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Sample records for integrating ethics law

  1. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Sunčica Ivanović; Čedomirka Stanojević; Slađana Jajić; Ana Vila; Svetlana Nikolić

    2013-01-01

    The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked...

  2. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčica Ivanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked to the question of life and death, then the lack of knowledge of basic legal acts would not be justified at all. The aim of the paper was to present the importance of medical ethics and medical law among the medical staff. A retrospective analysis of the medical literature available on the indexed base KOBSON for the period 2005-2010 was applied. Analysis of all work leads to the conclusion that the balance between ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, trust and cooperation between the two sides that appear over health care can be considered a goal that every health care worker should strive for. This study supports the attitude that lack of knowledge and non-compliance with the ethical principles and medical law when put together can only harm the health care worker. In a way, this is the message to health care professionals that there is a need for the adoption of ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, because the most important position of all health workers is their dedication to the patient as a primary objective and the starting point of ethics.

  3. Teaching medical ethics and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2012-03-01

    The teaching of medical ethics is not yet characterised by recognised, standard requirements for formal qualifications, training and experience; this is not surprising as the field is still relatively young and maturing. Under the broad issue of the requirements for teaching medical ethics are numerous more specific questions, one of which concerns whether medical ethics can be taught in isolation from considerations of the law, and vice versa. Ethics and law are cognate, though distinguishable, disciplines. In a practical, professional enterprise such as medicine, they cannot and should not be taught as separate subjects. One way of introducing students to the links and tensions between medical ethics and law is to consider the history of law via its natural and positive traditions. This encourages understanding of how medical practice is placed within the contexts of ethics and law in the pluralist societies in which most students will practise. Four examples of topics from medical ethics teaching are described to support this claim. Australasian medical ethics teachers have paid less attention to the role of law in their curricula than their United Kingdom counterparts. Questions like the one addressed here will help inform future deliberations concerning minimal requirements for teaching medical ethics.

  4. Morality, ethics, and law: introductory concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to differentiate morality, ethics, and law. Morality refers to a set of deeply held, widely shared, and relatively stable values within a community. Ethics as a philosophical enterprise involves the study of values, and the justification for right and good actions, as represented by the classic works of Aristotle (virtue ethics), Kant (duty-based ethics), and Bentham and Mill (utilitarian and consequentialist ethics). Applied ethics, in contrast, is the use of ethics principles (e.g., respect for autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence, justice) in actual situations, such as in professional and clinical life. Finally, law is comprised of concrete duties established by governments that are necessary for maintaining social order and resolving disputes, as well as for distributing social resources according to what people need or deserve.

  5. Law and ethics in conflict over confidentiality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2000-09-01

    Ethical principles that require the preservation of patients' confidential information are reinforced by principles found in several areas of law, such as law on contracts, negligence, defamation and fiduciary duty. However, laws sometimes compel disclosures of medical confidences, and more often may justify or excuse disclosures. Legally contentious issues concern patients' confidences regarding possible unlawful conduct, such as pregnancy termination, and the risk of spread of HIV and other infections. This article reviews the various legal bases of the duty of confidentiality, and legal challenges to the ethical obligation of non-disclosure. It addresses the justifications and limits of exchange of patients' health information among healthcare professionals and trainees, and considers legally recognized limits of confidential duties, and the scope of legitimate disclosure. An underlying theme is how to determine whether physicians are ethically justified in employing the discretion the law sometimes affords them to breach patients' expectations of confidentiality.

  6. Fostering Ethical Integrity in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Ruth A; Hartley, Patricia Lynn; Hodges, Patricia J; Hoffpauir, Rebecca Baldwin

    Nursing students bring an array of morals, values, and ethics that may be inconsistent with ethical integrity. This study explored nurse educator perceptions of student ethical integrity and how educators can foster an ethical foundation in students and novice educators. Four major themes influencing ethical integrity emerged: the learning environment, behaviors, ethical principles, and a toolbox of strategies. Strategies for fostering ethical integrity included: modeling ethical integrity, effective communication, grading accuracy, faculty perceptions, and faculty peer mentoring.

  7. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  8. Law, science and technology. The nuclear option, ethics and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Technological innovations in the field of nuclear energy, as well as the diversity of applications using ionizing radiations contribute to the necessity of implementation of legislation and laws. This conference will give some ideas on political, ethical and legal aspects as far as nuclear energy development is concerned. Separate abstract were prepared for all the papers in this volume. (TEC)

  9. ACCOUNTING BETWEEN LAW, ETHICS AND MORALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Simona N. HROMEI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fact that nowadays, society and business, show high expectations regarding the accounting discipline, and therefore professionals in this area should expand their horizons to meet all requirements. First of all, accounting assumed a certain responsibility to the public interest, by its fundamental purpose, namely to provide financial-accounting information, information that will form the basis of decision making. Second of all, for the successful fulfilment of the public responsibilities, accountants must rely on elements of doctrine, ethics, or ethics and morality. The study wants to show the importance of the accounting discipline, which has begun to increasingly focus on the creation of a moral or ethical basis, putting these issues on the same level with respecting the law. The boundary between what is legal but not ethical or moral is very small, and there were many business cases where unethical behaviour led to business failure.

  10. Ethics and public integrity in space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstone, Adam F.

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) work to support ethics and public integrity in human space exploration. Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) to protect an organization's reputation has become widespread in the private sector. Government ethics law and practice is integral to a government entity's ERM by managing public sector reputational risk. This activity has also increased on the international plane, as seen by the growth of ethics offices in UN organizations and public international financial institutions. Included in this area are assessments to ensure that public office is not used for private gain, and that external entities are not given inappropriate preferential treatment. NASA has applied rules supporting these precepts to its crew since NASA's inception. The increased focus on public sector ethics principles for human activity in space is important because of the international character of contemporary space exploration. This was anticipated by the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement for the International Space Station (ISS), which requires a Code of Conduct for the Space Station Crew. Negotiations among the ISS Partners established agreed-upon ethics principles, now codified for the United States in regulations at 14 C.F.R. § 1214.403. Understanding these ethics precepts in an international context requires cross-cultural dialogue. Given NASA's long spaceflight experience, a valuable part of this dialogue is understanding NASA's implementation of these requirements. Accordingly, this paper will explain how NASA addresses these and related issues, including for human spaceflight and crew, as well as the development of U.S. Government ethics law which NASA follows as a U.S. federal agency. Interpreting how the U.S. experience relates constructively to international application involves parsing out which dimensions relate to government ethics requirements that the international partners have integrated into the

  11. Integrating Academic Integrity Education with the Business Law Course: Why and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    This article advocates integrating academic integrity education into the business law course. Many have suggested teaching business ethics this way but have ignored the natural overlap in legal content with the traditional business law course. This article focuses on why and how business law instructors should integrate the two. Rather than…

  12. Ethical Wills – a Continental Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Swennen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethical wills are testaments, or planning instruments mortis causa alike, that contain provisions regarding the deceased’s (non-economic values rather than his (economic valuables. The authors define and analyse the substance and form of ethical wills from a comparative Continental law perspective, drawing on Belgian, Dutch, French and German law. The focus primarily is on charges or conditions in restraint or constraint of (non- denominational or family choices by testamentary beneficiaries; and in this context it is contended that both the doctrine of public policy (“ordre public” and the horizontal application of the ECHR extensively restrict testamentary freedom. Nevertheless, the analogous application of estate planning techniques increasingly allows benevolent testators to plan their ethical legacy. Los testamentos éticos son testamentos, similares a instrumentos de planificación mortis causa, que contienen disposiciones relativas a los valores (no económicos del difunto, en lugar de sus objetos de valor (económico. Los autores definen y analizan el contenido y la forma de los testamentos éticos desde una perspectiva comparativa de derecho continental, basada en la legislación belga, holandesa, francesa y alemana. Se centra principalmente en los cargos o las condiciones de restricción o limitación de las opciones (aconfesionales o familiares de los herederos; y en este contexto se afirma que tanto la doctrina de política pública ("ordre public" como la aplicación horizontal del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos, restringen ampliamente la libertad testamentaria. Sin embargo, la aplicación análoga de técnicas de planificación y gestión patrimonial y sucesoria, permite cada vez más a los testadores de últimas voluntades planificar su legado ético.

  13. Business and Law Respondents: What Is Ethical Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, George E.

    1993-01-01

    In a survey of 97 business managers, 141 business students, 46 attorneys, and 98 law students, all groups were consistent in rating their own and peers' ethical beliefs; they perceived peers to have lower ethical values and were aware of competitive market pressures. The idea that new workplace entrants represent a new wave of ethical values was…

  14. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  15. Natural Law and Discursive Ethics. Natural law in Thomas Aquinas as a grammar of moral discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Barzotto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is an attempt to make the Thomist ethics of the natural law intelligible to a supporter of Apel and Harbermas’s discourse ethics. In order to do so, it presents Aquinas’s theory of natural law as the moral discourse’s grammar. This ‘translation’ of Thomist ethics into contemporary terminology aims at establishing a dialogue with those who uphold discourse ethics by advancing the thesis that, Thomist ethics is superior to discourse ethics in performing the function of controlling the sense of propositions that belong to the moral discourse.

  16. Integrating Ethics into the Marketing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James H.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how John Carroll University successfully integrated ethics into existing marketing courses. Provides a summary of the current literature on marketing ethics, discusses the educational goals that are met by integrating ethics into the curriculum, examines available curricular options, and details the design and implementation of a segment…

  17. Euthanasia, virtue ethics and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Liezl

    2002-02-01

    Following the recent revival of virtue ethics, a number of ethicists have discussed the moral problems surrounding euthanasia by drawing on concepts such as compassion, benevolence, death with dignity, mercy, and by inquiring whether euthanasia is compatible with human flourishing. Most of these writers assert, or simply assume, that their arguments concerning the morality of euthanasia also support their views with regard to legislation. I argue, against these writers, that legislation cannot and should not be based on our moral and religious beliefs concerning whether euthanasia allows a person to die a good death. I then outline an Aristotelian approach to the role of law and government in a good society, according to which the task of the legislator is not to ensure that people actually act virtuously, but is instead to make it possible for them to choose to live (and die) well by ensuring that they have access to the goods that are necessary for flourishing. In the second half of the paper I apply this approach to the question of whether voluntary active euthanasia should be legalised by asking (1) whether euthanasia always deprives people of the necessary conditions for flourishing, and (2) whether the option to request euthanasia is ever necessary for flourishing.

  18. Codes of professional responsibility for lawyers: ethics or law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawry, R P

    1984-01-01

    The American Bar Association has three times in this century produced a code of ethics for lawyers. The movement has clearly been from a general, hortatory format to one of a statement of principles of law. In the ABA's latest effort, the problems of client confidentiality loom as the most serious and most difficult to solve. The question of ethics versus law weighs heavily in this context, and the ABA's latest resolutions of the confidentiality problems are found to be unsatisfactory.

  19. Journalism Ethics: There Is a Difference between Law and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossom, Kathy

    1998-01-01

    Covers a session from the recent meetings of the Indiana High School Press Association (IHSPA). States that students discussed ethical decisions they face in their yearbooks and newspapers, such as handling death. Finds the biggest concern is "really covering the good and bad things in the school." Gives IHSPA's 10-point Code of Ethics.…

  20. Medical Ethics Today. The BMA's Handbook of Ethics and Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethics is and leads into a framework of good ethical practice in healthcare. This section also briefly explains the theories and principles pertinent to the practice of healthcare and assists ... patient re la tionship, types of relationships in modern medicine, ... be applied in any country and the legal guidance is particularly.

  1. 24 CFR 4.36 - Action by the Ethics Law Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... violation is material, the Ethics Law Division shall consider the following factors, as applicable: (1) The... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by the Ethics Law Division... the Ethics Law Division. (a) After review of the Inspector General's report, the Ethics Law Division...

  2. The ethics of international animal law

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyzes international animal law, understood broadly as any international legal regulation pertaining to animals. The purpose of the thesis is to explain the moral implications of this branch of international law: how the law perceives the animal and how it believes animals ought to be treated. It attempts to do so by contrasting the law with moral philosophy pertaining to the status and treatment of animals as well as the core characteristics of the branch of animal law found in...

  3. An Analysis of Ethics Laws, Compliance with Ethical Standards, and Ethical Core Competency within the Department of the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    laws and ethical principles above private gain. (2) Employees shall not hold financial interests that conflict with the conscientious...applying ethical principles to decision-making. We analyze the DA ethics training courses, policies, and procedures. The project explores the...leveraging the Enterprises buying power to obtain goods and services more efficiently. Ms. Lyons earned her Bachelor of Science degree in Accounting in

  4. Bio-ethical principles of medical law with an emphasis on the law of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Mahdavi Sabet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been many talks about the necessity of ethics in all affairs, especially medical affairs which deal with the lives of individuals and the society expects Medical Group to be abide by morals more than laws. This matter indicates on the fact that the society considers ethics as a stronger enforcement of the law and deplores a doctor who has ignored ethics in the medical profession. Thus, they blamed the doctor from ethical aspect more than deploring him from a legal aspect (civil or criminal liability. The legislator is also influenced by public in anticipation of responsibility (both criminal and civil for doctors and imposes legal rules on this basis. The concept of this article has an extremely close relationship with three concepts of morality, professional ethics and law. Initially first two concepts will be defined and separated and then the relation between professional ethics and medical laws will be expressed. Then, the relation between two concepts of medical ethics and bioethics ethics will be evaluated. Two religion or secularism basis have been taken for medical rights and strengths and weaknesses of each are discussed and the approach of the Iranian legal system will also be mentioned with evaluation of controversial medical samples.

  5. Influence of Course in Medical Ethics and Law on Career Plans of Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi-Yann; Lin, Lih-Hwa; Kao, Chung-Han; Chan, Tzu-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background: The significant increase in medical disputes and lawsuits in recent years in Taiwan has severely affected behavior and ecology in medical practice. For this reason, we designed integrated courses on ethics and law and conducted a questionnaire-based career plan study to understand whether these issues influence their specialty…

  6. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 10: surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenfield, F; Pennings, G; Cohen, J; Devroey, P; de Wert, G; Tarlatzis, B

    2005-10-01

    This 10th statement of the Task Force on Ethics and Law considers ethical questions specific to varied surrogacy arrangements. Surrogacy is especially complex as the interests of the intended parents, the surrogate, and the future child may differ. It is concluded that surrogacy is an acceptable method of assisted reproductive technology of the last resort for specific medical indications, for which only reimbursement of reasonable expenses is allowed.

  7. [Ethics and laws related to human subject research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

    2011-10-01

    Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately.

  8. Management Ethics: Integrity at Work. Sage Series on Business Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Joseph A.; Quinn, John F.

    This book tries to redefine what it means for a manager to function with integrity and competence in the private and public sectors domestically and globally. It integrates theoretical work in both descriptive and normative ethics and incorporates legal, communication, quality, and organizational theories into a conceptual framework designed to…

  9. The ethical plausibility of the 'Right To Try' laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, D; Peccatori, F A; Boniolo, G

    2018-02-01

    'Right To Try' (RTT) laws originated in the USA to allow terminally ill patients to request access to early stage experimental medical products directly from the producer, removing the oversight and approval of the Food and Drug Administration. These laws have received significant media attention and almost equally unanimous criticism by the bioethics, clinical and scientific communities. They touch indeed on complex issues such as the conflict between individual and public interest, and the public understanding of medical research and its regulation. The increased awareness around RTT laws means that healthcare providers directly involved in the management of patients with life-threatening conditions such as cancer, infective, or neurologic conditions will deal more frequently with patients' requests of access to experimental medical products. This paper aims to assess the ethical plausibility of the RTT laws, and to suggest some possible ethical tools and considerations to address the main issues they touch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Medicine, law, ethics: teaching versus learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Marshall; Turner, Gregory; Baker, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    Doctors' anxieties about the legal environment begin during medical school. The signals faculty members send to medical students contribute to this anxiety. A pilot study was conducted to examine signals sent by faculty members to students regarding the relationship of legal risk management and ethical patient care at one medical school. It was also intended to determine the agreement between the messages faculty staff believe they are transmitting and those that students think they are hearing from faculty mentors. A survey with six multiple-choice questions was sent electronically to clinical faculty staff of one medical school to elicit the signals faculty members send students regarding the relationship of legal risk management and ethical patient care. A complementary survey instrument was sent to all 240 third- and fourth-year students to elicit their perceptions of what they were being taught by their mentors about the legal environment. Responses were tabulated, analysed, and interpreted. Faculty staff and student responses to six questions regarding teaching and learning about the relationship of legal risk management and ethical patient care revealed, for four of the six questions, statistically significantly different perspectives between what faculty members thought they were teaching and what students thought they were learning. Medical schools should be teaching patient-centered medicine, reconciling an awareness of the legal environment with the provision of ethically and clinically sound patient care. To improve performance, we must address the messages faculty members send students and reduce the disparity between perceived faculty teaching and claimed student learning in this context. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  11. Professional ethics in nursing: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Pakkanen, Piiku; Korhonen, Anne

    2015-08-01

    To conduct an integrative review and synthesize current primary studies of professional ethics in nursing. Professional ethics is a familiar concept in nursing and provides an ethical code for nursing practice. However, little is known about how professional ethics has been defined and studied in nursing science. Systematic literature searches from 1948-February 2013, using the CINAHL, PubMed and Scopus electronic databases to look at previously published peer-reviewed studies. A modified version of Cooper's five-stage integrative review was used to review and synthesize current knowledge. Fourteen papers were included in this research. According to our synthesis, professional ethics is described as an intra-professional approach to care ethics and professionals commit to it voluntarily. Professional ethics consist of values, duties, rights and responsibilities, regulated by national legislation and international agreements and detailed in professional codes. Professional ethics is well established in nursing, but is constantly changing due to internal and external factors affecting the profession. Despite the obvious importance of professional ethics, it has not been studied much in nursing science. Greater knowledge of professional ethics is needed to understand and support nurses' moral decision-making and to respond to the challenges of current changes in health care and society. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nonaltruistic kidney donations in contemporary Jewish law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2003-01-27

    In 2000, the Consensus Statement on the Live Organ Donor reported that "direct financial compensation for an organ from a living donor remains controversial and illegal in the United States" and took note of the position of the Transplantation Society that "Organs and tissue should be given without commercial consideration or commercial profit." Christian authorities insist that organ donors must not accrue economic advantage, and "selling" organs deprives the donation of its ethical quality. The writings of major contemporary authorities of Jewish law and ethics whose halakhic positions on bioethical issues are regularly considered by Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform ethicists were reviewed. Their positions on this issue were contrasted with those of various contemporary secular and religious authorities. These Jewish authorities reject the notion that generosity and charity, rather than monetary gain and greed, must serve as the exclusive basis for donation of functioning organs. Although nonaltruistic sale of kidneys may be theoretically ethical, ultimately its ethical status in Jewish ethics and law is inextricably connected to solving a series of pragmatic programs, such as creating a system that ensures that potential vendors and donors are properly informed and not exploited. Lacking such arrangements, ethical nonaltruistic kidney donations remain but a theoretical possibility.

  13. Ethics and the law: the law and assisted human conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1990-07-01

    This article aims to provide no more than a brief summary and overview of some of the principal legal questions which arise in connection with assisted human conception. There is no requirement of legal suitability for natural parenthood, though a child may be removed from parental care at birth if its welfare is considered to be at risk. Where medical or other assistance is required, however, the law and social judgments may impinge on the freedom of individuals to procreate. Commercial surrogacy has recently been criminalized, but private surrogacy arrangements without reward are not illegal--although any contract would probably be unenforceable through the courts. If medical intervention is required to achieve assisted conception, the availability of resources for NHS treatment, the physical and mental health of the prospective mother and father, and the welfare (or lack of it) of any prospective child, may be factors in deciding whether an infertility unit will offer treatment. Such practices must not operate unfairly and must not discriminate on racial grounds. If treatment is provided, and a woman becomes pregnant, the ordinary abortion laws will apply and, it is thought, will extend to the selective reduction of a multiple pregnancy--there is no claim in English law for 'wrongful birth'. AID does not constitute adultery, and the law has recently been reformed to recognize children born following AID as legitimate to their social parents. A child may be regarded as the legitimate child of a surrogate mother's marriage, but where the baby is genetically distinct from the surrogate mother, the law, and is uncertain and as yet could be conflicting claims of parenthood without legislation. The storage and disposal of human gametes and embryos may raise problems of 'ownership'.

  14. Campbell's Law and the Ethics of Immensurability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorkin, Alexander M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines "Campbell's Law": "The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor." The examination of measurability leads to explaining the…

  15. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  16. Law and medical ethics in organ transplantation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Tom; Wheeler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article in the series describes how UK law and medical ethics have evolved to accommodate developments in organ transplantation surgery. August committees have formulated definitions of the point of death of the person which are compatible with the lawful procurement of functioning vital organs from cadavers. Some of the complexities of dead donor rules are examined. Live donors are a major source of kidneys and the laws that protect them are considered. Financial inducements and other incentives to donate erode the noble concept of altruism, but should they be unlawful? PMID:20501013

  17. A Critique of the Notions of Law and Ethics as Regulatory Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The next discovery made by this paper is that the authentic ideas of lawand ethicsmeet at the venue of natural law.Hence, law+ethic =Natural Law. It is strongly recommended that the natural law theory of legality and morality be upheld in all jurisdictions as the applicable directive theory and practice of law and ethics ...

  18. 24 CFR 4.34 - Review of Inspector General's report by the Ethics Law Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... report by the Ethics Law Division. 4.34 Section 4.34 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... Funding Decisions § 4.34 Review of Inspector General's report by the Ethics Law Division. After receipt of the Inspector General's report, the Ethics Law Division shall review the facts and circumstances of...

  19. A Possible Ethical Imperative Based on the Entropy Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay in an article titled, “Entropy consumption and values in physical science,” (Am. Sci. 1959, 47, 678–696 proposed a Thermodynamic Imperative similar to Kant’s Ethical Categorical Imperative. In this paper, after describing the concept of ethical imperative as elaborated by Kant, we provide a brief discussion of the role of science and its relationship to the classical thermodynamics and the physical implications of the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. We finally attempt to extend and supplement Lindsay’s Thermodynamic Imperative (TI, by another Imperative suggesting simplicity, conservation, and harmony.

  20. Integrating Ethics into Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Børsen, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors aim to explore the necessity of teaching ethics as part of engineering education based on the gaps between learning “hard” knowledge and “soft” skills in the current educational system. They discuss why the nature of engineering practices makes it difficult to look...... products are not value neutral. With a focus on Problem-Based Learning (PBL), the authors examine why engineers need to incorporate ethical codes in their decision-making process and professional tasks. Finally, they discuss how to build creative learning environments that can support attaining...... the objectives of engineering education....

  1. The Role of Ethics and Morality in EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Rowlandson, Malene

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the role of ethics and morality in EU law. Two specific biolegal fields of study constitute the primary object in this regard; funding of research into human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and the patentability hereof. The reason why the choice has fallen upon...... these aspects in particular is that they are both pivotal to the pursuit and realisation of the therapeutic and commercial prospects ascribed to hESC research. Whilst the said prospects are enormous the Member States' different outlook upon the permissibility of engaging in such activities is, however, equally...... and morality in EU law are to be seen....

  2. Relations between Hume’s philosophy and Natural Law Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Arancibia C.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The philosophy of D. Hume has been commonly related to positivism and moral subjectivism. Though his explicit influence is undeniable in these schools of thought, it does not prevent the effective existence of relations of harmony between theories traditionally opposed to the humean philosophy. In this work I will present the convergences between the philosophy of Hume and the natural law ethics, particularly the developed by the New Natural Law Theory. I will argue the link from the following points: (a the relevance of the common life, (b the experience and (c the role of philosophy in the human behavior.

  3. Business Ethics, Strategy and Organizational Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2011-01-01

    With focus on the role of integrity in relation to business ethics versus economic strategy the chapter contains following sections: 1. The concept of organizational integrity as a moral notion as it is described in the work of Lynn-Sharp Paine on organizational integrity. 2. The concept...... of integrity as an economic notion as it is described in the recent work of Michael Jensen. This section will discuss recent efforts in the business economics literature to consider integrity as an important notion of strategy. 3. Paine contra Jensen: A virtue or a workability concept of integrity. Here...

  4. Tobacco endgame strategies: challenges in ethics and law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bryan P; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2013-01-01

    There are complex legal and ethical tradeoffs involved in using intensified regulation to bring smoking prevalence to near-zero levels. The authors explore these tradeoffs through a lens of health justice, paying particular attention to the potential impact on vulnerable populations. The ethical tradeoffs explored include the charge that heavy regulation is paternalistic; the potentially regressive impact of heavily taxing a product consumed disproportionately by the poor; the simple loss of enjoyment to heavily addicted smokers; the health risks posed by, for example, regulating nicotine content in cigarettes—where doing so leads to increased consumption. Turning to legalistic concerns, the authors explore whether endgame strategies constitute a form of ‘regulatory taking’; whether endgame strategies can be squared with global trade/investment laws; whether free speech rights are infringed by aggressive restrictions on the advertisement and marketing of cigarettes. PMID:23591513

  5. Tobacco endgame strategies: challenges in ethics and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bryan P; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2013-05-01

    There are complex legal and ethical tradeoffs involved in using intensified regulation to bring smoking prevalence to near-zero levels. The authors explore these tradeoffs through a lens of health justice, paying particular attention to the potential impact on vulnerable populations. The ethical tradeoffs explored include the charge that heavy regulation is paternalistic; the potentially regressive impact of heavily taxing a product consumed disproportionately by the poor; the simple loss of enjoyment to heavily addicted smokers; the health risks posed by, for example, regulating nicotine content in cigarettes--where doing so leads to increased consumption. Turning to legalistic concerns, the authors explore whether endgame strategies constitute a form of 'regulatory taking'; whether endgame strategies can be squared with global trade/investment laws; whether free speech rights are infringed by aggressive restrictions on the advertisement and marketing of cigarettes.

  6. Ethics and Leadership: Integration or Disharmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ethical theories and ethics in war, provides a summary of the three important ethical theories ( utilitarianism , rule- based ethical ...practical merit: utilitarianism , rule- based ethical systems, and virtue ethics . Utilitarian Ethics Utilitarian acts are defined as morally right... utilitarian ethics certainly can be applied to justify some restrictions on the conduct of warfare.23 According to this theory, the solution to

  7. Analogical Arguments in Ethics and Law: A Defence of Deductivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Perin Shecaira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a qualified defence of Bruce Waller’s deductivist schema for a priori analogical arguments in ethics and law. One crucial qualification is that the schema represents analogical arguments as complexes composed of one deductive inference (hence “deductivism” but also of one non-deductive subargument. Another important qualification is that the schema is informed by normative assumptions regarding the conditions that an analogical argument must satisfy in order for it to count as an optimal instance of its kind. Waller’s schema (in qualified form is defended from criticisms formulated by Trudy Govier, Marcello Guarini and Lilian Bermejo-Luque.

  8. Computer ethics and cyber laws to mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveesh, B N; Pande, Sanjay

    2004-04-01

    The explosive growth of computer and communications technology raises new legal and ethical challenges that reflect tensions between individual rights and societal needs. For instance, should cracking into a computer system be viewed as a petty prank, as trespassing, as theft, or as espionage? Should placing copyrighted material onto a public file server be treated as freedom of expression or as theft? Should ordinary communications be encrypted using codes that make it impossible for law-enforcement agencies to perform wiretaps? As we develop shared understandings and norms of behaviour, we are setting standards that will govern the information society for decades to come.

  9. Integrated empirical ethics: loss of normativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Widdershoven, Guy

    2004-01-01

    An important discussion in contemporary ethics concerns the relevance of empirical research for ethics. Specifically, two crucial questions pertain, respectively, to the possibility of inferring normative statements from descriptive statements, and to the danger of a loss of normativity if normative statements should be based on empirical research. Here we take part in the debate and defend integrated empirical ethical research: research in which normative guidelines are established on the basis of empirical research and in which the guidelines are empirically evaluated by focusing on observable consequences. We argue that in our concrete example normative statements are not derived from descriptive statements, but are developed within a process of reflection and dialogue that goes on within a specific praxis. Moreover, we show that the distinction in experience between the desirable and the undesirable precludes relativism. The normative guidelines so developed are both critical and normative: they help in choosing the right action and in evaluating that action. Finally, following Aristotle, we plead for a return to the view that morality and ethics are inherently related to one another, and for an acknowledgment of the fact that moral judgments have their origin in experience which is always related to historical and cultural circumstances.

  10. Reflections on Enhancing the Understanding of Law through Ethical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Murray S.

    2010-01-01

    There are varied approaches to incorporating the subject of ethics in the business school curriculum. The evolving process has included a debate over fundamental matters such as whether all students should be required to take a discrete course in ethics, who should be teaching ethics, and whether ethics can even be taught. The ethics subject…

  11. Research ethics and integrity for social scientists beyond regulatory compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This book explores recent developments and debates around researching ethically and with integrity, and complying with ethical requirements, and has been updated and expanded to now cover issues relating to international, indigenous, interdisciplinary and internet research.  

  12. Foundations in the Law: Classic Cases in Medical Ethics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zucker, K. W; Allen, Tracy L; Boyle, Martin J; Burton, Amy R; Smyth, Vito S

    2007-01-01

    .... The converse is also true: decisions within a legal system inform, or impact, ethics -specifically medical ethics The cases discussed in this paper are at the foundation of medical ethics in the United States...

  13. Living Wills in Italy: Ethical and Comparative Law Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veshi, Denard; Neitzke, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    In this article, advance directives will be analysed through ethical and comparative law approaches. Their importance, the two different types of advance directives and the so-called three steps hierarchy, will be discussed. Living wills will be treated in detail, considering the criticism they have attracted, as well as their known benefits. A thorough examination of the latest version of Arts. 3 and 4 of Italian Bill No. 2350, as approved by the Italian Senate in March 2009 and then amended by the Chamber of Deputies in July 2011, is included. This bill grants advance directives advisory force, limits their application in time and does not allow the validity of oral declarations. This political decision limits autonomy. Furthermore, there are doubts about the constitutionality of this bill, especially with respect to Arts. 2, 13 and 32 of the Italian Constitution, related to the right of self-determination. Further, this article will include a comparative approach of the legal aspects, with particular attention to the French and German models. To conclude, some ethical principles that the Italian legislator must take into consideration are indicated. In addition, some possible modifications of this Bill are suggested based on the experience of other European legislation.

  14. Reneging: A Topic to Promote Engaging Discussions about Law and Ethics in a Business Law or Legal Environment Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tonia Hap

    2009-01-01

    This article is intended for business law and legal environment instructors who want to help students understand how they might react when presented with an ethical conflict, no matter how big or how small. The article discusses not only the compelling ethical issues that may arise in reneging cases, but also legal issues. The article provides…

  15. Improving the Level and Quality of Ethics Review in Chinese Medicine and Integrative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Bin; Li, En-Chang

    2018-04-01

    Three features of ethics review in Chinese medicine (CM) and integrative medicine (IM) were put forward in this paper. It is consistent with the principles of ethical review in Western medicine; it has to be compliant with the laws of CM and IM; emphasis should be laid on the review of clinical practice facts and experience. Three problems were pointed out. The characteristics of CM and IM are not distinctive enough, operation procedures need to be refined and effectiveness remains to be improved. Based on the mentioned above, seven measures were proposed to improve the level and quality of ethics review in CM and IM, including better brand awareness, considerable tolerance, treatment based on disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation, scientific review and toxicity and side effects of CM, perfection of the ethics review system, reasonable procedures of ethics review and more specialized ethics review workers.

  16. [Clinical ethics consultation - an integrative model for practice and reflection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2008-07-01

    Broad evidence exists that health care professionals are facing ethical difficulties in patient care demanding a spectrum of useful ethics support services. Clinical ethics consultation is one of these forms of ethics support being effective in the acute setting. An authentic case is presented as an illustration. We introduce an integrative model covering the activities being characteristic for ethics consultation and going beyond "school"-specific approaches. Finally, we formulate some do's and don'ts of ethics consultation that are considered to be key issues for successful practice.

  17. Does environmental ethics found on natural law. Naturrechtliche Begruendung der Umweltethik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrgang, B.

    1991-08-09

    The author discusses various basic concepts of natural law; naturalistic and metaphysical fallacies, natural law and theory on human action developed by St. Thomas Aquinas. The author concludes by advocating an ethics for result assessment based on moral principles, and, in the case of environmental ethics in particular on justice (equal treatment, appropriateness, respect for those at a disadvantage and fairness between the gneerations). The same criterions should apply to matters concerning the ethics of energy generation, genetic engineering and economic and environmental ethics. (orig./HSCH).

  18. A Critique of the Notions of Law and Ethics as Regulatory Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While ethics as a system of moral values recommends what ought to be done or avoided, ...... principles of informed consent and professional communication which provide conditions for a .... Mass Media and Public Morality. Tale Law Journal.

  19. [The 14/2006 law on human assisted reproduction techniques: scientific and ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacadena, Juan-Ramón

    2006-01-01

    The new Spanish Law on Artificial Human Reproduction Techniques is analyzed from the scientific, ethical and legal points of view, paying special attention to the preimplantational diagnosis and the experimental utilization of gametes and preembryos. Other items are also analyzed.

  20. Ethics On The Fly: Toward A Drone - Specific Code Of Conduct For Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget... documentary evidence of ethical frameworks for UAS currently in use by law enforcement. A comparative policy analysis is then performed to identify...Using the case study method, this thesis considered documentary evidence of ethical frameworks for UAS currently in use by law enforcement. A

  1. Clinical Ethics Support for Healthcare Personnel: An Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoal, Dara; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Gifford, Mervyn; Kihlgren, Annica

    2017-12-01

    This study describes which clinical ethics approaches are available to support healthcare personnel in clinical practice in terms of their construction, functions and goals. Healthcare personnel frequently face ethically difficult situations in the course of their work and these issues cover a wide range of areas from prenatal care to end-of-life care. Although various forms of clinical ethics support have been developed, to our knowledge there is a lack of review studies describing which ethics support approaches are available, how they are constructed and their goals in supporting healthcare personnel in clinical practice. This study engages in an integrative literature review. We searched for peer-reviewed academic articles written in English between 2000 and 2016 using specific Mesh terms and manual keywords in CINAHL, MEDLINE and Psych INFO databases. In total, 54 articles worldwide described clinical ethics support approaches that include clinical ethics consultation, clinical ethics committees, moral case deliberation, ethics rounds, ethics discussion groups, and ethics reflection groups. Clinical ethics consultation and clinical ethics committees have various roles and functions in different countries. They can provide healthcare personnel with advice and recommendations regarding the best course of action. Moral case deliberation, ethics rounds, ethics discussion groups and ethics reflection groups support the idea that group reflection increases insight into ethical issues. Clinical ethics support in the form of a "bottom-up" perspective might give healthcare personnel opportunities to think and reflect more than a "top-down" perspective. A "bottom-up" approach leaves the healthcare personnel with the moral responsibility for their choice of action in clinical practice, while a "top-down" approach risks removing such moral responsibility.

  2. The History of Ethics (and Natural Law by Terence Irwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ramis Barceló

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This Review-Article tries to explain and contextualize the magnificent The Development of Ethics by Terence Irwin. It is a historiographical achievement in History of Ethics and this paper tries to present it to Spanish scholars. It is also a discussion of the main points of this work

  3. Experienced speech-language pathologists' responses to ethical dilemmas: an integrated approach to ethical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethical dilemmas. Individual narrative transcriptions were analyzed by using the participant's words to develop an ethical story that described and interpreted their responses to dilemmas. Key concepts from individual stories were then coded into group themes to reflect participants' reasoning processes. Five major themes reflected participants' approaches to ethical reasoning: (a) focusing on the well-being of the client, (b) fulfilling professional roles and responsibilities, (c) attending to professional relationships, (d) managing resources, and (e) integrating personal and professional values. SLPs demonstrated a range of ethical reasoning processes: applying bioethical principles, casuistry, and narrative reasoning when managing ethical dilemmas in the workplace. The results indicate that experienced SLPs adopted an integrated approach to ethical reasoning. They supported clients' rights to make health care choices. Bioethical principles, casuistry, and narrative reasoning provided useful frameworks for facilitating health professionals' application of codes of ethics to complex professional practice issues.

  4. Integrating Ethics in Community Colleges' Accounting Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton

    1990-01-01

    Argues that two-year college business programs need to provide moral guidance and leadership to students to help stem the proliferation of fraudulent and questionable financial reporting practices. Reviews amoral and moral unity theories of business ethics. Discusses barriers to ethical instruction in business curricula, and ways to overcome them.…

  5. Integrating Ethics into the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Urges incorporation of ethics into social studies curriculum. Provides an overview of ethical theory including principle-based theories of utilitarianism and deontology and virtue-based theories. Discusses philosophies of social science including positivism, interpretivism, and critical social science. Suggests teaching methods and curriculum…

  6. INTEGRATION OF ETHICAL DISCOURSE IN ECONOMIC THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia David Sobolevschi; Monica Aureliana Petcu

    2008-01-01

    Moral doctrines and ethical patterns have a strong historical character, the society taking upon itself certain behaviour values and criteria, depending on the stage of development, on its productive features. The business pattern anchored exclusively in the competition for productivity, profit and market went along with arguments having nothing in common with the principles of ethics, such as „there are no moral responsibilities in business”. The alteration of the economic paradigms through ...

  7. Moral Responsibility and Legal Liability, or, Ethics Drives the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Richard J.; Buttrick, Hilary G.

    2015-01-01

    As William Shaw's (2008) textbook states, by way of observation, "To a significant extent, law codifies a society's customs, ideals, norms, and moral values" (pp. 10-11). Shaw adds that "changes in the law tend to reflect changes in what a society takes to be right and wrong…" (p. 11). We think Shaw is correct, and we work to…

  8. Intrinsic ethics regarding integrated assessment models for climate management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienke, Erich W; Baum, Seth D; Tuana, Nancy; Davis, Kenneth J; Keller, Klaus

    2011-09-01

    In this essay we develop and argue for the adoption of a more comprehensive model of research ethics than is included within current conceptions of responsible conduct of research (RCR). We argue that our model, which we label the ethical dimensions of scientific research (EDSR), is a more comprehensive approach to encouraging ethically responsible scientific research compared to the currently typically adopted approach in RCR training. This essay focuses on developing a pedagogical approach that enables scientists to better understand and appreciate one important component of this model, what we call intrinsic ethics. Intrinsic ethical issues arise when values and ethical assumptions are embedded within scientific findings and analytical methods. Through a close examination of a case study and its application in teaching, namely, evaluation of climate change integrated assessment models, this paper develops a method and case for including intrinsic ethics within research ethics training to provide scientists with a comprehensive understanding and appreciation of the critical role of values and ethical choices in the production of research outcomes.

  9. Ethics of Tax Law Compliance: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Richard G.; Longo, Peter J.; Rioux, Jean W.

    2012-01-01

    The first semester Tax I student seems to be interested in the ethical issue of why citizens should report their income and only take legitimate tax deductions when it is unlikely that anyone will ever know. This paper addresses this issue from an interdisciplinary approach of accounting, philosophy, and political science. The accounting…

  10. Co-Evolution: Law and Institutions in International Ethics Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Cheng, Philip Y.K.; Choi, Chong-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of the co-evolution approach in various branches of research, such as strategy, organisation theory, complexity, population ecology, technology and innovation (Lewin et al., 1999; March, 1991), co-evolution has been relatively neglected in international business and ethics

  11. EUTHANASIA - A STUDY OF LAW, POLICY AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Physician assisted suicide (PAS and Euthanasia as it is now known, is essentially the doctrine that when, owing to disease, senility or the like, a person’s life has permanently ceased to be either agreeable or useful , the sufferer should be painlessly killed either by himself or by another. The intentional termination of patient’s life in such a situation by an act or omission of medical care is called euthanasia or mercy killing. This is the most active area of research in contemporary bio ethics. The present article is aimed to have a global overview regarding legalization of euthanasia and the current Indian scenari o, legally and ethically regarding this issue

  12. Ethics and law in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danbury, C M; Waldmann, C S

    2006-12-01

    Intensive Care Medicine epitomises the difficulties inherent in modern medicine. In this chapter we examine some key medicolegal and ethical areas that are evolving. The principles of autonomy and consent are well established, but developments in UK caselaw have shown that the courts may be moving away from their traditional deference of the medical profession. We examine some recent cases and discuss the impact that these cases may have on practice in Intensive Care.

  13. Ethical Issues in Integrated Health Care: Implications for Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Frederic G

    2018-05-01

    Integrated health care has come of age. What began modestly in the 1930s has evolved into a mature model of health care that is quickly becoming the standard of care. Social workers are now employed in a wide range of comprehensive integrated health care organizations. Some of these settings were designed as integrated health care delivery systems from their beginning. Others evolved over time, some incorporating behavioral health into existing primary care centers and others incorporating primary care into existing behavioral health agencies. In all of these contexts, social workers are encountering complex, sometimes unprecedented, ethical challenges. This article identifies and discusses ethical issues facing social workers in integrated health care settings, especially related to informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, boundaries, dual relationships, and conflicts of interest. The author includes practical resources that social workers can use to develop state-of-the-art ethics policies and protocols.

  14. Ethics and Integrity in HRD. Symposium 9. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This document contains three papers on ethics and integrity in human resource development (HRD). "Redefining Human Resource Development: An Integration of the Learning, Performance, and Spirituality of Work Perspectives" (Reid A. Bates, Tim Hatcher, Elwood F. Holton III, Neal Chalofsky) describes an effort to articulate the tensions…

  15. The Ethical Justification of the Thesis that Separates Law from Morality Through John Austin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Rabelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The british legal philosopher John Austin stands at the threshold of the evolution of the legal positivist tradition. His work, which dates back to the first half of the 19th century, was especially important to establish the basic elements of this school of legal understanding. Among his contributions to the legal positivist doctrine, lies the creation of the thesis that separates morality from law. Under an ethical context, however, John Austin was an ardent utilitarian who defended the use of the principle of utility as the only rational criteria for the unveiling of superior moral standards (divine laws. Considering both dimensions of his understanding, it has long been wondered if his utilitarian ethics have influenced, somehow, his legal theory, especially in regards to the separation thesis. Said thesis, which is in the center of the legal positivist tradition, has been interpreted in different ways in contemporary legal debate. A particular branch, called ethical positivism, opened new perspectives to the study of this tradition, defending the legal positivism theory as a morally satisfactory theoretical model for the contemporary legal systems. Hence, using the main premise of ethical positivism (which states that there are moral reasons to defend the separation thesis as an interprative and methodological tool, this paper plans on revisiting the link between John Austins legal and ethical convictions, in order to comprehend what were the moral reasons which led him to defend the separation of what law is and what it should be.

  16. Law Enforcement and Emergency Medicine: An Ethical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eileen F; Moskop, John C; Geiderman, Joel M; Iserson, Kenneth V; Marco, Catherine A; Derse, Arthur R

    2016-11-01

    Emergency physicians frequently interact with law enforcement officers and patients in their custody. As always, the emergency physician's primary professional responsibility is to promote patient welfare, and his or her first duty is to the patient. Emergency physicians should treat criminals, suspects, and prisoners with the same respect and attention they afford other patients while ensuring the safety of staff, visitors, and other patients. Respect for patient privacy and protection of confidentiality are of paramount importance to the patient-physician relationship. Simultaneously, emergency physicians should attempt to accommodate law enforcement personnel in a professional manner, enlisting their aid when necessary. Often this relates to the emergency physician's socially imposed duties, governed by state laws, to report infectious diseases, suspicion of abuse or neglect, and threats of harm. It is the emergency physician's duty to maintain patient confidentiality while complying with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations and state law. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Minimum Age of Sale for Tobacco Products and Electronic Cigarettes: Ethical Acceptability of US "Tobacco 21 Laws".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morain, Stephanie Rubino; Malek, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have recently passed laws that raise the minimum age of sale for tobacco products and electronic cigarettes to 21 years (Tobacco 21 laws). Although these laws have been demonstrated to be an effective means to reduce youth smoking initiation, their passage and potential expansion have provoked controversy. Critics have objected to these laws, claiming that they unduly intrude on individual freedom and that they irrationally and paternalistically restrict the freedom of those aged 18 to 20 years, who were previously able to legally purchase tobacco products. We have examined the ethical acceptability of Tobacco 21 laws. First, we have described ethical support for such a restriction grounded in its public health benefit. We have then offered arguments that raise doubts about the soundness of critics' objections to these regulations and described an additional ethical justification arising from concern about preventing harm to others. On the basis of this analysis, we conclude that Tobacco 21 laws are ethically justifiable.

  18. Managing for Organizational Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Lynn Sharp

    1994-01-01

    Compliance-based ethics programs focus on prevention, detection, and punishment. Companies should adopt an integrity-based approach to ethics management that combines a concern for the law with an emphasis on managerial responsibility for ethical behavior. (JOW)

  19. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 21: genetic screening of gamete donors: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, W; De Wert, G; Pennings, G; Shenfield, F; Devroey, P; Tarlatzis, B; Barri, P; Diedrich, K; Eichenlaub-Ritter, U; Tüttelmann, F; Provoost, V

    2014-07-01

    This Task Force document explores the ethical issues involved in the debate about the scope of genetic screening of gamete donors. Calls for expanded donor screening arise against the background of both occasional findings of serious but rare genetic conditions in donors or donor offspring that were not detected through present screening procedures and the advent of new genomic technologies promising affordable testing of donors for a wide range of conditions. Ethical principles require that all stakeholders' interests are taken into account, including those of candidate donors. The message of the profession should be that avoiding all risks is impossible and that testing should remain proportional.

  20. Health promotion, Islamic ethics and law in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Larijani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Health statistics demonstrate remarkable progresses in the field of primary health care and academic education in Iran within recent decades. Iran has also had obvious progresses in the field of research and the International publication rate of Iranian scientists has been quadrupled over the past decade. Progresses in biomedical researches have been associated with considerable activities in bioethics education, research and legislation. Organ transplantation, stem cell research, assisted reproductive technologies and genetics are some important instances of ethical debates in our country. "nIn this concise manuscript we intend to present some recent progresses in science and research in Iran. Considering importance of the bioethical issues, we will also review new legislations in the field of bioethics.

  1. [Wild animals and law and ethics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouët, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Legal systems applying to wild animals are very different depending on whether the animals are in captivity or under human control, or whether they are in the wild. Animals in captivity, like domesticated animals, are covered by protective measures for the welfare of the individual animal, but wild animals are not considered as individuals but only as members of a species, their numbers being controlled by humans and determined by human interests. In the light of contemporary scientific knowledge, such legal approaches are now inappropriate and can no longer be accepted for ethical reasons. The legal systems need to develop and must include a definition of the animal as an individual and as a sentient being.

  2. The Integration of the Ethical Dimension into Business Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Petcu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Organisations are marked by the complexity of interdependences and non-linear feed-back whose synergetic character has a strong impact on the dynamics, de-structuring and restructuring of the socio-economic systems that these are included in, in a continuous process characterised mainly by instability and rapid changes. In this context, the necessity to focus on ethics as a prerequisite in regular decision-making at the level of these organisations represents a major challenge for higher education, in particular for the business administration field, which has to ensure the comprehensibility of these phenomena. The research is divided into three main sections that focus on the ethical dimension of human activities in the economy, starting from the need to integrate ethics into business education: problems and objectives of the curriculum regarding ethics, requirements for elaborating the curriculum, as well as students’ perception of the introduction of “Business Ethics” in the curriculum. Based on the specialised literature review, the observations at the level of organisations, the analysis and structuring of structural-phenomenological information, we disseminated the objectives and requirements of a curriculum focused on business ethics. The quantitative analysis of students` perception of the discussed issue was made by means of a survey carried out among students enrolled in Master`s programmes, based on a questionnaire. The relevant elements were identified to validate the research hypotheses: relevant business factors (profit, risk, financial viability, the need for ethics and the involvement in community problems, the explanatory variables of ethical behaviour (the education, the mission and the value system, the existence of a code of ethics and of a person responsible for ethics-related issues, the requirements of the business environment in education (focus on practical aspects of Business Ethics courses, combining theoretical

  3. Duty to Inform and Informed Consent in Diagnostic Radiology: How Ethics and Law can Better Guide Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudenkova, Victoria; Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Although there is consensus on the fact that ionizing radiation used in radiological examinations can affect health, the stochastic (random) nature of risk makes it difficult to anticipate and assess specific health implications for patients. The issue of radiation protection is peculiar as any dosage received in life is cumulative, the sensitivity to radiation is highly variable from one person to another, and between 20 % and 50 % of radiological examinations appear not to be necessary. In this context, one might reasonably assume that information and patient consent would play an important role in regulating radiological practice. However, there is to date no clear consensus regarding the nature and content of-or even need for-consent by patients exposed to ionizing radiation. While law and ethics support the same principles for respecting the dignity of the person (inviolability and integrity), in the context of radiology practice, they do not provide a consistent message to guide clinical decision-making. This article analyzes the issue of healthcare professionals' duty to inform and obtain patient consent for radiological examinations. Considering that both law and ethics have as one of their aims to protect vulnerable populations, it is important that they begin to give greater attention to issues raised by the use of ionizing radiation in medicine. While the situation in Canada serves as a backdrop for a reflective analysis of the problem, the conclusions are pertinent for professional practice in other jurisdictions because the principles underlying health law and jurisprudence are fairly general.

  4. Law, Ethics, and Conversations between Physicians and Patients about Firearms in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Alexander D; Vernick, Jon S

    2018-01-01

    Firearms in the home pose a risk to household members, including homicide, suicide, and unintentional deaths. Medical societies urge clinicians to counsel patients about those risks as part of sound medical practice. Depending on the circumstances, clinicians might recommend safe firearm storage, temporary removal of the firearm from the home, or other measures. Certain state firearm laws, however, might present legal and ethical challenges for physicians who counsel patients about guns in the home. Specifically, we discuss state background check laws for gun transfers, safe gun storage laws, and laws forbidding physicians from engaging in certain firearm-related conversations with their patients. Medical professionals should be aware of these and other state gun laws but should offer anticipatory guidance when clinically appropriate. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Law for the Integral Management of Waste No. 8839

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Law for Integral Waste Management No. 8839 was enacted in Costa Rica in 2010. The purpose of this law has been to regulate the integral management of residues and the efficient use of the resources, through the planning and execution of regulatory actions, operational, financial, administrative, educational, environmental and healthy of monitoring and evaluation [es

  6. Lex genetica: the law and ethics of programming biological code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Dan L

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic engineering now allow the design of programmable biological artifacts. Such programming may include usage constraints that will alter the balance of ownership and control for biotechnology products. Similar changes have been analyzed in the context of digital content management systems, and while this previous work is useful in analyzing issues related to biological programming, the latter technology presents new conceptual problems that require more comprehensive evaluation of the interplay between law and technologically embedded values. In particular, the ability to embed contractual terms in technological artifacts now requires a re-examination of disclosure and consent in transactions involving such artifacts.

  7. Ethics, Law and Professional Issues Gallagher Ann and Hodge Sue Ethics, Law and Professional Issues 192pp £20.99 Palgrave Macmillan 9780230279940 0230279945 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    THE EDITORS provide a sound introduction to ethics, law and professional issues in health care. Scenarios before each chapter help the reader to digest and comprehend the information. My only criticism is that it is not directly relevant to nursing alone. Although there is some benefit in being aware of how other practitioners may be affected by these issues, another book aimed at nurses would be more appropriate. Later chapters about responding to unprofessional practice and promoting professional healthcare practice may be of more interest to nursing students and recently qualified healthcare professionals.

  8. [Manipulation of the human genome: ethics and law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Maria Carolina Vaz; Iano, Flávia Godoy; Silva, Paulo Maurício; Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho; Sales-Peres, Arsênio

    2010-06-01

    The molecular biology has provided the basic tool for geneticists deepening in the molecular mechanisms that influence different diseases. It should be noted the scientific and moral responsibility of the researchers, because the scientists should imagine the moral consequences of the commercial application of genetic tests, since this fact involves not only the individual and their families, but the entire population. Besides being also necessary to make a reflection on how this information from the human genome will be used, for good or bad. The objective of this review was to bring the light of knowledge, data on characteristics of the ethical application of molecular biology, linking it with the rights of human beings. After studying literature, it might be observed that the Human Genome Project has generated several possibilities, such as the identification of genes associated with diseases with synergistic properties, but sometimes modifying behavior to genetically intervene in humans, bringing benefits or social harm. The big challenge is to decide what humanity wants on this giant leap.

  9. Legal Ethics, Rules of Conduct and the Moral Compass – Considerations from a Law Student's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffel Hendrik van Zyl IV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When young law graduates enter the legal profession they will undoubtedly be exposed to difficult situations that will demand of them to make difficult decisions, often having to balance conflicting systems of belief and ideas on what ethical behaviour entails. Legal ethics training in law faculties the world over often neglects teaching aspects of morality to focus on reviews of rules of professional legal conduct. This article argues that if legal education is to adequately prepare law graduates for legal practice, it must offer more than reviews of these codes of conduct. To properly assist law students in avoiding pitfalls which may lead to disciplinary action, they must be taught to appropriately use their moral compasses. This narrative aims to show that the metaphorical moral compass, with the cardinal virtues as possible main points, may serve as the crucial and underlying guide in the avoidance of the pitfalls which may result in a person being struck from the roll, but more than that, that it may aid in the pursuit of personal dreams or goals. The article contributes to the literature on legal ethics by foregrounding the virtues that pertain to sound conduct in a lawyer, as opposed to the rules and codes, in the hope that this may help legal practitioners to decide on what is right and what is wrong.

  10. Ethics, law, and commercial surrogacy: a call for uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabiak, Katherine; Wegner, Carole; Fredland, Valita; Helft, Paul R

    2007-01-01

    In the United States at this time, no uniform federal law exists regarding commercial surrogacy, and state statutory schemes vary vastly, ranging from criminalization to legal recognition with contract enforcement. The authors examine how commercial surrogacy agencies utilize the Internet as a means for attracting parents and surrogates by employing emotional cultural rhetoric. By inducing both parents and surrogates to their jurisdiction, agencies circumvent vast discrepancies in state statutory regulative schemes and create a distinct interstate business, absent an efficient regulatory framework or legal recourse in some circumstances. The authors propose a uniform federal regulatory scheme premised upon regulating interstate business transactions to create accountability and legal remedies for both the parents and the surrogate.

  11. Body integrity identity disorder and the ethics of mutilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The rare phenomenon in which a person desires amputation of a healthy limb, now often termed body integrity identity disorder, raises central questions for biomedical ethics. Standard bioethical discussions of surgical intervention in such cases fail to address the meaning of bodily integrity, which is intrinsic to a theological understanding of the goodness of the body. However, moral theological responses are liable to assume that such interventions necessarily represent an implicitly docet...

  12. The patentability of living organisms between science, law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, L; Foà, R; Frati, P

    1999-01-01

    The approval on May 1998 of the European Union (EU) directive on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions has aligned Europe to the international trend about the patenting of biotechnologies. Many questions are still unresolved, i.e. the differences between the article 53b of the European Patent Convention (EPC), which prohibits patenting of plants and animal varieties, whereas the directive states that Oinvention whose object are plants or animals may be patented if the practicability of the invention is not technically confined to a particular plant or animal varietyO (article 12). Again, the interpretation of plants or animal species specificity and that on the threatening public order and morality (which inhibits patenting) may have doubtful interpretations, according to the different EU States morality and law (e.g. Denmark does not admit patentability of transgenic animals). Despite difficulties, biotechnology Research and Development for applications to medicine, veterinary sciences, agriculture and foods is continuously growing. Bioethical independent evaluations of the applications of biotechnologies and of their side-effects (risk for biodiversity of plants and animals, safety of procedures to save mankind, respect of human dignity and of fundamental human rights, etc.) are mandatory to link the interests of science and industrial productions together with those of mankind. This is the original meaning given by van Potter to the word bioethics, as a bridge to the future.

  13. Unconsented HIV testing in cases of occupational exposure: ethics, law, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Ethan; Macklin, Ruth

    2012-10-01

    Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) has substantially reduced the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after an occupational exposure; nevertheless, exposure to HIV remains a concern for emergency department providers. According to published guidelines, PEP should be taken only when source patients are HIV-positive or have risk factors for HIV. Initiating PEP when source patients are uninfected puts exposed persons at risk from taking toxic drugs with no compensating benefit. Forgoing PEP if the source is infected results in increased risk of acquiring HIV. What should be done if source patients refuse HIV testing? Is it justifiable to test the blood of these patients over their autonomous objection? The authors review current law and policy and perform an ethical analysis to determine if laws permitting unconsented testing in cases of occupational exposure can be ethically justified. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  14. Health risk reduction programs in employer-sponsored health plans: Part II-law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Harrell, Heather L

    2009-08-01

    We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests.

  15. Health Risk Reduction Programs in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: Part II—Law and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A.; Harrell, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. Methods We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. Results A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Conclusion Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests. PMID:19625971

  16. When patients are harmed, but are not wronged: ethics, law, and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, Paul B; Berge, Keith H; Klaas, Kelsey M; Klaas, James P; Larson, Annalise Noelle

    2014-09-01

    Iatrogenic injury-injury caused unintentionally by medical treatment-breaks the oldest and most famous rule of medical ethics: primum non nocere, or above all, do no harm. Medical malpractice law, however, focuses on whether an injury was caused by negligence, not on whether an injury was iatrogenic. Iatrogenic injury inflicted without negligence is a common pattern in medical malpractice lawsuits; it is likely the pattern of Jacobs v Cross (Minnesota, 1872), in which Dr W. W. Mayo testified as an expert witness. As a matter of law, the doctor defendants should win all those lawsuits, for iatrogenic injury inflicted without negligence is not a legal wrong in the United States and has not been considered a legal wrong for hundreds of years. However, the medical ethics applicable to doctors' duties to report incompetence in colleagues, including those who inflict excessive iatrogenic injury, have developed dramatically over time. In 1872, the ethical codes in the United States exhorted doctors not to criticize another doctor, even if incompetent. Today, doctors in the United States are ethically required to report an incompetent colleague. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. German law on circumcision and its debate: how an ethical and legal issue turned political.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurenque, Diana; Wiesing, Urban

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to illuminate the recent debate in Germany about the legitimacy of circumcision for religious reasons. The aim is both to evaluate the new German law allowing religious circumcision, and to outline the resulting conflict between the surrounding ethical and legal issues. We first elucidate the diversity of legal and medical views on religious circumcision in Germany. Next we examine to what extent invasive and irreversible physical interventions on infant boys unable to given their consent should be carried out for non-medical reasons. To this end, the potential benefits and harms of circumcision for non-medical reasons are compared. We argue that circumcision does not provide any benefits for the 'child as a child' and poses only risks to boys. We then set out to clarify and analyse political (rather than ethical) justifications of the new circumcision law. We demonstrate through this analysis how the circumcision debate in Germany has been transformed from a legal and ethical problem into a political issue, due at least in part to Germany's unique historical context. Although such a particular political sensibility is entirely comprehensible, it raises particular problems when it comes to framing and responding to medical ethical issues - as in the case of religious circumcision. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ethics and integrative medicine: moving beyond the biomedical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, D E

    2001-01-01

    For the most part, those who have written on the ethics of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and integrative medicine have attempted simply to apply traditional bioethics (in the form of principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice) to this new area of healthcare. In this article I argue that adopting the practices of CAM requires a new ethical understanding that incorporates the values implicit in those practices. The characteristics of CAM and conventional medicine can be translated into the language of healthcare values in a variety of ways. I suggest that they support 5 core values: integrated humanity, ecological integrity, naturalism, relationalism, and spiritualism. Characteristics of both CAM and conventional medicine are present in value. What is now thought of as principlism is, in this understanding, simply a subset within these values.

  19. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology's Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1-4.6%), respectively (Porganizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities.

  20. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology’s Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1–4.6%), respectively (Pethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805

  1. A qualitative analysis of student-written law and ethics cases: A snapshot of PY2 student experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwaki, Tanya E; Hazlet, Thomas K

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to better understand pharmacy students' experiences and recognition of legal and ethical tensions existing in pharmacy practice as demonstrated in student-written law and ethics cases. A qualitative analysis of 132 student-written cases representing the team efforts of 1053 students over a 12-year time period was conducted. Student-written cases were coded and analyzed thematically. Our results demonstrate the types of ethical and legal issues our students have experienced in pharmacy practice during the first five quarters of their professional education. Our data highlight three themes: 1) ethical dilemmas presented when the law is misapplied; 2) ethical dilemmas presented when an institutional policy or law was viewed as insufficient; and 3) ethical dilemmas presented as provider distress. The third theme was further subdivided into five subthemes. The themes that emerged from this study represent some of the ethical dilemmas that second professional year students have encountered and how these dilemmas may intersect with legal boundaries. Educators can use cases demonstrating these themes to reinforce law and ethics education in the curriculum, thus helping prepare students for pharmacy practice. This article recommends how and when to use case examples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. European water law in transition: the challenge of integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van

    2005-01-01

    European and domestic national water law have witnessed a number of developments, which can be described as the development from a national territorial approach towards a transnational integrated approach. Initially, Dutch water law for example, sought to offer protection against flooding. More

  3. Promoting Ethics and Integrity in Management Academic Research: Retraction Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayodele, Freida Ozavize; Yao, Liu; Haron, Hasnah

    2018-02-13

    In the management academic research, academic advancement, job security, and the securing of research funds at one's university are judged mainly by one's output of publications in high impact journals. With bogus resumes filled with published journal articles, universities and other allied institutions are keen to recruit or sustain the appointment of such academics. This often places undue pressure on aspiring academics and on those already recruited to engage in research misconduct which often leads to research integrity. This structured review focuses on the ethics and integrity of management research through an analysis of retracted articles published from 2005 to 2016. The study employs a structured literature review methodology whereby retracted articles published between 2005 and 2016 in the field of management science were found using Crossref and Google Scholar. The searched articles were then streamlined by selecting articles based on their relevance and content in accordance with the inclusion criteria. Based on the analysed retracted articles, the study shows evidence of ethical misconduct among researchers of management science. Such misconduct includes data falsification, the duplication of submitted articles, plagiarism, data irregularity and incomplete citation practices. Interestingly, the analysed results indicate that the field of knowledge management includes the highest number of retracted articles, with plagiarism constituting the most significant ethical issue. Furthermore, the findings of this study show that ethical misconduct is not restricted to a particular geographic location; it occurs in numerous countries. In turn, avenues of further study on research misconduct in management research are proposed.

  4. Striving for Scientific Integrity and Ethical Practices in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissman, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The need for the highest levels of scientific integrity and ethical principles in higher education, globally, is obvious. This is the setting where faculty scientists practice and future scientists, as entering science majors, those who change course and switch to science, and graduate students, are nurtured and mentored. Institutions of higher education across the globe are devoting increasing attention to scientific integrity and ethical practices, often as mandated by specific (funding) agencies, and this certainly is a step in the right direction. One approach has involved graduate students, particularly PhD students, in formal classes/seminars on the subjects. Another, more institution-specific, is to require freshman science majors to take one or more classes designed to assist students, in many ways, to succeed in whatever science path they choose. For the past five years I have "taught" such a class, which I like to refer to as "Science is the Rest of Your Life 101". My section is very heavy on scientific integrity and ethical practices; most students have never been exposed to nor have considered such subjects. Their interest level is exceedingly keen. So, steps are being taken, but rectifying existing concerns will take time. Here are some (potential/real) problems. One facing all of higher education is the ever decreasing number, certainly in the United States, of tenured/tenure track faculty in all disciplines together with the generational "gap" or "double gap" (some colleagues of mine are in their 80s) between those who never for all intents and purposes received any "formal" exposure to scientific integrity and ethical practices issues and those fresh in the academy for which these subjects are recently and better engrained. At most institutions, those faculty never involved in such formal training because of, well, their age, are required to pass some form of on-line "certification" class in research ethics among other subjects on an annual or bi

  5. WHO'S IN CHARGE? THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDICAL LAW, MEDICAL ETHICS, AND MEDICAL MORALITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charles; Miola, José

    2015-01-01

    Medical law inevitably involves decision-making, but the types of decisions that need to be made vary in nature, from those that are purely technical to others that contain an inherent ethical content. In this paper we identify the different types of decisions that need to be made, and explore whether the law, the medical profession, or the individual doctor is best placed to make them. We also argue that the law has failed in its duty to create a coherent foundation from which such decision-making might properly be regulated, and this has resulted in a haphazard legal framework that contains no consistency. We continue by examining various medico-legal topics in relation to these issues before ending by considering the risk of demoralisation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. AGU's Updated Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    AGU'S mission is to promote discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. This mission can only be accomplished if all those engaged in the scientific enterprise uphold the highest standards of scientific integrity and professional ethics. AGU's Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy provides a set of principles and guidelines for AGU members, staff, volunteers, contractors, and non-members participating in AGU sponsored programs and activities. The policy has recently been updated to include a new code of conduct that broadens the definition of scientific misconduct to include discrimination, harassment, and bullying. This presentation provides the context for what motivated the updated policy, an outline of the policy itself, and a discussion of how it is being communicated and applied.

  7. State-of-the-Art Report on Ethics of Research Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Hahn, K. W.; Nam, Y. M.; You, B. H.; Min, B. J.

    2006-04-01

    The report briefly considers the generous ethical issues such as the background of philosophy, the issues of research ethics, the research integrity, the role of citation, the program and the code of research ethics. The report introduces the background of philosophy of science and elements of research ethics. It also considers the precedents of misconduct in research ethics and the ingredients to preserve the research integrity. Especially, the citation with obscure boundary between proper citation and plagiarism is carefully explored through several examples. Finally, the domestic ethics conditions are investigated on the research integrity and educational program on the responsible conduct of research. To compare the domestic situation, the educational program and the system of research integrity in EU and USA are deeply searched in Ch. 6 and Appendix III and V. To develop an educational program of research ethics and integrity, Nuclear Training Centre(NTC) collects and arranges the material and resource for research ethics

  8. State-of-the-Art Report on Ethics of Research Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Hahn, K. W.; Nam, Y. M.; You, B. H.; Min, B. J

    2006-04-15

    The report briefly considers the generous ethical issues such as the background of philosophy, the issues of research ethics, the research integrity, the role of citation, the program and the code of research ethics. The report introduces the background of philosophy of science and elements of research ethics. It also considers the precedents of misconduct in research ethics and the ingredients to preserve the research integrity. Especially, the citation with obscure boundary between proper citation and plagiarism is carefully explored through several examples. Finally, the domestic ethics conditions are investigated on the research integrity and educational program on the responsible conduct of research. To compare the domestic situation, the educational program and the system of research integrity in EU and USA are deeply searched in Ch. 6 and Appendix III and V. To develop an educational program of research ethics and integrity, Nuclear Training Centre(NTC) collects and arranges the material and resource for research ethics.

  9. Law, ethics and pandemic preparedness: the importance of cross-jurisdictional and cross-cultural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Belinda; Carney, Terry

    2010-04-01

    To explore social equity, health planning, regulatory and ethical dilemmas in responding to a pandemic influenza (H5N1) outbreak, and the adequacy of protocols and standards such as the International Health Regulations (2005). This paper analyses the role of legal and ethical considerations for pandemic preparedness, including an exploration of the relevance of cross-jurisdictional and cross-cultural perspectives in assessing the validity of goals for harmonisation of laws and policies both within and between nations. Australian and international experience is reviewed in various areas, including distribution of vaccines during a pandemic, the distribution of authority between national and local levels of government, and global and regional equity issues for poorer countries. This paper finds that questions such as those of distributional justice (resource allocation) and regulatory frameworks raise important issues about the cultural and ethical acceptability of planning measures. Serious doubt is cast on a 'one size fits all' approach to international planning for managing a pandemic. It is concluded that a more nuanced approach than that contained in international guidelines may be required if an effective response is to be constructed internationally. The paper commends the wisdom of reliance on 'soft law', international guidance that leaves plenty of room for each nation to construct its response in conformity with its own cultural and value requirements. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Using the law to improve access to treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Richard; Parmar, Sharan; Divan, Vivek; Berger, Jonathan

    2002-12-01

    The XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa in July 2000 focused worldwide attention on the problem of accessing treatments in developing countries. In the interim, thanks to the work of activists - from demonstrations to court cases, and from acts of public courage by people living with HIV/AIDS to ongoing lobbying of politicians and trade negotiators - some very significant developments have occurred. But the reality is that the vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS still lack access to affordable, quality medicines. This article, a summary of a paper presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India, explores three approaches for improving access. In the first part, Richard Elliott provides an overview of the state of the right to health as embodied in international human rights law; comments on the experience to date in litigating claims to the right to health; and identifies potential strategies activists can adopt to advance recognition of the right to health. In the second part, Sharan Parmar and Vivek Divan describe price-control and drug-financing mechanisms used by industrialized countries to increase the affordability of medicines; and discuss how some of these mechanisms could be adapted for use in developing countries. Finally, Jonathan Berger describes the use of litigation in the courts by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa.

  11. "Thinking ethics": a novel, pilot, proof-of-concept program of integrating ethics into the Physiology curriculum in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D, Savitha; Vaz, Manjulika; Vaz, Mario

    2017-06-01

    Integrating medical ethics into the physiology teaching-learning program has been largely unexplored in India. The objective of this exercise was to introduce an interactive and integrated ethics program into the Physiology course of first-year medical students and to evaluate their perceptions. Sixty medical students (30 men, 30 women) underwent 11 sessions over a 7-mo period. Two of the Physiology faculty conducted these sessions (20-30 min each) during the routine physiology (theory/practicals) classes that were of shorter duration and could, therefore, accommodate the discussion of related ethical issues. This exercise was in addition to the separate ethics classes conducted by the Medical Ethics department. The sessions were open ended, student centered, and designed to stimulate critical thinking. The students' perceptions were obtained through a semistructured questionnaire and focused group discussions. The students found the program unique, thought provoking, fully integrated, and relevant. It seldom interfered with the physiology teaching. They felt that the program sensitized them about ethical issues and prepared them for their clinical years, to be "ethical doctors." Neutral observers who evaluated each session felt that the integrated program was relevant to the preclinical year and that the program was appropriate in its content, delivery, and student involvement. An ethics course taught in integration with Physiology curriculum was found to be beneficial, feasible, and compatible with Physiology by students as well as neutral observers. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Corporate antifraud strategies – Ethics culture and occupational integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Monica SABĂU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fraud strategy deployment in organization has a positive impact, demonstrated by reducing the probability of occurrence, detection time and materiality for fraud, however protecting corporate reputation, brand, management credibility, and business itself. Involving accounting profession in corporate governance processes, to ensure compliance, to present a true and fair view the financial statements of an organization, to minimize risks, including the fraud one, involves assigning new responsibilities and expanding its area of ​​deployment of the assurance engagement. The article identifies the main conductors of an anti-fraud strategy for success - work environment with high integrity, ethical organizational culture - being analyzed in terms of composition, development, implementation and qualitative analysis of efficiency and performance. The main factor influencing the occurrence of fraud is the ethics culture and business integrity developed in the company. Its evaluation and its continuous improvement are the corporate governance requirements and prerequisites for the development of an ethic, uncorrupted occupational environment, with a proactive attitude in the fight against fraud. The final chapter summarizes the necessary documentation to be used in developing and implementing anti-fraud strategy within the organization.

  13. [Pursuing the ethics of integrity in a business context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicardi, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    Having placed the phenomenon of corruption in the wider context of the current cultural and anthropological crisis and after recalling the ancient roots of the phenomenon, the author proposes an itinerary in six stages that is a sort of a minimal ethics in view of affirming and rooting ethical behaviors and prevent corruption in a business context. The six stages are: professionalism, respect, loyalty, honesty, responsibility, integrity. If corruption is a phenomenon of personal (cor-ruptum) and collective (cum-rumpere) breaking and disruption, which gives birth to duplicity, hidden and not transparent behaviors, integrity, on the contrary, is the attitude of fullness and consistency that manifests and produces the healthy character of the individual and the group. The author discerns in the corruption of the word a basic destructuring element of relational networks and also of relations internal to a business organization. He emphasizes the urgency of the recovery of an ethics of the word that alone enables the creation or reconstitution of trust, which is the necessary foundation for the good performance and livability of interpersonal, social, and corporate relations.

  14. The law, policy, and ethics of employers' use of financial incentives to improve health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Kristin M; Volpp, Kevin G; Halpern, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) turns to a nontraditional mechanism to improve public health: employer-provided financial incentives for healthy behaviors. Critics raise questions about incentive programs' effectiveness, employer involvement, and potential discrimination. We support incentive program development despite these concerns. The ACA sets the stage for a broad-based research and implementation agenda through which we can learn to structure incentive programs to not only promote public health but also address prevalent concerns. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. [Ethics versus economics in public health? On the integration of economic rationality in a discourse of public health ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgang, H; Staber, J

    2009-05-01

    In the course of establishing the discourse of public health ethics in Germany, we discuss whether economic efficiency should be part of public health ethics and, if necessary, how efficiency should be conceptualized. Based on the welfare economics theory, we build a theoretical framework that demands an integration of economic rationality in public health ethics. Furthermore, we consider the possible implementation of welfare efficiency against the background of current practice in an economic evaluation of health care in Germany. The indifference of the welfare efficiency criterion with respect to distribution leads to the conclusion that efficiency must not be the only criteria of public health ethics. Therefore, an ethical approach of principles should be chosen for public health ethics. Possible conflicts between principles of such an approach are outlined.

  16. Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics at AGU - The Establishment and Evolution of an Ethics Program at a Large Scientific Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael; Leinen, Margaret; McEntee, Christine; Townsend, Randy; Williams, Billy

    2016-04-01

    The American Geophysical Union, a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. This presentation will provide an overview of the Ethics program at AGU, highlighting the reasons for its establishment, the process of dealing ethical breaches, the number and types of cases considered, how AGU helps educate its members on Ethics issues, and the rapidly evolving efforts at AGU to address issues related to the emerging field of GeoEthics. The presentation will also cover the most recent AGU Ethics program focus on the role for AGU and other scientific societies in addressing sexual harassment, and AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.

  17. The integration of law and integrality of the legislation as necessary conditions for the success of law enforcement in interstate integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Baburin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 341.1+342.2Subject. The article substantiates the need for a special system of legislation for any project of international integration. Only such system, being integral, may, firstly, become the basis for the formation of an integrative law of this integration project, and secondly, have a supranational constitutionality, giving the ability to individual enforcement.Purpose. The purpose of this paper is the design of the constitutional-legal mechanisms of international integration in the scope of an integrative understanding of law and law enforcement.Methodology. The author uses methods of theoretical analysis, particularly the theory of integrative legal consciousness, as well as legal methods, including formal legal method and comparative law.Results, scope of application. The author points out that the formation of a single legal space in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, as well as in Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Community before, is a development of constitutional law of supranational level, not of international law. The integration of law and integrality of the legislation are prerequisite for the success of the interstate Eurasian integration.Integration of law means the completeness of its internal structure, implies the indissoluble inner coherence of the law, its wholeness, unity. Coherent legal norms, embodied in legislation, can only create the phenomenon of law. The law should be understood as a metasystem, supersystem, it accumulates all socially significant systems and integrates the values of the law itself, its principles, values, other social regulators and regulated spheres of social relations. Attempts to apply the concept of "integration", but to abandon the notion of "integrality" are unreasonable, this terminological dichotomy is just a word game.If we talk about law, it is more appropriate to talk about it’s iintegrity, but if we talk about legislation, emerging to accelerate and deepen integration

  18. Navigating the legal and ethical foundations of informed consent and confidentiality in integrated primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Cathy; Rose, Sandra; Fifield, Peter Y; Arnault, Steve

    2013-03-01

    This article describes findings from ongoing research and analysis of current literature in addition to discussions with leaders in the field, communications with lawyers and administrators of advocacy and government agencies pertaining to integrated primary care (IPC). Standards of care are established based on a myriad of factors, including professional codes of ethics, case law, state and federal laws, professional standards, existing best practices, current professional guidelines, administrative rules and regulations, and licensing board regulations. Regulations may differ for behavioral health and medical providers, posing challenges in IPC settings. This article provides a review of these regulations, particularly 42CFR Part 2, a federal law governing confidentiality for substance abuse programs, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), and state laws relevant to patient care in IPC settings. On the basis of findings from the study, the authors make recommendations related to patient care practices concerning informed consent and release of information procedures, treatment and warm hand-off protocols, documentation and electronic record keeping, agreements with other providers, and billing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Ethics and Integrity. Symposium 27. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This packet contains three papers on ethics and integrity from a symposium on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Factors Influencing Ethical Resolution Efficacy: A Model for HRD Practitioners" (Kimberly S. McDonald), proposes a model of ethical resolution efficacy for HRD practitioners. The model suggests that factors related to…

  20. Fostering ethical willingness: integrating emotional and contextual awareness with rational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betan, E J; Stanton, A L

    1999-06-01

    Ethical dilemmas are inherently challenging. By definition, clinicians decide between conflicting principles of welfare and naturally confront competing pulls and inclinations. This investigation of students' responses to an ethical scenario highlights how emotions and concerns can interfere with willingness to implement ethical knowledge. Clear-cut rules are the exception in psychotherapy, and clinicians must judge ethical issues on the basis of the unique context of each case. As such, subjectivity and emotional involvement are essential tools for determining ethical action, but they must be integrated with rational analysis. Strategies for attending to influential emotions and contextual factors in order to mobilize ethical commitment are described.

  1. Behavioral Ethics in Practice: Integrating Service Learning into a Graduate Business Ethics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kevin; Wittmer, Dennis; Ebrahimi, Bahman Paul

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a broad definition that distinguishes behavioral ethics as science and behavioral ethics in practice, we describe how service learning can be a meaningful component of a four-credit, one-quarter graduate business ethics course by blending both normative/prescriptive and behavioral/descriptive ethics. We provide a conceptual and…

  2. Integral Parameters of the Thermal Neutron Scattering Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, S.N.

    1964-09-01

    Integral parameters of the thermal neutron scattering law - the thermalization binding parameter (M 2 ), the Placzek's moments of the generalized frequency spectrum of dynamical modes and the energy transfer moments of the scattering law - are theoretically discussed. A detailed study of the variation of M 2 , the thermalization time constant and the effective temperature of the vibrating atoms, with the relative weight between intra-molecular vibrations and hindered rotations for H 2 O, is presented. Theoretical results for different scattering models of H 2 O are compared with the measurements of integral experiments. A set of integral parameters for D 2 O, using Butler's model, have been obtained. Importance of the structure of hindered rotations of H 2 O and D 2 O in the study of integral parameters has also been discussed

  3. Integral Parameters of the Thermal Neutron Scattering Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, S N

    1964-09-15

    Integral parameters of the thermal neutron scattering law - the thermalization binding parameter (M{sub 2}), the Placzek's moments of the generalized frequency spectrum of dynamical modes and the energy transfer moments of the scattering law - are theoretically discussed. A detailed study of the variation of M{sub 2}, the thermalization time constant and the effective temperature of the vibrating atoms, with the relative weight between intra-molecular vibrations and hindered rotations for H{sub 2}O, is presented. Theoretical results for different scattering models of H{sub 2}O are compared with the measurements of integral experiments. A set of integral parameters for D{sub 2}O, using Butler's model, have been obtained. Importance of the structure of hindered rotations of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O in the study of integral parameters has also been discussed.

  4. The principle of systemic integration in human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachovitsa, Adamantia

    International lawyers and courts consider the principle of systemic integration to be a potential answer to difficulties arising from the fragmentation of public international law. This article questions the application of this approach in the context of human rights treaties. It is argued, first,

  5. Law in the laboratory a guide to the ethics of federally funded science research

    CERN Document Server

    Charrow, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation together fund more than $40 billon of research annually in the United States and around the globe. These large public expenditures come with strings, including a complex set of laws and guidelines that regulate how scientists may use NIH and NSF funds, how federally funded research may be conducted, and who may have access to or own the product of the research. Until now, researchers have had little instruction on the nature of these laws and how they work. But now, with Robert P. Charrow’s Law in the Laboratory, they have a readable and entertaining introduction to the major ethical and legal considerations pertaining to research under the aegis of federal science funding. For any academic whose position is grant funded, or for any faculty involved in securing grants, this book will be an essential reference manual. And for those who want to learn how federal legislation and regulations affect laboratory research, Charrow’s primer wil...

  6. What Is Everyday Ethics? A Review and a Proposal for an Integrative Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzo, Natalie; Bell, Emily; Racine, Eric

    2016-01-01

    "Everyday ethics" is a term that has been used in the clinical and ethics literature for decades to designate normatively important and pervasive issues in healthcare. In spite of its importance, the term has not been reviewed and analyzed carefully. We undertook a literature review to understand how the term has been employed and defined, finding that it is often contrasted to "dramatic ethics." We identified the core attributes most commonly associated with everyday ethics. We then propose an integrative model of everyday ethics that builds on the contribution of different ethical theories. This model proposes that the function of everyday ethics is to serve as an integrative concept that (1) helps to detect current blind spots in bioethics (that is, shifts the focus from dramatic ethics) and (2) mobilizes moral agents to address these shortcomings of ethical insight. This novel integrative model has theoretical, methodological, practical, and pedagogical implications, which we explore. Because of the pivotal role that moral experience plays in this integrative model, the model could help to bridge empirical ethics research with more conceptual and normative work. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  7. A "next generation" ethics committee. St. Joseph Health system has integrated performance-improvement features into its ethics work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the limitations that accompany the traditional model of ethics committees, St. Joseph Health System (SJHS), Orange, CA, has been working to integrate ethics expertise and quality-improvement methodology into its "Next Generation Model" (NG Model) for such committees. However, moving from a traditional structure to the NG Model (introduced to SJHS facilities in 1999) brought some challenges, not the least of which was a deep-rooted culture of resistance to change. Following a 2004 audit of how the NG model was working, some common challenges were identified. To deal with those challenges, SJHS developed some tools and techniques that have helped ease the ongoing transition. These tools have helped the system's ethics committees address such issues as collaboration for the sake of organizational integration, setting goals, and measuring performance of various ethics roles.

  8. Nursing Students' Use of Electronic and Social Media: Law, Ethics, and E-Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the promotion of professionalism in nursing students with regard to the use of electronic and social media. Misuse of social media can lead to disciplinary actions and program dismissal for students and to legal actions and lawsuits for nursing programs. Programs are concemed about breaches of patient confidentiality and release of private or inappropriate information that jeopardizes clinical placements and relationships. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics and National Council of State Boards of Nursing social media guidelines provide a foundation for promoting e-professionalism in students. Recent law cases involving students who were dismissed from nursing programs due to social media misuse are analyzed. Schools need policies that clearly establish expectations and the consequences of misuse of social media platforms. Lessons learned from the legal cases presented provide further guidance for both nursing students and nursing programs.

  9. [Animal ethics in the 19th century and Swiss animal protection law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, I

    2018-01-01

    The development of animal ethics and animal rights from the antiquity up to modern times is described. The relationship of humans to animals was primarily based on fear and animal cult, developed by the domestication to a partnership. The philosophers of the early modern age denied the animals the reason, what was disadvantageous to the position of the animals in the society and the behavior of humans to the animals. By the end of the 19th century the animal protection concept developed with numerous postulates for legal regulations. With the Swiss animal protection law, which came into force in 1981, most of the postulates could be realised. It is shown, how animal protection has developed since that time.

  10. The study of knowledge, attitude and practice of medical law and ethics among doctors in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahira, Q.U.A.; Lodhi, S.; Haider, S.T.; Abaidullah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding medical law and ethics among doctors of a medical unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Lahore. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Methodology: A three part self - administered structured questionnaire designed to test the knowledge and practices regarding medical law and ethics was distributed among doctors in a medical unit in Mayo Hospital, Lahore during September - October, 2012. Results: The 52 respondent doctors included in the study comprised of 20 (38.5%) house officers, 22 (42.3%) postgraduate residents and 10 (19.2%) consultants. In keeping with the Pakistan Medical and Den-tal Council code of ethics, the correct responses of house officers, postgraduate residents and consultants regarding knowledge of medical law and ethics were respectively 50%, 27.3% and 10% for patient's autonomy, 40%, 36.4% and 10% for adhering to patient's wishes, 10%, 63.6% and 50% for breaching confidentiality, 35%, 36.4% and 0% for informed consent, 10%, 22.7% and 10% for doing best regardless of patient's opinion, 5%, 31.8% and 10% for informing patient's relatives, 15%, 4.5% and 0% for treating violent patients. The practical application part of the questionnaire was a general reflection of the knowledge and attitudes. Conclusion: Most of the doctors were poorly acquainted with PMDC code of ethics. (author)

  11. Beyond positivist ecology: toward an integrated ecological ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Bryan G

    2008-12-01

    A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an "ecological ethic" indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of "reflexive" ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives for their choices in developing models; this self-reflexive approach opens the door to a new way of integrating values into public discourse and to a more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change. This reflexive building of ecological models is introduced through the transformative simile of Aldo Leopold, which shows that learning to "think like a mountain" involves a shift in both ecological modeling and in values and responsibility. An adequate, interdisciplinary approach to ecological valuation, requires a re-framing of the evaluation questions in entirely new ways, i.e., a review of the current status of interdisciplinary value theory with respect to ecological values reveals that neither of the widely accepted theories of environmental value-neither economic utilitarianism nor intrinsic value theory (environmental ethics)-provides a foundation for an ecologically sensitive evaluation process. Thus, a new, ecologically sensitive, and more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change would include an examination of the metaphors that motivate the models used to describe environmental change.

  12. Integrating ethical and technical considerations in the energy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    A study being carried out by the author on analyzing and integrating ethical and technical considerations in formulating an energy policy for the United States, with special emphasis on nuclear issues, is reviewed. Beginning with an overview of the historical development of the American nuclear program and the emergence of an organized politcal opposition to that program, seven outstanding issues are identified: institutional adequacy, radiation, reactor safety, waste disposal, economics and reliability, international consequences, and alternative energy sources, and an attempt is made to identify the range of dispute in relation to each. A framework is proposed for analyzing these issues by introducing guidelines for defining a social justice problem. Suggestions are made about how to get morally serious about such issues, and this framework is applied to four issues: radiation, reactor safety, waste disposal, and institutional adequacy. Ultimately it is a political choice whether or not to include nuclear power in a nations's energy policy. It is important, however, that such choices be made using the best technical and ethical assessments of the consequences. (LL)

  13. [Ethical problems experienced by nurses in primary health care: integrative literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Carlise Rigon Dalla; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Vieira, Margarida

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to identify ethical problems experienced by nurses in primary health care and resources for coping based on publications on the subject. An integrative literature review was performed between the months of October and November 2013, using the databases: BDTD, CINAHL, LILACS, MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane, PubMed, RCAAP and SciELO. Articles, dissertations and theses published in Portuguese, English and Spanish were included, totalling 31 studies published from 1992 to 2013. This analysis resulted in four categories: ethical problems in the relationship between team members, ethical problems in the relationship with the user, ethical problems in health services management and resources for coping with ethical problems. Results showed that nurses need to be prepared to face ethical problems, emphasizing the importance of ethics education during the education process before and during professional practice to enhance the development of ethical sensitivity and competence for problem resolution.

  14. Ethical problems experienced by nurses in primary health care: integrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlise Rigon Dalla Nora

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify ethical problems experienced by nurses in primary health care and resources for coping based on publications on the subject. An integrative literature review was performed between the months of October and November 2013, using the databases: BDTD, CINAHL, LILACS, MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane, PubMed, RCAAP and SciELO. Articles, dissertations and theses published in Portuguese, English and Spanish were included, totalling 31 studies published from 1992 to 2013. This analysis resulted in four categories: ethical problems in the relationship between team members, ethical problems in the relationship with the user, ethical problems in health services management and resources for coping with ethical problems. Results showed that nurses need to be prepared to face ethical problems, emphasizing the importance of ethics education during the education process before and during professional practice to enhance the development of ethical sensitivity and competence for problem resolution.

  15. Evoking the Moral Imagination: Using Stories to Teach Ethics and Professionalism to Nursing, Medical, and Law Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Mark; Duffin, Jacalyn

    1995-01-01

    A program that brings together students entering demanding professions (law, medicine, and nursing) to explore issues of ethics and professionalism is described. The course uses thought-provoking stories, classroom discussion, student journals, and collaborative teaching. Lessons learned from teaching the course a number of times are also…

  16. Bringing Abstract Academic Integrity and Ethical Concepts into Real-Life Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Theresa; Wong, Eva; Yue, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the learning analytics on the initial stages of a large-scale, government-funded project which inducts university students in Hong Kong into consideration of academic integrity and ethics through mobile Augmented Reality (AR) learning trails--Trails of Integrity and Ethics (TIEs)--accessed on smart devices. The trails immerse…

  17. Integrating Ethics into International Business Teaching: Challenges and Methodologies in the Greater China Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitla, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the process of integrating ethics into the teaching of international business within the Greater China region. An example of how ethics is integrated into a required undergraduate international business course at a Hong Kong based university is presented. The contextual challenges of developing a course for use in the Greater…

  18. Integrating Ethics across the Curriculum: A Pilot Study to Assess Students' Ethical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Susan L.; Mansfield, Nancy Reeves; Sherman, Margaret B.

    2012-01-01

    At Georgia State University (GSU), undergraduate and graduate business students are introduced to ethical theory and decision making in the required legal environment of business course, but ethics instruction in the functional areas is sporadic and uncoordinated. After a broad overview of the history of ethics in the business curriculum in Part…

  19. Experienced Speech-Language Pathologists' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas: An Integrated Approach to Ethical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Method: Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethical dilemmas. Individual…

  20. A method for integrating ethics into the design of robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wynsberghe, Amy Louise

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – With the rapid and pervasive introduction of robots into human environments, ethics scholars along with roboticists are asking how ethics can be applied to the discipline of robotics. The purpose of this paper is to provide a concrete example of incorporating ethics into the design process

  1. TEACHING SCHOOL PAPER UNDER THE VIEWPOINT OF LAW 10639/03 and 11645/08: NOTES ETHICAL AND ETHNIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Aparecida Siquelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of teacher education from the school of ethical responsibility toward ethnic differences exist in Brazilian society. Categories such as alterity, nostridade and dialogue are seen as ethical condition of the formation of this ethnic consciousness. This triad lets discuss existing policies and pedagogical practices of educational professionals, from law 10639/03 and 11645/08, which brings the requirement to incorporate into the curriculum of basic education and the teaching of history and Afro-Brazilian Culture African. Points of teaching practice and school that promotes not only the creation of an ethical act in teaching that accounts for the formation of a consciousness that minimizes ethnic differences, but that gives meaning to the act of educating students as human beings need to be accepted, included in relations of equality and not just beings of rights guaranteed by law. The laws and resolutions as necessary only make sense if accompanied by an ethic that realizes the aspirations of having an egalitarian, less individualistic and more human.

  2. The New Landscape of Ethics and Integrity in Scholarly Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B.

    2016-12-01

    Scholarly peer-reviewed publications serve five major functions: They (i) have served as the primary, useful archive of scientific progress for hundreds of years; (ii) have been one principal way that scientists, and more recently departments and institutions, are evaluated; (iii) trigger and are the source of much communication about science to the public; (iv) have been primary revenue sources for scientific societies and companies; and (v) more recently play a critical and codified role in legal and regulatory decisions and advice to governments. Recent dynamics in science as well as in society, including the growth of online communication and new revenue sources, are influencing and altering particularly the first four core functions greatly. The changes in turn are posing important new challenges to the ethics and integrity of scholarly publishing and thus science in ways that are not widely or fully appreciated. For example, the expansion of electronic publishing has raised a number of new challenges for publishers with respect to their responsibility for curating scientific knowledge and even preserving the basic integrity of a manuscript. Many challenges are realted to new or expanded financial conflicts of interest related to the use of metrics such as the Journal Impact Factor, the expansion of alternate business models such as open access and advertising, and the fact that publishers are increasingly involved in framing communication around papers they are publishing. Solutions pose new responsibilities for scientists, publishers, and scientific societies, especially around transparency in their operations.

  3. Sex Offenders Seeking Treatment for Sexual Dysfunction--Ethics, Medicine, and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Elizabeth A; Rajender, Archana; Douglas, Thomas; Brandon, Ashley F; Munarriz, Ricardo

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of sexual dysfunction in patients with prior sexual offenses poses ethical and legal dilemmas. Sex offenders are not obligated by law to disclose this history to medical professionals. Over 20% of sex offenders experience sexual dysfunction; however, the number of sex offenders seeking evaluation for sexual dysfunction is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and characteristics of sex offenders seeking treatment in our clinic; and to review data regarding sex offender recidivism and ethics pertaining to the issue as it relates to treating physicians. Sex offenders were identified via three methods: new patient screening in a dedicated sexual medicine clinic, chart review of those on intracavernosal injection (ICI) therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED), and review of patient's status-post placement of penile prosthesis. Charts were cross-referenced with the U.S. Department of Justice National Sex Offender Public Website. Patient characteristics and details of offenses were collected. The main outcome measures used were a self-reported sexual offense and national registry data. Eighteen male sex offenders were identified: 13 via new patient screening; 3 by review of ICI patients; 1 by review of penile prosthesis data; and 1 prior to penile prosthesis placement. All were primarily referred for ED. Of those with known offenses, 64% were level 3 offenders (most likely to re-offend). The same number had committed crimes against children. All those with complete data had multiple counts of misconduct (average 3.6). Ninety-four percent (17/18) had publicly funded health care. Twelve (67%) were previously treated for sexual dysfunction. Registered sex offenders are seeking and receiving treatment for sexual dysfunction. It is unknown whether treatment of sexual dysfunction increases the risk of recidivism of sexual offenses. Physicians currently face a difficult choice in deciding whether to treat sexual dysfunction in sex

  4. [Neuroscience in the Courtroom: From responsibility to dangerousness, ethical issues raised by the new French law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsi, G-M; Moulin, V; Gasser, J

    2015-10-01

    In the past few years, spectacular progress in neuroscience has led to the emergence of a new interdisciplinary field, the so-called "neurolaw" whose goal is to explore the effects of neuroscientific discoveries on legal proceedings and legal rules and standards. In the United States, a number of neuroscientific researches are designed specifically to explore legally relevant topics and a case-law has already been developed. In Europe, neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal courtrooms, as part of psychiatric testimony, nourishing the debate about the legal implications of brain research in psychiatric-legal settings. Though largely debated, up to now the use of neuroscience in legal contexts had not specifically been regulated by any legislation. In 2011, with the new bioethics law, France has become the first country to admit by law the use of brain imaging in judicial expertise. According to the new law, brain imaging techniques can be used only for medical purposes, or scientific research, or in the context of judicial expertise. This study aims to give an overview of the current state of the neurolaw in the US and Europe, and to investigate the ethical issues raised by this new law and its potential impact on the rights and civil liberties of the offenders. An overview of the emergence and development of "neurolaw" in the United States and Europe is given. Then, the new French law is examined in the light of the relevant debates in the French parliament. Consequently, we outline the current tendencies in Neurolaw literature to focus on assessments of responsibility, rather than dangerousness. This tendency is analysed notably in relation to the legal context relevant to criminal policies in France, where recent changes in the legislation and practice of forensic psychiatry show that dangerousness assessments have become paramount in the process of judicial decision. Finally, the potential interpretations of neuroscientific data

  5. McGill's Integrated Civil and Common Law Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Yves-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the bijural program of McGill University Faculty of Law. The program educates all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  6. [Dignity or integrity - does the genetic modification of animals require new concepts in animal ethics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Animal genetic engineering seems to point at a normative gap beyond pathocentric welfare theories in animal ethics. Recently developed approaches aim to bridge this gap by means of new normative criteria such as animal dignity and animal integrity. The following comparison of dignity and integrity in the context of animal ethics shows that the dignity concept faces serious problems because of its necessarily anthroporelational character and the different functions of contingent and inherent dignity within ethical reasoning. Unlike animal dignity the concept of animal integrity could prove to be a useful enhancement for pathocentric approaches.

  7. EcoWellness & Guiding Principles for the Ethical Integration of Nature into Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ryan F.

    2016-01-01

    Connection with nature impacts human wellness, yet few resources currently exist in the international literature to help guide clinicians in the ethical integration of EcoWellness into therapeutic processes. Ethical principles for EcoWellness practice are introduced and linked to applicable portions of the American Counseling Association's (2014)…

  8. Regional Integration Through Law: the Central American and Caribbean Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserta, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    . The two Court have also borrowed key jurisprudential principles from the CJEU with the goal of expanding the reach of Central American and Caribbean Community laws. Despite this, both Courts have thus far failed to foster supranationality in their respective systems. This is because the conditions...... allowing ICs to become engines of integration lie for the most part outside the direct control of the judges, most notably, in other institutional, political, and societal actors, such as national judges, regional organs, legal and political elites, as well as academics. The article, hence, suggests...

  9. Practical divinity and medical ethics: lawful versus unlawful medicine in the writings of William Perkins (1558-1602).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevitz, Norman

    2013-04-01

    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between "lawful" and "unlawful" medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons.

  10. Integration and Exchange: How Executive MBA Students Envision Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Verena; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.

    2013-01-01

    Ethics education provided by universities in general, and MBA programs aimed at future business leaders in particular, has come under intense public scrutiny because of corporate scandals and ethical dilemmas. To date, academic research has been mainly devoted to the characteristics of instruction formats and their effectiveness, characteristics…

  11. Integrating anticipated nutrigenomics bioscience applications with ethical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, L.; Ozdemir, V.; Gremmen, B.; Godard, B.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrigenomics is a subspecialty of nutrition science which aims to understand how gene-diet interactions influence individuals' response to food, disease susceptibility, and population health. Yet ethical enquiry into this field is being outpaced by nutrigenomics bioscience. The ethical issues

  12. Ethics Of Leadership And The Integrity Question Among Leaders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test of a true leader is his capacity to adhere to a strong foundation of ethics, articulate them as standards for colleagues and staff, and "practice what he preaches" by example on a daily basis. Personal leadership values form this ethical foundation, and are based upon past life experiences and current work processes ...

  13. Organizational Ethics and Teachers' Intent to Leave: An Integrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study focuses on developing a conceptual framework that explores the relationships between teachers' intent to leave and a spectrum of ethics perceptions. The authors argue that these relationships are mediated by organizational commitment (affective and normative). Research Design: Organizational ethics was measured by…

  14. Integrity and consensus: A Christian perspective on ethical management and education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kretzschmar

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article the compliance- and values-based approaches to ethical management are explained and the challenges of the contemporary business and societal contexts in South Africa noted. The need for both moral integrity and character (with respect to perception, intention and virtue and ethical consensus is extensively discussed. The importance of ethical dialogue as a means of reaching moral consensus, and the contribution of public theology (particularly Christian theology are assessed. Finally, vital issues relating to business ethics management and education are outlined and some practical possibilities suggested.

  15. Clash of cultures: integrating copyright and consumer law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Guibault, L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This article seeks to deal with the fundamental conceptual differences between consumer law and copyright law that render the application of consumer law to copyright-law related conflicts difficult. Design/methodology/approach - Following a normative approach to copyright and consumer law

  16. Theoretical and methodological elements for integrating ethics as a foundation into the education of professional and design disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Anjou, Philippe

    2004-04-01

    The paper addresses the integration of ethics into professional education related to the disciplines responsible for the conception and creation of the artificial (artefactual or technology). The ontological-epistemological paradigm of those disciplines is understood within the frame of the sciences of the artificial as established by Herbert Simon (1969). According to that paradigm, those sciences include disciplines not only related to the production of artefacts (technology), such as engineering, architecture, industrial design, etc, but also disciplines related to devised courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones, like medicine, law, education, etc. They are centered on intentional action and at their core is the activity of design, which is their common foundation and attitude, or their common culture. The science of design becomes the broader foundational discipline for any professions engaged in the intentional transformation of the world. The main distinction between design disciplines and scientific ones rests on the object-project dichotomy. Indeed, contrary to Science that sees the world as an object to be observed, Design sees the world as a project and acts upon the world through projects, which are grounded in intentions, ends, and values. Design disciplines are meant to transform the world, or part of it, and are teleological. Being so, they are embodied in an act that is ethical and their ontology-epistemology must be addressed also through practical reason to resituate all professional disciplines according to their involved nature. The paper introduces theoretical, methodological, and ethical elements to establish a model that integrates ethics into the education of the professional disciplines, design-based disciplines, responsible for the creation of the artificial, artefactual or technological, world. The model is articulated around the notions of ethical engagement and responsibility through the act of design

  17. [Occupational medicine: practice and ethical requirements of the new law on health and safety in the workplace (legislative decree 81/2008)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Giuliano; Mora, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Decisions in occupational health may involve ethical conflicts arising from conflicts between stakeholders' interests. Codes of ethics can provide a practical guide to solve dilemmas. The new law on health and safety in the workplace in Italy (decree 81/2008) states that occupational health practice must comply with the code of ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health. The universally acknowledged ethical principles of beneficience/nonmaleficience, autonomy and justice, which are the basis of the Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union, inspired this code. Although the code is not a systematic textbook of occupational health ethics and does not cover all possible aspects arising from the practice, making decisions based on it will assure their effectiveness and compliance with ethical principles, besides the formal respect of the law.

  18. [Interprofessional ethical shared values for an integral healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán González-Serna, José María

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare today requires the rapport of diverse professionals to give a comprehensive response to the needs and requirements of the population's health. Codes of ethics are the normative expression of secular reflection on the ethical values of the professions. In this study we aim to identify ethical values shared by various professionals codes of conduct and propose a method for evaluating the ethical estimate. For this reason, we have reviewed codes of ethics of the medical, nursing, physiotherapy, podiatry and psychology professions, identifying 30 values. These values were classified into two groups, depending on if these are shared by the 5 professionals codes or not (VIP vs VP). In order to provide a method for estimating common values it has been designed a survey likert type. Is possible to conclude there are ethical formally shared values identifiable in professional codes of conduct and it is possible to measure the estimate of ethical values accepted by health professionals. This measurement can be an effective aid to apply management methods of human resources that make it possible to achieve the comprehensive assistance based on inter-professional teams.

  19. Ethics-sensitivity of the Ghana national integrated strategic response plan for pandemic influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; DeBruin, Debra

    2015-05-07

    Many commentators call for a more ethical approach to planning for influenza pandemics. In the developed world, some pandemic preparedness plans have already been examined from an ethical viewpoint. This paper assesses the attention given to ethics issues by the Ghana National Integrated Strategic Plan for Pandemic Influenza (NISPPI). We critically analyzed the Ghana NISPPI's sensitivity to ethics issues to determine how well it reflects ethical commitments and principles identified in our review of global pandemic preparedness literature, existing pandemic plans, and relevant ethics frameworks. This paper reveals that important ethical issues have not been addressed in the Ghana NISPPI. Several important ethical issues are unanticipated, unacknowledged, and unplanned for. These include guidelines on allocation of scarce resources, the duties of healthcare workers, ethics-sensitive operational guidelines/protocols, and compensation programs. The NISPPI also pays scant attention to use of vaccines and antivirals, border issues and cooperation with neighboring countries, justification for delineated actions, and outbreak simulations. Feedback and communication plans are nebulous, while leadership, coordination, and budgeting are quite detailed. With respect to presentation, the NISPPI's text is organized around five thematic areas. While each area implicates ethical issues, NISPPI treatment of these areas consistently fails to address them. Our analysis reveals a lack of consideration of ethics by the NISPPI. We contend that, while the plan's content and fundamental assumptions provide support for implementation of the delineated public health actions, its consideration of ethical issues is poor. Deficiencies include a failure to incorporate guidelines that ensure fair distribution of scarce resources and a lack of justification for delineated procedures. Until these deficiencies are recognized and addressed, Ghana runs the risk of rolling out unjust and ethically

  20. Labour law treatment of health, work ability and personal integrity of the employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Health and working ability are assumptions of entering into and the existence of labour relations. The purpose of entering into and the existence of labour relations is in the organised and meaningful work, in the interest of the employer and the employee. The main obligation of the employee is to do their work personally in accordance with their health and work abilities. With regards to the said abilities, the employee is accepted to the work, and protection and maintaining of these abilities is the assumption of the survival and long lasting of the employment. This makes legitimate the need that the health and work ability be protected by law in a suitable way. To that effect, we can talk about protection of health of the employees and safety at work. Since health does not only mean the absence of illness, but also the overall social security of the employees at work and in connection with work, this and issue of insurance of different risks that follow work of the employee fall into measures of health protection. Finally, not only manpower, as an organic unity of health and work abilities, takes part in labour relations, but also the entire personality of the employee with the overall personal (moral and ethical integrity, which also on its part requires appropriate labour law treatment and protection (ban on discrimination, harassment, abuse, protection of personal data, etc..

  1. Are end-of-life practices in Norway in line with ethics and law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førde, R; Aasland, O G

    2014-10-01

    End-of-life decisions, including limitation of life prolonging treatment, may be emotionally, ethically and legally challenging. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are illegal in Norway. A study from 2000 indicated that these practices occur infrequently in Norway. In 2012, a postal questionnaire addressing experience with limitation of life-prolonging treatment for non-medical reasons was sent to a representative sample of 1792 members of the Norwegian Medical Association (7.7% of the total active doctor population of 22,500). The recipients were also asked whether they, during the last 12 months, had participated in euthanasia, PAS or the hastening of death of non-competent patients. Seventy-one per cent of the doctors responded. Forty-four per cent of the respondents reported that they had terminated treatment at the family's request not knowing the patient's own wish, doctors below 50 and anaesthesiologists more often. Anaesthesiologists more often reported to have terminated life-prolonging treatment because of resource considerations. Six doctors reported having hastened the death of a patient the last 12 months, one by euthanasia, one by PAS and four had hastened death without patient request. Male doctors and doctors below 50 more frequently reported having hastened the death of a patient. Forgoing life-prolonging treatment at the request of the family may be more frequent in Norway that the law permits. A very small minority of doctors has hastened the death of a patient, and most cases involved non-competent patients. Male doctors below 50 seem to have a more liberal end-of-life practice. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Individual and organizational predictors of the ethicality of graduate students' responses to research integrity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Philip J; Bent, Blake J

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective means to enhance research integrity by universities requires baseline measures of individual, programmatic, and institutional factors known to contribute to ethical decision making and behavior. In the present study, master's thesis and Ph.D. students in the fields of biological, health and social sciences at a research extensive university completed a field appropriate measure of research ethical decision making and rated the seriousness of the research issue and importance for implementing the selection response. In addition they were asked to rate their perceptions of the institutional and departmental research climate and to complete a measure of utilitarian and formalistic predisposition. Female students were found to be more ethical in their decision making compared to male students. The research ethical decision measure was found to be related to participants' ethical predisposition and overall perception of organizational and departmental research climate; however, formalism was the only individual predictor to reach statistical significance and none of the individual subscales of the research climate measure were significantly correlated to ethicality. Participants' ratings of the seriousness of the issue were correlated with their ratings of the importance of carrying out their selected response but neither was significantly predictive of the ethicality of their responses. The implications of these findings for the development of more effective training programs and environments for graduate students in research ethics and integrity are discussed.

  3. Ethical Challenges when Interviewing Close Relatives Together – An Integrative Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    and search terms. Results In total 17 articles were located, 9 containing relevant information about dyadic interviewing, only dealing subtly with questions of ethics. Another 8 articles addressed both dyadic interviewing and ethical considerations. Findings were divided into three different themes......Background and purpose Interviewing two interrelated persons (or more) simultaneously might pose different ethical considerations than interviewing just one person. Such ethical considerations, however, remain largely undescribed in literature, challenging the researcher who wishes to conduct them....... The purpose of this study is to describe the special ethical perspectives concerning joint interviews with interrelated persons. Method An integrative review was performed. A search was conducted in Pub Med, Cinahl, Philosophers Index and Academic Search from 1980 -2014. Data corpus from the 17 articles...

  4. Integrating International Business Law Concepts into a High School Business Law Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Cathleen J.; McDonald, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines international business content for a high school business law curriculum: history of international business law, World Trade Organization, international disputes, contracts and sales, financing/banking, currency, taxation, intellectual property, transportation, and multinational corporations. Considers whether to teach international…

  5. Integrating ethics in public health education: the process of developing case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulchinsky, Theodore; Jennings, Bruce; Viehbeck, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The study of ethics in public health became a societal imperative following the horrors of pre World War II eugenics, the Holocaust, and the Tuskegee Experiment (and more recent similar travesties). International responses led to: the Nuremberg Doctors' Trials, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), and the Convention on Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CCPCG, 1948), which includes sanctions against incitement to genocide. The Declaration of Geneva (1948) set forth the physician's dedication to the humanitarian goals of medicine, a declaration especially important in view of the medical crimes which had just been committed in Nazi Germany. This led to a modern revision of the Hippocratic Oath in the form of the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) for medical research ethical standards, which has been renewed periodically and adopted worldwide to ensure ethical research practices. Public health ethics differs from traditional biomedical ethics in many respects, specifically in its emphasis on societal considerations of prevention, equity, and population-level issues. Health care systems are increasingly faced with the need to integrate clinical medicine with public health and health policy. As health systems and public health evolve, the ethical issues in health care also bridge the gap between the separation of bioethics and public health ethics in the past. These complexities calls for the inclusion of ethics in public health education curricula and competencies across the many professions in public health, in the policy arena, as well as educational engagement with the public and the lay communities and other stakeholders.

  6. Let's Cooperate! Integrating Cooperative Learning Into a Lesson on Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, Patricia R

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning is an effective teaching strategy that promotes active participation in learning and can be used in academic, clinical practice, and professional development settings. This article describes that strategy and provides an example of its use in a lesson about ethics. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(4):154-156. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Creating Cultures of Integrity: Ethics Education in UK Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…

  8. Church, mission and ethics. Being church with integrity | Dreyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is an exercise in Practical Ecclesiology. The author reflects on church, mission and ethics from historical, hermeneutical and strategic perspectives. Using the ecclesiology of Karl Barth as a point of departure, the author argues that the church needs to be church if it wants to be a credible witness to the Gospel of ...

  9. The evolution of integration: innovations in clinical skills and ethics in first year medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, Fern; Duke, Pauline S

    2012-01-01

    Critical self-reflection, medical ethics and clinical skills are each important components of medical education but are seldom linked in curriculum development. We developed a curriculum that builds on the existing integration of ethics education into the clinical skills course to more explicitly link these three skills. The curriculum builds on the existing integration of clinical skills and ethics in first year medicine. It refines the integration through scheduling changes; adds case studies that emphasise the social, economic and political context of our province's patient population; and introduces reflection on the "culture of medicine" as a way to have students articulate and understand their own values and moral decision making frameworks. This structured Clinical Skills course is a model for successfully integrating critical self-reflection, reflection on the political, economic and cultural contexts shaping health and healthcare, and moral decision making into clinical skills training.

  10. Business Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...

  11. Work Values, Cognitive Strategies, and Applicant Reactions in a Structured Pre-Employment Interview for Ethical Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Donna R.; Hollwitz, John

    2000-01-01

    Notes that companies emphasize ethical behavior, and schools and professional groups devote many resources to applied ethics training. Describes initial construct validation of a structured ethical integrity pre-employment interview. Reviews evidence relating to cognitive and impression management strategies used when college students encounter an…

  12. Empirical data and moral theory. A plea for integrated empirical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molewijk, Bert; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Otten, Wilma; Dupuis, Heleen M; Kievit, Job

    2004-01-01

    Ethicists differ considerably in their reasons for using empirical data. This paper presents a brief overview of four traditional approaches to the use of empirical data: "the prescriptive applied ethicists," "the theorists," "the critical applied ethicists," and "the particularists." The main aim of this paper is to introduce a fifth approach of more recent date (i.e. "integrated empirical ethics") and to offer some methodological directives for research in integrated empirical ethics. All five approaches are presented in a table for heuristic purposes. The table consists of eight columns: "view on distinction descriptive-prescriptive sciences," "location of moral authority," "central goal(s)," "types of normativity," "use of empirical data," "method," "interaction empirical data and moral theory," and "cooperation with descriptive sciences." Ethicists can use the table in order to identify their own approach. Reflection on these issues prior to starting research in empirical ethics should lead to harmonization of the different scientific disciplines and effective planning of the final research design. Integrated empirical ethics (IEE) refers to studies in which ethicists and descriptive scientists cooperate together continuously and intensively. Both disciplines try to integrate moral theory and empirical data in order to reach a normative conclusion with respect to a specific social practice. IEE is not wholly prescriptive or wholly descriptive since IEE assumes an interdepence between facts and values and between the empirical and the normative. The paper ends with three suggestions for consideration on some of the future challenges of integrated empirical ethics.

  13. MEDICO-LEGAL HIV/AIDS, LAW AND ETHICS: A BRIEF ANALYSIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ... are in a unique situation, as both legal and ethical rules apply to a ... Guidelines for the Management of Patients with HIV. Infection or ... process of obtaining informed consent from a patient. Not ... narrowly construed and applied. Although ...

  14. Nanomaterials and the environmental risk: is there some room left for ethics and law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    How legitimate may be the concern posed by the nanotechnologies for health and environment,this effort for reaching a better knowledge of the biotoxicity of nanomaterials is not enough. As Pr Didier Sicard noted, we believe that the ethical reflection should not be the good conscience that may help science in getting rid of social fears. But the ethical reflection is there also to discuss taboo issues in the perspective of a better societal understanding.

  15. Technology and its ethics in nursing and caring journals: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Eila-Sisko; Nordman, Tina; Eriksson, Katie

    2015-08-01

    Over the past 20 years, the impact of technology has increased significantly in health care. The diversity of technology is growing and its knowledge scattered. The concept of technology is ambiguous in caring and nursing sciences and its ethics remains unidentified. To find evidence on how the concept of technology and its ethics are defined in caring and nursing sciences and practice. The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the concept of technology and its ethics in the past nursing and caring literature. The integrative literature review of the past nursing and caring literature. The data were collected from caring and nursing journal articles from 2000 to 2013 focusing on technology and its ethics.The results were summarized and themed. Technology as a concept has three implications. First, technology is devices and products, including ICT and advanced, simple and assistive technology. Second, technology refers to a process consisting of methods for helping people. Third, technology as a service indicates the production of care by technology. The ethics of technology has not been established as a guiding principle. Some studies excluded ethical reflection completely. Many studies discussed the ethics of technology as benefits such as improved communication and symptoms management, and the simple use of e-health services whilst others remained critical presenting ethical problems such as unwillingness and the inability to use technology, or conflicts with human aspects or questions of inequality. In conclusion, this study indicates that technology as a concept is described diversely. The relation between technology and ethics is not a truism. Despite some evidence, more is needed to promote ethical care when using technology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Ethics as an Integral Component of Geoengineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqq-Misra, J.; Tuana, N.; Keller, K.; Sriver, R. L.; Svoboda, T.; Tonkonojenkov, R.; Irvine, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about the risks of unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions are growing. At the same time, confidence is declining that international policy agreements will succeed in considerably lowering anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Perhaps as a result, various geoengineering solutions are gaining attention and credibility as a way to manage climate change. Serious consideration is currently being given to proposals to cool the planet through solar-radiation management (SRM). Here we analyze how the unique and nontrivial risks of geoengineering strategies pose fundamental questions at the interface between science and ethics. We define key open questions to analyze SRM geoengineering proposals, which include whether SRM can be tested, how quickly learning could occur, normative decisions embedded in how different climate trajectories are valued, and justice issues regarding distribution of the harms and benefits of geoengineering. To ensure that ethical analyses are coupled with scientific analyses of this form of geoengineering, we advocate that funding agencies recognize the essential nature of this coupled research by establishing an Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) program for SRM.

  17. The French electricity policy facing European integration and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begue, M.C.

    2004-02-01

    The french electricity policy is traditionally defined by public authorities. The preference for nuclear power implies great risk and severe damage to the environment. These features of french electricity policy are however questioned by the increasing influence of european law and the (relatively) recent recognition of the environmental issues of such policy. This thesis intends to study the consequences of two 'new' tendencies that seem to be inevitable in the field of electricity policy: the decreasing role of national public authorities and the diffusion of the concept of sustainable development. The theoretical model which underlies the organization of commercial exchanges is replacing the traditional intervention of the State. regarding of this basic good. The adoption of legal rules to organize the electricity market has involved the development of many economic instruments. Those instruments aim at modifying the electricity policy in accordance with the principle of integration of environmental dimension in sectoral policies. The main object of our work is to analyse the consequences of these changes in the concept of public utility as well as in the importance given to environmental protection in the new forms of electricity policies. (author)

  18. Integral risk assessment. Technical, ethical and social aspects. Ganzheitliche Risikobetrachtungen. Technische, ethische und soziale Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, S; Yadigaroglu, G [eds.

    1991-01-01

    The series of lectures which forms the basis of this book and took place in the winter of 1989/90 at the ETH in Zuerich were held for the purpose of discussing the stage of development of our system of ethics in view of the extremely fast pace of technological progress and the risks which accompany it. Legal, psychological and political aspects of the problem were examined, but the emphasis was placed on ethical aspects. The effects which are examined in conventional risk analyses can be considered as a part of the ethical and social aspects involved, and in turn, the consideration of ethical and social aspects can be viewed as an extension of the conventional form of risk analysis. In any case, among risk experts, the significance of ethical and social factors is uncontested, especially as regards activities which can have far-reaching repurcussions. Some objective difficulties interfere with this goal, however: - No generally acknowledged set of ethical values exists. - Cultural influences and personal motives can interfere. - Normally a risk assessment is carried out in reference to individual facilities and within a small, clearly defined framework. Under certain circumstances, generalizations which are made for complete technological systems can lead to completely different conclusions. One contribution deals with integral views of the risks of atomic energy from an ethical and social perspective. (orig.).

  19. Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    In this brief annual review of ethical issues in medicine, Pellegrino focuses on two issues, AIDS and surrogate mothers. The AIDS epidemic has generated debate over public health needs vs. individual rights, modification of sexual practices, screening programs to detect infected persons, confidentiality of test results, experimental therapies, and the duty of physicians to care for AIDS patients. Surrogate motherhood arrangements have become one of the more controversial of the new reproductive technologies. The publicity that accompanied the custody battle over New Jersey's "Baby M" intensified debate over the commercialization of childbearing and the regulation of reproduction. Pellegrino concludes that physicians, along with ethicists and policymakers, have an obligation to "lead society in careful and judicious deliberation" of the ethical issues raised by AIDS and by reproductive technologies.

  20. Consent, Refusal, and Waivers in Patient-Centered Dysphagia Care: Using Law, Ethics, and Evidence to Guide Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer; Modayil, Maria; Chapman, Laura Roche; Dinh, An

    2016-11-01

    When patients refuse medical or rehabilitation procedures, waivers of liability have been used to bar future lawsuits. The purpose of this tutorial is to review the myriad issues surrounding consent, refusal, and waivers. The larger goal is to invigorate clinical practice by providing clinicians with knowledge of ethics and law. This tutorial is for educational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. The authors use a hypothetical case of a "noncompliant" individual under the care of an interdisciplinary neurorehabilitation team to illuminate the ethical and legal features of the patient-practitioner relationship; the elements of clinical decision-making capacity; the duty of disclosure and the right of informed consent or informed refusal; and the relationship among noncompliance, defensive practices, and iatrogenic harm. We explore the legal question of whether waivers of liability in the medical context are enforceable or unenforceable as a matter of public policy. Speech-language pathologists, among other health care providers, have fiduciary and other ethical and legal obligations to patients. Because waivers try to shift liability for substandard care from health care providers to patients, courts usually find waivers of liability in the medical context unenforceable as a matter of public policy.

  1. Business Ethics and Integrity a Case Study on 300 U.S. Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinjala Diana-Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Profit-maximizing behavior or moral integrity? Can companies have both? Our study takes a look at 300 U.S. based companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, and their way of dealing with business ethics. The research undertaken focuses on the content analysis method, using the corporate Codes of conduct and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reports. The study reveals the evolution of the corporate ethics policies and programs throughout the years 2010- 2014. We also take a look at the most frequent controversies concerning business integrity, by sectors of activity

  2. Mapping the integration of social and ethical issues in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2007-01-01

    Since its inception, the field of health technology assessment (HTA) has stressed the need for consideration of ethical and social issues. However, few concepts or analytic tools have been developed, and because of the complexity of the endeavor and a lack of integration of work already produced, such concepts remain difficult to apply in HTA. Through a descriptive "map" of concepts, tools, and processes, we summarize the most tangible efforts on the part of HTA producers to address social and ethical issues. A literature review and content analysis of HTA reports in the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database enables a synthesis of the reflections on, initiatives around, and gaps in knowledge related to the integration of social and ethical issues in HTA. We examine: (i) the aim of integrating ethical and social issues in HTA, (ii) the theoretical approaches used, (iii) the methods and processes applied, and (iv) the implications for HTA producers. We highlight two levels at which social and ethical issues can be considered: throughout the production process of HTA reports and as part of the organizational structure of HTA agencies. Given the profound societal changes that occur in relation to healthcare technology development, HTA producers have a responsibility to inform and enlighten technology-related public and policy debates. Fulfilling this role, though, requires that socioethical dimensions of technology and HTA are made explicit.

  3. Integrating health law and health policy: a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legemaate, Johan

    2002-01-01

    Health law is intended to create an environment in which the promotion of health goes hand in hand with the protection of individual rights and the general principles of equality and justice. Over the years, the importance of health law has grown, both at national and international level. As health

  4. Embedding Scientific Integrity and Ethics into the Scientific Process and Research Data Lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting climate change, developing resources sustainably, and mitigating natural hazard risk are complex interdisciplinary challenges in the geosciences that require the integration of data and knowledge from disparate disciplines and scales. This kind of interdisciplinary science can only thrive if scientific communities work together and adhere to common standards of scientific integrity, ethics, data management, curation, and sharing. Science and data without integrity and ethics can erode the very fabric of the scientific enterprise and potentially harm society and the planet. Inaccurate risk analyses of natural hazards can lead to poor choices in construction, insurance, and emergency response. Incorrect assessment of mineral resources can bankrupt a company, destroy a local economy, and contaminate an ecosystem. This paper presents key ethics and integrity questions paired with the major components of the research data life cycle. The questions can be used by the researcher during the scientific process to help ensure the integrity and ethics of their research and adherence to sound data management practice. Questions include considerations for open, collaborative science, which is fundamentally changing the responsibility of scientists regarding data sharing and reproducibility. The publication of primary data, methods, models, software, and workflows must become a norm of science. There are also questions that prompt the scientist to think about the benefit of their work to society; ensuring equity, respect, and fairness in working with others; and always striving for honesty, excellence, and transparency.

  5. Gauging Ethical Deficits in Leadership and Student Discipline: An Analysis of Fourth Amendment Case Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mario S., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of school discipline (Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002; see also, NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, n.d.) have called for greater scrutiny over treatment of students in varying demographic contexts. Minimal research, however, has grappled with the ethics of disciplinary practices using legal data. Utilizing…

  6. A new way of teaching an old subject: Pharmacy Law and Ethics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Pharmacy educators are responsible for ensuring that students are equipped with the necessary regulatory knowledge required to deal with ethical challenges that arise in practice. Teaching methods have a strong impact on student learning, making it essential to determine how learning is influenced when ...

  7. Law and ethics of strikes in the Nigerian health system | Mcfubara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite that health services are essential, health sector strikes have continued. The purpose here was to examine the legal and ethical justification of strikes in the Nigerian health sector. Documentary analysis and literature reviews were carried out. It was found that the Trade Disputes Act and the National Health Act do not ...

  8. The Implementation of the Sharia Law in Medical Practice: A Balance between Medical Ethics and Patients Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargahi, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    As medical ethics indisputably needs to consider patients' religious beliefs and spiritual ideas, one can suggest that hospitals are responsible for not only patients' rights and dignity, but also for her/his religious concerns and expectations. The current study is designed shed some light on the patients' view of the implementation of religious law in Iranian hospitals, specifically, the right of patients to be visited and delivered health services by professionals from the same sex. This protocol is proposed by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of the Islamic Republic of Iran as a response to the increasing demand for implementation of the religious law by Iranian patients. This research is a cross-sectional study which was conducted at four teaching general hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The data was collected by the means of a questionnaire distributed to 120 women who were admitted to different wards of the hospitals. These women were asked to express their opinion of the implementation the Same Sex Health Care Delivery (SSHCD) system in Iranian hospitals. All analyses were performed with the use of SPSS software, version 16.0. The results indicate that half of the hospitalized women believed that being visited by a physician from the same gender is necessary who advocated the implementation of SSHCD in a clinical setting; and most of their husbands preferred their wives to be visited exclusively by female physicians. This study highlights the view of the Iranian patients towards the issue and urges the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of the Islamic Republic of Iran to accelerate the implementation of this law. SSHCD is what the majority of Iranian patients prefer, and, considering patients' rights and the medical ethics, it should be implemented by Iranian policy makers.

  9. A Study of Translation Institutional Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoXianfeng; ZhouJin

    2017-01-01

    Traditional translation ethics characterized by translators' ethics cannot provide a strong moral support to the translation practice,or guarantee the moral requirement towards translation activities in the social transformation caused by the market economy,because it does not have the power of punishment.Translation institutional ethics,however,a new form of translation ethics,integrates the translation ethic norm,translation regulations and relative laws together.As an inevitable outcome in the new era,it can escort the orderly and healthy translation activities.Its purpose is to strengthen the translators' moral consciousness,to sublimate their moral notions and to transfer from heteronomy to autonomy.

  10. Integrating Writing Skills and Ethics Training in Business Communication Pedagogy: A Resume Case Study Exemplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Cynthia E.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated approach to teaching resume construction in the business communication classroom focuses on simultaneously (a) emphasizing writing-related proficiencies and (b) encouraging ethical and moral orientations to this task. This article provides a resume construction exemplar that operationalizes these two pedagogical goals. The techniques…

  11. Cultivating the Academic Integrity of Urban Adolescents with Ethical Philosophy Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott; Novick, Sarah; Gomez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study considered the effects of ethical philosophy programming at a high-performing, high-poverty urban high school upon the academic integrity of participating adolescents ("n" = 279). Analyses of pre-post survey data revealed that participating adolescents reported significantly higher levels of academic integrity…

  12. Online dispute resolution and models of relational law and justice: a table of ethical principles

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory systems constitute a set of coordinated complex behavior (individual and collective) which can be grasped through rules, values and principles that constitute the social framework of the law. Relational law, relational justice and the design of regulatory models can be linked to emergent agreement technologies and new versions of Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) and Negotiation Support Systems (NSS). We define the notions of public space and information principles, extending the con...

  13. When an adult female seeks ritual genital alteration: ethics, law, and the parameters of participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Julie D

    2006-04-01

    Ritual genital cutting for women, a common practice in Africa and elsewhere around the world, remains dangerous and controversial. In recent years, a 14-year-old girl living in Sierra Leone exsanguinated and died following a ritualistic genital cutting. Hoping to avoid that fate, women with backgrounds that accept ritual genital cutting may, when they reach majority age, ask plastic surgeons to perform genital alterations for cultural reasons. Although plastic surgeons routinely perform cosmetic procedures, unique ethical and legal concerns arise when an adult female patient asks a surgeon to spare her the tribal elder's knife and alter her genitalia according to tradition and custom. Misinformation and confusion about this issue exist. This article explores the ethical and legal issues relevant to this situation and explains how the thoughtful surgeon should proceed.

  14. Ethics and law in research with human biological samples: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    During the last century a large number of documents (regulations, ethical codes, treatises, declarations, conventions) were published on the subject of ethics and clinical trials, many of them focusing on the protection of research participants. More recently various proposals have been put forward to relax some of the constraints imposed on research by these documents and regulations. It is important to distinguish between risks deriving from direct interventions on human subjects and other types of risk. In Italy the Data Protection Authority has acted in the question of research using previously collected health data and biological samples to simplify the procedures regarding informed consent. The new approach may be of help to other researchers working outside Italy.

  15. Ethical Responsibility of Governance for Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction with Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash Gupta, Surya

    2015-04-01

    The development in the public as well as the private sectors is controlled and regulated, directly or indirectly by the governments at federal, provincial and local levels. If this development goes haphazard and unplanned, without due considerations to environmental constraints and potential hazards; it is likely to cause disasters or may get affected by disasters. Therefore, it becomes an ethical responsibility of the people involved in governance sector to integrate disaster risk reduction with development in their administrative territories through enforcement of appropriate policies, guidelines and regulatory mechanisms. Such mechanisms should address the social, scientific, economic, environmental, and legal requirements that play significant role in planning, implementation of developmental activities as well as disaster management. The paper focuses on defining the ethical responsibilities for the governance sector for integrating disaster risk reduction with development. It highlights the ethical issues with examples from two case studies, one from the Uttarakhand state and the other Odhisa state in India. The case studies illustrates how does it make a difference in disaster risk reduction if the governments own or do not own ethical responsibilities. The paper considers two major disaster events, flash floods in Uttarakhand state and Cyclone Phailin in Odhisa state, that happened during the year 2013. The study points out that it makes a great difference in terms of consequences and response to disasters when ethical responsibilities are owned by the governance sector. The papers attempts to define these ethical responsibilities for integrating disaster risk reduction with development so that the governments can be held accountable for their acts or non-actions.

  16. Research Ethics and Commercial Drug Development: When Integrity Threatens Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This case, based on personal experiences and on those found in the literature, highlights the delicate tension faced by drug development companies having to balance research integrity and their profitability.

  17. Towards Integrating the Principlist and Casuist Approaches to Ethical Decisions via Multi-Criterial Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    of each option, as a contribution to enhanced deliberation. As proof of concept and method an exemplar aid adds veracity and confidentiality to beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice, as the criteria, with case-based reasoning supplying the necessary inputs for the decision of whether a nurse......An interactive decision support tool based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can help health professionals integrate the principlist (principle-based) and casuist (case-based) approaches to ethical decision making in both their training and practice. MCDA can incorporate generic ethical...

  18. Integration of Ethics across the Curriculum: From First Year through Senior Seminar†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparich, Gail E.; Wimmers, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The Fisher College of Science and Mathematics (FCSM) at Towson University (TU) has integrated authentic research experiences throughout the curriculum from first year STEM courses through advanced upper-level classes and independent research. Our observation is that training in both responsible conduct of research (RCR) and bioethics throughout the curriculum was an effective strategy to advance the cognitive and psychosocial development of the students. As students enter TU they generally lack the experience and tools to assess their own competence, to apply ethical debates, to investigate scientific topics from an ethical perspective, or to integrate ethics into final conclusions. Student behavior and development follow cognitive models such as described in the theories put forth by Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson, both for initial learning and for how concepts are understood and adopted. Three examples of this ethics training integration are described, including a cohort-based course for first year students in the STEM Residential Learning Community, a cohort-based course for community college students that are involved in an NIH-funded Bridges to the Baccalaureate program, and a senior seminar in Bioethics in the Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics Program. All three focus on different aspects of RCR and bioethics training, providing opportunities for students to learn about the principles of effective decision-making, critical and analytical thinking, problem solving, and communication with increasing degrees of complexity as they move through the curriculum. PMID:25574282

  19. Integration of Ethics across the Curriculum: From First Year through Senior Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparich, Gail E; Wimmers, Larry

    2014-12-01

    The Fisher College of Science and Mathematics (FCSM) at Towson University (TU) has integrated authentic research experiences throughout the curriculum from first year STEM courses through advanced upper-level classes and independent research. Our observation is that training in both responsible conduct of research (RCR) and bioethics throughout the curriculum was an effective strategy to advance the cognitive and psychosocial development of the students. As students enter TU they generally lack the experience and tools to assess their own competence, to apply ethical debates, to investigate scientific topics from an ethical perspective, or to integrate ethics into final conclusions. Student behavior and development follow cognitive models such as described in the theories put forth by Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson, both for initial learning and for how concepts are understood and adopted. Three examples of this ethics training integration are described, including a cohort-based course for first year students in the STEM Residential Learning Community, a cohort-based course for community college students that are involved in an NIH-funded Bridges to the Baccalaureate program, and a senior seminar in Bioethics in the Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics Program. All three focus on different aspects of RCR and bioethics training, providing opportunities for students to learn about the principles of effective decision-making, critical and analytical thinking, problem solving, and communication with increasing degrees of complexity as they move through the curriculum.

  20. Integration of Ethics across the Curriculum: From First Year through Senior Seminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail E. Gasparich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fisher College of Science and Mathematics (FCSM at Towson University (TU has integrated authentic research experiences throughout the curriculum from first year STEM courses through advanced upper-level classes and independent research. Our observation is that training in both responsible conduct in research (RCR and bioethics throughout the curriculum was an effective strategy to advance the cognitive and psychosocial development of the students. As students enter TU they generally lack the experience and tools to assess their own competence, to apply ethical debates, to investigate scientific topics from an ethical perspective, or to integrate ethics into final conclusions. Student behavior and development follow cognitive models such as described in the theories put forth by Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson, both for initial learning and for how concepts are understood and adopted. Three examples of this ethics training integration are described, including a cohort-based course for first year students in the STEM Residential Learning Community, a cohort-based course for community college students that are involved in an NIH-funded Bridges to the Baccalaureate program, and a senior seminar in Bioethics in the Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics Program. All three focus on different aspects of RCR and bioethics training, providing opportunities for students to learn about the principles of effective decision-making, critical and analytical thinking, problem solving, and communication with increasing degrees of complexity as they move through the curriculum.

  1. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTEGRATION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE SYSTEM OF NATURAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the relationships and interactions between fundamental human rights and natural law school. The objectives of this paper are circumscribed to the way fundamental human rights, by their nature, can be integrated within the doctrine of natural law or to the contrary, may be related to various branches of legal positivism. In specialized literature, it was pointed out that fundamental human rights constitute genuine natural rights which have the same natural law ...

  2. Qualitative Study to improve integrity of NET : Perspectives of Peer review and Authorship in research ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    After Dr. Hwang's Human embryonic stem cell scandal, research ethics stood out as the hot issue in both Korean scientific circles and general public. Science Publishing Group referred the limitation of peer review system and the absence of responsibility of author to one of the causes for the scandal. In order to prevent a similar fraud, Ministry of Science and Technology(MOST) established guidelines for research ethics and integrity in 2006. The guidelines included fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism(FFP) and unfair authorship. MOST committed the authority of administration and supervision to the society and the institutes of research to preserve the research integrity. The society and institute are charged with overseeing the implementation of enacted ethics guidelines. SCI(Scientific Citation Index) holds the guideline of research ethics and canon of the society which were crafted in order to guaranty the integrity and quality of the research. The publication policy pertains submission of articles, authorship and responsibilities of a reviewer. Societies pay attention to the peer review policy because the quality of articles is strongly dependent on the peer review. Nuclear Engineering and Technology (NET) is the journal of Korea Nuclear Society(KNS). NET is registered with SCIE(Science Citation Index Expanded), recently. In addition to the growth in external circulation, the improvement of quality requires the effort of the society to establish a strict peer review system and a fair authorship. The qualitative study on peer review and authorship of NET was put into force to improve the quality of NET. Based on studies and suggestions, the policy focuses on research ethics to improve the integrity of NET.

  3. Qualitative Study to improve integrity of NET : Perspectives of Peer review and Authorship in research ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Min, Byung Joo

    2007-01-01

    After Dr. Hwang's Human embryonic stem cell scandal, research ethics stood out as the hot issue in both Korean scientific circles and general public. Science Publishing Group referred the limitation of peer review system and the absence of responsibility of author to one of the causes for the scandal. In order to prevent a similar fraud, Ministry of Science and Technology(MOST) established guidelines for research ethics and integrity in 2006. The guidelines included fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism(FFP) and unfair authorship. MOST committed the authority of administration and supervision to the society and the institutes of research to preserve the research integrity. The society and institute are charged with overseeing the implementation of enacted ethics guidelines. SCI(Scientific Citation Index) holds the guideline of research ethics and canon of the society which were crafted in order to guaranty the integrity and quality of the research. The publication policy pertains submission of articles, authorship and responsibilities of a reviewer. Societies pay attention to the peer review policy because the quality of articles is strongly dependent on the peer review. Nuclear Engineering and Technology (NET) is the journal of Korea Nuclear Society(KNS). NET is registered with SCIE(Science Citation Index Expanded), recently. In addition to the growth in external circulation, the improvement of quality requires the effort of the society to establish a strict peer review system and a fair authorship. The qualitative study on peer review and authorship of NET was put into force to improve the quality of NET. Based on studies and suggestions, the policy focuses on research ethics to improve the integrity of NET

  4. The wisdom of nature in integrating science, ethics and the arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, A

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with an approach to the integration of science (with technology and economics), ethics (with religion and mysticism), the arts (aesthetics) and Nature, in order to establish a world-view based on holistic, evolutionary ethics that could help with problem solving. The author suggests that this integration is possible with the aid of "Nature's wisdom" which is mirrored in the macroscopic pattern of the ecosphere. The corresponding eco-principles represent the basis for unifying soft and hard sciences resulting in "deep sciences". Deduction and induction will remain the methodology for deep sciences and will include conventional experiments and aesthetic and sentient experiences. Perception becomes the decisive factor with the senses as operators for the building of consciousness through the subconscious. In this paper, an attempt at integrating the concepts of the "true", the "right" and the "beautiful" with the aid of Nature's wisdom is explained in more detail along with consequences.

  5. Ethical Considerations Regarding the Use of Smart Home Technologies for Older Adults: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jane; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2016-01-01

    With the wide adoption and use of smart home applications, there is a need for examining ethical issues regarding smart home use at the intersection of aging, technology, and home environment. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of ethical considerations and the evidence on these ethical issues based on an integrative literature review with regard to the utilization of smart home technologies by older adults and their family members. REVIEW DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted an integrative literature review of the scientific literature from indexed databases (e. g., MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO). The framework guiding this review is derived from previous work on ethical considerations related to telehealth use for older adults and smart homes for palliative care. Key ethical issues of the framework include privacy, informed consent, autonomy, obtrusiveness, equal access, reduction in human touch, and usability. Six hundred and thirty-five candidate articles were identified between the years 1990 and 2014. Sixteen articles were included in the review. Privacy and obtrusiveness issues appear to be the most important factors that can affect smart home technology adoption. In addition, this article recommends that stigmatization and reliability and maintenance of the system are additional factors to consider. When smart home technology is used appropriately, it has the potential to improve quality of life and maintain safety among older adults, ultimately supporting the desire of older adults for aging in place. The ability to respond to potential ethical concerns will be critical to the future development and application of smart home technologies that aim to enhance safety and independence.

  6. The Selfie-Made Man: A Case Study in Law, Ethics, and Instagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgunder, Lee B.

    2016-01-01

    Richard Prince a well-known appropriation artist, made headlines by pressing ever deeper into the gray areas of art, technology, and the law. Specifically, Prince took screenshots of personal photographs that were publicly displayed on Instagram accounts, included his own comments, enlarged and printed them on large canvases, and displayed them at…

  7. The right to die: the place of religion, ethics and the law | Kolade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... Life is the state of being alive; it is a prominent feature of any living being. ... The issue of 'right to die' and end-of-life-decisions deeply rooted in the concept of ...

  8. The Integration of Social-Ecological Resilience and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing recognition of the inherent uncertainty associated with the dynamics of ecological systems and their often non-linear and surprising behavior, however, presents a set of problems outside the scope of classic environmental law, and has lead to a fundamental understanding a...

  9. Ethics, the law, and prisoners: protecting society, changing human behavior, and protecting human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trestman, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Restricting a person's liberty presents society with many inherent ethical challenges. The historical purposes of confinement have included punishment, penitence, containment, rehabilitation, and habilitation. While the purposes are indeed complex, multifaceted, and at times ambiguous or contradictory, the fact of incarceration intrinsically creates many ethical challenges for psychiatrists working in correctional settings. Role definition of a psychiatrist may be ambiguous, with potential tensions between forensic and therapeutic demands. Privacy may be limited or absent and confidentiality may be compromised. Patient autonomy may be threatened to address real or perceived security concerns. Care delivery may actually have harmful consequences in court cases for pretrial detainees or lethal consequences for those under a death sentence. An absence of data and targeted research hampers the development of evidence-based care delivery for the disenfranchised, understudied, and disproportionately ill prisoner population. In this review paper, I discuss a few of the challenges and dilemmas routinely faced and present a series of questions. Where feasible, proposed resolutions are offered.

  10. Ethical, legal and social issues to consider when designing a surrogacy law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Merryn Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this article is to address the ethical, legal and social issues that arise when a woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child with the intention of surrendering this child to another woman or couple. The secondary aim is to offer some recommendations that will be beneficial for the lawmakers, policymakers and regulators who design and enforce the rules and regulations that govern surrogacy arrangements. The article considers both commercial and altruistic surrogacy and highlights some of the similarities and differences between the two. Beginning with the initial question of whether surrogacy should be legal, the controversial questions raised relate to the time before conception, during the pregnancy and after the birth of the child. The article concludes that surrogacy arrangements are ethical and should be legal because they enable the medically and socially infertile, including singles and same-sex couples, the opportunity to become parents and to enjoy the lifelong pleasures of parenthood. For many, this will be the strongest argument for the legalisation of surrogacy and the greatest benefit to arise from surrogacy arrangements.

  11. Medical negligence: Coverage of the profession, duties, ethics, case law, and enlightened defense - A legal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Pandit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient approaching a doctor expects medical treatment with all the knowledge and skill that the doctor possesses to bring relief to his medical problem. The relationship takes the shape of a contract retaining the essential elements of tort. A doctor owes certain duties to his patient and a breach of any of these duties gives a cause of action for negligence against the doctor. The doctor has a duty to obtain prior informed consent from the patient before carrying out diagnostic tests and therapeutic management. The services of the doctors are covered under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 and a patient can seek redressal of grievances from the Consumer Courts. Case laws are an important source of law in adjudicating various issues of negligence arising out of medical treatment.

  12. Bridging theory and practice: Mixed methods approach to instruction of law and ethics within the pharmaceutical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle John Wilby

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional responsibilities are guided by laws and ethics that must be introduced and mastered within pharmaceutical sciences training. Instructional design to teaching typically introduces concepts in a traditional didactic approach and requires student memorization prior to application within practice settings. Additionally, many centers rely on best practices from abroad, due to lack of locally published laws and guidance documents. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to summarize and critically evaluate a professional skills laboratory designed to enhance learning through diversity in instructional methods relating to pharmacy law and best practices regarding narcotics, controlled medications, and benzodiazepines. Setting: This study took place within the Professional Skills Laboratory at the College of Pharmacy at Qatar University. Method: A total of 25 students participated in a redesigned laboratory session administered by a faculty member, clinical lecturer, teaching assistant, and a professional skills laboratory technician. The laboratory consisted of eight independent stations that students rotated during the 3-h session. Stations were highly interactive in nature and were designed using non-traditional approaches such as charades, role-plays, and reflective drawings. All stations attempted to have students relate learned concepts to practice within Qatar. Main outcome measures: Student perceptions of the laboratory were measured on a post-questionnaire and were summarized descriptively. Using reflection and consensus techniques, two faculty members completed a SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Challenges analysis in preparation for future cycles. Results: 100% (25/25 of students somewhat or strongly agreed that their knowledge regarding laws and best practices increased and that their learning experience was enhanced by a mixed-methods approach. A total of 96% (24/25 of students stated that the mixed

  13. Bridging theory and practice: Mixed methods approach to instruction of law and ethics within the pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Kyle John; Nasr, Ziad Ghantous

    2016-11-01

    Background: Professional responsibilities are guided by laws and ethics that must be introduced and mastered within pharmaceutical sciences training. Instructional design to teaching typically introduces concepts in a traditional didactic approach and requires student memorization prior to application within practice settings. Additionally, many centers rely on best practices from abroad, due to lack of locally published laws and guidance documents. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to summarize and critically evaluate a professional skills laboratory designed to enhance learning through diversity in instructional methods relating to pharmacy law and best practices regarding narcotics, controlled medications, and benzodiazepines. Setting: This study took place within the Professional Skills Laboratory at the College of Pharmacy at Qatar University. Method: A total of 25 students participated in a redesigned laboratory session administered by a faculty member, clinical lecturer, teaching assistant, and a professional skills laboratory technician. The laboratory consisted of eight independent stations that students rotated during the 3-h session. Stations were highly interactive in nature and were designed using non-traditional approaches such as charades, role-plays, and reflective drawings. All stations attempted to have students relate learned concepts to practice within Qatar. Main outcome measures: Student perceptions of the laboratory were measured on a post-questionnaire and were summarized descriptively. Using reflection and consensus techniques, two faculty members completed a SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Challenges) analysis in preparation for future cycles. Results: 100% (25/25) of students somewhat or strongly agreed that their knowledge regarding laws and best practices increased and that their learning experience was enhanced by a mixed-methods approach. A total of 96% (24/25) of students stated that the mixed

  14. Theological theses on the ethics of organ transplantation and on a law concerning the transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörns, K P

    1994-12-16

    The message of the resurrection from the dead is relevant to human beings living and dying in the unity of body and soul. The personality of man is inseparable connected with this unit--even beyond death. Brain death only marks a (decisive) point during the process of dying, and it cannot be defined as the death of a human being (in general). Theological ethics object to this definition and to a new dualism of brain and body as well as of body and personality (i.e. soul), because this dualism socialises the organs of individuals and denies the personal dignity of disappearing life. Therefore, the explantation of organs must depend on a personal declaration of consent given by the adult sponsor himself. Each information given on organ transplants must clarify that the explanation of organs means an interruption of dying.

  15. Genetic testing and breach of patient confidentiality: law, ethics, and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Ecker, Jeffrey

    2008-05-01

    Medical uses of genetic information have multiplied over the last several years. When an individual is a carrier of a clinically important allele, their kindred are at increased risk of carrying the same allele and of sharing the consequent risk of disease. If there were an intervention that could modify the risk of progression to disease, then there would be a clear advantage to kindred to be so informed. However, some probands may resist divulging that information to kindred for any of a variety of reasons, including the potential for discrimination. In this article we will review the manner in which the courts and professional organizations have viewed the conflict between 1 individual's right to privacy and another's right to information that could potentially be life saving or life prolonging. We will then consider the ethics of this issue and suggest an approach that physicians should take when confronting it.

  16. ETHICS AND THE PRINCIPLES OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN THE PERSFEKTIF ISLAMIC ECONOMICS LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah Bombang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, the value of which is sourced from the primary source of Islamic teachings inthe formation of the principles of Islamic banking in the legal system of Islamic economy. Theprinciple has been terekonstrumsi into the principle of a unified whole and undivided oneunified principle which has the same meaning and effect of all time. The two are inseparableand mutually binding becomes reference in carrying out the charitable effort (muamalah. Allactivity in the economy, including banking should always be in accordance with the principlesof Islamic teachings so as to avoid a banking practice that is full of violations of Islamic valuesand norms. The enforcement principle – the principle of Islamic banking Shariah Islamic lawin the dinormakan economy meant is to mengkonsistensikan the Islamic teachings with thepractice of the banking terkaontaminasi with other systems are generally incompatible with theethics and principles of Islam. Islam offers concept to humanity which is sourced from theQur'an and Sunnah in terms of conducting relationships or transactions with other persons,including in the field of finance as manisfestasi of Islamic teachings in the field of banking.Ethics, values and principles into the source and reference in formulating norms of Islamic lawgoverning the legal relationship in banking issues. All financial transactions in banking shouldbe subject to the legal norms of islam and every muslim needs to take hatian and not get caughtup in the banking system that are not kosher (usury and subhat so that the existence of theIslamic banking is getting solid growth and strong for the benefit of mankind.

  17. Integrating Corporate Social Responsability Programs into the Ethical Dimension of the Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrian CARAMIDARU; Sabina IRIMIE

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to indicate the need to integrate corporate social responsibility programs into the global ethical vision of organizations. Such an approach requires the definition of the corporation in relation to the moral values it assumes and the ways in which moral values occur within the organization. On this foundation, the authors examined the various implications that moral values have on the initiation and conduct of corporate social responsibility programs.

  18. Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essack Zaynab

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. Methods In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Results Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. Conclusion The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.

  19. Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas; Koen, Jennifer; Essack, Zaynab

    2010-03-09

    Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.

  20. Pathological, Disabled, Transgender: The Ethics, History, Laws, and Contradictions in Models that Best Serve Transgender Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance; Gill, Sabrina

    This article addresses the precarious place of transgender and gender non-cis persons in relation to their discrimination-protections in recent legal, medical, and ethical policies in the United States. At present, there exists a contradiction such that trans persons are considered "pathological" enough that they are included in the latest iteration of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) as "gender dysphoric," but they are not included in the category of "disabled" under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). As such, trans persons in America are subject to the stigma of pathology (albeit with medical treatment) without the full protections of the ADA. By contrast, transgender and non-cis-gender Americans find their queer cohorts who are HIV-positive to be fully protected by the ADA. We ask whether transgender and non-cis-gender persons should embrace their (already pathologized) personhood as a disability. Sometimes "choosing disability" affords more rights than it deploys stigma.

  1. Changing the Engineering Student Culture with Respect to Academic Integrity and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeGrift, Tammy; Dillon, Heather; Camp, Loreal

    2017-08-01

    Engineers create airplanes, buildings, medical devices, and software, amongst many other things. Engineers abide by a professional code of ethics to uphold people's safety and the reputation of the profession. Likewise, students abide by a code of academic integrity while learning the knowledge and necessary skills to prepare them for the engineering and computing professions. This paper reports on studies designed to improve the engineering student culture with respect to academic integrity and ethics. To understand the existing culture at a university in the USA, a survey based on a national survey about cheating was administered to students. The incidences of self-reported cheating and incidences of not reporting others who cheat show the culture is similar to other institutions. Two interventions were designed and tested in an introduction to an engineering course: two case studies that students discussed in teams and the whole class, and a letter of recommendation assignment in which students wrote about themselves (character, strengths, examples of ethical decisions) three years into the future. Students were surveyed after the two interventions. Results show that first-year engineering students appreciate having a code of academic integrity and they want to earn their degree without cheating, yet less than half of the students would report on another cheating student. The letter of recommendation assignment had some impact on getting students to think about ethics, their character, and their actions. Future work in changing the student culture will continue in both a top-down (course interventions) and bottom-up (student-driven interventions) manner.

  2. Ethics in the classroom: a reflection on integrating ethical discussions in an introductory course in computer programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarski, D C; Whitehead, T

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent approaches to introducing students in a beginning computer science class to the study of ethical issues related to computer science and technology. This consists of three components: lectures on ethics and technology, in-class discussion of ethical scenarios, and a reflective paper on a topic related to ethics or the impact of technology on society. We give both student reactions to these aspects, and instructor perspective on the difficulties and benefits in exposing students to these ideas.

  3. National identity and law in the context of European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Lise; Palsbro, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Nationalistic discourse is often associated with the flag waving of popular culture, political views of extremist right-wing parties or the routine rhetoric of ‘us’ versus ‘them’, pervading social life in general. However, nationalistic discourse is to be found even in academic writings by the pr......Nationalistic discourse is often associated with the flag waving of popular culture, political views of extremist right-wing parties or the routine rhetoric of ‘us’ versus ‘them’, pervading social life in general. However, nationalistic discourse is to be found even in academic writings...... by the professional elite of lawyers, who readily resort to ideological topoi of national identity and culture to support legal argument. Reporting from a comprehensive study on Danish academic and public debate on European human rights law, this article explores how the legal community of Denmark reacts emotionally...

  4. Actor or arena: contrasting translations of a law on interorganizational integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Johanna; Löfström, Mikael; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Axelsson, Runo

    2012-01-01

    A Swedish framework law has enabled integration between public agencies in vocational rehabilitation. With the support of this law, coordination associations can be formed to fund and organize joint activities. The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze how the law has been interpreted and translated into local coordination associations and how local institutional logics have developed to guide the organization of these associations. Data was collected through observations of meetings within two coordination associations and supplemented with documents. The material was analyzed by compilation and examination of data from field notes, whereupon the most important aspects were crystallized and framed with institutional organization theory. Two different translations of the law were seen in the associations studied: the association as an independent actor, and as an arena for its member organizations. Two subsequent institutional logics have developed, influencing decisions on autonomy, objectives and rationality for initiating and organizing in the two associations and their activities. The institutional logics are circular, further enhancing the different translations creating different forms of integration. Both forms of integration are legitimate, but the different translations have created integration with different degrees of autonomy in relation to the member organizations. Only a long-term analysis can show whether one form of integration is more functional than the other. This article is based on an extensive material providing insights into a form of interorganizational integration which has been scarcely researched. The findings show how different translations can influence the integration of welfare services.

  5. Honoring Our Ethical Origins: Scientific Integrity and Geoethics, Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Current ethics policy owes much of its origins to Aristotle and his writings on virtue - including the idea that if we understand and rationally practice virtue and excellence, we will be our best selves. From this humble beginning emerged a number of more complex, ever evolving, ethical theories. The Hypocratic Oath and atrocities of World War II resulted in the roots of scientific integrity through the Nuremberg Code and the Belmont Report, which set ethical rules for human experimentation, including, respect, beneficence, and justice. These roots produced bioethics, medical ethics, environmental ethics, and geoethics. Geoethics has its origins in Europe and is being embraced in the U.S.A. It needs a respected place in the geoscience curriculum, especially as we face the global challenges of climate change and sustainability. Modern scientific integrity in the U.S.A., where research misconduct is defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism, was derived from efforts of the 1980's through 1990's by the Nat'l Institutes of Health and Nat'l Academy of Sciences (NAS). This definition of misconduct has remained an immovable standard, excluding anything not of the scientific process, such as personal behaviors within the research environment. Modern scientific integrity codes and reports such as the Singapore Statement, the NAS' Fostering Integrity in Research, and current federal agency policies, provide standards of behavior to aspire to, and acknowledge the deleterious effects of certain behaviors and practices, but still hesitate to include them in formal definitions of research misconduct. Modern media is holding a mirror to what is happening in the research environment. There are conflicts of interest, misrepresentations of data and uncertainty, discrimination, harassment, bullying, misuse of funds, withholding of data and code, intellectual theft, and a host of others, that are having a serious detrimental effect on science. For science to have its best

  6. Development, implementation, and effects of an integrated web-based teaching model in a nursing ethics course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, S-Y; Chang, Y-C; Yang, S C; Clark, M J

    2017-08-01

    Ethical competence, which is reflected in the ability to detect ethical challenges in clinical situations and engage in deliberate thinking on ethical actions, is one of the core competencies of nursing practice. The purpose of this study was to develop and implement an interactive situational e-learning system, integrating nursing ethical decisions into a nursing ethics course, and to evaluate the effects of this course on student nurses' ethical decision-making competence. The project was designed to be carried out in two phases. In the first phase, an interactive situated e-learning system was developed and integrated into the nursing ethics course. The second phase involved implementing the course and evaluating its effects in a quasi-experimental study. The course intervention was designed for 2h per week over one semester (18weeks). A total of 100 two-year technical college nursing students in their second year of the program participated in the study, with 51 in the experimental group and 49 in the control group. After completing the course, the students in the experimental group showed significant improvement in nursing ethical decision-making competence, including skills in "raising questions," "recognizing differences," "comparing differences," "self-dialogue," "taking action," and "identifying the implications of decisions made," compared to their performance prior to the class. After controlling for factors influencing learning effects, students in the experimental group showed superiority to those in the control group in the competency of "recognizing differences." The students in the experimental group reported that the course pushed them to search for and collect information needed to resolve the ethical dilemma. The interactive situational e-learning system developed by our project was helpful in developing the students' competence in ethical reasoning. The e-learning system and the situational teaching materials used in this study may be applicable

  7. Cultivating an Ethic of Environmental Sustainability: Integrating Insights from Aristotelian Virtue Ethics and Pragmatist Cognitive Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Travis; Becker, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Despite increased attention for environmental sustainability programming, large-scale adoption of pro-environmental behaviors has been slow and largely short-term. This article analyzes the crucial role of ethics in this respect. The authors utilize an interdisciplinary approach drawing on virtue ethics and cognitive development theory to…

  8. Integrating Public Health and Deliberative Public Bioethics: Lessons from the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M; Lee, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Public health policy works best when grounded in firm public health standards of evidence and widely shared social values. In this article, we argue for incorporating a specific method of ethical deliberation--deliberative public bioethics--into public health. We describe how deliberative public bioethics is a method of engagement that can be helpful in public health. Although medical, research, and public health ethics can be considered some of what bioethics addresses, deliberative public bioethics offers both a how and where. Using the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications program as an example of effective incorporation of deliberative processes to integrate ethics into public health policy, we examine how deliberative public bioethics can integrate both public health and bioethics perspectives into three areas of public health practice: research, education, and health policy. We then offer recommendations for future collaborations that integrate deliberative methods into public health policy and practice.

  9. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-09-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, "extreme centrism", and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics-separate and together-have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness . By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  10. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S.; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit. PMID:26345196

  11. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Dove

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science; and consortia ethics (Big Ethics. These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  12. Cyberspace in the Curricula: New Legal and Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethers, J. Steven

    1998-01-01

    Finds that most journalism and mass communication programs integrate legal and ethical issues surrounding cyberspace and interactive media into existing courses, especially into ethics and communication law courses, but also into introductory survey courses, communication technology, and reporting classes. Details reasons why some programs do not…

  13. Encourage Risk, Failure and Values-Driven Decision Making, by Developing and Integrating Ethical and Critical Thinking in Geocurricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, A.

    2015-12-01

    Critical thinking is characterized by risk or uncertainty. Ethical thinking determines if an individual will conform to accepted cultural or professional standards of conduct. Both of these skills are desirable, but have attributes that people tend to resist or avoid. This presentation briefly examines the cognitive nature and development of these two skills. Various outcomes and consequences are illustrated when different ethics and critical thinking strategies are employed to solve the same problem. Further discussion around: why are these skills important, and what particular traits directly impact geosciences? How can educators integrate ethical and critical thinking skills into formal or informal teaching environments? What are the benefits to geoscience and society with individuals who are engaged as ethical and critical thinkers? Do we as geoscientists, have a responsibility to advocate in promoting the development of positive critical and ethical thinking abilities?

  14. Ethical codes in business practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kobrlová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis discusses the issues of ethics and codes of ethics in business. The theoretical part defines basic concepts of ethics, presents its historical development and the methods and tools of business ethics. It also focuses on ethical codes and the area of law and ethics. The practical part consists of a quantitative survey, which provides views of selected business entities of business ethics and the use of codes of ethics in practice.

  15. BUSINESS ETHICS AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN BANKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Amith Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Business ethics is defined as "the process of evaluating decisions, either before or after, with respect to the moral standards of society."Core ethical values include honesty, integrity, fairness, responsible citizenship and accountability. In short, business ethics means "choosing the good over the bad, the right over the wrong, the fair over the unfair, the truth over the lie". Observing the law is one basic professional requirement for banks. They must also pay close attention to moral co...

  16. The application of J integral to measure cohesive laws in materials undergoing large scale yielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility of determining cohesive laws by the J-integral approach for materials having non-linear stress-strain behaviour (e.g. polymers and composites) by the use of a DCB sandwich specimen, consisting of stiff elastic beams bonded to the non-linear test material, loaded with pure...... bending moments. For a wide range of parameters of the non-linear material, the plastic unloading during crack extension is small, resulting in J integral values (fracture resistance) that deviate maximum 15% from the work of the cohesive traction. Thus the method can be used to extract the cohesive laws...... directly from experiments without any presumption about their shape. Finally, the DCB sandwich specimen was also analysed using the I integral to quantify the overestimation of the steady-state fracture resistance obtained using the J integral based method....

  17. The Impact of Perceptions of Ethical Leadership Styles on Perceptions of Police Integrity Violations: The Case of Diyarbakir Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Timur

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main areas: first, the study evaluates whether the ethical leadership style of a direct supervisor has an impact on the police officers' perception of the integrity violations; second, the study scrutinizes whether police officers' moral judgment of integrity violations makes a difference in the amount of such violations. The…

  18. Integration of Environmental Education and Environmental Law Enforcement for Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovornkijprasert, Sravoot; Rawang, Wee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish an integrated model of environmental education (EE) and environmental law enforcement (ELE) to improve the efficiency of functional competency for police officers in Bangkok Metropolitan Police Division 9 (MBP Div. 9). The research design was mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches…

  19. The application of J integral to measure cohesive laws under large-scale yielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to obtain the mode I cohesive law of elastic-plastic materials using a Double Cantilever Beam sandwich specimen loaded with pure bending moments. The approach is based on the validity of the J integral for materials having a non-linear stress-strain relationship without...

  20. The Ethics of Doing Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2017-02-01

    Ethicists have investigated ethical problems in other disciplines, but there has not been much discussion of the ethics of their own activities. Research in ethics has many ethical problems in common with other areas of research, and it also has problems of its own. The researcher's integrity is more precarious than in most other disciplines, and therefore even stronger procedural checks are needed to protect it. The promotion of some standpoints in ethical issues may be socially harmful, and even our decisions as to which issues we label as "ethical" may have unintended and potentially harmful social consequences. It can be argued that ethicists have an obligation to make positive contributions to society, but the practical implications of such an obligation are not easily identified. This article provides an overview of ethical issues that arise in research into ethics and in the application of such research. It ends with a list of ten practical proposals for how these issues should be dealt with.

  1. Research Ethics 2.0: New Perspectives on Norms, Values, and Integrity in Genomic Research in Times of Even Scarcer Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brall, Caroline; Maeckelberghe, Els; Porz, Rouven; Makhoul, Jihad; Schröder-Bäck, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Research ethics anew gained importance due to the changing scientific landscape and increasing demands and competition in the academic field. These changes are further exaggerated because of scarce(r) resources in some countries on the one hand and advances in genomics on the other. In this paper, we will highlight the current challenges thereof to scientific integrity. To mark key developments in research ethics, we will distinguish between what we call research ethics 1.0 and research ethics 2.0. Whereas research ethics 1.0 focuses on individual integrity and informed consent, research ethics 2.0 entails social scientific integrity within a broader perspective of a research network. This research network can be regarded as a network of responsibilities in which every stakeholder involved has to jointly meet the ethical challenges posed to research. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. New Positive and Negative Hierarchies of Integrable Differential-Difference Equations and Conservation Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyue; Zhao Qiulan

    2009-01-01

    Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rational type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.

  3. Brief Analysis of the Ethic Values Embedded in the Buddhist Law of Causality%佛教因果思想的伦理价值浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建国

    2011-01-01

    佛教伦理提倡"行善积德"、"普度众生"、"大慈大悲",体现了其宗教道德的人本性和生态性伦理观。佛教因果观涵括了善恶有报、改恶从善、劝善度人思想,既注重平等、责任、尊严的社会伦理,也具有深刻的重视环保的生态伦理价值和生态伦理实践意义。%The Buddhist understanding of human self-nature and environmental ethics are well reflected in the fundamental doctrines of doing good,saving all sentient beings and cultivating compassion,advocated in Buddhist ethics of the mind.The theory of Karma-the law of causality-in Buddhist teachings and practice,including the concepts of Karma retribution,changing from cruelty to kindness and helping others do well,lays great emphasis not only on such social ethics as equality,responsibility and dignity,but also on the practice of environmental ethics,which is of great value in the protection of our ecological environment.

  4. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  5. Integrating transformative learning and action learning approaches to enhance ethical leadership for supervisors in the hotel business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyuen Saranya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical leadership is now increasingly focused in leadership development. The main purpose of this study is to explore two methods of adult learning, action learning and transformative learning, and to use the methods to enhance ethical leadership. Building ethical leadership requires an approach that focuses on personal values, beliefs, or frames of references, which is transformative learning. Transformative learning requires a series of meetings to conduct critical discourse and to follow up the learning of learners. By organizing such action learning, human resource developers can optimize their time and effort more effectively. The authors have created a comprehensive model to integrate the two learning approaches in a general way that focuses not only on ethical leadership, but also on all kinds of behavioral transformation in the workplace in the hotel business or even other types of business.

  6. Ethical and social aspects of integral risk assessment in reference to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.

    1991-01-01

    As a rule, the risks connected with the use of nuclear energy are assessed as isolated factors. Sterotypically the economic benefits and residual risks are weighed against one another and assessed differently. Within the framework of an integral understanding of the problem, the significance of nuclear energy should be considered to be of prime priority when it comes to the serious problems which humanity is confronted with, i.e.: - ecological stability, - climatic stability, - keeping peace, - prevention of large-scale epidemics, - conservation of our resources for the generations to come, - making existence fit for human beings. The author comes to the conclusion that the risks which would result from dispensing with nuclear energy world-wide are a millionfold greater than are the risks which would result from extending the use of nuclear energy world-wide, not only as regards the loss of human lives, but also as regards the amount of land which might become uninhabitable long-term. The author advocates employing ethical arguments which are based on ethical goals and are rational, economical and promise to show the best way of fulfilling mutual ehtical goals satisfactorily in an objective way. The author sees problems as regards the distortion of truth and its misuse by cynics, opportunists, etc. Social aspects must be subjected to ethical scrutiny as well. On the whole it is important to overcome deficits in the communication between technically and scientifically oriented people and those who view it as their task to reflect upon the meaning behind the issue at hand (clergymen, journalists, politicians, etc.). (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Scientific integrity and research ethics an approach from the ethos of science

    CERN Document Server

    Koepsell, David

    2017-01-01

    This book is an easy to read, yet comprehensive introduction to practical issues in research ethics and scientific integrity. It addresses questions about what constitutes appropriate academic and scientific behaviors from the point of view of what Robert Merton called the “ethos of science.” In other words, without getting into tricky questions about the nature of the good or right (as philosophers often do), Koepsell’s concise book provides an approach to behaving according to the norms of science and academia without delving into the morass of philosophical ethics. The central thesis is that: since we know certain behaviors are necessary for science and its institutions to work properly (rather than pathologically), we can extend those principles to guide good behaviors as scientists and academics. The Spanish version of this book was commissioned by the Mexican National Science Foundation (CONACyT) and is being distributed to and used by Mexican scientists in a unique, national plan to improve scie...

  8. Supply chain responsibilities and the need for an integrative ethic Management in Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Auchter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of the Indian Textile and Clothing (T&C industry is unquestioned. It is one of the second largest employment generating industry, after agriculture, with direct employment of over 35 million people. Tamil Nadu accounts for over 65% of the total number spinning units in India and has been reported exploiting young women workers in the spinning and textile units what is called the “Sumangali Scheme”. “Sumangali” in Tamil means ‘happily married woman’. Globalization confronts decision-makers in connection with global conditions in identifying labour standards that can serve as guidelines for corporations producing or outsourcing outside of their home country. The Article shows that in a globalized business world the concept of a conventional corporate ethic system to put all energy into the development of codes of conduct, and ethical audits and sustainability reporting falls short. This applies to industries like the Tamil Nadu textile industry, as there is no clarity with regard to the causal factors and the key players in the supply chain of such a complex social system. The Integrative Social Contract Theory (ISCT allows understanding the problem of Supply-Chain Responsibilities as a contractual relationship that denotes concrete moral responsibilities.

  9. Ethics in Management Consulting

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Vallini

    2007-01-01

    Ethics is a relevant value in business and management consulting. The presence of recognized ethics tends to reduce the need for informative or legal-contractual precautions in the formalization of relationships, for both of the parts involved in a negotiation. Management Consulting on ethics will develop more and more. Law will consider more and more ethics in business and management consulting. The ethics of corporations influences their workers and behaviour with the customers. It is an e...

  10. The integrated nature of the method of psychological portraying in law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals peculiarities of using the method of psychological portraying in law enforcement, shows the current practice of using psychological knowledge in solving crimes, reveals an integration relationship of other Sciences with psychology with the use of the method of psychological portraying the disclosure of crimes. The article presents a comprehensive approach to the psychological profile of an unknown offender. Psychological portraying of an unknown offender is regarded as a form of analytical work in solving crimes, which integrate information and knowledge from various Sciences such as forensics, criminology, detective work, psychiatry, sexology, victimology, etc. Psychological science (information of its various branches is a fundamental element that helps to explain, interpret and describe the behavior of the offender and the victim to resolve the problems of law enforcement.

  11. 论工程与伦理的融合%Necessity of the Integration of Engineering and Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进

    2015-01-01

    尽管我国工程伦理学研究已经获得快速发展,但对于工程是否需要伦理,业界依旧存在较大争议,已成为阻碍工程伦理学发展的壁垒。工程伦理在本质上具有作为社会实验的实践性特征以及作为伦理准则的规范性特征,这决定了工程内涵伦理问题、内生伦理维度以及内衍伦理理论。伦理意识引导工程师“负责任地”扮演职业角色,伦理理论指导工程师审慎对待两难困境中蕴藏的伦理问题,伦理规范保障工程本质价值得以彰显和工程目标均衡实现。在我国,必须将伦理与工程加以融合,逐渐从一种前卫理念转成为被工程界接受和认可的普适观念,对此观念的充分理解、接受与肯定,是我国工程伦理学持久繁荣的重要前提。%Although the study of engineering ethics in China has gained rapid development,controversial of necessity of engineering ethics still exists which becomes a barrier of the development of engineering ethics. Engineering ethics in essence obtains both practical features as a social experiment and normative features as an ethical standard. All these features determine engineering’s connotative ethical problems,endogenous ethical dimensions and ethical theories. Ethical consciousness guides engineers to responsibly play their professional role. Ethical theories make engineers carefully treat ethical issues in dilemma. In our country,the idea of integration of ethics and engineering is no longer an avant-garde concept and has gradually accepted as a universal ideology. And the full understanding,acceptance and confirmation of it are important prerequisites for its healthy development.

  12. Does the Law on Compensation for Research-Related Injury in the UK, Australia, and New Zealand Meet Ethical Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Joanna M

    2017-08-01

    Despite a consensus that society owes an ethical obligation to compensate for research-related injury, and that no-fault is the best ethical response, an assessment of the compensation arrangements in place in the UK, Australia and New Zealand shows that in general compensation arrangements fall below this ethical expectation. Most subjects rely on ex gratia payment or an unenforceable assurance of payment in the event of injury. It is also likely that, given significant deficiencies in participant information about compensation arrangements in place for trials recommended by the supervisory ethics agencies in each jurisdiction, subjects only find out about their financial exposure in the event of injury. Industry-drafted guidelines governing compensation in commercially sponsored trials do not protect subjects' interests, but operate primarily to protect the interests of industry. The article considers potential solutions to the ethical deficiency of the compensation arrangements, and argues that the ethical corollary of the fact that society is the ultimate beneficiary of its members' participation in clinical research, is that society as a whole should bear the cost of participant injuries, through establishment of a central no-fault compensation fund financed either by the state or those directly involved in biomedical research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Management of Law Firms Using Business Process Management, Document Management and Web Services Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Maria Petculet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the technical solution implemented in the present context for the management of law firms. The informational system consists of the automation of business processes using a BPM engine and electronic archiving using a DMS. The communication between the two modules is made by invoking web services. The whole system integrates modules like: project management, contract management, invoice management, collection, CRM, reporting.

  14. Integrated environmental protection obligations under European law, survey analysis of Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthaler, W.

    2001-05-01

    This work focuses on legal instruments serving integrated environmental protection, especially with respect to administrative procedures concerning plant permits, and their inhorent limits. Initially, the legal and scientific approach pursued under the notion of 'integrated environmental protection' and 'environmental impact assessment' is examined and clarified in chapter A. Based thereon, chapter B deals with the obligations resulting from the EIA-Directive and - compared therewith - from the IPPC-Directive with regard to procedures for plant permits. Further, Austria's delay in fully transposing these directives is examined. When dealing with the constitutional basis for transposing the EIA- and IPPC-D into Austrian administrative law (chapter C), the inherent limits of some competence of legislation are discovered to be too narrow to ensure full compliance with EC law; only with regard to EIA, legistation is based on sound constitutional ground. The second part of the work is devoted to three areas of discussion on EIA- and IPPC-procedures under Austrian law: the scope of their applicability (chapter D), the problems of integrated evaluation and the limits of ecological expertise (chapter E) and aspects of public participation (chapter F). The study is concluded by a summary of the main results (chapter G). (author)

  15. Retrievability, ethics and democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Westerlind, M.

    2000-01-01

    Ethics is always a social concern, an integrated part of laws and regulations. Treatment of ethics as a separate part in the decision making process is therefore always debatable. It cannot be introduced as an extraneous component to compensate for, or to improve, a morally flawed practice, and the margin for unethical practices is strongly circumscribed by regulation in the nuclear field, internationally. However, a discussion on different stakeholders and their different ethical concerns should always be welcome. One example is the implementer's views on ethics. Even if they are in complete parity with existing legal and regulatory goals, the goals may still represent the implementer's own motives and choices. Also, stakeholders may view the laws or regulations as unfair. In making the critique, the stakeholder simply formulates a separate political standpoint. Finally, an alternative discussion is to place existing regulations into an ethical perspective - adding a new dimension to the issues. Retrievability for high level waste repositories is often in focus in ethical discussions. Unfortunately, it is used in many ways and has become an unclear term. It may cover anything from planned recuperation to the property of waste being retrievable in years or tens of years, or in the distant time range of hundreds or thousands of years. The term retrievability is often proposed to cover mainly positive qualities such as the option of later changes to the repository or a new disposal concept. However, as ICRP and others have pointed out, it also implies the possibility of: i) operational exposures, ii) continuing risks of accidental releases, iii) financial provisions to cover operating costs and iv) continuing reliance on institutional control, thus imposing some burdens to future generations. In a certain sense, anything can be retrieved from any repository. There is therefore a need for a clear and operable definition of retrievability requirements, including the

  16. Medical ethics and ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyalomhe, G B S

    2009-01-01

    Ethical problems routinely arise in the hospital and outpatient practice settings and times of dilemma do occur such that practitioners and patients are at cross-roads where choice and decision making become difficult in terms of ethics. This paper attempts a synopsis of the basic principles of medical ethics, identifies some ethical dilemmas that doctors often encounter and discusses some strategies to address them as well as emphasizes the need for enhanced ethics education both for physicians and patients particularly in Nigeria. Literature and computer programmes (Medline and PsychoInfo databases) were searched for relevant information. The search showed that the fundamental principles suggested by ethicists to assist doctors to evaluate the ethics of a situation while making a decision include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Although the above principles do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, they serve as a guide to doctors on what principles ought to apply to actual circumstances. The principles sometimes conflict with each other leading to ethical dilemmas when applied to issues such as abortion, contraception, euthanasia, professional misconduct, confidentiality truth telling, professional relationship with relatives, religion, traditional medicine and business concerns. Resolution of dilemmas demand the best of the doctor's knowledge of relevant laws and ethics, his training and experience, his religious conviction and moral principles as well as his readiness to benefit from ethics consultation and the advice of his colleagues. Ethics education should begin from the impressionable age in homes, continued in the medical schools and after graduation to ensure that doctors develop good ethical practices and acquire the ability to effectively handle ethical dilemmas. Also, education of patients and sanction of unethical behaviour will reduce ethical dilemmas.

  17. What Is To Be Expected from an Ethics Audit Integrated Within the Accreditation Process of Hospitals from Romania?

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGHEORGHIESEI, Daniela Tatiana; ILIESCU, Liliana; GAVRILOVICI, Cristina; OPREA, Liviu

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to verify the issue of the ethics audit and its use in the system of accreditation of hospitals. It presents the results of a survey conducted among hospital managers from Romania. Methods: Our article highlights the results of the second part of a research carried out in 2012 on the pertinence and the structure of the ethics audit integrated within the accreditation process of hospitals, according the opinion of the 47 executives and managers involved in the quality management of Romania hospitals. The data have been gathered with the aid of the online questionnaire. Results: An ethics audit integrated within the accreditation process of hospitals should include primarily the respect of the patients’ rights, the good relations of the institutions with its patients and the respect of the moral rights of the employees. Conclusion: The usefulness of this study is due to the fact that it consults precisely those who should really contribute to the creation, application and monitoring of ethical policies and instruments necessary in every hospital which are permanently under the scrutiny of public opinion and confront themselves with the obligation to give a thorough account of their results and spending of the public resources. This study gain consistency as the relevant aspects that could form the structure of a hospital ethics audit are identified with the direct help of the managers responsible for implementing it. PMID:24427752

  18. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  19. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTEGRATION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE SYSTEM OF NATURAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the relationships and interactions between fundamental human rights and natural law school. The objectives of this paper are circumscribed to the way fundamental human rights, by their nature, can be integrated within the doctrine of natural law or to the contrary, may be related to various branches of legal positivism. In specialized literature, it was pointed out that fundamental human rights constitute genuine natural rights which have the same natural law recognized attributes: immutability, non-alienable nature et. al. However, in the context of contemporary changes within the European Union, generated by cultural differences which are becoming ever more significant, the question rises of whether those rights are in fact a creation of legal positivism. Within the paperthere are several doctrine opinions described, as well as some arguments for reconsidering the placement of fundamental rights within the sphere of legal positivism. Using the comparative method, the study analyzes the common points and the points of divergence between fundamental rights and the doctrines of natural law and legal positivism, seen through the prism of the general theory of systems, legal culture, legal colonialism and legal ethnocentrism.

  20. Integrating ethical values into fraud triangle theory in assessing employee fraud: Evidence from the Malaysian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaliah Said

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to integrate ethical values into the fraud triangle theory in the context of Malaysian banking industry. Primary data were collected through the survey of 108 questionnaires administered to the employees of the top three largest banks in Malaysia. The findings revealed that ethical values were negatively related to employee fraud, and two elements of fraud triangle theory, namely, opportunity and rationalization, were positively related to employee fraud. This implies that high ethical value is crucial to mitigate employee fraud. To minimize employee fraud, the banking industry should reduce opportunities and employee negative rationalization through strong internal control. This study contributes to literature on the occurrences of employee fraud, which is not widely discussed, especially in the context of the banking industry in developing countries.

  1. Using Technology-Enabled Active Learning Tools to Introduce Business Ethics Topics in Business Law Courses: A Few Practical Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Linda A.; Weber, Curt M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors echo the assertion of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) Ethics Education Task Force that business schools must encourage students to develop a deep understanding of the myriad challenges surrounding corporate responsibility and corporate governance; provide them with tools for…

  2. Locating Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Research ethics has become integrated into what it means to conduct good science. This thesis is about the nature of that integration, which I argue is not neutral, carrying with it ideas of duty, moral obligations, organisational mechanisms, and processes of monitoring. For developing countries...... to participate in global research, the pre-requisite of ethical review has necessitated a growth in capacity building exercises. The chapters aim to elucidate ethnographically the activities and implications of 'capacity building' activities in biomedical research ethics, through following the trainings......, assessments and networking of the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a Non-Governmental Organisation. The work provides a critical reflection on the spread and uptake of ethics, contributing particularly to literatures in medical anthropology, organisational studies...

  3. Management and ethical responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most authors believe that ethics is set of moral principles and values which leads a person or a group toward what is good or bad. Ethics sets the standards about what is good, and what is bad in behaving and decision making. Principles are the rules or the laws that create ethical codex.

  4. A J Integral Approach for Measuring Cohesive Laws Using a Modified DCB Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2007-01-01

    mode mixities. The sandwich specimen consists of glass fiber faces and Divinycell H200 foam core. Arbitrary stiffening of the sandwich specimen with steel bars adhered to the faces reduces rotations and ensures that the method is useable for a wide range of materials. The J integral is employed...... and the opening of the pre-crack tip is recorded by a commercial digital photogrammetry measurement system. Cohesive laws are extracted by differentiating J with respect to the normal and tangential opening of the pre-crack tip. Some results are presented and discussed....

  5. Integrating Brain Science and Law: Neuroscientific Evidence and Legal Perspectives on Protecting Individual Liberties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin J. Kraft

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neuroscientific techniques have found increasingly broader applications, including in legal neuroscience (or “neurolaw”, where experts in the brain sciences are called to testify in the courtroom. But does the incursion of neuroscience into the legal sphere constitute a threat to individual liberties? And what legal protections are there against such threats? In this paper, we outline individual rights as they interact with neuroscientific methods. We then proceed to examine the current uses of neuroscientific evidence, and ultimately determine whether the rights of the individual are endangered by such approaches. Based on our analysis, we conclude that while federal evidence rules constitute a substantial hurdle for the use of neuroscientific evidence, more ethical safeguards are needed to protect against future violations of fundamental rights. Finally, we assert that it will be increasingly imperative for the legal and neuroscientific communities to work together to better define the limits, capabilities, and intended direction of neuroscientific methods applicable for use in law.

  6. An integrated ethical approach to bioethical decision-making: A proposed model for ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena C. de Lange

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined a model for guidance in ‘doing’ bioethics in a Reformed context. The proposed model suggested that in order to arrive at responsible ethical decisions, one must refer to both contextual elements and theory. The theoretical grounding for this model was based on the integration of a deontological and virtue ethics approach, arguing that virtue enables persons to know and desire the right moral ends and motivates them to carry out appropriate action toward achieving these ends. An integrative model opens up the possibility whereby bioethics as a systematic tool provides the individual decision-maker with the critical-reflective skills and justification for the ultimate choice that is lacking in the general decision-making processes. This could lead to clearer thinking and increased confidence in the justification of decisions within the Reformed tradition. The proposed hermeneutical perspective on ethical decision-making represents a shift in views about the nature of knowledge and the process of how we come to know. The key to this hermeneutical approach is to acknowledge the dialectic between the universal and the subjectivity of human relations. Working in specific religious communities, one needs to take cognisance of the fact that knowledge is situated in the context of human relationships in which the interpreter participates when articulating the meaning of bioethical experiences. Another aspect that is anticipated lies in the realisation that people struggling with bioethical dilemmas should not be viewed as isolated individuals, but as members of a broader faith community. ‘n Geïntegreerde etiese benadering tot bioetiese besluitneming: Voorgestelde model vir predikante. Hierdie artikel het ‘n model geskets wat moontlike riglyne aantoon vir die  beoefening  van  bioetiek  binne  ‘n  Gereformeerde  konteks.  Die  voorgestelde  model argumenteer dat verwysing na beide kontekstuele elemente en teorie

  7. The refraction and reflection laws from a complete integral of the eikonal equation and Huygens’ principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Ramos, Jorge; Juárez-Reyes, Salvador Alejandro; Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Suárez-Xique, Román; Marcelino-Aranda, Mariana; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    In this work we assume that we have two given optical media with constant refraction indexes, which are separated by an arbitrary refracting surface. In one of the optical media we place a point light source at an arbitrary position. The aim of this work is to use a particular complete integral of the eikonal equation and Huygens’ principle to obtain the refraction and reflection laws. We remark that this complete integral associates a new point light source with each light ray that arrives at the refracting surface. This means that by using only this complete integral it is not possible to determine the direction of propagation of the refracted light rays; the direction of propagation is obtained by imposing two extra conditions on the complete integral which are equivalent to Huygens’ principle (in two dimensions, only one condition is needed). Finally, we establish the connection between the complete integral used here and that derived by using the k-function procedure introduced by Stavroudis, which works with plane wavefronts instead of spherical ones. (paper)

  8. Practical Divinity and Medical Ethics: Lawful versus Unlawful Medicine in the Writings of William Perkins (1558–1602)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevitz, Norman

    2013-01-01

    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between “lawful” and “unlawful” medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons. PMID:22235029

  9. Frailty's Place in Ethics and Law: Some Thoughts on Equality and Autonomy and on Limits and Possibilities for Aging Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Mary; Lahey, William

    2015-01-01

    Consideration of ethical and legal themes relating to frailty must engage with the concern that frailty is a pejorative concept that validates and reinforces the disadvantage and vulnerability of aging adults. In this chapter, we consider whether a greater focus on frailty may indeed be part of the solution to the disadvantages that aging adults face in achieving equality and maintaining their autonomy within systems that have used their frailty to deny them equality and autonomy. First, by examining equality both as an ethical norm and as a requirement for protections against discrimination, we raise questions about the grounds on which health providers and health systems can be required to give equal concern and respect to the needs of frail older persons. Second, we explore autonomy and identify the tension between meaningful self-determination and prevailing ethical and legal norms associated with informed choice. Third, we argue that a proper understanding of frailty is essential within both of these themes; it respects equality by enabling health providers and systems to identify and address the distinct care needs of aging adults and helps to align informed choice theory with appropriate processes for decision-making about those needs. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; McLean, Loyola M; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus databases of peer-reviewed research, published between 2009 and 2014, limited to English language research, with search terms developed to reflect the current issues of authorship. From among the 279 papers identified, 20 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Findings were compiled and then arranged to identify themes and relationships. The review incorporated a wide range of authorship issues encompassing equal-credited authors, honorary (guest/gift) and ghost authorship, perception/experiences of authorship, and guidelines/policies. This review suggests that the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ (ICMJE) recommended guidelines for authorship are not reflected in current authorship practices within the domain of health sciences in both low-and high-impact-factor journals. This devaluing of the true importance of authorship has the potential to affect the validity of authorship, diminish the real contributions of the true authors, and negatively affect patient care. PMID:26257520

  11. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; McLean, Loyola M; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus databases of peer-reviewed research, published between 2009 and 2014, limited to English language research, with search terms developed to reflect the current issues of authorship. From among the 279 papers identified, 20 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Findings were compiled and then arranged to identify themes and relationships. The review incorporated a wide range of authorship issues encompassing equal-credited authors, honorary (guest/gift) and ghost authorship, perception/experiences of authorship, and guidelines/policies. This review suggests that the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' (ICMJE) recommended guidelines for authorship are not reflected in current authorship practices within the domain of health sciences in both low-and high-impact-factor journals. This devaluing of the true importance of authorship has the potential to affect the validity of authorship, diminish the real contributions of the true authors, and negatively affect patient care.

  12. Using Video-Based Instruction to Integrate Ethics into the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Ali M.; Mintz, Steven M.; Wright, George M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a video case discussion project based on the IMA's Statement of Ethical Professional Practice that was administered in a cost accounting class to assess the extent to which students were able to identify and discuss ethical issues raised by the facts of a case scenario. The case was developed by the IMA to advance the…

  13. MARKET FAIRNESS IN ISLAMIC ECONOMICS LAW AND ETHICS: A Study on Modern and Traditional Market Regulations in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapa Khamal Rokan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been motivated by unfair market conditions in the form of marginalization of traditional markets in Indonesia due to unequal competition with the modern market. This article tries to find a fair legal formulation to maintain the existence of a small market (traditional. To find the legal formulation, the author attempts to discuss market regulation in Indonesian legislation, analyzed and found it to be optimized to create a fair market arrangements in the perspective of Islamic law. This study propose a paradigm that the market functions not only as an business institution but also as religious and social institutions based on brotherhood which requires mutual respect and responsibility. There are prescriptive law to maintain the existence of traditional markets in Indonesia, which optimizes the concept of ownership as a form of common ownership and optimize the regulation of cooperation between the traditional and the modern market economy based on the doctrine of Islamic law.

  14. Formulating the American Geophysical Union's Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy: Challenges and lessons learned: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Linda C.; Townsend, Randy

    2017-01-01

    Creating an ethics policy for a large, diverse geosciences organization is a challenge, especially in the midst of the current contentious dialogue in the media related to such issues as climate change, sustaining natural resources, and responding to natural hazards. In 2011, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) took on this challenge, creating an Ethics Task Force to update their ethics policies to better support their new Strategic Plan and respond to the changing scientific research environment. Dialogue with AGU members and others during the course of creating the new policy unveiled some of the following issues to be addressed. Scientific results and individual scientists are coming under intense political and public scrutiny, with the efficacy of the science being questioned. In some cases, scientists are asked to take sides and/or provide opinions on issues beyond their research, impacting their objectivity. Pressure related to competition for funding and the need to publish high quality and quantities of papers has led to recent high profile plagiarism, data fabrication, and conflict of interest cases. The complexities of a continuously advancing digital environment for conducting, reviewing, and publishing science has raised concerns over the ease of plagiarism, fabrication, falsification, inappropriate peer review, and the need for better accessibility of data and methods. Finally, students and scientists need consistent education and encouragement on the importance of ethics and integrity in scientific research. The new AGU Scientific Integrity and Ethics Policy tries to address these issues and provides an inspirational code of conduct to encourage a responsible, positive, open, and honest scientific research environment.

  15. IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  16. The Role of Stigma and Denormalization in Suicide-Prevention Laws in East Asia: A Sociocultural, Historical, and Ethical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin A; Courtwright, Andrew; Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang

    In many Western countries, the criminalization and stigmatization of suicide has given way to a biomedical approach aimed at destigmatizing suicide and treating underlying mental illness. By contrast, in many East Asian countries, suicide has never historically been criminalized or stigmatized. High rates of suicide in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan have recently led policy makers in those countries to pursue innovative suicide-prevention strategies. The intentional denormalization of harmful behaviors has been discussed in the public health and ethics literatures, particularly with regard to smoking cessation, and could represent a novel mechanism for preventing suicides in East Asia. Using examples from the sociocultural, historical, and legal discourses surrounding suicide in Western and East Asian contexts, we suggest that denormalization can be a justified, culturally relevant suicide-prevention strategy, but that care must be taken to avoid shaming or stigmatizing suicidal individuals. Specifically, we propose the term weak denormalization to refer to an ethically permissible strategy at the mildest end of a spectrum of denormalizing approaches-milder than the reintegrative shaming described in the criminal justice literature, and diametrically opposed to outright stigmatization, which is generally considered ethically impermissible. Given the severe stigma of mental illness in East Asia, adopting the dominant Western view of suicide as solely a psychiatric concern would not be justified. Weak denormalization strategies in East Asia should be culturally tailored and rigorously tested on a small scale. They should include social supports, praise for the bravery of those of who seek help, and strategies to reduce shame regarding perceived social failure.

  17. Conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of development ICT, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries setting out the previous new theoretical model and preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Morze, Natalia; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper, prepared by an international team of authors focuses on the conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of ICT development, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries, setting out the previous and new theoretical model and preliminary

  18. Fractionaly Integrated Flux model and Scaling Laws in Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, Daniel; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    The Fractionaly Integrated Flux model (FIF) has been extensively used to model intermittent observables, like the velocity field, by defining them with the help of a fractional integration of a conservative (i.e. strictly scale invariant) flux, such as the turbulent energy flux. It indeed corresponds to a well-defined modelling that yields the observed scaling laws. Generalised Scale Invariance (GSI) enables FIF to deal with anisotropic fractional integrations and has been rather successful to define and model a unique regime of scaling anisotropic turbulence up to planetary scales. This turbulence has an effective dimension of 23/9=2.55... instead of the classical hypothesised 2D and 3D turbulent regimes, respectively for large and small spatial scales. It therefore theoretically eliminates a non plausible "dimension transition" between these two regimes and the resulting requirement of a turbulent energy "mesoscale gap", whose empirical evidence has been brought more and more into question. More recently, GSI-FIF was used to analyse climate, therefore at much larger time scales. Indeed, the 23/9-dimensional regime necessarily breaks up at the outer spatial scales. The corresponding transition range, which can be called "macroweather", seems to have many interesting properties, e.g. it rather corresponds to a fractional differentiation in time with a roughly flat frequency spectrum. Furthermore, this transition yields the possibility to have at much larger time scales scaling space-time climate fluctuations with a much stronger scaling anisotropy between time and space. Lovejoy, S. and D. Schertzer (2013). The Weather and Climate: Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades. Cambridge Press (in press). Schertzer, D. et al. (1997). Fractals 5(3): 427-471. Schertzer, D. and S. Lovejoy (2011). International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos 21(12): 3417-3456.

  19. Michael Novak's "Business as a Calling" as a Vehicle for Addressing Ethical and Policy Concerns in a Business Law Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tonia Hap

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience of incorporating Michael Novak's "Business as a Calling: Work and the Examined Life" into a Business Law course. The author views it as a positive addition to the course, one that may be of interest to her colleagues at other institutions. Accordingly, after an overview of Novak's analysis in…

  20. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  1. Ethical sensitivity in professional practice: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kathryn; Morse, Janice; Mitcham, Carl

    2008-06-01

    This paper is a report of a concept analysis of ethical sensitivity. Ethical sensitivity enables nurses and other professionals to respond morally to the suffering and vulnerability of those receiving professional care and services. Because of its significance to nursing and other professional practices, ethical sensitivity deserves more focused analysis. A criteria-based method oriented toward pragmatic utility guided the analysis of 200 papers and books from the fields of nursing, medicine, psychology, dentistry, clinical ethics, theology, education, law, accounting or business, journalism, philosophy, political and social sciences and women's studies. This literature spanned 1970 to 2006 and was sorted by discipline and concept dimensions and examined for concept structure and use across various contexts. The analysis was completed in September 2007. Ethical sensitivity in professional practice develops in contexts of uncertainty, client suffering and vulnerability, and through relationships characterized by receptivity, responsiveness and courage on the part of professionals. Essential attributes of ethical sensitivity are identified as moral perception, affectivity and dividing loyalties. Outcomes include integrity preserving decision-making, comfort and well-being, learning and professional transcendence. Our findings promote ethical sensitivity as a type of practical wisdom that pursues client comfort and professional satisfaction with care delivery. The analysis and resulting model offers an inclusive view of ethical sensitivity that addresses some of the limitations with prior conceptualizations.

  2. Tuskegee University experience challenges conventional wisdom: is integrative bioethics practice the new ethics for the public's health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeke, Stephen Olufemi

    2012-11-01

    The Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care was established in 1999 in partial response to the Presidential Apology for the United States Public Health Service's Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male conducted in Macon County, Alabama, from 1932 to 1972. The Center's mission of promoting equity and justice in health and health care for African Americans and other underserved populations employs an integrative bioethics approach informed by moral vision. Etymological and historical analyses are used to delineate the meaning and evolution of bioethics and to provide a basis for Tuskegee's integrative bioethics niche. Unlike mainstream bioethics, integrative bioethics practice is holistic in orientation, and more robust for understanding the epistemic realities of minority life, health disparities, and population health. The conclusion is that integrative bioethics is relevant to the survival of all people, not just a privileged few; it could be the new ethics for the public's health.

  3. Ethics and marketing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethics is the inner law of the individual. Its application is controlled and sacked by the self-awareness and the surrounding (by ethical codecs. The self-awareness is the inner law produced by everyday life, and is therefore changeable and adaptable to the outer reality. The ethics is a common field of marketing research, within the processes of ethical dilemmas and the marketing research process itself (identified target segments: the public the consumer, the subject ordering marketing research and marketing researchers.

  4. Structure of the conversion laws in quantum integrable spin chains with short range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, M.P.; Mathieu, P.

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a detailed analysis of the structure of the conservation laws in quantum integrable chains of the XYZ-type and in the Hubbard model. The essential tool for the former class of models is the boost operator, which provides a recursive way of calculating the integrals of motion. With its help, they establish the general form of the XYZ conserved charges in terms of simple polynomials in spin variables and derive recursion relations for the relative coefficients of these polynomials. Although these relations are difficult to solve in general, a subset of the coefficients can be determined. Moreover, for two submodels of the XYZ chain, namely the XXX and XY cases, all the charges can be calculated in closed form. Using this approach, the authors rederive the known expressions for the XY charges in a novel way. For the XXX case. a simple description of conserved charges is found in terms of a Catalan tree. This construction is generalized for the su(M) invariant integrable chain. They also investigate the circumstances permitting the existence of a recursive (ladder) operator in general quantum integrable systems. They indicate that a quantum ladder operator can be traced back to the presence of a Hamiltonian mastersymmetry of degree one in the classical continuous version of the model. In this way, quantum chains endowed with a recursive structure can be identified from the properties of their classical relatives. The authors also show that in the quantum continuous limits of the XYZ model, the ladder property of the boost operator disappears. For the Hubbard model they demonstrate the nonexistence of a ladder operator. Nevertheless, the general structure of the conserved charges is indicated, and the expression for the terms linear in the model's free parameter for all charges is derived in closed form. 62 refs., 4 figs

  5. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Advancing research and access to HIV vaccines: a framework for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrett, Sam

    2002-12-01

    In light of the continuing spread of HIV infection and the devastating impact of the disease on lives, communities, and economies, particularly in the developing world, the investment in new treatments, vaccines, and microbicides has clearly been inadequate. Efforts must be intensified to develop effective HIV vaccines and to ensure that they are accessible to people in all parts of the world. This article is a summary of a paper by Sam Avrett presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India. In the article, Avrett calls for immediate action to increase commitment and funding for HIV vaccines, enhance public support and involvement, accelerate vaccine development, and plan for the eventual delivery of the vaccines. The article briefly outlines steps that governments need to take to implement each of these objectives. The article also provides a menu of potential actions for vaccine advocates to consider as they lobby governments.

  6. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 23: medically assisted reproduction in singles, lesbian and gay couples, and transsexual people†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wert, G; Dondorp, W; Shenfield, F; Barri, P; Devroey, P; Diedrich, K; Tarlatzis, B; Provoost, V; Pennings, G

    2014-09-01

    This Task Force document discusses ethical issues arising with requests for medically assisted reproduction from people in what may be called 'non-standard' situations and relationships. The document stresses that categorically denying access to any of these groups cannot be reconciled with a human rights perspective. If there are concerns about the implications of assisted reproduction on the wellbeing of any of the persons involved, including the future child, a surrogate mother or the applicants themselves, these concerns have to be considered in the light of the available scientific evidence. When doing so it is important to avoid the use of double standards. More research is needed into the psychosocial implications of raising children in non-standard situations, especially with regard to single women, male homosexual couples and transsexual people. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Operationalizing and Measuring (a Kind of Free Will (and Responsibility. Towards a New Framework for Psychology, Ethics, and Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lavazza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is usually defined by three conditions: (1 the ability to do otherwise; (2 control of one’s own choices; (3 responsiveness to reasons. The compatibility of free will with determinism lies at the heart of the philosophical debate at the metaphysical level. This debate, while being increasingly refined, has not yet reached a conclusion. Recently, neuroscience and empirical psychology have tried to settle the problem of free will with a series of experiments that go in the direction of so-called illusionism: free will as the conscious control of our behavior cannot exist, being a mere illusion. But even in this case, the experimental results are challenged at various levels. Considering that in most moral and legal systems, the subject’s liability derives from their freedom, the usefulness of preserving the concept of freedom – which incidentally responds to a very strong commonsensical intuition – suggests the need for an operational solution. This could be done by resorting to the concepts of capacity and cognitive control, which are measured by a set of well-established neuropsychological tests. Our preliminary proposal is to create an index, the first step towards a specific quantification and measurement of free will, to be used especially in ethical and legal contexts. Theoretical premises, practical difficulties and objections to this approach are also discussed and addressed.

  8. Ethics fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession.

  9. Infinitely many conservation laws for two integrable lattice hierarchies associated with a new discrete Schroedinger spectral problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zuo-nong; Tam, Hon-Wah; Ding, Qing

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, by means of considering matrix form of a new Schroedinger discrete spectral operator equation, and constructing opportune time evolution equations, and using discrete zero curvature representation, two discrete integrable lattice hierarchies proposed by Boiti et al. [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 (2003) 139] are re-derived. From the matrix Lax representations, we demonstrate the existence of infinitely many conservation laws for the two lattice hierarchies and give the corresponding conserved densities and the associated fluxes by means of formulae. Thus their integrability is further confirmed. Specially we obtain the infinitely many conservation laws for a new discrete version of the KdV equation. A connection between the conservation laws of the discrete KdV equation and the ones of the KdV equation is discussed by two examples

  10. Integration of Web-Enhanced Pedagogy. Teaching Ethical Decision-Making through Internship Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutsinger, Christy; Tas, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Internships provide an important link between education and industry as students gain realistic views of the work world and broader perspectives of job opportunities. In their formative work experiences, students may encounter ethical situations they are ill equipped to handle. For example, they may experience harassment from fellow coworkers or …

  11. Integrating a Peer-Taught Module on Practical Research Ethics into the Graduate Student Orientation Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowitz, Amy M.; Taylor, Christopher E.

    2011-01-01

    As active members of the scientific community, graduate students make ethical judgments about the conduct and presentation of their research. Pressures in the research environment often influence these decisions. Because inappropriate decisions can lead to unethical behavior and scientific misconduct, it is important that students understand the…

  12. Integrating Active Learning, Critical Thinking and Multicultural Education in Teaching Media Ethics across the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brislin, Tom

    This paper presents four teaching strategies, grounded in pedagogical theory, to encourage an active, challenging, creative, and meaningful experience for journalism and mass communication students grappling with moral issues, and developing higher order thinking in ethical decision-making processes. Strategies emphasizing critical thinking and…

  13. Plagiarism Awareness among Students: Assessing Integration of Ethics Theory into Library Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strittmatter, Connie; Bratton, Virginia K.

    2014-01-01

    The library literature on plagiarism instruction focuses on students' understanding of what plagiarism is and is not. This study evaluates the effect of library instruction from a broader perspective by examining the pre- and posttest (instruction) levels of students' perceptions toward plagiarism ethics. Eighty-six students completed a pre- and…

  14. Social Media Integration into State-Operated Fusion Centers and Local Law Enforcement: Potential Uses and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited SOCIAL MEDIA...DATE December 2010 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Social Media Integration into State-Operated Fusion...technologies, particularly social media, within fusion centers and local law enforcement entities could enable a more expedient exchange of information among

  15. Barcoding, biobanking, ebanking for “One Health” projects in South-East Asia: considering ethics and international law

    OpenAIRE

    Lajaunie, Claire; Morand, Serge; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    A first workshop held within the framework of the PathodivSEA project has been the occasion to identify the major research challenges regarding the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases in South East Asia and the spread of pathogens responsible from those diseases. Based on supporting evidences indicating the zoonotic origins of those diseases, it appeared urgent to investigate the factors controlling the pathogens-human interface by addressing the “One Health” concept which integrates th...

  16. Ethics in the Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugnet, Chris, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Representatives of five library integrated system vendors express their views on ethics and the marketplace, emphasizing the need for ethical behavior by librarians, consultants, and vendors. Four sidebars are included: one on the need for customer data rights standards; others containing the codes of ethics of three professional consultants'…

  17. Instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Watanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animal models offer possibilities of physiology knowledge, pathogenesis of disease and action of drugs that are directly related to quality nursing care. This integrative review describes the current state of the instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models, including the main recommendations of ethics committees that focus on animal welfare and raises questions about the impact of their findings in nursing care. Data show that, in Brazil, the progress in ethics for the use of animals for scientific purposes was consolidated with Law No. 11.794/2008 establishing ethical procedures, attending health, genetic and experimental parameters. The application of ethics in handling of animals for scientific and educational purposes and obtaining consistent and quality data brings unquestionable contributions to the nurse, as they offer subsidies to relate pathophysiological mechanisms and the clinical aspect on the patient.

  18. The Perfect Storm—Genetic Engineering, Science, and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E.

    2014-02-01

    Uncertainty about ethics has been a major factor in societal rejection of biotechnology. Six factors help create a societal "perfect storm" regarding ethics and biotechnology: Social demand for ethical discussion; societal scientific illiteracy; poor social understanding of ethics; a "Gresham's Law for Ethics;" Scientific Ideology; vested interests dominating ethical discussion. How this can be remedied is discussed.

  19. Beyond codes of ethics: an integrated framework for stimulating morally responsible behaviour in organizations (beloond met een ANBAR-award)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDonald, Geal; Nijhof, A.H.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper contributes to the study of ethics programmes by the building of a theoretical model for implementing an ethics programme and examining the application of this model to an actual implementation case study. Ethics programmes aim at stimulating ethical behaviour in the organisation and

  20. Reframing Catholic Ethics: Is the Person an Integral and Adequate Starting Point?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Sowle Cahill

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Selling rightly defines human intentions and motivations as part of human nature and an important determinant of the morality of personal actions. The thesis of this paper is that Selling’s view of agency, as focused on the individual, must be expanded to include social relationships and the social constitution of selves and communities. This requires cross-cultural dialogue about human nature, the goods for persons and societies, and social ethics.

  1. The for-profit sector in humanitarian response: integrating ethical considerations in public policy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Negin, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of the for-profit private sector in health, social and humanitarian services has become a topic of keen interest. It is particularly contentious in those instances where for-profit organizations have become recipients of public funds, and where they become key decision-makers in terms of how, and to whom, services are provided. We put forward a framework for identifying and organizing the ethical questions to be considered when contracting government services to the for-profit sector, specifically in those areas that have traditionally remained in the public or not-for-profit spheres. The framework is designed to inform both academic debate and practical decision-making regarding the acceptability, feasibility and legitimacy of for-profit organizations carrying out humanitarian work. First, we outline the importance of posing ethical questions in government contracting for-profit vs. not-for-profit organizations. We then outline five key areas to be considered before then examining the extent to which ethics concerns are warranted and how they may be safeguarded.

  2. Integrity within the University Community. Its Ethical Values, Attitudes and Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Arsith

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis, that our paper is based on, is that the university community plays an important role both in the process of shaping the students’ professional and transversal competences and in the shaping of their moral dimension. Ethical values, such as credibility, respect, equity, correctness, tolerance, might generate attitudes, such as participative interest, responsibility assumption, moral norms, dialogue willingness etc. The personal and professional development of the students from “Danubius” University of Galati, should be conditioned both by their solid knowledge, their competences of their specialization, and by their interiorethical behaviours. The future graduates should focus their future activity on a professional deontology and on the projection of the possible consequences of their actions and decisions within the individual, social and natural environment they are going to work in. The aim of our paper is to identify and analyze the strategiesof ethically shaping the students who will be specialists in communication and public relations. Our paper will demonstrate the importance of the ethical dimension within this specialization which will provide the competences of the social influence. This has multiple outcomes within the social field, having significantethical implications.

  3. Strategies for the Integration of Medical and Health Representation within Law Enforcement Intelligence Fusion Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrissey, James F

    2007-01-01

    Terrorism-related intelligence gathering, analysis and information dissemination would be improved and enhanced by including a medical and health element in law enforcement intelligence fusion centers...

  4. More than One Way to Tell a Story: Integrating Storytelling into Your Law Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steslow, Donna M.; Gardner, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Storytelling has been used in diverse educational settings. It is employed at all educational levels, from elementary schools to graduate schools. Approximately twenty years ago, law school professors began writing about the application of storytelling to various law school subjects as an alternative to the traditional case method. Legal scholars…

  5. Curriculum evaluation of ethical reasoning and professional responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Carole R; Bowen, Denise M; Paarmann, Carlene S

    2003-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated curricular content and evaluation mechanisms related to ethics and professionalism in the baccalaureate dental hygiene program at Idaho State University. Competency-based education requires enhanced student preparation in ethical reasoning, critical thinking, and decision-making. Graduates must integrate concepts, beliefs, principles, and values to fulfill ethical and professional responsibilities. Methods included 1) development of five supporting competencies defining ethics and professionalism to provide a framework for curricular evaluation; 2) assessment of all course content and evaluation methods for each supporting competency; 3) evaluation of students' clinical performance based on professional judgment grades; and 4) survey of junior (n=30) and senior (n=27) students' attitudes about dental hygiene practice related to ethics and professionalism. Results revealed that most courses include content and evaluation related to at least one supporting competency; however, authentic evaluation is weak. Clinical instructors rarely relate evaluations to ethical principles or values. Surveys showed significant differences between junior and senior students' attitudes about ethics and professionalism in six of thirty-four areas (the six were laws and regulations; communication and interpersonal skills; problem solving; professional activities/programs; integrity; and safe work environment). This article shares one approach for evaluating curricular content and evaluation methods designed to develop student competence in ethical reasoning and professionalism. Based upon the study's findings, recommendations are made for curricular enhancement via authentic evaluation and faculty training.

  6. [Responsibilities of ethics committees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergmann, K

    2000-05-01

    Increasing numbers of clinical research projects are submitted to ethical committees (institutional review boards) for approval. New therapeutic developments have to be evaluated by these committees to protect patients/volunteers. Thus, the responsibility of ethical committees is increasing. The "Nürnberger Kodex" and the "Declaration of Helsinki" are the background for these evaluations. According to the German drug law the physician is obligated by law to submit the protocol to such a committee. In addition, local state physician authorities require such a procedure. Important considerations during the review process besides ethical aspects are the informed consent, which should be written in an understandable form, and the obligations of the insurance.

  7. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  8. Ethical implications of digital images for teaching and learning purposes: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel; Betihavas, Vasiliki; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Digital photography has simplified the process of capturing and utilizing medical images. The process of taking high-quality digital photographs has been recognized as efficient, timely, and cost-effective. In particular, the evolution of smartphone and comparable technologies has become a vital component in teaching and learning of health care professionals. However, ethical standards in relation to digital photography for teaching and learning have not always been of the highest standard. The inappropriate utilization of digital images within the health care setting has the capacity to compromise patient confidentiality and increase the risk of litigation. Therefore, the aim of this review was to investigate the literature concerning the ethical implications for health professionals utilizing digital photography for teaching and learning. A literature search was conducted utilizing five electronic databases, PubMed, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Center, and Scopus, limited to English language. Studies that endeavored to evaluate the ethical implications of digital photography for teaching and learning purposes in the health care setting were included. The search strategy identified 514 papers of which nine were retrieved for full review. Four papers were excluded based on the inclusion criteria, leaving five papers for final analysis. Three key themes were developed: knowledge deficit, consent and beyond, and standards driving scope of practice. The assimilation of evidence in this review suggests that there is value for health professionals utilizing digital photography for teaching purposes in health education. However, there is limited understanding of the process of obtaining and storage and use of such mediums for teaching purposes. Disparity was also highlighted related to policy and guideline identification and development in clinical practice. Therefore, the

  9. Ethical implications of digital images for teaching and learning purposes: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornhaber R

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Kornhaber,1–3 Vasiliki Betihavas,4 Rodney J Baber,5 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Rozelle, NSW, 2School of Nursing, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 3Severe Burns Injury Unit, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW, 4School of Nursing, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 5Discipline of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Neonatology, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Digital photography has simplified the process of capturing and utilizing medical images. The process of taking high-quality digital photographs has been recognized as efficient, timely, and cost-effective. In particular, the evolution of smartphone and comparable technologies has become a vital component in teaching and learning of health care professionals. However, ethical standards in relation to digital photography for teaching and learning have not always been of the highest standard. The inappropriate utilization of digital images within the health care setting has the capacity to compromise patient confidentiality and increase the risk of litigation. Therefore, the aim of this review was to investigate the literature concerning the ethical implications for health professionals utilizing digital photography for teaching and learning. Methods: A literature search was conducted utilizing five electronic databases, PubMed, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Center, and Scopus, limited to English language. Studies that endeavored to evaluate the ethical implications of digital photography for teaching and learning purposes in the health care setting were included. Results: The search strategy identified 514 papers of which nine were retrieved for full review. Four papers were excluded based on the inclusion criteria, leaving five papers for final analysis. Three key themes were developed

  10. Why is integration so difficult? Shifting roles of ethics and three idioms for thinking about science, technology and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Nydal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary science and technology research are now expected to become more responsible through collaboration with social scientists and scholars from the humanities. This paper suggests a frame explaining why such current calls for ‘integration’ are seen as appropriate across sectors even though there are no shared understanding of how proper integration is to take place. The call for integration is understood as a response to shifting roles of ethics within research structures following shifts in modes of knowledge production. Integration is difficult, this paper suggests, because it challenges the modern normative division of labor affecting professional identities across sectors. Working out modes of integration is one important venue for working out alternative professional identities on the one hand and viable alternative understandings of research on the other hand. This paper discusses the matter with reference to three successive idioms for thinking about science, technology and society discussed in the literature; the representational, performative and co-production idiom.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v9i1.1835

  11. Investigation of the Ethical Concepts that Inform the Laws Limiting Genetic Screening in Employment Decisions: Privacy, Human Dignity, Equality, Autonomy, Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquerella, Lynn; Rothstein, Lawrence E.

    2003-01-16

    The broad question addressed in our research is : What is the influence of ethical concepts on legislative outcomes? The research focuses on the important ethical concerns that surround the use of genetic information in employment matters and in American state legislatures. By analyzing the contents of hearings, interviews and advocacy documents involved in the legislative process, the research seeks to answer the question: How might the dominance of a particular ethical concept informing the discussion of a bill influence the legislative outcome?

  12. Integration of Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, M.; Eggermont, G.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN initiated a programme to integrate social sciences into its scientific and technological projects. Activities were started on the following issues: (1) sustainable development; (2) ethics and decision making in nuclear waste management (transgenerational ethics/retrievability; socio-psychological aspect and local involvement); (3) law and liability (medical applications and the basic safety standards implementation); (4) decision making (emergency management); safety culture; ALARA and ethical choices in protection). Two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of the expert. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2001 are summarised

  13. Ethics education in chiropractic colleges: a North American survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Stuart; Soave, David

    2012-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to survey Council on Chiropractic Education-accredited chiropractic colleges in North America and to describe curricular details on the teaching of bioethics. A custom-designed survey was sent to chiropractic colleges. Total number of contact hours, whether the ethics was a stand-alone course or integrated elsewhere, type of instructor, and if there was a required or recommended course text were queried. Of 19 surveys sent by mail, 15 surveys were returned. The average time in ethics instruction was 18.7 hours including lecture format, small group tutorial, and self-study. Chiropractic ethics education includes 8 areas of content (boundaries, law and jurisprudence, professionalism, basic ethic tenets/principles, ethical codes of conduct, prevention of financial and of sexual abuse, and resolving an ethical dilemma). Some colleges include content taught to students under the domain of law and jurisprudence. The results of this survey indicate that there are opportunities to further develop the educational ethics program at Council on Chiropractic Education-accredited colleges. All colleges currently offer bioethics teaching. An expanded role for this content is recommended so as to offer optimal benefit for students and practitioners. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. War Machines and Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz; Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2018-01-01

    and save military lives. However, this opens up for discussions about ethical dilemmas about machines that autonomously are able to kill humans: What is an autonomous weapons system? What laws covers the use of fully autonomous weapons systems? Should it apply to International Humanitarian Law?...

  15. Why Do Staff of Joint-Use Libraries Sometimes Fail to Integrate? Investigating Cultures and Ethics in a Public-Tertiary Joint-Use Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Philip James

    2010-01-01

    Joint-use libraries have identified staff integration as a problem. Using focus groups, this project investigated the culture, professional ethics, and attitudes of staff in a public-tertiary joint-use library in Auckland, New Zealand. Findings show some difference in organizational cultures, but more variation at the lower level of roles and…

  16. Empowering behaviour and leader fairness and integrity: studying perceptions of ethical leader behaviour from a levels-of-analysis perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoogh, A.H.B.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical leadership is seen as important by many researchers and practitioners. However, empirical research on ethical leader behaviour is limited and to date multilevel research is hardly found in this area. This study examines the relationships of two forms of perceived ethical leader behaviour

  17. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  18. The Contribution of Islamic Ethics Towards Ethical Accounting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochania Ayu Yunanda

    2011-12-01

    and also increase public confidence in the profession. However, the efforts to integrate ethical values in educational system will not work well if there are no moral commitments implanted in the individuals.  Islam with its divine values plays the notable role to embed cognitive ethical values. It emphasizes on the unity of God, the accountability to God and the concept of maslahah (public benefits to be the foundations of ethics. Incorporating Islamic ethics into the system will be a significant contribution towards generating ethical accounting education. This paper attempts to elucidate how the Islamic ethics contribute its role towards ethical accountants as the products of accounting education.

  19. Model for integrated management of quality, labor risks prevention, environment and ethical aspects, applied to R&D&I and production processes in an organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M. R.; Torres, F.; Yoldi, V.; Arcega, F.; Plaza, I.

    2012-04-01

    It is proposed an integrated management model for an organization. This model is based on the continuous improvement Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle and it intends to integrate the environmental, risk prevention and ethical aspects as well as research, development and innovation projects management in the general quality management structure proposed by ISO 9001:2008. It aims to fulfill the standards ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OSHAS 18001, SGE 21 y 166002.

  20. The law of biosecurity under the boarding of the discourse ethics A lei de biossegurança sob a abordagem da ética discursiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vinhas de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnology activity indicates a perspective to social and ecosystems modifications with improvidence about the results of these alterations. This involves ethical-legal topics, therefore, denotes risks for the contemporary society. The creation of public spaces with popular participation means a procedural proposal of control the possible imposes of the biotechnological activity and intend suppress the temerity. In this way, the discoursive ethics represent a key part of a project of democratic radicalization for which they are valid and accepted norms as universal state, this will in the biotechnological development - Universal Principle. And this will, as a rational will defined by the intersubjectiv of the communicative rationality, will only follow a norm if it will be universal in the measure and all the sectors interested in the biotechnological development to participate of the speeches - Principle of the Speech. For Habermas, the grounded discoursive norms make to be valid for two topics: the knowledge of something that exist in each moment and the every one interest, and also the general will that learned, without pressure, the will of everyone. With all those fundaments, it is able to have thoughts about the effect of the Biosecurity Law - the creation of one discretionary power to regulate the biotechnology activities thought CTNBio and the absence of regulation of the CNBS. These facts are asymmetric for the actual democratic stander and make unable the process of democratic radicalization.A atividade biotecnologia indica uma perspectiva de modificação social e de ecossistemas com uma imprevisão sobre os resultados dessas alterações. Isso toca em questões ético-jurídicas, pois, denota riscos para as sociedades contemporâneas. A criação de espaços públicos de participação popular significa uma proposta procedimental de controle dos possíveis abusos da atividade biotecnológica e a pretensa coibição das

  1. A high-order relaxation method with projective integration for solving nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafitte, Pauline; Melis, Ward; Samaey, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    We present a general, high-order, fully explicit relaxation scheme which can be applied to any system of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple dimensions. The scheme consists of two steps. In a first (relaxation) step, the nonlinear hyperbolic conservation law is approximated by a kinetic equation with stiff BGK source term. Then, this kinetic equation is integrated in time using a projective integration method. After taking a few small (inner) steps with a simple, explicit method (such as direct forward Euler) to damp out the stiff components of the solution, the time derivative is estimated and used in an (outer) Runge-Kutta method of arbitrary order. We show that, with an appropriate choice of inner step size, the time step restriction on the outer time step is similar to the CFL condition for the hyperbolic conservation law. Moreover, the number of inner time steps is also independent of the stiffness of the BGK source term. We discuss stability and consistency, and illustrate with numerical results (linear advection, Burgers' equation and the shallow water and Euler equations) in one and two spatial dimensions.

  2. What Ethics for Bioart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaage, Nora S

    Living artworks created with biotechnology raise a range of ethical questions, some of which are unprecedented, others well known from other contexts. These questions are often discussed within the framework of bioethics, the ethics of the life sciences. The basic concern of institutionalised bioethics is to develop and implement ethical guidelines for ethically responsible handling of living material in technological and scientific contexts. Notably, discussions of ethical issues in bioart do not refer to existing discourses on art and morality from the field of aesthetics. The latter framework is primarily concerned with how the moral value of an artwork affects its artistic value. The author argues that a successful integration of these two frameworks will make possible an ethics of bioart that is adequate to its subject matter and relevant for practice. Such an integrated approach can give increased depth to understandings of ethical issues in bioart, inspire new ways of thinking about ethics in relation to art in general and give novel impulses to bioethics and technology assessment. Artworks by the Tissue Culture and Art Project and their reception serve as the empirical starting point for connecting perspectives in art with those of bioethics, developing an ethics for bioart. The author suggests that consideration of the effect of these artworks is vital in validating ethically problematical applications of biotechnology for art. It is argued that the affective, visceral qualities of living artworks may spur the audience to adjust, revise or develop their personal ethical framework.

  3. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials: an integrated scientific and ethical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2018-01-29

    Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach renders research with pregnant women fair. This paper analyzes and evaluates when research with pregnant women can be considered as fair and what constitutes scientific reasons for exclusion. Conceptual ethical and methodological analysis and evaluation of fair inclusion. Fair inclusion of pregnant women means (1) that pregnant women who are eligible are not excluded solely for being pregnant and (2) that the research interests of pregnant women are prioritized, meaning that they ought to receive substantially more attention. Fairness does not imply that pregnant women should be included in virtually every research project, as including only a few pregnant women in a population consisting only of women will not help to determine the effectiveness and safety of a treatment in pregnant women. Separate trials in pregnant women may be preferable once we assume, or know, that effects of interventions in pregnant women differ from the effects in other subpopulations, or when we assume, or know, that there are no differences. In the latter case, it may be preferable to conduct post-marketing studies or establish registries. If there is no conclusive evidence indicating either differences or equivalence of effects between pregnant and non-pregnant women, yet it seems unlikely that major differences or exact equivalence exist, the inclusion of pregnant women should be sufficient. Depending on the research question, this boils down to representativeness in terms of the proportion of pregnant and non-pregnant women, or to oversampling pregnant women. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in research implies that separate trials in pregnant women should be promoted. Inclusion of pregnant women has to

  4. First detection of global dawn-dusk ionospheric current intensities using Ampere's integral law on Orsted orbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, P.; Primdahl, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    -to-dusk ionospheric current is found to be proportional to the gee-effective solar wind electric field and is around 1 million ampere for a typical solar wind electric field of 2 mV/m. Dividing the Ampere integral into semi-orbit parts has enabled us to show that the hemispherical total current intensities depend......The magnetic measurements by the Orsted satellite in noon-midnight orbits have enabled the derivation of the global dawn-dusk oriented ionospheric currents from an Ampere's law closed loop line integral of the geomagnetic vector field along the satellite track. The globally integrated dawn...... on the respective polar cap conductivities, which relate to the daily and seasonally varying solar illumination. The more illuminated hemisphere conveys up to three times more current from dawn to dusk than does the less illuminated....

  5. Integrable covariant law of energy-momentum conservation for a gravitational field with the absolute parallelism structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown the description of gravitational field in the riemannian space-time by means of the absolute parallelism structure makes it possible to formulate an integrable covariant law of energy-momentum conservation for gravitational field, by imposing on the energy-momentum tensor the condition of vanishing of the covariant divergence (in the sense of the absolute parallelism). As a result of taking into account covariant constraints for the tetrads of the absolute parallelism, the Lagrangian density turns out to be not geometrised anymore and leads to the unambiguous conservation law of the type mentioned in the N-body problem. Covariant field equations imply the existence of the special euclidean coordinates outside of static neighbourhoods of gravitationing bodies. In these coordinates determined by the tetrads of the absolute parallelism, the linear approximation is not connected with any noncovariant assumptions

  6. Barriers and Bridges to the Integration of Social-ecological Resilience and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a fundamental rift between how ecologists and lawyers view uncertainty. In the study of ecology, uncertainty is a catalyst for exploration. However, uncertainty is antithetical to the rule of law. This issue is particularly troubling in environmental management, where th...

  7. An Integrated Approach to Aircraft Modelling and Flight Control Law Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looye, G.H.N.

    2008-01-01

    The design of flight control laws (FCLs) for automatic and manual (augmented) control of aircraft is a complicated task. FCLs have to fulfil large amounts of performance criteria and must work reliably in all flight conditions, for all aircraft configurations, and in adverse weather conditions.

  8. Caring Science: Transforming the Ethic of Caring-Healing Practice, Environment, and Culture within an Integrated Care Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Anne Foss; McDermott, Shawna; Kinney, Gwendolyn; Triner, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    In early 2010, leaders within Kaiser Permanente (KP) Northern California’s Patient Care Services division embarked on a journey to embrace and embed core tenets of Caring Science into the practice, environment, and culture of the organization. Caring Science is based on the philosophy of Human Caring, a theory articulated by Jean Watson, PhD, RN, AHN-BC, FAAN, as a foundational covenant to guide nursing as a discipline and a profession. Since 2010, Caring Science has enabled KP Northern California to demonstrate its commitment to being an authentic person- and family-centric organization that promotes and advocates for total health. This commitment empowers KP caregivers to balance the art and science of clinical judgment by considering the needs of the whole person, honoring the unique perception of health and healing that each member or patient holds, and engaging with them to make decisions that nurture their well-being. The intent of this article is two-fold: 1) to provide context and background on how a professional practice framework was used to transform the ethic of caring-healing practice, environment, and culture across multiple hospitals within an integrated delivery system; and 2) to provide evidence on how integration of Caring Science across administrative, operational, and clinical areas appears to contribute to meaningful patient quality and health outcomes. PMID:26828076

  9. Caring Science: Transforming the Ethic of Caring-Healing Practice, Environment, and Culture within an Integrated Care Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss Durant, Anne; McDermott, Shawna; Kinney, Gwendolyn; Triner, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    In early 2010, leaders within Kaiser Permanente (KP) Northern California's Patient Care Services division embarked on a journey to embrace and embed core tenets of Caring Science into the practice, environment, and culture of the organization. Caring Science is based on the philosophy of Human Caring, a theory articulated by Jean Watson, PhD, RN, AHN-BC, FAAN, as a foundational covenant to guide nursing as a discipline and a profession. Since 2010, Caring Science has enabled KP Northern California to demonstrate its commitment to being an authentic person- and family-centric organization that promotes and advocates for total health. This commitment empowers KP caregivers to balance the art and science of clinical judgment by considering the needs of the whole person, honoring the unique perception of health and healing that each member or patient holds, and engaging with them to make decisions that nurture their well-being. The intent of this article is two-fold: 1) to provide context and background on how a professional practice framework was used to transform the ethic of caring-healing practice, environment, and culture across multiple hospitals within an integrated delivery system; and 2) to provide evidence on how integration of Caring Science across administrative, operational, and clinical areas appears to contribute to meaningful patient quality and health outcomes.

  10. Pain clinic definitions in the medical literature and U.S. state laws: an integrative systematic review and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraka-Christou, Barbara; Rager, Joshua B; Brown-Podgorski, Brittany; Silverman, Ross D; Watson, Dennis P

    2018-05-22

    In response to widespread opioid misuse, ten U.S. states have implemented regulations for facilities that primarily manage and treat chronic pain, called "pain clinics." Whether a clinic falls into a state's pain clinic definition determines the extent to which it is subject to oversight. It is unclear whether state pain clinic definitions model those found in the medical literature, and potential differences lead to discrepancies between scientific and professionally guided advice found in the medical literature and actual pain clinic practice. Identifying discrepancies could assist states to design laws that are more compatible with best practices suggested in the medical literature. We conducted an integrative systematic review to create a taxonomy of pain clinic definitions using academic medical literature. We then identified existing U.S. state pain clinic statutes and regulations and compared the developed taxonomy using a content analysis approach to understand the extent to which medical literature definitions are reflected in state policy. In the medical literature, we identified eight categories of pain clinic definitions: 1) patient case mix; 2) single-modality treatment; 3) multidisciplinary treatment; 4) interdisciplinary treatment; 5) provider supervision; 6) provider composition; 7) marketing; and 8) outcome. We identified ten states with pain clinic laws. State laws primarily include the following definitional categories: patient case mix; single-modality treatment, and marketing. Some definitional categories commonly found in the medical literature, such as multidisciplinary treatment and interdisciplinary treatment, rarely appear in state law definitions. This is the first study to our knowledge to develop a taxonomy of pain clinic definitions and to identify differences between pain clinic definitions in U.S. state law and medical literature. Future work should explore the impact of different legal pain clinic definitions on provider decision

  11. Business ethics across the curriculum?

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkmann, Johannes; Sims, Ronald R.; Nelson, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. This article describes and discusses team teaching and particularly guest lectures as a way of integrating ethics into the business curriculum. After a brief discussion of business school responsibilities and the teaching of ethics, the article looks at efforts to integrate the teaching of ethics across the curriculum. Then, findings from a small pilot study among business ethics and business school co...

  12. The Perfect Storm--Genetic Engineering, Science, and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty about ethics has been a major factor in societal rejection of biotechnology. Six factors help create a societal "perfect storm" regarding ethics and biotechnology: Social demand for ethical discussion; societal scientific illiteracy; poor social understanding of ethics; a "Gresham's Law for Ethics;" Scientific…

  13. Nanotechnology and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  14. Wir schaffen es nicht: Emergency Law and the Crisis of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    .’ But this façade of ‘business as usual’ increasingly clashes with the reality of European crisis management involving ever more unorthodox policy responses and a surprising disregard for existing legal proscriptions. This presentation examines whether a more forthright reliance on emergency law could have limited...... to the constitutional order through procedural and temporal limits. Applying the theory of emergency law to both national and European crisis management, this presentation seeks to investigate why existing national emergency provisions were rarely used, whether functionally equivalent mechanisms at the European level......The official response to the combined crises facing Europe has been a concerted insistence that existing national tools and the Community legal and institutional acquis are sufficient to deal with the challenges of migration, state debt, monetary union and rising insecurity in Europe’s ‘near abroad...

  15. Testing the inverse-square law of gravity: Error and design with the upward continuation integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1989-01-01

    It has been reported that the inverse-square law of gravity is violated over a range of a few hundred meters. I present a different method for the analysis of the data from that experiment. In this method, the experimental error can be evaluated analytically and I confirm the previous analysis but show that it is a 2σ effect. The method can also be used to design new experiments that will yield minimum errors for a fixed number of data points

  16. Integrating transformative learning and action learning approaches to enhance ethical leadership for supervisors in the hotel business

    OpenAIRE

    Boonyuen Saranya; Charungkaittikul Suwithida; Ratana-ubol Archanya

    2016-01-01

    Ethical leadership is now increasingly focused in leadership development. The main purpose of this study is to explore two methods of adult learning, action learning and transformative learning, and to use the methods to enhance ethical leadership. Building ethical leadership requires an approach that focuses on personal values, beliefs, or frames of references, which is transformative learning. Transformative learning requires a series of meetings to conduct critical discourse and to follow ...

  17. IR. Theory Meets European Union Law. Constitutional Battles, Sovereign Choices & Institutional Contingencies in the Legacy of the European Integration Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    From the point of departure of international relations theory it is not an easy task to come to grips with the European integration process. We are faced with a situation where some of the world's oldest and traditionally most sovereignty-loving nations have surrendered essential parts of their p......From the point of departure of international relations theory it is not an easy task to come to grips with the European integration process. We are faced with a situation where some of the world's oldest and traditionally most sovereignty-loving nations have surrendered essential parts...... of their power to a supranational institution. In order to make sense of this the book employs a constructivist framework. Empirically it focuses on the way in which the Community has transformed from a traditional international regime, based on classical international law, to a semi-federal polity where...

  18. Mandeville on Corruption and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Simonazzi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    This essay makes a distinction between two different meanings of the word «corruption»: moral corruption and legal corruption. The thesis is that in Mandeville's thought vice can be useful, while crime is always damaging. In this perspective, law is fundamental to tell vice from crime. Three points are examined: 1) the relationships between law and human nature, law and ethics, law and society; 2) the analysis of Mandeville's theory of law, in particular its nature and development; 3) the the...

  19. MEDICAL GENETICS AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of medical genetics and it’s subdisciplines is noticed in last thirty years. Modern diagnostic methods made possible to establish human genome and its impairment. In human genetics, ethic is main principle in working. Ethic is science about biggest goodness for human or society, and its aim pro­tecting human health.Today's conditions for leaving and science development open a wide way for ethical approaches, but also for non-ethical manipulations with human even before his conception. We must keep to attitude that without law, with our behavior will must conduct our conscience. It is best to have neutral eugenetic attitude, which allows free ethical choice of each individual, in any case, for the well being of man.

  20. Sustainability as the integration of economics and ethics? Baden, Vienna/Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Kloppenborg

    2000-01-01

    In this study it is argued that the corporate pursuit of sustainability calls forth attitudes in the business world which seem to integrate economic, political and moral issues. The quest for sustainability calls forth reflection and reorientation in business life concerning visions, goals, role...... in society and practices. Evidence from two cases of corporate communication seems to indicate that the "language of sustainability" implicates a certain reorientation in business life. Whether this reorientation is merely "rhetorical" rather than "real" is not discussed in this paper, but when people use...

  1. Ethical factors influencing decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldhaus, S.

    1993-01-01

    Ethics are determined by weighing risks against benefits, pros against cons, but also by evasion. Whenever decisions are taken, the side effects and risks to be accepted must be weighed. In law, this is called the principle of commensurability implying that ethical compromises are made. Too much emphasis on ethical principles leads to an evasion of realistic action. In consensus discussions it is often seen that the positions adopted by science and technology are incommensurable with those of philosophy, psychology, and theology. Any decision requires that the risk be evaluated in a spirit of responsibility. (orig.) [de

  2. Body integrity identity disorder (BIID)--is the amputation of healthy limbs ethically justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    The term body integrity identity disorder (BIID) describes the extremely rare phenomenon of persons who desire the amputation of one or more healthy limbs or who desire a paralysis. Some of these persons mutilate themselves; others ask surgeons for an amputation or for the transection of their spinal cord. Psychologists and physicians explain this phenomenon in quite different ways; but a successful psychotherapeutic or pharmaceutical therapy is not known. Lobbies of persons suffering from BIID explain the desire for amputation in analogy to the desire of transsexuals for surgical sex reassignment. Medical ethicists discuss the controversy about elective amputations of healthy limbs: on the one hand the principle of autonomy is used to deduce the right for body modifications; on the other hand the autonomy of BIID patients is doubted. Neurological results suggest that BIID is a brain disorder producing a disruption of the body image, for which parallels for stroke patients are known. If BIID were a neuropsychological disturbance, which includes missing insight into the illness and a specific lack of autonomy, then amputations would be contraindicated and must be evaluated as bodily injuries of mentally disordered patients. Instead of only curing the symptom, a causal therapy should be developed to integrate the alien limb into the body image.

  3. Engaging Students in Integrated Ethics Education: A Communication in the Disciplines Study of Pedagogy and Students' Roles in Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canary, Heather E.; Taylor, Julie L.; Herkert, Joseph R.; Ellison, Karin; Wetmore, Jameson M.; Tarin, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental study, we investigated two elements of ethics education: (1) how participating in ethics education influenced science and engineering graduate students' views of their roles in society, and (2) what students found most valuable and relevant. Participants were 98 graduate science and engineering students. Qualitative…

  4. 商务翻译中译者伦理的平衡统一①%On the Integration of Ethical Choices of Business Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红丽

    2013-01-01

      目前翻译研究的伦理转向集中于译者伦理的讨论,包括职业伦理和个人伦理。职业化翻译的最大需求为商务翻译,商务翻译作为一种商业行为是为某一客户而提供的、针对既定接受者的一项职业性服务。从事商务翻译的译者,其伦理选择不仅包括译者职业伦理和个人伦理,而且包括商务伦理。商务伦理是译者一定要遵循的规定;职业伦理往往是职业的规范,是大多数人所遵循的规则,但有时会与其他伦理相冲突;而译者的个人伦理体现了译者个人的翻译观念,是动态变化的伦理。商务翻译行为应当是商务伦理、个人伦理和职业伦理的动态统一。%As a professional practice, translation study has undergone its ethical turn, especially with the focus on the professional ethics and personal ethics of translators. Business translation, as a commercial activity, is the professional service provided to certain clients and aimed at the target customers. Business ethical code is the must for any business translators with the possible contradictions against the professional and personal ethical choices of a business translator. Thus, a business translator has to deal with the conflicts and contradictions and try to balance and integrate the three ethical translation choices.

  5. MODEL OF SHARIA PRINCIPLES INTEGRATION IN THE APPLICATION OF CAPITAL MARKET LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Nurkristia Tejawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country which most of the population is islamic, so of course in the life of the economy should be based on existing principles of sharia. At present, it must be admitted that the principles of sharia have grown in various fields of economy, including Banking, Insurance, and Capital Markets. However, in the Capital Market, although some of its instruments have been found in the Capital Market, the redulation is very minimal. This research is aimed at assisting Financial Services Authority in implementing Roadmap of Sharia Capital Market starting 2015 to 2019 to find a concept of Capital Market Law in accordance with Sharia Principles, so that Sharia Principles can be applied in isolation and different from Market Law regulation Conventional Capital that has been done. Research is a normative juridical research because it focuses on the rules of legislation using empirical data. The approach used is the approach of legislation and concept approach. Sharia Capital Market is a place for investors and emitents whose business field is not contrary to Sharia principles to conduct buying and selling activities in a way that uses the principles of sharia. The implementation of Sharia principles in Shariah Capital Market is in the business field of issuers, contracts used, and there are also arrangements related to Sharia Capital Market Experts.

  6. BPS ZN string tensions, sine law and Casimir scaling, and integrable field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneipp, Marco A. C.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauge group G→U(1) r →C G , with C G being the center of G. We study two vacua solutions of the theory which produce this symmetry breaking. We show that for one of these vacua, the theory in the Coulomb phase has the mass spectrum of particles and monopoles which is exactly the same as the mass spectrum of particles and solitons of two-dimensional affine Toda field theory, for suitable coupling constants. That result holds also for N=4 super Yang-Mills theories. On the other hand, in the Higgs phase, we show that for each of the two vacua the ratio of the tensions of the BPS Z N strings satisfy either the Casimir scaling or the sine law scaling for G=SU(N). These results are extended to other gauge groups: for the Casimir scaling, the ratios of the tensions are equal to the ratios of the quadratic Casimir constant of specific representations; for the sine law scaling, the tensions are proportional to the components of the left Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of Cartan matrix K ij and the ratios of tensions are equal to the ratios of the soliton masses of affine Toda field theories

  7. Between Community Law and Common Law: The Rise of the Caribbean Court of Justice at the Intersection of Regional Integration and Post-Colonial Legacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserta, Salvatore; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the rise of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) post-colonial legacies. Topics discussed include Caribbean Community (CARICOM) which accepted the Court's jurisdiction to interpret and apply the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas (RTC); empowerment of CCJ for hearing cases invol...... involving Caribbean Community law (Community law); and CCJ's unique double jurisdiction.....

  8. Amputees by choice: body integrity identity disorder and the ethics of amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Tim; Levy, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Should surgeons be permitted to amputate healthy limbs if patients request such operations? We argue that if such patients are experiencing significant distress as a consequence of the rare psychological disorder named Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID), such operations might be permissible. We examine rival accounts of the origins of the desire for healthy limb amputations and argue that none are as plausible as the BIID hypothesis. We then turn to the moral arguments against such operations, and argue that on the evidence available, none is compelling. BIID sufferers meet reasonable standards for rationality and autonomy: so as long as no other effective treatment for their disorder is available, surgeons ought to be allowed to accede to their requests.

  9. The integrity of elections in Albania as a duality between the law and their administration. Electoral management body in the circle of cause – effect for elections performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kryemadhi

    2014-07-01

    What is important to note, is that despite challenges, the body in charge of the administration of the voting process showed integrity and willingness to respect the law and universal suffrage rights, answering to the key question: Did these elections met the international standards of electoral integrity?

  10. 25 CFR 26.22 - May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.22 May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? Yes, Indian tribes...

  11. Ethics in IT Outsourcing

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, Tandy

    2012-01-01

    In IT divisions and organizations, the need to execute in a competitive and complex technical environment while demonstrating personal integrity can be a significant personal and organizational challenge. Supplying concrete guidelines for those at an ethical crossroads, Ethics in IT Outsourcing explores the complex challenges of aligning IT outsourcing programs with ethical conduct and standards. This one-stop reference on the ethical structure and execution of IT outsourcing incorporates an easy-to-apply checklist of principles for outsourcing executives and managers. It examines certificatio

  12. Ethics: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Today. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004. 338pp. (BT304.2 .C69 2004) Coyle, Sean. From Positivism to Idealism: A Study of the Moral Dimensions of... Legality . Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007. 187pp. (K331 .C59 2007) Delsol, Chantal. Unjust Justice: Against the Tyranny of International Law. Translated...ProQuest) Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Law Center. Quarterly. (Wilson OmniFile) Hastings Center

  13. A law & economics approach to the study of integrated management regimes of estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Griendt, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper it is proposed to analyse legal regimes for integrated management of estuaries with the help of institutional legal theory and the Schlager & Ostrom framework for types of ownership. Estuaries are highly valued and valuable and therefore need protection. The problem is that they

  14. The ethical aspects of mass communication

    OpenAIRE

    Наталья Ивановна Клушина

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the ethical aspects of mass communication and key trends of russian media language. The author analyses ethics and law in modern journalism, culture of speech in media discourse, intentional, structural and social aspects of mass communication. Ethics of mass communication presupposes the observance of legal and moral norms, social responsibility and respect for the audience.

  15. Public Perceptions of Journalists' Ethical Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voakes, Paul S.

    1997-01-01

    Finds starkly different conceptions of journalistic ethics, with members of the public believing the journalists' ethics are guided primarily by occupational norms and competitive pressures, whereas journalists themselves cited organizational policies, the relevant law, and their individual reasoning as primary influences on their ethical decision…

  16. The ethical aspects of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Ивановна Клушина

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the ethical aspects of mass communication and key trends of russian media language. The author analyses ethics and law in modern journalism, culture of speech in media discourse, intentional, structural and social aspects of mass communication. Ethics of mass communication presupposes the observance of legal and moral norms, social responsibility and respect for the audience.

  17. Integrating Public Health and Deliberative Public Bioethics: Lessons from the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, Karen M.; Lee, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Public health policy works best when grounded in firm public health standards of evidence and widely shared social values. In this article, we argue for incorporating a specific method of ethical deliberation—deliberative public bioethics—into public health. We describe how deliberative public bioethics is a method of engagement that can be helpful in public health. Although medical, research, and public health ethics can be considered some of what bioethics addresses, deliberative public bio...

  18. Integrated care in Norway: State of affairs years after regulation by law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorunn Bjerkan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A mandatory multidisciplinary plan for individual care, the 'Individual care Plan', was introduced by law in Norway in 2001. The regulation was established to meet the need for improved efficiency and quality of health and social services, and to increase patient involvement. The plan was intended for patients with long-term and complex needs for coordinated care. The aim of this study was to elaborate on knowledge of such planning processes in Norwegian municipalities.Method: A piloted questionnaire was sent to 92 randomly selected municipalities in 2005-2006, addressing local organization and participation in the work with individual care plans. Local political governance, size of the population, funds available for health care, and problems related to living conditions were indicators for analysing the extent to which the individual care plan was used five years after the regulation was introduced.Results: Our results showed that 0.5% as opposed to an expected 3% of the population had an individual care plan. This was independent of the political, social and financial situation in the municipalities or the way the planning process had been carried out. The planning process was mostly taken care of by local health and social care professionals, rather than by hospital staff and general practitioners.Discussion and conclusion: The low number of care plans and the oblique responsibility among professionals for planning showed that the objectives of the national initiative had not been achieved. More research is needed to determine the reasons for this lack of success and to contribute to solutions for improved multidisciplinary cooperation.

  19. Integrated care in Norway: State of affairs years after regulation by law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorunn Bjerkan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A mandatory multidisciplinary plan for individual care, the 'Individual care Plan', was introduced by law in Norway in 2001. The regulation was established to meet the need for improved efficiency and quality of health and social services, and to increase patient involvement. The plan was intended for patients with long-term and complex needs for coordinated care. The aim of this study was to elaborate on knowledge of such planning processes in Norwegian municipalities. Method: A piloted questionnaire was sent to 92 randomly selected municipalities in 2005-2006, addressing local organization and participation in the work with individual care plans. Local political governance, size of the population, funds available for health care, and problems related to living conditions were indicators for analysing the extent to which the individual care plan was used five years after the regulation was introduced. Results: Our results showed that 0.5% as opposed to an expected 3% of the population had an individual care plan. This was independent of the political, social and financial situation in the municipalities or the way the planning process had been carried out. The planning process was mostly taken care of by local health and social care professionals, rather than by hospital staff and general practitioners. Discussion and conclusion: The low number of care plans and the oblique responsibility among professionals for planning showed that the objectives of the national initiative had not been achieved. More research is needed to determine the reasons for this lack of success and to contribute to solutions for improved multidisciplinary cooperation.

  20. Christian ethic of love and Hindu ethic of dharma: comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavenkov Oleg Vladimirovich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to comparative analysis of two ethic systems: Hindu ethic of dharma and Christian ethic of love. If Christian ethic is the ethic of love, love is in the center of Christian moral values, then Hindu ethic is an example of ethic of law. The moral behavior of gods and humans is determined by Karma and cycle of samsara, which is impossible in Christianity. However forgiveness, self-restraint, non-stealing, purity are common moral obligations for Christians and Hindus.

  1. Christian ethic of love and Hindu ethic of dharma: comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pavenkov Oleg Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    This article is devoted to comparative analysis of two ethic systems: Hindu ethic of dharma and Christian ethic of love. If Christian ethic is the ethic of love, love is in the center of Christian moral values, then Hindu ethic is an example of ethic of law. The moral behavior of gods and humans is determined by Karma and cycle of samsara, which is impossible in Christianity. However forgiveness, self-restraint, non-stealing, purity are common moral obligations for Christians and Hindus.

  2. Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kenneth

    in carbon sinks. Consequently, the private sector will increase the rate of return required for participation, increasing the cost of this option. Carbon sequestration can still be a major factor in a national carbon emission abatement program. However, because of the interplay of science, economics and law, the most commonly prescribed environmental policy instruments--marketable allowance and taxes--have little or no direct role to play in the implementation process.

  3. Ethics Management: How to Achieve Ethical Organizations and Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carita Lilian Snellman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decades’ serious organizational scandals that mainly stem from corruption and conflicting interests but also from bribery, favoritism and other wrongdoings have ac-centuated the need for finding instruments for achieving more ethical organizations and management. Ethics management is particularly important in the public sector because public employees and holders of public office are responsible for increasing wellbeing and providing common good for all citizens. Only accountable management striving for integrity through ethical practices and decision making will guarantee ethical organiza-tional behavior. In spite of increasing research on ethics in general and ethics manage-ment in particular, increase in organizational scandals indicates that there is knowledge gap concerning ethical instruments that help to solve ethical problems. The aim of this paper is to shed light on ethical theories and instruments, and wrongdoings in public sec-tor organizations. The main questions are; why is there so much wrongdoing; how can it be reduced; and how can more ethical organization and management be achieved. This is a review paper aiming to provide a review of ethical theories and instruments and dis-cuss serious wrongdoings and the role of ethics in the public sector. The paper contrib-utes to the fields of management and organization, ethics, and public management.

  4. Teaching Environmental Ethics: Moral Considerations and Legislative Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Richard J.; Buttrick, Hilary G.

    2017-01-01

    As one of the first business ethics textbook states, by way of observation, "Custom, convention and the accepted courtesies of a society are not the foundation of ethics even though they provide valuable hints as to what men think… Law enshrines many of the ethical judgments of a society, but it is not coextensive with ethics" (Garrett,…

  5. Ethics in Health Care. Syllabus #1006.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, Jim; Coverdale, Edna

    A 12-week course in health care ethics offered by Central Ohio Technical College is described. Following a list of objectives, a week by week outline charts the following topics covered in the course: ethics in health, an introduction to ethics, utilitarianism and egoism (goal-based ethical theories), divine command and social law (duty-based…

  6. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Mass Media Ethics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung; Padgett, George

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…

  7. Is mandatory research ethics reviewing ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Murray; Allen, Gary

    2013-08-01

    Review boards responsible for vetting the ethical conduct of research have been criticised for their costliness, unreliability and inappropriate standards when evaluating some non-medical research, but the basic value of mandatory ethical review has not been questioned. When the standards that review boards use to evaluate research proposals are applied to review board practices, it is clear that review boards do not respect researchers or each other, lack merit and integrity, are not just and are not beneficent. The few benefits of mandatory ethical review come at a much greater, but mainly hidden, social cost. It is time that responsibility for the ethical conduct of research is clearly transferred to researchers, except possibly in that small proportion of cases where prospective research participants may be so intrinsically vulnerable that their well-being may need to be overseen.

  8. Ethical Leadership: Need for Business Ethics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Pushpa Shetty

    2012-01-01

    “Leadership is lifting a person’s vision to higher sights, the raising of a person’s performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its normal limitations” – Peter F Drucker. Leadership is a special talent based on timeless wisdom that not all people possess. Leadership is based on one’s vision, principle and integrity. To be effective, a leader must be ethical. Ethical leadership involves one’s core values, to live a life of integrity and in service of the...

  9. Complementing the surveillance law principles of the Court of Strasbourg with its environmental law principles. An integrated technology approach to a human rights framework for surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, P.J.A.; Galetta, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    If one looks at the case law of the European Court of Human Rights on surveillance matters, a well mature set of principles emerge, namely: legality, legitimacy, proportionality (the standard check) and, if the Court is "on it", also necessity and subsidiarity (the closer scrutiny check). We pass

  10. Fractional-order leaky integrate-and-fire model with long-term memory and power law dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, Wondimu W; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Mondal, Argha

    2017-09-01

    Pyramidal neurons produce different spiking patterns to process information, communicate with each other and transform information. These spiking patterns have complex and multiple time scale dynamics that have been described with the fractional-order leaky integrate-and-Fire (FLIF) model. Models with fractional (non-integer) order differentiation that generalize power law dynamics can be used to describe complex temporal voltage dynamics. The main characteristic of FLIF model is that it depends on all past values of the voltage that causes long-term memory. The model produces spikes with high interspike interval variability and displays several spiking properties such as upward spike-frequency adaptation and long spike latency in response to a constant stimulus. We show that the subthreshold voltage and the firing rate of the fractional-order model make transitions from exponential to power law dynamics when the fractional order α decreases from 1 to smaller values. The firing rate displays different types of spike timing adaptation caused by changes on initial values. We also show that the voltage-memory trace and fractional coefficient are the causes of these different types of spiking properties. The voltage-memory trace that represents the long-term memory has a feedback regulatory mechanism and affects spiking activity. The results suggest that fractional-order models might be appropriate for understanding multiple time scale neuronal dynamics. Overall, a neuron with fractional dynamics displays history dependent activities that might be very useful and powerful for effective information processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rodolfo's Casa Caribe in Cuba: Business, Law, and Ethics of Investing in a Start-Up in Havana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    This case study presents the true story of Rodolfo--a former tailor and attorney from the provinces of Cuba--who moved to Havana to start a hospitality business. In 2016, the author (referred to as Adam throughout the case study), a business law professor from the United States, visited Havana to interview Rodolfo and learn about the factors for…

  12. I Phone, You Phone, We All Phone with iPhone: Trademark Law and Ethics from an International and Domestic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Tammy W.; Chumney, Wade M.

    2011-01-01

    In today's Internet-based and global business environment, the legal issues companies face will often involve issues of intellectual property. Virtually every product people purchase is protected by a trademark, a patent, and/or copyrights. Thus, basic concepts of intellectual property are a natural component in any business law or legal…

  13. Establishing an ethical climate in support of research integrity: efforts and activities of the American Sociological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iutcovich, Joyce M; Kennedy, John M; Levine, Felice J

    2003-04-01

    The article provides an overview of the recent efforts and activities of the American Sociological Association (ASA) to keep its Code of Ethics visible and relevant to its membership. The development process and challenges associated with the most recent revision of the ASA's code are reviewed, the current education and support activities are described, and other strategies for taking a proactive and leadership role in establishing an ethical climate are proposed. In conclusion, while the ASA has made significant progress in this area, it recognizes that a lot of work remains.

  14. Upstream health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, William M; McIlhattan, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, entrepreneurs are aggressively developing new technologies and business models designed to improve individual and population health, not just to deliver specialized medical care. Consumers of these goods and services are not yet "patients"; they are simply people. As this sector of the health care industry expands, it is likely to require new forms of legal governance, which we term "upstream health law." © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. Nanoethics and the breaching of boundaries: a heuristic for going from encouragement to a fuller integration of ethical, legal and social issues and science : commentary on: "Adding to the mix: integrating ELSI into a National Nanoscale Science and Technology Center".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Julio R

    2011-12-01

    The intersection of ELSI and science forms a complicated nexus yet their integration is an important goal both for society and for the successful advancement of science. In what follows, I present a heuristic that makes boundary identification and crossing an important tool in the discovery of potential areas of ethical, legal, and social concern in science. A dynamic and iterative application of the heuristic can lead towards a fuller integration and appreciation of the concerns of ELSI and of science from both sides of the divide.

  16. Rethinking ethical issues in global business environment | Mirwoba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the wake of globalization and liberalization policy, business ethics ... a push for diversity that has resulted into corporate business cultures that are ... The impediment of global business ethics is the phenomenon that, unlike established laws ...

  17. Abiding by codes of ethics and codes of conduct imposed on members of learned and professional geoscience institutions and - a tiresome formality or a win-win for scientific and professional integrity and protection of the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    In 2012, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) formed the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism ("TG-GGP") to bring together the expanding network of organizations around the world whose primary purpose is self-regulation of geoscience practice. An important part of TG-GGP's mission is to foster a shared understanding of aspects of professionalism relevant to individual scientists and applied practitioners working in one or more sectors of the wider geoscience profession (e.g. research, teaching, industry, geoscience communication and government service). These may be summarised as competence, ethical practice, and professional, technical and scientific accountability. Legal regimes for the oversight of registered or licensed professionals differ around the world and in many jurisdictions there is no registration or licensure with the force of law. However, principles of peer-based self-regulation universally apply. This makes professional geoscience organisations ideal settings within which geoscientists can debate and agree what society should expect of us in the range of roles we fulfil. They can provide the structures needed to best determine what expectations, in the public interest, are appropriate for us collectively to impose on each other. They can also provide the structures for the development of associated procedures necessary to identify and discipline those who do not live up to the expected standards of behaviour established by consensus between peers. Codes of Ethics (sometimes referred to as Codes of Conduct), to which all members of all major professional and/or scientific geoscience organizations are bound (whether or not they are registered or hold professional qualifications awarded by those organisations), incorporate such traditional tenets as: safeguarding the health and safety of the public, scientific integrity, and fairness. Codes also increasingly include obligations concerning welfare of the environment and

  18. O Estado como eticidade: apontamentos sobre o direito penal a partir de Hegel (State as ethics: notes on criminal law based on Hegel Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.13i2.0006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Cortes da Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available   O presente artigo aborda o pensamento filosófico de Hegel sobre o Estado e sua relação com as esferas da singularidade e da particularidade. Apresenta o conceito de sociedade civil em Hegel, a formação da ordem burguesa e a administração da justiça. Analisa o conceito de crime em Hegel e a relação entre a vontade singular e a imputação de responsabilidade a ação do sujeito na esfera do direito penal. Palavras-chave: Estado como eticidade. Sociedade civil burguesa. A vontade singular e a ação consciente. Direito penal.  Abstract: This paper presents considerations concerning some the philosophical thought of Hegel on the state and its relationship with the spheres of the singularity and particularity. Introduces the concept of civil society in Hegel, the formation of the bourgeois order and the administration of justice. Analyzes the concept of crime in Hegel and the relationship between the will and the singular liability under the action of the subject in the sphere of criminal law.  Keywords: State like ethics spheres. Bourgeois civil society. The will and the singular conscious action. Criminal law.

  19. Special Education Leadership: Integrating Professional and Personal Codes of Ethics to Serve the Best Interests of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Susan C.; Bigbee, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    Special education teachers who also serve as case managers for students with disabilities are in unique leadership positions in which they face complex ethical dilemmas and are called on to make decisions that involve multiple competing interests and pressures. The purpose of this study was to explore how special education leaders identify ethical…

  20. Ownership unbundling in the electric power industry. Reconcilability with German constitutional law and with EU law relating to German vertically integrated utilities; Ownership unbundling in der Energiewirtschaft. Vereinbarkeit einer eigentumsrechtlichen Entflechtung in der Energiewirtschaft mit den Grundrechten des Grundgesetzes und des Gemeinschaftsrechts deutscher vertikal integrierter Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachovius, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The publication investigates legal problems relating to ownership unbundling of vertically integrated utilities according to new EU law, especially the draft directive of the EU Commission of 19 September 2007. After a definition of the term and its historical development, the problem of law giving competence of the EU is discussed. Another issue is the problem if a new structure of European and German energy law is compatible with the basic laws defined in EU law and German constitutional law, namely with the principle of guarantee of ownership, professional freedom, and general freedom of action.

  1. ETHICS AND ETIQUETTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nekrasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to differentiate and even contrast the two different models of moral thinking and behavior. One of them considered morality as strict and even rigorist following etiquette - rules, rituals, commandments, laws, canons. Breach of the etiquette or neglecting it is considered unethical, a manifestation of immorality, wickedness. Thus, etiquette and morality are identified. Such a conception of morality results from the ethical paradigm of Aristotle. But there is another, opposite paradigm - the ethics of Kant, in which morality is understood not as a form of behavior, but as an ontological entity. And in this (Kantian moral paradigm etiquette has only to a service value.

  2. Ethics in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Joan C

    2007-04-01

    This review will examine research ethics in the context of globalization of clinical trials and recent rapid developments in bioscience. It will focus on international ethical guidelines and the functions of research ethics review boards in research governance. Consent issues in genetic research, which must comply with privacy laws by protecting confidentiality and privacy of personal health data, will be discussed. There has been a rapid expansion of genomic and proteonomic research and biotechnology in the last decade. International ethical guidelines have been updated and the bioscience industry has developed ethics policies. At the same time, problems in academic anesthesia in the US and UK have been identified, leading to recommendations to train physician-scientists in anesthesia to stimulate research activity in the future. Anesthesiologists are joining interdisciplinary research teams and the concept of evidence-based translational research is emerging. Anesthesiologists are moving towards participation in interdisciplinary research teams. They are well placed to speed the translation of research discovery into clinical practice and provide evidence-based perioperative care. This review provides the ethical framework that anesthesiologists will need to meet the challenges of this changing pattern of practice.

  3. Understanding medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M

    2000-03-01

    Moral thinking is embedded within cultures, and we use ethics all the time in our dealings with one another. Many functioning communities tend to share some values that reflect a particular view of the importance of human life in quantity and quality. Rights and duties form an interconnected network of obligations that protect the security of individuals and groups. In health care, the motives and virtues of practitioners are important sources of the determination to provide care for the ill within the limits of resource constraints. Ethics and the law have similarities, but also significant differences that may cause tension between the two systems. Health care is morally grounded, and provides a bulwark against the widespread fear of disease and suffering. The way in which health care is delivered depends on both national wealth and community values. Ethical problems can be seen as dilemmas, in which there are conflicting values. Modern ethical thinking in health is complicated by the need to consider the values and interests of many stakeholders--patients, health care workers, families, politicians, administrators, health bureaucrats and many others. There are ways of ethical thinking that take account of these often countervailing interests. No universally 'right' answers can be specified. The mode and the thoroughness of ethical consideration, and the careful consideration of local community values, will help to assure that we make the best possible decisions for the time and place.

  4. Law, Literature and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Miranda Bahiense de Lyra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to highlight the importance of literature in critical thinking about the law, coupled with the search for the emergence of an autonomous political subject and as a possibility of materialization of a new right . This shall be used , bibliographic research , seeking at first discuss the historical background of the "Law and Literature Moviment " to later approach the thought of Michel Foucault , their ideas about power, the constitution subjectivity , the ethical dimension of the subject and the care of itself, the Aufklärung and its conception of this new law.

  5. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  6. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  7. The Battlefield Health and Trauma Research Institute Scientific Ethics Committee: An Evolving Model for Fostering a Culture of Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    grants and contracts.8 The ORI defines research misconduct as ‘‘fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research...fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism (FFP) is only 1% to 2%, based on self-reporting.10,11 However, approx- imately 33% of scientists admitted...provide investigators training and guidance? THE ACADEMIC MODEL Just as regulations governing the ethical use of human and animal research subjects grew

  8. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  9. Why ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang, Huber

    2015-01-01

    In this address, the author explores the necessity of ethical reflection on our moral responsibility regarding the challenges of today's globalized world and the future of humankind in the midst of God's creation. In this context, the differentiation of modern ethics is seen as accompanied by the task to reintegrate the ethical discourse by means of an interdisciplinary exchange and to further especially the dialogue between theological and philosophical ethics. By agreeing on Hans-Richard Re...

  10. THE PARADOX OF POSITIVISTIC VIEW AND PROGRESSIVE LAW OF CRIMINAL LAW ENFORCEMENT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krismiyarsi Krismiyarsi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paradox of positivistic view and progressive law in the criminal law enforcement happened because there is a difference among the law enforcement officer’s view and perception.  Our law education from the beginning until now still teaches the students the positivistic view so that after the students becoming law officers in running the law they still use positive law or positivistic view. The positivistic view is often far from the substantive justice and close to the formal justice. In order to functioning the progressive law in law enforcement especially the penal code constraint of positivistic view which rooted inside of the law enforcer’s mind, therefore it is need paradigm change by fixing the law system, law education, ethics and morality of law officers , and increasing religious consciousness.Keywords: paradox, law positivism, progressive law, criminal law enforcement

  11. Medical Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area in medicine that doesn't have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should ... orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...

  12. Ethical leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    High-profile cases of leaders’ ethical failure in different settings and sectors have led to increased attention to ethical leadership in organizations. In this review, I discuss the rapidly developing field of ethical leadership from an organizational behavior/psychology perspective, taking a

  13. [Health system reforms, economic constraints and ethical and legal values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillol, Michel; Le Coz, Pierre; Aubry, Régis; Bréchat, Pierre-Henri

    2010-01-01

    Health system and hospital reforms have led to important and on-going legislative, structural and organizational changes. Is there any logic at work within the health system and hospitals that could call into question the principle of solidarity, the secular values of ethics that govern the texts of law and ethics? In order to respond, we compared our experiences to a review of the professional and scientific literature from 1992 to 2010. Over the course of the past eighteen years, health system organization was subjected to variations and significant tensions. These variations are witnesses to a paradigm shift: although a step towards the regionalization of the health system integrating the choice of public health priorities, consultation and participatory democracy has been implemented, nevertheless the system was then re-oriented towards the trend of returning to centralization on the basis of uniting economics, technical modernization and contracting. This change of doctrine may undermine the social mission of hospitals and the principle of solidarity. Progress, the aging population and financial constraints would force policy-makers to steer the health system towards more centralized control. Hospitals, health professionals and users may feel torn within a system that tends to simplify and minimize what is becoming increasingly complex and global. Benchmarks on values, ethics and law for the hospitals, healthcare professionals and users are questioned. These are important elements to consider when the law on the reform of hospitals, patients, health care and territories and regional health agencies is implemented.

  14. European integration and the supervision of local and regional authorities
    Experiences in the Netherlands with requirements of European Community law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hessel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing European integration, local and regional authorities are having to deal with European law more and more intensively. As Member States (read: central government are responsible vis-à-vis the Community for the errors of local and regional authorities, the question arises within Member States whether the central government possesses sufficient supervisory instruments for complying with their obligations under Community law: they must ensure that the errors of local and regional authorities are rectified in time, and national law must provide for sufficient possibilities to do so. Although Community law is neutral towards the internal relations between the various tiers of government within the Member States, this responsibility of the central government may, as a result of European integration, lead to a need for more powerful supervisory instruments in relation to local and regional authorities. In the past five years there has been some debate on this subject within the Netherlands and after a long delay the Dutch cabinet in 2004 decided that the existing supervisory instruments in the decentralized unitary state of the Netherlands should be expanded. The legislation intended to realize this expansion is being prepared. This discussion and its results would seem of interest to other Member States of the Community facing similar problems.

  15. The Army Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The Constitution and Declaration of Independence simultaneously hold two different views of human nature, an individualist and a collectivist view...Profession, defines the Army Ethic as “the evolving set of laws, values, and beliefs, deeply embedded within the core of the Army culture and...incorporate other viewpoints or respond to shifts in morality, religion, economics, and other socio- cultural factors. This thesis will use the term

  16. The Protection of Human Rights through Criminal Justice: the Right to Effective Criminal Investigations in Europe. An Integrate Analysis between the ECHR and EU Law

    OpenAIRE

    Mirandola, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    The subject matter of this research are the States’ obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights (the ECHR) to protect human rights through criminal law, with a focus on the procedural limb of such protection, namely the States’ duty to carry out effective criminal investigations into the most serious human rights offences. Furthermore, this study adopts also an integrated approach and discusses the interplay between the duty to conduct effective criminal investigations under the...

  17. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  18. Business ethics in ethics committees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    1990-01-01

    The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.

  19. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  20. Candor and the Politics of Law Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Campos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 25 years, the price of legal education has skyrocketed, while the labor market for new attorneys has contracted sharply relative to law school graduation rates.  This article addresses the ethical obligations law teachers owe their students as a consequence of the crisis of the contemporary American law school.

  1. The Integration of Virtual Public-Private Partnerships into Local Law Enforcement to Achieve Enhanced Intelligence-Led Policing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simeone, Jr, Matthew J

    2007-01-01

    .... Virtual public-private partnerships (VP3s) offer local law enforcement agencies an effective and efficient way to leverage a vast and resourceful private sector for the purpose of enhancing ILP...

  2. The Integration of Virtual Public-Private Partnerships into Local Law Enforcement to Achieve Enhanced Intelligence-Led Policing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simeone, Jr, Matthew J

    2007-01-01

    In light of the recent emergence of fusion centers and centralized intelligence units, and the move to develop intelligence capacity within local law enforcement agencies in the United States, intelligence-led policing (ILP...

  3. A Unified Methodology for Aerospace Systems Integration Based on Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Aerodynamics Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Camberos, Jose A; Nomura, Shohei; Stewart, Jason; Figliola, Richard

    2004-01-01

    .... The objective of this project is to relate work-potential losses (exergy destruction) to the aerodynamics forces in an attempt to validate a new design methodology based on the second law of thermodynamic...

  4. Protestant Ethics in Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Kucharska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic ethics has recently become an important issue in Poland. With changes in the Polish law on higher education a new approach to ethics of students and academics has been presented. As a PhD student and young researcher, I am personally interested in the introduced changes. This article seeks to examine professional academic ethics in terms of two chosen theories, that is, the Protestant work ethic of Max Weber and its adaptation to the academic environment by Robert K. Merton. I situate both theories in the Polish context of shaping the academic ethos. In my deliberations I recall Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s works as fundamental for the Protestant work ethos values, which are honesty, reliability and diligence. Additionally I present their religious as well as non religious aspects. With such theoretical foundations, I attempt to evaluate the risks and violations in the ranks of Polish academics. The theoretical basis and the collected data enable me to put forward the claim that it is not feasible in Poland to follow the Western model of work ethics. Instead, it has to be built from scratch. To start this process, we need to consider the value of responsibility as a crucial category not only for the process of academic ethos formation, but also for everyday life from the early years.

  5. Manipulação do genoma humano: ética e direito Manipulation of the human genome: ethics and law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Vaz Goulart

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia molecular tem fornecido as ferramentas básicas para os geneticistas se aprofundarem nos mecanismos moleculares que influem na variação das doenças. Deve-se destacar a responsabilidade científica e moral dos pesquisadores, uma vez que os cientistas devem imaginar as consequências morais da aplicação comercial de testes genéticos, já que esse fato envolve não só o indivíduo e suas famílias, mas toda a população. Além de ser preciso, também, fazer uma reflexão sobre como essas informações do genoma humano serão utilizadas, para o bem ou mal. O objetivo desta revisão foi trazer à luz do conhecimento dados sobre características éticas da aplicação da biologia molecular, relacionando-a com os direitos do ser humano. Após análise bibliográfica, pôde-se observar que o Projeto Genoma Humano gerou várias possibilidades, como identificação de genes associados a doenças com propriedades sinergísticas, mas modificando às vezes comportamentos ao intervir geneticamente no ser humano, trazendo benefícios ou malefícios sociais. O grande desafio é decidir o que a humanidade pretende em relação a este gigantesco salto.The molecular biology has provided the basic tool for geneticists deepening in the molecular mechanisms that influence different diseases. It should be noted the scientific and moral responsibility of the researchers, because the scientists should imagine the moral consequences of the commercial application of genetic tests, since this fact involves not only the individual and their families, but the entire population. Besides being also necessary to make a reflection on how this information from the human genome will be used, for good or bad. The objective of this review was to bring the light of knowledge, data on characteristics of the ethical application of molecular biology, linking it with the rights of human beings. After studying literature, it might be observed that the Human Genome

  6. Formulating an Integrated Intervention Programme: Reshaping the Brain-Behaviour Functioning of Children in Conflict with Law in India

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Podder

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a serious social concern, characterized by disturbance in executive functions, cognitive emotion regulation and aggression. The term 'children in conflict with the law' refers to any individual below the age of 16 years, who has come in contact with the justice system as a result of committing an illegal activity or being suspected of committing an illegal activity. It can be easily understood that the Children in Conflict with Law require rehabilitative measur...

  7. The Principle of Integration in International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL with Reference to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Abdul Majid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC does not explicitly refer to sustainable development despite the fact that other United Nations (UN disarmament documents prescribe that international environmental law principles and sustainable development be considered among arms control agreements. This study’s objective is to utilize the principle of integration’s three components of environmental, economic, and social development, as found in the International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL from the New Delhi Declaration (Delhi Declaration of Principles of International Law Relating to Sustainable Development, in order to evaluate whether the BWC contains such components; thereby, making it possible for the BWC to contribute to sustainable development. The methodology of this study is necessarily qualitative, given that it is a socio-legal research that relies on international agreements such as the BWC, declarations, resolutions, plans of implementation, other non-binding documents of the UN, and secondary resources—all of which are analyzed through a document analysis. The results show that the BWC addresses the environment (Article II, prohibits transfers relating to export controls, international trade, and economic development (Article III, while at the same time, covering social development concerns, health, and diseases that make up the international social law (Article X. Since the BWC is found to be capable of contributing to sustainable development, it is concluded that ISDL cannot be restricted to international environmental, economic, and social law, but should be expanded to include international arms control law.

  8. Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics at AGU - Strategies and Actions to Impact Sexual Harassment in Science and other Work Climate Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael; Davidson, Eric; McEntee, Christine; Williams, Billy

    2017-04-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. More recently AGU has undertaken strategies and actions to help address the issue of harassment in the sciences and other work climate issues. This presentation will provide an overview of the role of scientific societies in helping to address these important issues, as well as specific strategies and actions underway at AGU and other societies. Progress to date and remaining challenges of this effort will be discussed, including AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.

  9. The Army Ethic-Inchoate but Sufficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    are constraints imposed by this thesis. Delimitations include the scope, jus ad bellum, cultural relativism , descriptive ethics , and implementation...politicians. Third, this thesis will not look in depth at cultural relativism and how changes in laws and society’s philosophical and ethical ...THE ARMY ETHIC –INCHOATE BUT SUFFICIENT A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College

  10. After Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Nick; Haber, Alejandro

    While books on archaeological and anthropological ethics have proliferated in recent years, few attempt to move beyond a conventional discourse on ethics to consider how a discussion of the social and political implications of archaeological practice might be conceptualized differently....... The conceptual ideas about ethics posited in this volume make it of interest to readers outside of the discipline; in fact, to anyone interested in contemporary debates around the possibilities and limitations of a discourse on ethics. The authors in this volume set out to do three things. The first is to track...... the historical development of a discussion around ethics, in tandem with the development and “disciplining” of archaeology. The second is to examine the meanings, consequences and efficacies of a discourse on ethics in contemporary worlds of practice in archaeology. The third is to push beyond the language...

  11. PRIVATE MILITARY AND SECURITY COMPANIES: ETHICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    The section on ethics covers the question “ What is mercenaries?, whether private contractors can be ethical, regulating private militaries, bringing just war theory into step with shifts in warfare proper, and efforts to point out the social responsibilities that now seem to accrue. The authors covering policies and law primarily ...

  12. Ethical and Legal Responsibilities of Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Robert E.

    In the aftermath of the Watergate scandal, each profession is reviewing its ethical practices. This paper assists in this renewal by citing the code of ethical standards of APGA; reviewing the laws of the State of Nevada regarding privileged communications; and covering the legal aspects which relate to counseling situations. (Author)

  13. Integration of Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovy, M.; Eggermont, G

    2002-04-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN initiated a programme to integrate social sciences into its scientific and technological projects. Activities were started on the following issues: (1) sustainable development; (2) ethics and decision making in nuclear waste management (transgenerational ethics/retrievability; socio-psychological aspect and local involvement); (3) law and liability (medical applications and the basic safety standards implementation); (4) decision making (emergency management); safety culture; ALARA and ethical choices in protection). Two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of the expert. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2001 are summarised.

  14. Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoppers, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

  15. International Investment Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    regional economic integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. In addition to the regular annual volumes, EYIEL Special Issues routinely address specific...... current topics in International Economic Law. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence...... for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude...

  16. The Work Ethic Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kate

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of "The Work Ethic Game" that focuses on integrity in the workplace. Explains that the game is divided into three categories: legal, judgment, and policy issues. Discusses different personality types in the typical employee population. Includes possibilities for use at different education levels. (DK)

  17. Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, António

    2012-01-01

    The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity

  18. Resources for Governing Board on Codes of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College League of California, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Reprinted herein is Chapter 14 of the "2007 Trustee Handbook," published by the Community College League of California. Contents include: (1) Ethics and Laws; (2) Sample Statements: Codes of Ethics and Standards for Practice; (3) Association of Community College Trustees Models; and (4) Upholding Board Ethics.

  19. Ethics on Trial: Teacher's Guide for Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater Washington Educational Telecommunications Association, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    Students' understanding of lawyers and the legal system may be increased through the five law-related ethical issues presented in this document. Legal ethics is defined as: (1) the minimum standard of professional conduct in daily legal situations; and (2) a lawyer's broader responsibility to society. The ethical issues are presented in three…

  20. Chinese insurance agents in "bad barrels": a multilevel analysis of the relationship between ethical leadership, ethical climate and business ethical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The moral hazards and poor public image of the insurance industry, arising from insurance agents' unethical behavior, affect both the normal operation of an insurance company and decrease applicants' confidence in the company. Contrarily, these scandals may demonstrate that the organizations were "bad barrels" in which insurance agents' unethical decisions were supported or encouraged by the organization's leadership or climate. The present study brings two organization-level factors (ethical leadership and ethical climate) together and explores the role of ethical climate on the relationship between the ethical leadership and business ethical sensitivity of Chinese insurance agents. Through the multilevel analysis of 502 insurance agents from 56 organizations, it is found that organizational ethical leadership is positively related to the organizational ethical climate; organizational ethical climate is positively related to business ethical sensitivity, and organizational ethical climate fully mediates the relationship between organizational ethical leadership and business ethical sensitivity. Organizational ethical climate plays a completely mediating role in the relationship between organizational ethical leadership and business ethical sensitivity. The integrated model of ethical leadership, ethical climate and business ethical sensitivity makes several contributions to ethics theory, research and management.

  1. Renegotiating forensic cultures: between law, science and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2013-03-01

    This article challenges stereotypical conceptions of Law and Science as cultural opposites, arguing that English criminal trial practice is fundamentally congruent with modern science's basic epistemological assumptions, values and methods of inquiry. Although practical tensions undeniably exist, they are explicable-and may be neutralised-by paying closer attention to criminal adjudication's normative ideals and their institutional expression in familiar aspects of common law trial procedure, including evidentiary rules of admissibility, trial by jury, adversarial fact-finding, cross-examination and the ethical duties of expert witnesses. Effective partnerships between lawyers and forensic scientists are indispensable for integrating scientific evidence into criminal proceedings, and must be renegotiated between individual practitioners on an on-going basis. Fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars with a shared interest in forensic science should dispense with reductive cultural stereotypes of Science and Law. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. What Social Workers Should Know About Ethics: Understanding and Resolving Ethical Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine P. Congress

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing ethical issues and dilemmas that arise in professional practice is crucial for social work practitioners, educators, and students. After a discussion about the limited, although growing, literature on social work ethics, the ten main tenets form the most current NASW Code of Ethics are presented. These topics include limits to confidentiality, confidentiality and technology, confidentiality in family and group work, managed care, cultural competence, dual relationships, sexual relationships, impairment and incompetence of colleagues, application to administrators and relevance to social work educators. In addition to understanding the Code of Ethics, social workers can use the ETHIC model of decision making for resolving ethical dilemmas. This easy to use five step process includes examining personal, agency, client, and professional values, thinking about ethical standards and relevant laws, hypothesizing about consequences, identifying the most vulnerable, and consulting with supervisors and colleagues. A case example involving confidentiality, HIV/AIDS and family therapy demonstrates how social workers can use the ETHIC model.

  3. THE CHALLENGES OF BUSINESS ETHICS: THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS ETHICS - ETHICAL CODEX IN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Jamnik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Past several decades management has become a vital concern to society. If we look at pools, we notice that the public does not have good opinion about management ethics and business. For the management community to turn this situation around, significant efforts are required. It should be understood what management ethics means, why it is important and how it should be integrated into decision making. Principles of ethics from moral philosophy and management theory are available to inform interested managers. Further requires that managers understand, and be sensitive to, all the stakeholders of the organization and their stakes. If the moral management model is to be achieved, managers need to integrate ethical wisdom with their managerial wisdom and to take steps to create and sustain an ethical climate in their organizations. When all that will be done, the desirable goals of moral management will be achievable.

  4. Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…

  5. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  6. BUSINESS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu BURCEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the elements that will form the basis of this scientific study. Lately, business ethics has been becoming an increasingly popular topic. Set against the global economic crisis, the companies’ credibility could become a major concern. Business ethics also becomes a challenge for training and informing employees and employers, in order to make not only economical, but also ethical decisions regarding their profits. In the study we shall also address the ethical standards required in a business world interested in fundamental values that can make the difference in 21st century business. Also, according to a study conducted by the authors, we shall address the two most important ethical values that prove to be essential to a business.

  7. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 07: The "laws" of effective public education about fire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 10 years, breakthrough research has identified factors that are most important for effectively communicating about wildland fire hazards. This fact sheet discusses seven "Laws" of effective public communication that should be considered in any state-of-the-art education campaign.

  8. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  9. [Ethics, medical ethics, and occupational medicine: is their dialogue possible?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Elisa

    2016-01-20

    Today's medicine faces some critical moral challenges, yet the medical class suffers from an increasingly evident malaise: a growing dissatisfaction with an ethical demand often perceived as a cumbersome burden of rules and prohibitions, which risk to erode the fiduciary relations with patients. Such a negative appraisal is partly due to a narrow interpretation of the meaning of ethics, a misconception whose roots are in the positivistic stance that permeates our culture, and in its almost exclusively technological bent. This radical orientation of our culture shows itself in the vanishing of the idea of an intrinsic ethical dimension of medicine and consequent eclipse of traditional medical ethics, currently all but assimilated by bioethics. Maintaining a clear distinction between medical ethics and bioethics is a fundamental condition for guaranteeing an original ethical reflection in medicine, thereby fostering a constructive dialogue between philosophical and medical ethics. In this sense, occupational medicine holds a very propitious position, at the cross-roads to some of the most important dimensions in human life and society: health, work, environment. In a milieu which is too often inclined to efface the living human being and the deepest needs of humanity, the moral commitment of medical profession to the care of the integral reality of the embodied human person is one of the most important ethical challenges facing occupational medicine and a most valuable contribution to the current ethical debate.

  10. Teaching Ethics with Apartment Leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerenke, Paula J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an assignment in a corporate-communications class in which students examine the design and the language of their apartment leases. Discusses how this assignment teaches students about the Plain English laws and the need for plain English in leases and in ethics. (SR)

  11. Free-Lancers: The Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Sharon L.

    To compare the ways staff and free-lance writers handle ethical issues, several writers were interviewed for personal experiences, and several daily and weekly newspapers and regional magazines were surveyed. Results indicated that the shield laws protecting staff writers do not apply to free-lance writers. Neither do the rules governing conflicts…

  12. Animal models in biological and biomedical research - experimental and ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Winter, Lucile M F

    2017-09-04

    Animal models have been used in experimental research to increase human knowledge and contribute to finding solutions to biological and biomedical questions. However, increased concern for the welfare of the animals used, and a growing awareness of the concept of animal rights, has brought a greater focus on the related ethical issues. In this review, we intend to give examples on how animals are used in the health research related to some major health problems in Brazil, as well as to stimulate discussion about the application of ethics in the use of animals in research and education, highlighting the role of National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (Conselho Nacional de Controle de Experimentação Animal - CONCEA) in these areas. In 2008, Brazil emerged into a new era of animal research regulation, with the promulgation of Law 11794, previously known as the Arouca Law, resulting in an increased focus, and rapid learning experience, on questions related to all aspects of animal experimentation. The law reinforces the idea that animal experiments must be based on ethical considerations and integrity-based assumptions, and provides a regulatory framework to achieve this. This review describes the health research involving animals and the current Brazilian framework for regulating laboratory animal science, and hopes to help to improve the awareness of the scientific community of these ethical and legal rules.

  13. Religious ethics, Christianity, and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Syse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses elements within Christian ethics and anthropology that have ramifications for the ethics and laws of war. The author argues that several distinctively Christian conceptions of morality and of human beings contribute importantly to the idea of just war, namely the Christian (and more specifically Augustinian view of history, the Christian view of killing, and the Christian view of sin and grace. While other religious and philosophical traditions also offer significant contributions to a normative discussion about armed force, it remains a fact that Christian thought, historically speaking, has furnished much of the groundwork of what we today know as the ethics and laws of war, and that the experience of being a Christian in the world has important ramifications for thinking about war and the use of armed force.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1708

  14. Ethical aspect price decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Price decision making in a marketing program framework creatings is a complicated and delicated part of marketing management, especially to keep in sight culminating of mass external factors. In a market economies price policy as a marketing mix instrument rarely is regulated by the law, which opening the ethical aspect questions of price decision making process. The ethics in the price decision making means consideration of the inner law of the individual (marketing managers and/or consumers, whose irreverence does not entail any juridical sanctions, rather its application is sanctioned by the self - awareness. The acception and stability of the ethical aspect price decision making are determined by the characteristic of selected marketing environment.

  15. The Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Frederic G.

    2000-01-01

    Article integrates current knowledge on social work ethics and introduces the concept of a social work ethics audit to aid social workers in their efforts to identify pertinent ethical issues; review and assess the adequacy of their current ethics-related practices; modify their practices as needed; and monitor the implementation of these changes.…

  16. The supranational integration and its affection to the law reserve of the member states of the Andean Community. An analysis from the normative hierarchy of its Constitutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco CHALCO SALGADO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The processes of supranational integration have developed a series of legal and political constructions. In them the determination of States are always in a permanent weakening of its constituent elements. The Andean Community is the process of integration of the Latin American countries: Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia. In this process of supranational integration political power has new particularisms that must be analyzed and provided solutions so that these do not obstruct the processes of regional integration. Indeed, in supranational processes, the issue of constitutional guarantees regarding the democratic legitimacy of the incorporation of the State into a supranational community organization is under discussion; The rights, freedoms and guarantees of citizens as limits to the public power of integration; And infringement of the guarantee of reservation of law as soon as there is an introduction of Community legislation in the domestic legal order of the Member States of the supranational organization and at the same time the development of thematic by the supranational legislation whose regulation could be reserved exclusively to the legislator of the member country. Thus, this article raises the need to question and find solutions in terms of normative hierarchy and the introduction of derived legislation produced in the supranational community organization to the national legal order of a State as one of the constitutional problems of integration.

  17. [Ethic rounds in intensive care. Possible instrument for a clinical-ethical assessment in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffold, N; Paoli, A; Gross, J; Riemann, U; Hennersdorf, M

    2012-10-01

    Ethical problems, such as medical end-of-life decisions or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment are viewed as an essential task in intensive care units. This article presents the ethics rounds as an instrument for evaluation of ethical problems in intensive care medicine units. The benchmarks of ethical reflection during the ethics rounds are considerations of ethical theory of principle-oriented medical ethics. Besides organizational aspects and the institutional framework, the role of the ethicist is described. The essential evaluation steps, as a basis of the ethics rounds are presented. In contrast to the clinical ethics consultation, the ethicist in the ethics rounds model is integrated as a member of the ward round team. Therefore ethical problems may be identified and analyzed very early before the conflict escalates. This preventive strategy makes the ethics rounds a helpful instrument in intensive care units.

  18. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  19. Ethical issues in neurogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Wendy R; Roberts, J Scott

    2018-01-01

    Many neurogenetic conditions are inherited and therefore diagnosis of a patient will have implications for the patient's relatives and can raise ethical issues. Predictive genetic testing offers asymptomatic relatives the opportunity to determine their risk status for a neurogenetic condition, and professional guidelines emphasize patients' autonomy and informed, voluntary decision making. Beneficence and nonmaleficence both need to be considered when making decisions about disclosure and nondisclosure of genetic information and test results. There can be disclosure concerns and challenges in determining whose autonomy to prioritize when a patient makes a genetic testing decision that can reveal the genetic status of a relative (e.g., testing an adult child when the at-risk parent has not been tested). Ethical issues are prominent when genetic testing for neurogenetic conditions is requested prenatally, on minors, adoptees, adult children at 25% risk, and for individuals with psychiatric issues or cognitive impairment. Neurogenetic conditions can result in cognitive decline which can affect decisional capacity and lead to ethical challenges with decision making, informed consent, and determining the patient's ability to comprehend test results. The ethical implications of genetic testing and emerging issues, including direct-to-consumer genetic testing, disclosure of secondary findings from genomic sequencing, and use of apolipoprotein E testing in clinical and research settings, are also discussed. Resources for information about genetic testing practice guidelines, insurance laws, and directories of genetics clinics are included. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  1. Ethical virtues in scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2012-01-01

    Most approaches to promoting integrity in research are principle-based in that they portray ethical conduct as consisting of adherence to ethical rules, duties, or responsibilities. Bruce MacFarlane has recently criticized the principle-based approach to promoting integrity in research and offered a virtue-based alternative. MacFarlane argues that principle-based approaches do not provide adequate guidance for ethical decision-making and are not very useful in moral education. In this article, I examine and critique MacFarlane's defense of the virtue-based approach. I argue that virtue-based and principle-based approaches to ethics are complementary and that they both can help promote research integrity.

  2. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allon J. Friedman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics.

  3. Integrated Modelling of an Unmanned High-Altitude Solar-Powered Aircraft for Control Law Design Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Klöckner, Andreas; Leitner, Martin; Schlabe, Daniel; Looye, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    Solar-powered high-altitude unmanned platforms are highly optimized and integrated aircraft. In order to account for the complex, multi-physical interactions between their systems, we propose using integrated simulation models throughout the aircraft’s life cycle. Especially small teams with limited ressources should benefit from this approach. In this paper, we describe our approach to an integrated model of the Electric High-Altitude Solar-Powered Aircraft ELHASPA. It includes aspects of th...

  4. BUSINESS ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Nelu BURCEA; Ion CROITORU

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the eleme...

  5. ETHICS AND CHANGES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Radoš

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.. Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympics codex and humanity principles, among which are: consciousness and honesty, righteousness, cultural-behavior principle, openness, and the like. Changes in sport (organizational, structural, competition, etc. need to be adequately adjusted to universal, and generally accepted, values. Avoiding deontological ethics inevitably leads to increased sports immorality (referees_ fixing match results, spectators_ aggressive behavior, cheating using for bidden doping, etc.. Thus, projecting and introducing innovations in the field of sport, which, after all, are necessary and unavoidable in all areas of life, including sport, will eventually show its positive results only if the aforementioned aspects of sport ethics are taken into consideration.

  6. Ultrasound, ethics and the law : opinion ethics | Van Gelderen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract Available Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum Vol.15(2) 2005: 11-14. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ogf.v15i2.30531 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  7. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  8. Machine Ethics: Creating an Ethical Intelligent Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Michael; Anderson, Susan Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The newly emerging field of machine ethics (Anderson and Anderson 2006) is concerned with adding an ethical dimension to machines. Unlike computer ethics -- which has traditionally focused on ethical issues surrounding humans' use of machines -- machine ethics is concerned with ensuring that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. In this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics, the need for machines that represent ...

  9. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  10. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  11. Transplant Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review and discuss the great variety of ethical issues related to organ donation, organ procurement, transplant activities, and new ethical problems created as a result of technologic and scientific developments. An extensive literature survey was made, and expert opinions were obtained. The gap between demand and supply of organs for transplant has yielded to organ trafficking, organ tourism, and commercialism. This problem seems to be the most important issue, and naturally there are ethical dilemmas related to it. A wide number of ideas have been expressed on the subject, and different solutions have been proposed. The struggle against organ trafficking and commercialism should include legislation, efforts to increase deceased-donor donations, and international cooperation. China's policy to procure organs from prisoners sentenced to death is unethical, and the international community should exert more pressure on the Chinese government to cease this practice. Each particular ethical dilemma should be taken separately and managed.

  12. Ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, David

    2012-01-01

    In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness.

  13. Ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabro, Christian

    2015-01-01

    What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....

  14. Capability ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theories, virtue ethics, or pragmatism. As I will argue in this chapter, at present the core of the capability approach is an account of value, which together with some other (more minor) normative comm...

  15. The status of the Civil Servant and Rules of Ethics in Public Administration efficacy in preserving the integrity of civil servants and preventing corruption: the case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eralda Çani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  16. [Ethics, culture and psychiatry: the ethics of Mediterranean Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor, Juan-José; Crespo, Hervás

    2003-09-01

    The defence of the rights of the person, in Mediterranean ethics, is based on a synthesis of civic humanism and liberalism, derived from the spirit of Greek democracy and Enlightenment, and including the achievements of the XIX and XX centuries. It tempers liberalism with the principles of social welfare. Present bioethics, specialy in European countries, try to integrate both the mediterranean ethics of virtues and the anglosaxon ethics of principles, further adding and integrating a social element, the principle of solidarity and distributive justice (equity). Therefore, European ethics do not proclaim the autonomy of persons and the independence of the individual from society, but the interdependency of persons and nations. They advocate a greater equity and a better management of resources in health care.

  17. Ethical dilemmas and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, A

    1984-08-01

    Professional responsibilities, tradition, and personal conscience along with legal, philosophical, and religious convictions dictate nursing interventions. Inevitably, these factors embrace life-sustaining therapies; however, in view of complications, prognosis, pain and suffering, and their own views of quality of life, some patients express wishes inconsistent with life-sustaining measures. In other situations, the health care provider as well as the patient may view heroic efforts as more debilitating than resortative. Resolving the conflict while preserving the patient's best interests requires a confrontation with the status of "do-not resuscitate" policies within th e nurse's institution, informed consent, refusal, and competency as the necessary underpinnings for the development of an ethical and legal posture within the profession, with which to approach significant decisions regarding life-sustaining therapies. Literally every hour of every day nurses are immediately and directly involved with resolving ethical dilemmas based upon judgements and interpretations of oral or written orders, patient and family wishes, professional training, and an infinite number of other factors. When clear policies or orders are lacking, the nurse is left with the burden of making a life or death decision. It is imperative that professional nurses assess the administrative, legal, and ethical ramifications of their actions in terms of ethical codes of practice, patients' rights, institutional and personal liability, civil and criminal laws, and private conscience. An understanding of these issues, passive and active euthansia, state and national trends, and uniform legislation can assist in resolutions of the no-code dilemma. Nursing as a profession must strive to develop sound and consistent guidelines and rationale for the scope of practice in ethical dilemmas.

  18. ACCOUNTING BETWEEN LAW, ETHICS AND MORALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Anca-Simona N. HROMEI; Maria-Madalina I. VOINEA

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the fact that nowadays, society and business, show high expectations regarding the accounting discipline, and therefore professionals in this area should expand their horizons to meet all requirements. First of all, accounting assumed a certain responsibility to the public interest, by its fundamental purpose, namely to provide financial-accounting information, information that will form the basis of decision making. Second of all, for the successful fulfilment of the pu...

  19. Immigration and Health: Law, Policy, and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmet, Wendy E; Sainsbury-Wong, Lorianne; Prabhu, Maya

    2017-03-01

    Immigration poses numerous challenges for health professionals and public health lawyers. This article reviews these challenges. We begin by offering some background on immigration and health and then explain some of the reasons why immigrants are less likely than natives to have health insurance. Next we turn to a discussion of some of the particular challenges relating to the health care of refugees. We conclude by analyzing and rejecting some of the arguments that are made for discriminating against immigrants with respect to the provision of public health benefits and services.

  20. Kantian Ethics, Animals, and the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Korsgaard, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Legal systems divide the world into persons and property, treating animals as property. Some animal rights advocates have proposed treating animals as persons. Another option is to introduce a third normative category. This raises questions about how normative categories are established. In this article I argue that Kant established normative categories by determining what the presuppositions of rational practice are. According to Kant, rational choice presupposes that rational beings are end...

  1. Cooperation between research institutions and journals on research integrity cases: guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Elizabeth; Kleinert, Sabine

    2012-06-01

    Institutions and journals both have important duties relating to research and publication misconduct. Institutions are responsible for the conduct of their researchers and for encouraging a healthy research environment. Journals are responsible for the conduct of their editors, for safeguarding the research record, and for ensuring the reliability of everything they publish. It is therefore important for institutions and journals to communicate and collaborate effectively on cases relating to research integrity. To achieve this, we make the following recommendations. Institutions should: • have a research integrity officer (or office) and publish their contact details prominently; • inform journals about cases of proven misconduct that affect the reliability or attribution of work that they have published; • respond to journals if they request information about issues, such as disputed authorship, misleading reporting, competing interests, or other factors, including honest errors, that could affect the reliability of published work; • initiate inquiries into allegations of research misconduct or unacceptable publication practice raised by journals; • have policies supporting responsible research conduct and systems in place for investigating suspected research misconduct. Journals should: • publish the contact details of their editor-in-chief who should act as the point of contact for questions relating to research and publication integrity; • inform institutions if they suspect misconduct by their researchers, and provide evidence to support these concerns; • cooperate with investigations and respond to institutions' questions about misconduct allegations; • be prepared to issue retractions or corrections (according to the COPE guidelines on retractions) when provided with findings of misconduct arising from investigations; • have policies for responding to institutions and other organizations that investigate cases of research misconduct

  2. "I think we've got too many tests!": Prenatal providers' reflections on ethical and clinical challenges in the practice integration of cell-free DNA screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, B L; Kraft, S A; Michie, M; Allyse, M

    2016-01-01

    on prenatal practice, and potential future of cfDNA screening in clinical practice. Given the likelihood that the scope and uptake of cfDNA screening will continue to increase, it is essential to consider how these changes will affect frontline prenatal care providers and, in turn, patients. Providers' requests for additional guidance and data as well as their concerns with the lack of time available to explain screening and testing options indicate significant potential issues with patient care. It is important to ensure that the clinical integration of cfDNA screening is managed responsibly and ethically before it expands further, exacerbating pre-existing issues. As prenatal screening evolves, so should informed consent and the resources available to women making decisions. The field must take steps to maximize the advantages of cfDNA screening and responsibly manage its ethical issues.

  3. Hidden in plain view: feminists doing engineering ethics, engineers doing feminist ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Donna

    2013-03-01

    How has engineering ethics addressed gender concerns to date? How have the ideas of feminist philosophers and feminist ethicists made their way into engineering ethics? What might an explicitly feminist engineering ethics look like? This paper reviews some major themes in feminist ethics and then considers three areas in which these themes have been taken up in engineering ethics to date. First, Caroline Whitbeck's work in engineering ethics integrates considerations from her own earlier writings and those of other feminist philosophers, but does not use the feminist label. Second, efforts to incorporate the Ethic of Care and principles of Social Justice into engineering have drawn on feminist scholarship and principles, but these commitments can be lost in translation to the broader engineering community. Third, the film Henry's Daughters brings gender considerations into the mainstream of engineering ethics, but does not draw on feminist ethics per se; despite the best intentions in broaching a difficult subject, the film unfortunately does more harm than good when it comes to sexual harassment education. I seek not only to make the case that engineers should pay attention to feminist ethics and engineering ethicists make more use of feminist ethics traditions in the field, but also to provide some avenues for how to approach integrating feminist ethics in engineering. The literature review and analysis of the three examples point to future work for further developing what might be called feminist engineering ethics.

  4. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  5. Ethical Orientations for Understanding Business Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Phillip V.; Speck, Henry E., III

    1990-01-01

    Argues that history provides the necessary framework in which both to discuss and to seek answers to the three necessary and sequential questions about business ethics: (1) What is ethics and what does it mean to be ethical? (2) Why be ethical?; and (3) How can one be ethical? (SG)

  6. Ecological Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy

  7. Above reproach: developing a comprehensive ethics and compliance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuspeh, A; Whalen, K; Cecelic, J; Clifton, S; Cobb, L; Eddy, M; Fainter, J; Packard, J; Postal, S; Steakley, J; Waddey, P

    1999-01-01

    How can a healthcare organization improve the public's confidence in the conduct of its business operations? What can it do to ensure that it can thrive despite being the subject of public and governmental scrutiny and doubt? Healthcare providers must establish standards of conduct that are above reproach and ensure that those standards are clearly articulated and strictly adhered to. This article describes the merits of a comprehensive ethics and compliance program, suggests five basic elements of such a program--organizational support/structure, setting standards, creating awareness, establishing a mechanism for reporting exceptions, and monitoring and auditing--and then demonstrates how those elements should be applied in several high-risk areas. Fundamentally, an ethics and compliance program has two purposes: to ensure that all individuals in an organization observe pertinent laws and regulations in their work; and to articulate a broader set of aspirational ethical standards that are well-understood within the organization and become a practical guideline for organization members making decisions that raise ethical concerns. Every ethics and compliance program should contain certain fundamental aspects. First, the effort must have the active support of the most senior management in the organization. To instill a commitment to ethics and compliance absent a clear and outspoken commitment to such purposes by organization leaders is simply impossible. Second, an ethics and compliance program is fundamentally about organizational culture--about instilling a commitment to observe the law and, more generally, to do the right thing. Third, ethics and compliance are responsibilities of operating management (sometimes called line management). Although staff such as compliance officers are obligated to provide the necessary resources for a successful program and to design the program, such staff officers cannot achieve implementation and execution. Only operating

  8. Within the Timeline of Science Ethics: Two Parenting Advice Books and a Scientific Milestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel AKÖZER

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism allegations on similarities between Dr. Benjamin Spock's Baby and Child Care (1946 and Dr. İhsan Doğramacı's Annenin Kitabı (1952; The Mother's Book and the public presentation of the ruling on the 15th of April, 2014 by European Court of Human Rights consummating legal proceedings on these allegations, are not likely to contribute to ensuring a correct understanding of plagiarism as conceived in science ethics in the general public and scientific community. First, the Court has not ruled in support of the veracity of allegations. Second, parallels between the two books – regarding genre, claims to originality, and the nature of similarities – do not justify evaluation in reference to the concept of plagiarism as defined in science ethics. Besides, intellectual property law, on which allegations pretend to be based, cannot be taken to found illegitimacy of plagiarism in terms of science ethics. Science ethics defines plagiarism as misconduct positively with reference to norms of scientific integrity, the fairness principle, and values essential to collaborative work, rather than negatively with reference to violation of intellectual property. In the mid-20th century, in an environment where such principles or values have not yet taken root, the course of the discovery of DNA structure, one of the century's greatest breakthroughs, has enabled ethics violations substantially surpassing issues of intellectual property or plagiarism, and moreover, these violations have apologists even today. Scientific integrity and fairness imply “treating colleagues with integrity and honesty” as equally as “providing proper references and giving due credits to the work of others”. Abusing plagiarism allegations as a means to defame colleagues or permitting such abuse to become commonplace neither suits advocacy of scientific ethics nor complies with the “fairness” principle. A strategy to fight plagiarism must be tested against

  9. commentary article enhancing ethical performance in military forces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    well-reasoned ethical judgments under highly challenging conditions. ... ethics tends to be equated with 'chaplain business' (i.e. addressing personal moral struggles), or ... Moral exemplars excel because they have integrated moral concerns.

  10. Impact of ethical leadership on employee commitment in Nigeria- a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of ethical leadership on employee commitment in Nigeria- a study of ... result is that appropriate ethical leadership contributes to performance of the employees, ... situation and employees should get the best out of employee's integrity.

  11. Discipline Based Instruction in Business Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custin, Richard E.; Demas, John C.; Lampe, Marc; Custin, Colette L.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate business law courses typically utilize traditional textbooks organized by topic. Individual chapters, address the usual topics including contracts, torts, the court system and ethics. An innovative approach to facilitating a business law course involves segregating sections of the course into common business disciplines. Rather than…

  12. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  13. Theoretical frameworks used to discuss ethical issues in private physiotherapy practice and proposal of a new ethical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Hudon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    In the past, several researchers in the field of physiotherapy have asserted that physiotherapy clinicians rarely use ethical knowledge to solve ethical issues raised by their practice. Does this assertion still hold true? Do the theoretical frameworks used by researchers and clinicians allow them to analyze thoroughly the ethical issues they encounter in their everyday practice? In our quest for answers, we conducted a literature review and analyzed the ethical theoretical frameworks used by physiotherapy researchers and clinicians to discuss the ethical issues raised by private physiotherapy practice. Our final analysis corpus consisted of thirty-nine texts. Our main finding is that researchers and clinicians in physiotherapy rarely use ethical knowledge to analyze the ethical issues raised in their practice and that gaps exist in the theoretical frameworks currently used to analyze these issues. Consequently, we developed, for ethical analysis, a four-part prism which we have called the Quadripartite Ethical Tool (QET). This tool can be incorporated into existing theoretical frameworks to enable professionals to integrate ethical knowledge into their ethical analyses. The innovative particularity of the QET is that it encompasses three ethical theories (utilitarism, deontologism, and virtue ethics) and axiological ontology (professional values) and also draws on both deductive and inductive approaches. It is our hope that this new tool will help researchers and clinicians integrate ethical knowledge into their analysis of ethical issues and contribute to fostering ethical analyses that are grounded in relevant philosophical and axiological foundations.

  14. What Challenges and Benefits Can Non-Formal Law and Language Integrated Learning Bring to University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabekova, Atabekova; Gorbatenko, Rimma; Belousov, Aleksandr; Grebnev, Ruslan; Sheremetieva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the ways in which non-formal content and language integrated learning within university studies can affect students' academic progress. The research has included theoretical and empirical studies. The article focuses on the observation of students' learning process, draws attention to challenges and benefits students experienced…

  15. Data Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Gry; Tranberg, Pernille

    Respect for privacy and the right to control one’s own data are becoming key parameters to gain a competitive edge in today’s business world. Companies, organisations and authorities which view data ethics as a social responsibility, giving it the same importance as environmental awareness...... and respect for human rights, are tomorrow’s winners. Digital trust is paramount to digital growth and prosperity. This book combines broad trend analyses with case studies to examine companies which use data ethics to varying degrees. The authors make the case that citizens and consumers are no longer just...... concerned about a lack of control over their data, but they also have begun to act. In addition, they describe alternative business models, advances in technology and a new European data protection regulation, all of which combine to foster a growing market for data-ethical products and services...

  16. Engineering Student's Ethical Awareness and Behavior: A New Motivational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairaktarova, Diana; Woodcock, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Professional communities are experiencing scandals involving unethical and illegal practices daily. Yet it should not take a national major structure failure to highlight the importance of ethical awareness and behavior, or the need for the development and practice of ethical behavior in engineering students. Development of ethical behavior skills in future engineers is a key competency for engineering schools as ethical behavior is a part of the professional identity and practice of engineers. While engineering educators have somewhat established instructional methods to teach engineering ethics, they still rely heavily on teaching ethical awareness, and pay little attention to how well ethical awareness predicts ethical behavior. However the ability to exercise ethical judgement does not mean that students are ethically educated or likely to behave in an ethical manner. This paper argues measuring ethical judgment is insufficient for evaluating the teaching of engineering ethics, because ethical awareness has not been demonstrated to translate into ethical behavior. The focus of this paper is to propose a model that correlates with both, ethical awareness and ethical behavior. This model integrates the theory of planned behavior, person and thing orientation, and spheres of control. Applying this model will allow educators to build confidence and trust in their students' ability to build a professional identity and be prepared for the engineering profession and practice.

  17. Business ethics: the materiel/manufacturing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucheck, A S; Robbins, L B

    1990-08-01

    The discussion of purchasing practices and product integrity, which have ethical implications for materiel/manufacturing management, serves to illustrate how routine decisions can have larger implications for the firm as a whole. Management needs to take a proactive role in confronting ethical issues by (1) demonstrating a corporate commitment to sound ethics in business practices, (2) providing written policies where appropriate to provide a basis for sound ethical conducts, (3) educating various functional areas to understand their responsibility in seeming unrelated ethical problems, (4) delegating authority in ethical issues where such issues are considered in decision making, and (5) fostering interfunctional communication as a means in establishing corporatewide responsibility. The basic philosophical principles of JIT serve as a blueprint for recognizing and managing ethical responsibility. The unexpected by-products of a JIT implementation may be vendor/customer good will and an excellent reputation for the firm.

  18. Development of Learning Management in Moral Ethics and Code of Ethics of the Teaching Profession Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsong, S.; Siharak, S.; Srikanok, V.

    2018-02-01

    The purposes of this research were to develop the learning management, which was prepared for the enhancement of students’ Moral Ethics and Code of Ethics in Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi (RMUTT). The contextual study and the ideas for learning management development was conducted by the document study, focus group method and content analysis from the document about moral ethics and code of ethics of the teaching profession concerning Graduate Diploma for Teaching Profession Program. The main tools of this research were the summarize papers and analyse papers. The results of development showed the learning management for the development of moral ethics and code of ethics of the teaching profession for Graduate Diploma for Teaching Profession students could promote desired moral ethics and code of ethics of the teaching profession character by the integrated learning techniques which consisted of Service Learning, Contract System, Value Clarification, Role Playing, and Concept Mapping. The learning management was presented in 3 steps.

  19. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  20. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  1. Nuclear importation, exportation and production within the framework of the law of the communities or zones of integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, L.

    1986-01-01

    The article starts from the hypothesis that a harmonisation of regulations concerning the international commerce of nuclear technology would be more useful, if in a first period it is managed on the level of communities (Euratom) or integration zones (ALADI). European and South-American regulations as well as certain aspects of the North-South-cooperation are presented. As yet, a universal cooperation in the field of nuclear material is refused. (CW) [de

  2. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice.

  3. Transgressive ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø

    2013-01-01

    of treatment norms, we must move close to everyday work practices and appreciate the importance of material–technical treatment options as well as the interplay of professional ethics and identity. The cardiac treatment of brain-dead donors may thereby illuminate how treatment norms develop on the ground...

  4. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  5. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological

  6. Ethical Traceability and Communicating Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traceability – the ability to track a product from farm to plate – is now widely used in the food sector for a range of purposes: it allows companies to improve efficiency, facilitates product recall, and helps producers flag the specific characteristics of their goods. But traceability systems...... are mainly designed and used by the people directly involved in the food chain. The people at the end of the food chain – food consumers – have little say in which attributes are traced, and can rarely access the information stored in traceability systems. This book draws on philosophical discourses (like...... ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of law) around food ethics and empirical research in three important food chains (UK bread, Danish bacon and Greek olive oil) to argue that ethical traceability systems could be used to communicate food information to consumers, allowing them not only to make...

  7. [Accreditation of Independent Ethics Committees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A

    According to Law 14/2007 and Royal Decree 1090/2015, biomedical research must be assessed by an Research Ethics Committee (REC), which must be accredited as an Research ethics committee for clinical trials involving medicinal products (RECm) if the opinion is issued for a clinical trial involving medicinal products or clinical research with medical devices. The aim of this study is to ascertain how IEC and IECm accreditation is regulated. National and regional legislation governing biomedical research was analysed. No clearly-defined IEC or IECm accreditation procedures exist in the national or regional legislation. Independent Ethics Committees are vital for the development of basic or clinical biomedical research, and they must be accredited by an external body in order to safeguard their independence, multidisciplinary composition and review procedures. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of culture on Business Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin Shakeel; Muhammad Mazhar Khan; Dr. Muhammad Aslam Khan

    2011-01-01

    Businesses in global world are interconnected with each other and practices at organizations for the compliance of business purpose. Organization cannot survive in isolation. The survival of organization depends upon the integration of business codes with the societal ethics and combinely format into an adjoined ethical practices prevailing saturate in market. Business ethics are gaining importance day by day which results into more saturation of business practices. The area of focus in this ...

  9. Ethical aspects in clinical trials in the CIS, in particular the setting up of ethical committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubar, Olga

    2005-01-01

    The ethical aspects of clinical trials in the CIS are based on the development of systematic ethical review and ethical insight and responsibility on the part of researchers, sponsors, and government agencies and society. This is the main purpose of the Forum for Ethics Committees in the Commonwealth of Independent States (FECCIS) whose establishment and activities are focused on the integration of the CIS into the world system of biomedical research with regard to safeguarding ethical standards of human rights protection and harmonization of regulative and methodological space to safeguard protection of human rights and the dignity of biomedical research participants in the CIS.

  10. Nuclear security and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozal, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show that the classical distinction between the military nuclear law and the civil nuclear law is outdated. The technologies are dual and might be misused from a pacific to a military goal. The central element of the nuclear law is thus the integration of the safety rules: the nuclear risk being universal, it has created an universal law (first part) that reflects our scientific knowledge and might thus evaluate. This universal law has been a factor of nuclear security (part 2), as in 50 years, there had been only one major nuclear accident and no nuclear conflict. The horizontal proliferation has been limited and the international community has understood that time had come to reduce our arsenals. (author)

  11. An Ethics of Permission: A Response to the California End of Life Option Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Craig

    2016-01-01

    An ethics of permission can be helpful in framing a response to the ethical differences surrounding the California End of Life Option Act. Law does not define morality, and reaching a moral understanding demands thorough reflection. An ethics of permission examines the ethical demands of a permissive law for both clinician and patient. Serving the good of the patient, respecting professional conscience, and following the law are three ethical elements. Although developing an ethics of permission includes these three elements, these elements do not exhaust all the moral implications involved. An ethics of permission also includes the importance of exercising professional tolerance in the honoring of clinicians who choose to participate or refuse to participate. In addition, an ethics of permission also provides insight in implementing just and fair behavior among medical professionals.

  12. Drug use and abuse: the ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, B

    1992-01-01

    Drug abuse is both a personal and a public issue, raising questions about individual rights and the boundaries of law, as well as about national sovereignty and international control. Ethical issues that arise under these headings may be related to certain broad ethical positions. The implications of adopting utilitarian assumptions may be contrasted with basing ethics on a theory of individual rights, closely related to a theory of human nature. Neither position justifies a libertarian presumption against control, for, first, an individual decision to expose one's mind and personality to the control of drugs cannot be ethically justified and, second, there are no ethical reasons, nor any compelling arguments from social and political theory, for decriminalizing non-medical drug use.

  13. Floridi's Philosophy of Information and Information Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate Floridi's philosophy of information (PI) and correlative information ethics (IE) as potential frameworks for a global information and computing ethics (ICE), I review a range of important criticisms, defenses, and extensions of PI and IE, along with Floridi's responses to these......, as gathered together in a recent special issue of Ethics and Information Technology. A revised and expanded version of PI and IE emerges here, one that brings to the foreground PI's status as a philosophical naturalism—one with both current application and important potential in the specific domains...... of privacy and information law. Further, the pluralism already articulated by Floridi in his PI is now more explicitly coupled with an ethical pluralism in IE that will be enhanced through IE's further incorporation of discourse ethics. In this form, PI and IE emerge as still more robust frameworks...

  14. Who Cares about Unions? Ethical Support for Labor as a Matter of Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Labor law reform centers on competitiveness considerations rather than ethics. A social justice perspective suggests religious arguments (dignity of work, accountability) and economic arguments (fairness, democracy) for changing labor law. (SK)

  15. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe eight…

  16. Law and Foreign Policy: Problems in Intercultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Adda B.

    The values and norms of Western law are not universally accepted as basic values and norms in other cultures. Therefore, the contractual processes of Western law should not be considered the basic foundation for all foreign policy negotiations. In Western cultures, principles of law are differentiated from other values based on religion, ethics,…

  17. The Talmudic philosophical conception of business ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Talmud is considered to be one of the cornerstones of Judaism, Jewish business ethics and Jewish wisdom for business success. The Talmud has been the guide and main nerve center of the Jewish people. This article examines the philosophical conception of business ethics from a Talmudic perspective. The article used a conceptual approach as well as a review of related literature. It was found out that the road of the Talmud led not to philosophy and theology but to ethics, law and justice; it pursued not the abstract but the concrete. This article has therefore business and academic value.

  18. Changes in environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    In this study the changing process of environmental law is depicted which is marked by the ecological crisis and the increasing pressure of the ecological movement. Main emphasis is laid on the analysis of the reform of the ecological licensing and voidance procedures which is in the centre of the discussion about (environmental) law policy as well as on the jurisprudential enforcement of the basic environmental right on life and physical integrity. The volume ends with a study on 'Nuclear Energy, Law and Judiciary Power' - a subject which is of immediate interest and special significance with its far-reaching political consequences for ecology, energy, and economics. (orig.) [de

  19. Casuistry as common law morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  20. Can ethics survive the onslaught of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The issue on which I will attempt to cast some light is certainly not novel. It has been ongoing for many years but the pace of scientific progress is gathering and the retreat of ethical barriers is relentless. I will illustrate my thesis by using examples of legal decisions from the realm of assisted human procreation and the posthumous conception of children from the sperm of deceased fathers e.g., the cases of Diane Blood, Parpalaix and Nikolas Coltan Evans. I will also highlight the recent case of Ashley X, a nine year old girl whose parents authorised radical medical treatment to arrest her development. I will argue that the law is being driven to roll back the ethical standards derived from our legacy of Natural Law by the imperatives of human rights e.g., the right to found a family, and the quest for patient autonomy. These are both admirable goals but fulfilling these goals comes at a cost to cherished ethical values e.g., that children are conceived by living fathers and that indulging the personal desires of every individual cannot forever be encompassed. As our legislators and courts chip away at our core network of ethical values, are they replacing them with equivalent values or do their decisions amount to a hollowing out of the core ethical values e.g., Thou shalt not kill and that human life is sacrosanct? Yet abortion is legal in many countries as is euthanasia. Paradoxically there is legislative protection for embryos by limiting experimentation on these clusters of cells. How do you construct a rational ethical framework with such blatant legal inconsistencies in the protection of human life? The sanctity of human life constitutes one of the fundamental pillars of ethical values which, in turn, support much more of the structure of ethics. Is a society that permits freezing the development of a nine year old child not a society whose ethics are so compromised that it is doomed to defend an ever diminishing mass of ethical values? Is there a