the SPND data, after correction for the finite detector lengths and for the slow response of delayed SPNDs.

  15. Path integral approach for electron transport in disturbed magnetic field lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Takamaru, Hisanori

    2002-05-01

    A path integral method is developed to investigate statistical property of an electron transport described as a Langevin equation in a statically disturbed magnetic field line structure; especially a transition probability of electrons strongly tied to field lines is considered. The path integral method has advantages that 1) it does not include intrinsically a growing numerical error of an orbit, which is caused by evolution of the Langevin equation under a finite calculation accuracy in a chaotic field line structure, and 2) it gives a method of understanding the qualitative content of the Langevin equation and assists to expect statistical property of the transport. Monte Carlo calculations of the electron distributions under both effects of chaotic field lines and collisions are demonstrated to comprehend above advantages through some examples. The mathematical techniques are useful to study statistical properties of various phenomena described as Langevin equations in general. By using parallel generators of random numbers, the Monte Carlo scheme to calculate a transition probability can be suitable for a parallel computation. (author)

  16. X-ray differential phase-contrast tomographic reconstruction with a phase line integral retrieval filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jian; Hu, Xinhua; Li, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report an alternative reconstruction technique for x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT). This approach is based on a new phase line integral projection retrieval filter, which is rooted in the derivative property of the Fourier transform and counteracts the differential nature of the DPC-CT projections. It first retrieves the phase line integral from the DPC-CT projections. Then the standard filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithms popular in x-ray absorption-contrast CT are directly applied to the retrieved phase line integrals to reconstruct the DPC-CT images. Compared with the conventional DPC-CT reconstruction algorithms, the proposed method removes the Hilbert imaginary filter and allows for the direct use of absorption-contrast FBP algorithms. Consequently, FBP-oriented image processing techniques and reconstruction acceleration softwares that have already been successfully used in absorption-contrast CT can be directly adopted to improve the DPC-CT image quality and speed up the reconstruction

  17. A portable and autonomous multichannel fluorescence detector for on-line and in situ explosive detection in aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yunhong; Wang, Qi; Liu, Taihong; Wang, Lingling; Li, Jia; Fang, Yu

    2012-11-21

    A multichannel fluorescence detector used to detect nitroaromatic explosives in aqueous phase has been developed, which is composed of a five-channel sample-sensor unit, a measurement and control unit, a microcontroller, and a communication unit. The characteristics of the detector as developed are mainly embedded in the sensor unit, and each sensor consists of a fluorescent sensing film, a light emitting diode (LED), a multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC), and an optical module with special bandpass optical filters. Due to the high sensitivity of the sensing film, the small size and low cost of LED and MPPC, the developed detector not only has a better detecting performance and small size, but also has a very low cost - it is an alternative to the device made with an expensive high power lamp and photomultiplier tube. The wavelengths of the five sensors covered extend from the upper UV through the visible spectrum, 370-640 nm, and thereby it possesses the potential to detect a variety of explosives and other hazardous materials in aqueous phase. An additional function of the detector is its ability to function via a wireless network, by which the data recorded by the detector can be sent to the host computer, and at the same time the instructions can be sent to the detector from the host computer. By means of the powerful computing ability of the host computer, and utilizing the classical principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm, effective classification of the analytes is achieved. Furthermore, the detector has been tested and evaluated using NB, PA, TNT and DNT as the analytes, and toluene, benzene, methanol and ethanol as interferent compounds (concentration various from 10 and 60 μM). It has been shown that the detector can detect the four nitroaromatics with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  18. Operational and Strategic Implementation of Dynamic Line Rating for Optimized Wind Energy Generation Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentle, Jake Paul

    2016-01-01

    One primary goal of rendering today's transmission grid 'smarter' is to optimize and better manage its power transfer capacity in real time. Power transfer capacity is affected by three main elements: stability, voltage limits, and thermal ratings. All three are critical, but thermal ratings represent the greatest opportunity to quickly, reliably and economically utilize the grid's true capacity. With the 'Smarter Grid', new solutions have been sought to give operators a better grasp on real time conditions, allowing them to manage and extend the usefulness of existing transmission infrastructure in a safe and reliable manner. The objective of the INL Wind Program is to provide industry a Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) solution that is state of the art as measured by cost, accuracy and dependability, to enable human operators to make informed decisions and take appropriate actions without human or system overloading and impacting the reliability of the grid. In addition to mitigating transmission line congestion to better integrate wind, DLR also offers the opportunity to improve the grid with optimized utilization of transmission lines to relieve congestion in general. As wind-generated energy has become a bigger part of the nation's energy portfolio, researchers have learned that wind not only turns turbine blades to generate electricity, but can cool transmission lines and increase transfer capabilities significantly, sometimes up to 60 percent. INL's DLR development supports EERE and The Wind Energy Technology Office's goals by informing system planners and grid operators of available transmission capacity, beyond typical Static Line Ratings (SLR). SLRs are based on a fixed set of conservative environmental conditions to establish a limit on the amount of current lines can safely carry without overheating. Using commercially available weather monitors mounted on industry informed custom brackets developed by INL in combination with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD

  19. A Multilayer Perceptron-Based Impulsive Noise Detector with Application to Power-Line-Based Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Chien, Ying-Ren; Chen, Jie-Wei; Xu, Sendren Sheng-Dong

    2018-01-01

    For power-line-based sensor networks, impulsive noise (IN) will dramatically degrade the data transmission rate in the power line. In this paper, we present a multilayer perceptron (MLP)-based approach to detect IN in orthogonal frequency

  20. Evaluation of the x-ray response of a position-sensitive microstrip detector with an integrated readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossington, C.; Jaklevic, J.; Haber, C.; Spieler, H.; Reid, J.

    1990-08-01

    The performance of an SVX silicon microstrip detector and its compatible integrated readout chip have been evaluated in response to Rh Kα x-rays (average energy 20.5 keV). The energy and spatial discrimination capabilities, efficient data management and fast readout rates make it an attractive alternative to the CCD and PDA detectors now being offered for x-ray position sensitive diffraction and EXAFS work. The SVX system was designed for high energy physics applications and thus further development of the existing system is required to optimize it for use in practical x-ray experiments. For optimum energy resolution the system noise must be decreased to its previously demonstrated low levels of 2 keV FWHM at 60 keV or less, and the data handling rate of the computer must be increased. New readout chips are now available that offer the potential of better performance. 15 refs., 7 figs

  1. Development of a custom on-line ultrasonic vapour analyzer/flowmeter for the ATLAS inner detector, with application to gaseous tracking and Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R.; Berry, S.; Berthoud, J.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho-Direito, J.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Bozza, G.; Da Riva, E.; Degeorge, C.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Katunin, S.; Lombard, D.; Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-01-01

    Precision sound velocity measurements can simultaneously determine binary gas composition and flow. We have developed an analyzer with custom electronics, currently in use in the ATLAS inner detector, with numerous potential applications. The instrument has demonstrated ~0.3% mixture precision for C3F8/C2F6 mixtures and < 10-4 resolution for N2/C3F8 mixtures. Moderate and high flow versions of the instrument have demonstrated flow resolutions of +/- 2% F.S. for flows up to 250 l.min-1, and +/- 1.9% F.S. for linear flow velocities up to 15 ms-1; the latter flow approaching that expected in the vapour return of the thermosiphon fluorocarbon coolant recirculator being built for the ATLAS silicon tracker.

  2. Realization of nuclear aggregates detector integrated into 4Π counter at S.I.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezkratt, R.

    1992-06-01

    A new cluster detector composed of ionization chambers and thin plastic scintillation, has been developed as part of the large 4 PI counter of SIS/ESR, in order to explore central collisions of high energy heavy ions. In the first part are reported the definition, description, theoretical and experimental studies and installation on site of this detector. Its expected response has been investigated with the use of GEANT simulation program. Results are presented and discussed in second part. The efficiency of the track reconstruction with plastic wall has been tested. The excitation function measurement of Au+Au system at 100, 150, 250, 400, 600 and 800 A MeV has been realized. The purpose of the last part is the presentation of the first data acquisition. The cluster gauging and the algorithm development of trajectory reconstitution between the cluster detector and plastic scintillator wall are also presented

  3. Improving integrity of on-line grammage measurement with traceable basic calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasrääsiö, Juha

    2010-07-01

    The automatic control of grammage (basis weight) in paper and board production is based upon on-line grammage measurement. Furthermore, the automatic control of other quality variables such as moisture, ash content and coat weight, may rely on the grammage measurement. The integrity of Kr-85 based on-line grammage measurement systems was studied, by performing basic calibrations with traceably calibrated plastic reference standards. The calibrations were performed according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard, which is a requirement for calibration laboratories. The observed relative measurement errors were 3.3% in the first time calibrations at the 95% confidence level. With the traceable basic calibration method, however, these errors can be reduced to under 0.5%, thus improving the integrity of on-line grammage measurements. Also a standardised algorithm, based on the experience from the performed calibrations, is proposed to ease the adjustment of the different grammage measurement systems. The calibration technique can basically be applied to all beta-radiation based grammage measurements. 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Joint estimation of the fast and thermal components of a high neutron flux with a two on-line detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filliatre, P.; Oriol, L.; Jammes, C.; Vermeeren, L.

    2009-01-01

    A fission chamber with a 242 Pu deposit is the best suited detector for on-line measurements of the fast component of a high neutron flux (∼10 14 ncm -2 s -1 or more) with a significant thermal component. To get the fast flux, it is, however, necessary to subtract the contribution of the thermal neutrons, which increases with fluence because of the evolution of the isotopic content of the deposit. This paper presents an algorithm that permits, thanks to measurements provided by a 242 Pu fission chamber and a detector for thermal neutrons, to estimate the thermal and the fast flux at any time. An implementation allows to test it with simulated data.

  5. Joint estimation of the fast and thermal components of a high neutron flux with a two on-line detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filliatre, P. [CEA, DEN, SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Laboratoire Commun d' Instrumentation CEA-SCK-CEN (France)], E-mail: philippe.filliatre@cea.fr; Oriol, L.; Jammes, C. [CEA, DEN, SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Laboratoire Commun d' Instrumentation CEA-SCK-CEN (France); Vermeeren, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Laboratoire Commun d' Instrumentation CEA-SCK-CEN (France)

    2009-05-21

    A fission chamber with a {sup 242}Pu deposit is the best suited detector for on-line measurements of the fast component of a high neutron flux ({approx}10{sup 14}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} or more) with a significant thermal component. To get the fast flux, it is, however, necessary to subtract the contribution of the thermal neutrons, which increases with fluence because of the evolution of the isotopic content of the deposit. This paper presents an algorithm that permits, thanks to measurements provided by a {sup 242}Pu fission chamber and a detector for thermal neutrons, to estimate the thermal and the fast flux at any time. An implementation allows to test it with simulated data.

  6. Implantable self-powered detector for on-line determination of neutron flux in patients during NCT treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M E; Mariani, L E; Gonçalves-Carralves, M L Sztejnberg; Skumanic, M; Thorp, S I

    2004-11-01

    A novel system to determine thermal neutron flux in real time during NCT treatments was developed in the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The system is based on a special self-powered detector that can be implanted in patients owing to its small size and biocompatibility. High voltage is not required to operate this kind of detectors, which is a considerable advantage in terms of medical uses. By choosing the appropriate materials, it was possible to obtain a prototype with thermal neutron sensitivity providing for an adequate signal level in typical NCT thermal fluxes. It was also possible to minimize gamma response in order to neglect its contribution.

  7. Implantable self-powered detector for on-line determination of neutron flux in patients during NCT treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.E. E-mail: miller@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Mariani, L.E.; Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, M.L.; Skumanic, M.; Thorp, S.I

    2004-11-01

    A novel system to determine thermal neutron flux in real time during NCT treatments was developed in the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The system is based on a special self-powered detector that can be implanted in patients owing to its small size and biocompatibility. High voltage is not required to operate this kind of detectors, which is a considerable advantage in terms of medical uses. By choosing the appropriate materials, it was possible to obtain a prototype with thermal neutron sensitivity providing for an adequate signal level in typical NCT thermal fluxes. It was also possible to minimize gamma response in order to neglect its contribution.

  8. Development of the integrated core on-line monitoring and protection aid surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Oh; In, Wang Kee; Song, Jae Seung; Zee, Sung Quun

    1998-01-01

    The integrated Core On-line Monitoring and Protection Aid Surveillance System (COMPASS) is developed for the purpose of supporting the reactor operation, based on the three-dimensional nodal design code, MASTER. The heart of COMPASS is an adaptive nodal core simulator for the on-line calculation of three-dimensional assembly and pin power distributions which are used for the evaluation of the thermal margins and for the guide in operation. In this paper, the overall structures and the solution methods of COMPASS are described. The uncertainty of COMPASS for SMART core was also evaluated by comparing that of MASTER. The results showed that COMPASS uncertainty in power shape prediction is identical to that of the design code system, MASTER. The application of COMPASS to the analysis of peaking factor for SMART core resulted with about 4% gain in peaking factor margin when compared to COLSS

  9. Haploids in Conifer Species: Characterization and Chromosomal Integrity of a Maritime Pine Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Cabezas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Haploids are a valuable tool for genomic studies in higher plants, especially those with huge genome size and long juvenile periods, such as conifers. In these species, megagametophyte cultures have been widely used to obtain haploid callus and somatic embryogenic lines. One of the main problems associated with tissue culture is the potential genetic instability of the regenerants. Because of this, chromosomal stability of the callus and/or somatic embryos should also be assessed. To this end, chromosome counting, flow cytometry and genotyping using microsatellites have been reported. Here, we present an overview of the work done in conifers, with special emphasis on the production of a haploid cell line in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L. and the use of a set of molecular markers, which includes Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and microsatellites or Single Sequence Repeats (SSRs, to validate chromosomal integrity confirming the presence of all chromosomic arms.

  10. Design and test results of a low-noise readout integrated circuit for high-energy particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingming; Chen Zhongjian; Zhang Yacong; Lu Wengao; Ji Lijiu

    2010-01-01

    A low-noise readout integrated circuit for high-energy particle detector is presented. The noise of charge sensitive amplifier was suppressed by using single-side amplifier and resistors as source degeneration. Continuous-time semi-Gaussian filter is chosen to avoid switch noise. The peaking time of pulse shaper and the gain can be programmed to satisfy multi-application. The readout integrated circuit has been designed and fabricated using a 0.35 μm double-poly triple-metal CMOS technology. Test results show the functions of the readout integrated circuit are correct. The equivalent noise charge with no detector connected is 500-700 e in the typical mode, the gain is tunable within 13-130 mV/fC and the peaking time varies from 0.7 to 1.6 μs, in which the average gain is about 20.5 mV/fC, and the linearity reaches 99.2%. (authors)

  11. Monolithic integration of detectors and transistors on high-resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Batignani, Giovanni; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Gregori, Paolo; Pancheri, Lucio; Piemonte, Claudio; Ratti, Lodovico; Verzellesi, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We report on the most recent results from an R and D activity aimed at the development of silicon radiation detectors with embedded front-end electronics. The key features of the fabrication technology and the available active devices are described. Selected results from the characterization of transistors and test structures are presented and discussed, and the considered application fields are addressed

  12. An integrated on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Qibin; Wang, Weikang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Feng; Yang, Gen, E-mail: gen.yang@pku.edu.cn; Wang, Yugang

    2015-09-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a threat to genome integrity by introducing DNA damages, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in cells. Understanding how cells react to DSB and maintain genome integrity is of major importance, since increasing evidences indicate the links of DSB with genome instability and cancer predispositions. However, tracking the dynamics of DNA damages and repair response to ionizing radiation in individual cell is difficult. Here we describe the development of an on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system based on isotopic sources at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The system was designed to irradiate cells and in situ observe the cellular responses to ionizing radiation in real time. On-line irradiation was achieved by mounting a metal framework that hold an isotopic γ source above the cell culture dish for γ irradiation; or by integrating an isotopic α source to an objective lens under the specialized cell culture dish for α irradiation. Live cell imaging was performed on a confocal microscope with an environmental chamber installed on the microscope stage. Culture conditions in the environment chamber such as CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} concentration as well as temperature are adjustable, which further extends the capacity of the system and allows more flexible experimental design. We demonstrate the use of this system by tracking the DSB foci formation and disappearance in individual cells after exposure to irradiation. On-line irradiation together with in situ live cell imaging in adjustable culture conditions, the system overall provides a powerful tool for investigation of cellular and subcellular response to ionizing radiation under different physiological conditions such as hyperthermia or hypoxia.

  13. An integrated on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Qibin; Wang, Weikang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Feng; Yang, Gen; Wang, Yugang

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a threat to genome integrity by introducing DNA damages, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in cells. Understanding how cells react to DSB and maintain genome integrity is of major importance, since increasing evidences indicate the links of DSB with genome instability and cancer predispositions. However, tracking the dynamics of DNA damages and repair response to ionizing radiation in individual cell is difficult. Here we describe the development of an on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system based on isotopic sources at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The system was designed to irradiate cells and in situ observe the cellular responses to ionizing radiation in real time. On-line irradiation was achieved by mounting a metal framework that hold an isotopic γ source above the cell culture dish for γ irradiation; or by integrating an isotopic α source to an objective lens under the specialized cell culture dish for α irradiation. Live cell imaging was performed on a confocal microscope with an environmental chamber installed on the microscope stage. Culture conditions in the environment chamber such as CO 2 , O 2 concentration as well as temperature are adjustable, which further extends the capacity of the system and allows more flexible experimental design. We demonstrate the use of this system by tracking the DSB foci formation and disappearance in individual cells after exposure to irradiation. On-line irradiation together with in situ live cell imaging in adjustable culture conditions, the system overall provides a powerful tool for investigation of cellular and subcellular response to ionizing radiation under different physiological conditions such as hyperthermia or hypoxia

  14. An integrated on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Qibin; Wang, Weikang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Feng; Yang, Gen; Wang, Yugang

    2015-09-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a threat to genome integrity by introducing DNA damages, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in cells. Understanding how cells react to DSB and maintain genome integrity is of major importance, since increasing evidences indicate the links of DSB with genome instability and cancer predispositions. However, tracking the dynamics of DNA damages and repair response to ionizing radiation in individual cell is difficult. Here we describe the development of an on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system based on isotopic sources at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The system was designed to irradiate cells and in situ observe the cellular responses to ionizing radiation in real time. On-line irradiation was achieved by mounting a metal framework that hold an isotopic γ source above the cell culture dish for γ irradiation; or by integrating an isotopic α source to an objective lens under the specialized cell culture dish for α irradiation. Live cell imaging was performed on a confocal microscope with an environmental chamber installed on the microscope stage. Culture conditions in the environment chamber such as CO2, O2 concentration as well as temperature are adjustable, which further extends the capacity of the system and allows more flexible experimental design. We demonstrate the use of this system by tracking the DSB foci formation and disappearance in individual cells after exposure to irradiation. On-line irradiation together with in situ live cell imaging in adjustable culture conditions, the system overall provides a powerful tool for investigation of cellular and subcellular response to ionizing radiation under different physiological conditions such as hyperthermia or hypoxia.

  15. Generation of iPS cell lines from schizophrenia patients using a non-integrative method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Sochacki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin biopsies were collected from three male patients (age 45, 44 and 44 with clinically diagnosed schizophrenia. The patients were diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria by a trained psychiatrist. Dermal fibroblast cell lines were established and expanded for subsequent reprogramming procedures. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells were derived using the integration-free CytoTune®-iPS 2.0 Sendai Reprogramming Kit, containing Sendai virus particles of the four Yamanaka factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc.

  16. Runge-Kutta Integration of the Equal Width Wave Equation Using the Method of Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Banaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The equal width (EW equation governs nonlinear wave phenomena like waves in shallow water. Numerical solution of the (EW equation is obtained by using the method of lines (MOL based on Runge-Kutta integration. Using von Neumann stability analysis, the scheme is found to be unconditionally stable. Solitary wave motion and interaction of two solitary waves are studied using the proposed method. The three invariants of the motion are evaluated to determine the conservation properties of the generated scheme. Accuracy of the proposed method is discussed by computing the L2 and L∞ error norms. The results are found in good agreement with exact solution.

  17. Integrated-circuit microwave detector based on granular high-Tc thin films. [Y-Ba-Cu-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobinin, A.V.; Lutovinov, V.S.; Starostenko, I.V. (Moscow Inst. of Radioengineering, Electronics and Automation, (MIREA), Moscow (USSR))

    1991-12-01

    A highly sensitive integrative-circuit microwave detector based on granular High-Tc film has been designed. All matching circuits and High-Tc microbridge are located on the same substrate. The voltage responsivity 10{sup 3} V/W has been found at 65 K and frequency 5 GHz. Different modes of microwave detection have been observed: bolometric response near Tc in high-quality films, rectification mode caused by an array of weak links dominating in low-quality films, detection caused by nonlinear magnetic flux motion. (orig.).

  18. Path-integral and Ornstein-Zernike study of quantum fluid structures on the crystallization line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesé, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid neon, liquid para-hydrogen, and the quantum hard-sphere fluid are studied with path integral Monte Carlo simulations and the Ornstein-Zernike pair equation on their respective crystallization lines. The results cover the whole sets of structures in the r-space and the k-space and, for completeness, the internal energies, pressures and isothermal compressibilities. Comparison with experiment is made wherever possible, and the possibilities of establishing k-space criteria for quantum crystallization based on the path-integral centroids are discussed. In this regard, the results show that the centroid structure factor contains two significant parameters related to its main peak features (amplitude and shape) that can be useful to characterize freezing.

  19. Path-integral and Ornstein-Zernike study of quantum fluid structures on the crystallization line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesé, Luis M., E-mail: msese@ccia.uned.es [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Fisicoquímicas, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Paseo Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-03-07

    Liquid neon, liquid para-hydrogen, and the quantum hard-sphere fluid are studied with path integral Monte Carlo simulations and the Ornstein-Zernike pair equation on their respective crystallization lines. The results cover the whole sets of structures in the r-space and the k-space and, for completeness, the internal energies, pressures and isothermal compressibilities. Comparison with experiment is made wherever possible, and the possibilities of establishing k-space criteria for quantum crystallization based on the path-integral centroids are discussed. In this regard, the results show that the centroid structure factor contains two significant parameters related to its main peak features (amplitude and shape) that can be useful to characterize freezing.

  20. Feasibility analysis of marine ecological on-line integrated monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, D. Z.; Cao, X.; Zhang, S. W.; Wu, N.; Ma, R.; Zhang, L.; Cao, L.

    2017-08-01

    The in-situ water quality sensors were susceptible to biological attachment. Moreover, sea water corrosion and wave impact damage, and many sensors scattered distribution would cause maintenance inconvenience. The paper proposed a highly integrated marine ecological on-line integrated monitoring system, which can be used inside monitoring station. All sensors were reasonably classified, the similar in series, the overall in parallel. The system composition and workflow were described. In addition, the paper proposed attention issues of the system design and corresponding solutions. Water quality multi-parameters and 5 nutrient salts as the verification index, in-situ and systematic data comparison experiment were carried out. The results showed that the data consistency of nutrient salt, PH and salinity was better. Temperature and dissolved oxygen data trend was consistent, but the data had deviation. Turbidity fluctuated greatly; the chlorophyll trend was similar with it. Aiming at the above phenomena, three points system optimization direction were proposed.

  1. Fully integrated free-running InGaAs/InP single-photon detector for accurate lidar applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Shangguan, Mingjia; Xia, Haiyun; Zhang, Jun; Dou, Xiankang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-06-26

    We present a fully integrated InGaAs/InP negative feedback avalanche diode (NFAD) based free-running single-photon detector (SPD) designed for accurate lidar applications. A free-piston Stirling cooler is used to cool down the NFAD with a large temperature range, and an active hold-off circuit implemented in a field programmable gate array is applied to further suppress the afterpulsing contribution. The key parameters of the free-running SPD including photon detection efficiency (PDE), dark count rate (DCR), afterpulse probability, and maximum count rate (MCR) are dedicatedly optimized for lidar application in practice. We then perform a field experiment using a Mie lidar system with 20 kHz pulse repetition frequency to compare the performance between the free-running InGaAs/InP SPD and a commercial superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD). Our detector exhibits good performance with 1.6 Mcps MCR (0.6 μs hold-off time), 10% PDE, 950 cps DCR, and 18% afterpulse probability over 50 μs period. Such performance is worse than the SNSPD with 60% PDE and 300 cps DCR. However, after performing a specific algorithm that we have developed for afterpulse and count rate corrections, the lidar system performance in terms of range-corrected signal (Pr 2 ) distribution using our SPD agrees very well with the result using the SNSPD, with only a relative error of ∼2%. Due to the advantages of low-cost and small size of InGaAs/InP NFADs, such detector provides a practical solution for accurate lidar applications.

  2. Operational and Strategic Implementation of Dynamic Line Rating for Optimized Wind Energy Generation Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentle, Jake Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    One primary goal of rendering today’s transmission grid “smarter” is to optimize and better manage its power transfer capacity in real time. Power transfer capacity is affected by three main elements: stability, voltage limits, and thermal ratings. All three are critical, but thermal ratings represent the greatest opportunity to quickly, reliably and economically utilize the grid’s true capacity. With the “Smarter Grid”, new solutions have been sought to give operators a better grasp on real time conditions, allowing them to manage and extend the usefulness of existing transmission infrastructure in a safe and reliable manner. The objective of the INL Wind Program is to provide industry a Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) solution that is state of the art as measured by cost, accuracy and dependability, to enable human operators to make informed decisions and take appropriate actions without human or system overloading and impacting the reliability of the grid. In addition to mitigating transmission line congestion to better integrate wind, DLR also offers the opportunity to improve the grid with optimized utilization of transmission lines to relieve congestion in general. As wind-generated energy has become a bigger part of the nation’s energy portfolio, researchers have learned that wind not only turns turbine blades to generate electricity, but can cool transmission lines and increase transfer capabilities significantly, sometimes up to 60 percent. INL’s DLR development supports EERE and The Wind Energy Technology Office’s goals by informing system planners and grid operators of available transmission capacity, beyond typical Static Line Ratings (SLR). SLRs are based on a fixed set of conservative environmental conditions to establish a limit on the amount of current lines can safely carry without overheating. Using commercially available weather monitors mounted on industry informed custom brackets developed by INL in combination with Computational

  3. Study for on-line system to identify inadvertent control rod drops in PWR reactors using ex-core detector and thermocouple measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Thiago J.; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C.; Goncalves, Alessandro C.

    2015-01-01

    Accidental control rod drops event in PWR reactors leads to an unsafe operating condition. It is important to quickly identify the rod to minimize undesirable effects in such a scenario. In this event, there is a distortion in the power distribution and temperature in the reactor core. The goal of this study is to develop an on-line model to identify the inadvertent control rod dropped in PWR reactor. The proposed model is based on physical correlations and pattern recognition of ex-core detector responses and thermocouples measures. The results of the study demonstrated the feasibility of an on-line system, contributing to safer operation conditions and preventing undesirable effects, as its shutdown. (author)

  4. Study for on-line system to identify inadvertent control rod drops in PWR reactors using ex-core detector and thermocouple measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Thiago J.; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C.; Goncalves, Alessandro C., E-mail: tsouza@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: canedo@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Accidental control rod drops event in PWR reactors leads to an unsafe operating condition. It is important to quickly identify the rod to minimize undesirable effects in such a scenario. In this event, there is a distortion in the power distribution and temperature in the reactor core. The goal of this study is to develop an on-line model to identify the inadvertent control rod dropped in PWR reactor. The proposed model is based on physical correlations and pattern recognition of ex-core detector responses and thermocouples measures. The results of the study demonstrated the feasibility of an on-line system, contributing to safer operation conditions and preventing undesirable effects, as its shutdown. (author)

  5. Report on application specific integrated circuits for relativistic heavy ion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platner, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    Detector systems for RHIC experiments are invariably going to be large and complex. Thus it behooves the planners to incorporate elements that have little need for adjustment, calibration and correction to the produced data. For example, if power, size and cost considerations permit, time can be digitized directly (i.e. with counters, shift registers, etc.) where no adjustments, calibrations or corrections are required. The circuit either works correctly or not at all. This kind of circuit behavior is extremely valuable in detectors with 10 5 or more channel elements. In analog to digital conversion applications, direct conversion (i.e. flash ADC) may be prohibitive in cost, size and power. Here major effort must be given to minimize the magnitude of offset and conversion gain variance. Where possible self correction and adjustment should be applied at the subsystem level

  6. Performance of a liquid argon preshower detector integrated with an Accordion calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Bulgakov, N.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, P.; Le Meur, G.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype liquid argon preshower detector with a strip granularity of 2.5 mm has been tested at the CERN SPS in front of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter. For charged tracks a signal-to-noise ratio of 9.4 and a space resolution of 340 μm were measured; the rejection power against overlapping photons produced in the decay of 50 GeV π 0 's is larger than 3; the precision on the electromagnetic shower direction, determined together with the calorimeter, is better than 7 mrad above 40 GeV; the calorimeter performance behind the preshower (≅4X 0 ) is fully preserved. These results make such a detector attractive for future operation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. (orig.)

  7. Methods for calibrating the gain and offset of the DSSC detector for the European XFEL using X-ray line sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, S.; Weidenspointner, G.; Moch, D.; Kuster, M.; Porro, M.

    2016-01-01

    The DSSC (DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression) will be a silicon based, 2d 1 Mpx imaging detector for the European X-ray Free Electron Laser Facility (XFEL.EU) in Hamburg, Germany. The DSSC is foreseen for soft X-radiation from 0.5 keV up to 6 keV . Driven by its scientific requirements, the design goals of the detector system are single photon detection, high dynamic range and a high frame rate of up to 4.5 MHz. Signal compression and amplification will be performed in the silicon sensor pixels yielding a low signal noise. Utilizing an in-pixel active filtering stage and an 8/9-bit ADC, the detector will provide parallel read-out of all pixels. In order to calibrate offset and gain, the procedure currently under investigation relies on determining peak positions in measurements with calibration line sources such as 55Fe. Here the status of studies of the stability and performance of a parameterized fit function designed for this task will be presented.

  8. Systematic comparison between line integrated densities measured with interferometry and polarimetry at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombin, M.; Zilli, E.; Giudicotti, L.; Boboc, A.; Murari, A.

    2009-01-01

    A systematic comparison between the line integrated electron density derived from interferometry and polarimetry at JET has been carried out. For the first time the reliability of the measurements of the Cotton-Mouton effect has been analyzed for a wide range of main plasma parameters and the possibility to evaluate the electron density directly from polarimetric data has been studied. The purpose of this work is to recover the interferometric data with the density derived from the measured Cotton-Mouton effect, when the fringe jump phenomena occur. The results show that the difference between the line integrated electron density from interferometry and polarimetry is with one fringe (1.143x10 19 m -2 ) for more than 90% of the cases. It is possible to consider polarimetry as a satisfactory alternative method to interferometry to measure the electron density and it could be used to recover interferometric signal when a fringe jumps occurs, preventing difficulties for the real-time control of many experiments at the JET machine.

  9. Integrated-light spectroscopy of globular clusters at the infrared Ca II lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandroff, Taft E.; Zinn, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Integrated-light spectroscopy has been obtained for 27 globular clusters at the Ca II IR triplet. Line strengths and radial velocities have been measured from the spectra. For the well-studied clusters in the sample, the strength of the Ca II lines is very well correlated with previous metallicity estimates. Thus, the triplet is useful as a metallicity indicator in globular cluster integrated-light spectra. The greatly reduced effect of interstellar extinction at these wavelengths (compared to the blue region of the spectrum) has permitted observations of some of the most heavily reddened clusters in the Galaxy. For several such clusters, the Ca II triplet metallicities are in poor agreement with metallicity estimates from IR photometry by Malkan (1981). The strength of an interstellar band at 8621A has been used to estimate the amount of extinction towards these clusters. Using the new metallicity and radial-velocity data, the metallicity distribution, kinematics, and spatial distribution of the disk globular cluster system have been analyzed. Results very similar to those of Zinn (1985) have been found. The relation of the disk globulars to the stellar thick disk is discussed.

  10. Programmable integrated front-end for SiPM/PMT PET detectors with continuous scintillating crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Bosch, Vicente; Monzó Ferrer, José María; Ros García, Ana; Aliaga Varea, Ramón José; González Martínez, Antonio Javier; Montoliu, C.; Colom Palero, Ricardo José; Benlloch Baviera, Jose María

    2012-01-01

    AMIC architecture has been introduced in previous works in order to provide a generic and expandable solution for implementing large number of outputs SiPM array/PMT detectors. The underlying idea in AMIC architecture is to calculate the moments of the detected light distribution in an analog fashion. These moments provide information about energy, x/y position, etc. of the light distribution of the detected event. Moreover this means that a small set of signals contains most of the informati...

  11. Integral window/photon beam position monitor and beam flux detectors for x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Kuzay, Tuncer M.

    1995-01-01

    A monitor/detector assembly in a synchrotron for either monitoring the position of a photon beam or detecting beam flux may additionally function as a vacuum barrier between the front end and downstream segment of the beamline in the synchrotron. A base flange of the monitor/detector assembly is formed of oxygen free copper with a central opening covered by a window foil that is fused thereon. The window foil is made of man-made materials, such as chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and in certain configurations includes a central opening through which the beams are transmitted. Sensors of low atomic number materials, such as aluminum or beryllium, are laid on the window foil. The configuration of the sensors on the window foil may be varied depending on the function to be performed. A contact plate of insulating material, such as aluminum oxide, is secured to the base flange and is thereby clamped against the sensor on the window foil. The sensor is coupled to external electronic signal processing devices via a gold or silver lead printed onto the contact plate and a copper post screw or alternatively via a copper screw and a copper spring that can be inserted through the contact plate and coupled to the sensors. In an alternate embodiment of the monitor/detector assembly, the sensors are sandwiched between the window foil of chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and a front foil made of similar material.

  12. Micro-fabricated silicon devices for advanced thermal management and integration of particle tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, Giulia; Gambaro, Carla

    Since their first studies targeting the cooling of high-power computing chips, micro-channel devices are proven to provide a very efficient cooling system. In the last years micro-channel cooling has been successfully applied to the cooling of particle detectors at CERN. Thanks to their high thermal efficiency, they can guarantee a good heat sink for the cooling of silicon trackers, fundamental for the reduction of the radiation damage caused by the beam interactions. The radiation damage on the silicon detector is increasing with temperature and furthermore the detectors are producing heat that should be dissipated in the supporting structure. Micro-channels guarantee a distributed and uniform thermal exchange, thanks to the high flexibility of the micro-fabrication process that allows a large variety of channel designs. The thin nature of the micro-channels etched inside silicon wafers, is fulfilling the physics requirement of minimization of the material crossed by the particle beam. Furthermore micro-chan...

  13. Off-shell amplitudes as boundary integrals of analytically continued Wilson line slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotko, P.; Serino, M.; Staśto, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the methods to calculate tree-level multi-gluon scattering amplitudes is to use the Berends-Giele recursion relation involving off-shell currents or off-shell amplitudes, if working in the light cone gauge. As shown in recent works using the light-front perturbation theory, solutions to these recursions naturally collapse into gauge invariant and gauge-dependent components, at least for some helicity configurations. In this work, we show that such structure is helicity independent and emerges from analytic properties of matrix elements of Wilson line operators, where the slope of the straight gauge path is shifted in a certain complex direction. This is similar to the procedure leading to the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion, however we apply a complex shift to the Wilson line slope instead of the external momenta. While in the original BCFW procedure the boundary integrals over the complex shift vanish for certain deformations, here they are non-zero and are equal to the off-shell amplitudes. The main result can thus be summarized as follows: we derive a decomposition of a helicity-fixed off-shell current into gauge invariant component given by a matrix element of a straight Wilson line plus a reminder given by a sum of products of gauge invariant and gauge dependent quantities. We give several examples realizing this relation, including the five-point next-to-MHV helicity configuration.

  14. Analysis of stratification effects on mechanical integrity of pressurizer surge line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas-Solgadi, E.; Taupin, P.; Ensel, C.

    1992-01-01

    Unexpected thermal movements in pressurizer surge lines have been reported by several PWR operating utilities. Sometimes gaps between pipe and pipe whip restraints can become closed and plastic deformations could result. Moreover these movements, which have not been considered at conception, can induce additional stresses, and design limits on fatigue and stresses may be exceeded. These piping movements are caused by thermal stratification phenomenon in the horizontal part of the surge line (difference of temperature between hot leg and pressurizer varying from 30 C to above 160 C). To assess the mechanical consequences of this 3-dimensional phenomenon, FRAMATOME has developed a computer program using simplified models (1 and 2-dimensional). This method integrates past investigations on thermal-hydraulic variation of the stratification based on plant monitoring programs carried out by FRAMATOME since 1981, and based also on thermal-hydraulic tests and thermal-hydraulic computer code results. The methodology developed by FRAMATOME permits the following calculations: movements of the line in the elastic and plastic domains; stresses (Mises criterion -- calculations in compliance with ASME or RCC-M codes); usage factors in different components (elbows, welds, ...); crack propagation taking into account stratification and plastic shakedown

  15. A quantitative approach for integrating multiple lines of evidence for the evaluation of environmental health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome J. Schleier III

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision analysis often considers multiple lines of evidence during the decision making process. Researchers and government agencies have advocated for quantitative weight-of-evidence approaches in which multiple lines of evidence can be considered when estimating risk. Therefore, we utilized Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo to integrate several human-health risk assessment, biomonitoring, and epidemiology studies that have been conducted for two common insecticides (malathion and permethrin used for adult mosquito management to generate an overall estimate of risk quotient (RQ. The utility of the Bayesian inference for risk management is that the estimated risk represents a probability distribution from which the probability of exceeding a threshold can be estimated. The mean RQs after all studies were incorporated were 0.4386, with a variance of 0.0163 for malathion and 0.3281 with a variance of 0.0083 for permethrin. After taking into account all of the evidence available on the risks of ULV insecticides, the probability that malathion or permethrin would exceed a level of concern was less than 0.0001. Bayesian estimates can substantially improve decisions by allowing decision makers to estimate the probability that a risk will exceed a level of concern by considering seemingly disparate lines of evidence.

  16. Development of the specialized integrated circuit for signal readout from micro-strip structures of a coordinate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulchenko, V.; Shekhtman, L.; Zhulanov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents current status of development of a specialized 64-channel integrated circuit (IC, ASIC) for front-end electronics of coordinate detectors in the Budker INP. The ASIC is produced using 180 nm process. During the recording phase the IC allows integration of short current pulses from strips of a coordinate sensor, and storing of up to 100 corresponding charge values in the analogue memory with minimum time interval of 100 ns. Maximum input charge is equal to 2×10 6 electrons, equivalent noise charge is ∼2.7×10 3 electrons. Conversion of the data, stored in the analogue memory, to digital form is performed by an external ADC during the readout through an analogue multiplexer

  17. Conceptual design of 3D integrated pixel sensors for the innermost layer of the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y; Hu-Guo, C; Dorokhov, A; Zhao, W; Hu, Y; Torheim, O

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a design of CMOS Pixel Sensor (CPS) using the vertical integration technology (3DIT), expected to alleviate the most essential limitations of 2D-CPS. Our objective is to develop an intelligent architecture in order to meet the requirements of the innermost layer of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detectors, which are particularly demanding in spatial resolution of less than 3 μm and associated frame readout time of 10 μs. The sensor, with a pixel pitch of 23 μm, will be composed of 3-tiers Integrated Circuits (IC) with different functionalities: detection with in pixel analogue processing, pixel-level 3-bit Analogue to Digital Conversion (ADC) and fast parallel sparse readout.

  18. Gravity Spy: integrating advanced LIGO detector characterization, machine learning, and citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, M; Coughlin, S; Bahaadini, S; Besler, E; Rohani, N; Allen, S; Cabero, M; Crowston, K; Katsaggelos, A K; Larson, S L; Lee, T K; Lintott, C; Littenberg, T B; Lundgren, A; Østerlund, C; Smith, J R; Trouille, L; Kalogera, V

    2018-01-01

    With the first direct detection of gravitational waves, the advanced laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) has initiated a new field of astronomy by providing an alternative means of sensing the universe. The extreme sensitivity required to make such detections is achieved through exquisite isolation of all sensitive components of LIGO from non-gravitational-wave disturbances. Nonetheless, LIGO is still susceptible to a variety of instrumental and environmental sources of noise that contaminate the data. Of particular concern are noise features known as glitches, which are transient and non-Gaussian in their nature, and occur at a high enough rate so that accidental coincidence between the two LIGO detectors is non-negligible. Glitches come in a wide range of time-frequency-amplitude morphologies, with new morphologies appearing as the detector evolves. Since they can obscure or mimic true gravitational-wave signals, a robust characterization of glitches is paramount in the effort to achieve the gravitational-wave detection rates that are predicted by the design sensitivity of LIGO. This proves a daunting task for members of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration alone due to the sheer amount of data. In this paper we describe an innovative project that combines crowdsourcing with machine learning to aid in the challenging task of categorizing all of the glitches recorded by the LIGO detectors. Through the Zooniverse platform, we engage and recruit volunteers from the public to categorize images of time-frequency representations of glitches into pre-identified morphological classes and to discover new classes that appear as the detectors evolve. In addition, machine learning algorithms are used to categorize images after being trained on human-classified examples of the morphological classes. Leveraging the strengths of both classification methods, we create a combined method with the aim of improving the efficiency and accuracy of each individual

  19. Gravity Spy: integrating advanced LIGO detector characterization, machine learning, and citizen science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevin, M; Coughlin, S; Larson, S L; Trouille, L; Kalogera, V; Bahaadini, S; Besler, E; Rohani, N; Katsaggelos, A K; Allen, S; Cabero, M; Lundgren, A; Crowston, K; Østerlund, C; Lee, T K; Lintott, C; Littenberg, T B; Smith, J R

    2017-01-01

    With the first direct detection of gravitational waves, the advanced laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) has initiated a new field of astronomy by providing an alternative means of sensing the universe. The extreme sensitivity required to make such detections is achieved through exquisite isolation of all sensitive components of LIGO from non-gravitational-wave disturbances. Nonetheless, LIGO is still susceptible to a variety of instrumental and environmental sources of noise that contaminate the data. Of particular concern are noise features known as glitches , which are transient and non-Gaussian in their nature, and occur at a high enough rate so that accidental coincidence between the two LIGO detectors is non-negligible. Glitches come in a wide range of time-frequency-amplitude morphologies, with new morphologies appearing as the detector evolves. Since they can obscure or mimic true gravitational-wave signals, a robust characterization of glitches is paramount in the effort to achieve the gravitational-wave detection rates that are predicted by the design sensitivity of LIGO. This proves a daunting task for members of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration alone due to the sheer amount of data. In this paper we describe an innovative project that combines crowdsourcing with machine learning to aid in the challenging task of categorizing all of the glitches recorded by the LIGO detectors. Through the Zooniverse platform, we engage and recruit volunteers from the public to categorize images of time-frequency representations of glitches into pre-identified morphological classes and to discover new classes that appear as the detectors evolve. In addition, machine learning algorithms are used to categorize images after being trained on human-classified examples of the morphological classes. Leveraging the strengths of both classification methods, we create a combined method with the aim of improving the efficiency and accuracy of each individual

  20. Smart patch integration development of compression connector structural health monitoring in overhead transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An J.; Ren, Fei; Chan, John

    2016-04-01

    Integration of smart patches into full-tension splice connectors in overhead power transmission lines was investigated. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) -5A was used as a smart material and an aluminum beam was used as a host structure. Negative electrode termination was examined by using copper adhesive tape and direct bonding methods. Various commercial adhesives were studied for PZT integration onto the host structure. Aluminum beam specimens with integrated PZT smart patches were tested under thermal cycling at a temperature of 125°C, which is the higher-end temperature experienced by in-service aluminum conductor steel-reinforced cables. Electromechanical impedance (EMI) measurements were conducted at room temperature, and the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the conductance signals was used to analyze the EMI data. It has been shown that the negative electrode method has an important effect on the performance of the integrated PZT. The PZT displayed more susceptibility to cracking when copper tape was used than when direct bonding was used. The reliability of PZT in direct bonding depended on the adhesives used in bonding layers. Although a hard alumina-based adhesive can lead to cracking of the PZT, a high-temperature epoxy with adequate flexibility, such as Duralco 4538D, can provide the desired performance under target thermal cycling conditions. The RMSD parameter can characterize conductance signatures effectively. It also was demonstrated that RMSD can be used to quantify the fatigue of the PZT integration system, although RMSD is used primarily as a damage index in monitoring structural health.

  1. Continuous on-line monitoring of left ventricular function with a new nonimaging detector:validation and clinical use in the evaluation of patients post angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breisblatt, W M; Schulman, D S; Follansbee, W P

    1991-06-01

    A new miniaturized nonimaging radionuclide detector (Cardioscint, Oxford, England) was evaluated for the continuous on-line assessment of left ventricular function. This cesium iodide probe can be placed on the patient's chest and can be interfaced to an IBM compatible personal computer conveniently placed at the patient's bedside. This system can provide a beat-to-beat or gated determination of left ventricular ejection fraction and ST segment analysis. In 28 patients this miniaturized probe was correlated against a high resolution gamma camera study. Over a wide range of ejection fraction (31% to 76%) in patients with and without regional wall motion abnormalities, the correlation between the Cardioscint detector and the gamma camera was excellent (r = 0.94, SEE +/- 2.1). This detector system has high temporal (10 msec) resolution, and comparison of peak filling rate (PFR) and time to peak filling (TPFR) also showed close agreement with the gamma camera (PFR, r = 0.94, SEE +/- 0.17; TPFR, r = 0.92, SEE +/- 6.8). In 18 patients on bed rest the long-term stability of this system for measuring ejection fraction and ST segments was verified. During the monitoring period (108 +/- 28 minutes) only minor changes in ejection fraction occurred (coefficient of variation 0.035 +/- 0.016) and ST segment analysis showed no significant change from baseline. To determine whether continuous on-line measurement of ejection fraction would be useful after coronary angioplasty, 12 patients who had undergone a successful procedure were evaluated for 280 +/- 35 minutes with the Cardioscint system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Amplitude distributions of dark counts and photon counts in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with the HEMT readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaygorsky, J. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0231 (United States); Słysz, W., E-mail: wslysz@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, PL-02 668 Warsaw (Poland); Shouten, R.; Dorenbos, S.; Reiger, E.; Zwiller, V. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Sobolewski, Roman [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0231 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A new operation regime of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). • A better understanding of the origin of dark counts generated by the detector. • A promise of PNR functionality in SSPD measurements. - Abstract: We present a new operation regime of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) by integrating them with a low-noise cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor and a high-load resistor. The integrated sensors are designed to get a better understanding of the origin of dark counts triggered by the detector, as our scheme allows us to distinguish the origin of dark pulses from the actual photon pulses in SSPDs. The presented approach is based on a statistical analysis of amplitude distributions of recorded trains of the SSPD photoresponse transients. It also enables to obtain information on energy of the incident photons, as well as demonstrates some photon-number-resolving capability of meander-type SSPDs.

  3. 3D detector and electronics integration technologies: Applications to ILC, SLHC, and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    The application of vertically integrated (3D) electronics to particle physics has been explored by the our group for the past several years. We have successfully designed the first vertically integrated demonstrator chip for ILC vertex detection in the three-tier MIT-Lincoln Labs process. We have also studied sensor integration with electronics through oxide bonding and silicon-on-insulator technology. This paper will discuss the status of these studies and prospects for future work.

  4. 3D detector and electronics integration technologies: Applications to ILC, SLHC, and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, Ronald, E-mail: lipton@fnal.gov [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2011-04-21

    The application of vertically integrated (3D) electronics to particle physics has been explored by the our group for the past several years. We have successfully designed the first vertically integrated demonstrator chip for ILC vertex detection in the three-tier MIT-Lincoln Labs process. We have also studied sensor integration with electronics through oxide bonding and silicon-on-insulator technology. This paper will discuss the status of these studies and prospects for future work.

  5. BiCMOS amplifier-discriminator integrated circuit for gas-filled detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, C.; Dzahini, D.; Le Caer, T.; Richer, J.-P.; Torki, K.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a 16-channel amplifier-discriminator designed in BiCMOS technology. It will be used for the binary parallel readout of gas-filled detectors being designed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The circuit (named AMS211) has been manufactured. The measured transimpedance gain (400 KΩ), bandwidth (25 MHz) and noise (1570 e - +95 e - /pF ENC) well match the simulated results. The discriminator thresholds are individually controlled by built-in Digital to Analogue Converter. The experience gained with a first prototype of readout electronics indicates that the AMS211 should meet our requirements

  6. BiCMOS amplifier-discriminator integrated circuit for gas-filled detector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, C. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: herve@esrf.fr; Dzahini, D. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Le Caer, T. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Richer, J.-P. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Torki, K. [Laboratoire TIMA, Grenoble (France)

    2005-03-21

    The paper presents a 16-channel amplifier-discriminator designed in BiCMOS technology. It will be used for the binary parallel readout of gas-filled detectors being designed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The circuit (named AMS211) has been manufactured. The measured transimpedance gain (400 K{omega}), bandwidth (25 MHz) and noise (1570 e{sup -}+95 e{sup -}/pF ENC) well match the simulated results. The discriminator thresholds are individually controlled by built-in Digital to Analogue Converter. The experience gained with a first prototype of readout electronics indicates that the AMS211 should meet our requirements.

  7. Processes Adopted to Integrate Intangible Resources in Global Acquisitions among Container Lines: Perceptions of Acquirer and Acquired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Sigera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of strategic co-operations among container lines varies from loose-knitted slot charters, liner conferences, shipping alliances, joint services and consortia, through to mergers and acquisitions (M&As. However, these forms of strategic co-operations have not always been able to achieve the intended synergetic growth resulting from the integration of resources. The Resource Based View (RBV suggests that integrating intangible resources, which are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable (VRIN, can make a significant contribution to the performance of post strategic co-operations. This research paper investigates the contribution of intangible resources to the post acquisition success six global acquisitions among container lines. The nine senior managers attached to global container lines were the main participants of this study. Five of them represented acquired container lines, four represented acquirer container lines. The paper explains their personnel experience on the processes adopts to integrate intangible resources in acquisitions. Keywords: Merger and Acquisitions, Intangible Resources, Container Lines, Task Integration, Human Integration

  8. From a single encapsulated detector to the spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite: predicting the peak-to-total ratio at high γ-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    In two recent papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008; ibid., P07006), a probabilistic formalism was introduced to predict the response of encapsulated type composite germanium detectors like the SPI (spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite). Predictions for the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios are given at 1.3 MeV for the addback mode of operation. The application of the formalism to clover germanium detector is discussed in two separate papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P07008; ibid., P08015). Using the basic approach developed in those papers, for the first time we present a procedure for calculating the peak-to-total ratio of the cluster detector for γ-energies up to 8 MeV. Results are shown for both bare and suppressed detectors as well as for the single crystal and addback modes of operation. We have considered the experimental data of (i) peak-to-total ratio at 1.3 MeV, and (ii) single detector efficiency and addback factor for other energies up to 8 MeV. Using this data, an approximate method of calculating the peak-to-total ratio of other composite detectors, is shown. Experimental validation of our approach (for energies up to 8 MeV) has been confirmed considering the data of the SPI spectrometer. We have discussed about comparisons between various modes of operation and suppression cases. The present paper is the fifth in the series of papers on composite germanium detectors and for the first time discusses about the change in fold distribution and peak-to-total ratio for sophisticated detectors consisting of several modules of miniball, cluster and SPI detectors. Our work could provide a guidance in designing new composite detectors and in performing experimental studies with the existing detectors for high energy gamma-rays.

  9. From a single encapsulated detector to the spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite: predicting the peak-to-total ratio at high γ-energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, R.

    2012-12-01

    In two recent papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008; ibid., P07006), a probabilistic formalism was introduced to predict the response of encapsulated type composite germanium detectors like the SPI (spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite). Predictions for the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios are given at 1.3 MeV for the addback mode of operation. The application of the formalism to clover germanium detector is discussed in two separate papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P07008; ibid., P08015). Using the basic approach developed in those papers, for the first time we present a procedure for calculating the peak-to-total ratio of the cluster detector for γ-energies up to 8 MeV. Results are shown for both bare and suppressed detectors as well as for the single crystal and addback modes of operation. We have considered the experimental data of (i) peak-to-total ratio at 1.3 MeV, and (ii) single detector efficiency and addback factor for other energies up to 8 MeV. Using this data, an approximate method of calculating the peak-to-total ratio of other composite detectors, is shown. Experimental validation of our approach (for energies up to 8 MeV) has been confirmed considering the data of the SPI spectrometer. We have discussed about comparisons between various modes of operation and suppression cases. The present paper is the fifth in the series of papers on composite germanium detectors and for the first time discusses about the change in fold distribution and peak-to-total ratio for sophisticated detectors consisting of several modules of miniball, cluster and SPI detectors. Our work could provide a guidance in designing new composite detectors and in performing experimental studies with the existing detectors for high energy gamma-rays.

  10. Integral-equation based methods for parameter estimation in output pulses of radiation detectors: Application in nuclear medicine and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian-Behbahani, Mohammad-Reza; Saramad, Shahyar

    2018-04-01

    Model based analysis methods are relatively new approaches for processing the output data of radiation detectors in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy. A class of such methods requires fast algorithms for fitting pulse models to experimental data. In order to apply integral-equation based methods for processing the preamplifier output pulses, this article proposes a fast and simple method for estimating the parameters of the well-known bi-exponential pulse model by solving an integral equation. The proposed method needs samples from only three points of the recorded pulse as well as its first and second order integrals. After optimizing the sampling points, the estimation results were calculated and compared with two traditional integration-based methods. Different noise levels (signal-to-noise ratios from 10 to 3000) were simulated for testing the functionality of the proposed method, then it was applied to a set of experimental pulses. Finally, the effect of quantization noise was assessed by studying different sampling rates. Promising results by the proposed method endorse it for future real-time applications.

  11. Chebyshev approximations for the transmission integral for one single line in Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Lamas, H.

    1994-01-01

    An analytic expansion, to arbitrary accuracy, of the transmission integral (TI) for a single Moessbauer line is presented. This serves for calculating the effective thickness (T a ) of an absorber in Moessbauer spectroscopy even for T a >10. The new analytic expansion arises from substituting in the TI expression the exponential function by a Chebyshev polynomials series. A very fast converging series for TI is obtained and used as a test function in a least squares fit to a simulated spectrum. The test yields satisfactory results. The area and height parameters calculated were found to be in good agreement with earlier results. The present analytic method assumes that the source and absorber widths are different. ((orig.))

  12. Integral Field Spectroscopy of the Extended Emission-Line Region of 4C 37.43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai; Stockton, Alan

    2007-09-01

    We present Gemini integral field spectroscopy and Keck II long-slit spectroscopy of the extended emission-line region (EELR) around the quasar 4C 37.43. The velocity structure of the ionized gas is complex and cannot be explained globally by a simple dynamical model. The spectra from the clouds are inconsistent with shock or ``shock + precursor'' ionization models, but they are consistent with photoionization by the quasar nucleus. The best-fit photoionization model requires a low-metallicity [12+log(O/H)Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina). Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  13. Enhanced Missing Proteins Detection in NCI60 Cell Lines Using an Integrative Search Engine Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Garin-Muga, Alba; Prieto, Gorka; Bejarano, Bartolomé; Marcilla, Miguel; Marín-Vicente, Consuelo; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Casal, J Ignacio; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Corrales, Fernando J; Segura, Victor

    2017-12-01

    The Human Proteome Project (HPP) aims deciphering the complete map of the human proteome. In the past few years, significant efforts of the HPP teams have been dedicated to the experimental detection of the missing proteins, which lack reliable mass spectrometry evidence of their existence. In this endeavor, an in depth analysis of shotgun experiments might represent a valuable resource to select a biological matrix in design validation experiments. In this work, we used all the proteomic experiments from the NCI60 cell lines and applied an integrative approach based on the results obtained from Comet, Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem. This workflow benefits from the complementarity of these search engines to increase the proteome coverage. Five missing proteins C-HPP guidelines compliant were identified, although further validation is needed. Moreover, 165 missing proteins were detected with only one unique peptide, and their functional analysis supported their participation in cellular pathways as was also proposed in other studies. Finally, we performed a combined analysis of the gene expression levels and the proteomic identifications from the common cell lines between the NCI60 and the CCLE project to suggest alternatives for further validation of missing protein observations.

  14. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  15. The relationship between solar activity and the H and K line cores in integrated sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebsen, D.E.; Mitchell, W.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the authors present and analyze new data on the cores of the H and K lines of ionized calcium in the spectrum of integrated sunlight. The intensities of the components Hsub(2γ), H 3 , Hsub(2r), Ksub(2γ), K 3 , and Ksub(2r) in the line cores were measured in terms of the continuum intensity at 4000 A during a solar rotation in September 1969. Other data on these components, obtained at or close to the time of solar minimum (September 1964) and solar maximum (September 1968), were also included. The intensities of these features are compared with two indices of solar activity: the Ca II plage index and the 2800 MHZ signal. The average correlation coefficients between the intensities of the measured features and those indices were 0.69 and 0.64, respectively. The results are consistent with those of Bumba and Ruzickova-Topolova (1967) for a solar rotation period in 1965. The method and results should provide a detailed quantitative basis for the study of the activity cycles and rotation periods of solar-type stars. (Auth.)

  16. Description of the HIA line in the CEEH integrated modelling chain. CEEH scientific report no. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulengracht Flachs, E. [Univ. of Southern Denmark (SDU), Odense (Denmark); Boenloekke, J.H.; Sigsgaard, T. [Aarhus Universitet, Aarhus (Denmark)] [and others

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the different components constituting the HIA-line in the CEEH integrated energy-environment-health-cost modelling. The CEEH framework consists of a number of independent models linked together to assess the impacts and associated costs of emissions from energy production on human health. The HIA-line carries out assessment of the health impact and associated costs of human exposure to air pollution from future scenarios for energy production in Denmark. The methodology employed is the impact pathway, where future emissions from all Danish air pollution sources are modelled in the Balmorel model; the emitted air pollution is then dispersed and chemically transformed in time and space by either the NERI or the DMI Atmospheric Chemical Transport models. The resulting concentration fields of air pollution are then averaged to give municipality based levels, and the resulting health impact and associated societal cost of the Danish population is modelled in the Health Impact Assessment model. The social costs associated with air pollution exposure are then converted from the modelled exposure costs to emission costs to be fed into the Balmorel model as additional energy production costs. The CEEH HIA-line presents a novel way of modelling health related consequences of air pollution, as it directly models, the demography, air pollution, morbidity and mortality, in a dynamic and integrated setup. When modelling the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in the period from 2005 to 2030 we find 2,000 extra deaths of lung cancer, 3,950 deaths of heart disease, 7,375 deaths of stroke and 1,750 deaths of COPD, and 11.475 premature deaths, amounting to 163,075 lost life years in the modelled 25-year period. The health related social costs sums up to 60.8m Euro for lung cancer, 88.3m Euro for heart disease, 91.6m Euro for stroke, 18.7m Euro for COPD, 26.9m Euro for other cause mortality and in total 282.5m Euro throughout the

  17. Gravity Spy - Integrating LIGO detector characterization, citizen science, and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Michael; Gravity Spy

    2016-06-01

    On September 14th 2015, the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) made the first direct observation of gravitational waves and opened a new field of observational astronomy. However, being the most complicated and sensitve experiment ever undertaken in gravitational physics, aLIGO is susceptible to various sources of environmental and instrumental noise that hinder the search for more gravitational waves.Of particular concern are transient, non-Gaussian noise features known as glitches. Glitches can mimic true astrophysical gravitational waves, occur at a high enough frequency to be coherent between the two detectors, and generally worsen aLIGO's detection capabilities. The proper classification and charaterization of glitches is paramount in optimizing aLIGO's ability to detect gravitational waves. However, teaching computers to identify and morphologically classify these artifacts is exceedingly difficult.Human intuition has proven to be a useful tool in classifcation probelms such as this. Gravity Spy is an innovative, interdisciplinary project hosted by Zooniverse that combines aLIGO detector characterization, citizen science, machine learning, and social science. In this project, citizen scientists and computers will work together in a sybiotic relationship that leverages human pattern recognition and the ability of machine learning to process large amounts of data systematically: volunteers classify triggers from the aLIGO data steam that are constantly updated as aLIGO takes in new data, and these classifications are used to train machine learning algorithms which proceed to classify the bulk of aLIGO data and feed questionable glithces back to the users.In this talk, I will discuss the workflow and initial results of the Gravity Spy project with regard to aLIGO's future observing runs and highlight the potential of such citizen science projects in promoting nascent fields such as gravitational wave astrophysics.

  18. Increasing sensitivity and angle-of-view of mid-wave infrared detectors by integration with dielectric microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Kenneth W., E-mail: kenneth.allen@gtri.gatech.edu; Astratov, Vasily N., E-mail: astratov@uncc.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States); Abolmaali, Farzaneh [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States); Duran, Joshua M.; Ariyawansa, Gamini; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Urbas, Augustine M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2016-06-13

    We observed up to 100 times enhancement of sensitivity of mid-wave infrared photodetectors in the 2–5 μm range by using photonic jets produced by sapphire, polystyrene, and soda-lime glass microspheres with diameters in the 90–300 μm range. By finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for modeling, we gain insight into the role of the microspheres refractive index, size, and alignment with respect to the detector mesa. A combination of enhanced sensitivity with angle-of-view (AOV) up to 20° is demonstrated for individual photodetectors. It is proposed that integration with microspheres can be scaled up for large focal plane arrays, which should provide maximal light collection efficiencies with wide AOVs, a combination of properties highly attractive for imaging applications.

  19. Pyroelectric detectors with integrated operational amplifier for high modulation frequencies; Pyroelektrische Detektoren mit integriertem Operationsverstaerker fuer hohe Modulationsfrequenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, N.; Saenze, H.; Heinze, M. [InfraTec GmbH Dresden (Germany)

    2006-02-01

    In order to use the advantages of the current mode operation a pyroelectric detector family with integrated transimpedance amplifier (TIA) was developed particularly for modulation frequencies up to the kHz range with a simplified external circuitry for new application fields, e.g. absorption spectroscopy using quantum-cascade-laser. The essential advantages of the TIA arise from the small electrical time constant {tau}{sub E} and the short-circuiting of the pyroelectric element. A flat amplitude response up to some kHz was aimed at for a sufficiently high response of 7500 V/W, appr., also at high modulation frequencies. This can be achieved through a electrical time constant of 1 ms or less and a wide bandwidth of the op amp. The article describes in detail how these demands were accomplished and which compromises had to be accepted. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of experimental pulse-height distributions in germanium detectors with integrated-tiger-series-code predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutler, D.E.; Halbleib, J.A.; Knott, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports pulse-height distributions in two different types of Ge detectors measured for a variety of medium-energy x-ray bremsstrahlung spectra. These measurements have been compared to predictions using the integrated tiger series (ITS) Monte Carlo electron/photon transport code. In general, the authors find excellent agreement between experiments and predictions using no free parameters. These results demonstrate that the ITS codes can predict the combined bremsstrahlung production and energy deposition with good precision (within measurement uncertainties). The one region of disagreement observed occurs for low-energy (<50 keV) photons using low-energy bremsstrahlung spectra. In this case the ITS codes appear to underestimate the produced and/or absorbed radiation by almost an order of magnitude

  1. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  2. Absolute on-line in-pile measurement of neutron fluxes using self-powered neutron detectors: Monte Carlo sensitivity calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeeren, L. [SCK/CEN, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) are well suited to monitor continuously the neutronic operating conditions of driver fuel of research reactors and to follow its burnup evolution. This is of particular importance when advanced or new MTR fuel designs need to be qualified. We have developed a detailed MCNP-4B based Monte Carlo approach for the calculation of neutron sensitivities of SPNDs. Results for the neutron sensitivity of a Rh SPND are in excellent agreement with experimental data recently obtained at the BR2 research reactor. A critical comparison of the Monte Carlo results with results from standard analytical methods reveals an important deficiency of the analytical methods in the description of the electron transport efficiency. Our calculation method allows a reliable on-line determination of the absolute in-pile neutron flux. (author)

  3. Absolute on-line in-pile measurement of neutron fluxes using self-powered neutron detectors: Monte Carlo sensitivity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeeren, L.

    2001-01-01

    Self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) are well suited to monitor continuously the neutronic operating conditions of driver fuel of research reactors and to follow its burnup evolution. This is of particular importance when advanced or new MTR fuel designs need to be qualified. We have developed a detailed MCNP-4B based Monte Carlo approach for the calculation of neutron sensitivities of SPNDs. Results for the neutron sensitivity of a Rh SPND are in excellent agreement with experimental data recently obtained at the BR2 research reactor. A critical comparison of the Monte Carlo results with results from standard analytical methods reveals an important deficiency of the analytical methods in the description of the electron transport efficiency. Our calculation method allows a reliable on-line determination of the absolute in-pile neutron flux. (author)

  4. A low hydraulic capacitance pressure sensor for integration with a micro viscosity detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, F.H.J.; Blom, M.T.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Chmela, E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tijssen, R.P; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    A design is presented for a micromachined differential viscometer, that is suitable for integration into a planar hydrodynamic chromatography system (HDC) for polymer analysis. The viscometer consists of four equal flow restrictions and two pressure sensors, connected in a Wheatstone bridge

  5. Integration of single-photon sources and detectors on GaAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Digeronimo, G.E.; Petruzzella, Maurangelo; Birindelli, Simone; Gaudio, Rosalinda; Poor, Sartoon Fattah; van Otten, Frank W.M.; Fiore, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Quantum photonic integrated circuits (QPICs) on a GaAs platform allow the generation, manipulation, routing, and detection of non-classical states of light, which could pave the way for quantum information processing based on photons. In this article, the prototype of a multi-functional QPIC is

  6. Integrating LWDAQ into the Detector Control Systems of the LHC Experiments at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Holme, Oliver; Golonka, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    The LWDAQ (Long-Wire Data Acquisition) software and hardware from Brandeis University, Mass., USA provides access to a powerful suite of measurement instruments. Two high precision monitors used to measure the relative alignment between a source and a sensor are included. The BCAM (Brandeis CCD Angle Monitor) cameras take images of point light sources and the Rasnik (Red Alignment System of NIKhef) cameras take images of the NIKHEF developed Rasnik mask. Both systems are used in the LHC experiments at CERN. Brandeis University provides a tool called Acquisifier to script the data acquisition process and to analyse the images to determine the alignment data. In order to incorporate the resulting data from the alignment system into the Detector Control System (DCS) of the LHC experiments a new software component of the Joint COntrols Project (JCOP) Framework was developed. It provides a TCP/IP interface between LWDAQ and the SCADA tool PVSS so that the results of the data acquisition process can easily be retur...

  7. INVISIBLE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. RADIO MORPHOLOGIES AND FIVE NEW H i 21 cm ABSORPTION LINE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ting; Stocke, John T.; Darling, Jeremy [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Momjian, Emmanuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sharma, Soniya [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kanekar, Nissim [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2016-03-15

    This is the second paper directed toward finding new highly redshifted atomic and molecular absorption lines at radio frequencies. To this end, we selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper I. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and H i 21 cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz Very Large Array continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size <0.″5 and flux densities >0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The 36 most compact sources were then observed with the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, which is a detection rate of CSOs ∼three times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty-seven sources were observed for H i 21 cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only six detections (five definite and one tentative). However, five of these were from a small subset of six CSOs with pure galaxy optical/NIR spectra (i.e., any AGN emission is obscured) and for which accurate spectroscopic redshifts place the redshifted 21 cm line in a radio frequency intereference (RFI)-free spectral “window” (i.e., the percentage of H i 21 cm absorption-line detections could be as high as ∼90% in this sample). It is likely that the presence of ubiquitous RFI and the absence of accurate spectroscopic redshifts preclude H i detections in similar sources (only 1 detection out of the remaining 22 sources observed, 13 of which have only photometric redshifts); that is, H i absorption may well be present but is masked by

  8. Young supernova remnants and INTEGRAL: "4"4Ti lines and non-thermal emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, M.

    2006-10-01

    This thesis deals with the search for and the study of young galactic supernova remnants using the observations performed by IBIS/ISGRI, one of the two main coded-mask instruments onboard the european gamma-ray satellite INTEGRAL. This research is based on i) the study of gamma-ray lines coming from the radioactive decay of "4"4Ti, a short-lived nucleus (τ∼ 86 y) exclusively produced during the first stages of stellar explosions, and ii) the study of the nonthermal continuum mechanisms which take place inside the young supernova remnants. I separate the manuscript in four main parts. The first one presents an overview of supernovae from an observational and theoretical point of view. The second part describes the INTEGRAL satellite with its instruments, the techniques used for analyzing the data collected by IBIS/ISGRI, and my personal investigations concerning different developments such as: the spectral calibration of the IBIS/ISGRI instrument, the correction of noisy pixels on the camera, the creation of background maps, and the development of an alternative pipeline useful for dealing with a large amount of data. I also present a method for imaging extended sources with a coded-mask instrument such as IBIS/ISGRI, and its first application on the Coma Cluster. The results obtained on historical supernova remnants like Cas A, Tycho, RXJ0852-4622 (Vela Junior) are presented in the third part. The first chapter of the last part is devoted to the study of the detectability of supernovae in the optical domain with a model of the interstellar extinction. The second chapter reports on the search for missing and hidden young supernova remnants in the Milky Way with the IBIS/ISGRI galactic plane survey through the "4"4Sc gamma-ray lines as well as with a multi-wavelength approach, from the radio domain (VLA) to the new observational window at TeV energies (HESS). I also discuss the constraints on the supernova rate and the "4"4Ti production in core-collapse supernovae

  9. Generation of an integration-free induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSC-43 from a patient with sporadic Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marote

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line was generated from a 36-year-old patient with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD. Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using the non-integrating Sendai virus technology to deliver OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 factors. The generated cell line (CSC-43 exhibits expression of common pluripotency markers, in vitro differentiation into three germ layers and normal karyotype. This iPSC line can be used to study the mechanisms underlying the development of PD.

  10. Efficient production of a gene mutant cell line through integrating TALENs and high-throughput cell cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changhong; Fan, Yu; Li, Juan; Wang, Gancheng; Zhang, Hanshuo; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff

    2015-02-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are becoming powerful DNA-targeting tools in a variety of mammalian cells and model organisms. However, generating a stable cell line with specific gene mutations in a simple and rapid manner remains a challenging task. Here, we report a new method to efficiently produce monoclonal cells using integrated TALE nuclease technology and a series of high-throughput cell cloning approaches. Following this method, we obtained three mTOR mutant 293T cell lines within 2 months, which included one homozygous mutant line. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Doubling time measurement by method of digital integration of pulses from a CFU7 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Guy

    1968-01-01

    The author reports an experimental study which aimed at measuring the doubling time with a CFU7 fission chamber by using an integration method on the Siloette pile with a new core and with a spent core, and at comparing results with those obtained with a specific instrument which receives information from an ionisation chamber. The interest of this method relies on the fact that the fission chamber is insensitive to gamma radiations

  12. Micromachined silicon parallel acoustic delay lines as time-delayed ultrasound detector array for real-time photoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Wang, L. V.; Zou, J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of a new 16-channel parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The PADLs were directly fabricated from single-crystalline silicon substrates using deep reactive ion etching. Compared with other acoustic delay lines (e.g., optical fibers), the micromachined silicon PADLs offer higher acoustic transmission efficiency, smaller form factor, easier assembly, and mass production capability. To demonstrate its real-time photoacoustic imaging capability, the silicon PADL array was interfaced with one single-element ultrasonic transducer followed by one channel of data acquisition electronics to receive 16 channels of photoacoustic signals simultaneously. A PAT image of an optically-absorbing target embedded in an optically-scattering phantom was reconstructed, which matched well with the actual size of the imaged target. Because the silicon PADL array allows a signal-to-channel reduction ratio of 16:1, it could significantly simplify the design and construction of ultrasonic receivers for real-time PAT.

  13. Micromachined silicon parallel acoustic delay lines as time-delayed ultrasound detector array for real-time photoacoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y; Chang, C-C; Zou, J; Wang, L V

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a new 16-channel parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The PADLs were directly fabricated from single-crystalline silicon substrates using deep reactive ion etching. Compared with other acoustic delay lines (e.g., optical fibers), the micromachined silicon PADLs offer higher acoustic transmission efficiency, smaller form factor, easier assembly, and mass production capability. To demonstrate its real-time photoacoustic imaging capability, the silicon PADL array was interfaced with one single-element ultrasonic transducer followed by one channel of data acquisition electronics to receive 16 channels of photoacoustic signals simultaneously. A PAT image of an optically-absorbing target embedded in an optically-scattering phantom was reconstructed, which matched well with the actual size of the imaged target. Because the silicon PADL array allows a signal-to-channel reduction ratio of 16:1, it could significantly simplify the design and construction of ultrasonic receivers for real-time PAT. (paper)

  14. Characterization of Sphinx1 ASIC X-ray detector using photon counting and charge integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Arques, M.; Moro, J.-L.; Accensi, M.; Stanchina, S.; Dupont, B.; Rohr, P.; Sicard, G.; Tchagaspanian, M.; Verger, L.

    2018-01-01

    Sphinx1 is a novel pixel architecture adapted for X-ray imaging, it detects radiation by photon counting and charge integration. In photon counting mode, each photon is compensated by one or more counter-charges typically consisting of 100 electrons (e-) each. The number of counter-charges required gives a measure of the incoming photon energy, thus allowing spectrometric detection. Pixels can also detect radiation by integrating the charges deposited by all incoming photons during one image frame and converting this analog value into a digital response with a 100 electrons least significant bit (LSB), based on the counter-charge concept. A proof of concept test chip measuring 5 mm × 5 mm, with 200 μm × 200 μm pixels has been produced and characterized. This paper provides details on the architecture and the counter-charge design; it also describes the two modes of operation: photon counting and charge integration. The first performance measurements for this test chip are presented. Noise was found to be ~80 e-rms in photon counting mode with a power consumption of only 0.9 μW/pixel for the static analog part and 0.3 μW/pixel for the static digital part.

  15. A fully integrated optical detector with a-Si:H based color photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watty, Krystian; Merfort, Christian; Seibel, Konstantin; Schoeler, Lars; Boehm, Markus [Institute for Microsystem Technologies (IMT), University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstr. 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The fabrication of an electrophoresis separation microchip with monolithic integrated excitation light source and variospectral photodiodes for absorption detection is presented in this paper. Microchip based separation techniques are essential elements in the development of fully integrated micro-total analysis systems ({mu}-TAS). An integrated microfluidic device, like an application specific lab-on-microchip (ALM) (Seibel et al., in: MRS Spring Meeting, San Francisco, USA, 2005 1), includes all components, necessary to perform a chemical analysis on chip and it can be used as a stand-alone unit directly at the point of sampling. Variospectral diodes based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) technology allow for advanced optical detection schemes, because the spectral sensitivity of the devices can be tailored to fit the emission of specific fluorescent markers. Important features of a-Si:H variospectral photodiodes are a high dynamic range, a bias-tunable spectral sensitivity and a very good linearity for the separation of mixed color signals. Principle of ALM device. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. ATLAS ITk Short Strip Prototype Module with Integrated DCDC Powering and Control Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Tracker detector at the HL - LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Greenall, Ashley; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The prototype Barrel module design, for the Phase II upgrade of the of the new Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC, has adopted an integrated low mass assembly featuring single-sided flexible circuits, with readout ASICs, glued to the silicon strip sensor. Further integration has been achieved by the attachment of module DCDC powering, HV sensor biasing switch and autonomous monitoring and control to the sensor. This low mass, integrated module approach benefits further in a reduced width stave structure to which the modules are attached. The results of preliminary electrical tests of such an integrated module will be presented.

  17. On-line reactor building integrity testing at Gentilly-2 (summary of results 1987-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, N.; Lafreniere, P.

    1994-01-01

    In 1987, Hydro-0uebec embarked on an ambitious development program to provide the Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Station with an effective and practical Reactor Building Containment integrity Test (CIT). In October 1992, the inaugural low pressure (3 kPa(g) nominal) CIT at 100% F.P was performed. The test was conclusive and the CIT was declared In-Service for containment integrity verification on-line. Five subsequent CITs performed in 1993 and 1994 have demonstrated the expected leak rate results and good reliability. The outstanding feature of the CITs is the demonstrated accurary of better than 5% of the measured leak rate. The CIT was developed with the primary goal of demonstrating 'overall' containment availability. Specifically it was designed to detect a 25 mm. diameter leak or hole in the Reactor Building. However, the remarkable CIT accuracy allows reliable detection of a 2 mm. hole. The Gentilly-2 CIT is an innovative approach based on the Temperature Compensation Method (TCM) which uses a reference volume composed of an extensive tubular network of several different diameters. This eliminates the need to track numerous temperature points. A second independent tubular network includes numerous humidity sampling points, thereby enabling the mearurernent of minute pressure variations inside the Reactor Building, independant of the spatial and temporal humidity behaviour. This Gentilly-2 TOM System has been demonstrated to work at both high and low test pressures. The GentiIly-2 design allows the CIT to be performed at a nominal 3 kPa(g) test pressure during a 12-hour period (28 hours total with alignment time) with the reactor at full power. The traditional Reactor Building Pressure Test (RBPT) is typically performed at high pressure (124 kPa(g) in a 5-day critical path window (7 days total with alignment time) during an annual shutdown

  18. Economical stabilized scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O.M.; Chudakov, V.A.; Gurinovich, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    An economical scintillation detector with the stabilization system of an integral type is described. Power consumed by the photomultiplier high-voltage power source is 40 mW, energy resolution is not worse than 9%. The given detector is used in a reference detector of a digital radioisotope densimeter for light media which is successfully operating for several years

  19. RODOS and RESY: two integrated real time on-line decision support systems for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Fischer, F.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Schuele, O.; Benz, G.; Rafat, M.

    1993-01-01

    Based on the experience gained with the development of the German real-time system RESY for near range and early phase decision support KfK has developed the hardware and software framework of RODOS, the EC real-time on-line decision support system for nuclear emergencies. The first prototype version of RODOS incorporates models for atmospheric dispersion, for external and internal dose and dose-rate assessments, for simulating sheltering, evacuation and milk interdiction, for estimating health effects and economic costs, and for evaluating action alternatives by means of a rule based system containing components of multi-attribute value techniques. The specially designed operating system has been developed on the basis of the client-server model as a transportable package to run on workstations with a standard based UNIX operating system, and an X-Window system. One of its key features is the support of integrated external software products developed by the contractors by providing standardized services, such as system control, data management and graphical presentation. A data base of geographical structures (e.g. landscape, buildings, traffic network) with an accuracy of 30 m stored as vector data and population distribution stored in a 1 kmx1 km grid allows the presentation and evaluation of results down to a high local resolution by a special graphics subsystem. (orig./DG)

  20. Influence of the Integral Quality Monitor transmission detector on high energy photon beams: A multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, Bozidar; Pasler, Marlies; Wegener, Sonja; Hoffman, David; Talamonti, Cinzia; Qian, Jianguo; Mendez, Ignasi; Brojan, Denis; Perrin, Bruce; Kusters, Martijn; Canters, Richard; Pallotta, Stefania; Peterlin, Primoz

    2017-09-01

    The influence of the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM) transmission detector on photon beam properties was evaluated in a preclinical phase, using data from nine participating centres: (i) the change of beam quality (beam hardening), (ii) the influence on surface dose, and (iii) the attenuation of the IQM detector. For 6 different nominal photon energies (4 standard, 2 FFF) and square field sizes from 1×1cm 2 to 20×20cm 2 , the effect of IQM on beam quality was assessed from the PDD 20,10 values obtained from the percentage dose depth (PDD) curves, measured with and without IQM in the beam path. The change in surface dose with/without IQM was assessed for all available energies and field sizes from 4×4cm 2 to 20×20cm 2 . The transmission factor was calculated by means of measured absorbed dose at 10cm depth for all available energies and field sizes. (i) A small (0.11-0.53%) yet statistically significant beam hardening effect was observed, depending on photon beam energy. (ii) The increase in surface dose correlated with field size (pphoton energies except for 18MV. The change in surface dose was smaller than 3.3% in all cases except for the 20×20cm 2 field and 10MV FFF beam, where it reached 8.1%. (iii) For standard beams, transmission of the IQM showed a weak dependence on the field size, and a pronounced dependence on the beam energy (0.9412 for 6MV to 0.9578 for 18MV and 0.9440 for 6MV FFF; 0.9533 for 10MV FFF). The effects of the IQM detector on photon beam properties were found to be small yet statistically significant. The magnitudes of changes which were found justify treating IQM either as tray factors within the treatment planning system (TPS) for a particular energy or alternatively as modified outputs for specific beam energy of linear accelerators, which eases the introduction of the IQM into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Influence of the Integral Quality Monitor transmission detector on high energy photon beams. A multi-centre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casar, Bozidar [Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Pasler, Marlies [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center, Singen and Friedrichshafen (Germany); Wegener, Sonja [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; and others

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM) transmission detector on photon beam properties was evaluated in a preclinical phase, using data from nine participating centres: (i) the change of beam quality (beam hardening), (ii) the influence on surface dose, and (iii) the attenuation of the IQM detector. For 6 different nominal photon energies (4 standard, 2 FFF) and square field sizes from 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}, the effect of IQM on beam quality was assessed from the PDD{sub 20,10} values obtained from the percentage dose depth (PDD) curves, measured with and without IQM in the beam path. The change in surface dose with/without IQM was assessed for all available energies and field sizes from 4 x 4 cm{sup 2} to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}. The transmission factor was calculated by means of measured absorbed dose at 10 cm depth for all available energies and field sizes. (i) A small (0.11-0.53%) yet statistically significant beam hardening effect was observed, depending on photon beam energy. (ii) The increase in surface dose correlated with field size (p < 0.01) for all photon energies except for 18 MV. The change in surface dose was smaller than 3.3% in all cases except for the 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} field and 10 MV FFF beam, where it reached 8.1%. (iii) For standard beams, transmission of the IQM showed a weak dependence on the field size, and a pronounced dependence on the beam energy (0.9412 for 6 MV to 0.9578 for 18 MV and 0.9440 for 6 MV FFF; 0.9533 for 10 MV FFF). The effects of the IQM detector on photon beam properties were found to be small yet statistically significant. The magnitudes of changes which were found justify treating IQM either as tray factors within the treatment planning system (TPS) for a particular energy or alternatively as modified outputs for specific beam energy of linear accelerators, which eases the introduction of the IQM into clinical practice.

  2. 3-D Imaging Using Row–Column-Addressed Arrays With Integrated Apodization. Part I: Apodization Design and Line Element Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-01-01

    -integrated apodization increased the apparent diameter of the vessel from 2.0 mm to 2.4 mm, corresponding to an increase from 67% to 80% of the true vessel diameter. The line element beamforming approach is shown to be essential for achieving correct time-of-flight calculations, and hence avoid geometrical distortions...

  3. An INTEGRAL/IBIS view of young Galactic SNRs through the 44Ti gamma-ray lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, M.; Vink, J.; Decourchelle, A.; Lebrun, F.; Terrier, R.; Ballet, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present preliminary results of INTEGRAL/IBIS observations on Cas A, Tycho and Vela Junior supernova remnants in the line emission of 44Ti. This radioactive nucleus is thought to be exclusively produced in supernovae during the first stages of the explosion. It has a lifetime of about 87 yr and is

  4. Ex-vivo evaluation of an early caries detector based on integrated OCT and polarized Raman spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamouche, Guy; Padioleau, Christian; Hewko, Mark; Smith, Michael S. D.; Schattka, Bernie J.; Fulton, Crystal; Gauthier, Bruno; Beauchesne, André; Ko, Alex C.; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Sowa, Michael G.

    2017-02-01

    Early detection of incipient caries would allow dentists to provide more effective measures to delay or to reverse caries' progression at earlier stage. Such earlier intervention could lead to improved oral health for the patients and reduced burden to the health system. Previously, we have demonstrated that the combination of morphological and biochemical information furnished by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS), respectively, provided a unique tool for dental caries management. In this study we will report the first pre-clinical caries detection system that includes a hand-held probe with a size slightly larger than a tooth brush. This probe presents a novel platform combining both OCT and PRS optics in a very tight space ideal for clinical practice. OCT cross-sectional images of near-surface enamel morphology are obtained with miniaturized MEMS scanning device and are processed in real-time to identify culprit regions. These regions are sequentially analyzed with polarized Raman spectroscopy for further confirmation. PRS is performed using 830nm laser line and four detection channels in order to obtain polarized Raman spectroscopic data, i.e. depolarization ratio of the hydroxyapatite Raman band at 960 cm-1. A detailed description of this hand-held caries detector and ex-vivo/in-vivo test results will be presented.

  5. Integrated configurable equipment selection and line balancing for mass production with serial-parallel machining systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaïa, Olga; Dolgui, Alexandre; Guschinsky, Nikolai; Levin, Genrikh

    2014-10-01

    Solving equipment selection and line balancing problems together allows better line configurations to be reached and avoids local optimal solutions. This article considers jointly these two decision problems for mass production lines with serial-parallel workplaces. This study was motivated by the design of production lines based on machines with rotary or mobile tables. Nevertheless, the results are more general and can be applied to assembly and production lines with similar structures. The designers' objectives and the constraints are studied in order to suggest a relevant mathematical model and an efficient optimization approach to solve it. A real case study is used to validate the model and the developed approach.

  6. SU-E-T-571: Newly Emerging Integrated Transmission Detector Systems Provide Online Quality Assurance of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D; Chung, E; Hess, C; Stern, R; Benedict, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Two newly emerging transmission detectors positioned upstream from the patient have been evaluated for online quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy. The prototype for the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area ion chamber mounted on the linac accessory tray to monitor photon fluence, energy, beam shape, and gantry position during treatment. The ion chamber utilizes a thickness gradient which records variable response dependent on beam position. The prototype of Delta4 Discover™, developed by ScandiDos (Uppsala, Sweden) is a linac accessory tray mounted 4040 diode array that measures photon fluence during patient treatment. Both systems are employable for patient specific QA prior to treatment delivery. Methods: Our institution evaluated the reproducibility of measurements using various beam types, including VMAT treatment plans with both the IQM ion chamber and the Delta4 Discover diode array. Additionally, the IQM’s effect on photon fluence, dose response, simulated beam error detection, and the accuracy of the integrated barometer, thermometer, and inclinometer were characterized. The evaluated photon beam errors are based on the annual tolerances specified in AAPM TG-142. Results: Repeated VMAT treatments were measured with 0.16% reproducibility by the IQM and 0.55% reproducibility by the Delta4 Discover. The IQM attenuated 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams by 5.43±0.02%, 4.60±0.02%, and 4.21±0.03% respectively. Photon beam profiles were affected <1.5% in the non-penumbra regions. The IQM’s ion chamber’s dose response was linear and the thermometer, barometer, and inclinometer agreed with other calibrated devices. The device detected variations in monitor units delivered (1%), field position (3mm), single MLC leaf positions (13mm), and photon energy. Conclusion: We have characterized two new transmissions detector systems designed to provide in-vivo like measurements upstream

  7. SU-E-T-571: Newly Emerging Integrated Transmission Detector Systems Provide Online Quality Assurance of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D; Chung, E; Hess, C; Stern, R; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Two newly emerging transmission detectors positioned upstream from the patient have been evaluated for online quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy. The prototype for the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area ion chamber mounted on the linac accessory tray to monitor photon fluence, energy, beam shape, and gantry position during treatment. The ion chamber utilizes a thickness gradient which records variable response dependent on beam position. The prototype of Delta4 Discover™, developed by ScandiDos (Uppsala, Sweden) is a linac accessory tray mounted 4040 diode array that measures photon fluence during patient treatment. Both systems are employable for patient specific QA prior to treatment delivery. Methods: Our institution evaluated the reproducibility of measurements using various beam types, including VMAT treatment plans with both the IQM ion chamber and the Delta4 Discover diode array. Additionally, the IQM’s effect on photon fluence, dose response, simulated beam error detection, and the accuracy of the integrated barometer, thermometer, and inclinometer were characterized. The evaluated photon beam errors are based on the annual tolerances specified in AAPM TG-142. Results: Repeated VMAT treatments were measured with 0.16% reproducibility by the IQM and 0.55% reproducibility by the Delta4 Discover. The IQM attenuated 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams by 5.43±0.02%, 4.60±0.02%, and 4.21±0.03% respectively. Photon beam profiles were affected <1.5% in the non-penumbra regions. The IQM’s ion chamber’s dose response was linear and the thermometer, barometer, and inclinometer agreed with other calibrated devices. The device detected variations in monitor units delivered (1%), field position (3mm), single MLC leaf positions (13mm), and photon energy. Conclusion: We have characterized two new transmissions detector systems designed to provide in-vivo like measurements upstream

  8. From a single encapsulated detector to the spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite: predicting the peak-to-total ratio at high gamma-energies

    OpenAIRE

    Kshetri, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    In two recent papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008; ibid., P07006), a probabilistic formalism was introduced to predict the response of encapsulated type composite germanium detectors like the SPI (spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite). Predictions for the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios are given at 1.3 MeV for the addback mode of operation. The application of the formalism to clover germanium detector is discussed in two separate papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P07008; ibid.,...

  9. Back End of Line Nanorelays for Ultra-low Power Monolithic Integrated NEMS-CMOS Circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Lechuga Aranda, Jesus Javier

    2016-05-01

    Since the introduction of Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, the chip industry has enjoyed many benefits of transistor feature size scaling, including higher speed and device density and improved energy efficiency. However, in the recent years, the IC designers have encountered a few roadblocks, namely reaching the physical limits of scaling and also increased device leakage which has resulted in a slow-down of supply voltage and power density scaling. Therefore, there has been an extensive hunt for alternative circuit architectures and switching devices that can alleviate or eliminate the current crisis in the semiconductor industry. The Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) relay is a promising alternative switch that offers zero leakage and abrupt turn-on behaviour. Even though these devices are intrinsically slower than CMOS transistors, new circuit design techniques tailored for the electromechanical properties of such devices can be leveraged to design medium performance, ultra-low power integrated circuits. In this thesis, we deal with a new generation of such devices that is built in the back end of line (BEOL) CMOS process and is an ideal option for full integration with current CMOS transistor technology. Simulation and verification at the circuit and system level is a critical step in the design flow of microelectronic circuits, and this is especially important for new technologies that lack the standard design infrastructure and well-known verification platforms. Although most of the physical and electrical properties of NEM structures can be simulated using standard electronic automation software, there is no report of a reliable behavioural model for NEMS switches that enable large circuit simulations. In this work, we present an optimised model of a BEOL nano relay that encompasses all the electromechanical characteristics of the device and is robust and lightweight enough for VLSI applications that require simulation of thousands of

  10. A Detector for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E.; Cao, N.; Chuss, D.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, T.; U-yen, K.

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary design and development work on polarized detectors intended to enable Cosmic Microwave Background polarization measurements that will probe the first moments of the universe. The ultimate measurement will be challenging, requiring background-limited detectors and good control of systematic errors. Toward this end, we are integrating the beam control of HE-11 feedhorns with the sensitivity of transition-edge sensors. The coupling between these two devices is achieved via waveguide probe antennas and superconducting microstrip lines. This implementation allows band-pass filters to be incorporated on the detector chip. We believe that a large collection of single-mode polarized detectors will eventually be required for the reliable detection of the weak polarized signature that is expected to result from gravitational waves produced by cosmic inflation. This focal plane prototype is an important step along the path to this detection, resulting in a capability that will enable various future high performance instrument concepts.

  11. Silicon CMOS optical receiver circuits with integrated thin-film compound semiconductor detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Martin A.; Lee, Myunghee; Jokerst, Nan Marie; Camperi-Ginestet, C.

    1995-04-01

    While many circuit designers have tackled the problem of CMOS digital communications receiver design, few have considered the problem of circuitry suitable for an all CMOS digital IC fabrication process. Faced with a high speed receiver design the circuit designer will soon conclude that a high speed analog-oriented fabrication process provides superior performance advantages to a digital CMOS process. However, for applications where there are overwhelming reasons to integrate the receivers on the same IC as large amounts of conventional digital circuitry, the low yield and high cost of the exotic analog-oriented fabrication is no longer an option. The issues that result from a requirement to use a digital CMOS IC process cut across all aspects of receiver design, and result in significant differences in circuit design philosophy and topology. Digital ICs are primarily designed to yield small, fast CMOS devices for digital logic gates, thus no effort is put into providing accurate or high speed resistances, or capacitors. This lack of any reliable resistance or capacitance has a significant impact on receiver design. Since resistance optimization is not a prerogative of the digital IC process engineer, the wisest option is thus to not use these elements, opting instead for active circuitry to replace the functions normally ascribed to resistance and capacitance. Depending on the application receiver noise may be a dominant design constraint. The noise performance of CMOS amplifiers is different than bipolar or GaAs MESFET circuits, shot noise is generally insignificant when compared to channel thermal noise. As a result the optimal input stage topology is significantly different for the different technologies. It is found that, at speeds of operation approaching the limits of the digital CMOS process, open loop designs have noise-power-gain-bandwidth tradeoff performance superior to feedback designs. Furthermore, the lack of good resisters and capacitors

  12. The detector control system of the ATLAS SemiConductor tracker during macro-assembly and integration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdesselam, A.; Barr, A.; Basiladze, S.; Böhm, Jan; Šťastný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2008), P02007/1-P02007/29 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032; GA MŠk 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : solid state detectors * large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * detector control systems Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2008

  13. A METEOROLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR POWER LINES BASED ON GIS AND MULTI-SENSOR INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power lines, exposed in the natural environment, are vulnerable to various kinds of meteorological factors. Traditional research mainly deals with the influence of a single meteorological condition on the power line, which lacks of comprehensive effects evaluation and analysis of the multiple meteorological factors. In this paper, we use multiple meteorological monitoring data obtained by multi-sensors to implement the meteorological risk assessment and early warning of power lines. Firstly, we generate meteorological raster map from discrete meteorological monitoring data using spatial interpolation. Secondly, the expert scoring based analytic hierarchy process is used to compute the power line risk index of all kinds of meteorological conditions and establish the mathematical model of meteorological risk. By adopting this model in raster calculator of ArcGIS, we will have a raster map showing overall meteorological risks for power line. Finally, by overlaying the power line buffer layer to that raster map, we will get to know the exact risk index around a certain part of power line, which will provide significant guidance for power line risk management. In the experiment, based on five kinds of observation data gathered from meteorological stations in Guizhou Province of China, including wind, lightning, rain, ice, temperature, we carry on the meteorological risk analysis for the real power lines, and experimental results have proved the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.

  14. Quantification of apoptotic DNA fragmentation in a transformed uterine epithelial cell line, HRE-H9, using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detector (CE-LIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscus, R R; Leung, C P; Yuen, J P; Chan, H C

    2001-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death of uterine epithelial cells is thought to play an important role in the onset of menstruation and the successful implantation of an embryo during early pregnancy. Abnormal apoptosis in these cells can result in dysmenorrhoea and infertility. In addition, decreased rate of epithelial apoptosis likely contributes to endometriosis. A key step in the onset of apoptosis in these cells is cleavage of the genomic DNA between nucleosomes, resulting in polynucleosomal-sized fragments of DNA. The conventional technique for assessing apoptotic DNA fragmentation uses agarose (slab) gel electrophoresis (i.e. DNA laddering). However, recent technological advances in the use of capillary electrophoresis (CE), particularly the introduction of the laser-induced fluorescence detector (LIF), has made it possible to perform DNA laddering with improved automation and much greater sensitivity. In the present study, we have further developed the CE-LIF technique by using a DNA standard curve to quantify accurately the amount of DNA in the apoptotic DNA fragments and have applied this new quantitative technique to study apoptosis in a transformed uterine epithelial cell line, the HRE-H9 cells. Apoptosis was induced in the HRE-H9 cells by serum deprivation for 5, 7 and 24 h, resulting in increased DNA fragmentation of 2.2-, 3.1- and 6.2-fold, respectively, above the 0 h or plus-serum controls. This ultrasensitive CE-LIF technique provides a novel method for accurately measuring the actions of pro- or anti-apoptotic agents or conditions on uterine epithelial cell lines. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Integrated cantilever-based flow sensors with tunable sensitivity for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different...... is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external...

  16. A spectrometer filter for semiconductor and scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronov, O.I.; Brovchenko, V.G.; Evdokimov, S.T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes an integrating low-pass filter which takes signals from a delay line. The filter changes triangular pulses into rectangular ones. The energy resolution of a semiconductor detector whose signal is processed by the filter is 15-20% better than using a common RC-filter. The integrator stores a charge due to the scintillation pulse during the integration time without loss. The energy and time resolution of the device with the spectrometer filter is better than with an RC-filter. The energy resolution of a bismuth-germanate detector in recording radiation from 137 Cs is 9.75%

  17. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  18. Polymer fiber detectors for photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Hubert; Berer, Thomas; Pühringer, Karoline; Nuster, Robert; Paltauf, Günther; Burgholzer, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a novel imaging method for medical and biological applications, combining the advantages of Diffuse Optical Imaging (high contrast) and Ultrasonic Imaging (high spatial resolution). A short laser pulse hits the sample. The absorbed energy causes a thermoelastic expansion and thereby launches a broadband ultrasonic wave (photoacoustic signal). The distribution of absorbed energy density is reconstructed from measurements of the photoacoustic signals around the sample. For collecting photoacoustic signals either point like or extended, integrating detectors can be used. The latter integrate the pressure at least in one dimension, e.g. along a line. Thereby, the three dimensional imaging problem is reduced to a two dimensional problem. For a tomography device consisting of a scanning line detector and a rotating sample, fiber-based detectors made of polymer have been recently introduced. Fiber-based detectors are easy to use and possess a constant, high spatial resolution over their entire active length. Polymer fibers provide a better impedance matching and a better handling compared with glass fibers which were our first approach. First measurement results using polymer fiber detectors and some approaches for improving the performance are presented.

  19. Heat integration in processes with diverse production lines: A comprehensive framework and an application in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, J.H.; Griffiths, A.; McNeill, R.; Poonaji, I.; Martin, R.; Yang, A.; Morse, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new practical heat integration framework was developed for complex and diverse production lines. • Heat recovery was maximised by direct and indirect heat integration at zonal and factory levels. • A novel approach to stream data extraction was proposed to account for both stream capacity and availability. • A case study was carried out on a multi-product confectionery factory. - Abstract: Heat integration is a key measure to improving energy efficiency and maximising heat recovery. Since the advent of Pinch analysis in the 1980s, direct and indirect integration approaches have developed in separate domains with very few examples where both approaches are utilised together to maximise heat recovery. This paper presents a novel decision-making framework for heat integration in complex and diverse production lines, with the aim to provide the user with a step-by-step guide to evaluate all heat recovery opportunities through a combination of direct and indirect heat integration. This framework involves analysis at both the zonal level and the factory level. The proposed framework was applied to a case study based on a confectionery factory in the UK that manufactured multiple products across a diverse range of food technologies. It demonstrates that the framework can effectively identify the significant streams to be considered in the heat integration analysis, and address practical factors such as diverse production times, geographical proximity, and potential of compromise to product quality when the direct and indirect heat integration opportunities are proposed and assessed both within and between production zones. This practical framework has the potential to benefit the wider food industry and beyond

  20. Structure and spectroscopy of the oxygen-24 drip-line nucleus from elastic and inelastic proton scattering using MUST2 detectors at Riken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissinot, S.

    2013-01-01

    The studies of structure and spectroscopy performed on radioactive nuclei during the last three decades have shown that the nuclear shell structure changes towards the drip-line and local magic numbers may appear. Doubly-magic nuclei are very rare but represent stringent tests for theories and their modelling of the nuclear interaction. In this context, we have investigated the structure and spectroscopy of the drip-line doubly-magic nucleus 24 O via proton elastic and inelastic scattering (p,p'). The experiment was performed at Riken in the BigRIPS line, using the 24 O beam produced at 263 MeV/n with RIBF with a high intensity (1780/s), and the state-of-the-art MUST2 charged particle detector. The analysis of the data gives the reconstruction of: the 24 O excitation energy spectrum up to 35 MeV with the scattered proton kinematics using the missing mass method, and the angular distribution of exclusive (p,p) elastic cross section between 4 and 30 degrees c.m. via a triple coincidence nucleus-proton-nucleus. Below the two-neutron separation threshold (S2n) the statistics is too low to obtain the two excited states measured by previous experiments done at lower incident energies. Above the S 2n structures are observed for the first time due to the large excitation energy range of the excitation spectra. The measurement of the excited states located at these energies would allow to test theoretical studies of low-energy dipole excitation in light neutron-rich nuclei. The statistics obtained for proton elastic scattering is sufficient to extract the exclusive (p,p) angular distributions of the 24 , 23 , 22 , 21 O isotopes. These results constitute a new benchmark to explore proton-nucleus interaction potential features around 260 MeV/n. The comparison of elastic data set to the reaction calculations done with the microscopic reaction approach based on the G-matrix density-dependent potential indicates that this potential is suitable. However, it remains to include

  1. Software for the on-off-line A-A-T coincidence experiment with use of semiconductor detector of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samatov, Zh.K.; Fominyh, V.I.; Gromov, K.Ya; Samatov, Zh.K.; Safarov, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In γ-spectra measurements with 200 cm 3 HPGe-detector with energy resolution (FWHM) of 3.5 keV for α-rays 1.33 MeV 60 Co, 60 cm 3 Ge(Li)-detector with energy resolution of 1.9 keV for γ -rays 1.33 MeV 60 Co, 2 cm 3 HPGe-detector with energy resolution of 1.0 keV for α-rays 122 keV 57 Co and planar 250 mm 3 HPGe-detector with energy resolution of 0.5 keV for γ -rays 53 keV 133 Ba. For accumulation and analysis of the experimental information the analog electronics produced companies ORTEC, CANBERRA, Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problem of JINR, units of the digital electronics of standard KAMAK, personal computers were used. The accumulation of information on the coincidence spectra was provided by record of each event (E 1 , E 2 , t)-coincidence (in list mode) and single spectra E 1 and E 2 that gave the broad possibilities for analysis result after completion experiment by means of the multiple sorting of information on spectra of the coincidences with installation the energy and time windows. In the report, a description of programs of the management and control of the on-off-line experiment designed at the begin 90-s being performed in Dubna by the YASNAPP-2 program [1-3] on the experimental complex for study nuclei far from the drip-line β-stability is given. The publication of the description of controlling programs is retard from publication of descriptions of the measuring equipment and result of the physical studies [4-6] due to in particular with creation in Institute of Nuclear Physics in Tashkent of the experimental complex γ-γ -coincidences, which can be used to accumulate the unpublished material by authors. The programs are formed in the Turbo-Pascal language with reference to the KAMAK-standard digital equipment and spectrometric equipment in standard NIM. It is properly to classify beforehand the programs in amount of 50 items: Program of the accumulation coincidence spectra of the type A-A-T with using the digital windows and

  2. 2D image of local density and magnetic fluctuations from line-integrated interferometry-polarimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Ding, W X; Brower, D L

    2014-11-01

    Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved.

  3. 2D image of local density and magnetic fluctuations from line-integrated interferometry-polarimetry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved

  4. Integrated Cantilever-Based Flow Sensors with Tunable Sensitivity for In-Line Monitoring of Flow Fluctuations in Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Noeth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different materials (SU-8 and SiN and with different thicknesses. The integration of arrays of holes with different hole size and number of holes allows the modification of device sensitivity, theoretical detection limit and measurement range. For an average flow in the microliter range, the cantilever deflection is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external pumps connected to the microfluidic system.

  5. Removal of Gross Air Embolization from Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits with Integrated Arterial Line Filters: A Comparison of Circuit Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagor, James A; Holt, David W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology, the desire to minimize blood product transfusions, and concerns relating to inflammatory mediators have lead many practitioners and manufacturers to minimize cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) circuit designs. The oxygenator and arterial line filter (ALF) have been integrated into one device as a method of attaining a reduction in prime volume and surface area. The instructions for use of a currently available oxygenator with integrated ALF recommends incorporating a recirculation line distal to the oxygenator. However, according to an unscientific survey, 70% of respondents utilize CPB circuits incorporating integrated ALFs without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator outlet. Considering this circuit design, the ability to quickly remove a gross air bolus in the blood path distal to the oxygenator may be compromised. This in vitro study was designed to determine if the time required to remove a gross air bolus from a CPB circuit without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator will be significantly longer than that of a circuit with a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator. A significant difference was found in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between the circuit designs (p = .0003). Additionally, There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between Trial 1 and Trials 4 (p = .015) and 5 (p =.014) irrespective of the circuit design. Under the parameters of this study, a recirculation line distal to an oxygenator with an integrated ALF significantly decreases the time it takes to remove an air bolus from the CPB circuit and may be safer for clinical use than the same circuit without a recirculation line.

  6. Feasibility of a brain-dedicated PET-MRI system using four-layer DOI detectors integrated with an RF head coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikido, F.; Obata, T.; Shimizu, K.; Suga, M.; Inadama, N.; Tachibana, A.; Yoshida, E.; Ito, H.; Yamaya, T.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a PET-MRI system which consists of PET detectors integrated with the head coil of the MRI in order to realize high spatial resolution and high sensitivity in simultaneous measurements. In the PET-MRI system, the PET detectors which consist of a scintillator block, photo-detectors and front-end circuits with four-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding capability are placed close to the measured object. Therefore, the proposed system can achieve high sensitivity without degradation of spatial resolution at the edge of the field-of-view due to parallax error thanks to the four-layer DOI capability. In this paper, we fabricated a prototype system which consists of a prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector, a dummy PET detector and a prototype birdcage type head coil. Then we used the prototype system to evaluate the performance of the four-layer DOI-PET detector and the reciprocal influence between the PET detectors and MRI images. The prototype DOI-PET detector consists of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) arrays (S11064-050P), a readout circuit board, two scintillator blocks and a copper shielding box. Each scintillator block consists of four layers of Lu 1.8 Gd 0.2 SiO 5 :Ce (LGSO) scintillators and reflectors are inserted between the scintillation crystals. The dummy detector has all these components except the two scintillator blocks. The head coil is dedicated to a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio, Siemens) and the two detectors are mounted in gaps between head coil elements. Energy resolution and crystal identification performance of the prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector were evaluated with and without MRI measurements by the gradient echo and spin echo methods. We identified crystal elements in all four layers from a 2D flood histogram and energy resolution of 15–18% was obtained for single crystal elements in simultaneous measurements. The difference between the average energy resolutions and photo-peak positions with and

  7. Integrated electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of yeast fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Bomer, Johan G.; Li, X.; Ottens, M.; van Dedem, G.W.K.; van Leeuwen, M.; van Gulik, W.M.; van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of an electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of fermentor conditions in both miniaturized cell assays and in industrial scale fertnentations. The viable biomass concentration is determined from impedance

  8. Integrated QSAR study for inhibitors of Hedgehog Signal Pathway against multiple cell lines:a collaborative filtering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Che, Dongsheng; Zheng, Vincent W; Zhu, Ruixin; Liu, Qi

    2012-07-31

    The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway is one of signaling pathways that are very important to embryonic development. The participation of inhibitors in the Hedgehog Signal Pathway can control cell growth and death, and searching novel inhibitors to the functioning of the pathway are in a great demand. As the matter of fact, effective inhibitors could provide efficient therapies for a wide range of malignancies, and targeting such pathway in cells represents a promising new paradigm for cell growth and death control. Current research mainly focuses on the syntheses of the inhibitors of cyclopamine derivatives, which bind specifically to the Smo protein, and can be used for cancer therapy. While quantitatively structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies have been performed for these compounds among different cell lines, none of them have achieved acceptable results in the prediction of activity values of new compounds. In this study, we proposed a novel collaborative QSAR model for inhibitors of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway by integration the information from multiple cell lines. Such a model is expected to substantially improve the QSAR ability from single cell lines, and provide useful clues in developing clinically effective inhibitors and modifications of parent lead compounds for target on the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway. In this study, we have presented: (1) a collaborative QSAR model, which is used to integrate information among multiple cell lines to boost the QSAR results, rather than only a single cell line QSAR modeling. Our experiments have shown that the performance of our model is significantly better than single cell line QSAR methods; and (2) an efficient feature selection strategy under such collaborative environment, which can derive the commonly important features related to the entire given cell lines, while simultaneously showing their specific contributions to a specific cell-line. Based on feature selection results, we have proposed several

  9. Imaging performance of a full-ring prototype PET-MRI system based on four-layer DOI-PET detectors integrated with a RF coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tashima, Hideaki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suga, Mikio [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Inadama, Naoko; Eiji, Yoshida; Obata, Takayuki; Yamaya, Taiga [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-05-18

    We are developing a PET system integrated with a birdcage RF-coil for PET-MRI in order to realize both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution of the PET image by using the 4-layered depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET detector. We constructed a full-ring prototype system and evaluated performances, especially imaging performance, of the prototype system in simultaneous measurement. The prototype system consists of eight four-layer DOI-PET detectors and a prototype birdcage RF-coil developed for the proposed system. The PET detectors consist of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter array (S11064-050P), a readout circuit, fourlayer DOI scintillator arrays and a shielding box made of 35 μm thick copper foil. The crystal array consists of 2.0 mm x 2.0 mm x 5.0 mm LYSO crystals arranged in 38 x 6 x 4 layer. The RF-coil has eight coil elements and the eight PET detectors are positioned at each element gap. The diameter of the RF-coil elements is 261 mm. We conducted performance tests of the prototype system with a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio). Only the PET detectors, the RF-coil and the cables were in an MRI room during measurements. A data acquisition system and power supplies for the MPPCs and preamplifiers were outside the MRI room and connected to all the detectors through a penetration panel. As a result, the spatial resolutions of a Na-22 point source in the PET image were lower than 1.6 mm in whole the FOV due to the DOI capability. In addition, the influence of the simultaneous measurements on the PET performance is negligible. On the other hand, the SNR of the phantom image in the magnitude images was degraded from 259.7 to 209.4 due to noise contamination from the power supplies.

  10. Imaging performance of a full-ring prototype PET-MRI system based on four-layer DOI-PET detectors integrated with a RF coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tashima, Hideaki; Suga, Mikio; Inadama, Naoko; Eiji, Yoshida; Obata, Takayuki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a PET system integrated with a birdcage RF-coil for PET-MRI in order to realize both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution of the PET image by using the 4-layered depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET detector. We constructed a full-ring prototype system and evaluated performances, especially imaging performance, of the prototype system in simultaneous measurement. The prototype system consists of eight four-layer DOI-PET detectors and a prototype birdcage RF-coil developed for the proposed system. The PET detectors consist of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter array (S11064-050P), a readout circuit, fourlayer DOI scintillator arrays and a shielding box made of 35 μm thick copper foil. The crystal array consists of 2.0 mm x 2.0 mm x 5.0 mm LYSO crystals arranged in 38 x 6 x 4 layer. The RF-coil has eight coil elements and the eight PET detectors are positioned at each element gap. The diameter of the RF-coil elements is 261 mm. We conducted performance tests of the prototype system with a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio). Only the PET detectors, the RF-coil and the cables were in an MRI room during measurements. A data acquisition system and power supplies for the MPPCs and preamplifiers were outside the MRI room and connected to all the detectors through a penetration panel. As a result, the spatial resolutions of a Na-22 point source in the PET image were lower than 1.6 mm in whole the FOV due to the DOI capability. In addition, the influence of the simultaneous measurements on the PET performance is negligible. On the other hand, the SNR of the phantom image in the magnitude images was degraded from 259.7 to 209.4 due to noise contamination from the power supplies.

  11. Approaches to ultrafast neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.; Kalibjian, R.; Singh, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss two approaches to obtain detectors of very high temporal resolution. In the first approach, uranium-coated cathode is used in a streak tube configuration. Secondary electrons accompanying the fission fragments from a neutron-uranium reaction are accelerated, focussed and energy analyzed through a pinhole and streaked. Calculations show that 20 ps time-resolution can be obtained. In the second approach, a uranium-coated cathode is integrated into a transmission line. State-of-the-art technology indicates that time resolution of 20 ps can be obtained by gating the cathode with a fast electric pulse

  12. Integrating Theory and Practice: Applying the Quality Improvement Paradigm to Product Line Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Michael; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    My assertion is that not only are product lines a relevant research topic, but that the tools used by empirical software engineering researchers can address observed practical problems. Our experience at NASA has been there are often externally proposed solutions available, but that we have had difficulties applying them in our particular context. We have also focused on return on investment issues when evaluating product lines, and while these are important, one can not attain objective data on success or failure until several applications from a product family have been deployed. The use of the Quality Improvement Paradigm (QIP) can address these issues: (1) Planning an adoption path from an organization's current state to a product line approach; (2) Constructing a development process to fit the organization's adoption path; (3) Evaluation of product line development processes as the project is being developed. The QIP consists of the following six steps: (1) Characterize the project and its environment; (2) Set quantifiable goals for successful project performance; (3) Choose the appropriate process models, supporting methods, and tools for the project; (4) Execute the process, analyze interim results, and provide real-time feedback for corrective action; (5) Analyze the results of completed projects and recommend improvements; and (6) Package the lessons learned as updated and refined process models. A figure shows the QIP in detail. The iterative nature of the QIP supports an incremental development approach to product lines, and the project learning and feedback provide the necessary early evaluations.

  13. Position sensitive x-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchione, E.L.A.

    1990-01-01

    A multi ware position sensitive gas counter for X-ray detection was developed in our laboratory, making use of commercial delay-lines for position sensing. Six delay-line chips (50 ns delay each, 40 Mhz cut-off frequency) cover a total sensitive length of 150 mm leading to a delay-risetime ratio that allows for a high-resolution position detection. Tests using the 5,9 keV X-ray line from a 55 Fe source and integral linearity better than 0,1% and a maximal differential linearity of ±4,0% were obtained operating the detector with an Ar-C H 4 (90%-10%) gas mixture at 700 torr. Similar tests were performed, using the 8,04 keV line from a Cu x-ray tube. A total resolution of 330 μm, and the same integral and differential linearities were obtained. (author)

  14. An on-line Integrated Bookkeeping: electronic run log book and Meta-Data Repository for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Barczyc, M.; Caprini, M.; Da Silva Conceicao, J.; Dobson, M.; Flammer, J.; Burckhart-Chromek, D.; Caprini, M.; Conceicao, J.D.S.; Dobson, M.; Flammer, J.; Jones, R.; Kazarov, A.; Kolos, S.; Kazarov, A.; Kolos, S.; Liko, D.; Mapelli, L.; Soloviev, I.; Hart, R.; Amorim, A.; Mapelli, L.; Soloviev, I.; Amorim, A.; Klose, D.; Lima, J.; Lucio, L.; Pedro, L.; Wolters, H.; Badescu, E.; Alexandrov, I.; Kotov, V.; Mineev, M.; Ryabov, Yu.

    2003-01-01

    In the context of the ATLAS experiment there is growing evidence of the importance of different kinds of Meta-data including all the important details of the detector and data acquisition that are vital for the analysis of the acquired data. The Online BookKeeper (OBK) is a component of ATLAS online software that stores all information collected while running the experiment, including the Meta-data associated with the event acquisition, triggering and storage. The facilities for acquisition of control data within the on-line software framework, together with a full functional Web interface, make the OBK a powerful tool containing all information needed for event analysis, including an electronic log book. In this paper we explain how OBK plays a role as one of the main collectors and managers of Meta-data produced on-line, and we'll also focus on the Web facilities already available. The usage of the web interface as an electronic run logbook is also explained, together with the future extensions. We describe...

  15. A vertically integrated dynamic RAM-cell: Buried bit line memory cell with floating transfer layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.; Vertregt, Maarten

    1986-01-01

    A charge injection device has been realized in which charge can be injected on to an MOS-capacitor from a buried layer via an isolated transfer layer. The cell is positioned vertically between word and bit line. LOCOS (local oxidation) is used to isolate the cells and (deep) ion implantation to

  16. Analysis of line integrated electron density using plasma position data on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Y. U.; Chung, J.

    2010-01-01

    A 280 GHz single-channel horizontal millimeter-wave interferometer system has been installed for plasma electron density measurements on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. This system has a triangular beam path that does not pass through the plasma axis due to geometrical constraints in the superconducting tokamak. The term line density on KSTAR has a different meaning from the line density of other tokamaks. To estimate the peak density and the mean density from the measured line density, information on the position of the plasma is needed. The information has been calculated from tangentially viewed visible images using the toroidal symmetry of the plasma. Interface definition language routines have been developed for this purpose. The calculated plasma position data correspond well to calculation results from magnetic analysis. With the position data and an estimated plasma profile, the peak density and the mean density have been obtained from the line density. From these results, changes of plasma density themselves can be separated from effects of the plasma movements, so they can give valuable information on the plasma status.

  17. Implementation of an integrated on-line process surveillance and diagnostic system at the Halden reactor project: MOAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Grini, R.-E.; Nilsen, S.

    2001-01-01

    MOAS is an integrated on-line process surveillance and diagnostic system that uses several different models for knowledge acquisition and diagnostic reasoning, such as goal-tree success-tree model, process monitor trees, and sensor failure diagnosis trees. Within these models, the knowledge of the process and its operation, including deep knowledge, like mass balance or controller algorithm, is incorporated. During an extensive review, made as part of the integrated diagnosis system project of the Halden reactor project, MOAS (Maryland Operator Advisory System) was identified as one of the most thorough systems developed thus far. MOAS encompasses diverse functional aspects that are required for an effective process disturbance management: (1) intelligent process monitoring and alarming, (2) on-line sensor data validation and sensor failure diagnosis, (3) on-line hardware (besides sensors) failure diagnosis, and (4) real-time corrective measure synthesis. The MOAS methodology was used for the NORS (Nokia Research Simulator) process at the Halden man-machine laboratory HAMMLAB of the OECD Halden reactor project. The performance tests of MOAS, implemented in G2 real-time expert system shell, show that MOAS successfully carries out its intended functions, i.e. quickly recognizing an occurring disturbance, correctly diagnosing its cause, and presenting advice on its control to the operator. The lessons learned and insights gained during the implementation and performance tests also are discussed

  18. High-speed imaging at high x-ray energy: CdTe sensors coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Purohit, Prafull [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Chamberlain, Darol [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we describe the hybridization of CdTe sensors to two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods <150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128×128 pixel array with (150 µm){sup 2} pixels.

  19. Real-time trace gas sensor using a multimode diode laser and multiple-line integrated cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Andreas; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2015-07-01

    We describe and demonstrate a highly sensitive trace gas sensor based on a simplified design that is capable of measuring sub-ppb concentrations of NO2 in tens of milliseconds. The sensor makes use of a relatively inexpensive Fabry-Perot diode laser to conduct off-axis cavity enhanced spectroscopy. The broad frequency range of a multimode Fabry-Perot diode laser spans a large number of absorption lines, thereby removing the need for a single-frequency tunable laser source. The use of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy enhances the sensitivity of the sensor by providing a pathlength on the order of 1 km in a small volume. Off-axis alignment excites a large number of cavity modes simultaneously, thereby reducing the sensor's susceptibility to vibration. Multiple-line integrated absorption spectroscopy (where one integrates the absorption spectra over a large number of rovibronic transitions of the molecular species) further improves the sensitivity of detection. Relatively high laser power (∼400  mW) is used to compensate for the low coupling efficiency of a broad linewidth laser to the optical cavity. The approach was demonstrated using a 407 nm diode laser to detect trace quantities of NO2 in zero air. Sensitivities of 750 ppt, 110 ppt, and 65 ppt were achieved using integration times of 50 ms, 5 s, and 20 s respectively.

  20. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  1. Microsputterer with integrated ion-drag focusing for additive manufacturing of thin, narrow conductive lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Y. S.; Mathews, R. H.; Parameswaran, L.; Racz, L. M.; Velásquez-García, L. F.

    2018-04-01

    We report the design, modelling, and proof-of-concept demonstration of a continuously fed, atmospheric-pressure microplasma metal sputterer that is capable of printing conductive lines narrower than the width of the target without the need for post-processing or lithographic patterning. Ion drag-induced focusing is harnessed to print narrow lines; the focusing mechanism is modelled via COMSOL Multiphysics simulations and validated with experiments. A microplasma sputter head with gold target is constructed and used to deposit imprints with minimum feature sizes as narrow as 9 µm, roughness as small as 55 nm, and electrical resistivity as low as 1.1 µΩ · m.

  2. Integrated Seismic Survey for Detecting Landslide Effects on High Speed Rail Line at Istanbul–Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grit Mert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves Method (MASW, seismic refraction tomography and seismic reflection methods are used together at Silivri district in Istanbul – a district with a landslide problem because of the high speed rail line project crossing through the area. The landslide structure, border and depth of the slip plane are investigated and correlated within the local geology. According to the obtained 2D seismic sections, the landslide occurs through the East-West direction in the study area and the landslide slip plane with its border are clearly obtained under the subsurface. The results prove that the study area is suitable enough for the landslide development and this evolution also affects the high speed rail line project.

  3. Generation of integration-free induced pluripotent stem cell line (NJMUi001-A) from a phenylketonuria patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianhui; Liang, Dong; Zhang, Jingjing; Ji, Xiuqing; Hu, Huanran; Sun, Yun; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Xia; Hu, Ping; Xu, Zhengfeng

    2017-12-01

    PKU is a prevalent type of inherited metabolic disease, caused by the defective phenylalanine metabolism. In most PKU cases, mutations in the PAH gene could be found. Dysfunction of this hepatic enzyme will lead to diverse clinical symptoms due to a failure in converting phenylalanine into tyrosine. Here, we report an integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cell line (NJMUi001-A) generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a PKU patient by using Sendai virus. This iPS cell line has characteristics of pluripotent stem cells and can be used as a useful tool for the investigation of this inherited metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Autonomous Integrated Navigation for Indoor Robots Utilizing On-Line Iterated Extended Rauch-Tung-Striebel Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the estimated errors of the inertial navigation system (INS/Wireless sensor network (WSN-integrated navigation for mobile robots indoors, this work proposes an on-line iterated extended Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoothing (IERTSS utilizing inertial measuring units (IMUs and an ultrasonic positioning system. In this mode, an iterated Extended Kalman filter (IEKF is used in forward data processing of the Extended Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoothing (ERTSS to improve the accuracy of the filtering output for the smoother. Furthermore, in order to achieve the on-line smoothing, IERTSS is embedded into the average filter. For verification, a real indoor test has been done to assess the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is effective in reducing the errors compared with the conventional schemes.

  5. Integrated analysis of breast cancer cell lines reveals unique signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, Laura M.; Wang, Nicholas J.; Talcott, Carolyn L.; Laderoute, Keith R.; Knapp, Merrill; Guan, Yinghui; Hu, Zhi; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Weber, Barbara L.; Laquerre, Sylvie; Jackson, Jeffrey R.; Wooster, Richard F.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gray, Joe W.; Spellman, Paul T.

    2009-03-31

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease resulting from the accumulation of genetic defects that negatively impact control of cell division, motility, adhesion and apoptosis. Deregulation in signaling along the EGFR-MAPK pathway is common in breast cancer, though the manner in which deregulation occurs varies between both individuals and cancer subtypes. We were interested in identifying subnetworks within the EGFR-MAPK pathway that are similarly deregulated across subsets of breast cancers. To that end, we mapped genomic, transcriptional and proteomic profiles for 30 breast cancer cell lines onto a curated Pathway Logic symbolic systems model of EGFR-MEK signaling. This model was comprised of 539 molecular states and 396 rules governing signaling between active states. We analyzed these models and identified several subtype specific subnetworks, including one that suggested PAK1 is particularly important in regulating the MAPK cascade when it is over-expressed. We hypothesized that PAK1 overexpressing cell lines would have increased sensitivity to MEK inhibitors. We tested this experimentally by measuring quantitative responses of 20 breast cancer cell lines to three MEK inhibitors. We found that PAK1 over-expressing luminal breast cancer cell lines are significantly more sensitive to MEK inhibition as compared to those that express PAK1 at low levels. This indicates that PAK1 over-expression may be a useful clinical marker to identify patient populations that may be sensitive to MEK inhibitors. All together, our results support the utility of symbolic system biology models for identification of therapeutic approaches that will be effective against breast cancer subsets.

  6. Integrated analysis of breast cancer cell lines reveals unique signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Laura M; Wang, Nicholas J; Talcott, Carolyn L; Laderoute, Keith R; Knapp, Merrill; Guan, Yinghui; Hu, Zhi; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Weber, Barbara L; Laquerre, Sylvie; Jackson, Jeffrey R; Wooster, Richard F; Kuo, Wen Lin; Gray, Joe W; Spellman, Paul T

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease resulting from the accumulation of genetic defects that negatively impact control of cell division, motility, adhesion and apoptosis. Deregulation in signaling along the EgfR-MAPK pathway is common in breast cancer, though the manner in which deregulation occurs varies between both individuals and cancer subtypes. We were interested in identifying subnetworks within the EgfR-MAPK pathway that are similarly deregulated across subsets of breast cancers. To that end, we mapped genomic, transcriptional and proteomic profiles for 30 breast cancer cell lines onto a curated Pathway Logic symbolic systems model of EgfR-MAPK signaling. This model was composed of 539 molecular states and 396 rules governing signaling between active states. We analyzed these models and identified several subtype-specific subnetworks, including one that suggested Pak1 is particularly important in regulating the MAPK cascade when it is over-expressed. We hypothesized that Pak1 over-expressing cell lines would have increased sensitivity to Mek inhibitors. We tested this experimentally by measuring quantitative responses of 20 breast cancer cell lines to three Mek inhibitors. We found that Pak1 over-expressing luminal breast cancer cell lines are significantly more sensitive to Mek inhibition compared to those that express Pak1 at low levels. This indicates that Pak1 over-expression may be a useful clinical marker to identify patient populations that may be sensitive to Mek inhibitors. All together, our results support the utility of symbolic system biology models for identification of therapeutic approaches that will be effective against breast cancer subsets.

  7. An integration of competing accounts on children’s number line estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja eDackermann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Children’s estimation patterns in bounded number line estimation reveal marked developmental changes. Three different theoretical accounts were proposed to explain these changes: a log-to-linear shift account, a proportion-judgment account and a two-linear account considering familiarity with numbers or the understanding of the place-value structure of the Arabic number system. However, only the first two accounts are considered prominently in the ongoing scientific debate. Therefore, we first present a reanalysis of number line estimation data of Austrian first-graders contrasting all three accounts. Results indicate that the two-linear account is a reliable alternative to the log-to-linear shift as well as the proportion-judgment account. However, we do not claim the two-liner account to provide an exhaustive explanation for the observed developmental changes. We rather introduce the idea that aspects of all three accounts may complement - instead of exclude - each other. Jointly considering conceptual (i.e., familiarity, place-value and procedural (i.e., proportion-judgments aspects will allow for a more comprehensive understanding of children’s development in number line estimation.

  8. Integration of on-line imaging, plan adaptation and radiation delivery: proof of concept using digital tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestrovic, Ante; Otto, Karl; Nichol, Alan; Clark, Brenda G

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this manuscript is to propose a new approach to on-line adaptive radiation therapy (ART) in which daily image acquisition, plan adaptation and radiation delivery are integrated together and performed concurrently. A method is described in which on-line ART is performed based on intra-fractional digital tomosynthesis (DTS) images. Intra-fractional DTS images were reconstructed as the gantry rotated between treatment positions. An edge detection algorithm was used to automatically segment the DTS images as the gantry arrived at each treatment position. At each treatment position, radiation was delivered based on the treatment plan re-optimized for the most recent DTS image contours. To investigate the feasibility of this method, a model representing a typical prostate, bladder and rectum was used. To simulate prostate deformations, three clinically relevant, non-rigid deformations (small, medium and large) were modeled by systematically deforming the original anatomy. Using our approach to on-line ART, the original treatment plan was successfully adapted to arrive at a clinically acceptable plan for all three non-rigid deformations. In conclusion, we have proposed a new approach to on-line ART in which plan adaptation is performed based on intra-fractional DTS images. The study findings indicate that this approach can be used to re-optimize the original treatment plan to account for non-rigid anatomical deformations. The advantages of this approach are 1) image acquisition and radiation delivery are integrated in a single gantry rotation around the patient, reducing the treatment time, and 2) intra-fractional DTS images can be used to detect and correct for patient motion prior to the delivery of each beam (intra-fractional patient motion).

  9. Measurement of integrated flux of cosmic ray muons at sea level using the INO-ICAL prototype detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, S.; Acharya, B.S.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N.K.; Samuel, D.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2012-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to set-up a magnetized Iron-CALorimeter (ICAL) to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations with precise measurements of oscillations parameters. The ICAL uses 50 kton iron as target mass and about 28800 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) of 2 m × 2 m in area as active detector elements. As part of its R and D program, a prototype detector stack comprising 12 layers of RPCs of 1 m × 1 m in area has been set-up at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) to study the detector parameters using cosmic ray muons. We present here a study of muon flux measurement at sea level and lower latitude. (Site latitude: 18°54'N, longitude: 72°48'E.)

  10. New detector concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, J.; Lutz, G.

    1986-07-01

    On the basis of the semiconductor drift chamber many new detectors are proposed, which enable the determination of energy, energy loss, position and penetration depth of radiation. A novel integrated transistor-detector configuration allows non destructive repeated readout and amplification of the signal. The concept may be used for the construction of one or two-dimensional PIXEL arrays. (orig.)

  11. Transient signals on transmission lines an introduction to non-ideal effects and signal integrity issues in electrical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This lecture provides an introduction to transmission line effects in the time domain. Fundamentals including time of flight, impedance discontinuities, proper termination schemes, nonlinear and reactive loads, and crosstalk are considered. Required prerequisite knowledge is limited to conventional circuit theory. The material is intended to supplement standard textbooks for use with undergraduate students in electrical engineering or computer engineering. The contents should also be of value to practicing engineers with interests in signal integrity and high-speed digital design.Table of Cont

  12. Half-dose non-contrast CT in the investigation of urolithiasis: image quality improvement with third-generation integrated circuit CT detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Kang, Tony; Arepalli, Chesnal; Barrett, Sarah; O'Connell, Tim; Louis, Luck; Nicolaou, Savvakis; McLaughlin, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to establish the effect of third-generation integrated circuit (IC) CT detector on objective image quality in full- and half-dose non-contrast CT of the urinary tract. 51 consecutive patients with acute renal colic underwent non-contrast CT of the urinary tract using a 128-slice dual-source CT before (n = 24) and after (n = 27) the installation of third-generation IC detectors. Half-dose images were generated using projections from detector A using the dual-source RAW data. Objective image noise in the liver, spleen, right renal cortex, and right psoas muscle was compared between DC and IC cohorts for full-dose and half-dose images reconstructed with FBP and IR algorithms using 1 cm(2) regions of interest. Presence and size of obstructing ureteric calculi were also compared for full-dose and half-dose reconstructions using DC and IC detectors. No statistical difference in age and lateral body size was found between patients in the IC and DC cohorts. Radiation dose, as measured by size-specific dose estimates, did not differ significantly either between the two cohorts (10.02 ± 4.54 mGy IC vs. 12.28 ± 7.03 mGy DC). At full dose, objective image noise was not significantly lower in the IC cohort as compared to the DC cohort for the liver, spleen, and right psoas muscle. At half dose, objective image noise was lower in the IC cohort as compared to DC cohort at the liver (21.32 IC vs. 24.99 DC, 14.7% decrease, p 0.05 for all comparisons). Third-generation IC detectors result in lower objective image noise at full- and half-radiation dose levels as compared with traditional DC detectors. The magnitude of noise reduction was greater at half-radiation dose indicating that the benefits of using novel IC detectors are greater in low and ultra-low-dose CT imaging.

  13. T-DNA integration patterns in transgenic maize lines mediated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results demonstrate that cleavage occurs not only during the T-DNA borders but also inside or outside the borders. The border sequences and some inside sequences can be deleted, and filler sequences can be inserted. Illegitimate recombination is a major pattern of T-DNA integration, while some hot spots and ...

  14. Testing of self-triggered nXYTER electronics for integrating with GEM detector for high frequency operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, J.; Dubey, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Singaraju, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    A GEM-based tracking system is planned to be used for muon tracking in the proposed CBM experiment at FAIR. The peak hit density in the central region of the chamber is expected to reach 1 MHz/cm 2 . For a detector to be operational at high intensity (upto MHz), it is useful to know the compatibility of the readout electronics with the detector. At very high rates and sufficiently large signal amplitude, there is a possibility of preamplifier saturation resulting in zero or distorted amplitude of the output signal

  15. On the H8 beam line of the SPS in the North Area, a complete slice of the ATLAS detector is taking shape

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The Inner Detector and Calorimetry setup. The Liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter in its cryostat, and the tile calorimeter (centre) are mounted such that they can be repositioned in the beam, which travels from left to right. Also visible is the magnet housing the Pixel and SCT detectors (far left), the Transition Radiation Tracker (left) and part of a MDT/RPC Muon chamber (far right).

  16. Integrating chemical and biological status assessment: Assembling lines of evidence for the evaluation of river ecosystem risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Gracia, Isabel; Sabater, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes various approaches to evaluating ecological risk in rivers affected by multiple chemical stressors, with emphasis on biofilm and invertebrate community responses. Metrics should be considered as different lines of evidence that, when weighted, form an advanced weight of evidence approach to establishing the environmental risk on a basin scale. Combination of field surveys to obtain observational data of communities, in situ experiments, toxicological sediment tests and a good chemical description of the medium (water and sediment) helps give an integrative view of the chemical and biological state of a river ecosystem. The greater and more distinct the variables used, the greater is our ability to identify the effects of major stressors impairing communities. Weight of evidence is an integrative methodology for tackling the challenge of determining causal relations and applying this knowledge in the decision-making processes of river management.

  17. An exact line integral representation of the physical optics scattered field: the case of a perfectly conducting polyhedral structure illuminated by electric Hertzian dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter M.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    1995-01-01

    An exact line integral representation of the electric physical optics scattered field is presented. This representation applies to scattering configurations with perfectly electrically conducting polyhedral structures illuminated by a finite number of electric Hertzian dipoles. The positions...

  18. A framework for clarifying the meaning of Triple Bottom-Line, Integrated, and Sustainability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacking, Theo; Guthrie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Terms such as Integrated Assessment and Sustainability Assessment are used to label 'new' approaches to impact assessment that are designed to direct planning and decision-making towards sustainable development (SD). Established assessment techniques, such as EIA and SEA, are also widely promoted as SD 'tools'. This paper presents the findings of a literature review undertaken to identify the features that are typically promoted for improving the SD-directedness of assessments. A framework is developed which reconciles the broad range of emerging approaches and tackles the inconsistent use of terminology. The framework comprises a three-dimensional space defined by the following axes: the comprehensiveness of the SD coverage; the degree of 'integration' of the techniques and themes; and the extent to which a strategic perspective is adopted. By applying the framework, assessment approaches can be positioned relative to one another, enabling comparison on the basis of substance rather than semantics

  19. Working on the Service Production Line: Integration and Mobility in Casino and Restaurant Work

    OpenAIRE

    Hatcher, Christina

    2014-01-01

    AbstractMy dissertation addresses a theoretical assertion in the literature that increasing the numbers of groups historically excluded from occupations will decrease inequality among workers at work (Bergmann 1986; Brewer and Brown 1998; Smith and Elliott 2001, 2002; Kanter 1977; Williams 1992; Wingfield 2009). It is assumed that if groups of workers are nearly evenly represented in occupations (or in integrated occupations), the more equally the labor market rewards will be distributed acr...

  20. A Systematic Framework for Data Management and Integration in a Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processing Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyi Cao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As the pharmaceutical industry seeks more efficient methods for the production of higher value therapeutics, the associated data analysis, data visualization, and predictive modeling require dependable data origination, management, transfer, and integration. As a result, the management and integration of data in a consistent, organized, and reliable manner is a big challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. In this work, an ontological information infrastructure is developed to integrate data within manufacturing plants and analytical laboratories. The ANSI/ISA-88.01 batch control standard has been adapted in this study to deliver a well-defined data structure that will improve the data communication inside the system architecture for continuous processing. All the detailed information of the lab-based experiment and process manufacturing, including equipment, samples and parameters, are documented in the recipe. This recipe model is implemented into a process control system (PCS, data historian, as well as Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN system. Data existing in the recipe can be eventually exported from this system to cloud storage, which could provide a reliable and consistent data source for data visualization, data analysis, or process modeling.

  1. Rapid development of stable transgene CHO cell lines by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated site-specific integration into C12orf35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Menglin; Wang, Jiaxian; Luo, Manyu; Luo, Han; Zhao, Meiqi; Han, Lei; Zhang, Mengxiao; Yang, Hui; Xie, Yueqing; Jiang, Hua; Feng, Lei; Lu, Huili; Zhu, Jianwei

    2018-07-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most widely used mammalian hosts for recombinant protein production. However, by conventional random integration strategy, development of a high-expressing and stable recombinant CHO cell line has always been a difficult task due to the heterogenic insertion and its caused requirement of multiple rounds of selection. Site-specific integration of transgenes into CHO hot spots is an ideal strategy to overcome these challenges since it can generate isogenic cell lines with consistent productivity and stability. In this study, we investigated three sites with potential high transcriptional activities: C12orf35, HPRT, and GRIK1, to determine the possible transcriptional hot spots in CHO cells, and further construct a reliable site-specific integration strategy to develop recombinant cell lines efficiently. Genes encoding representative proteins mCherry and anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody were targeted into these three loci respectively through CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Stable cell lines were generated successfully after a single round of selection. In comparison with a random integration control, all the targeted integration cell lines showed higher productivity, among which C12orf35 locus was the most advantageous in both productivity and cell line stability. Binding affinity and N-glycan analysis of the antibody revealed that all batches of product were of similar quality independent on integrated sites. Deep sequencing demonstrated that there was low level of off-target mutations caused by CRISPR/Cas9, but none of them contributed to the development process of transgene cell lines. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of C12orf35 as the target site for exogenous gene integration, and strongly suggested that C12orf35 targeted integration mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 is a reliable strategy for the rapid development of recombinant CHO cell lines.

  2. The human vascular endothelial cell line HUV-EC-C harbors the integrated HHV-6B genome which remains stable in long term culture

    OpenAIRE

    Shioda, Setsuko; Kasai, Fumio; Ozawa, Midori; Hirayama, Noriko; Satoh, Motonobu; Kameoka, Yousuke; Watanabe, Ken; Shimizu, Norio; Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko; Kohara, Arihiro

    2017-01-01

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is a common human pathogen that is most often detected in hematopoietic cells. Although human cells harboring chromosomally integrated HHV-6 can be generated in vitro, the availability of such cell lines originating from in vivo tissues is limited. In this study, chromosomally integrated HHV-6B has been identified in a human vascular endothelial cell line, HUV-EC-C (IFO50271), derived from normal umbilical cord tissue. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral gen...

  3. Note: A 102 dB dynamic-range charge-sampling readout for ionizing particle/radiation detectors based on an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullia, A.; Zocca, F.; Capra, S.

    2018-02-01

    An original technique for the measurement of charge signals from ionizing particle/radiation detectors has been implemented in an application-specific integrated circuit form. The device performs linear measurements of the charge both within and beyond its output voltage swing. The device features an unprecedented spectroscopic dynamic range of 102 dB and is suitable for high-resolution ion and X-γ ray spectroscopy. We believe that this approach may change a widespread paradigm according to which no high-resolution spectroscopy is possible when working close to or beyond the limit of the preamplifier's output voltage swing.

  4. Potentials for the use of tool-integrated in-line data acquisition systems in press shops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S.; Schmerbeck, T.; Liebig, A.; Kautz, T.; Volk, W.

    2017-09-01

    Robust in-line data acquisition systems are required for the realization of process monitoring and control systems in press shops. A promising approach is the integration of sensors in the following press tools. There they can be easy integrated and maintained. It also achieves the necessary robustness for the rough press environment. Such concepts were already investigated for the measurement of the geometrical accuracy as well as for the material flow of inner part areas. They enable the monitoring of each produced part’s quality. An important success factor are practical approaches to the use of this new process information in press shops. This work presents various applications of these measuring concepts, based on real car body components of the BMW Group. For example, the procedure of retroactive error analysis is explained for a side frame. It also shows how this data acquisition can be used for the optimization of drawing tools in tool shops. With the skid-line, there is a continuous value that can be monitored from planning to serial production.

  5. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  6. A Smart Grid Framework for Optimally Integrating Supply-Side, Demand-Side and Transmission Line Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuka Monyei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A coordinated centralized energy management system (ConCEMS is presented in this paper that seeks to integrate for optimal grid operation—the supply side energy management system (SSEMS, home energy management system (HEMS and transmission line management system (TLMS. ConCEMS in ensuring the optimal operation of an IEEE 30-bus electricity network harmonizes the individual objective function of SSEMS, HEMS and TLMS to evolve an optimal dispatch of participating demand response (DR loads that does not violate transmission line ampacity limits (TLMS constraint while minimizing consumer cost (HEMS constraint and supply side operations cost (SSEMS constraint. An externally constrained genetic algorithm (ExC-GA that is influenced by feedback from TLMS is also presented that intelligently varies the dispatch time of participating DR loads to meet the individual objective functions. Hypothetical day ahead dynamic pricing schemes (Price1, Price2 and Price3 have also been adopted alongside an existing time of use (Price0 pricing scheme for comparison and discussion while a dynamic thermal line rating (DTLR algorithm has also been incorporated to dynamically compute power limits based on real time associated data.

  7. Analysis of proviral integration in human mammary epithelial cell lines immortalized by retroviral infection with a temperature-sensitive SV40 T-antigen construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, A C; Davies, S C; Burman, J; O'Hare, M J

    1994-06-15

    A panel of eight conditionally immortal lines derived by infection of human breast epithelial cells with an amphotropic retrovirus transducing a ts mutant of SV40 large T-antigen was analyzed with respect to individual retroviral integration patterns. Each line contained multiple integration sites which were clonal and stable over extended passage. Similar integration patterns were observed between individual lines arising separately from the same stock of pre-immortal cells, suggesting a common progenitor. Retroviral integration analysis of pre-immortal cells at different stages of pre-crisis growth showed changes indicative of a progressive transition from polyclonality to clonality as the cells approached crisis. Each of the immortal lines contained a sub-set of the integration sites of their pre-immortal progenitors, with individual combinations and copy numbers of sites. Since all the cell lines appeared to originate from single foci in separate flasks, it is likely that each set arose from a common clone of pre-immortal cells as the result of separate genetic events. There was no evidence from this analysis to suggest that specific integration sites played any part either in the selection of pre-crisis clones or in the subsequent establishment of immortal lines.

  8. Integrating shallow and deep knowledge in the design of an on-line process monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallanti, M.; Gilardoni, L.; Guida, G.; Stefanini, A.; Tomada, L.

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring and malfunctions diagnosis of complex industrial plants involves, in addition to shallow empirical knowledge about plant operation, also deep knowledge about structure and function. This paper presents the results obtained in the design and experimentation of PROP and PROP-2 systems, devoted to on-line monitoring and diagnosis of pollution phenomena in the cycle water of a thermal power plant. In particular, it focuses on PROP-2 architecture, with encompasses a four-level hierarchical knowledge base including both empirical knowledge and a deep model of the plant. Shallow knowledge is represented by production rules and event-graphs (a formalism for expressing procedural knowledge), while deep knowledge is expressed using a representation language based on the concept of component. One major contribution of the proposed approach has been to show in a running experimental system that a suitable blend of shallow and deep knowledge can offer substantial advantages over a single paradigm.

  9. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  10. Status of beam line detectors for the BigRIPS fragment separator at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. Issues on high rates and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) and parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were installed within the superconducting in-flight separator, named BigRIPS, at the RIKEN Nishina Center for particle identification of RI beams. The MUSIC detector showed negligible charge collection inefficiency from recombination of electrons and ions, up to a 99-kcps incidence rate for high-energy heavy ions. For the PPAC detectors, the electrical discharge durability for incident heavy ions was improved by changing the electrode material. Finally, we designed a single crystal diamond detector, which is under development for TOF measurements of high-energy heavy ions, that has a very fast response time (pulse width <1 ns). (author)

  11. Status of Beam Line Detectors for the BigRIPS Fragment Separator at RIKEN RI Beam Factory: Issues on High Rates and Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kameda, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yohei; Ahn, DeukSoon; Murai, Daichi; Inabe, Naohito; Shimaoka, Takehiro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi; Kumagai, Hidekazu; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiromi; Yoshida, Koichi; Kubo, Toshiyuki

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) and parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were installed within the superconducting in-flight separator, named BigRIPS, at the RIKEN Nishina Center for particle identification of RI beams. The MUSIC detector showed negligible charge collection inefficiency from recombination of electrons and ions, up to a 99-kcps incidence rate for high-energy heavy ions. For the PPAC detectors, the electrical discharge durability for incident heavy ions was improved by changing the electrode material. Finally, we designed a single crystal diamond detector, which is under development for TOF measurements of high-energy heavy ions, that has a very fast response time (pulse width <1 ns).

  12. Development of Charge Sensitive Preamplifier and Readout Integrate Circuit Board for High Resolution Detector using ASIC Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Park, J. M.; Yang, J. Y.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, Y. S. [RadTek Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    - Design of discrete type charge sensitive amplifier for high resolution semi-conductor sensor - Design and develop the test board for the performance of charge sensitive amplifier with sensor - Performance of electrical test for the sensor and charge sensitive amplifier - Development of prototype 8 x 8 array type detector module - Noise equivalent charge test for the charge sensitive amplifier - Design and development of Micro SMD discrete type amplifier applying ASIC procedure - Development of Hybrid type charge sensitive amplifier including shape

  13. USING DEMATEL-ANP INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR DECIDING PRODUCTION STRATEGY FOR A PRODUCTION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan APAK

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Production planning includes push, pull and hybrid production systems that production firms determine their production strategies according to many variables before starting production. The administration of this process requires experience and time. The intensity of rivalry makes this kind of decision processes important, because no firm has the luxury to waste time and to make a wrong decision. In order to solve this problem, research proposes to use integrated decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL and analytic network process (ANP together which are methods of multi-criteria decision-making models. The process being used to establish which options are found to be most acceptable for operations managers has been demonstrated how applicable it is by using the generated model in automotive industry.

  14. Off-line commissioning of EBIS and plans for its integration into ATLAS and CARIBU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumov, P. N., E-mail: ostroumov@anl.gov; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Mustapha, B.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed at Argonne to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and significantly improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The CARIBU EBIS-CB has been successfully commissioned offline with an external singly charged cesium ion source. The performance of the EBIS fully meets the specifications to breed rare isotope beams delivered from CARIBU. The EBIS is being relocated and integrated into ATLAS and CARIBU. A long electrostatic beam transport system including two 180° bends in the vertical plane has been designed. The commissioning of the EBIS and the beam transport system in their permanent location will start at the end of this year.

  15. Off-line commissioning of EBIS and plans for its integration into ATLAS and CARIBU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Mustapha, B.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G.

    2016-02-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed at Argonne to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and significantly improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The CARIBU EBIS-CB has been successfully commissioned offline with an external singly charged cesium ion source. The performance of the EBIS fully meets the specifications to breed rare isotope beams delivered from CARIBU. The EBIS is being relocated and integrated into ATLAS and CARIBU. A long electrostatic beam transport system including two 180° bends in the vertical plane has been designed. The commissioning of the EBIS and the beam transport system in their permanent location will start at the end of this year.

  16. CONVERGING LINES: TOWARDS THE INTEGRATION OF SECOND LANGUAGE RESEARCH AND TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing research in second language acquisition, a gap seems to exist between researchers' technical knowledge and teachers' practical knowledge. This is evident from a review of research studies in form-focused instruction summarized in this article. Additional review of articles in the teaching of writing also leads to a similar conclusion. The theoretical development of the writing process does not seem to provide many insights for teachers to apply the process approach to the teaching of writing. The results of the two reviews then indicate that an attempt is required to relate second language research to teaching. Theoretical-pedagogical research, action research, and participatory research are referred to as models of research that can bridge the gap. A review of sample studies recently conducted demonstrates how the integration between technical and practical knowledge can be achieved through the three types of research.

  17. Micro flow reactor chips with integrated luminescent chemosensors for spatially resolved on-line chemical reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Leonid; Hoera, Christian; Meier, Robert J; Nagl, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2013-10-21

    Real-time chemical reaction monitoring in microfluidic environments is demonstrated using luminescent chemical sensors integrated in PDMS/glass-based microscale reactors. A fabrication procedure is presented that allows for straightforward integration of thin polymer layers with optical sensing functionality in microchannels of glass-PDMS chips of only 150 μm width and of 10 to 35 μm height. Sensor layers consisting of polystyrene and an oxygen-sensitive platinum porphyrin probe with film thicknesses of about 0.5 to 4 μm were generated by combining spin coating and abrasion techniques. Optimal coating procedures were developed and evaluated. The chip-integrated sensor layers were calibrated and investigated with respect to stability, reproducibility and response times. These microchips allowed observation of dissolved oxygen concentration in the range of 0 to over 40 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 368 μg L(-1). The sensor layers were then used for observation of a model reaction, the oxidation of sulphite to sulphate in a microfluidic chemical reactor and could observe sulphite concentrations of less than 200 μM. Real-time on-line monitoring of this chemical reaction was realized at a fluorescence microscope setup with 405 nm LED excitation and CCD camera detection.

  18. CDinFusion--submission-ready, on-line integration of sequence and contextual data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hankeln

    Full Text Available State of the art (DNA sequencing methods applied in "Omics" studies grant insight into the 'blueprints' of organisms from all domains of life. Sequencing is carried out around the globe and the data is submitted to the public repositories of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. However, the context in which these studies are conducted often gets lost, because experimental data, as well as information about the environment are rarely submitted along with the sequence data. If these contextual or metadata are missing, key opportunities of comparison and analysis across studies and habitats are hampered or even impossible. To address this problem, the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC promotes checklists and standards to better describe our sequence data collection and to promote the capturing, exchange and integration of sequence data with contextual data. In a recent community effort the GSC has developed a series of recommendations for contextual data that should be submitted along with sequence data. To support the scientific community to significantly enhance the quality and quantity of contextual data in the public sequence data repositories, specialized software tools are needed. In this work we present CDinFusion, a web-based tool to integrate contextual and sequence data in (MultiFASTA format prior to submission. The tool is open source and available under the Lesser GNU Public License 3. A public installation is hosted and maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology at http://www.megx.net/cdinfusion. The tool may also be installed locally using the open source code available at http://code.google.com/p/cdinfusion.

  19. CDinFusion--submission-ready, on-line integration of sequence and contextual data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankeln, Wolfgang; Wendel, Norma Johanna; Gerken, Jan; Waldmann, Jost; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-01-01

    State of the art (DNA) sequencing methods applied in "Omics" studies grant insight into the 'blueprints' of organisms from all domains of life. Sequencing is carried out around the globe and the data is submitted to the public repositories of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. However, the context in which these studies are conducted often gets lost, because experimental data, as well as information about the environment are rarely submitted along with the sequence data. If these contextual or metadata are missing, key opportunities of comparison and analysis across studies and habitats are hampered or even impossible. To address this problem, the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) promotes checklists and standards to better describe our sequence data collection and to promote the capturing, exchange and integration of sequence data with contextual data. In a recent community effort the GSC has developed a series of recommendations for contextual data that should be submitted along with sequence data. To support the scientific community to significantly enhance the quality and quantity of contextual data in the public sequence data repositories, specialized software tools are needed. In this work we present CDinFusion, a web-based tool to integrate contextual and sequence data in (Multi)FASTA format prior to submission. The tool is open source and available under the Lesser GNU Public License 3. A public installation is hosted and maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology at http://www.megx.net/cdinfusion. The tool may also be installed locally using the open source code available at http://code.google.com/p/cdinfusion.

  20. Integrated Approaches for the Management of Staple Line Leaks following Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Montuori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of the study was trying to draw a final flow chart for the management of gastric leaks after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, based on the review of our cases over 10 years’ experience. Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent LSG as a primary operation at the Bariatric Unit of Tor Vergata University Hospital in Rome from 2007 to 2015. Results. Patients included in the study were 418. There were 6 staple line leaks (1.44%. All patients with diagnosis of a leak were initially discharged home in good clinical conditions and then returned to A&E because of the complication. The mean interval between surgery and readmission for leak was 13,4 days (range 6–34 days, SD ± 11.85. We recorded one death (16.67% due to sepsis. The remaining five cases were successfully treated with a mean healing time of the gastric leak of 55,5 days (range 26–83 days; SD ± 25.44. Conclusion. Choosing the proper treatment depends on clinical stability and on the presence or not of collected abscess. Our treatment protocol showed being associated with low complication rate and minor discomfort to the patients, reducing the need for more invasive procedures.

  1. From 3D Bioprinters to a fully integrated Organ Biofabrication Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamai, V. E.; Dernowsek, J. A.; Nogueira, J.; Lara, V.; Vilalba, F.; Mironov, V. A.; Rezende, R. A.; da Silva, J. V.

    2016-04-01

    About 30 years ago, the 3D printing technique appeared. From that time on, engineers in medical science field started to look at 3D printing as a partner. Firstly, biocompatible and biodegradable 3D structures for cell seeding called “scaffolds” were fabricated for in vitro and in vivo animal trials. The advances proved to be of great importance, but, the use of scaffolds faces some limitations, such as low homogeneity and low density of cell aggregates. In the last decade, 3D bioprinting technology emerged as a promising approach to overcome these limitations and as one potential solution to the challenge of organ fabrication, to obtain very similar 3D human tissues, not only for transplantation, but also for drug discovery, disease research and to decrease the usage of animals in laboratory experimentation. 3D bioprinting allowed the fabrication of 3D alive structures with higher and controllable cell density and homogeneity. Other advantage of biofabrication is that the tissue constructs are solid scaffold-free. This paper presents the 3D bioprinting technology; equipment development, stages and components of a complex Organ Bioprinting Line (OBL) and the importance of developing a Virtual OBL.

  2. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  3. A Line Integral Representation of the Physical Optics Far Field from Plane PEC Scatterers Illuminated by Electric or Magnetic Hertzian Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, S.; Meincke, Peter; Jørgensen, E.

    2002-01-01

    We derive a line integral representation of the physical optics (PO) scattered far field that yields the exact same result as the conventional surface radiation integral. This representation applies to a perfectly electrically conducting plane scatterer illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian...... dipoles....

  4. Fast broad-band photon detector based on quantum well devices and charge-integrating electronics for non-invasive FEL monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, M., E-mail: matias.antonelli@elettra.eu; Cautero, G.; Sergo, R.; Castellaro, C.; Menk, R. H. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); Ganbold, T. [School in Nanotechnology, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); IOM CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste (Italy); Biasiol, G. [IOM CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-07-27

    The recent evolution of free-electron lasers has not been matched by the development of adequate beam-monitoring instrumentation. However, for both experimental and diagnostics purposes, it is crucial to keep such photon beams under control, avoiding at the same time the absorption of the beam and the possible destruction of the detector. These requirements can be fulfilled by utilizing fast and non-invasive photon detectors operated in situ, upstream from the experimental station. From this perspective, sensors based on Quantum Well (QW) devices can be the key to detecting ultra-short light pulses. In fact, owing to their high electron mobility, InGaAs/InAlAs QW devices operated at room temperature exhibit sub-nanosecond response times. Their direct, low-energy band gap renders them capable of detecting photons ranging from visible to X-ray. Furthermore, the 2D electron gas forming inside the QW is responsible for a charge amplification mechanism, which increases the charge collection efficiency of these devices. In order to acquire the signals produced by these QW sensors, a novel readout electronics has been developed. It is based on a high-speed charge integrator, which allows short, low-intensity current pulses to be read within a 50-ns window. The integrated signal is acquired through an ADC and the entire process can be performed at a 10-MHz repetition rate. This work provides a detailed description of the development of the QW detectors and the acquisition electronics, as well as reporting the main experimental results, which show how these tools are well suited for the realization of fast, broad-band beam monitors.

  5. Feasibility evaluations for the integration of laser butt welding of tubes in industrial pipe coil production lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penasa, Mauro; Colombo, Enrico; Giolfo, Mauro

    1994-09-01

    Due to the good performance shown by laser welded joints, to the quality and repeatability achievable by this welding technique and to its high process productivity, a feature inherent to the laser technology which, together with its high flexibility, allows different operations to be performed by a single source, consistent savings in a production line may be obtained. Therefore laser welding techniques may be of high relevance for industrial applications, provided that a sufficient attention is paid to avoiding a low utilization time to the operating laser source. The paper describes a feasibility study for the integration of a laser source as an automatic unit for circumferential butt welding of tubes in production lines of pipe coils, just before the cold bending station. Using a 6 kW CO2 source, thickness ranging from 3.5 to 11.2 mm in carbon, low alloyed Cr-Mo and austenitic stainless steels, have been successfully welded. Cr-Mo steels require on line preheating treatment, which however can be achieved by laser defocused passes just before welding. The results of the preliminary qualification performed on laser welded joints of the involved topologies of product (materials, diameters and thicknesses) are described together with technological tests required for approval: laser circumferential butt welding of tubes has proven to be effective, with satisfactory and repeatable results and good joint performances. An exhaustive comparison with current welding techniques (TIG, MIG) is then carried out, along with a detailed analysis of the potential advantages and benefits which may be expected by using the laser welding technique, as well as with a first estimation of the investments and running costs. Since laser productivity is saturated only at a rough 35% during the year, an accurate analysis of other possible applications and of a possible lay out of a laser working cell integrated in the factory production lines is performed. Usually little attention is

  6. Measurements of integrated and differential cross sections for isolated photon pair production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; 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Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jesse Kar Kee; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majersky, Oliver; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McPherson, Robert; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo Jean; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nitsche, Isabel; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'connor, Kelsey; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Forrest Hays; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggi, Riccardo; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Ponomarenko, Daniil; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Poulard, Gilbert; Poulsen, Trine; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proklova, Nadezda; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rashid, Tasneem; Raspopov, Sergii; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ripellino, Giulia; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocco, Elena; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sampsonidou, Despoina; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Christian Oliver; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherafati, Nima; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shipsey, Ian Peter Joseph; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Sopczak, Andre; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapf, Birgit Sylvia; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultan, D M S; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takasugi, Eric Hayato; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsang, Ka Wa; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valéry, Lo\\"ic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallier, Alexis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Ambrosius Thomas; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weirich, Marcel; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Aaron; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Whitmore, Ben William; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkels, Emma; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Vincent Wai Sum; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamatani, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-06-27

    A measurement of the production cross section for two isolated photons in proton--proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV is presented. The results are based on an integrated luminosity of 20.2 fb$^{-1}$ recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurement considers photons with pseudorapidities satisfying $|\\eta^{\\gamma}|40$ GeV and $E_{\\mathrm{T,2}}^{\\gamma}>30$ GeV for the two leading photons ordered in transverse energy produced in the interaction.The background due to hadronic jets and electrons is subtracted using data-driven techniques. The fiducial cross sections are corrected for detector effects and measured differentially as a function of six kinematic observables. The measured cross section integrated within the fiducial volume is $16.8 \\pm 0.8$ pb. The data are compared to fixed-order QCD calculations at next-to-leading-order and next-to-next-to-leading-order accuracy as well as next-to-leading-order computations including resummation of initial-st...

  7. 125 GHz sine wave gating InGaAs/InP single-photon detector with a monolithically integrated readout circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Hao; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yin; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-12-01

    InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. Gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing module size are important challenges for the design of such detector system. Here we present for the first time an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15 mm * 15 mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency sine wave gating. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5 % photon detection efficiency, 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1 % afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.

  8. 1.25  GHz sine wave gating InGaAs/InP single-photon detector with a monolithically integrated readout circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Hao; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yin; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-12-15

    InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. The gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing the module size are important challenges for the design of such a detector system. Here we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating (SWG) using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15  mm×15  mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency SWG. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of the MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5% photon detection efficiency, a 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1% afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.

  9. Integrated Optimization of Bus Line Fare and Operational Strategies Using Elastic Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization approach for designing a transit service system is proposed. Its objective would be the maximization of total social welfare, by providing a profitable fare structure and tailoring operational strategies to passenger demand. These operational strategies include full route operation (FRO, limited stop, short turn, and a mix of the latter two strategies. The demand function is formulated to reflect the attributes of these strategies, in-vehicle crowding, and fare effects on demand variation. The fare is either a flat fare or a differential fare structure; the latter is based on trip distance and achieved service levels. This proposed methodology is applied to a case study of Dalian, China. The optimal results indicate that an optimal combination of operational strategies integrated with a differential fare structure results in the highest potential for increasing total social welfare, if the value of parameter ε related to additional service fee is low. When this value increases up to more than a threshold, strategies with a flat fare show greater benefits. If this value increases beyond yet another threshold, the use of skipped stop strategies is not recommended.

  10. 44Ti Nucleosynthesis Lines and Hard X-ray Continuum in Young SNRs: from INTEGRAL to Simbol-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, M.; Terrier, R.; Trap, G.; Lebrun, F.; Decourchelle, A.; Vink, J.

    2009-05-01

    Supemovae and their remnants are the main Galactic nucleosynthesis sites and the privileged sources of Galactic cosmic rays. The youngest of such remnants can be studied through two distinct observational features: 44Ti γ-ray lines and the hard X-ray nonthermal continuum emission. The former gives unique information on the nucleosynthesis conditions occuring during the first stages of the explosion, while the latter provides clues on acceleration processes at supernova remnant shocks. In this contribution, we present new INTEGRAL results on Tycho, the remnant of a historical supernova, and on G1.9+0.3, which has been recently unveiled as the youngest Galactic supernova remnant. Expectations with Simbol-X are also addressed.

  11. 44Ti Nucleosynthesis Lines and Hard X-ray Continuum in Young SNRs: from INTEGRAL to Simbol-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, M.; Terrier, R.; Lebrun, F.; Trap, G.; Decourchelle, A.; Vink, J.

    2009-01-01

    Supemovae and their remnants are the main Galactic nucleosynthesis sites and the privileged sources of Galactic cosmic rays. The youngest of such remnants can be studied through two distinct observational features: 44 Tiγ-ray lines and the hard X-ray nonthermal continuum emission. The former gives unique information on the nucleosynthesis conditions occuring during the first stages of the explosion, while the latter provides clues on acceleration processes at supernova remnant shocks. In this contribution, we present new INTEGRAL results on Tycho, the remnant of a historical supernova, and on G1.9+0.3, which has been recently unveiled as the youngest Galactic supernova remnant. Expectations with Simbol-X are also addressed.

  12. Upgrading FLIR NanoRaider with the next Generation of CdZnTe Detectors. Goal - Integrate VFG detectors into FLIR R200. Advanced Virtual Grid ASIC (AVG-ASIC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cui, Yonggang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vernon, Emerson [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); De Geronimo, Gianluigi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This document presents motivations, goals and the current status of this project; development (fabrication, performance) of position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors proposed for nanoRaider, an instrument commonly used by nuclear inspectors; ASIC developments for CZT detectors; and the electronics development for the detector prototype..

  13. On-line integration of computer controlled diagnostic devices and medical information systems in undergraduate medical physics education for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Josef; Nosek, Tomas; Zahora, Jiri; Bezrouk, Ales; Masin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We designed and evaluated an innovative computer-aided-learning environment based on the on-line integration of computer controlled medical diagnostic devices and a medical information system for use in the preclinical medical physics education of medical students. Our learning system simulates the actual clinical environment in a hospital or primary care unit. It uses a commercial medical information system for on-line storage and processing of clinical type data acquired during physics laboratory classes. Every student adopts two roles, the role of 'patient' and the role of 'physician'. As a 'physician' the student operates the medical devices to clinically assess 'patient' colleagues and records all results in an electronic 'patient' record. We also introduced an innovative approach to the use of supportive education materials, based on the methods of adaptive e-learning. A survey of student feedback is included and statistically evaluated. The results from the student feedback confirm the positive response of the latter to this novel implementation of medical physics and informatics in preclinical education. This approach not only significantly improves learning of medical physics and informatics skills but has the added advantage that it facilitates students' transition from preclinical to clinical subjects. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  15. Electronic alarm device for radioactivity detector associated with a direct current amplifier or with a integration-based counting assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmaretz, Marc; Ferlicot, Rene

    1964-04-01

    The authors report the study of a device aimed at triggering sound and light alarms when a radiation detector associated with a direct current amplifier or with a counting assembly detects a radiation intensity greater than one or two previously defined thresholds. This device can be used at any time for a detection assembly which is not continuously monitored. It has been designed to be adapted to the CEA standard electronics currently used in installations and on which the alarm function had not been initially foreseen. The assembly comprises an additional safety device for the control of any untimely shutdown of the detection chain [fr

  16. Dynamic MTF, an innovative test bench for detector characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Rossi; Raphaël, Lardière; Delmonte, Stephane

    2017-11-01

    PLEIADES HR are High Resolution satellites for Earth observation. Placed at 695km they reach a 0.7m spatial resolution. To allow such performances, the detectors are working in a TDI mode (Time and Delay Integration) which consists in a continuous charge transfer from one line to the consecutive one while the image is passing on the detector. The spatial resolution, one of the most important parameter to test, is characterized by the MTF (Modulation Transfer Function). Usually, detectors are tested in a staring mode. For a higher level of performances assessment, a dedicated bench has been set-up, allowing detectors' MTF characterization in the TDI mode. Accuracy and reproducibility are impressive, opening the door to new perspectives in term of HR imaging systems testing.

  17. Low Reynolds number airfoil aerodynamic loads determination via line integral of velocity obtained with particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.; Su, Y.Y. [McGill University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    The small magnitude lift forces generated by both a NACA 0012 airfoil and a thin flat plate at Re = 29,000 and 54,000 were determined through the line integral of velocity, obtained with particle image velocimetry, via the application of the Kutta-Joukowsky theorem. Surface pressure measurements of the NACA0012 airfoil were also obtained to validate the lift coefficient C{sub l}. The bound circulation was found to be insensitive to the size and aspect ratio of the rectangular integration loop for pre-stall angles. The present C{sub l} data were also found to agree very well with the surface pressure-determined lift coefficient for pre-stall conditions. A large variation in C{sub l} with the loop size and aspect ratio for post-stall conditions was, however, observed. Nevertheless, the present flat-plate C{sub l} data were also found to collectively agree with the published force-balance measurements at small angles of attack, despite the large disparity exhibited among the various published data at high angles. Finally, the ensemble-averaged wake velocity profiles were also used to compute the drag coefficient and, subsequently, the lift-to-drag ratio. (orig.)

  18. History of infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  19. The KMOS3D Survey: Rotating Compact Star-forming Galaxies and the Decomposition of Integrated Line Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnioski, E.; Mendel, J. T.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Wilman, D.; Wuyts, S.; Belli, S.; Beifiori, A.; Bender, R.; Brammer, G.; Chan, J.; Davies, R. I.; Davies, R. L.; Fabricius, M.; Fossati, M.; Galametz, A.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Nelson, E. J.; Momcheva, I.; Rosario, D.; Saglia, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Übler, H.; van Dokkum, P. G.

    2018-03-01

    Using integral field spectroscopy, we investigate the kinematic properties of 35 massive centrally dense and compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs; {log}{\\overline{M}}* [{M}ȯ ]=11.1, {log}({{{Σ }}}1{kpc}[{M}ȯ {kpc}}-2])> 9.5, {log}({M}* /{r}e1.5[{M}ȯ {kpc}}-1.5])> 10.3) at z ∼ 0.7–3.7 within the KMOS3D survey. We spatially resolve 23 compact SFGs and find that the majority are dominated by rotational motions with velocities ranging from 95 to 500 km s‑1. The range of rotation velocities is reflected in a similar range of integratedline widths, 75–400 km s‑1, consistent with the kinematic properties of mass-matched extended galaxies from the full KMOS3D sample. The fraction of compact SFGs that are classified as “rotation-dominated” or “disklike” also mirrors the fractions of the full KMOS3D sample. We show that integrated line-of-sight gas velocity dispersions from KMOS3D are best approximated by a linear combination of their rotation and turbulent velocities with a lesser but still significant contribution from galactic-scale winds. The Hα exponential disk sizes of compact SFGs are, on average, 2.5 ± 0.2 kpc, 1–2× the continuum sizes, in agreement with previous work. The compact SFGs have a 1.4× higher active galactic nucleus (AGN) incidence than the full KMOS3D sample at fixed stellar mass with an average AGN fraction of 76%. Given their high and centrally concentrated stellar masses, as well as stellar-to-dynamical mass ratios close to unity, the compact SFGs are likely to have low molecular gas fractions and to quench on a short timescale unless replenished with inflowing gas. The rotation in these compact systems suggests that their direct descendants are rotating passive galaxies. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 092A-0091, 093.A-0079, 094.A-0217, 095.A-0047, 096.A-0025, 097.A-0028, and 098.A-0045).

  20. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  1. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  2. A Planar, Chip-Based, Dual-Beam Refractometer Using an Integrated Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Light Source and Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Erin L.; Veneman, P. Alex; Simmonds, Adam; Zacher, Brian; Huebner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple chip-based refractometer with a central organic light emitting diode (OLED) light source and two opposed organic photovoltaic (OPV) detectors on an internal reflection element (IRE) substrate, creating a true dual-beam sensor platform. For first-generation platforms, we demonstrate the use of a single heterojunction OLED based on electroluminescence emission from an Alq3/TPD heterojunction (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine) and light detection with planar heterojunction pentacene/C60 OPVs. The sensor utilizes the considerable fraction of emitted light from conventional thin film OLEDs that is coupled into guided modes in the IRE instead of into the forward (display) direction. A ray-optics description is used to describe light throughput and efficiency-limiting factors for light coupling from the OLED into the substrate modes, light traversing through the IRE substrate, and light coupling into the OPV detectors. The arrangement of the OLED at the center of the chip provides for two sensing regions, a “sample” and “reference” channel, with detection of light by independent OPV detectors. This configuration allows for normalization of the sensor response against fluctuations in OLED light output, stability, and local fluctuations (temperature) which might influence sensor response. The dual beam configuration permits significantly enhanced sensitivity to refractive index changes relative to single-beam protocols, and is easily integrated into a field-portable instrumentation package. Changes in refractive index (ΔR.I.) between 10−2 and 10−3 R.I. units could be detected for single channel operation, with sensitivity increased to ΔR.I. ≈ 10−4 units when the dual beam configuration is employed. PMID:20218580

  3. Murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector has differential integration patterns in human cell lines used to produce recombinant factor VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cristina Correa de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nowadays recombinant factor VIII is produced in murine cells including in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO and baby hamster kidney cells (BHK. Previous studies, using the murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K, modified two recombinant human cell lines, HepG2 and Hek293 to produce recombinant factor VIII. In order to characterize these cells, the present study aimed to analyze the integration pattern of retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K.METHODS: This study used ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction to locate the site of viral vector integration by sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The sequences were compared to genomic databases to characterize respective clones.RESULTS: The retroviral vector presented different and non-random profiles of integration between cells lines. A preference of integration for chromosomes 19, 17 and 11 was observed for HepG2FVIIIdB/P140K and chromosome 9 for Hek293FVIIIdB/P140K. In genomic regions such as CpG islands and transcription factor binding sites, there was no difference in the integration profiles for both cell lines. Integration in intronic regions of encoding protein genes (RefSeq genes was also observed in both cell lines. Twenty percent of integrations occurred at fragile sites in the genome of the HepG2 cell line and 17% in Hek293.CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the cell type can affect the profile of chromosomal integration of the retroviral vector used; these differences may interfere in the level of expression of recombinant proteins.

  4. Advanced far infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > λ > 50 μm are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide

  5. THE PHOTOMETRIC AND KINEMATIC STRUCTURE OF FACE-ON DISK GALAXIES. II. INTEGRATED LINE PROFILE CHARACTERIZATION AND THE ORIGIN OF LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, David R.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    We perform a moments analysis of H I and H II global line profiles for 33 nearly face-on disk galaxies for the threefold purpose of rationalizing and interpreting line profile indices in the literature, presenting robust moment definitions with analytic error functions calibrated against Monte Carlo simulation, and probing the physical origin of line profile asymmetries. The first four profile moments serve as viable surrogates for the recession velocity, line width, asymmetry, and profile shape, respectively. The first three moments are superior, by a factor of ∼2 in precision, to related quantities defined in the literature. First and third profile moments are related; skew can be used to calculate more accurate recession velocities from global profiles. Second and fourth profile moments are linked, corresponding to the known trend that narrow (but well resolved) line widths tend to be more Gaussian. Hα kurtosis also appears correlated with the spatially resolved line width of the ionized gas. No systematics appear between various measures of line width and true rotation speed other than the wide range of normalizations, which we calibrate. This conclusion and calibration, however, is highly sample dependent. The ratio of H II to H I widths is consistent with unity, even at low projected line width. There may be a trend toward a decrease in the ratio of H II to H I widths consistent with previous studies, but we also observe greater scatter. While there is good agreement between H I and H II first, second, and fourth moments, we find no positive correlation between skew measured from H I and H II profiles. Detailed analysis of the spatially resolved Hα distribution demonstrates that H II global profile asymmetries are dominated by differences in the gas distribution, not kinematic asymmetries.

  6. Design and implementation of an integrated architecture for massive parallel data treatment of analogue signals supplied by silicon detectors of very high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.

    1993-02-01

    This doctorate thesis studies an integrated architecture designed to a parallel massive treatment of analogue signals supplied by silicon detectors of very high spatial resolution. The first chapter is an introduction presenting the general outline and the triggering conditions of the spectrometer. Chapter two describes the operational structure of a microvertex detector made of Si micro-plates associated to the measuring chains. Information preconditioning is related to the pre-amplification stage, to the pile-up effects and to the reduction in the time characteristic due to the high counting rates. The chapter three describes the architecture of the analogue delay buffer, makes an analysis of the intrinsic noise and presents the operational testings and input/output control operations. The fourth chapter is devoted to the description of the analogue pulse shape processor and gives also the testings and the corresponding measurements on the circuit. Finally, the chapter five deals with the simplest modeling of the entire conditioning chain. Also, the testings and measuring procedures are here discussed. In conclusion the author presents some prospects for improving the signal-to-noise ratio by summation of the de-convoluted micro-paths. 78 refs., 78 figs., 1 annexe

  7. Re-integration and Consolidation of the Detector Control System for the Compact Muon Solenoid Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Holme, Oliver; Dissertori, Günther; Djambazov, Lubomir; Lustermann, Werner; Zelepoukine, Serguei

    2013-01-01

    The current shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), following three successful years of physics data-taking, provides an opportunity for major upgrades to be performed on the Detector Control System (DCS) of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The upgrades involve changes to both hardware and software, with particular emphasis on taking advantage of more powerful servers and updating third-party software to the latest supported versions. The considerable increase in available processing power enables a reduction from fifteen to three or four servers. To host the control system on fewer machines and to ensure that previously independent software components could run side-by-side without incompatibilities, significant changes in the software and databases were required. Additional work was undertaken to modernise and concentrate I/O interfaces. The challenges to prepare and validate the hardware and software upgrades are described along with details of the ...

  8. Photoacoustic projection imaging using an all-optical detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Marschallinger, J.; Felbermayer, K.; Berer, T.

    2018-02-01

    We present a prototype for all-optical photoacoustic projection imaging. By generating projection images, photoacoustic information of large volumes can be retrieved with less effort compared to common photoacoustic computed tomography where many detectors and/or multiple measurements are required. In our approach, an array of 60 integrating line detectors is used to acquire photoacoustic waves. The line detector array consists of fiber-optic MachZehnder interferometers, distributed on a cylindrical surface. From the measured variation of the optical path lengths of the interferometers, induced by photoacoustic waves, a photoacoustic projection image can be reconstructed. The resulting images represent the projection of the three-dimensional spatial light absorbance within the imaged object onto a two-dimensional plane, perpendicular to the line detector array. The fiber-optic detectors achieve a noise-equivalent pressure of 24 Pascal at a 10 MHz bandwidth. We present the operational principle, the structure of the array, and resulting images. The system can acquire high-resolution projection images of large volumes within a short period of time. Imaging large volumes at high frame rates facilitates monitoring of dynamic processes.

  9. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    LUCID-2 (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the upgrade of the main detector dedicated to luminosity measurements in ATLAS. Most changes were motivated by the number of interactions per bunch-crossing and the 25 ns bunch-spacing expected in LHC RUN II (2015-2018). Both fast online information used by LHC for luminosity optimisation and levelling in ATLAS, and per-bunch data to be used offline, come from LUCID-2

  10. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  11. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  12. An array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors and a front-end application-specific integrated circuit for large-area position-sensitive gamma-ray cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, A. E., E-mail: bolotnik@bnl.gov; Ackley, K.; Camarda, G. S.; Cherches, C.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G.; Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; Mahler, G.; Maritato, M.; Roy, U.; Salwen, C.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; James, R. B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11793 (United States); Hodges, D. [University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Lee, W. [Korea University, Seoul 136-855 (Korea, Republic of); Petryk, M. [SUNY Binghamton, Vestal, New York 13902 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    We developed a robust and low-cost array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors coupled to a front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays. The array operates as a self-reliant detector module. It is comprised of 36 close-packed 6 × 6 × 15 mm{sup 3} detectors grouped into 3 × 3 sub-arrays of 2 × 2 detectors with the common cathodes. The front-end analog ASIC accommodates up to 36 anode and 9 cathode inputs. Several detector modules can be integrated into a single- or multi-layer unit operating as a Compton or a coded-aperture camera. We present the results from testing two fully assembled modules and readout electronics. The further enhancement of the arrays’ performance and reduction of their cost are possible by using position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, which allow for accurate corrections of the response of material non-uniformities caused by crystal defects.

  13. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  14. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  15. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  16. Track length estimation applied to point detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rief, H.; Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of the track length estimator is applied to the uncollided point flux estimator (UCF) leading to a new algorithm of calculating fluxes at a point. It consists essentially of a line integral of the UCF, and although its variance is unbounded, the convergence rate is that of a bounded variance estimator. In certain applications, involving detector points in the vicinity of collimated beam sources, it has a lower variance than the once-more-collided point flux estimator, and its application is more straightforward

  17. Assessment of image quality and low-contrast detectability in abdominal CT of obese patients: comparison of a novel integrated circuit with a conventional discrete circuit detector at different tube voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, A; Heye, T; Kekelidze, M; Bongartz, G; Szucs-Farkas, Z; Sommer, C; Schmidt, B; Schindera, Sebastian T

    2015-03-01

    To compare image quality and low-contrast detectability of an integrated circuit (IC) detector in abdominal CT of obese patients with conventional detector technology at low tube voltages. A liver phantom with 45 lesions was placed in a water container to mimic an obese patient and examined on two different CT systems at 80, 100 and 120 kVp. The systems were equipped with either the IC or conventional detector. Image noise was measured, and the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) was calculated. Low-contrast detectability was assessed independently by three radiologists. Radiation dose was estimated by the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). The image noise was significantly lower, and the CNR was significantly higher with the IC detector at 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively (P = 0.023). The IC detector resulted in an increased lesion detection rate at 80 kVp (38.1 % vs. 17.2 %) and 100 kVp (57.0 % vs. 41.0 %). There was no difference in the detection rate between the IC detector at 100 kVp and the conventional detector at 120 kVp (57.0 % vs. 62.2 %). The CTDIvol at 80, 100 and 120 kVp measured 4.5-5.2, 7.3-7.9 and 9.8-10.2 mGy, respectively. The IC detector at 100 kVp resulted in similar low-contrast detectability compared to the conventional detector with a 120-kVp protocol at a radiation dose reduction of 37 %.

  18. Assessment of image quality and low-contrast detectability in abdominal CT of obese patients: comparison of a novel integrated circuit with a conventional discrete circuit detector at different tube voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euler, A.; Heye, T.; Kekelidze, M.; Bongartz, G.; Schindera, Sebastian T. [University of Basel Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Szucs-Farkas, Z. [Hospital Centre of Biel, Institute of Radiology, Biel (Switzerland); Sommer, C. [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Schmidt, B. [Siemens Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To compare image quality and low-contrast detectability of an integrated circuit (IC) detector in abdominal CT of obese patients with conventional detector technology at low tube voltages. A liver phantom with 45 lesions was placed in a water container to mimic an obese patient and examined on two different CT systems at 80, 100 and 120 kVp. The systems were equipped with either the IC or conventional detector. Image noise was measured, and the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) was calculated. Low-contrast detectability was assessed independently by three radiologists. Radiation dose was estimated by the volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}). The image noise was significantly lower, and the CNR was significantly higher with the IC detector at 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively (P = 0.023). The IC detector resulted in an increased lesion detection rate at 80 kVp (38.1 % vs. 17.2 %) and 100 kVp (57.0 % vs. 41.0 %). There was no difference in the detection rate between the IC detector at 100 kVp and the conventional detector at 120 kVp (57.0 % vs. 62.2 %). The CTDI{sub vol} at 80, 100 and 120 kVp measured 4.5-5.2, 7.3-7.9 and 9.8-10.2 mGy, respectively. The IC detector at 100 kVp resulted in similar low-contrast detectability compared to the conventional detector with a 120-kVp protocol at a radiation dose reduction of 37 %. (orig.)

  19. The design of the frame structure used in integral hosting of the nuclear island steel lining cylinder module and problems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinian; Liu Xiao; Wang Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    The use of the steel frame in the integral hosting of nuclear island steel lining cylinder module made a breakthrough in China's nuclear power construction. The deformation of the cylinder wall is the key issue in the integral lifting process of the nuclear island steel lining. Using the frame in lifting large and thin steel cylinder, the form of frame structure and its deformation will directly affect the radial deformation of the lifted cylinder, the buckling deformation of the distal cylinder, and the cylinder's deformation surround the penetrations. The diameter of nuclear island steel liner is 44 meters. The wall of the cylinder is thin, and the total weight of the cylinder itself and its attached penetrations, walkways and lifting tools, etc. is up to 120 tons, which not only increase the difficulty of lifting, but also have some risks. To ensure the cylinder deformation within the limits, this thesis establishes the parameter structure for the lifting frame, calculates the displacement and analyzes the axial stresses, based on the ANSYS finite element analysis software. The results showed that the models and parameters for integral hosting of the steel lining cylinder modular frame structure is reasonable and feasible, and analyzing the hosting-frame data is necessary, which lay the foundation for the design of the hosting frame and the eventual implementation of the integral hosting scheme of the steel lining cylinder module. (authors)

  20. The HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Belostotski, S.

    2013-02-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  1. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  2. The STAR Vertex Position Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llope, W.J., E-mail: llope@rice.edu [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Zhou, J.; Nussbaum, T. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hoffmann, G.W. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Asselta, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brandenburg, J.D.; Butterworth, J. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Camarda, T.; Christie, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Crawford, H.J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dong, X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Engelage, J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eppley, G.; Geurts, F. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hammond, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Judd, E. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McDonald, D.L. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Perkins, C. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ruan, L.; Scheblein, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others

    2014-09-21

    The 2×3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2×19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event “start time” needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ∼100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ∼1 cm.

  3. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  4. The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

  5. In vitro evaluation of gaseous microemboli handling of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits with and without integrated arterial line filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Saifei; Newland, Richard F; Tully, Phillip J; Tuble, Sigrid C; Baker, Robert A

    2011-09-01

    The delivery of gaseous microemboli (GME) by the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit should be minimized whenever possible. Innovations in components, such as the integration of arterial line filter (ALF) and ALFs with reduced priming volumes, have provided clinicians with circuit design options. However, before adopting these components clinically, their GME handling ability should be assessed. This study aims to compare the GME handling ability of different oxygenator/ALF combinations with our currently utilized combination. Five commercially available oxygenator/ALF combinations were evaluated in vitro: Terumo Capiox SX25RX and Dideco D734 (SX/D734),Terumo Capiox RX25R and AF125 (RX/AF125), Terumo FX25R (FX), Sorin Synthesis with 102 microm reservoir filter (SYN102), and Sorin Synthesis with 40 microm reservoir filter (SYN40). GME handling was studied by introducing air into the venous return at 100 mL/min for 60 seconds under two flow/ pressure combinations: 3.5 L/min, 150 mmHg and 5 L/min, 200 mmHg. Emboli were measured at three positions in the circuit using the Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) Quantifier and analyzed with the General Linear Model. All circuits significantly reduced GME. The SX/D734 and SYN40 circuits were most efficient in GME removal whilst the SYN102 handled embolic load (count and volume) least efficiently (p circuits (p circuits (p circuits to handle GME. Venous reservoir design influenced the overall GME handling ability. GME removal was less efficient at higher flow and pressure, and for smaller sized emboli. The clinical significance of reducing GME requires further investigation.

  6. Deciphering the Correlation between Breast Tumor Samples and Cell Lines by Integrating Copy Number Changes and Gene Expression Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with high incident rate and high mortality rate worldwide. Although different breast cancer cell lines were widely used in laboratory investigations, accumulated evidences have indicated that genomic differences exist between cancer cell lines and tissue samples in the past decades. The abundant molecular profiles of cancer cell lines and tumor samples deposited in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and The Cancer Genome Atlas now allow a systematical comparison of the breast cancer cell lines with breast tumors. We depicted the genomic characteristics of breast primary tumors based on the copy number variation and gene expression profiles and the breast cancer cell lines were compared to different subgroups of breast tumors. We identified that some of the breast cancer cell lines show high correlation with the tumor group that agrees with previous knowledge, while a big part of them do not, including the most used MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D. We presented a computational framework to identify cell lines that mostly resemble a certain tumor group for the breast tumor study. Our investigation presents a useful guide to bridge the gap between cell lines and tumors and helps to select the most suitable cell line models for personalized cancer studies.

  7. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  8. Integrated readout of organic scintillator and ZnS:Ag/6LiF for segmented antineutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiff, Scott D.; Reyna, David; Monahan, James; Bowden, Nathaniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Antineutrino detection using inverse beta decay conversion has demonstrated the capability to measure nuclear reactor power and fissile material content for nuclear safeguards. Current efforts focus on aboveground deployment scenarios, for which highly efficient capture and identification of neutrons is needed to measure the anticipated antineutrino event rates in an elevated background environment. In this submission, we report on initial characterization of a new scintillation-based segmented design that uses layers of ZnS:Ag/ 6 LiF and an integrated readout technique to capture and identify neutrons created in the inverse beta decay reaction. Laboratory studies with multiple organic scintillator and ZnS:Ag/ 6 LiF configurations reliably identify 6 Li neutron captures in 60 cm-long segments using pulse shape discrimination.

  9. Long-term Radon Levels and Equilibrium Factor in Some Spanish Workplaces Measured with a Passive Integrating Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baixeras, C.; Amgarou, K.; Font, Ll.; Domingo, C.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of long-term radon levels and equilibrium factor is important to estimate the annual averaged dose due to radon progeny inhalation indoors. According to the European Union directive 96/26/EURATOM it is necessary to control the radon level in workplaces. This paper presents the radon concentration and equilibrium factor values obtained in some workplaces from the Barcelona area with a passive integrating dosemeter exposed for two months. The dosemeter consists of two Makrofol-DE nuclear etched track foils, one within a diffusion chamber and the other one bare, allowing the separated measurement of 222 Rn (C 0 ) and 214 Po (C 4 ) activity concentration respectively. The equilibrium factor is estimated from the disequilibrium degree (k 4 = C 4 /C 0 ). A description of the dosemeter and the methodology used, and an estimation of the annual dose received for the workers at the different workplaces are presented. (author)

  10. Image quality and radiation dose of lower extremity CT angiography at 70 kVp on an integrated circuit detector dual-source computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Zhao, Yan'E; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Spearman, James V; Renker, Matthias; Schoepf, U Joseph; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2015-06-01

    Despite the well-established requirement for radiation dose reduction there are few studies examining the potential for lower extremity CT angiography (CTA) at 70 kVp. To compare the image quality and radiation dose of lower extremity CTA at 70 kVp using a dual-source CT system with an integrated circuit detector to similar studies at 120 kVp. A total of 62 patients underwent lower extremity CTA. Thirty-one patients were examined at 70 kVp using a second generation dual-source CT with an integrated circuit detector (70 kVp group) and 31 patients were evaluated at 120 kVp using a first generation dual-source CT (120 kVp group). The attenuation and image noise were measured and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Two radiologists assessed image quality. Radiation dose was compared. The mean attenuation of the 70 kVp group was higher than the 120 kVp group (575 ± 149 Hounsfield units [HU] vs. 258 ± 38 HU, respectively, P < 0.001) as was SNR (44.0 ± 22.0 vs 32.7 ± 13.3, respectively, P = 0.017), CNR (39.7 ± 20.6 vs 26.6 ± 11.7, respectively, P = 0.003) and the mean image quality score (3.7 ± 0.1 vs. 3.2 ± 0.3, respectively, P < 0.001). The inter-observer agreement was good for the 70 kVp group and moderate for the 120 kVp group. The dose-length product was lower in the 70 kVp group (264.5 ± 63.1 mGy × cm vs. 412.4 ± 81.5 mGy × cm, P < 0.001). Lower extremity CTA at 70 kVp allows for lower radiation dose with higher SNR, CNR, and image quality when compared with standard 120 kVp. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cell lines from human dermal fibroblasts using a non-integration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ok Uhm

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs from dermal fibroblasts using a Sendai virus (SeV-based gene delivery method. The generated hiPSC line, KSCBi002-A, has a normal karyotype (46,XY. The pluripotency and differentiation capacity were characterized by comparison with those of a human embryonic stem cell line. This cell line is registered and available from the National Stem Cell Bank, Korea National Institute of Health.

  12. Determination of the Molecular Weight of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins by Using High-Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography on Line with a Triple Detector Array and Conventional Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Bisio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of weight average molecular weight (Mw and molecular weight distribution represents one of the most controversial aspects concerning the characterization of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs. As the most commonly used method for the measurement of such parameters is high performance size exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC, the soundness of results mainly depends on the appropriate calibration of the chromatographic columns used. With the aim of meeting the requirement of proper Mw standards for LMWHs, in the present work the determination of molecular weight parameters (Mw and Mn by HP-SEC combined with a triple detector array (TDA was performed. The HP-SEC/TDA technique permits the evaluation of polymeric samples by exploiting the combined and simultaneous action of three on-line detectors: light scattering detectors (LALLS/RALLS; refractometer and viscometer. Three commercial LMWH samples, enoxaparin, tinzaparin and dalteparin, a γ-ray depolymerized heparin (γ-Hep and its chromatographic fractions, and a synthetic pentasaccharide were analysed by HP-SEC/TDA. The same samples were analysed also with a conventional HP-SEC method employing refractive index (RI and UV detectors and two different chromatographic column set, silica gel and polymeric gel columns. In both chromatographic systems, two different calibration curves were built up by using (i γ-Hep chromatographic fractions and the corresponding Mw parameters obtained via HP-SEC/TDA; (ii the whole γ-Hep preparation with broad Mw dispersion and the corresponding cumulative distribution function calculated via HP-SEC/TDA. In addition, also a chromatographic column calibration according to European Pharmacopoeia indication was built up. By comparing all the obtained results, some important differences among Mw and size distribution values of the three LMWHs were found with the five different calibration methods and with HP-SEC/TDA method. In particular, the detection of

  13. Status of SAT CID InSb detector technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatard, J.P.; Lussereau, A.; Lorans, D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents SAT indium antimonide Charge Injection Devices (C.I.D) Technology, post focal plane signal processing and some applications. These detectors are constituted by MOS capacitors realized on InSb wafers using integrated circuit-like processing. When a negative voltage is applied to the structure (put it into depletion) the capacitors form integrating detectors for use in 3-5 μm band. Linear arrays constituted by a line of single capacitors, matrix arrays constituted by a group of two coupled MOS capacitors, collect and store photon generated charge carriers. In the last case, the selection of a site is accomplished by X-Y decoding technique

  14. Radiation detectors for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagi, V.

    2005-01-01

    Detection and measurement of radiation plays a vital role in nuclear reactors from the point of view of control and safety, personnel protection and process control applications. Various types of radiation are measured over a wide range of intensity. Consequently a variety of detectors find use in nuclear reactors. Some of these devices have been developed in Electronics Division. They include gas-filled detectors such as 10 B-lined proportional counters and chambers, fission detectors and BF 3 counters are used for the measurement of neutron flux both for reactor control and safety, process control as well as health physics instrumentation. In-core neutron flux instrumentation employs the use detectors such as miniature fission detectors and self-powered detectors. In this development effort, several indigenous materials, technologies and innovations have been employed to suit the specific requirement of nuclear reactor applications. This has particular significance in view of the fact that several new types of reactors such as P-4, PWR and AHWR critical facilities, FBTR, PFBR as well as the refurbishment of old units like CIRUS are being developed. The development work has sought to overcome some difficulties associated with the non-availability of isotopically enriched neutron-sensing materials, achieving all-welded construction etc. The present paper describes some of these innovations and performance results. (author)

  15. High-resolution high-efficiency X-ray imaging system based on the in-line Bragg magnifier and the Medipix detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vagovič, P.; Korytár, D.; Cecilia, A.; Hamann, E.; Švéda, L.; Pelliccia, D.; Hartwig, J.; Zápražný, Z.; Oberta, Peter; Dolbnya, I.; Shawney, K.; Flechsig, U.; Fiederle, M.; Baumbach, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2013), s. 153-159 ISSN 0909-0495. [International Workshop on X-Ray Damage to Biological Crystalline Samples /7./. Oxfordshire, 14.03.2012-16.03.2012] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Bragg magnifie * germanium * holography * high resolution * in-line * X-ray imaging Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.022, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1107/S0909049512044366/pdf

  16. Detectors - Electronics; Detecteurs - Electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-04-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X {yields} e{sup -} converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the {sup 3}He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  17. Modeling an array of encapsulated germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    A probability model has been presented for understanding the operation of an array of encapsulated germanium detectors generally known as composite detector. The addback mode of operation of a composite detector has been described considering the absorption and scattering of γ-rays. Considering up to triple detector hit events, we have obtained expressions for peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the cluster detector, which consists of seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. Results have been obtained for the miniball detectors comprising of three and four seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. The formalism has been extended to the SPI spectrometer which is a telescope of the INTEGRAL satellite and consists of nineteen hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. This spectrometer comprises of twelve detector modules surrounding the cluster detector. For comparison, we have considered a spectrometer comprising of nine detector modules surrounding the three detector configuration of miniball detector. In the present formalism, the operation of these sophisticated detectors could be described in terms of six probability amplitudes only. Using experimental data on relative efficiency and fold distribution of cluster detector as input, the fold distribution and the peak-to-total, peak-to-background ratios have been calculated for the SPI spectrometer and other composite detectors at 1332 keV. Remarkable agreement between experimental data and results from the present formalism has been observed for the SPI spectrometer.

  18. Towards a high performance vertex detector based on 3D integration of deep N-well MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re, V

    2010-01-01

    The development of deep N-Well (DNW) CMOS active pixel sensors was driven by the ambitious goal of designing a monolithic device with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixel readout chips, such as pixel-level sparsification and time stamping. The implementation of the DNW MAPS concept in a 3D vertical integration process naturally leads the designer towards putting more intelligence in the chip and in the pixels themselves, achieving novel device structures based on the interconnection of two or more layers fabricated in the same technology. These devices are read out with a data-push scheme that makes it possible to use pixel data for the generation of a flexible level 1 track trigger, based on associative memories, with short latency and high efficiency. This paper gives an update of the present status of DNW MAPS design in both 2D and 3D versions, and presents a discussion of the architectures that are being devised for the Layer 0 of the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker.

  19. Towards a high performance vertex detector based on 3D integration of deep N-well MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, V, E-mail: valerio.re@unibg.i [University of Bergamo, Department of Industrial Engineering, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The development of deep N-Well (DNW) CMOS active pixel sensors was driven by the ambitious goal of designing a monolithic device with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixel readout chips, such as pixel-level sparsification and time stamping. The implementation of the DNW MAPS concept in a 3D vertical integration process naturally leads the designer towards putting more intelligence in the chip and in the pixels themselves, achieving novel device structures based on the interconnection of two or more layers fabricated in the same technology. These devices are read out with a data-push scheme that makes it possible to use pixel data for the generation of a flexible level 1 track trigger, based on associative memories, with short latency and high efficiency. This paper gives an update of the present status of DNW MAPS design in both 2D and 3D versions, and presents a discussion of the architectures that are being devised for the Layer 0 of the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker.

  20. Lymphoblast-derived integration-free ISRM-CON9 iPS cell line from a 75 year old female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Martins

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lymphoblast cells were used to generate integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs employing episomal-based plasmids expressing OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, c-MYC and L-MYC. The derived iPSCs were defined as pluripotent based on (i expression of pluripotency-associated markers, (ii embryoid body-based differentiation into cell types representative of the three germ layers and (iii the similarity between the transcriptomes of the iPSC line and the human embryonic stem cell line H1 with a Pearson correlation of 0.95.

  1. Noise propagation issues in Belle II pixel detector power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, M.; Arteche, F.; Echeverria, I.; Pradas, A.; Rivetta, C.; Moser, H.-G.; Kiesling, C.; Rummel, S.; Arcega, F. J.

    2018-04-01

    The vertex detector used in the upgrade of High-Energy physics experiment Belle II includes DEPFET pixel detector (PXD) technology. In this complex topology the power supply units and the front-end electronics are connected through a PXD power cable bundle which may propagate the output noise from the power supplies to the vertex area. This paper presents a study of the propagation of noise caused by power converters in the PXD cable bundle based on Multi-conductor Transmission Line (MTL) theory. The work exposes the effect of the complex cable topology and shield connections on the noise propagation, which has an impact on the requirements of the power supplies. This analysis is part of the electromagnetic compatibility based design focused on functional safety to define the shield connections and power supply specifications required to ensure the successful integration of the detector and, specifically, to achieve the designed performance of the front-end electronics.

  2. A recurrent human papillomavirus integration site at chromosome region 12q14-q15 in SW756 and SK-v cell lines derived from genital tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre-Garau, X.; Couturier, J.; Favre, M.; Orth, G.

    1995-01-01

    The SW756 cell line, derived from an invasive cancer of the uterine cervix, harbours integrated human papillomavirus (HPV) 18 DNA sequences which have been located in chromosome band 12q13. By in situ hybridization experiments with tritiated and digoxigenin-labelled HPV18 probes on R-banded chromosomes, we now localize the integrated viral sequences in 12q14-q15. Interestingly, we have previously localized integrated HPV16 sequences in the same chromosomal region in SK-v cells, derived from a pre-invasive vulvar neoplasia. The chromosomal region 12q14-q15 could thus correspond to a preferential site for the integration of HPV DNA in genital tumors. (authors). 29 refs., 2 figs

  3. Application of direct-injection detector integrated with the multi-pumping flow system to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalewajko-Sieliwoniuk, Edyta; Iwanowicz, Magdalena; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kojło, Anatol

    2016-03-10

    In this work, we present a novel chemiluminescence (CL) method based on direct-injection detector (DID) integrated with the multi-pumping flow system (MPFS) to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index. In this flow system, the sample and the reagents are injected directly into the cone-shaped detection cell placed in front of the photomultiplier window. Such construction of the detection chamber allows for fast measurement of the CL signal in stopped-flow conditions immediately after mixing the reagents. The proposed DID-CL-MPFS method is based on the chemiluminescence of nanocolloidal manganese(IV)-hexametaphosphate-ethanol system. The application of ethanol as a sensitizer, eliminated the use of carcinogenic formaldehyde. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the chemiluminescence intensities are proportional to the concentration of gallic acid in the range from 5 to 350 ng mL(-1). The DID-CL-MPFS method offers a number of advantages, including low limit of detection (0.80 ng mL(-1)), high precision (RSD = 3.3%) and high sample throughput (144 samples h(-1)) as well as low consumption of reagents, energy and low waste generation. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine the total polyphenol index (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) in a variety of plant-derived food samples (wine, tea, coffee, fruit and vegetable juices, herbs, spices). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simulated Performance of the Integrated Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity and Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry Detector Designed for Spent Fuel Measurement at the Fugen Reactor in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Timothy J. II [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafleur, Adrienne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seya, Michio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolind, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16

    An integrated nondestructive assay instrument, which combined the Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) and the Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) techniques, is the research focus for a collaborative effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency as part of the Next Generation Safeguard Initiative. We will quantify the anticipated performance of this experimental system in two physical environments: (1) At LANL we will measure fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) assemblies for which the average enrichment can be varied from 0.2% to 3.2% and for which Gd laced rods will be included. (2) At Fugen we will measure spent Mixed Oxide (MOX-B) and LEU spent fuel assemblies from the heavy water moderated Fugen reactor. The MOX-B assemblies will vary in burnup from {approx}3 GWd/tHM to {approx}20 GWd/tHM while the LEU assemblies ({approx}1.9% initial enrichment) will vary from {approx}2 GWd/tHM to {approx}7 GWd/tHM. The estimated count rates will be calculated using MCNPX. These preliminary results will help the finalization of the hardware design and also serve a guide for the experiment. The hardware of the detector is expected to be fabricated in 2012 with measurements expected to take place in 2012 and 2013. This work is supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

  5. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Hines, J. Wesley

    2004-01-01

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on-line

  6. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on-line

  7. Uniform surface-to-line integral reduction of physical optics for curved surfaces by modified edge representation with higher-order correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Pengfei; Ando, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    The modified edge representation is one of the equivalent edge currents approximation methods for calculating the physical optics surface radiation integrals in diffraction analysis. The Stokes' theorem is used in the derivation of the modified edge representation from the physical optics for the planar scatterer case, which implies that the surface integral is rigorously reduced into the line integral of the modified edge representation equivalent edge currents, defined in terms of the local shape of the edge. On the contrary, for curved surfaces, the results of radiation integrals depend upon the global shape of the scatterer. The physical optics surface integral consists of two components, from the inner stationary phase point and the edge. The modified edge representation is defined independently from the orientation of the actual edge, and therefore, it could be available not only at the edge but also at the arbitrary points on the scatterer except the stationary phase point where the modified edge representation equivalent edge currents becomes infinite. If stationary phase point exists inside the illuminated region, the physical optics surface integration is reduced into two kinds of the modified edge representation line integrations, along the edge and infinitesimally small integration around the inner stationary phase point, the former and the latter give the diffraction and reflection components, respectively. The accuracy of the latter has been discussed for the curved surfaces and published. This paper focuses on the errors of the former and discusses its correction. It has been numerically observed that the modified edge representation works well for the physical optics diffraction in flat and concave surfaces; errors appear especially for the observer near the reflection shadow boundary if the frequency is low for the convex scatterer. This paper gives the explicit expression of the higher-order correction for the modified edge representation.

  8. The human vascular endothelial cell line HUV-EC-C harbors the integrated HHV-6B genome which remains stable in long term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioda, Setsuko; Kasai, Fumio; Ozawa, Midori; Hirayama, Noriko; Satoh, Motonobu; Kameoka, Yousuke; Watanabe, Ken; Shimizu, Norio; Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko; Kohara, Arihiro

    2018-02-01

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is a common human pathogen that is most often detected in hematopoietic cells. Although human cells harboring chromosomally integrated HHV-6 can be generated in vitro, the availability of such cell lines originating from in vivo tissues is limited. In this study, chromosomally integrated HHV-6B has been identified in a human vascular endothelial cell line, HUV-EC-C (IFO50271), derived from normal umbilical cord tissue. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral genome was similar to the HHV-6B HST strain. FISH analysis using a HHV-6 DNA probe showed one signal in each cell, detected at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 9. This was consistent with a digital PCR assay, validating one copy of the viral DNA. Because exposure of HUV-EC-C to chemicals did not cause viral reactivation, long term cell culture of HUV-EC-C was carried out to assess the stability of viral integration. The growth rate was altered depending on passage numbers, and morphology also changed during culture. SNP microarray profiles showed some differences between low and high passages, implying that the HUV-EC-C genome had changed during culture. However, no detectable change was observed in chromosome 9, where HHV-6B integration and the viral copy number remained unchanged. Our results suggest that integrated HHV-6B is stable in HUV-EC-C despite genome instability.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Flush of an Integrated Minimized Perfusion Circuit Prior to Priming Prevents Spontaneous Air Release Into the Arterial Line During Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Marco C; de Vroege, Roel; Hoohenkerk, Gerard J F; Hofman, Frederik N; Kelder, Johannes C; Buchner, Bas; de Mol, Bastian A; Bruins, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Recently, an oxygenator with an integrated centrifugal blood pump (IP) was designed to minimize priming volume and to reduce blood foreign surface contact even further. The use of this oxygenator with or without integrated arterial filter was compared with a conventional oxygenator and nonintegrated centrifugal pump. To compare the air removal characteristics 60 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were alternately assigned into one of three groups to be perfused with a minimized extracorporeal circuit either with the conventional oxygenator, the oxygenator with IP, or the oxygenator with IP plus integrated arterial filter (IAF). Air entering and leaving the three devices was measured accurately with a bubble counter during cardiopulmonary bypass. No significant differences between all groups were detected, considering air entering the devices. Our major finding was that in both integrated devices groups incidental spontaneous release of air into the arterial line in approximately 40% of the patients was observed. Here, detectable bolus air (>500 µm) was shown in the arterial line, whereas in the minimal extracorporeal circulation circuit (MECC) group this phenomenon was not present. We decided to conduct an amendment of the initial design with METC-approval. Ten patients were assigned to be perfused with an oxygenator with IP and IAF. Importantly, the integrated perfusion systems used in these patients were flushed with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) prior to priming of the systems. In the group with CO 2 flush no spontaneous air release was observed in all cases and this was significantly different from the initial study with the group with the integrated device and IAF. This suggests that air spilling may be caused by residual air in the integrated device. In conclusion, integration of a blood pump may cause spontaneous release of large air bubbles (>500 µm) into the arterial line, despite the presence of an integrated arterial filter. CO 2 flushing of

  10. Derivation, Characterization, and Neural Differentiation of Integration-Free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Parkinson's Disease Patients Carrying SNCA, LRRK2, PARK2, and GBA Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momcilovic, Olga; Sivapatham, Renuka; Oron, Tal Ronnen

    2016-01-01

    We report generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from ten Parkinson's disease (PD) patients carrying SNCA, PARK2, LRRK2, and GBA mutations, and one age-matched control. After validation of pluripotency, long-term genome stability, and integration-free reprogramming, eight...... not be sufficient to determine the cause or mechanism of the disease, and highlights the need to use more focused strategies for large-scale data analysis........ We further examined gene expression in a stress model (MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal death) using two clones from the SNCA triplication line, and detected changes in genes associated with mitophagy. Our data suggested that even a well-characterized line of a monogenic disease may...

  11. On-line monitoring system of lactic acid fermentation by using integrated enzyme sons ors; Shusekika koso sensa wo mochiita nyusan hakko keisokuyo onrain monitaringu shisutemu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayasu; Kumagi, Takeshi; Nakashima, Yuuichi [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering and Science

    1999-03-10

    An on-line monitoring system for lactic acid fermentation is developed by using integrated micro enzyme sensors, a flow injection analysis system, and a micro dialysis system. The calibration curves of micro glucose, lactose and lactate sensors show good linearity in the concentration range below 70 mM. By combination with the micro dialysis system, the enzyme sensors can measure the whole concentration range of lactic acid fermentation, and interference by the medium can not be observed. The on-line sensor system is then applied to lactic acid fermentation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii. The sensor system can monitor the glucose and lactate concentrations simultaneously during 24-h fermentation, and the measurements show good agreement with those of the conventional colorimetric method. The sensor system can also be applied to on-line monitoring of lactose and lactate during Lactobacillus lactis fermentation. (author)

  12. CT with a CMOS flat panel detector integrated on the YAP-(S)PET scanner for in vivo small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenico, Giovanni; Cesca, Nicola; Zavattini, Guido; Auricchio, Natalia; Gambaccini, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    Several research groups are pursuing multimodality simultaneous functional and morphological imaging. In this line of research the high resolution YAP-(S)PET small animal integrated PET-SPECT imaging system, constructed by our group of medical physics at the University of Ferrara, is being upgraded with a computed tomography (CT). In this way it will be possible to perform in vivo molecular and genomic imaging studies on small animals (such as mice and rats) and at the same time obtain morphological information necessary for both attenuation correction and accurate localization of the region under investigation. We have take simultaneous PET-CT and SPECT-CT images of phantoms obtained with a single scanner

  13. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekoszewski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author)

  14. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekoszewski, J. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author).

  15. An integrated in-line fluid characterization system for industrial applications(In-situ fluid mechanics experiments)

    OpenAIRE

    Johan, Wiklund; Reinhardt, Kotze; Beat, Birkhofer; Stefano, Ricci; Valentino, Meacci; Mats, Stading; Rainer, Haldenwang; SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden; FPRC, Cape Peninsula University of Technology; Sika Services AG; Information Engineering Department - University of Florence; Information Engineering Department - University of Florence; SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden; FPRC, Cape Peninsula University of Technology

    2015-01-01

    In this work we have presented the world's first commercially available embedded in-line fluids characterization system, "Flow-Viz". It has been specifically designed for the non-invasive, in-line, continuous, real-time velocity profile and rheological assessment of opaque, non-Newtonian industrial fluids. The Flow-Viz system has been successfully installed in pilot plants of international companies and used also for academic research. The technology has been applied to a wide range of fluids...

  16. Cryogenic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, A.

    1987-01-01

    Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. System architecture of Detector Control and safety for the ATLAS Inner Detector Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrere, D.; Kersten, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the current ATLAS Upgrade plan a new Inner Detector (ID) based upon silicon sensor technology is being considered. The operational monitoring and control of the ID will be very demanding. The Detector Control System (DCS) is a common tool that is essential for the operational safety of a system. Even at this early stage the DCS system architecture has to be defined such that it is well integrated and optimized for its later implementation and use. For example the DCS diagnostics for the front-end (FE) chips is a serious option being considered that needs an early requirement and specification definition. In addition one of the main constraints is the service reuse between the service patch panels of the ATLAS ID and the counting room that limits the number of electrical lines to be reused. Conceptual differences in terms of readout architecture and layout have been identified between the strip and the pixel detector that lead to two distinct architectures. Nevertheless, the limitation of available electrical lines going to the counting room as well as the low material budget requirements inside the ID volume are two major constraints that lead the ID to consider an on-detector radiation hard integrated circuitry for the slow control. At this stage of the project, the definitions of the logical actions and protocol for the ADCs of such a chip are still being specified. In addition the experience gained from the current ID will be essential for the guidance of tuning the future DCS architecture in the coming years.

  18. A neutron activation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron activation detector made from a moulded and hardened composition. According to the invention, that composition contains an activable substance constituted by at least two chemical elements and/or compounds of at least two chemical elements. Each of these chemical elements is capable of reacting with the neutrons forming radio-active isotopes with vatious levels of energy during desintegration. This neutron detector is mainly suitable for measuring integral thermal neutron and fast neutron fluxes during irradiation of the sample, and also for measuring the intensities of neutron fields [fr

  19. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    LUCID-2 (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the upgrade of the main detector dedicated to luminosity monitoring and measurements in the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. Most changes were motivated by the large (up to 50) number of interactions per bunch-crossing and short (25 ns) bunch-spacing expected in LHC run 2 (2015-2018). Both fast online information used by LHC for luminosity optimisation and levelling in ATLAS, and per-bunch data to be used offline, come from LUCID-2.

  20. On the evening of June 15, 2008, ALICE physicists saw the first tracks at LHC during the first injection test in transfer line TI 2. The Silicon Pixel detector recorded muon tracks produced in the beam dump near Point 2 of the LHC.

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, Vito

    2008-01-01

    On the evening of June 15, 2008, ALICE physicists saw the first tracks at LHC during the first injection test in transfer line TI 2. The Silicon Pixel detector recorded muon tracks produced in the beam dump near Point 2 of the LHC

  1. Hydrogen detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagaya, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sanada, Kazuo; Chigira, Sadao.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a hydrogen detector for detecting water-sodium reaction. The hydrogen detector comprises a sensor portion having coiled optical fibers and detects hydrogen on the basis of the increase of light transmission loss upon hydrogen absorption. In the hydrogen detector, optical fibers are wound around and welded to the outer circumference of a quartz rod, as well as the thickness of the clad layer of the optical fiber is reduced by etching. With such procedures, size of the hydrogen detecting sensor portion can be decreased easily. Further, since it can be used at high temperature, diffusion rate is improved to shorten the detection time. (N.H.)

  2. Monitoring of absolute mirror alignment at COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Dalla Torre, S.; Denisov, O.; Duic, V.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Gayde, J. Ch; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Panzieri, D.; Pesaro, G.; Polak, J.; Rocco, E.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Takekawa, S.; Tessarotto, F.

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous COMPASS RICH-1 detector uses two spherical mirror surfaces, segmented into 116 individual mirrors, to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the detector plane. Any mirror misalignment directly affects the detector resolution. The on-line Continuous Line Alignment and Monitoring (CLAM)

  3. Truncation correction for oblique filtering lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Stefan; Hornegger, Joachim; Lauritsch, Guenter; Dennerlein, Frank; Noo, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    State-of-the-art filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms often define the filtering operation to be performed along oblique filtering lines in the detector. A limited scan field of view leads to the truncation of those filtering lines, which causes artifacts in the final reconstructed volume. In contrast to the case where filtering is performed solely along the detector rows, no methods are available for the case of oblique filtering lines. In this work, the authors present two novel truncation correction methods which effectively handle data truncation in this case. Method 1 (basic approach) handles data truncation in two successive preprocessing steps by applying a hybrid data extrapolation method, which is a combination of a water cylinder extrapolation and a Gaussian extrapolation. It is independent of any specific reconstruction algorithm. Method 2 (kink approach) uses similar concepts for data extrapolation as the basic approach but needs to be integrated into the reconstruction algorithm. Experiments are presented from simulated data of the FORBILD head phantom, acquired along a partial-circle-plus-arc trajectory. The theoretically exact M-line algorithm is used for reconstruction. Although the discussion is focused on theoretically exact algorithms, the proposed truncation correction methods can be applied to any FBP algorithm that exposes oblique filtering lines.

  4. Murine leukemia virus vector integration favors promoter regions and regional hot spots in a human T-cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Tomonori; Agawa, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Sayori; Matsuda, Mizuho; Ueno, Shuichi; Yamashita, Yuki; Yamada, Koichiro; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kojima, Katsuhiko; Takeshita, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Genomic analysis of integration will be important in evaluating the safety of human gene therapy with retroviral vectors. Here, we investigated MLV vector integration sites in human T-cells, since they are amenable to gene transfer studies, and have been used therapeutically in clinical trials. We mapped 340 MLV vector integration sites in the infected human T-cell clones we established. The data showed that MLV preferred integration near the transcription start sites (±5 kb), near CpG islands (±1 kb), and within the first intron of RefSeq genes. We also identified MLV integration hot spots that contained three or more integrations within a 100 kb region. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA-levels of T-cell clones that contained MLV integrations near transcription start sites or introns were dysregulated compared to the uninfected cells. These studies help define the profile of MLV integration in T-cells and the risks associated with MLV-based gene therapy

  5. GPU-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration of measured acceleration field to obtain the 3D pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    A PIV based method to reconstruct the volumetric pressure field by direct integration of the 3D material acceleration directions has been developed. Extending the 2D virtual-boundary omni-directional method (Omni2D, Liu & Katz, 2013), the new 3D parallel-line omni-directional method (Omni3D) integrates the material acceleration along parallel lines aligned in multiple directions. Their angles are set by a spherical virtual grid. The integration is parallelized on a Tesla K40c GPU, which reduced the computing time from three hours to one minute for a single realization. To validate its performance, this method is utilized to calculate the 3D pressure fields in isotropic turbulence and channel flow using the JHU DNS Databases (http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu). Both integration of the DNS acceleration as well as acceleration from synthetic 3D particles are tested. Results are compared to other method, e.g. solution to the Pressure Poisson Equation (e.g. PPE, Ghaemi et al., 2012) with Bernoulli based Dirichlet boundary conditions, and the Omni2D method. The error in Omni3D prediction is uniformly low, and its sensitivity to acceleration errors is local. It agrees with the PPE/Bernoulli prediction away from the Dirichlet boundary. The Omni3D method is also applied to experimental data obtained using tomographic PIV, and results are correlated with deformation of a compliant wall. ONR.

  6. NEW LENSLET BASED IFS WITH HIGH DETECTOR PIXEL EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian

    2018-01-01

    Three IFS types currently used for optical design are: lenslet array, imager slicer, and lenslet array and fiber combined. Lenslet array based Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) is very popular for many astrophysics applications due to its compactness, simplicity, as well as cost and mass savings. The disadvantage of lenslet based IFS is its low detector pixel efficiency. Enough spacing is needed between adjacent spectral traces in cross dispersion direction to avoid wavelength cross-talk, because the same wavelength is not aligned to the same column on detector. Such as on a recent exoplanet coronagraph instrument study to support the coming astrophysics decadal survey (LUVOIR), to cover a 45 λ/D Field of View (FOV) with a spectral resolving power of 200 at shortest wavelength, a 4k x 4k detector array is needed. This large format EMCCD pushes the detector into technology development area with a low TRL. Besides the future mission, it will help WFIRST coronagraph IFS by packing all spectra into a smaller area on detector, which will reduce the chance for electrons to be trapped in pixels, and slow the detector degradation during the mission.The innovation we propose here is to increase the detector packing efficiency by grouping a number of lenslets together to form many mini slits. In other words, a number of spots (Point Spread Function at lenslet focus) are aligned into a line to resemble a mini slit. Therefore, wavelength cross-talk is no longer a concern anymore. This combines the advantage of lenslet array and imager slicer together. The isolation rows between spectral traces in cross dispersion direction can be reduced or removed. So the packing efficiency is greatly increased. Furthermore, the today’s microlithography and etching technique is capable of making such a lenslet array, which will relax the detector demand significantly. It will finally contribute to the habitable exoplanets study to analyzing their spectra from direct images. Detailed theory

  7. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, M.

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N + - strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P + - strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade

  8. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, M. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States) Research Inst. for High Energy Physics (SEFT), Helsinki (Finland))

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N{sup +}{minus} strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P{sup +}{minus} strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade.

  9. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  10. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  11. In-core monitoring detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitelman, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The main task of in-core monitoring consists in securing observability of the reactor installation in all possible operation modes (normal, transient, accident and post-accident). Operation safety at acceptable cost can be achieved by optimized measurement errors. The range of sensors applied as in-core detectors for operative measurements in the industry is very limited in number. Among them might be cited self powered neutron detectors (SPND) and thermocouples. Sensors are incorporated in the in-core detectors assemblies (SVRD). The presentation makes an effort to touch upon the problems of assuring and increasing quality of in-core on-line measurements. So we do not consider systems using movable detectors, as the latter do not assure on-line measurements. (Authors)

  12. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  13. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  14. Split detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederstrand, C.N.; Chism, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    A gas analyzer is disclosed which provides a dual channel capability for the simultaneous determination of the presence and concentration of two gases in a stream of sample gas and which has a single infrared source, a single sample cell, two infrared bandpass filters, and two infrared detectors. A separator between the filters and detectors prevents interchange of radiation between the filters. The separator is positioned by fitting it in a slot

  15. Extending the Capabilities of the Mooring Analysis Program: A Survey of Dynamic Mooring Line Theories for Integration into FAST: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masciola, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-03-01

    Techniques to model dynamic mooring lines come in various forms. The most widely used models include either a heuristic representation of the physics (such as a Lumped-Mass, LM, system), a Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) discretization of the lines (discretized in space), or a Finite-Difference (FD) model (which is discretized in both space and time). In this paper, we explore the features of the various models, weigh the advantages of each, and propose a plan for implementing one dynamic mooring line model into the open-source Mooring Analysis Program (MAP). MAP is currently used as a module for the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool to model mooring systems quasi-statically, although dynamic mooring capabilities are desired. Based on the exploration in this manuscript, the lumped-mass representation is selected for implementation in MAP based on its simplicity, computational cost, and ability to provide similar physics captured by higher-order models.

  16. Determination of the Integral/SPI instrumental response and his application to the observation of gamma ray lines in the Vela region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attie, D.

    2005-01-01

    The INTEGRAL/SPI spectrometer was designed to observe the sky in the energy band of 20 keV to 8 MeV. The specificity of instrument SPI rests on the excellent spectral resolution (2.3 keV with 1 MeV) of its detecting plan, composed of 19 cooled germanium crystals; covering an effective area of 508 cm 2 . The use of a coded mask, located at 1.7 m above the detection plan ensures to it a resolving power of 2.5 degrees. The aim of this thesis, begun before the INTEGRAL launch, is made up of two parts. The first part relates to the analysis of the spectrometer calibration data. The objective was to measure and check the performances of the telescope, in particular to validate simulations of the INTEGRAL/SPI instrument response. This objective was successfully achieved. This analysis also highlights the presence of a significant instrumental background noise. Whereas, the second part concentrates on the data analysis of the Vela region observations. I have approached two astrophysical topics dealing with: - the search for radioactive decays lines of titanium-44, which is produced by explosive nucleosynthesis, in the supernova remnant of Vela Junior and, - the search of cyclotron resonance scattering features expected towards 25 keV and 52 keV in the accreting pulsar spectrum of the x-ray binary star Vela X-1. Putting forward the hypothesis that the result obtained previously by COMPTEL is correct and considering the no-detection of the titanium-44 lines by SPI, we give a lower limit at 4500 km s -1 for the ejecta velocity from Vela Junior. The analysis on the research of the cyclotron lines have shown that the results are very sensitive to the instrumental background. Thorough studies will be necessary to guarantee an unambiguous detection of these lines. (author)

  17. Improved photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zermeno, A.; Marsh, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. A multi-layered detector apparatus is disclosed which comprises a first conductive layer having two sides, a photoconductive layer thick enough to obtain a desired level of sensitivity and resolution of the detector apparatus when the detector apparatus is exposed to radiation of known energy, one side of the photoconductive layer being integrally affixed to and in electrical contact with one side of the first conductive layer, an insulating layer having two sides that is a phosphor that will emit light when irradiated by x-rays, one side of the insulating layer being affixed to the other side of the photoconductive layer and a transparent conductive layer having two sides, one side of the transparent conductive layer being affixed to the other side of the insulating layer. (author)

  18. Design and fabrication of a novel self-powered solid-state neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    LiCausi, Nicholas

    key advantages of the novel devices are theoretical neutron detection efficiency of ˜48%, a self-passivating structure that reduces leakage current and detector operation with no bias resulting in extremely low device noise. Processes required to fabricate the 3D type detector were explored and developed in this thesis. The detector capacitance and processing steps have been simulated with MEDICI and TSuprem-4, respectively. Lithography masks were then designed using Cadence. The fabrication process development was conducted in line with standard CMOS grade integrated circuit processing to allow for simple integration with existing fabrication facilities. A number of new processes were developed including the low pressure chemical vapor deposition of conformal boron films using diborane on very high aspect-ratio trenches and holes. Development also included methods for "wet" chemical etching and "dry" reactive ion etching of the deposited boron films. Fabricated detectors were characterized with the transmission line method, 4-point probe, I-V measurements and C-V measurements. Finally the detector response to thermal neutrons was studied. Characterization has shown significant reduction in reverse leakage current density to ˜8x10-8 A/cm2 (nearly 4 orders of magnitude over the previously published data). Results show that the fabrication process developed is capable of producing efficient (˜22.5%) solid-state thermal neutron detectors.

  19. GARLIC, a shielding program for GAmma Radiation from Line- and Cylinder-sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Matts

    1959-07-15

    GARLIC is a program for computing the gamma ray flux or dose rate at a shielded idotropic point detector, due to a line source or the line equivalent of a cylindrical source. The source strength distribution along the line must be either uniform or an arbitrary part of the positive half-cycle of a cosine function. The line source can be oriented arbitrarily with respect to the main shield and the detector, except that the detector must not be located on the line source or on its extension. The main source is a homogeneous plane slab in which scattered radiation is accounted for by multiplying each point element of the line source by a point source build-up factor inside the integral over the point elements. Between, the main shield and the line source additional shields can be introduced, which are either plane slabs, parallel to the main shield, or cylindrical rings, coaxial with the line source. Scattered radiation in the additional shields can only be accounted for by constant build-up factors outside the integral. GARLIC-xyz is an extended version particularly suited for the frequently met problem of shielding a room containing a large number of line sources in different positions. The program computes the angles and linear dimensions of a problem for GARLIC when the positions of the detector point and the end points of the line source are given as points in an arbitrary rectangular coordinate system. As an example the isodose curves in water are presented for a monoenergetic cosine-distributed line source at several source energies and for an operating fuel element of the Swedish reactor R3.

  20. Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Wuensch, S.; Charaev, I.; Boes, F.; Zwick, T.; Siegel, M.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a 16-pixel array of microwave-current driven superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with an integrated and scalable frequency-division multiplexing architecture, which reduces the required number of bias and readout lines to a single microwave feed line. The electrical behavior of the photon-sensitive nanowires, embedded in a resonant circuit, as well as the optical performance and timing jitter of the single detectors is discussed. Besides the single pixel measurements, we also demonstrate the operation of a 16-pixel array with a temporal, spatial, and photon-number resolution.

  1. ACCESS: Detector Control and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (companion poster, Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been selected and integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been successfully performed. Further improvements to the flight controller housing have been made. A cryogenic ground test system has been built. Dark current and read noise tests have been performed, yielding results consistent with the initial characterization tests of the detector performed by Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL). Detector control software has been developed and implemented for ground testing. Performance and integration of the detector and controller with the flight software will be presented. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  2. The activity-integrated method for quality assessment of reduning injection by on-line DPPH-CE-DAD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xu Chang

    Full Text Available A sensitive on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was developed and validated for both screening and determining the concentration of seven antioxidants of Reduning injection. The pH and concentrations of buffer solution, SDS, β-CD and organic modifier were studied for the detection of DPPH and seven antioxidants. By on-line mixing DPPH and sample solution, a DPPH-CE method for testing the antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully established and used to screen the antioxidant components of Reduning injection. Then, antioxidant components including caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid C, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were quantified by the newly established CE-DAD method. Finally, the total antioxidant activity and the multiple active components were selected as markers to evaluate the quality of Reduning injection. The results demonstrated that the on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was reagent-saving, rapid and feasible for on-line simultaneous determination of total pharmacological activity and contents of multi-components samples. It was also a powerful method for evaluating the quality control and mechanism of action of TCM injection.

  3. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  4. Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando