WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated urban wastewater

  1. Cost benefit risk - a concept for management of integrated urban wastewater systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauger, Mikkel B.; Rauch, W.; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Urban wastewater systems should be evaluated and analysed from an integrated point of view, taking all parts of the system, that is sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving waters into consideration. Risk and parameter uncertainties are aspects that hardly ever have been addressed...... in the evaluation and design of urban wastewater systems. In this paper we present and discuss a probabilistic approach for evaluation of the performance of urban wastewater systems. Risk analysis together with the traditional cost-benefit analysis is a special variant of multi-criteria analysis that seeks to find...... the most feasible improvement alternative for an urban wastewater system. The most feasible alternative in this context is the alternative that has the best performance, meaning that the alternative has the lowest sum of costs, benefits and risks. The sum is expressed as the Net Present Cost (NPC). To use...

  2. A model library for simulation and benchmarking of integrated urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, R.; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Kroll, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a freely distributed, open-source toolbox to predict the behaviour of urban wastewater systems (UWS). The proposed library is used to develop a system-wide Benchmark Simulation Model (BSM-UWS) for evaluating (local/global) control strategies in urban wastewater systems (UWS...

  3. Optimization of an integrated electrodisinfection/electrocoagulation process with Al bipolar electrodes for urban wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillas, Salvador; Llanos, Javier; Cañizares, Pablo; Mateo, Sara; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2013-04-01

    In this work, a novel integrated electrochemical process for urban wastewater regeneration is described. The electrochemical cell consists in a Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) or a Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA) as anode, a Stainless Steel (SS) as cathode and a perforated aluminum plate, which behaves as bipolar electrode, between anode and cathode. Thus, in this cell, it is possible to carry out, at the same time, two different electrochemical processes: electrodisinfection (ED) and electrocoagulation (EC). The treatment of urban wastewater with different anodes and different operating conditions is studied. First of all, in order to check the process performance, experiments with synthetic wastewaters were carried out, showing that it is possible to achieve a 100% of turbidity removal by the electrodissolution of the bipolar electrode. Next, the effect of the current density and the anode material are studied during the ED-EC process of actual effluents. Results show that it is possible to remove Escherichia coli and turbidity simultaneously of an actual effluent from a WasteWater Treatment Facility (WWTF). The use of BDD anodes allows to remove the E. coli completely at an applied electric charge of 0.0077 A h dm(-3) when working with a current density of 6.65 A m(-2). On the other hand, with DSA anodes, the current density necessary to achieve the total removal of E. coli is higher (11.12 A m(-2)) than that required with BDD anodes. Finally, the influence of cell flow path and flow rate have been studied. Results show that the performance of the process strongly depends on the characteristics of the initial effluent (E. coli concentration and Cl(-)/NH(4)(+) initial ratio) and that a cell configuration cathode (inlet)-anode (outlet) and a higher flow rate enhance the removal of the turbidity from the treated effluent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated Urban Wastewater System Data Network - Data network system : Diagnostic Report Cali, Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unesco-IHE

    2008-01-01

    The pressure on the Urban Wastewater Systems (UWwS) increases as urbanization continues relentlessly and climate change appears to lead to more extreme rainfall events. These pressures have a negative effect on the efficiency of UWwS to reduce the urban pollution reaching water-receiving systems.

  5. System-wide Benchmark Simulation Model for integrated analysis of urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, R.; Flores-Alsina, X.; Gernaey, K. V.

    Interactions between different components (sewer, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and river) of an urban wastewater system (UWS) are widely recognized (Benedetti et al., 2013). This has resulted in an increasing interest in the modelling of the UWS. System-wide models take into account the inte...

  6. An integrated approach to assess the dynamics of a peri-urban watershed influenced by wastewater irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Jampani; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Pavelic, Paul

    2015-04-01

    In many urban and peri-urban areas of India, wastewater is under-recognized as a major water resource. Wastewater irrigated agriculture provides direct benefits for the livelihoods and food security of many smallholder farmers. A rapidly urbanizing peri-urban micro-watershed (270 ha) in Hyderabad was assessed over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2010 for changes in land use and associated farming practices, farmer perceptions, socio-economic evaluation, land-use suitability for agriculture and challenges in potential irrigated area development towards wastewater use. This integrated approach showed that the change in the total irrigated area was marginal over the decade, whereas the built-up area within the watershed boundaries doubled and there was a distinct shift in cropping patterns from paddy rice to paragrass and leafy vegetables. Local irrigation supplies were sourced mainly from canal supplies, which accounted for three-quarters of the water used and was largely derived from wastewater. The remainder was groundwater from shallow hard-rock aquifers. Farmer perception was that the high nutrient content of the wastewater was of value, although they were also interested to pay modest amounts for additional pre-treatment. The shift in land use towards paragrass and leafy vegetables was attributed to increased profitability due to the high urban demand. The unutilised scrubland within the watershed has the potential for irrigation development, but the major constraints appear to be unavailability of labour and high land values rather than water availability. The study provides evidence to support the view that the opportunistic use of wastewater and irrigation practices, in general, will continue even under highly evolving peri-urban conditions, to meet the livelihood needs of the poor driven by market demands, as urban sprawl expands into cultivable rural hinterlands. Policy support is needed for enhanced recognition of wastewater for agriculture, with flow

  7. Decentralized peri-urban wastewater treatment technologies assessment integrating sustainability indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Ulecia, Karel; Hernández, Heykel Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Selection of treatment technologies without considering the environmental, economic and social factors associated with each geographical context risks the occurrence of negative impacts that were not properly foreseen, working against the sustainable performance of the technology. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate 12 technologies for decentralized treatment of domestic wastewater applicable to peri-urban communities using sustainability approaches and, at the same time, continuing a discussion about how to address a more integrated assessment of overall sustainability. For this, a set of 13 indicators that embody the environmental, economic and social approach for the overall sustainability assessment were used by means of a target plot diagram as a tool for integrating indicators that represent a holistic analysis of the technologies. The obtained results put forward different degrees of sustainability, which led to the selection of: septic tank+land infiltration; up-flow anaerobic reactor+high rate trickling filter and septic tank+anaerobic filter as the most sustainable and attractive technologies to be applied in peri-urban communities, according to the employed indicators.

  8. Integrative evaluation for sustainable decisions of urban wastewater system management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, A.; Corominas, L.; Comas, J.

    2017-12-01

    With sustainable development as their overarching goal, urban wastewater system (UWS) managers need to take into account multiple social, economic, technical and environmental facets related to their decisions. In this complex decision-making environment, uncertainty can be formidable. It is present both in the ways the system is interpreted stochastically, but also in its natural ever-shifting behavior. This inherent uncertainty suggests that wiser decisions would be made under an adaptive and iterative decision-making regime. No decision-support framework has been presented in the literature to effectively addresses all these needs. The objective of this work is to describe such a conceptual framework to evaluate and compare alternative solutions for various UWS challenges within an adaptive management structure. Socio-economic aspects such as externalities are taken into account, along with other traditional criteria as necessary. Robustness, reliability and resilience analyses test the performance of the system against present and future variability. A valuation uncertainty analysis incorporates uncertain valuation assumptions in the decision-making process. The framework is demonstrated with an application to a case study presenting a typical problem often faced by managers: poor river water quality, increasing population, and more stringent water quality legislation. The application of the framework made use of: i) a cost-benefit analysis including monetized environmental benefits and damages; ii) a robustness analysis of system performance against future conditions; iii) reliability and resilience analyses of the system given contextual variability; and iv) a valuation uncertainty analysis of model parameters. The results suggest that the installation of bigger volumes would give rise to increased benefits despite larger capital costs, as well as increased robustness and resilience. Population numbers appear to affect the estimated benefits most, followed by

  9. A model library for dynamic transport and fate of micropollutants in integrated urban wastewater and stormwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Gevaert, Veerle

    2014-01-01

    by using substance inherent properties, following an approach commonly used in large-scale MP multimedia fate and transport models. The chosen level of complexity ensures a low data requirement and minimizes the need for field measurements. Next to a synthesis of model applications, a didactic example......The increasing efforts in reducing the emission of micropollutants (MP) into the natural aquatic environment require the development of modelling tools to support the decision making process. This article presents a library of dynamic modelling tools for estimating MP fluxes within Integrated Urban...... Wastewater and Stormwater system (IUWS – including drainage network, stormwater treatment units, wastewater treatment plants, sludge treatment, and the receiving water body). The models are developed by considering the high temporal variability of the processes taking place in the IUWS, providing a basis...

  10. Institutional aspects of integrating irrigation into urban wastewater management: the case of Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.G.; Huibers, F.P.; Vliet, van B.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater flows of metropolitan cities and their downstream use for irrigation are often associated with technical systems. However, an engineering approach on its own will leave questions unanswered at the socio-technical and institutional level. Research was carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam, on the

  11. Institutional aspects of integrating irrigation into urban wastewater management: the case of Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.G.; Huibers, Frans P.; van Vliet, Bas J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater flows of metropolitan cities and their downstream use for irrigation are often associated with technical systems. However, an engineering approach on its own will leave questions unanswered at the socio-technical and institutional level. Research was carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam, on the

  12. Reuse of wastewater in urban farming and urban planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    status of wastewater reuse in urban farming in Katsina, an important urban area in the semi arid ... officially registered with the Katsina Urban Planning Authority. ..... crop production in the water-short Guanajuato river basin. Mexico. Res. Rep.

  13. Modelling and monitoring of integrated urban wastewater systems: review on status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedetti, L.; Langeveld, J.; Comeau, A.

    2013-01-01

    been investigated and several new or improved systems analysis methods have become available. New/improved software tools coupled with the current high computational capacity have enabled the application of integrated modelling to several practical cases, and advancements in monitoring water quantity...... and quality have been substantial and now allow the collecting of data in sufficient quality and quantity to permit using integrated models for real-time applications too. Further developments are warranted in the field of data quality assurance and efficient maintenance....

  14. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry...

  15. Integrated aerobic biological-chemical treatment of winery wastewater diluted with urban wastewater. LED-based photocatalysis in the presence of monoperoxysulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Rafael R; Rivas, Francisco Javier; Ferreira, Leonor C; Pirra, Antonio; Peres, José A

    2018-01-28

    The oxidation of Winery Wastewater (WW) by conventional aerobic biological treatment usually leads to inefficient results due to the presence of organic substances, which are recalcitrant or toxic in conventional procedures. This study explores the combination of biological and chemical processes in order to complete the oxidation of biodegradable and non-biodegradable compounds in two sequential steps. Thus, a biological oxidation of a diluted WW is carried out by using the activated sludge process. Activated sludge was gradually acclimated to the Diluted Winery Wastewater (DWW). Some aspects concerning the biological process were evaluated (kinetics of the oxidation and sedimentation of the sludge produced). The biological treatment of the DWW led to a 40-50% of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal in 8 h, being necessary the application of an additional process. Different chemical processes combining UVA-LEDs radiation, monoperoxysulfate (MPS) and photocatalysts were applied in order to complete the COD depletion and efficient removal of polyphenols content, poorly oxidized in the previous biological step. From the options tested, the combination of UVA, MPS and a novel LaCoO 3 -TiO 2 composite, with double route of MPS decomposition through heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis, led to the best results (95% of polyphenol degradation, and additional 60% of COD removal). Initial MPS concentration and pH effect in this process were assessed.

  16. Maximizing recovery of energy and nutrients from urban wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaratnam, T.; Henkanatte-Gedera, S.M.; Muppaneni, T.; Nirmalakhandan, N.; Deng, S.; Lammers, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, UWWs (urban wastewaters) that contain high levels of organic carbon, N (nitrogen), and P (phosphorous) have been considered an environmental burden and have been treated at the expense of significant energy input. With the advent of new pollution abatement technologies, UWWs are now being regarded as a renewable resource from which, useful chemicals and energy could be harvested. This study proposes an integrated, algal-based system that has the potential to treat UWWs to the desired discharge standards in a sustainable manner while recovering high fraction of its energy content as well as its N- and P-contents for use as fertilizers. Key embodiments of the system being proposed are: i) cultivation of an extremophile microalga, Galdieria sulphuraria, in UWW for removal of carbon, N, and P via single-step by mixotrophic metabolism; ii) extraction of energy-rich biocrude and biochar from the cultivated biomass via hydrothermal processing; and, iii) enhancement of biomass productivity via partial recycling of the nutrient-rich AP (aqueous product) from hydrothermal-processed biomass to the cultivation step to optimize productivity, and formulation of fertilizers from the remaining AP. This paper presents a process model to simulate this integrated system, identify the optimal process conditions, and establish ranges for operational parameters. - Highlights: • Developed model for algal system for wastewater treatment/energy production. • Evaluated energy efficiency in algal wastewater treatment/energy production. • Optimized algal wastewater treatment/energy production. • Demonstrated feasibility of energy-positive wastewater treatment.

  17. Setting up measuring campaigns for integrated wastewater modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanrolleghem, P.A.; Schilling, W.; Rauch, W.; Krebs, P.; Aalderink, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The steps of calibration/confirmation of models in a suggested 11-step procedure for analysis, planning and implementation of integrated urban wastewater management systems is focused upon in this paper. Based on ample experience obtained in comprehensive investigations throughout Europe

  18. Development of a modular Environmental Decision Support System for the Integrated Management of the Urban Wastewater Cycle at River Basin Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murla Tuyls, Damian; Monistrol, A; Poch, M

    2010-01-01

    basin scale. The goal of the project is to develop a modular Environmental Decision Support System (EDSS) to optimise the integrated management of the UWS based on a rule based system as the reasoning core and a Knowledge Base, easily represented by means of decision trees and fully opened. The EDSS....... One of the most relevant advantages of this EDSS tool is that it will be useful for both simple and complex systems and will provide wastewater managers with a decision support tool for the application of the Water Framework Directive, allowing e.g. wastewater managers to consider the effects...

  19. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined.

  20. Setting up measuring campaigns for integrated wastewater modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanrolleghem, P.A.; Schilling, W.; Rauch, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    The steps of calibration/confirmation of models in a suggested Ii-step procedure far analysis, planning and implementation of integrated urban wastewater management systems is focused upon in this paper. Based on ample experience obtained in comprehensive investigations throughout Europe recommen...... problems related to suspended solids, specific contaminants, hygienic hazards and total pollutant loss illustrate the recommendations presented. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L

    2004-07-05

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha.year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control.

  2. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha·year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control

  3. Gorliz wastewater plant extension biofiltration as the solution for urban environment integrated facilities; Ampliacion de la EDAR de Gorliz. La biofiltracion como solucion en plantas integrada en medios urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolome Quintano, M.

    2005-07-01

    This article sets out to show biofiltration as the most suitable technology for wastewater treatment facilities that show specials requirements. Mainly, these considerations are surface deficiency, special foundations, high flow variations and environmentally sensitive areas. Gorliz wastewater plant extension is showed as a good example of this technology. It is located inside the urban environment and its constructive project has been recently approved. (Author)

  4. Optimization of Urban Wastewater Systems using Model Based Design and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Quintero, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this research a considerable amount of scientific evidence had been collected which leads to the conclusion that the urban wastewater components should be designed as one integrated system, if the protection of the receiving waters is to be achieved cost-effectively. Even more, there is a need

  5. Nitrogen removal from urban wastewater by activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study deals with nitrogen removal from urban wastewater employing the activated sludge process at low temperature. It aims at determining the performances and rates of nitrification, and characterising the autotrophic biomass (concentration and kinetic parameters) at 11°C and for F/M ratios higher than the ...

  6. Wastewater use in urban agriculture: an exposure and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater use in urban agriculture: an exposure and risk assessment in Accra, ... to pose the key risk to farmers due to hand-to mouth events (10 events/day). ... awareness of health risk, consumers did not prioritize health indicators when ...

  7. Wastewater infrastructure for small cities in an urbanizing world: integrating protection of human health and the environment with resource recovery and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-04-16

    The majority of population growth in developing countries will occur in small cities closely linked to agricultural zones, with poor access to water and sanitation. Wastewater management priorities in these regions will be different from those in larger cities and developed countries. Two wastewater treatment systems in Bolivia, one with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and polishing ponds, the other with three stabilization ponds, are assessed to determine their resource recovery potential. The UASB reactor produces biogas with 500-650 MJ per day. In six months, both systems discharge wastewater with the same mass of nutrients as fertilizers used to produce crops containing 10-75 days' worth of the recommended food energy intake for each person using the system. Both systems also discharge detectable levels of helminth eggs, Giardia cysts, and Cryptosporidium oocysts, but the UASB reactor system discharges higher concentrations, implying limited reuse potential. From a regional management standpoint, small cities should not expend resources to treat wastewater to levels suitable for discharge into surface waters. Rather, they should focus on removing pathogens to reclaim water and nutrients. Biogas recovery may be a priority that should be subservient to water and nutrient recovery in these settings.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA...

  9. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  10. Cultivation of Chlorella protothecoides with urban wastewater in continuous photobioreactor: biomass productivity and nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Tercero, E A; Sforza, E; Morandini, M; Bertucco, A

    2014-02-01

    The capability to grow microalgae in nonsterilized wastewater is essential for an application of this technology in an actual industrial process. Batch experiments were carried out with the species in nonsterilized urban wastewater from local treatment plants to measure both the algal growth and the nutrient consumption. Chlorella protothecoides showed a high specific growth rate (about 1 day(-1)), and no effects of bacterial contamination were observed. Then, this microalgae was grown in a continuous photobioreactor with CO₂-air aeration in order to verify the feasibility of an integrated process of the removal of nutrient from real wastewaters. Different residence times were tested, and biomass productivity and nutrients removal were measured. A maximum of microalgae productivity was found at around 0.8 day of residence time in agreement with theoretical expectation in the case of light-limited cultures. In addition, N-NH₄ and P-PO₄ removal rates were determined in order to model the kinetic of nutrients uptake. Results from batch and continuous experiments were used to propose an integrated process scheme of wastewater treatment at industrial scale including a section with C. protothecoides.

  11. Impacts of urban wastewater discharge on seagrass meadows ( Zostera noltii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaço, Susana; Machás, Raquel; Vieira, Vasco; Santos, Rui

    2008-06-01

    The abiotic disturbance of urban wastewater discharge and its effects in the population structure, plant morphology, leaf nutrient content, epiphyte load and macroalgae abundance of Zostera noltii meadows were investigated in Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, southern Portugal using both univariate and multivariate analysis. Four sites were assessed, on a seasonal basis, along a gradient from a major Waste Water Treatment Works (WWTW) discharge to a main navigation channel. The wastewater discharge caused an evident environmental disturbance through the nutrient enrichment of the water and sediment, particularly of ammonium. Zostera noltii of the sites closest to the nutrient source showed higher leaf N content, clearly reflecting the nitrogen load. The anthropogenic nutrient enrichment resulted in higher biomass, and higher leaf and internode length, except for the meadow closest to the wastewater discharge (270 m). The high ammonium concentration (158-663 μM) in the water at this site resulted in the decrease of biomass, and both the leaf and internode length, suggesting a toxic effect on Z. noltii. The higher abundance of macroalgae and epiphytes found in the meadow closest to the nutrient source may also affect the species negatively. Shoot density was higher at the nutrient-undisturbed site. Two of the three abiotic processes revealed by Principal Component Analysis were clearly related to the WWTW discharge, a contrast between water column salinity and nutrient concentration and a sediment contrast between both porewater nutrients and temperature and redox potential. A multiple regression analysis showed that these abiotic processes had a significant effect on the biomass-density dynamics of meadows and on the overall size of Z. noltii plants, respectively. Results show that the wastewater discharge is an important source of environmental disturbance and nutrients availability in Ria Formosa lagoon affecting the population structure, morphology and N content of Z

  12. A spatial multi-objective optimization model for sustainable urban wastewater system layout planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J

    2012-01-01

    Design of a sustainable city has changed the traditional centralized urban wastewater system towards a decentralized or clustering one. Note that there is considerable spatial variability of the factors that affect urban drainage performance including urban catchment characteristics. The potential options are numerous for planning the layout of an urban wastewater system, which are associated with different costs and local environmental impacts. There is thus a need to develop an approach to find the optimal spatial layout for collecting, treating, reusing and discharging the municipal wastewater of a city. In this study, a spatial multi-objective optimization model, called Urban wastewateR system Layout model (URL), was developed. It is solved by a genetic algorithm embedding Monte Carlo sampling and a series of graph algorithms. This model was illustrated by a case study in a newly developing urban area in Beijing, China. Five optimized system layouts were recommended to the local municipality for further detailed design.

  13. Integral urban wastewater treatment process with a combined anaerobic and aerobic system; Tratamiento integral de aguas residuales urbanas mediante procesos combinados anaerobios y aerobios. Aplicacion de sistema Bioredox a escala piloto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Carmona, A; Angulo Sanchez, R.

    1997-04-01

    A pilot study was carried out of an integral urban sewage treatment process involving a combined anaerobic and aerobic system. the anaerobic digester has a fixed bed on a ceramic support and a 10m``3 upward flow. It operates at ambient temperature (12-15 degree centigree) with hydraulic retention to,es (HRTs) of 24-12 hours and a load of 4-2.6 kg DQO/m``3/day. Anaerobic digestion reduced SSt by over 90% for HRT of 16 and 12 hours. The 20 m``3 prolonged oxidation reactor operates with a load of 0.17-0.45 kg DQO/m``3/day. the plant`s DQO and SST reduction varied between 81% and 89% for the 16 and 12 hour tests and 85-92% (HRT=16 hours and 12 hours respectively). the overall proportions of pathogenic microorganisms eliminated in the experimental plant was greater than 97%. (Author) 23 refs.

  14. Multi parametrical indicator test for urban wastewater influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Franko; Weiss, Stefan; Reinnicke, Sandra; Clara, Manfred; Grath, Johannes; Windhofer, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Austria's drinking water is abstracted from groundwater. While 50 % of the Austrian population are supplied with spring water, the other 50 % get their drinking water from groundwater supplies, in part from enormous quaternary valley and basin deposits, subjected to intensive use by population, industry, agriculture and traffic/transport. Due to protected areas around drinking water wells and springs, there is no treatment necessary in most cases. Water bodies, however, can be affected by different pathways from natural, industrial and urban sources. Identification of anthropogenic sources is paramount for taking appropriate measures to safeguard the quality of drinking water supply. Common parameters like boron are widely used as tracers indicating anthropogenic impacts (e.g. wastewater contamination of groundwater systems). Unfortunately application of these conventional indicators is often limited due to high dilution. Another application where common parameters have their limits is the identification and quantification of the diffuse nitrogen input to water by the stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate. Without any additional tracers the source distinction of nitrate from manure or waste water is still difficult. Even the application of boron isotopes can in some cases not avoid ambiguous interpretation. Therefore the Umweltbundesamt (Environment Agency Austria) developed a multi parametrical indicator test which shall allow for identification and quantification of anthropogenic pollutions. The test aims at analysing eight target substances which are well known to occur in wastewater: Acesulfame and sucralose (two artificial, calorie-free sweeteners), benzotriazole and tolyltriazole (two industrial chemicals/corrosion inhibitors), metoprolol, sotalol, carbamazepine and the metabolite 10,11-Dihydro-10,11-dihydroxycarbamazepin (pharmaceuticals). These substances are polar and degradation in the aquatic system by microbiological processes is not

  15. Wastewater for agriculture: A reuse-oriented planning model and its application in peri-urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ashley; Ray, Isha

    2010-03-01

    The benefits of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) are widely known but its recommendations remain thinly implemented. Designing wastewater treatment plants for reuse in irrigation is a particularly underutilized IWRM opportunity that could potentially increase agricultural yields, conserve surface water, offset chemical fertilizer demand, and reduce the costs of wastewater treatment by eliminating nutrient removal processes. This paper presents a novel planning model, consisting of a reuse-centric performance assessment and optimization model to help design wastewater treatment plants for reuse in agriculture. The performance assessment and optimization model are described, and their coupled application is demonstrated in the peri-urban district of Pixian, China. Based on the results of the performance assessment, two reuse scenarios are evaluated: wastewater to supplement business as usual (BAU) irrigation, and wastewater to replace BAU irrigation. The results indicate that wastewater supplementation could increase profits by $20 million (M) annually; alternatively, wastewater replacement could conserve 35Mm(3) of water in local rivers each year. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coupling UV irradiation and electrocoagulation for reclamation of urban wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotillas, Salvador; Llanos, Javier; Miranda, Oscar G.; Díaz-Trujillo, Gerardo C.; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Iron electrodes allow removing turbidity and E. coli in urban wastewaters. • Enmeshment into growing flocs and oxidation are the key disinfection processes. • A synergistic effect of coupling UV and EC is found at low current densities. • Efficiency of UV irradiation is lowered at high current density. - Abstract: This work focuses on coupling electrocoagulation, with iron electrodes, and UV irradiation (photo-electrocoagulation) for the simultaneous removal of turbidity and E. coli from actual treated municipal wastewaters. Results show that single electrocoagulation behaves as a very efficient technology even using low current densities. E. coli is removed not only by the enmeshment of microorganisms into growing flocs, but also by the attack of electrochemically produced chlorine disinfectant species. Coupling UV irradiation to electrocoagulation with iron electrodes improves the process performance in terms of E. coli and turbidity removal. The effect of current density on process performance was evaluated, finding a synergistic interaction of both techniques at low current density (1.44 A m −2 ) but an antagonistic effect at higher values of current density (7.20 A m −2 ). This antagonistic effect is caused by the less efficient transmission of UV irradiation to the bulk solution due to the increase in the concentration of solids

  17. Removal of antibiotics from urban wastewater by constructed wetland optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Fink, Guido; Schlüsener, Michael P; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; Martín-Villacorta, Javier; Ternes, Thomas; Bécares, Eloy

    2011-04-01

    Seven mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs), differing in their design characteristics, were set up in the open air to assess their efficiency to remove antibiotics from urban raw wastewater. A conventional wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was simultaneously monitored. The experiment took place in autumn. An analytical methodology including HPLC-MS/MS was developed to measure antibiotic concentrations in the soluble water fraction, in the suspended solids fraction and in the WWTP sludge. Considering the soluble water fraction, the only easily eliminated antibiotics in the WWTP were doxycycline (61±38%) and sulfamethoxazole (60±26%). All the studied types of CWs were efficient for the removal of sulfamethoxazole (59±30-87±41%), as found in the WWTP, and, in addition, they removed trimethoprim (65±21-96±29%). The elimination of other antibiotics in CWs was limited by the specific system-configuration: amoxicillin (45±15%) was only eliminated by a free-water (FW) subsurface flow (SSF) CW planted with Typha angustifolia; doxycycline was removed in FW systems planted with T. angustifolia (65±34-75±40%), in a Phragmites australis-floating macrophytes system (62±31%) and in conventional horizontal SSF-systems (71±39%); clarithromycin was partially eliminated by an unplanted FW-SSF system (50±18%); erythromycin could only be removed by a P. australis-horizontal SSF system (64±30%); and ampicillin was eliminated by a T. angustifolia-floating macrophytes system (29±4%). Lincomycin was not removed by any of the systems (WWTP or CWs). The presence or absence of plants, the vegetal species (T. angustifolia or P. australis), the flow type and the CW design characteristics regulated the specific removal mechanisms. Therefore, CWs are not an overall solution to remove antibiotics from urban wastewater during cold seasons. However, more studies are needed to assess their ability in warmer periods and to determine the behaviour of full-scale systems. Copyright

  18. The protection of urban areas from surface wastewater pollutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vialkova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it considered the problem of collection, treatment and discharge into waters of rain and melted wastewater. To reduce the load on the combined sewer system, there are engineering solutions collect rain and melt water for use in the irrigation of lawns and green spaces. Research carried out at the department “Water supply and sanitation”, (Russia, confirm the high pollution concentrations of meltwater and rainfall in urban arias. Series of measurements of heavy metal in rainwater runoff carried out in Hungary demonstrates clearly the differences in concentrations in the function of distance from the edge of the road. Also differences are introduced between pollution concentrations in runoff water from within and outside urban traffic roads. The quality of snow cover, forming meltwater is observed to be changing in dependence on roadway location. Quality characteristics of surface runoff and its sediments can be effectively improved with super-high frequency radiation (SHF treatment which is presented in this paper.

  19. Algal biofuels from urban wastewaters: maximizing biomass yield using nutrients recycled from hydrothermal processing of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, T; Pegallapati, A K; Reddy, H; Kanapathipillai, N; Nirmalakhandan, N; Deng, S; Lammers, P J

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have proposed algal cultivation in urban wastewaters for the dual purpose of waste treatment and bioenergy production from the resulting biomass. This study proposes an enhancement to this approach that integrates cultivation of an acidophilic strain, Galdieria sulphuraria 5587.1, in a closed photobioreactor (PBR); hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of the wet algal biomass; and recirculation of the nutrient-rich aqueous product (AP) of HTL to the PBR to achieve higher biomass productivity than that could be achieved with raw wastewater. The premise is that recycling nutrients in the AP can maintain optimal C, N and P levels in the PBR to maximize biomass growth to increase energy returns. Growth studies on the test species validated growth on AP derived from HTL at temperatures from 180 to 300°C. Doubling N and P concentrations over normal levels in wastewater resulted in biomass productivity gains of 20-25% while N and P removal rates also doubled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A new methodology for dynamic modelling of health risks arising from wastewater influenced urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Mark, Ole; Djordjevic, Slobodan; Hammond, Michael; Khan, David M.; Erichsen, Anders; Dorrit Enevoldsen, Ann; Heinicke, Gerald; Helwigh, Birgitte

    2015-04-01

    Indroduction Urban flooding due to rainfall exceeding the design capacity of drainage systems is a global problem and it has significant economic and social consequences. While the cost of the direct flood damages of urban flooding is well understood, the indirect damages, like the water borne diseases is in general still poorly understood. Climate changes are expected to increase the frequency of urban flooding in many countries which is likely to increase water borne diseases. Diarrheal diseases are most prevalent in developing countries, where poor sanitation, poor drinking water and poor surface water quality causes a high disease burden and mortality, especially during floods. The level of water borne diarrhea in countries with well-developed water and waste water infrastructure has been reduced to an acceptable level, and the population in general do not consider waste water as being a health risk. Hence, exposure to wastewater influenced urban flood water still has the potential to cause transmission of diarrheal diseases. When managing urban flooding and planning urban climate change adaptations, health risks are rarely taken into consideration. This paper outlines a novel methodology for linking dynamic urban flood modelling with Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA). This provides a unique possibility for understanding the interaction between urban flooding and the health risks caused by direct human contact with flood water and provides an option for reducing the burden of disease in the population through the use of intelligent urban flood risk management. Methodology We have linked hydrodynamic urban flood modelling with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to determine the risk of infection caused by exposure to wastewater influenced urban flood water. The deterministic model MIKE Flood, which integrates the sewer network model in MIKE Urban and the 2D surface model MIKE21, was used to calculate the concentration of pathogens in the

  1. Possible Use of Treated Wastewater as Irrigation Water at Urban Green Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Bozdoğan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing demands for fresh water resources have brought the reuse of treated wastewater into agendas. Wastewater has year-long potential to be used as an irrigation water source. Therefore, treated wastewater is used as irrigation water over agricultural lands and urban landscapes, as process water in industrial applications, as back-up water in environmental applications in water resources and wetlands of dry regions. The present study was conducted to investigate the possible use of domestic wastewater treated through pilot-scale constructed wetland of Adana-Karaisalı with dominant Mediterranean climate in irrigation of marigold (Tagetes erecta, commonly used over urban landscapes. Experiments were carried out between the dates May-November 2008 for 7 months with fresh water and treated wastewater. Plant growth parameters (plant height, plant diameter, number of branches and flowering parameters (number of flowers, flower diameter, flower pedicle thickness were monitored in monthly basis. Results revealed positive impacts of treated wastewater irrigations on plant growth during the initial 5 months between May-September but negative impacts in October and November. Similarly, treated wastewater irrigations had positive impacts on flowering parameters during the initial 3 months but had negative impacts during the subsequent 4 months. Such a case indicated shortened visual efficiencies of marigold. Therefore, treated wastewater can be used as an alternative water resource in irrigation of annual flowers, but better results can be attained by mixing treated wastewater with fresh water at certain ratios.

  2. Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

    A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

  3. Integrated control of the wastewater system – potentials and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Grum, Morten; Muschalla, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Applying integrated control to a sewer system and wastewater treatment plant often leads to additional benefits for both systems when compared to controlling them independently. However, barriers such as a lack of incentive for utilities to put this type of control in place mean that in practice...

  4. Downstream of downtown: urban wastewater as groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. S. D.; Chilton, P. J.

    Wastewater infiltration is often a major component of overall recharge to aquifers around urban areas, especially in more arid climates. Despite this, such recharge still represents only an incidental (or even accidental) byproduct of various current practices of sewage effluent handling and wastewater reuse. This topic is reviewed through reference to certain areas of detailed field research, with pragmatic approaches being identified to reduce the groundwater pollution hazard of these practices whilst attempting to retain their groundwater resource benefit. Since urban sewage effluent is probably the only `natural resource' whose global availability is steadily increasing, the socioeconomic importance of this topic for rapidly developing urban centres in the more arid parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East will be apparent. L'infiltration des eaux usées est souvent la composante essentielle de toute la recharge des aquifères des zones urbaines, particulièrement sous les climats les plus arides. Malgré cela, une telle recharge ne constitue encore qu'un sous-produit incident, ou même accidentel, de pratiques courantes variées du traitement de rejets d'égouts et de réutilisation d'eaux usées. Ce sujet est passé en revue en se référant à certaines régions étudiées en détail, par des approches pragmatiques reconnues pour permettre de réduire les risques de pollution des nappes dues à ces pratiques tout en permettant d'en tirer profit pour leur ressource en eau souterraine. Puisque les effluents d'égouts urbains sont probablement la seule « ressource naturelle » dont la disponibilité globale va croissant constamment, l'importance socio-économique de ce sujet est évidente pour les centres urbains à développement rapide de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Amérique latine et du Moyen-Orient. La infiltración de aguas residuales es a menudo un componente principal de la recarga total en acuíferos ubicados en torno a zonas urbanas

  5. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  6. Integrated Risk Framework for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Thomas, Evan; Hargreaves, Megan; Frost, Ray; Dawes, Les

    2006-08-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are becoming increasingly important for the treatment and dispersal of effluent in new urbanised developments that are not serviced by centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems. However, the current standards and guidelines adopted by many local authorities for assessing suitable site and soil conditions for OWTS are increasingly coming under scrutiny due to the public health and environmental impacts caused by poorly performing systems, in particular septic tank-soil adsorption systems. In order to achieve sustainable onsite wastewater treatment with minimal impacts on the environment and public health, more appropriate means of assessment are required. This paper highlights an integrated risk based approach for assessing the inherent hazards associated with OWTS in order to manage and mitigate the environmental and public health risks inherent with onsite wastewater treatment. In developing a sound and cohesive integrated risk framework for OWTS, several key issues must be recognised. These include the inclusion of relevant stakeholders throughout framework development, the integration of scientific knowledge, data and analysis with risk assessment and management ideals, and identification of the appropriate performance goals for successful management and mitigation of associated risks. These issues were addressed in the development of the risk framework to provide a generic approach to assessing risk from OWTS. The utilisation of the developed risk framework for achieving more appropriate assessment and management techniques for OWTS is presented in a case study for the Gold Coast region, Queensland State, Australia.

  7. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  8. Integrated Constructed Wetlands (ICW) for livestock wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rory; McInnes, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Social, economic and environmental coherence is sought in the management of livestock wastewater. Wetlands facilitate the biogeochemical processes that exploit livestock wastewater and provide opportunities to achieve such coherence and also to deliver on a range of ecosystem services. The Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) concept integrates three inextricably linked objectives: water quantity and quality management, landscape-fit to improve aesthetic site values and enhanced biodiversity. The synergies derived from this explicit integration allow one of the key challenges for livestock management to be addressed. An example utilizing twelve ICW systems from a catchment on the south coast of Ireland demonstrates that over an eight year period mean reduction of total and soluble phosphorus (molybdate reactive phosphorus) exceeded 95% and the mean removal of ammonium-N exceeded 98%. This paper reviews evidence regarding the capacity of ICWs to provide a coherent and sustainable alternative to conventional systems.

  9. Development of an Integrated Wastewater Treatment System/water reuse/agriculture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C. H.; Schuler, A.

    2017-12-01

    Factors like increasing population, urbanization, and climate change have made the management of water resources a challenge for municipalities. By understanding wastewater recycling for agriculture in arid regions, we can expand the supply of water to agriculture and reduce energy use at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This can improve management decisions between WWTPs and water managers. The objective of this research is to develop a prototype integrated model of the wastewater treatment system and nearby agricultural areas linked by water and nutrients, using the Albuquerque Southeast Eastern Reclamation Facility (SWRF) and downstream agricultural system as a case study. Little work has been done to understand how such treatment technology decisions affect the potential for water ruse, nutrient recovery in agriculture, overall energy consumption and agriculture production and water quality. A holistic approach to understanding synergies and tradeoffs between treatment, reuse, and agriculture is needed. For example, critical wastewater treatment process decisions include options to nitrify (oxidize ammonia), which requires large amounts of energy, to operate at low dissolved oxygen concentrations, which requires much less energy, whether to recover nitrogen and phosphorus, chemically in biosolids, or in reuse water for agriculture, whether to generate energy from anaerobic digestion, and whether to develop infrastructure for agricultural reuse. The research first includes quantifying existing and feasible agricultural sites suitable for irrigation by reuse wastewater as well as existing infrastructure such as irrigation canals and piping by using GIS databases. Second, a nutrient and water requirement for common New Mexico crop is being determined. Third, a wastewater treatment model will be utilized to quantify energy usage and nutrient removal under various scenarios. Different agricultural reuse sensors and treatment technologies will be explored. The

  10. Membrane and Adsorption Processes for Removing of Organics and Inorganics from Urban Wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Majlinda Daci-Ajvazi; Bashkim Thaçi; Nexhat Daci; Salih Gash

    2016-01-01

    Since in Kosovo there are still no water purification plants and untreated wastewaters are discharged in environment, in this paper we’ve studied methods for removing of different organic and inorganic pollutants from Kosovo urban wastewaters. For best results we’ve used two methods, reverse osmosis and adsorption. For reverse osmosis, all samples were pretreated with coagulant (FeSO4) and flocculant (CaO) and then treated with reverse osmosis membranes. For adsorption, we used Kosovo coal as...

  11. Wastewater collection and treatment technologies for semi-urban areas of India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaravadivel, M; Vigneswaran, S

    2001-01-01

    Sanitation and wastewater management problems in small and medium towns in India (referred to as "semi-urban areas"--SUAs) are distinctly different from those of large cities or rural villages. There is an apparent lack of choices of appropriate sanitation options for these semi-urban areas, leading them to adopt on-site sanitation technologies. A field study of four such small towns in India was conducted to evaluate the suitability of available low-cost wastewater collection and treatment technologies, in light of their current practice. Based on the field study, this paper suggests a system comprising "combined surface sewers" and "reed-bed channel" for collection and treatment of wastewater for semi-urban areas, that can utilize all the existing infrastructure to effect better sanitation at lower costs. The suggested system involves converting the existing open wastewater collection drains on the road sides, as "decentralized" networks of covered drains with simple structural modifications to collect both wastewater and stormwater; and, converting the large open drains on the outskirts of SUAs that carry wastewater to agricultural fields, as gravel media filled beds planted with local reeds. Cost estimates for the towns studied indicate this system to be over 70% cheaper compared to conventional collection and treatment systems.

  12. Expansion of urban area and wastewater irrigated rice area in Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, K.M.; van, Rooijen D.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Aakuraju, Radha V.; Amerasinghe, P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate land use changes in urban and peri-urban Hyderabad and their influence on wastewater irrigated rice using Landsat ETM + data and spectral matching techniques. The main source of irrigation water is the Musi River, which collects a large volume of wastewater and stormwater while running through the city. From 1989 to 2002, the wastewater irrigated area along the Musi River increased from 5,213 to 8,939 ha with concurrent expansion of the city boundaries from 22,690 to 42,813 ha and also decreased barren lands and range lands from 86,899 to 66,616 ha. Opportunistic shifts in land use, especially related to wastewater irrigated agriculture, were seen as a response to the demand for fresh vegetables and easy access to markets, exploited mainly by migrant populations. While wastewater irrigated agriculture contributes to income security of marginal groups, it also supplements the food basket of many city dwellers. Landsat ETM + data and advanced methods such as spectral matching techniques are ideal for quantifying urban expansion and associated land use changes, and are useful for urban planners and decision makers alike. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. A social choice-based methodology for treated wastewater reuse in urban and suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjouri, Najmeh; Pourmand, Ehsan

    2017-07-01

    Reusing treated wastewater for supplying water demands such as landscape and agricultural irrigation in urban and suburban areas has become a major water supply approach especially in regions struggling with water shortage. Due to limited available treated wastewater to satisfy all water demands, conflicts may arise in allocating treated wastewater to water users. Since there is usually more than one decision maker and more than one criterion to measure the impact of each water allocation scenario, effective tools are needed to combine individual preferences to reach a collective decision. In this paper, a new social choice (SC) method, which can consider some indifference thresholds for decision makers, is proposed for evaluating and ranking treated wastewater and urban runoff allocation scenarios to water users in urban and suburban areas. Some SC methods, namely plurality voting, Borda count, pairwise comparisons, Hare system, dictatorship, and approval voting, are applied for comparing and evaluating the results. Different scenarios are proposed for allocating treated wastewater and urban runoff to landscape irrigation, agricultural lands as well as artificial recharge of aquifer in the Tehran metropolitan Area, Iran. The main stakeholders rank the proposed scenarios based on their utilities using two different approaches. The proposed method suggests ranking of the scenarios based on the stakeholders' utilities and considering the scores they assigned to each scenario. Comparing the results of the proposed method with those of six different SC methods shows that the obtained ranks are mostly in compliance with the social welfare.

  14. Liquid manna? Treating urban wastewater for local gardening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... “Before, we had no proper sewage system and people were forced to empty ... Conventional sewage treatment is beyond the means of the municipality, ... Researchers found that some vegetables irrigated with wastewater ...

  15. Managing urban wastewater for maximising water resource utilisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available into components of distinctly different quality, and the separate treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater for different end-uses. The groundwater exploitation strategy is largely controlled by water quality requirements. Reuse of domestic and industrial...

  16. Screening microalgae isolated from urban storm- and wastewater systems as feedstock for biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, Rebecca; Kirkwood, Andrea E

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting microalgae as feedstock for biofuel production is a growing field of research and application, but there remain challenges related to industrial viability and economic sustainability. A solution to the water requirements of industrial-scale production is the use of wastewater as a growth medium. Considering the variable quality and contaminant loads of wastewater, algal feedstock would need to have broad tolerance and resilience to fluctuating wastewater conditions during growth. As a first step in targeting strains for growth in wastewater, our study isolated microalgae from wastewater habitats, including urban stormwater-ponds and a municipal wastewater-treatment system, to assess growth, fatty acids and metal tolerance under standardized conditions. Stormwater ponds in particular have widely fluctuating conditions and metal loads, so microalgae from this type of environment may have desirable traits for growth in wastewater. Forty-three algal strains were isolated in total, including several strains from natural habitats. All strains, with the exception of one cyanobacterial strain, are members of the Chlorophyta, including several taxa commonly targeted for biofuel production. Isolates were identified using taxonomic and 18S rRNA sequence methods, and the fastest growing strains with ideal fatty acid profiles for biodiesel production included Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus species (Growth rate (d(-1)) > 1). All isolates in a small, but diverse taxonomic group of test-strains were tolerant of copper at wastewater-relevant concentrations. Overall, more than half of the isolated strains, particularly those from stormwater ponds, show promise as candidates for biofuel feedstock.

  17. Screening microalgae isolated from urban storm- and wastewater systems as feedstock for biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Massimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting microalgae as feedstock for biofuel production is a growing field of research and application, but there remain challenges related to industrial viability and economic sustainability. A solution to the water requirements of industrial-scale production is the use of wastewater as a growth medium. Considering the variable quality and contaminant loads of wastewater, algal feedstock would need to have broad tolerance and resilience to fluctuating wastewater conditions during growth. As a first step in targeting strains for growth in wastewater, our study isolated microalgae from wastewater habitats, including urban stormwater-ponds and a municipal wastewater-treatment system, to assess growth, fatty acids and metal tolerance under standardized conditions. Stormwater ponds in particular have widely fluctuating conditions and metal loads, so microalgae from this type of environment may have desirable traits for growth in wastewater. Forty-three algal strains were isolated in total, including several strains from natural habitats. All strains, with the exception of one cyanobacterial strain, are members of the Chlorophyta, including several taxa commonly targeted for biofuel production. Isolates were identified using taxonomic and 18S rRNA sequence methods, and the fastest growing strains with ideal fatty acid profiles for biodiesel production included Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus species (Growth rate (d−1 > 1. All isolates in a small, but diverse taxonomic group of test-strains were tolerant of copper at wastewater-relevant concentrations. Overall, more than half of the isolated strains, particularly those from stormwater ponds, show promise as candidates for biofuel feedstock.

  18. Integrated systems for power plant cooling and wastewater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haith, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of integrated management of energy and water resources, demonstrated in hydropower development, may be applicable to steam-generated power, also. For steam plants water is a means of disposing of a waste product, which is unutilized energy in the form of heat. One framework for the evolution of integrated systems is the consideration of possible technical linkages between power plant cooling and municipal wastewater management. Such linkages include the use of waste heat as a mechanism for enhancing wastewater treatment, the use of treated wastewater as make-up for evaporative cooling structures, and the use of a pond or reservoir for both cooling and waste stabilization. This chapter reports the results of a systematic evaluation of possible integrated systems for power plant cooling and waste water management. Alternatives were analyzed for each of three components of the system--power plant cooling (condenser heat rejection), thermally enhanced waste water treatment, and waste water disposal. Four cooling options considered were evaporative tower, open cycle, spray pond, and cooling pond. Three treatment alternatives considered were barometric condenser-activated sludge, sectionalized condenser-activated sludge, and cooling/stabilization pond. Three disposal alternatives considered were ocean discharge, land application (spray irrigation), and make-up (for evaporative cooling). To facilitate system comparisons, an 1100-MW nuclear power plant was selected. 31 references

  19. Urban runoff and combined sewer overflow. [Wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffa, P.E. (Calocerinos and Spina, Liverpool, NY); Freedman, S.D.; Owens, E.M.; Field, R.; Cibik, C.

    1982-06-01

    The control, treatment and management of urban runoff and sewer overflow are reviewed. Simplified modeling and monitoring techniques are used to characterize urban runoff and to assess control alternatives. (KRM)

  20. Integrated sustainable urban infrastructures in building projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Current strategies in urban planning and development merely promote standardized building solutions, while failing to prioritize innovative approaches of integration between building projects and sustainable urban infrastructures. As a result of this, urban infrastructures – the urban veins...... – are outdated from a sustainability perspective. This paper looks into more holistic ways of approaching building projects and discuss whether this provide a basis for an increased integration of urban infrastructures within building projects. In our study, we especially emphasise how conventional ways...... of approaching building projects are influenced by lock-in of existing infrastructural systems and compare this with two examples of more holistic ways of approaching building projects, developed by two architecture firms. The paper points out that such holistic perspective in building projects provide...

  1. Parasitic helminth load in urban waste-water of Kenitra City, Morocco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste-waters of Kenitra City are rejected without any preliminary treatment in the receiving medium (Sebou River, Fouarat Lake). A small fraction is used to irrigate crops in the peri-urban area of Kenitra City. The parasitological characterization revealed an average parasitic helminth egg concentration of 25.07 per liter ...

  2. Global nitrogen and phosphate in urban wastewater for the period 1970 to 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drecht, van G.; Bouwman, A.F.; Harrison, J.; Knoop, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents estimates for global N and P emissions from sewage for the period 1970-2050 for the four Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios. Using country-specific projections for population and economic growth, urbanization, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment

  3. An integrated urban drainage system model for assessing renovation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J; Zhao, D

    2012-01-01

    Due to sustained economic growth in China over the last three decades, urbanization has been on a rapidly expanding track. In recent years, regional industrial relocations were also accelerated across the country from the east coast to the west inland. These changes have led to a large-scale redesign of urban infrastructures, including the drainage system. To help the reconstructed infrastructures towards a better sustainability, a tool is required for assessing the efficiency and environmental performance of different renovation schemes. This paper developed an integrated dynamic modeling tool, which consisted of three models for describing the sewer, the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the receiving water body respectively. Three auxiliary modules were also incorporated to conceptualize the model, calibrate the simulations, and analyze the results. The developed integrated modeling tool was applied to a case study in Shenzhen City, which is one of the most dynamic cities and facing considerable challenges for environmental degradation. The renovation scheme proposed to improve the environmental performance of Shenzhen City's urban drainage system was modeled and evaluated. The simulation results supplied some suggestions for the further improvement of the renovation scheme.

  4. A gain-loss framework based on ensemble flow forecasts to switch the urban drainage-wastewater system management towards energy optimization during dry periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, V.; Grum, M.; Munk-Nielsen, T.

    2017-01-01

    ). The specificity of this study is to optimize the energy consumption in IUDWS during low-flow periods by exploiting the electrical smart grid market (i.e. the actions are taken when no events are forecast). Furthermore, the results demonstrate the benefit of NWP neighbourhood post-processing methods to enhance......Precipitation is the cause of major perturbation to the flow in urban drainage and wastewater systems. Flow forecasts, generated by coupling rainfall predictions with a hydrologic runoff model, can potentially be used to optimize the operation of integrated urban drainage-wastewater systems (IUDWSs......) during both wet and dry weather periods. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models have significantly improved in recent years, having increased their spatial and temporal resolution. Finer resolution NWP are suitable for urban-catchment-scale applications, providing longer lead time than radar...

  5. Screening new psychoactive substances in urban wastewater using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariño, Iria; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bagnati, Renzo; Martins, Claudia P B; Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of drug residues in urban wastewater could complement epidemiological studies in detecting the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS), a continuously changing group of drugs hard to monitor by classical methods. We initially selected 52 NPS potentially used in Italy based on seizure data and consumption alerts provided by the Antidrug Police Department and the National Early Warning System. Using a linear ion trap-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer, we designed a suspect screening and a target method approach and compared them for the analysis of 24 h wastewater samples collected at the treatment plant influents of four Italian cities. This highlighted the main limitations of these two approaches, so we could propose requirements for future research. A library of MS/MS spectra of 16 synthetic cathinones and 19 synthetic cannabinoids, for which analytical standards were acquired, was built at different collision energies and is available on request. The stability of synthetic cannabinoids was studied in analytical standards and wastewater, identifying the best analytical conditions for future studies. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first stability data on NPS. Few suspects were identified in Italian wastewater samples, in accordance with recent epidemiological data reporting a very low prevalence of use of NPS in Italy. This study outlines an analytical approach for NPS identification and measurement in urban wastewater and for estimating their use in the population.

  6. Azolla-Anabaena's behaviour in urban wastewater and artificial media--influence of combined nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M L; Santos, M C R; Carrapiço, F; Pereira, A L

    2009-08-01

    The results of using the nitrogen fixing symbiotic system Azolla-Anabaena to improve the quality of treated urban wastewater, particularly on what concerns phosphorus removal efficiencies (40-65%), obtained in continuous assays performed during the past few years and presented earlier, were very promising. Nevertheless, the presence of combined nitrogen in some wastewaters can compromise the treatment efficiency. The main goal of this work was to compare plants behaviour in wastewater and in mineral media with and without added nitrogen. Azolla filiculoides's specific growth rates in wastewater and in mineral media without added nitrogen or with low nitrate concentration were very similar (0.122 d(-1)-0.126 d(-1)), but decreased in the presence of ammonium (0.100 d(-1)). The orthophosphate removal rate coefficients were similar in all the growth media (0.210 d(-1)-0.232 d(-1)), but ammonium removal rate coefficient in wastewater was higher (0.117 d(-1)) than in mineral medium using that source of nitrogen (0.077 d(-1)). The ammonium present in wastewater, despite its high concentration (34 mg NL(-1)), didn't seem to inhibit growth and nitrogen fixation, however, in mineral media, ammonium (40 mg NL(-1)) was found to induce, respectively, 18% and 46% of inhibition.

  7. Catchment & sewer network simulation model to benchmark control strategies within urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, Ramesh; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Fu, Guangtao

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a benchmark simulation model to evaluate control strategies for the urban catchment and sewer network. Various modules describing wastewater generation in the catchment, its subsequent transport and storage in the sewer system are presented. Global/local overflow based...... evaluation criteria describing the cumulative and acute effects are presented. Simulation results show that the proposed set of models is capable of generating daily, weekly and seasonal variations as well as describing the effect of rain events on wastewater characteristics. Two sets of case studies...

  8. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Thi Quynh Lien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L. Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L. A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01 and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001.

  9. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L). Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L). A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01) and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). PMID:27314366

  10. Strategies for Reducing the Start-up Operation of Microbial Electrochemical Treatments of Urban Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Borjas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs constitute the core of a number of emerging technologies with a high potential for treating urban wastewater due to a fascinating reaction mechanism—the electron transfer between bacteria and electrodes to transform metabolism into electrical current. In the current work, we focus on the model electroactive microorganism Geobacter sulfurreducens to explore both the design of new start-up procedures and electrochemical operations. Our chemostat-grown plug and play cells, were able to reduce the start-up period by 20-fold while enhancing chemical oxygen demand (COD removal by more than 6-fold during this period. Moreover, a filter-press based bioreactor was successfully tested for both acetate-supplemented synthetic wastewater and real urban wastewater. This proof-of-concept pre-pilot treatment included a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC followed in time by a microbial fuel cell (MFC to finally generate electrical current of ca. 20 A·m−2 with a power of 10 W·m−2 while removing 42 g COD day−1·m−2. The effective removal of acetate suggests a potential use of this modular technology for treating acetogenic wastewater where Geobacter sulfurreducens outcompetes other organisms.

  11. Wastewater treatment plant effluent introduces recoverable shifts in microbial community composition in urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Price, J. R.; Ryan, M. O.; Toran, L.; Sales, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    New technologies are allowing for intense scrutiny of the impact of land use on microbial communities in stream networks. We used a combination of analytical chemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and targeted amplicon sequencing for a preliminary study on the impact of wastewater treatment plant effluent discharge on urban streams. Samples were collected on two dates above and below treatment plants on the Wissahickon Creek, and its tributary, Sandy Run, in Montgomery County, PA, USA. As expected, effluent was observed to be a significant source of nutrients and human and non-specific fecal associated taxa. There was an observed increase in the alpha diversity at locations immediately below effluent outflows, which contributed many taxa involved in wastewater treatment processes and nutrient cycling to the stream's microbial community. Unexpectedly, modeling of microbial community shifts along the stream was not controlled by concentrations of measured nutrients. Furthermore, partial recovery, in the form of decreasing abundances of bacteria and nutrients associated with wastewater treatment plant processes, nutrient cycling bacteria, and taxa associated with fecal and sewage sources, was observed between effluent sources. Antecedent moisture conditions impacted overall microbial community diversity, with higher diversity occurring after rainfall. These findings hint at resilience in stream microbial communities to recover from wastewater treatment plant effluent and are vital to understanding the impacts of urbanization on microbial stream communities.

  12. A novel integrated assessment methodology of urban water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listowski, A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Vigneswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater is no longer considered a waste product and water reuse needs to play a stronger part in securing urban water supply. Although treatment technologies for water reclamation have significantly improved the question that deserves further analysis is, how selection of a particular wastewater treatment technology relates to performance and sustainability? The proposed assessment model integrates; (i) technology, characterised by selected quantity and quality performance parameters; (ii) productivity, efficiency and reliability criteria; (iii) quantitative performance indicators; (iv) development of evaluation model. The challenges related to hierarchy and selections of performance indicators have been resolved through the case study analysis. The goal of this study is to validate a new assessment methodology in relation to performance of the microfiltration (MF) technology, a key element of the treatment process. Specific performance data and measurements were obtained at specific Control and Data Acquisition Points (CP) to satisfy the input-output inventory in relation to water resources, products, material flows, energy requirements, chemicals use, etc. Performance assessment process contains analysis and necessary linking across important parametric functions leading to reliable outcomes and results.

  13. Dynamic modelling of substrate degradation for urban wastewater treatment by sequencing batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dere, T.; Demirci, Y.; Cekim, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic modelling of substrate degradation for urban wastewater treatment by a pilot-scaled sequencing batch reactor including experimental data of a long-term experimental work performed at different operation conditions. During the study, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were measured to investigate SBR treatment performance. Optimum operation times were determined and kinetic constant (k) was calculated (0.60 h-1) with using experimental results for urban wastewater. The Model Simulation estimates were very good fit with the experimental data under organic loading degradation conditions model simulation predictions well match with the experimental results under disturbed organic loading conditions. (author)

  14. Urban wastewater and stormwater technologies in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, A N; Koutsoyiannis, D; Tchobanoglous, G

    2005-01-01

    The status of urban sewerage and stormwater drainage systems in ancient Greece is reviewed, based on the results of archaeological studies of the 20th century. Emphasis is given to the construction, operation, and management of sewerage and stormwater drainage systems during the Minoan period (2nd millennium B.C.). The achievements of this period in dealing with the hygienic and the functional requirements of palaces and cities, were so advanced that they can only be compared to modern urban water systems, developed in Europe and North America in the second half of the 19th century A.D. The advanced Minoan technologies were exported to all parts of Greece in later periods of the Greek civilization, i.e. in Mycenaean, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Deletic, Ana; Fowdar, Harsha; Fu, Guangtao; Kleidorfer, Manfred; McCarthy, David; Steen Mikkelsen, Peter; Rauch, Wolfgang; Sweetapple, Chris; Vezzaro, Luca; Yuan, Zhiguo; Willems, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, reviews the state-of-the-art and modelling tools developed recently to understand and manage GHG emissions from IUDS. Further, open problems and research gaps are discussed and a framework for handling GHG emissions from IUDSs is presented. The literature review reveals that there is a need to strengthen already available mathematical models for IUDS to take GHG into account.

  16. Green technologies for the use of urban wastewater: economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Alfredo Gil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban sewage is one of the biggest polluters of water resources. For treatment, the usual conventional technologies (CT are based on civil and hydraulic engineering; more recently, green technologies (GT based on biology and ecology began to be developed. The aim of this study was to assess the economic aspects of these technologies using cost-benefit analysis. The economic benefits are derived from the sale of forest products and the environmental benefits of water decontamination, valued by the avoided cost method. The results of the study establish that GT have better commercial and economic performance than CT, and that the inclusion of environmental benefit significantly improves the results.

  17. A mini review on the integration of resource recovery from wastewater into sustainability of the green building through phycoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistyorini, Anie

    2017-09-01

    Green building implementation is an important assessment for sustainable development to establish a good quality of the environment. To develop the future green building implementation, resource recovery from the building wastewater is significantly important to consider as a part of the green building development. Discharge of urban wastewater into water bodies trigger of eutrophication in the water catchment, accordingly need further treatment to recover the nutrient before it is reused or discharged into receiving water bodies. In this regard, integration of microalgae cultivation in closed photobioreactor as building façade is critically important to be considered in the implementation of the green building. Microalgae offer multi-function as bioremediation (phycoremediation) of the wastewater, production of the biofuels, and important algal bio-products. At the same time, algae façade boost the reduction of the operating cost in forms of light, thermal energy and add the benefit into the building for energy reduction and architecture function. It promises an environmental benefit to support green building spirit through nutrient recovery and wastewater reuse for algae cultivation and to enhance the aesthetic of the building façade.

  18. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  19. {sup 1}H qNMR and chemometric analyses of urban wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M. A.; Venâncio, Tiago; Carneiro, Renato L.; Ferreira, Antonio G., E-mail: elenilson.godoy@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), São Carlos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Química; Sartori, Luci [Serviço Autônomo de Água e Esgoto de São Carlos (SAAE), São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The industrial development, urbanization and agriculture play a major role in the degradation of the global environmental. Thus, the wastewater treatments need to be monitored continuously to ensure efficient operation. This manuscript presents an application of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric and quantitative analyses to study the wastewater before and after the sewage treatment plant (STP). The concentration of compounds related to organic matter degradation ranged with treatment and seasonality. Anomalous discharges and the influence of storm water on the sewage composition were further identified. All the variations indicated that the employed procedure might be useful to enhance the effectiveness of STPs, plan prevention actions for equipment protection and preserve the environment. (author)

  20. Reuse of drinking water treatment residuals in a continuous stirred tank reactor for phosphate removal from urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Jinbo

    2014-01-01

    This work proposed a new approach of reusing drinking water treatment residuals (WTR) in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to remove phosphate (P) from urban wastewater. The results revealed that the P removal efficiency of the WTR was more than 94% for urban wastewater, in the condition of initial P concentration (P0) of 10 mg L⁻¹, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h and WTR dosage (M0) of 10 g L⁻¹. The P mass transfer from the bulk to the solid-liquid interface in the CSTR system increased at lower P0, higher M0 and longer HRT. The P adsorption capacity of WTR from urban wastewater was comparable to that of the 201 × 4 resin and unaffected by ions competition. Moreover, WTR had a limited effect on the metals' (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni) concentrations of the urban wastewater. Based on the principle of waste recycling, the reuse of WTR in CSTR is a promising alternative technology for P removal from urban wastewater.

  1. Environmental impacts of wastewater from urban slums: case study - Old Fadama, Accra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monney, I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The burgeoning of slums in the developing world poses an urgent environmental threat due to insanitary conditions and rampant disposal of wastewater. To assess the potential environmental impacts, domestic wastewater from Ghana's biggest urban slum - Old Fadama was characterised throughout the dry and wet seasons. The study drew on a comprehensive assessment of the general sanitary conditions in the community to determine the sources of pollution and water quality monitoring. BOD5 levels of wastewater from the study area were 545.63±99.88mg/L and 645.94±331.43mg/L in the dry and wet seasons respectively whereas COD levels were 1100.45±167.16mg/L and 1415.12±722.83mg/L in the dry and wet seasons respectively. E-coli levels were 4±1x106CFU/100mL and 4200±2400 x106CFU/100mL in the dry and wet seasons respectively whereas total coliform levels also showed the same trend with 9±2106CFU/100mL and 16800±5100106CFU/100mL in the dry and wet seasons respectively. The study identifies that wastewater from this community has potential deleterious environmental implications due to high levels of nutrients, oxygen-demanding substances and faecal coliforms. Pollutants were identified to be emanating predominantly from open defecation and indiscriminate waste disposal. Efforts should thus be directed towards improving sanitary conditions viz. access to toilet facilities, waste disposal mechanisms and best management practices for wastewater.

  2. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes...... aspects of the papers presented at the INTERURBA-II conference in 2001 and the discussions during the conference. Tools for integrated analysis have been developed, but there is less implementation than could be expected. That is due to lack of adequate knowledge about important mechanisms, coupled...... with a significant conservatism in the business. However, significant integrated analyses have been reported. Most of them deal with the sewer system and the treatment plant, while few incorporate the receiving water as anything but the object of the loads to be minimised by engineering measures up-stream. Important...

  3. Performance Evaluation of Integrated Constructed Wetland for Domestic Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehar, Shama; Naz, Iffat; Khan, Sumera; Naeem, Sana; Perveen, Irum; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia

    2016-03-01

    Simple, budget friendly, laboratory-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) was designed to assess domestic wastewater treatment performance at a loading rate of 75 mm/d, planted with native plant species: Veronica-angallis aquatica and compared with non-vegetative control system at various residence times of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 days. Results revealed that the vegetated ICW demonstrated superior performance over non-vegetated control: 69.12 vs 17.12%, 67.77 vs 16.04%, 68 vs 16.48%, 71.19 vs 6.56%, 71.54 vs 14.80%, and 72.04 vs 11.41% for total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, phosphates (PO4(-)), sulfate (SO4(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)), and nitrite (NO2(-)), respectively, at 20 days residence times. Reduction in bacterial counts (2.79 × 10(4) CFU/mL) and fecal pathogens (345.5 MPN index/100 mL) was observed in V. aquatica at 20 days residence time. Therefore, the present study highlights not only the presence of vegetation but also appropriate residence time in constructed wetlands for better performances.

  4. Sources of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in urban and rural catchments in Ontario, Canada: Glyphosate or phosphonates in wastewater?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struger, J.; Van Stempvoort, D.R.; Brown, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Correlation analysis suggests that occurrences of AMPA in streams of southern Ontario are linked mainly to glyphosate in both urban and rural settings, rather than to wastewater sources, as some previous studies have suggested. For this analysis the artificial sweetener acesulfame was analyzed as a wastewater indicator in surface water samples collected from urban and rural settings in southern Ontario, Canada. This interpretation is supported by the concurrence of seasonal fluctuations of glyphosate and AMPA concentrations. Herbicide applications in larger urban centres and along major transportation corridors appear to be important sources of glyphosate and AMPA in surface water, in addition to uses of this herbicide in rural and mixed use areas. Fluctuations in concentrations of acesulfame and glyphosate residues were found to be related to hydrologic events. - Highlights: • Widespread occurrence of glyphosate and AMPA in surface waters of southern Ontario. • Linked to applications of glyphosate in urban and rural settings. • Supported by lack of correlation between AMPA and the wastewater tracer acesulfame. • Contrasts with view that AMPA found in the environment is derived from wastewater. • AMPA more persistent than glyphosate and both fluctuated with hydrological cycles. - The occurrence of AMPA in streams in southern Ontario is linked mainly to glyphosate rather than wastewater sources

  5. Barriers to Innovation in Urban Wastewater Utilities: Attitudes of Managers in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiparsky, Michael; Thompson, Barton H; Binz, Christian; Sedlak, David L; Tummers, Lars; Truffer, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    In many regions of the world, urban water systems will need to transition into fundamentally different forms to address current stressors and meet impending challenges-faster innovation will need to be part of these transitions. To assess the innovation deficit in urban water organizations and to identify means for supporting innovation, we surveyed wastewater utility managers in California. Our results reveal insights about the attitudes towards innovation among decision makers, and how perceptions at the level of individual managers might create disincentives for experimentation. Although managers reported feeling relatively unhindered organizationally, they also spend less time on innovation than they feel they should. The most frequently reported barriers to innovation included cost and financing; risk and risk aversion; and regulatory compliance. Considering these results in the context of prior research on innovation systems, we conclude that collective action may be required to address underinvestment in innovation.

  6. Impact of treated urban wastewater for reuse in agriculture on crop response and soil ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Dalel; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Medhioub, Mounir; Zhou, John; Kallel, Monem; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    The scarcity of freshwater resources is a serious problem in arid regions, such as Tunisia, and marginal quality water is gradually being used in agriculture. This study aims to study the impact of treated urban wastewater for reuse in agriculture on the health of soil and food crops. The key findings are that the effluents of Sfax wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) did not meet the relevant guidelines, therefore emitting a range of organic (e.g., up to 90 mg L(-1) COD and 30 mg L(-1) BOD5) and inorganic pollutants (e.g., up to 0.5 mg L(-1) Cu and 0.1 mg L(-1) Cd) in the receiving aquatic environments. Greenhouse experiments examining the effects of wastewater reuse on food plants such as tomato, lettuce, and radish showed that the treated effluent adversely affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant enzyme contents. However, the pollution burden and biological effects on plants were substantially reduced by using a 50 % dilution of treated sewage effluent, suggesting the potential of reusing treated effluent in agriculture so long as appropriate monitoring and control is in place.

  7. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overcash, Michael; Russell, Dunn; Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses operational techniques for applying mass integration design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. This paper presents a design technique for any number of wastewater streams containing multiple contaminants. The technique comprises...... a single non-linear optimization program to minimize the wastewater discharged (or maximize the amount of recycled wastewater). This program is developed based on general water allocation principles and uses the transshipment model theory to allow the “shipment” of wastewater (referred to as “sources......” or “warehouses”) to process water users (referred to as “sinks”, “demands” or “customers”). A detailed case study of industrial significance, highlighting land treatment technology, is included to illustrate the proposed methodology and various process scenarios are evaluated within this case study...

  8. CO2 Outgassing from an Urbanized River System Fueled by Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae Kyung; Jin, Hyojin; Begum, Most Shirina; Kang, Namgoo; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2017-09-19

    Continuous underway measurements were combined with a basin-scale survey to examine human impacts on CO 2 outgassing in a highly urbanized river system in Korea. While the partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2 ) was measured at 15 sites using syringe equilibration, 3 cruises employing an equilibrator were done along a 30 km transect in the Seoul metropolitan area. The basin-scale survey revealed longitudinal increases in surface water pCO 2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the downstream reach. Downstream increases in pCO 2 , DOC, fluorescence index, and inorganic N and P reflected disproportionately large contributions from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents carried by major urban tributaries. Cruise transects exhibited strong localized peaks of pCO 2 up to 13 000 μatm and 13 CO 2 enrichment along the confluences of tributaries at an average flow, whereas CO 2 pulses were dampened by increased flow during the monsoon period. Fluctuations in pCO 2 along the eutrophic reach downstream of the confluences reflected environmental controls on the balance between photosynthesis, biodegradation, and outgassing. The results underscore WWTP effluents as an anthropogenic source of nutrients, DOC, and CO 2 and their influences on algal blooms and associated C dynamics in eutrophic urbanized river systems, warranting further research on urbanization-induced perturbations to riverine metabolic processes and carbon fluxes.

  9. Using the BSC Model to Evaluate the Financial Performance of the Urban Water and Wastewater Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Goli Aysek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the different models so far proposed for the guiding and evaluation of organizational performance, the balanced scorecard (BSC model is the only one that has been found capable of guiding an organization towards its goals from the lowest to the topmost levels in an integrated, sustained, efficient, and effective manner. The model in question is based on the goals and strategies adopted by an organization and it is, thus, a holistic approach that envisions the organization in all its aspects, leading to sysnergy among all the organization’s divisions. Moreover, the model has been found capable of lifting the inadequacies in performance evaluation systems in firms which strive to comply with financial milestones that draw heavily on reducing the unit price through practicing scales of economy and mass production. The present study initially investigates the effects of employing the criteria inherent to the BSC model on the financial performance evaluation of the urban water and wastewater industry. The required data are collected from 35 companies forming the statistical population over a four-year period from 2007 to 2010. The (four independent variables belong to the SCR model and performance evaluation (i.e., sales efficiency rate accounts for the independent one. Due to the insignificance of the coefficients of independent variables and the lack of correlation among the dependent ones, the step-by-step method is employed to enter the values for the variables into the model when testing the research hypotheses. The new model is found to confirm all the hypotheses. Moreover, a direct relationship is established between the SCR criteria, on the one hand, and the firm’s performance, on the other, such that any improvements in SCR evaluation criteria directly lead to improvements in performance. Finally, a value equal to unity obtained for hypothesis selection indicates the strong linear relationship holding between the financial SCR

  10. Case study: centralized wastewater treatment plant at Rawang Integrated Industrial Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Teo Ming; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Zulkafli Ghazali; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2006-01-01

    Survey has been conducted at Rawang Integrated Industrial Park (RIIP) to investigate the possibility of setting up centralized industrial wastewater treatment plant. Rawang integrated industrial park is selected based on suggestion from department of environment. RIIP consists of about 150 industries with various type of activities operated in the area. Only 9 out of estimated 150 industries have individual wastewater treatment plant. The business activities of the 9 industries include food processing, textile, welding rods manufacturing, steel galvanizing and battery manufacturing. Wastewater generated by the industries are characterized by high oil and grease, cod, bod, organic matter, metal hydroxide and acidic. Besides that most of industries do the monitoring only once a month. This paper will also discuss the advantages of setting up of centralized industrial wastewater treatment plant to the government authorities, industries, people and environment. (Author)

  11. Simultaneous wastewater treatment and biogas production using integrated anaerobic baffled reactor granular activated carbon from baker's yeast wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Mohamadi, Samira; Rahmatabadi, Sama; Hossini, Hooshyar; Motteran, Fabrício

    2017-08-30

    In this study, simultaneous degradation of organic matter and color removal from food processing industries wastewater using an integrated anaerobic baffled reactor granular activated carbon (IABRGAC) was investigated. Theretofore, effective parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) and granular activated carbon (GAC) filling ratio were studied. The bioreactor was operated at 3, 4 and 5 d of HRT and GAC filling ratio of 20%, 35% and 50%. To analyze and optimize the independent operating variables, response surface methodology was applied. Operating condition was optimized for HRT (4 d) and GAC filling ratio (50%). Better COD (94.6%) and BOD (93.7%) removal efficiency occurred with loading COD of 15,000 mg/L, with diminished wastewater color around 54% and turbidity to 54 NTU. In addition, methane production, methane yielding rate (Y m ) and specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test in an integrated system were investigated. The system IABRGAC was able to generate a volumetric rate about 0.31 and 0.44 L/g COD removed d at the experimental condition. The Y m was between 0.31 and 0.44 L/g COD removed .d and SMA was between 0.13 and 0.38 g COD/g volatile suspended solid. Based on results it can be concluded that the IABRGAC to be a successful pretreatment for highstrength wastewater before discharging the final effluent to sewerage and aerobic treating processes.

  12. Patterns of Wastewater Infrastructure along a Gradient of Coastal Urbanization: A Study of the Puget Sound Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Spirandelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore patterns of wastewater infrastructures (sewers vs. septic tanks in urbanizing watersheds across a coastal metropolitan region. This research combines an urban-rural gradient with spatial metrics at the patch and watershed scale (proportion of parcels on a treatment system, septic density, lot size and percent imperviousness to analyze wastewater patterns in the Puget Sound, WA, USA. Results show that most urban residential parcels are hooked up to a sewer, although there remain urban residences on a septic tank with small lots. I find a complex arrangement of wastewater treatment in suburban watersheds representing a patchwork of parcels on sewers and septic tanks. Sewers dominate in total numbers, while the density of septic tanks is highest in this portion of the urban gradient. Lot size decreases from rural to urban; however, it varies depending on the type of wastewater treatment system. In urban watersheds, lots on septic tanks are significantly smaller than lots in suburban and rural watersheds and of a similar size compared to lots on sewers. I also find a significant difference in the amount of impervious surfaces in watersheds dominated by sewers vs. septic tanks. In the urban portion of the gradient, the amount of paved surfaces in parcels with septic tanks is also similar in level as parcels with sewers. I discuss how these patterns emerge from the interplay of biophysical, socio-economic and technological factors and how different regulatory regimes for septic tanks and sewers may further induce these patterns.

  13. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harremoës, P

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes aspects of the papers presented at the INTERURBA-II conference in 2001 and the discussions during the conference. Tools for integrated analysis have been developed, but there is less implementation than could be expected. That is due to lack of adequate knowledge about important mechanisms, coupled with a significant conservatism in the business. However, significant integrated analyses have been reported. Most of them deal with the sewer system and the treatment plant, while few incorporate the receiving water as anything but the object of the loads to be minimised by engineering measures up-stream. Important measures are local infiltration, source control, storage basins, local treatment and real time control. New paradigms have been introduced: risk of pollution due to system failure, technology for water reuse, sustainability, new architecture and greener up-stream solutions as opposed to down-stream concrete solutions. The challenge is to combine the inherited approaches with the new approaches by flexibility and adaptability.

  14. Wastewater treatment and reuse in urban agriculture: exploring the food, energy, water, and health nexus in Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Robbie, Leslie; Ramaswami, Anu; Amerasinghe, Priyanie

    2017-07-01

    Nutrients and water found in domestic treated wastewater are valuable and can be reutilized in urban agriculture as a potential strategy to provide communities with access to fresh produce. In this paper, this proposition is examined by conducting a field study in the rapidly developing city of Hyderabad, India. Urban agriculture trade-offs in water use, energy use and GHG emissions, nutrient uptake, and crop pathogen quality are evaluated, and irrigation waters of varying qualities (treated wastewater, versus untreated water and groundwater) are compared. The results are counter-intuitive, and illustrate potential synergies and key constraints relating to the food-energy-water-health (FEW-health) nexus in developing cities. First, when the impact of GHG emissions from untreated wastewater diluted in surface streams is compared with the life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment with reuse in agriculture, the treatment-plus-reuse case yields a 33% reduction in life cycle system-wide GHG emissions. Second, despite water cycling benefits in urban agriculture, only contamination and farmer behavior and harvesting practices. The study uncovers key physical, environmental, and behavioral factors that constrain benefits achievable at the FEW-health nexus in urban areas.

  15. Blue green component and integrated urban design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Srđan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate the hidden potential of blue green components, in a synergetic network, not as separate systems, like used in past. The innovative methodology of the project Blue Green Dream is presented through examples of good practice. A new approach in the project initiate thoughtful planning and remodeling of the settlement for the modern man. Professional and scientific public is looking for way to create more healthy and stimulating place for living. However, offered integrative solutions still remain out of urban and architectural practice. Tested technologies in current projects confirmed measurability of innovative approaches and lessons learned. Scientific and professional contributions are summarized in master's and doctoral theses that have been completed or are in process of writing.

  16. A critical review of integrated urban water modelling – Urban drainage and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Peter M.; Rauch, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2014-01-01

    considerations (e.g. data issues, model structure, computational and integration-related aspects), common methodology for model development (through a systems approach), calibration/optimisation and uncertainty are discussed, placing importance on pragmatism and parsimony. Integrated urban water models should......Modelling interactions in urban drainage, water supply and broader integrated urban water systems has been conceptually and logistically challenging as evidenced in a diverse body of literature, found to be confusing and intimidating to new researchers. This review consolidates thirty years...... of research (initially driven by interest in urban drainage modelling) and critically reflects upon integrated modelling in the scope of urban water systems. We propose a typology to classify integrated urban water system models at one of four ‘degrees of integration’ (followed by its exemplification). Key...

  17. Alpine infrastructure in Central Europe: integral evaluation of wastewater treatment systems at mountain refuges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenbacher, N; Mayr, E; Niederberger, T; Aschauer, C; Lebersorger, S; Steinbacher, G; Haberl, R

    2008-01-01

    Planning, construction and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems at mountain refuges is a challenge. Energy supply, costly transport, limited water resources, unfavourable climate and load variations are only some of the problems that have to be faced. Additionally, legal regulations are different between and even within countries of the Alps. To ensure sustainability, integrated management of the alpine infrastructure management is needed. The energy and water supply and the wastewater and waste disposal systems and the cross-relations between them were analysed for 100 mountain refuges. Wastewater treatment is a main part of the overall 'mountain refuge' system. The data survey and first analyses showed the complex interaction of the wastewater treatment with the other infrastructure. Main criteria for reliable and efficient operation are training, technical support, user friendly control and a relatively simple system set up. Wastewater temperature, alkalinity consumption and high peak loads have to be considered in the planning process. The availability of power in terms of duration and connexion is decisive for the choice of the system. Further, frequency fluctuations may lead to damages to the installed aerators. The type of water source and the type of sanitary equipment influence the wastewater quantity and quality. Biosolids are treated and disposed separately or together with primary or secondary sludge from wastewater treatment dependent on the legal requirements. IWA Publishing 2008.

  18. Dynamic modelling of micropollutants in the integrated urban wastewater system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson

    hovedemne. Ved integreret modellering af stofferne pyren, der typisk findes i afstrømmet regnvand, og bisphenol-A, der forekommer ofte i spildevand, illustreres det at en forenklet konceptuel model kan bidrage til at øge procesforståelsen samt til at udvikle moniteringsprogrammer og emissions kontrol......-80% af middelværdien. Endelig diskuteres tilføjelser af specifikke processer til eksisterende aktiv slam modeller, og en Monod vækst- og nedbrydningsmodel baseret på et enkelt substrat er udviklet og anvendt til at beskrive nedbrydning af det østrogene stof bisphenol-A i et pilotskala renseanlæg...

  19. Removal of metals from industrial wastewater and urban runoff by mineral and bio-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Harshita; Leiviskä, Tiina; Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Postila, Heini; Tanskanen, Juha

    2018-03-01

    The study was performed to evaluate chemically modified biosorbents, hydrochloric acid treated peat (HCl-P) and citric acid treated sawdust (Citric acid-SD) for their metal removal capacity from dilute industrial wastewater and urban runoff and compare their efficiency with that of commercially available mineral sorbents (AQM PalPower M10 and AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite). Batch and column experiments were conducted using real water samples to assess the sorbents' metal sorption capacity. AQM PalPower M10 (consisting mainly of magnesium, iron and silicon oxides) exhibited excellent Zn removal from both industrial wastewater and spiked runoff water samples even at low dosages (0.1 g/L and 0.05 g/L, respectively). The high degree of Zn removal was associated with the release of hydroxyl ions from the sorbent and subsequent precipitation of zinc hydroxide. The biosorbents removed Ni and Cr better than AQM PalPower M10 from industrial wastewater and performed well in removing Cr and Cu from spiked runoff water, although at higher dosages (0.3-0.75 g/L). The main mechanism of sorption by biosorbents was ion exchange. The sorbents required a short contact time to reach equilibrium (15-30 min) in both tested water samples. AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite was the worst performing sorbent, leaching Zn into both industrial and runoff water and Ni into runoff water. Column tests revealed that both HCl-P and AQM PalPower M10 were able to remove metals, although some leaching was witnessed, especially As from AQM PalPower M10. The low hydraulic conductivity observed for HCl-P may restrict the possibilities of using such small particle size peat material in a filter-type passive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inactivation of microbiota from urban wastewater by single and sequential electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfruns-Estrada, Eduard; Bruguera-Casamada, Carmina; Salvadó, Humbert; Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi; Araujo, Rosa M

    2017-12-01

    This work aims at comparing the ability of two kinds of electrochemical technologies, namely electrocoagulation (EC) and electro-Fenton (EF), to disinfect primary and secondary effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Heterotrophic bacteria, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens spores, somatic coliphages and eukaryotes (amoebae, flagellates, ciliates and metazoa) were tested as indicator microorganisms. EC with an Fe/Fe cell at 200 A m -2 and natural pH allowed >5 log unit removal of E. coli and final concentration below 1 bacteria mL -1 of coliphages and eukaryotes from both effluents in ca. 60 min, whereas heterotrophic bacteria, enterococci and spores were more resistant. A larger removal was obtained for the primary effluent, probably because the flocs remove higher amount of total organic carbon (TOC), entrapping more easily the microbiota. EF with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode that produces H 2 O 2 on site was first performed at pH 3.0, with large or even total inactivation of microorganisms within 30 min. A more effective microorganism removal was attained as compared to EC thanks to • OH formed from Fenton's reaction. A quicker disinfection was observed for the secondary effluent owing to its lower TOC content, allowing the attack of greater quantities of electrogenerated oxidants on microorganisms. Wastewater disinfection by EF was also feasible at natural pH (∼7), showing similar abatement of active microorganisms as a result of the synergistic action of generated oxidants like active chlorine and coagulation with iron hydroxides. A sequential EC/EF treatment (30 min each) was more effective for a combined decontamination and disinfection of urban wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS IN WASTEWATER USED FOR URBAN AGRICULTURE IN NAIROBI, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Njarua Karanja

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty percent of residents in Nairobi practise urban agriculture (UA with a majority of the farmers using untreated sewage to irrigate crop and fodder. Due to the environmental and health risks associated with wastewater irrigation, a study was carried out in partnership with farmers in Kibera and Maili Saba which are informal settlements along the Ngong River, a tributary of the Nairobi River Basin. Soil, water, crops and human faecal samples from the farming and non-farming households were analysed to elucidate sources, types and level of heavy metal pollutants in the wastewater and the pathogen loads in humans and vegetable crops.  Heavy metal accumulation in soils collected from Kibera and Maili Saba were Cd (14.3 mg kg-1, Cr (9.7 mg kg-1 and Pb (1.7 mg kg-1 and Cd (98.7 mg kg-1,  Cr (4.0 mg kg-1 and Pb (74.3 mg kg-1, respectively.  This led to high phytoaccumulation of Cd, Cr and Pb in the crops that exceeded the maximum permissible limits. No parasitic eggs were detected in the vegetables but coliform count in the wastewater was 4.8 x108±2.2 x1011/100ml. Soils irrigated with this water had parasitic eggs and non-parasitic larvae counts of 54.62 and 27.5/kg respectively. Faecal coliform and parasitic eggs of common intestinal parasites increased in leafy vegetable sampled from the informal markets along the value chain.

  2. Microbiology in starting up of the membrane bioreactor (MBR) for urban wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parada-Albarracin, J. A.; Arevalo, J.; Ruiz, L. M.; Moreno, B.; Perez, J.; Gomez, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    This work is based on a study of metazoan and protozoan communities, moreover filamentous bacteria in an activated sludge from a MBR system for urban wastewater treatment. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the system through the sludge biotic index (SBI), and the study of other microorganisms such as filamentous bacteria in the performance of the process, effluent quality and biomass stability. for the carry up of this work we count with a biologic reactor with the ultrafiltration membranes. The assigned role of the different protozans keys in activated sludge from conventional process are not extrapolated in MBR system. This search was supported by Andalucian Water Agency (Junta de Andalucia) Through European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). (Author) 25 refs.

  3. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are

  4. Combining sun-based technologies (microalgae and solar disinfection) for urban wastewater regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alfaro, Sergio; Rueda-Márquez, Juan J; Perales, José A; Manzano, Manuel A

    2018-04-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of urban wastewater can be a suitable technology for improving the microbiological quality of reclaimed water as a complement to other extensive and environmentally friendly technologies such as microalgae biotreatment. The objective of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating the SODIS technology at the end of a pilot scale urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) where the processes are based on microalgae biotechnology and comprising three Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB, 20m 3 each one) reactor, six High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP, 32m 2 each one), and a Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF, 1m 3 ) unit. E. coli concentration was monitored at the effluent of the different units (UASB, HRAP, DAF) of the pilot WWTP. The efficiency of the SODIS process was studied for the inactivation of three of the commonly employed indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Clostridium perfringens) using a compound parabolic collector (CPC) for five months under various conditions of irradiance and temperature. E. coli and Enterococcus spp. were more effectively disinfected by the SODIS unit (2.9 and 2.5 logarithms of reduction on average, respectively) than by the HRAP (2 and 1.1) or the DAF (0.9 and 0.1). On the contrary, the DAF technology achieved better reduction rates of C. perfringens (1.7) than the SODIS (0.9) and the HRAP (0.1). No regrowth of any microorganisms was detected during dark storage after the SODIS treatment. Incorporating a SODIS unit after the non-conventional WWTP processes substantially increases the possibilities for reuse of the treated water after receiving a cumulative UV radiation dose of 25W·h/m 2 (50min of normalized time of solar illumination). The surface requirement of the SODIS equipment would be 3.5 times smaller than the HRAP's surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding complex urban systems integrating multidisciplinary data in urban models

    CERN Document Server

    Gebetsroither-Geringer, Ernst; Atun, Funda; Werner, Liss

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the modeling and understanding of complex urban systems. This second volume of Understanding Complex Urban Systems focuses on the challenges of the modeling tools, concerning, e.g., the quality and quantity of data and the selection of an appropriate modeling approach. It is meant to support urban decision-makers—including municipal politicians, spatial planners, and citizen groups—in choosing an appropriate modeling approach for their particular modeling requirements. The contributors to this volume are from different disciplines, but all share the same goal: optimizing the representation of complex urban systems. They present and discuss a variety of approaches for dealing with data-availability problems and finding appropriate modeling approaches—and not only in terms of computer modeling. The selection of articles featured in this volume reflect a broad variety of new and established modeling approaches such as: - An argument for using Big Data methods in conjunction with Age...

  6. Contribution of hospital effluents to the load of pharmaceuticals in urban wastewaters: identification of ecologically relevant pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Gros, Meritxell; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pena, Angelina; Barceló, Damià; Montenegro, M Conceição B S M

    2013-09-01

    The impact of effluent wastewaters from four different hospitals: a university (1456 beds), a general (350 beds), a pediatric (110 beds) and a maternity hospital (96 beds), which are conveyed to the same wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), was evaluated in the receiving urban wastewaters. The occurrence of 78 pharmaceuticals belonging to several therapeutic classes was assessed in hospital effluents and WWTP wastewaters (influent and effluent) as well as the contribution of each hospital in WWTP influent in terms of pharmaceutical load. Results indicate that pharmaceuticals are widespread pollutants in both hospital and urban wastewaters. The contribution of hospitals to the input of pharmaceuticals in urban wastewaters widely varies, according to their dimension. The estimated total mass loadings were 306 g d(-1) for the university hospital, 155 g d(-1) for the general one, 14 g d(-1) for the pediatric hospital and 1.5 g d(-1) for the maternity hospital, showing that the biggest hospitals have a greater contribution to the total mass load of pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, analysis of individual contributions of each therapeutic group showed that NSAIDs, analgesics and antibiotics are among the groups with the highest inputs. Removal efficiency can go from over 90% for pharmaceuticals like acetaminophen and ibuprofen to not removal for β-blockers and salbutamol. Total mass load of pharmaceuticals into receiving surface waters was estimated between 5 and 14 g/d/1000 inhabitants. Finally, the environmental risk posed by pharmaceuticals detected in hospital and WWTP effluents was assessed by means of hazard quotients toward different trophic levels (algae, daphnids and fish). Several pharmaceuticals present in the different matrices were identified as potentially hazardous to aquatic organisms, showing that especial attention should be paid to antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin and clarithromycin, since their hazard quotients

  7. Integrated copper-containing wastewater treatment using xanthate process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Kuo; Chang, Juu-En; Lin, Tzong-Tzeng; Hsu, Yu-Ming

    2002-09-02

    Although, the xanthate process has been shown to be an effective method for heavy metal removal from contaminated water, a heavy metal contaminated residual sludge is produced by the treatment process and the metal-xanthate sludge must be handled in accordance with the Taiwan EPA's waste disposal requirements. This work employed potassium ethyl xanthate (KEX) to remove copper ions from wastewater. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic leaching test (SDLT) were used to determine the leaching potential and stability characteristics of the residual copper xanthate (Cu-EX) complexes. Results from metal removal experiments showed that KEX was suitable for the treatment of copper-containing wastewater over a wide copper concentration range (50, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/l) to the level that meets the Taiwan EPA's effluent regulations (3mg/l). The TCLP results of the residual Cu-EX complexes could meet the current regulations and thus the Cu-EX complexes could be treated as a non-hazardous material. Besides, the results of SDLT indicated that the complexes exhibited an excellent performance for stabilizing metals under acidic conditions, even slight chemical changes of the complexes occurred during extraction. The xanthate process, mixing KEX with copper-bearing solution to form Cu-EX precipitates, offered a comprehensive strategy for solving both copper-containing wastewater problems and subsequent sludge disposal requirements.

  8. Inputs, dynamics and potential impacts of silver (Ag) from urban wastewater to a highly turbid estuary (SW France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deycard, Victoria N; Schäfer, Jörg; Petit, Jérôme C J; Coynel, Alexandra; Lanceleur, Laurent; Dutruch, Lionel; Bossy, Cécile; Ventura, Alexandre; Blanc, Gérard

    2017-01-01

    Although silver (Ag) has been listed as a priority pollutant for the aquatic environment by the European Union (Directive 2006/11/EC), the use of Ag-based products with antimicrobial effects is increasing in Europe, as well as North America and Asia. This study investigates personal care products (PCP) as a potential source of Ag in wastewater, as well as the dynamics and fate of Ag in the influent and effluent of a major urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located on the fluvial part of the Gironde Estuary. Typical household PCPs marked as using Ag contained concentrations of up to 0.4 mg kg -1 making them likely contributors to urban Ag released into the aquatic environment. Silver concentrations in influent wastewater generally occurred during mid-week working hours and decreased during the night and on weekends clearly indicating the dominance of urban sources. Up to 90% of the total Ag in wastewater was bound to particles and efficiently (>80%) removed by the treatment process, whereas 20% of Ag was released into the fluvial estuary. Silver concentrations in wastewater effluents clearly exceeded estuarine concentrations and may strongly amplify the local Ag concentrations and fluxes, especially during summer rainstorms in low river discharge conditions. Further work should focus on environmental effects and fate of urban Ag release due to immediate localized outfall and/or the adsorption on estuarine particles and subsequent release as dissolved Ag chloro-complexes within the estuarine salinity gradient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wastewater Treatment Energy Recovery Potential For Adaptation To Global Change: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, Patrick A.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 20% of wastewaters globally do not receive treatment, whereas wastewater discharges are projected to increase, thereby leading to excessive water quality degradation of surface waters on a global scale. Increased treatment could help alleviate water quality issues by constructing more treatment plants; however, in many areas there exist economic constraints. Energy recovery methods including the utilization of biogas and incineration of biosolids generated during the treatment process may help to alleviate treatment costs. This study explores the potential for investments in energy recovery from wastewater to increase treatment levels and thus improve surface water quality. This was done by examining the relationships between nutrient over-enrichment, wastewater treatment, and energy recovery at a global scale using system dynamics simulation as part of the ANEMI integrated assessment model. The results show that a significant amount of energy can be recovered from wastewater, which helps to alleviate some of the costs of treatment. It was found that wastewater treatment levels could be increased by 34%, helping to offset the higher nutrient loading from a growing population with access to improved sanitation. The production of renewable natural gas from biogas was found to have the potential to prolong the depletion of natural gas resources used to produce electricity and heat. It is recommended that agricultural nutrient discharges be better managed to help reduce nutrient over-enrichment on global scale. To increase the utility of the simulation, a finer spatial scale should be used to consider regional treatment, economic, and water quality characteristics.

  10. Integrated wastewater management by reuse and recycling in a textile industry: a case study in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.R.; Trankler, J.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing stringent environmental legislation, scarcity of resources and development of treatment and management techniques for wastewater, have made recycling and reuse feasible and economical in many industrial processes. Wastewater management by integrating all available techniques was studied for reuse and recycling in a textile industry. Cotton and silk fabrics were main products of the selected industry. Approach was divided in to five parts, to achieve the objectives of reuse and recycling: in-house water consumption evaluation, segregation study, optimizing existing WWTP, treatability study and advanced treatment for final effluent to fulfill reuse criteria. Water consumption evaluation was done by in-house survey. Segregation study was performed by analyzing different wastewater streams. Efficiency of existing WWTP for COD and BOD removal was assessed and optimized. Treatability of dye wastewater by ozonation, chemical and nanofiltration was studied. Treatment study of final effluent for TDS and color removal by nanofiltration and chemical treatment was performed. Analyses show the possibilities to conserve and optimize water consumption up to 30% in the production processes by in-house improvement. Segregation study shows that up to 15% wastewater from less polluted streams can be recycled back. Adopting separate efficient treatment techniques could fulfill reuse criteria for remaining wastewater streams (50%). (author)

  11. Characterization of Metagenomes in Urban Aquatic Compartments Reveals High Prevalence of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Ng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR is an escalating problem and a threat to public health. Comparative metagenomics was used to investigate the occurrence of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs in wastewater and urban surface water environments in Singapore. Hospital and municipal wastewater (n = 6 were found to have higher diversity and average abundance of ARGs (303 ARG subtypes, 197,816 x/Gb compared to treated wastewater effluent (n = 2, 58 ARG subtypes, 2,692 x/Gb and surface water (n = 5, 35 subtypes, 7,985 x/Gb. A cluster analysis showed that the taxonomic composition of wastewaters was highly similar and had a bacterial community composition enriched in gut bacteria (Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, the Enterobacteriaceae group (Klebsiella, Aeromonas, Enterobacter and opportunistic pathogens (Prevotella, Comamonas, Neisseria. Wastewater, treated effluents and surface waters had a shared resistome of 21 ARGs encoding multidrug resistant efflux pumps or resistance to aminoglycoside, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramins (MLS, quinolones, sulfonamide, and tetracycline resistance which suggests that these genes are wide spread across different environments. Wastewater had a distinctively higher average abundance of clinically relevant, class A beta-lactamase resistant genes (i.e., blaKPC, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM. The wastewaters from clinical isolation wards, in particular, had a exceedingly high levels of blaKPC-2 genes (142,200 x/Gb, encoding for carbapenem resistance. Assembled scaffolds (16 and 30 kbp from isolation ward wastewater samples indicated this gene was located on a Tn3-based transposon (Tn4401, a mobilization element found in Klebsiella pneumonia plasmids. In the longer scaffold, transposable elements were flanked by a toxin–antitoxin (TA system and other metal resistant genes that likely increase the persistence, fitness and propagation of the plasmid in the

  12. A comprehensive overview on light independent fermentative hydrogen production from wastewater feedstock and possible integrative options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan; Thi, Ngoc Bao Dung; Zhen, Guangyin; Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Kadier, Abudukeremu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen production from various wastewaters has been reviewed. • Physico-chemical composition of the wastewater influences the H_2 yield. • Sugar rich wastewaters could be a feasible source for dark fermentative H_2 production. - Abstract: This review focuses on the current developments and new insights in the field of dark fermentation technologies using wastewater as carbon and nutrient source. It has begun with the type of wastewaters (sugar rich, toxic and industrial) employed in the H_2 production and their production performances with pure (or) mixed microbiota as seeding source in the batch reactors. Secondly, well-documented continuous system performances and their failure reasons were examined along with the enhancement possibilities in ways of strategies. A SWOT analysis has been performed to validate the strength and weakness of the continuous systems towards its industrialization and possible scheme of the integration methods have been illustrated. Additionally, an outlook has been provided with enlightening the remedies for its success. Moreover, the practical perspectives of the continuous systems are highlighted and challenges towards scale up are mentioned. Finally, the possible integrative approaches along with continuous systems towards the bioH_2 technologies implementation are enlightened.

  13. The energy trilogy: An integrated sustainability model to bridge wastewater treatment plant energy and emissions gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talibi, A. Adhim

    An estimated 4% of national energy consumption is used for drinking water and wastewater services. Despite the awareness and optimization initiatives for energy conservation, energy consumption is on the rise owing to population and urbanization expansion and to commercial and industrial business advancement. The principal concern is since energy consumption grows, the higher will be the energy production demand, leading to an increase in CO2 footprints and the contribution to global warming potential. This research is in the area of energy-water nexus, focusing on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) energy trilogy -- the group of three related entities, which includes processes: (1) consuming energy, (2) producing energy, and (3) the resulting -- CO2 equivalents. Detailed and measurable energy information is not readily obtained for wastewater facilities, specifically during facility preliminary design phases. These limitations call for data-intensive research approach on GHG emissions quantification, plant efficiencies and source reduction techniques. To achieve these goals, this research introduced a model integrating all plant processes and their pertinent energy sources. In a comprehensive and "Energy Source-to-Effluent Discharge" pattern, this model is capable of bridging the gaps of WWTP energy, facilitating plant designers' decision-making for meeting energy assessment, sustainability and the environmental regulatory compliance. Protocols for estimating common emissions sources are available such as for fuels, whereas, site-specific emissions for other sources have to be developed and are captured in this research. The dissertation objectives were met through an extensive study of the relevant literature, models and tools, originating comprehensive lists of processes and energy sources for WWTPs, locating estimation formulas for each source, identifying site specific emissions factors, and linking the sources in a mathematical model for site specific CO2 e

  14. Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevremont, A.-C., E-mail: anne-celine.chevremont@imbe.fr [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Farnet, A.-M. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Coulomb, B.; Boudenne, J.-L. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2012-06-01

    Wastewater reuse for irrigation is an interesting alternative for many Mediterranean countries suffering from water shortages. The development of new technologies for water recycling is a priority for these countries. In this study we test the efficiency of UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet-Light-Emitting Diodes) emitting UV-A or UV-C radiations, used alone or coupled, on bacterial and chemical indicators. We monitored the survival of fecal bioindicators found in urban wastewaters and the oxidation of creatinine and phenol which represent either conventional organic matter or the aromatic part of pollution respectively. It appears that coupling UV-A/UV-C i) achieves microbial reduction in wastewater more efficiently than when a UV-LED is used alone, and ii) oxidizes up to 37% of creatinine and phenol, a result comparable to that commonly obtained with photoreactants such as TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We test UV-LEDs as an urban wastewater tertiary treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-A and UV-C are coupled, combining germicidal and oxidative properties of UV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupled wavelengths have the most efficient bactericidal effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling UV-A and UV-C leads to photooxidation of creatinine and phenol.

  15. Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevremont, A.-C.; Farnet, A.-M.; Coulomb, B.; Boudenne, J.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater reuse for irrigation is an interesting alternative for many Mediterranean countries suffering from water shortages. The development of new technologies for water recycling is a priority for these countries. In this study we test the efficiency of UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet-Light-Emitting Diodes) emitting UV-A or UV-C radiations, used alone or coupled, on bacterial and chemical indicators. We monitored the survival of fecal bioindicators found in urban wastewaters and the oxidation of creatinine and phenol which represent either conventional organic matter or the aromatic part of pollution respectively. It appears that coupling UV-A/UV-C i) achieves microbial reduction in wastewater more efficiently than when a UV-LED is used alone, and ii) oxidizes up to 37% of creatinine and phenol, a result comparable to that commonly obtained with photoreactants such as TiO 2 . - Highlights: ► We test UV-LEDs as an urban wastewater tertiary treatment. ► UV-A and UV-C are coupled, combining germicidal and oxidative properties of UV. ► Coupled wavelengths have the most efficient bactericidal effect. ► Coupling UV-A and UV-C leads to photooxidation of creatinine and phenol.

  16. Ecosystem-based management of a Mediterranean urban wastewater system: a sensitivity analysis of the operational degrees of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Lluís; Neumann, Marc B

    2014-10-01

    Urban wastewater systems discharge organic matter, nutrients and other pollutants (including toxic substances) to receiving waters, even after removing more than 90% of incoming pollutants from human activities. Understanding their interactions with the receiving water bodies is essential for the implementation of ecosystem-based management strategies. Using mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis we quantified how 19 operational variables of an urban wastewater system affect river water quality. The mathematical model of the Congost system (in the Besòs catchment, Spain) characterizes the dynamic interactions between sewers, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants and the river. The sensitivity analysis shows that the use of storage tanks for peak shaving and the use of a connection between two neighboring wastewater treatment plants are the most important factors influencing river water quality. We study how the sensitivity of the water quality variables towards changes in the operational variables varies along the river due to discharge locations and river self-purification processes. We demonstrate how to use the approach to identify interactions and how to discard non-influential operational variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Ornamental Flowers and Fishes Breeding in Bushehr Urban Wastewater Using a Pilot Scale Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Agharokh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 24 species of aquaponically grown ornamental flowers and 10 fish species were used. The purpose of the study was to put urban wastewater into economic use in an attempt to reduce contaminate loads in coastal waters through biological treatment. Certain chemical parameters of pond water such as EC, temperature, DO, pH and TDS were measured on a daily basis while parameters such as salinity, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, TSS, chloride, sulphate, potassium, carbonate, etc. were measured on a monthly basis. It was found that Petunia hybrida, Verbena hybrida, Ficus sp., Phinix sp., and Conokarpus sp. as the ornamental flowers and Serresalmus natlerei and Junit sp. in the ornamental fish group had the highest adaptability to life and growth in urban wastewater.

  18. Microbial Indicators, Opportunistic Bacteria, and Pathogenic Protozoa for Monitoring Urban Wastewater Reused for Irrigation in the Proximity of a Megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Salazar, María Alejandra; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos; Castañón-Martínez, María Teresa; Tapia-Palacios, Marco Antonio; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, with a population of approximately 580 million inhabitants, less than 20 % of wastewater is treated. Megacities in this region face common challenges and problems related with water quality and sanitation, which require urgent actions, such as changes in the sustainable use of water resources. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world, with over 20 million inhabitants, and is no exception to the challenges of sustainable water management. For more than 100 years, wastewater from Mexico City has been transported north to the Mezquital Valley, which is ranked as the largest wastewater-irrigated area in the world. In this study, bacteria and pathogenic protozoa were analyzed to determine the association between the presence of such microorganisms and water types (WTs) across sampling sites and seasons in Mexico City and the Mezquital Valley. Our results show a difference in microbiological water quality between sampling sites and WTs. There is no significant interaction between sampling sites and seasons in terms of bacterial concentration, demonstrating that water quality remains constant at each site regardless of whether it is the dry or the rainy season. The results illustrate the quantity of these microorganisms in wastewater, provide a current diagnosis of water quality across the area which could affect the health of residents in both Mexico City and the Mezquital Valley, and demonstrate the need to transition in the short term to treat wastewater from a local to a regional scale.

  19. Integrated policy analysis of sustainable urban and transportation development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Feng, T.; Fujiwara, A.; Fujiwara, A.; Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban and transportation development needs to balance economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This study conducts integrated policy analyses by explicitly incorporating these sustainability goals and optimizing the performance of transportation networks.

  20. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelic, Aleksandra [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Petrovic, Mira, E-mail: mpetrovic@icra.cat [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 80010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); Cecchi, Franco [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ss-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 {mu}g/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  1. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Petrovic, Mira; Cecchi, Franco; Barcelo, Damia

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ß-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification–denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 μg/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  2. Effect of urban climate on building integrated photovoltaics performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wei; Wang Yiping; Ren Jianbo; Zhu Li

    2007-01-01

    It is generally recognized that BIPV (building integrated photovoltaics) has the potential to become a major source of renewable energy in the urban environment. The actual output of a PV module in the field is a function of orientation, total irradiance, spectral irradiance, wind speed, air temperature, soiling and various system-related losses. In urban areas, the attenuation of solar radiation due to air pollution is obvious, and the solar spectral content subsequently changes. The urban air temperature is higher than that in the surrounding countryside, and the wind speed in urban areas is usually less than that in rural areas. Three different models of PV power are used to investigate the effect of urban climate on PV performance. The results show that the dimming of solar radiation in the urban environment is the main reason for the decrease of PV module output using the climatic data of urban and rural sites in Mexico City for year 2003. The urban PV conversion efficiency is higher than that of the rural PV system because the PV module temperature in the urban areas is slightly lower than that in the rural areas in the case. The DC power output of PV seems to be underestimated if the spectral response of PV in the urban environment is not taken into account based on the urban hourly meteorological data of Sao Paulo for year 2004

  3. Perceptions of farmers on health risks and risk reduction measures in wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    , authorities and the general public, especially if they had some incentives. These findings demonstrate the need to involve farmers as early as possible in intervention projects especially in informal farming practices, like urban agriculture, where restrictions are difficult to implement. This will ensure......Most irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana is contaminated with untreated wastewater. This poses health risks to farmers and consumers. As part of a study to explore options for health risk reduction, this paper summarizes farmers' perceptions on health risks and possible risk...

  4. A microbial fuel cell–membrane bioreactor integrated system for cost-effective wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yong-Peng; Liu, Xian-Wei; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Feng; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J.; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An MFC–MBR integrated system for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. ► Stable electricity generation during 1000-h continuous operation. ► Low-cost electrode, separator and filter materials were adopted. -- Abstract: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) are both promising technologies for wastewater treatment, but both with limitations. In this study, a novel MFC–MBR integrated system, which combines the advantages of the individual systems, was proposed for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery. The system favored a better utilization of the oxygen in the aeration tank of MBR by the MFC biocathode, and enabled a high effluent quality. Continuous and stable electricity generation, with the average current of 1.9 ± 0.4 mA, was achieved over a long period of about 40 days. The maximum power density reached 6.0 W m −3 . Moreover, low-cost materials were used for the reactor construction. This integrated system shows great promise for practical wastewater treatment application.

  5. Data integration for urban transport planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Zhendong

    2003-01-01

    Urban transport planning aims at balancing conflicting challenges by promoting more efficient transport systems while reducing negative impacts. The availability of better and more reliable data has not only stimulated new planning methodologies, but also created challenges for efficient data

  6. Joint Urban Operations Joint Integrating Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-23

    concept could lead to a systems-engineering approach to urban operations based on the misconception that urban ecologies can be treated as if they...profits at the cost of irreparable societal and ecological destruction. The firms conduct a series of focus groups to determine what countermessages...Group, moving directly behind Task Force 1, quickly assemble “pop-up” prefabricated encampments to create temporary refugee camps off the main axis of

  7. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Rice, Clifford P.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Oskouie, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  8. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P; Minarik, Thomas A; Oskouie, Ali K

    2015-06-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  9. An integrated decision support system for wastewater nutrient recovery and recycling to agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, E. D.; Bomeisl, L.; Cornbrooks, P.; Mo, W.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient recovery and recycling has become a key research topic within the wastewater engineering and nutrient management communities. Several technologies now exist that can effectively capture nutrients from wastewater, and innovation in this area continues to be an important research pursuit. However, practical nutrient recycling solutions require more than capable nutrient capture technologies. We also need to understand the role that wastewater nutrient recovery and recycling can play within broader nutrient management schemes at the landscape level, including important interactions at the nexus of food, energy, and water. We are developing an integrated decision support system that combines wastewater treatment data, agricultural data, spatial nutrient balance modeling, life cycle assessment, stakeholder knowledge, and multi-criteria decision making. Our goals are to: (1) help guide design decisions related to the implementation of sustainable nutrient recovery technology, (2) support innovations in watershed nutrient management that operate at the interface of the built environment and agriculture, and (3) aid efforts to protect aquatic ecosystems while supporting human welfare in a circular nutrient economy. These goals will be realized partly through the assessment of plausible alternative scenarios for the future. In this presentation, we will describe the tool and focus on nutrient balance results for the New England region. These results illustrate that both centralized and decentralized wastewater nutrient recovery schemes have potential to transform nutrient flows in many New England watersheds, diverting wastewater N and P away from aquatic ecosystems and toward local or regional agricultural soils where they can offset a substantial percentage of imported fertilizer. We will also highlight feasibility criteria and next steps to integrate stakeholder knowledge, economics, and life cycle assessment into the tool.

  10. Research on common methods for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities of iron and steel enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Considering the large quantities of wastewater generated from iron and steel enterprises in China, this paper is aimed to research the common methods applied for evaluating the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises. Based on survey results on environmental protection performance, technological economy, resource & energy consumption, services and management, an indicator system for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities is set up. By discussing the standards and industrial policies in and out of China, 27 key secondary indicators are further defined on the basis of investigation on main equipment and key processes for wastewater treatment, so as to determine the method for setting key quantitative and qualitative indicators for evaluation indicator system. It is also expected to satisfy the basic requirements of reasonable resource allocation, environmental protection and sustainable economic development, further improve the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises, and reduce the emission of hazardous substances and environmental impact.

  11. Performance indicators and indices of sludge management in urban wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Saldanha Matos, J; Rosa, M J

    2016-12-15

    Sludge (or biosolids) management is highly complex and has a significant cost associated with the biosolids disposal, as well as with the energy and flocculant consumption in the sludge processing units. The sludge management performance indicators (PIs) and indices (PXs) are thus core measures of the performance assessment system developed for urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The key PIs proposed cover the sludge unit production and dry solids concentration (DS), disposal/beneficial use, quality compliance for agricultural use and costs, whereas the complementary PIs assess the plant reliability and the chemical reagents' use. A key PI was also developed for assessing the phosphorus reclamation, namely through the beneficial use of the biosolids and the reclaimed water in agriculture. The results of a field study with 17 Portuguese urban WWTPs in a 5-year period were used to derive the PI reference values which are neither inherent to the PI formulation nor literature-based. Clusters by sludge type (primary, activated, trickling filter and mixed sludge) and by digestion and dewatering processes were analysed and the reference values for sludge production and dry solids were proposed for two clusters: activated sludge or biofilter WWTPs with primary sedimentation, sludge anaerobic digestion and centrifuge dewatering; activated sludge WWTPs without primary sedimentation and anaerobic digestion and with centrifuge dewatering. The key PXs are computed for the DS after each processing unit and the complementary PXs for the energy consumption and the operating conditions DS-determining. The PX reference values are treatment specific and literature based. The PI and PX system was applied to a WWTP and the results demonstrate that it diagnosis the situation and indicates opportunities and measures for improving the WWTP performance in sludge management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemism of the run-off wastewater from urbanized areas based on the Kielce City example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabajczyk A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the collector of run-off wastewater (Si9, located in Kielce. Silnica River is a small river cutting through the city of Kielce from the North to the South-West. It has its source in Masłowskie Range at a height of 360 m a.s.l. and it flows into Bobrza River. It is ranked among mountain rivers at a 6.4 ‰ gradient. Its river-bed bas belonged to Kielecki Protected Landscape Area since 2006. Next to Szydłowek estate the artificial water body was build - Kielecki Bay. Beneath Kielecki Bay, Silnica River flows in regu1ated river-bed. Because of no separated storm water drainage, the rainwater washes away pollutants among others from industrial plants, houses, pavements, and streets into Silnica River. The wastewater treatment plant is located at the mouth of the Silnica River. It receives rainwater and snowmelt from the central - eastern part of the city with an area of 62 ha. The primary channel has a length of 1569 m and its diameter varies from 600 mm to 1250 mm. Is attached to the side of seventeen channels (with diameters from 300 mm to 1000 mm. The collector wells are 32 inspection and connection, and 24 entries. The side channels are located 119 wells and 82 outlets. The total length of the sewerage system is equal to 5583 m. The decrease of the collector changes to individual sections from 0.04% to 3.9%, and decreases in side channels to reach 2.61%. On average, one groove receives water from the surface of 0.585 ha. Ordinate the highest point in the catchment area is 271.20 m, 260.0 m above sea level the lowest, the average decrease in surface area is equal to 0.71%. Within the basin was isolated six types of surface runoff: roofs (14.3%, walks (8.4%, roads (17.7%, parking (11.2%, green (47.2% and pitch school (1.3%. Generally, paved areas with a high coefficient of runoff represent 52.83% of the total catchment area, which shows the typical urban character. The run-off wastewater is collected from the roofs by

  13. Comparison of Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterial biomass: cultivation in urban wastewater and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Lara; Sialve, Bruno; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Steyer, Jean Philippe; González-Fernández, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of microalgae is hampered by its complex cell wall. Against this background, cyanobacteria cell walls render this biomass as an ideal substrate for overcoming this drawback. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth of two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and Anabaena planctonica) and a microalga (Chlorella vulgaris) in urban wastewater when varying the temperature (22, 27 and 32 °C). Cyanobacterial optimal growth for both strains was attained at 22 °C, while C. vulgaris did not show remarkable differences among temperatures. For all the microorganisms, ammonium removal was higher than phosphate. Biomass collected was subjected to anaerobic digestion. Methane yield of C. vulgaris was 184.8 mL CH4 g COD in(-1) while with A. ovalisporum and A. planctonica the methane production was 1.2- and 1.4-fold higher. This study showed that cyanobacteria growth rates could be comparable to microalgae while presenting the additional benefit of an increased anaerobic digestibility.

  14. Insight into the risk of replenishing urban landscape ponds with reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Ao, Dong; Ji, Jiayuan; Wang, Xiaochang C; Li, Yu-You; Huang, Yue; Xue, Tao; Guo, Hongbing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Lu

    2017-02-15

    Increasing use of reclaimed wastewater (RW) for replenishing urban landscape ponds has aroused public concern about the water quality. Three ponds replenished with RW in three cities in China were chosen to investigate 22 indexes of water quality in five categories. This was achieved by comparing three pairs of ponds in the three different cities, where one pond in each pair was replenished with RW and the other with surface water (SW). The nutrients condition, heavy metal concentration and ecotoxicity did not differ significantly between RW- and SW-replenished ponds. By contrast, significant differences were observed in algal growth and pathogen risk. RW ponds presented a Cyanophyta-Chlorophyta-Bacillariophyta type with high algal diversity while SW ponds presented a Cyanophyta type with low diversity. Regrowth of bacterial pathogens and especially survival of viral pathogens in RW, was the main driver behind the higher risk for RW ponds compared with SW ones. The duration of RW replenishment was proved to have a marked impact on the algal growth and pathogen risk. With continued RW replenishment, non-dominant algal species subjected to decrease while dominant species were enhanced resulting in the biomass increasing but diversity declining, and the risk posed by viral pathogens might become greater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence of emerging pollutants in urban wastewater and their removal through biological treatment followed by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Roberto; Rodríguez, Antonio; Perdigón-Melón, José Antonio; Petre, Alice; García-Calvo, Eloy; Gómez, María José; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-01-01

    This work reports a systematic survey of over seventy individual pollutants in a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) receiving urban wastewater. The compounds include mainly pharmaceuticals and personal care products, as well as some metabolites. The quantification in the ng/L range was performed by Liquid Chromatography-QTRAP-Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry. The results showed that paraxanthine, caffeine and acetaminophen were the main individual pollutants usually found in concentrations over 20 ppb. N-formyl-4-amino-antipiryne and galaxolide were also detected in the ppb level. A group of compounds including the beta-blockers atenolol, metoprolol and propanolol; the lipid regulators bezafibrate and fenofibric acid; the antibiotics erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, the antiinflammatories diclofenac, indomethacin, ketoprofen and mefenamic acid, the antiepileptic carbamazepine and the antiacid omeprazole exhibited removal efficiencies below 20% in the STP treatment. Ozonation with doses lower than 90 microM allowed the removal of many individual pollutants including some of those more refractory to biological treatment. A kinetic model allowed the determination of second order kinetic constants for the ozonation of bezafibrate, cotinine, diuron and metronidazole. The results show that the hydroxyl radical reaction was the major pathway for the oxidative transformation of these compounds. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from indoor air of an urban wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Juliana V; Cecílio, Pedro; Gonçalves, Daniela; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pinto, Eugénia; Ferreira, Helena N

    2016-07-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been recognized as sources of bioaerosols that may act as vehicles for dissemination of pathogens and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The occurrence of MDR Enterobacteriaceae in indoor air of an urban WWTP was investigated. A possible airborne contamination with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was also explored. Fourteen of 39 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were MDR. These isolates were found at all sampling sites, mainly at the secondary sedimentation settings. The highest levels of resistance were detected in three different species: Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii. Furthermore, one of the airborne E. coli isolates was phenotypically characterized as an ESBL producer. Additionally, five isolates showed non-susceptibility to at least one carbapenem tested. The presence of genes encoding relevant beta-lactamase types in these ESBL-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates was investigated by PCR. Results showed amplification for bla CTX-M and bla OXA. These findings are relevant both in terms of occupational/public health and of environmental dissemination of MDR bacteria.

  17. Separate treatment of hospital and urban wastewaters: A real scale comparison of effluents and their effect on microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonova, Teofana; Keck, François; Labanowski, Jérôme; Montuelle, Bernard; Rimet, Frédéric; Bouchez, Agnès

    2016-01-15

    Hospital wastewaters (HWW) contain wider spectrum and higher quantity of pharmaceuticals than urban wastewaters (UWW), but they are generally discharged in sewers without pretreatment. Since traditional urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are not designed to treat HWWs, treated effluents may still contain pollutants that could impair receiving aquatic environments. Hence, a better understanding of the effect of pharmaceuticals in the environment is required. Biofilms are effective "biological sensors" for assessing the environmental effects of pharmaceuticals due to their ability to respond rapidly to physical, chemical and biological fluctuations by changes in their structure and composition. This study evaluated the efficiency of biological treatment with conventional activated sludge system performed parallel on HWW and UWW. Furthermore, six successive monthly colonizations of biofilms were done on autoclaved stones, placed in grid-baskets in the hospital treated effluents (HTE) and urban treated effluents (UTE). The biomass of these biofilms as well as the structure and diversity of their bacterial communities were investigated. Results showed better treatment efficiency for phosphate and nitrite/nitrate during the treatment of UWW. Pharmaceuticals from all investigated therapeutic classes (beta-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, analgesics and anticonvulsants) were efficiently removed, except for carbamazepine. The removal efficiency of the antibiotics, NSAIDs and beta-blockers was higher during the treatment of HWW. HTE and UTE shaped the bacterial communities in different ways. Higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the HTE caused adapted development of the microbial community, leading to less developed biomass and lower bacterial diversity. Seasonal changes in solar irradiance and temperature, caused changes in the community composition of biofilms in both effluents. According to the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals

  18. The degradation behaviour of nine diverse contaminants in urban surface water and wastewater prior to water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Guillaume; Barbeau, Benoit; Arp, Hans Peter H; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    An increasing diversity of emerging contaminants are entering urban surface water and wastewater, posing unknown risks for the environment. One of the main contemporary challenges in ensuring water quality is to design efficient strategies for minimizing such risks. As a first step in such strategies, it is important to establish the fate and degradation behavior of contaminants prior to any engineered secondary water treatment. Such information is relevant for assessing treatment solutions by simple storage, or to assess the impacts of contaminant spreading in the absence of water treatment, such as during times of flooding or in areas of poor infrastructure. Therefore in this study we examined the degradation behavior of a broad array of water contaminants in actual urban surface water and wastewater, in the presence and absence of naturally occurring bacteria and at two temperatures. The chemicals included caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, atrazine, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, diclofenac, desethylatrazine and norethindrone. Little information on the degradation behavior of these pollutants in actual influent wastewater exist, nor in general in water for desethylatrazine (a transformation product of atrazine) and the synthetic hormone norethindrone. Investigations were done in aerobic conditions, in the absence of sunlight. The results suggest that all chemicals except estradiol are stable in urban surface water, and in waste water neither abiotic nor biological degradation in the absence of sunlight contribute significantly to the disappearance of desethylatrazine, atrazine, carbamazepine and diclofenac. Biological degradation in wastewater was effective at transforming norethindrone, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, caffeine and sulfamethoxazole, with measured degradation rate constants k and half-lives ranging respectively from 0.0082-0.52 d(-1) and 1.3-85 days. The obtained degradation data generally followed a pseudo-first-order-kinetic model

  19. A Practical Review of Integrated Urban Water Models: Applications as Decision Support Tools and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, L.; Negahban-Azar, M.

    2017-12-01

    The integrated urban water management has become a necessity due to the high rate of urbanization, water scarcity, and climate variability. Climate and demographic changes, shifting the social attitude toward the water usage, and insufficiencies in system resilience increase the pressure on the water resources. Alongside with the water management, modeling urban water systems have progressed from traditional view to comprise alternatives such as decentralized water and wastewater systems, fit-for-purpose practice, graywater/rainwater reuse, and green infrastructure. While there are review papers available focusing on the technical part of the models, they seem to be more beneficial for model developers. Some of the models analyze a number of scenarios considering factors such as climate change and demography and their future impacts. However, others only focus on quality and quantity of water in a supply/demand approach. For example, optimizing the size of water or waste water store, characterizing the supply and quantity of urban stormwater and waste water, and link source of water to demand. A detailed and practical comparison of such models has become a necessity for the practitioner and policy makers. This research compares more than 7 most commonly used integrated urban water cycle models and critically reviews their capabilities, input requirements, output and their applications. The output of such detailed comparison will help the policy makers for the decision process in the built environment to compare and choose the best models that meet their goals. The results of this research show that we need a transition from developing/using integrated water cycle models to integrated system models which incorporate urban water infrastructures and ecological and economic factors. Such models can help decision makers to reflect other important criteria but with the focus on urban water management. The research also showed that there is a need in exploring

  20. Sustainable Urban Water Management: Application for Integrated Assessment in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokhrukh-Mirzo Jalilov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, development, and operation of current and future urban water infrastructure in many parts of the world increasingly rely on and apply the principles of sustainable development. However, this approach suffers from a lack of the necessary knowledge, skills, and practice of how sustainable development can be attained and promoted in a given city. This paper presents the framework of an integrated systems approach analysis that deals with the abovementioned issues. The “Water and Urban Initiative” project, which was implemented by the United Nations University’s Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability, focused on urban water and wastewater systems, floods, and their related health risk assessment, and the economics of water quality improvements. A team of researchers has investigated issues confronting cities in the developing countries of Southeast Asia, in relation to sustainable urban water management in the face of such ongoing changes as rapid population growth, economic development, and climate change; they have also run future scenarios and proposed policy recommendations for decision-makers in selected countries in Southeast Asia. The results, lessons, and practical recommendations of this project could contribute to the ongoing policy debates and decision-making processes in these countries.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of urban wastewater reuse with ozonation as tertiary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ivan; Rodriguez, Antonio; Rosal, Roberto; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R.

    2009-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment has been used to compare different scenarios involving wastewater reuse, with special focus on toxicity-related impact categories. The study is based on bench-scale experiments applying ozone and ozone in combination with hydrogen peroxide to a wastewater effluent from a Spanish sewage treatment plant. Two alternative characterisation models have been used to account for toxicity of chemical substances, namely USES-LCA and EDIP97. Four alternative scenarios have been assessed: wastewater discharge plus desalination supply, wastewater reuse without tertiary treatment, wastewater reuse after applying a tertiary treatment consisting on ozonation, and wastewater reuse after applying ozonation in combination with hydrogen peroxide. The results highlight the importance of including wastewater pollutants in LCA of wastewater systems assessing toxicity, since the contribution of wastewater pollutants to the overall toxicity scores in this case study can be above 90%. Key pollutants here are not only heavy metals and other priority pollutants, but also non-regulated pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Wastewater reuse after applying any of the tertiary treatments considered appears as the best choice from an ecotoxicity perspective. As for human toxicity, differences between scenarios are smaller, and taking into account the experimental and modelling uncertainty, the benefits of tertiary treatment are not so clear. From a global warming potential perspective, tertiary treatments involve a potential 85% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared with desalination

  2. Capacity issues in local communities for integral urban regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđenović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in wider sense is organizational-communication capacity of local communities in Serbia in the frame of sustainable development. Along with this, the paper will explore potentialities of Faludi's model of multiplanning agencies as well as Healey's collaborative theory for better efficiency and effectiveness of planning in the process of urban regeneration. Specifically the paper will research relation between organizational structure of local communities in Serbia and their potentialities to provide adequate communication towards integral information for urban regeneration. Research is framed with a problem of efficiency and effectiveness in creating urban regeneration policies, strategies, designs, and technical solutions. The problem will be focused to Serbian context; characterized with inadequate, transitional, system of governance that is moving from centralistic towards decentralist model. This will be further explored through level and type of participation in the process of urban regeneration. The hypothesis of the research explores the nature of the relation between number and types of communication channels, provided by organizational structure of local communities that should enable effectiveness and efficiency of urban regeneration. In other words the hypothesis is: number and types of communication channels (variable A influences the effectiveness and efficiency of urban planning for sustainable urban regeneration (variable B. The aims of the paper are identification of the regulations between the variables. Expected result is establishing the model for measuring the capacity of local communities for integral urban regeneration.

  3. Integrated Rural-Urban Water Management for Climate Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There are serious short- and long-term consequences on human health, physical assets, economic ... To work, adaptive climate-proof integrated urban water management must extend throughout the whole catchment, an approach known as integrated water resource management. ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  4. Integrated infomobility services for urban freight distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuccotti, S.; Corongiu, A.; Forkert, S.; Nasr, A.; Quak, H.; Torres, C.

    2011-01-01

    City logistics is one of the causes of today's road congestion in our cities, but at the same time its efficiency is affected by the traffic problems. The driving behaviour and mission strategies used by vans and lorries operating in urban areas usually does not exploit modern infomobility

  5. Environmental impact of submerged anaerobic MBR (SAnMBR) technology used to treat urban wastewater at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the environmental impact of a submerged anaerobic MBR (SAnMBR) system in the treatment of urban wastewater at different temperatures: ambient temperature (20 and 33°C), and a controlled temperature (33°C). To this end, an overall energy balance (OEB) and life cycle assessment (LCA), both based on real process data, were carried out. Four factors were considered in this study: (1) energy consumption during wastewater treatment; (2) energy recovered from biogas capture; (3) potential recovery of nutrients from the final effluent; and (4) sludge disposal. The OEB and LCA showed SAnMBR to be a promising technology for treating urban wastewater at ambient temperature (OEB=0.19 kW h m(-3)). LCA results reinforce the importance of maximising the recovery of nutrients (environmental impact in eutrophication can be reduced up to 45%) and dissolved methane (positive environmental impact can be obtained) from SAnMBR effluent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An integrated prediction and optimization model of biogas production system at a wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaş, Halil; Bilgen, Bilge; Turhan, Aykut Melih

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes an integrated prediction and optimization model by using multi-layer perceptron neural network and particle swarm optimization techniques. Three different objective functions are formulated. The first one is the maximization of methane percentage with single output. The second one is the maximization of biogas production with single output. The last one is the maximization of biogas quality and biogas production with two outputs. Methane percentage, carbon dioxide percentage, and other contents' percentage are used as the biogas quality criteria. Based on the formulated models and data from a wastewater treatment facility, optimal values of input variables and their corresponding maximum output values are found out for each model. It is expected that the application of the integrated prediction and optimization models increases the biogas production and biogas quality, and contributes to the quantity of electricity production at the wastewater treatment facility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing Resilient Urban Waterfronts : Integrating Adaptation into Urban Development and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, P.C.; Deppisch, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing attention for integrating climate change adaptation into policies, strategies and decision-making processes (e.g. mainstreaming). This paper explores to what extent climate adaptation can be integrated into processes of urban development and change, based on case study research in

  8. Integrated treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of Fenton's reaction and anaerobic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gohary, F.A.; Badawy, M.I.; El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Kalliny, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of an integrated treatment scheme consisting of wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) followed by two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor (10 l each) for the treatment of olive mill wastewater was the subject of this study. The diluted wastewater (1:1) was pre-treated using Fenton's reaction. Optimum operating conditions namely, pH, H 2 O 2 dose, Fe +2 , COD:H 2 O 2 ratio and Fe +2 :H 2 O 2 ratio were determined. The UASB reactor was fed continuously with the pre-treated wastewater. The hydraulic retention time was kept constant at 48 h (24 h for each stage). The conventional parameters such as COD, BOD, TOC, TKN, TP, TSS, oil and grease, and total phenols were determined. The concentrations of polyphenolic compounds in raw wastewater and effluents of each treatment step were measured using HPLC. The results indicated a good quality final effluent. Residual concentrations of individual organic compounds ranged from 0.432 mg l -1 for ρ-hydroxy-benzaldhyde to 3.273 mg l -1 for cinnamic acid

  9. Integration of treatment wetlands as sustainable wastewater management systems for small communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahab, M.F.; Surampalli, R.Y. [Univ. of Nebraski-Lincoln, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2002-06-15

    This paper discuses the applicability as well as the integration of the constructed wetlands technology within the environmental infrastructure in small communities. To that end, a case study involving the use of Constructed wetlands (CW) for waste management in the Nebraska plains is presented. CW systems have been shown to be effective treatment alternatives in resource-limited small communities; and hence, can contribute to improving the economic well-being and the sustainability of many small communities. The paper specifically discusses the performance of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands systems used as the wastewater treatment process for a small community in eastern Nebraska and outlines operational experience gained through five years of plant operation. The results show that effective and sufficient CW seasonal removals of TSS, VSS, CBOD{sub 5}, COD, and fecal coliform were achieved. Wastewater temperatures seemed to affect CBOD{sub 5} and COD removal rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions were not as effective and varied seasonally, as well as with wastewater temperature. The addition of a sand filter, to aid in further nitrification and disinfection following CW treatment, markedly improved the performance of the wetlands system. After a few years of operation, the performance of the system was dampened by apparent clogging and subsequent eruption of wastewater at the head-end of the treatment cells. While clogging was partially caused by biomass build-up in the wetlands substrate, visual observations suggest that excessive vegetation and relaxed maintenance may also be responsible. (author)

  10. Integration of treatment wetlands as sustainable wastewater management systems for small communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahab, M.F.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discuses the applicability as well as the integration of the constructed wetlands technology within the environmental infrastructure in small communities. To that end, a case study involving the use of Constructed wetlands (CW) for waste management in the Nebraska plains is presented. CW systems have been shown to be effective treatment alternatives in resource-limited small communities; and hence, can contribute to improving the economic well-being and the sustainability of many small communities. The paper specifically discusses the performance of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands systems used as the wastewater treatment process for a small community in eastern Nebraska and outlines operational experience gained through five years of plant operation. The results show that effective and sufficient CW seasonal removals of TSS, VSS, CBOD 5 , COD, and fecal coliform were achieved. Wastewater temperatures seemed to affect CBOD 5 and COD removal rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions were not as effective and varied seasonally, as well as with wastewater temperature. The addition of a sand filter, to aid in further nitrification and disinfection following CW treatment, markedly improved the performance of the wetlands system. After a few years of operation, the performance of the system was dampened by apparent clogging and subsequent eruption of wastewater at the head-end of the treatment cells. While clogging was partially caused by biomass build-up in the wetlands substrate, visual observations suggest that excessive vegetation and relaxed maintenance may also be responsible. (author)

  11. Urban wastewater process by aerobic constructed wetland; Depuracion de aguas residuales urbanas utilizando un humedal artificial aerobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Rodriguez, M.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper the experiences of urban wastewater treatment are shown in an aerobic constructed wetland, using phragmites australis.They were carried out changes on the design and operation of aerobic constructed wetlands of subsurface flow, in order to increase denitrification and biodegradation rate and to diminish the surface of the installation. the flow was channeled through a long and narrow channel to get bigger biodegradation rate to approach to the plug flow performance. the active space of process consists of two sites, one first anoxic in which denitrification takes place, and in the other one the wetland in oxygenated environment the organic matters of the wastewater are consumed by biodegradation and it takes place nitrification, and utilization of nitrates and phosphates by the vegetable culture. (Author) 14 refs.

  12. Recycled Urban Wastewater for Irrigation of Jatropha curcas L. in Abandoned Agricultural Arid Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dorta-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In a global context in which obtaining new energy sources is of paramount importance, the production of biodiesel from plant crops is a potentially viable alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Among the species used to produce the raw material for biodiesel, Jatropha curcas L. (JCL has enjoyed increased popularity in recent years, due partly to its ability to grow in degraded zones and under arid and semi-arid conditions. The present study evaluates the potential for JCL production under irrigation with non-conventional water resources in abandoned agricultural soils of the island of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain, which is one of the most arid parts of the European Union. JCL growth and productivity are compared during the first 39 months of cultivation in two soil types (clay-loam and sandy-loam and with two irrigation water qualities: recycled urban wastewater (RWW and desalinated brackish water (DBW. The results indicate that JCL growth (in terms of plant height and stem diameter was significantly influenced both by soil type and water quality, with better development observed in the sandy-loam soil under RWW irrigation. Productivity, measured as cumulative seed production, was not affected by soil type but was affected by water quality. Production under RWW irrigation was approximately seven times greater than with DBW (mean ~2142 vs. 322 kg·ha−1. The higher nutrient content, especially P, K and Mg, and lower B content of the RWW were found to be key factors in the greater productivity observed under irrigation with this type of water.

  13. On the risks from sediment and overlying water by replenishing urban landscape ponds with reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Dong; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xiaochang C; Liu, Yanzheng; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yue; Xue, Tao; Wang, Nan

    2018-05-01

    The extensive use of reclaimed wastewater (RW) as a source of urban landscape pond replenishment, stimulated by the lack of surface water (SW) resources, has raised public concern. Greater attention should be paid to pond sediments, which act as 'sinks' and 'sources' of contaminants to the overlying pond water. Three ponds replenished with RW (RW ponds) in three Chinese cities were chosen to investigate 22 indices of sediment quality in four categories: eutrophication, heavy metal, ecotoxicity and pathogens risk. RW ponds were compared with other ponds of similar characteristics in the same cities that were replenished with SW (SW ponds). Our results show a strong impact of RW to the eutrophication and pathogenic risks, which are represented by organic matter, water content, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and phosphorus fractions, and pathogens. In particular, total phosphorus concentrations in the RW pond sediments were, on average, 50% higher than those of SW ponds. Moreover, the content of phosphorus, extracted by bicarbonate/dithionite (normally represented by BD-P) and NaOH (NaOH-P), were 2.0- and 2.83-times higher in RW ponds, respectively. For pathogens, the concentrations of norovirus and rotavirus in RW pond sediments were, on average, 0.52 and 0.30- log times those of SW ponds. The duration of RW replenishment was proved to have a marked impact on the eutrophication and pathogens risks from sediments. The continued use of RW for replenishment increases the eutrophication risk, and the pathogens risk, especially by viral pathogens, becomes greater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbamazepine behaviour and effects in an urban wastewater MBR working with high sludge and hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Daniel María; Pérez, Jorge Ignacio; Nieto, Miguel Ángel Gómez

    2016-08-23

    The behaviour and fate of carbamazepine (CBZ) in urban wastewater treatment by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and its possible effects on the system's efficiency, and on mixed microbial communities, has been studied. The experimental microfiltration MBR system, with capacity to treat 10.8 m(3) d(-1) of urban wastewater, operated with a pre-denitrification configuration with high sludge and hydraulic retention time. The CBZ concentration assayed was higher than in the usual urban wastewater, in order to provoke a strong biomass reaction. Influent, effluent, and all bioreactors of the MBR system were analysed in order to calculate a CBZ balance. Bench-scale experiments and respirometric analyses were performed, with and without the presence of CBZ, to evaluate its influence on the bacterial activity. The respirometric assays showed variations in the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) in the presence of CBZ. Negative effects were detected in the MBR bacterial community during the initial period of dosing. However, the effects were not permanent and the biomass spiked with CBZ had behaviour similar to that of the biomass without CBZ after a few hours. Biodegradation was not detected during the MBR treatment. The system showed an inefficient elimination of CBZ (less than 10%) with a high concentration in the effluent. The small percentage of CBZ removal was associated with the sludge retention and eliminated by the purge. All CBZ present in the influent was accounted for, and even an increase in the total amount of CBZ was registered in the permeate. During and after the experimental process, CBZ did not significantly affect the efficiency of the MBR system, and the quality of the effluent was not affected by the dosing of CBZ in terms of COD and nitrogen removal.

  15. Characterization of staphylococci in urban wastewater treatment plants in Spain, with detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Estepa, Vanesa; Tenorio, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus in urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP) of La Rioja (Spain), and to characterize de obtained isolates. 16 wastewater samples (8 influent, 8 effluent) of six UWTPs were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics and the presence of 35 antimicrobial resistance genes and 14 virulence genes by PCR. S. aureus was typed by spa, agr, and multilocus-sequence-typing, and the presence of immune-evasion-genes cluster was analyzed. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 13 of 16 tested wastewater samples (81%), although the number of CFU/mL decreased after treatment. 40 staphylococci were recovered (1–5/sample), and 8 of them were identified as S. aureus being typed as (number of strains): spa-t011/agr-II/ST398 (1), spa-t002/agr-II/ST5 (2), spa-t3262/agr-II/ST5 (1), spa-t605/agr-II/ST126 (3), and spa-t878/agr-III/ST2849 (1). S. aureus ST398 strain was methicillin-resistant and showed a multidrug resistance phenotype. Virulence genes tst, etd, sea, sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seu, were detected among S. aureus and only ST5 strains showed genes of immune evasion cluster. Thirty-two coagulase-negative Staphylococcus of 12 different species were recovered (number of strains): Staphylococcus equorum (7), Staphylococcus vitulinus (4), Staphylococcus lentus (4), Staphylococcus sciuri (4), Staphylococcus fleurettii (2), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (2), Staphylococcus hominis (2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2), Staphylococcus succinus (2), Staphylococcus capitis (1), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). Five presented a multidrug resistance phenotype. The following resistance and virulence genes were found: mecA, lnu(A), vga(A), tet(K), erm(C), msr(A)/(B), mph(C), tst, and sem. We found that

  16. How Does Scale of Implementation Impact the Environmental Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment Integrated with Resource Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Pablo K; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2016-07-05

    Energy and resource consumptions required to treat and transport wastewater have led to efforts to improve the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Resource recovery can reduce the environmental impact of these systems; however, limited research has considered how the scale of implementation impacts the sustainability of WWTPs integrated with resource recovery. Accordingly, this research uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate how the scale of implementation impacts the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment integrated with water reuse, energy recovery, and nutrient recycling. Three systems were selected: a septic tank with aerobic treatment at the household scale, an advanced water reclamation facility at the community scale, and an advanced water reclamation facility at the city scale. Three sustainability indicators were considered: embodied energy, carbon footprint, and eutrophication potential. This study determined that as with economies of scale, there are benefits to centralization of WWTPs with resource recovery in terms of embodied energy and carbon footprint; however, the community scale was shown to have the lowest eutrophication potential. Additionally, technology selection, nutrient control practices, system layout, and topographical conditions may have a larger impact on environmental sustainability than the implementation scale in some cases.

  17. Integration of LUTI models into sustainable urban mobility plans (SUMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Gavanas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A literature review indicates that there is an increasing number of Land Use/Transport Interaction (LUTI models being used in policy analysis and support of urban land use, transport and environmental planning. In this context, LUTI models are considered to be useful for the development of scenarios during the preparatory stage of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs. A SUMP can be defined as a strategic planning framework, proposed by the European Commission, for planning and design of an urban multimodal transport system, which combines multi-disciplinary policy analysis and decision making. The objective of a SUMP is to achieve sustainable urban mobility, i.e. accessibility for all, safety and security, reduction in emissions and energy consumption, efficient and cost-effective transport and an improvement in the urban environment. Based on the overall conceptual and methodological framework of LUTI models (Geurs and van Wee 2004, the scope of the proposed research is to fully integrate a LUTI model into a contemporary transport planning framework and, more specifically, into the SUMP structure. This paper focuses on the configuration of the integration pattern, according to which a LUTI model may evolve and interact with the planning process throughout the eleven elements of the SUMP, as well as the evaluation of the benefits and drawbacks from the implementation of the proposed pattern for the enhancement of SUMP and overall promotion of sustainable urban planning.

  18. Dynamic modelling of a forward osmosis-nanofiltration integrated process for treating hazardous wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Parimal; Das, Pallabi; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Thakura, Ritwik

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic modelling and simulation of a nanofiltration-forward osmosis integrated complete system was done along with economic evaluation to pave the way for scale up of such a system for treating hazardous pharmaceutical wastes. The system operated in a closed loop not only protects surface water from the onslaught of hazardous industrial wastewater but also saves on cost of fresh water by turning wastewater recyclable at affordable price. The success of dynamic modelling in capturing the relevant transport phenomena is well reflected in high overall correlation coefficient value (R 2  > 0.98), low relative error (osmosis loop at a reasonably high flux of 56-58 l per square meter per hour.

  19. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  20. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  1. Influence of light presence and biomass concentration on nutrient kinetic removal from urban wastewater by Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J; Arbib, Z; Alvarez-Díaz, P D; Garrido-Pérez, C; Barragán, J; Perales, J A

    2014-05-20

    This work was aimed at studying the effect of light-darkness and high-low biomass concentrations in the feasibility of removing nitrogen and phosphorus from urban treated wastewater by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Laboratory experiments were conducted in batch, where microalgae were cultured under different initial biomass concentrations (150 and 1500mgSSl(-1)) and light conditions (dark or illuminated). Nutrient uptake was more dependent on internal nutrient content of the biomass than on light presence or biomass concentration. When a maximum nitrogen or phosphorus content in the biomass was reached (around 8% and 2%, respectively), the removal of that nutrient was almost stopped. Biomass concentration affected more than light presence on the nutrient removal rate, increasing significantly with its increase. Light was only required to remove nutrients when the maximum nutrient storage capacity of the cells was reached and further growth was therefore needed. Residence times to maintain a stable biomass concentration, avoiding the washout of the reactor, were much higher than those needed to remove the nutrients from the wastewater. This ability to remove nutrients in the absence of light could lead to new configurations of reactors aimed to wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of staphylococci in urban wastewater treatment plants in Spain, with detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Estepa, Vanesa; Tenorio, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus in urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP) of La Rioja (Spain), and to characterize de obtained isolates. 16 wastewater samples (8 influent, 8 effluent) of six UWTPs were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics and the presence of 35 antimicrobial resistance genes and 14 virulence genes by PCR. S. aureus was typed by spa, agr, and multilocus-sequence-typing, and the presence of immune-evasion-genes cluster was analyzed. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 13 of 16 tested wastewater samples (81%), although the number of CFU/mL decreased after treatment. 40 staphylococci were recovered (1-5/sample), and 8 of them were identified as S. aureus being typed as (number of strains): spa-t011/agr-II/ST398 (1), spa-t002/agr-II/ST5 (2), spa-t3262/agr-II/ST5 (1), spa-t605/agr-II/ST126 (3), and spa-t878/agr-III/ST2849 (1). S. aureus ST398 strain was methicillin-resistant and showed a multidrug resistance phenotype. Virulence genes tst, etd, sea, sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seu, were detected among S. aureus and only ST5 strains showed genes of immune evasion cluster. Thirty-two coagulase-negative Staphylococcus of 12 different species were recovered (number of strains): Staphylococcus equorum (7), Staphylococcus vitulinus (4), Staphylococcus lentus (4), Staphylococcus sciuri (4), Staphylococcus fleurettii (2), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (2), Staphylococcus hominis (2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2), Staphylococcus succinus (2), Staphylococcus capitis (1), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). Five presented a multidrug resistance phenotype. The following resistance and virulence genes were found: mecA, lnu(A), vga(A), tet(K), erm(C), msr(A)/(B), mph(C), tst, and sem. We found that

  3. Evaluation of the performances of wastewater treatment services provided by the metropolitan municipalities in Turkey using Entropy integrated SAW, MOORA and TOPSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Ertuğrul; Özçelik, Gökhan

    2018-01-01

    Reusingof the wastewater has a vital importance because of limited natural waterresources all around the world. Recycled wastewater can be used in many areassuch as agriculture, industry, cleaning etc. Treatment of wastewater is one ofthe important tasks of metropolitan municipalities. The aim of this study is toevaluate the performances of wastewater treatment services provided by themetropolitan municipalities in Turkey using Entropy integrated SAW, MOORA andTOPSIS methods. In the scope of ...

  4. Integrated ecotechnology approach towards treatment of complex wastewater with simultaneous bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, Manupati; Sravan, J Shanthi; Yeruva, Dileep Kumar; Venkata Mohan, S

    2017-10-01

    Sequential integration of three stage diverse biological processes was studied by exploiting the individual process advantage towards enhanced treatment of complex chemical based wastewater. A successful attempt to integrate sequence batch reactor (SBR) with bioelectrochemical treatment (BET) and finally with microalgae treatment was studied. The sequential integration has showed individual substrate degradation (COD) of 55% in SBR, 49% in BET and 56% in microalgae, accounting for a consolidated treatment efficiency of 90%. Nitrates removal efficiency of 25% was observed in SBR, 31% in BET and 44% in microalgae, with a total efficiency of 72%. The SBR treated effluents fed to BET with the electrode intervention showed TDS removal. BET exhibited relatively higher process performance than SBR. The integration approach significantly overcame the individual process limitations along with value addition as biomass (1.75g/L), carbohydrates (640mg/g), lipids (15%) and bioelectricity. The study resulted in providing a strategy of combining SBR as pretreatment step to BET process and finally polishing with microalgae cultivation achieving the benefits of enhanced wastewater treatment along with value addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: Removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment—A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlicchi, P.; Al Aukidy, M.; Zambello, E.

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on 118 pharmaceuticals, belonging to seventeen different therapeutic classes, detected in raw urban wastewater and effluent from an activated sludge system, a usual treatment adopted for urban wastewaters worldwide prior to final discharge into surface water bodies. Data pertaining to 244 conventional activated sludge systems and 20 membrane biological reactors are analysed and the observed ranges of variability of each selected compound in their influent and effluent reported, with particular reference to the substances detected most frequently and in higher concentrations. A snapshot of the ability of these systems to remove such compounds is provided by comparing their global removal efficiencies for each substance. Where possible, the study then evaluates the average daily mass load of the majority of detected pharmaceuticals exiting the secondary treatment step. The final part of the review provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in the secondary effluent by means of the risk quotient that is the ratio between the average pharmaceutical concentration measured in the secondary effluent and the predicted no-effect concentration. Finally, mass load rankings of the compounds under review are compared with those based on their risk level. This analysis shows that the highest amounts discharged through secondary effluent pertain to one antihypertensive, and several beta-blockers and analgesics/anti-inflammatories, while the highest risk is posed by antibiotics and several psychiatric drugs and analgesics/anti-inflammatories. These results are reported with a view to aiding scientists and administrators in planning measures aiming to reduce the impact of treated urban wastewater discharge into surface water bodies. - Highlights: ► The review refers to 118 pharmaceuticals occurring in raw and treated wastewaters. ► Data from 264 municipal WWTPs with a CAS or an MBR were analysed. ► The removal rates achieved

  6. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: Removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlicchi, P., E-mail: paola.verlicchi@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Terra and AcquaTech Technopoles, Via Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Al Aukidy, M., E-mail: mustafakether.alaukidi@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Zambello, E., E-mail: elena.zambello@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Terra and AcquaTech Technopoles, Via Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    This review focuses on 118 pharmaceuticals, belonging to seventeen different therapeutic classes, detected in raw urban wastewater and effluent from an activated sludge system, a usual treatment adopted for urban wastewaters worldwide prior to final discharge into surface water bodies. Data pertaining to 244 conventional activated sludge systems and 20 membrane biological reactors are analysed and the observed ranges of variability of each selected compound in their influent and effluent reported, with particular reference to the substances detected most frequently and in higher concentrations. A snapshot of the ability of these systems to remove such compounds is provided by comparing their global removal efficiencies for each substance. Where possible, the study then evaluates the average daily mass load of the majority of detected pharmaceuticals exiting the secondary treatment step. The final part of the review provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in the secondary effluent by means of the risk quotient that is the ratio between the average pharmaceutical concentration measured in the secondary effluent and the predicted no-effect concentration. Finally, mass load rankings of the compounds under review are compared with those based on their risk level. This analysis shows that the highest amounts discharged through secondary effluent pertain to one antihypertensive, and several beta-blockers and analgesics/anti-inflammatories, while the highest risk is posed by antibiotics and several psychiatric drugs and analgesics/anti-inflammatories. These results are reported with a view to aiding scientists and administrators in planning measures aiming to reduce the impact of treated urban wastewater discharge into surface water bodies. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The review refers to 118 pharmaceuticals occurring in raw and treated wastewaters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data from 264 municipal WWTPs with a CAS or an

  7. Effects of urban wastewater on crab and mollusc assemblages in equatorial and subtropical mangroves of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannicci, Stefano; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Fratini, Sara; Litulo, Carlos; Macia, Adriano; Mrabu, Elisha J.; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Paula, José

    2009-09-01

    Mangrove forests are known to accomplish crucial ecosystem functions and services. They are nursery areas for fish, prawns and crabs, which provide coastal communities with a variety of food, timber and chemicals, and protect coasts from catastrophic events, such as tsunamis. Recently, a novel ecological service has been proposed for mangrove systems, namely natural wastewater treatment wetlands. This hypothesis was based on experimental data collected mainly in Chinese mangrove systems, which proved that mangrove soils were efficient in absorbing nutrients. Moreover, sewage loading seemed harmless to both plants and benthic communities in these systems. However, before promoting the use of natural mangroves as pollution buffers, or constructed mangrove wetlands as sewage treatment facilities, more data are needed on their overall tolerance to organic loading. Differences in macrobenthos patterns were thus investigated between peri-urban mangroves and sites not affected by sewage disposal in East Africa. We assessed differences in epifaunal assemblages, comprising crabs and molluscs, employing multivariate ACI unbalanced analyses to compare peri-urban mangrove swamps with those characteristic of non-urban mangroves with similar ecological traits. The sampling design was spatially nested, replicates being assessed at equatorial (southern Kenya) and subtropical (southern Mozambique) sites. The results manifested a consistent increase in crab biomass at the peri-urban sites in both Kenya and Mozambique. Moreover, the peri-urban systems were richer than the non-urban mangroves, both in terms of fiddler crabs ( Uca spp.) which feed on benthic microalgae and bacteria, and sesarmids, such as Perisesarma guttatum and Neosarmatium meinerti, which feed on both substratum and leaf litter. The abundance of gastropods, in contrast, decreased significantly, especially in Kenya, mainly due to the disappearance of the mud whelk Terebralia palustris. The results thus indicate that

  8. Pretreatment of Real Wastewater from the Chocolate Manufacturing Industry through an Integrated Process of Electrocoagulation and Sand Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    García-Morales, Marco A.; Juárez, Julio César González; Martínez-Gallegos, Sonia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Peralta, Ever; del Campo López, Eduardo Martin; Barrera-Díaz, Carlos; Miranda, Verónica Martínez; Blancas, Teresa Torres

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of suspended solids in terms of turbidity, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) when integrating the electrocoagulation process using aluminum sacrificial anodes and the sand filtration process as a pretreatment of wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing plant in Toluca, México. Wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing industry used in this study is classified as nontoxic, but is characterized as having a high conte...

  9. Urban Wastewater Impacts on the Spatial Distribution of Solutes and Microbial Constituents in the Musi River, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, J.; Scott, C. A.; Cairncross, S.

    2006-05-01

    Wastewater discharge from expanding urban centers deteriorates the quality of receiving waters, a trend that has management and investment implications for cities around the world. This paper presents the results of a 14-month water quality evaluation over a 40-km longitudinal profile downstream of the city of Hyderabad, India (population 7 million) on the Musi River, a tributary to the Krishna River. Upstream to downstream improvements in Musi water quality for microbial constituents (nematode egg, faecal coliform), dissolved oxygen, and nitrate are attributed to natural attenuation processes (dilution, die-off, sedimentation and biological processes) coupled with the effects of in-stream hydraulic infrastructure (weirs and reservoirs). Conversely, upstream to downstream increases in total dissolved solids concentrations are caused by off- stream infrastructure and agricultural water use resulting in crop evapotranspiration and increased solute concentration in the return flow of irrigation diverted upstream in the wastewater system. Future water quality management challenges resulting from rampant urban growth, particularly in developing countries, are discussed.

  10. Study of Capability of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha in Nitrate and Phosphate Indirect Removal from Urban Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyli Gholamhosseini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Zebra mussel (Dreissenidae polymorpha is capable of filtering great volumes of water due to its high population density. In this study, Nitrate and Phosphate removal capability of 3 shell masses (20, 40, and 60 gr in urban wastewater was investigated based on filtering rate measurements (using simultaneous phytoplankton, chlorella, and Scenedesmus cultures and indirect absorption of nitrate and phosphate in open and closed systems with 3 to 10 replications. Open and closed systems showed a positive correlation between shell weights and Nitrate and Phosphate filtration rates (R2 =0.99 but a negative correlation between influent Nitrate and Phosphate concentrations and their filtration rates (R2=0.97. Increasing of shell weights in the open system resulted in absorption rates of 0.08-0.2mg.l-1 of the shell dry weight for Nitrate and 0.02-0.04 mg.l-1 for Phosphate. In the closed system, these rates were 0.03-0.11 mg.l-1 of the shell dry weight for Nitrate absorption and 0.01-0.02 mg.l-1 for Phosphate. These results show that shell masses have a low nitrate and phosphate removal efficiency, especially in the case of phosphate, and they can not be, therefore, recommended for urban wastewater treatment.

  11. Treatment of high strength distillery wastewater (cherry stillage) by integrated aerobic biological oxidation and ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, F J; Alvarez, P M; Rodríguez, E M; García-Araya, J F; Rivas, J

    2001-01-01

    The performance of integrated aerobic digestion and ozonation for the treatment of high strength distillery wastewater (i.e., cherry stillage) is reported. Experiments were conducted in laboratory batch systems operating in draw and fill mode. For the biological step, activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was used as inoculum, showing a high degree of activity to distillery wastewater. Thus, BOD and COD overall conversions of 95% and 82% were achieved, respectively. However, polyphenol content and absorbance at 254 nm (A(254)) could not be reduced more than 35% and 15%, respectively, by means of single biological oxidation. By considering COD as substrate, the aerobic digestion process followed a Contois' model kinetics, from which the maximum specific growth rate of microorganisms (mu(max)) and the inhibition factor, beta, were then evaluated at different conditions of temperature and pH. In the combined process, the effect of a post-ozonation stage was studied. The main goals achieved by the ozonation step were the removal of polyphenols and A(254). Therefore, ozonation was shown to be an appropriate technology to aid aerobic biological oxidation in the treatment of cherry stillage.

  12. Assessing the integration of forward osmosis and anaerobic digestion for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Ashley J; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Ngo, Huu H; Guo, Wenshan; Nghiem, Long D

    2018-07-01

    This study assessed the performance and key challenges associated with the integration of forward osmosis (FO) and anaerobic digestion for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Using a thin film composite polyamide FO membrane, maximising the pre-concentration factor (i.e. system water recovery) resulted in the enrichment of organics and salinity in wastewater. Biomethane potential evaluation indicated that methane production increased correspondingly with the FO pre-concentration factor due to the organic retention in the feed solution. At 90% water recovery, about 10% more methane was produced when using NaOAc compared with NaCl because of the contribution of biodegradable reverse NaOAc flux. No negative impact on anaerobic digestion was observed when wastewater was pre-concentrated ten-fold (90% water recovery) for both draw solutes. Interestingly, the unit cost of methane production using NaOAc was slightly lower than NaCl due to the lower reverse solute flux of NaOAc, although NaCl is a much cheaper chemical. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A flux-enhancing forward osmosis-nanofiltration integrated treatment system for the tannery wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Parimal; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Nayak, Jayato; Senapati, Suman

    2017-06-01

    Effective treatment of tannery wastewater prior to discharge to the environment as per environmental regulations remains a big challenge despite efforts to bring down the concentrations of the pollutants which are often quite high as measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand (7800 mg/L), total dissolved solids (5400 mg/L), chloride (4260 mg/L), sulphides (250 mg/L) and chromium. A pilot-scale forward osmosis and nanofiltration integrated closed loop system was developed for continuous reclamation of clean water from tannery wastewater at a rate of 52-55 L/m 2 /h at 1.6 bar pressure. The low-cost draw solution was 0.8 M NaCl solution. Continuous recovery for recycling the draw solute was done by nanofiltration of diluted draw solution at an operating pressure of 12 bar and volumetric cross-flow rate of 700 L/h. Fouling study revealed that the specific flat-sheet design of cross-flow forward osmosis module with counter current flow of feed and draw solution prevents the build-up of concentration polarization, thus enabling long-term filtration in continuous mode of operation without significant membrane fouling. This study culminates in the development of a compact, efficient and low-cost industrial wastewater treatment and reclamation technology.

  14. Probabilistic evaluation of integrating resource recovery into wastewater treatment to improve environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; McCarty, Perry L; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yu, Han-Qing; Qian, Yi; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-02-03

    Global expectations for wastewater service infrastructure have evolved over time, and the standard treatment methods used by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are facing issues related to problem shifting due to the current emphasis on sustainability. A transition in WWTPs toward reuse of wastewater-derived resources is recognized as a promising solution for overcoming these obstacles. However, it remains uncertain whether this approach can reduce the environmental footprint of WWTPs. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a net environmental benefit calculation for several scenarios for more than 50 individual countries over a 20-y time frame. For developed countries, the resource recovery approach resulted in ∼154% net increase in the environmental performance of WWTPs compared with the traditional substance elimination approach, whereas this value decreased to ∼60% for developing countries. Subsequently, we conducted a probabilistic analysis integrating these estimates with national values and determined that, if this transition was attempted for WWTPs in developed countries, it would have a ∼65% probability of attaining net environmental benefits. However, this estimate decreased greatly to ∼10% for developing countries, implying a substantial risk of failure. These results suggest that implementation of this transition for WWTPs should be studied carefully in different temporal and spatial contexts. Developing countries should customize their approach to realizing more sustainable WWTPs, rather than attempting to simply replicate the successful models of developed countries. Results derived from the model forecasting highlight the role of bioenergy generation and reduced use of chemicals in improving the sustainability of WWTPs in developing countries.

  15. Integrating electrochemical oxidation into forward osmosis process for removal of trace antibiotics in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengxiao; Zhang, Hanmin; Feng, Yujie; Shen, Chao; Yang, Fenglin

    2015-10-15

    During the rejection of trace pharmaceutical contaminants from wastewater by forward osmosis (FO), disposal of the FO concentrate was still an unsolved issue. In this study, by integrating the advantages of forward osmosis and electrochemical oxidation, a forward osmosis process with the function of electrochemical oxidation (FOwEO) was established for the first time to achieve the aim of rejection of trace antibiotics from wastewater and treatment of the concentrate at the same time. Results demonstrated that FOwEO (current density J=1 mA cm(-2)) exhibited excellent rejections of antibiotics (>98%) regardless of different operation conditions, and above all, antibiotics in the concentrate were well degraded (>99%) at the end of experiment (after 3h). A synergetic effect between forward osmosis and electrochemical oxidation was observed in FOwEO, which lies in that antibiotic rejections by FO were enhanced due to the degradation of antibiotics in the concentrate, while the electrochemical oxidation capacity was improved in the FOwEO channel, of which good mass transfer and the assist of indirect oxidation owing to the reverse NaCl from draw solution were supposed to be the mechanism. This study demonstrated that the FOwEO has the capability to thoroughly remove trace antibiotics from wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Philippines: integrated planning for balanced urban growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    During the past 80 years, the proportion of the Philippine population living in urban areas has nearly tripled, from 13% at the beginning of the 20th century to 36% in 1980. The number of people living in urban areas multipled 17-fold over this period. Currently, an estimated 17 million people live in urban areas, and this number is expected to reach 30 million by the year 2000. Migration from rural areas has been an important component of urban growth, but it has not been the principal one. Natural increase accounted for 54% of total urban growth in the 1960s and 1970s. A combination of reclassification and migration accounted for the rest. Big cities did not grow as rapidly as small cities, since their growth was generated largely by urban inmigration. Small cities tended to grow faster due to more natural increase than to inmigration. Philippine urbanization has been marked by increasing primacy. Metropolitan Manila, the largest city, has more than quadrupled in size since 1950. The phenomenon of primacy has been the cumulative consequence of historical, demographic, political, and socioeconomic factors. It may also have resulted from growth policies which unintentionally and indirectly favored the premier city. For national planners, the issue of urbanization in the Philippines is closely intertwined with the country's development objectives, particularly those of reducing poverty and attaining a more equitable distribution of income and wealth. The integration of population growth and distribution trends into the planning process is very important. Efforts to actively advocate this approach at various planning levels have been initiated. More must be learned about population and development dynamics, and planning capabilities at all levels must be improved.

  17. An integrated anaerobic digestion and UV photocatalytic treatment of distillery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollo, Seth [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa); Onyango, Maurice S. [Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Ochieng, Aoyi, E-mail: ochienga@vut.ac.za [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Integrated AD and photodegradation is suitable for treatment of distillery effluent. • AD process is effective in COD and BOD reduction but not colour removal. • UV photodegradation is efficient in colour and DON removal. • UV photodegradation as a post treatment technique achieved high efficiencies. • UV pre-treatment inhibited biogas production in the succeeding anaerobic process. -- Abstract: Anaerobic up-flow fixed bed reactor and annular photocatalytic reactor were used to study the efficiency of integrated anaerobic digestion (AD) and ultraviolet (UV) photodegradation of real distillery effluent and raw molasses wastewater (MWW). It was found that UV photodegradation as a stand-alone technique achieved colour removal of 54% and 69% for the distillery and MWW, respectively, with a COD reduction of <20% and a negligible BOD reduction. On the other hand, AD as a single treatment technique was found to be effective in COD and BOD reduction with efficiencies of above 75% and 85%, respectively, for both wastewater samples. However, the AD achieved low colour removal efficiency, with an increase in colour intensity of 13% recorded when treating MWW while a colour removal of 51% was achieved for the distillery effluent. The application of UV photodegradation as a pre-treatment method to the AD process reduced the COD removal and biogas production efficiency. However, an integration in which UV photodegradation was employed as a post-treatment to the AD process achieved high COD removal of above 85% for both wastewater samples, and colour removal of 88% for the distillery effluent. Thus, photodegradation can be employed as a post-treatment technique to an AD system treating distillery effluent for complete removal of the biorecalcitrant and colour imparting compounds.

  18. An integrated anaerobic digestion and UV photocatalytic treatment of distillery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollo, Seth; Onyango, Maurice S.; Ochieng, Aoyi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated AD and photodegradation is suitable for treatment of distillery effluent. • AD process is effective in COD and BOD reduction but not colour removal. • UV photodegradation is efficient in colour and DON removal. • UV photodegradation as a post treatment technique achieved high efficiencies. • UV pre-treatment inhibited biogas production in the succeeding anaerobic process. -- Abstract: Anaerobic up-flow fixed bed reactor and annular photocatalytic reactor were used to study the efficiency of integrated anaerobic digestion (AD) and ultraviolet (UV) photodegradation of real distillery effluent and raw molasses wastewater (MWW). It was found that UV photodegradation as a stand-alone technique achieved colour removal of 54% and 69% for the distillery and MWW, respectively, with a COD reduction of <20% and a negligible BOD reduction. On the other hand, AD as a single treatment technique was found to be effective in COD and BOD reduction with efficiencies of above 75% and 85%, respectively, for both wastewater samples. However, the AD achieved low colour removal efficiency, with an increase in colour intensity of 13% recorded when treating MWW while a colour removal of 51% was achieved for the distillery effluent. The application of UV photodegradation as a pre-treatment method to the AD process reduced the COD removal and biogas production efficiency. However, an integration in which UV photodegradation was employed as a post-treatment to the AD process achieved high COD removal of above 85% for both wastewater samples, and colour removal of 88% for the distillery effluent. Thus, photodegradation can be employed as a post-treatment technique to an AD system treating distillery effluent for complete removal of the biorecalcitrant and colour imparting compounds

  19. Advantages of integrated and sustainability based assessment for metabolism based strategic planning of urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadian, Kourosh; Kapelan, Zoran

    2015-09-15

    Despite providing water-related services as the primary purpose of urban water system (UWS), all relevant activities require capital investments and operational expenditures, consume resources (e.g. materials and chemicals), and may increase negative environmental impacts (e.g. contaminant discharge, emissions to water and air). Performance assessment of such a metabolic system may require developing a holistic approach which encompasses various system elements and criteria. This paper analyses the impact of integration of UWS components on the metabolism based performance assessment for future planning using a number of intervention strategies. It also explores the importance of sustainability based criteria in the assessment of long-term planning. Two assessment approaches analysed here are: (1) planning for only water supply system (WSS) as a part of the UWS and (2) planning for an integrated UWS including potable water, stormwater, wastewater and water recycling. WaterMet(2) model is used to simulate metabolic type processes in the UWS and calculate quantitative performance indicators. The analysis is demonstrated on the problem of strategic level planning of a real-world UWS to where optional intervention strategies are applied. The resulting performance is assessed using the multiple criteria of both conventional and sustainability type; and optional intervention strategies are then ranked using the Compromise Programming method. The results obtained show that the high ranked intervention strategies in the integrated UWS are those supporting both water supply and stormwater/wastewater subsystems (e.g. rainwater harvesting and greywater recycling schemes) whilst these strategies are ranked low in the WSS and those targeting improvement of water supply components only (e.g. rehabilitation of clean water pipes and addition of new water resources) are preferred instead. Results also demonstrate that both conventional and sustainability type performance indicators

  20. Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

  1. Biodegradation of endocrine disruptors in urban wastewater using Pleurotus ostreatus bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křesinová, Zdena; Linhartová, Lucie; Filipová, Alena; Ezechiáš, Martin; Mašín, Pavel; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2018-07-25

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus HK 35, which is also an edible industrial mushroom commonly cultivated in farms, was tested in the degradation of typical representatives of endocrine disrupters (EDCs; bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, triclosan and 4-n-nonylphenol); its degradation efficiency under model laboratory conditions was greater than 90% within 12 days and better than that of another published strain P. ostreatus 3004. A spent mushroom substrate from a local farm was tested for its applicability in various batch and trickle-bed reactors in degrading EDCs in model fortified and real communal wastewater. The reactors were tested under various regimes including a pilot-scale trickle-bed reactor, which was finally tested at a wastewater treatment plant. The result revealed that the spent substrate is an efficient biodegradation agent, where the fungus was usually able to remove about 95% of EDCs together with suppression of the estrogenic activity of the sample. The results showed the fungus was able to operate in the presence of bacterial microflora in wastewater without any substantial negative effects on the degradation abilities. Finally, a pilot-scale trickle-bed reactor was installed in a wastewater treatment plant and successfully operated for 10days, where the bioreactor was able to remove more than 76% of EDCs present in the wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Resilience theory incorporated into urban wastewater systems management. State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-García, P; Butler, D; Comas, J; Darch, G; Sweetapple, C; Thornton, A; Corominas, Ll

    2017-05-15

    Government bodies, utilities, practitioners, and researchers have growing interest in the incorporation of resilience into wastewater management. Since resilience is a multidisciplinary term, it is important to review what has been achieved in the wastewater sector, and describe the future research directions for the forthcoming years. This work presents a critical review of studies that deal with resilience in the wastewater treatment sector, with a special focus on understanding how they addressed the key elements for assessing resilience, such as stressors, system properties, metrics and interventions to increase resilience. The results showed that only 17 peer-reviewed papers and 6 relevant reports, a small subset of the work in wastewater research, directly addressed resilience. The lack of consensus in the definition of resilience, and the elements of a resilience assessment, is hindering the implementation of resilience in wastewater management. To date, no framework for resilience assessment is complete, comprehensive or directly applicable to practitioners; current examples are lacking key elements (e.g. a comprehensive study of stressors, properties and metrics, examples of cases study, ability to benchmark interventions or connectivity with broader frameworks). Furthermore, resilience is seen as an additional cost or extra effort, instead of a means to overcome project uncertainty that could unlock new opportunities for investment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating the Interests of Different Stakeholders in Beijing Wastewater Reuse Systems for Sustainable Urban Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Whether water systems can be operated successfully and sustainably is influenced by the attitudes and willingness of stakeholders involved in the management of such systems. This study quantitatively evaluates the interests of different stakeholders in wastewater reuse systems in Beijing. Such interests comprise economic, environmental, and social effects induced by the wastewater reuse systems. The study considers four main stakeholders in Beijing, namely the Municipal Administration Committee (MAC, Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (MEPB, plant managers, and users. Cost benefit analysis is conducted to determine the aforementioned interests separately from the perspectives of the various stakeholders. The results reveal that not all stakeholders’ interests in the wastewater reuse systems in Beijing are satisfied. From the perspectives of both the MAC and MEPB, the evaluation results indicate that both decentralized and centralized wastewater reuse systems are economically feasible. However, from the viewpoints of plant managers and users, the results reveal that only the centralized wastewater reuse systems are economically feasible, whereas the decentralized systems are not. The failure to satisfy the interests of plant managers and users may be a major reason for the interrupted operation of the decentralized systems in Beijing. The study demonstrates that successful and sustainable development of a new water project necessitates satisfying the interests of all stakeholders.

  4. Teaching method: ‘Integrative urban design game’ for soft urban regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđenović Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban regeneration is challenged by contradictory process of globalization. This double-sided process can enrich local communities or leave them at margins of global society. Regarding globalization, most authorities claim that urban planning and design are in paradigm crisis. The crisis is an announcement for paradigm shift that is in contemporary theoretical and conceptual frameworks. They give hope for the ‘light at the end of the tunnel’. Their common groundings are: ‘soft and hard infrastructure’; ‘agencies and structures’; ‘power to’; ‘new rationality’, ‘common sense’; ‘communicative action’; and ‘integrative development’. The purpose of the research is to discuss possibilities of teaching method ‘Integrative urban design game’ for soft urban regeneration, elaborating it with respect to the crisis in specific context of building bridges among academia and local communities regarding various teaching approaches. The method was innovated at the Faculty of Architecture in Belgrade and tested in Bač community. The hypothesis is that the method provides soft infrastructure for urban regeneration in local communities. The research will result in a form of principles the game should be grounded on, using participative mimicry model of present and future place for overcoming paradigm crisis. Methodological approach is based on theoretical comparison, case study, and questionnaires among stakeholders. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36035: Spatial, environmental, energy and social aspects of developing settlements and climate change - mutual impacts

  5. Integrating environmental and self-report data to refine cannabis prevalence estimates in a major urban area of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Frederic; Schneider, Christian; Zobel, Frank; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Cannabis consumption is a topical subject because of discussions about reviewing current regulations. In this context, having a more comprehensive approach to assess and monitor prevalence and consumption is highly relevant. The objective of this work was to refine current estimates about prevalence of cannabis use by combining self-report data and results derived from wastewater analysis. Self-report data was retrieved from surveys conducted in Switzerland and Europe. Wastewater samples were collected at the wastewater treatment plant of Lausanne, western Switzerland, over a 15 months period. The occurrence of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), a specific metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was monitored. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate consumption, prevalence and number of cannabis users in the investigated area. According to survey data, 12-months prevalence in western Switzerland was estimated to 6.2% of the population aged 15 or older, with an estimated daily cannabis consumption of 8.1gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1) (at 11.2% purity). The integrative model comprising self-report and wastewater data substantially reduced the uncertainty in the estimates and suggested a last-year prevalence of 9.4%, with a daily cannabis consumption of 14.0gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1). Although in the same order of magnitude, consumption and prevalence estimates obtained with the integrative model were 78% and 52% higher compared to self-report figures, respectively. Interestingly, these figures are similar to discrepancies observed when comparing self-reported alcohol consumption and sales or tax data. The suggested integrative model allowed to account for known sources of uncertainty and provided refined estimates of cannabis prevalence in a major urban area of Switzerland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. City-integrated renewable energy for urban sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M; Sunter, Deborah A

    2016-05-20

    To prepare for an urban influx of 2.5 billion people by 2050, it is critical to create cities that are low-carbon, resilient, and livable. Cities not only contribute to global climate change by emitting the majority of anthropogenic greenhouse gases but also are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change and extreme weather. We explore options for establishing sustainable energy systems by reducing energy consumption, particularly in the buildings and transportation sectors, and providing robust, decentralized, and renewable energy sources. Through technical advancements in power density, city-integrated renewable energy will be better suited to satisfy the high-energy demands of growing urban areas. Several economic, technical, behavioral, and political challenges need to be overcome for innovation to improve urban sustainability. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Wastewater re-use for peri-urban agriculture: a viable option for adaptive water management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurian, M.; Reddy, V.R.; Dietz, T.; Brdjanovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization is known to spur land modification in the form of conversion of common land to human settlements. This factor, combined with climate variability, can alter the duration, frequency and intensity of storm drain overflows in urban areas and lead to public health risks. In peri-urban

  8. Wastewater re-use for peri-urban agriculture : a viable option for adaptive water management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurian, M.; Ratna, Reddy V.; Dietz, A.J.; Brdjanovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization is known to spur land modification in the form of conversion of common land to human settlements. This factor, combined with climate variability, can alter the duration, frequency and intensity of storm drain overflows in urban areas and lead to public health risks. In peri-urban

  9. Occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in hospital and urban wastewaters and their impact on the receiving river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Chamorro, Sara; Marti, Elisabet; Huerta, Belinda; Gros, Meritxell; Sànchez-Melsió, Alexandre; Borrego, Carles M; Barceló, Damià; Balcázar, Jose Luis

    2015-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major health concern; thus, there is a growing interest in exploring the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment as well as the factors that contribute to their emergence. Aquatic ecosystems provide an ideal setting for the acquisition and spread of ARGs due to the continuous pollution by antimicrobial compounds derived from anthropogenic activities. We investigated, therefore, the pollution level of a broad range of antibiotics and ARGs released from hospital and urban wastewaters, their removal through a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and their presence in the receiving river. Several antimicrobial compounds were detected in all water samples collected. Among antibiotic families, fluoroquinolones were detected at the highest concentration, especially in hospital effluent samples. Although good removal efficiency by treatment processes was observed for several antimicrobial compounds, most antibiotics were still present in WWTP effluents. The results also revealed that copy numbers of ARGs, such as blaTEM (resistance to β-lactams), qnrS (reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones), ermB (resistance to macrolides), sulI (resistance to sulfonamides) and tetW (resistance to tetracyclines), were detected at the highest concentrations in hospital effluent and WWTP influent samples. Although there was a significant reduction in copy numbers of these ARGs in WWTP effluent samples, this reduction was not uniform across analyzed ARGs. Relative concentration of ermB and tetW genes decreased as a result of wastewater treatment, whereas increased in the case of blaTEM, sulI and qnrS genes. The incomplete removal of antibiotics and ARGs in WWTP severely affected the receiving river, where both types of emerging pollutants were found at higher concentration in downstream waters than in samples collected upstream from the discharge point. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a widespread occurrence of

  10. Endocrine disruptors compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in urban wastewater: implications for agricultural reuse and their removal by adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Mariangela; Rizzo, Luigi; Farina, Anna

    2013-06-01

    In the last years, a lot of emerging contaminants, such as, endocrine disruptors compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected in wastewater. Because of their toxicity and possible adverse effects on the environment and humans, their release from urban wastewater treatment plants (UWWTPs) effluents should be minimized, particularly when a wastewater reuse for crops irrigation is expected. Many processes have been investigated for advanced treatment of UWWTP effluents as well as for emerging contaminant degradation; among these, adsorption process was successfully used to remove EDCs and PPCPs from wastewater. This article shortly reviews EDCs and PPCPs removal from UWWTP effluents by adsorption process using conventional and non-conventional adsorbents. The fate of EDCs and PPCPs in UWWTPs and the implications for agricultural wastewater reuse has been addressed too. In spite of the adsorption process looking to be a valuable alternative to other advanced technologies for the removal of emerging contaminants from wastewater, some gaps still remain to evaluate the actual feasibility at full scale. However, according to a few studies available in scientific literature on the use of both powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon at full scale, adsorption process by activated carbon is a promising, potentially effective, and economically feasible solution for producing safe wastewater for agricultural reuse.

  11. Bacteriological Quality of Tilapia Fish from Treated Wastewater in Peri-Urban Areas, Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, OJ; Mdegela, RH; Kusiluka, LJM

    2016-01-01

    the inlet to outlet of Mzumbe wastewater treatment pond, there was a significant reduction (pquality for human consumption based......The aim of this study was to assess faecal bacterial contamination in tilapia fish from wastewater treatment ponds at Mzumbe and in pristine water in Mindu dam. Tilapia fish (fish flesh and fish intestines) and water samples were analysed for Escherichia coli and total plate count....... The concentration of E. coli in fish intestines ranged from about 1 - 3.5 log cfu/g and water in Mindu dam ranged from 0 to 15 cfu/mL. From...

  12. Recovery of real dye bath wastewater using integrated membrane process: considering water recovery, membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcik-Canbolat, Cigdem; Sengezer, Cisel; Sakar, Hacer; Karagunduz, Ahmet; Keskinler, Bulent

    2017-11-01

    It has been recognized by the whole world that textile industry which produce large amounts of wastewater with strong color and toxic organic compounds is a major problematical industry requiring effective treatment solutions. In this study, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were tested on biologically treated real dye bath wastewater with and without pretreatment by nanofiltration (NF) membrane to recovery. Also membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes were investigated by multiple filtrations. Obtained results showed that only NF is not suitable to produce enough quality to reuse the wastewater in a textile industry as process water while RO provide successfully enough permeate quality. The results recommend that integrated NF/RO membrane process is able to reduce membrane fouling and allow long-term operation for real dye bath wastewater.

  13. Estimation of illicit drug use in the main cities of Colombia by means of urban wastewater analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Botero-Coy, Ana M. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), University Jaume I, Castellón (Spain); Rincón, Rolando J. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University Antonio Nariño (Colombia); Peñuela, Gustavo A. [Grupo GDCON, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, 70 # 52-21, Medellin (Colombia); Hernández, Félix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), University Jaume I, Castellón (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) relies on the principle that traces of compounds, which a population is exposed to or consume, are excreted unchanged or as metabolites in urine and/or feces, and ultimately end up in the sewer network. Measuring target metabolic residues i.e. biomarkers in raw urban wastewater allows identifying the exposure or use of substances of interest in a community. Up to date, the most popular application of WBE is the estimation of illicit drug use and studies have been made mainly across Europe, which has allowed estimating and comparing drug use in many European cities. However, until now a comprehensive study applying WBE on the most frequently consumed illicit drugs has not been performed in South American countries. In this work, we applied this approach to samples from Colombia, selecting two of the most populated cities: Bogotá and Medellin. Several biomarkers were selected to estimate drug use of cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), heroin and ketamine. Composite samples (24-h) were collected at the corresponding municipal wastewater treatment plants. Sample treatment was performed at location by applying solid-phase extraction (SPE). Before SPE, the samples were spiked with appropriate isotope labeled internal standards. In parallel, samples (spiked with the analytes under study at two concentration levels) were also processed for quality control. Analysis of influent wastewater was made by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with triple quadrupole analyzer. Data shown in this paper reveal a high use of cocaine by the population of the selected Colombian cities, particularly from Medellin, while the use of other illicit drugs were low. The relevance of using quality control samples, particularly in collaborative studies, as those presented in this work, where research groups from different countries participate and where the samples had to be shipped overseas, is highlighted in this

  14. Estimation of illicit drug use in the main cities of Colombia by means of urban wastewater analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Botero-Coy, Ana M.; Rincón, Rolando J.; Peñuela, Gustavo A.; Hernández, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) relies on the principle that traces of compounds, which a population is exposed to or consume, are excreted unchanged or as metabolites in urine and/or feces, and ultimately end up in the sewer network. Measuring target metabolic residues i.e. biomarkers in raw urban wastewater allows identifying the exposure or use of substances of interest in a community. Up to date, the most popular application of WBE is the estimation of illicit drug use and studies have been made mainly across Europe, which has allowed estimating and comparing drug use in many European cities. However, until now a comprehensive study applying WBE on the most frequently consumed illicit drugs has not been performed in South American countries. In this work, we applied this approach to samples from Colombia, selecting two of the most populated cities: Bogotá and Medellin. Several biomarkers were selected to estimate drug use of cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), heroin and ketamine. Composite samples (24-h) were collected at the corresponding municipal wastewater treatment plants. Sample treatment was performed at location by applying solid-phase extraction (SPE). Before SPE, the samples were spiked with appropriate isotope labeled internal standards. In parallel, samples (spiked with the analytes under study at two concentration levels) were also processed for quality control. Analysis of influent wastewater was made by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with triple quadrupole analyzer. Data shown in this paper reveal a high use of cocaine by the population of the selected Colombian cities, particularly from Medellin, while the use of other illicit drugs were low. The relevance of using quality control samples, particularly in collaborative studies, as those presented in this work, where research groups from different countries participate and where the samples had to be shipped overseas, is highlighted in this

  15. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  16. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, R J; Allain, C J; Laughton, P J; Henry, J G

    2004-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115,000 m3/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Université de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and "cumulative effects" as part of the overall biosolids management strategy are also discussed.

  17. Integrated constructed wetland systems: design, operation, and performance of low-cost decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, L L; Bailey, E; Jansen, P; Houke, L; Smith, S

    2007-01-01

    Several different types of constructed wetland systems are being used as decentralized treatment systems including surface-flow, subsurface-flow, vertical-flow, and hybrid systems. Archetypical wetland systems have design strengths and weaknesses, and therefore it should be possible to design combined (integrated) systems to optimize a number of important treatment processes. This study provides comparative efficacy data for two integrated wetland treatment systems (IWTS) designed to enhance treatment of medium strength wastewater generated from a pilot-scale intensive fish farm. Results from the twenty eight months study included consistently high removal of COD (84% +) and ammonia nitrogen (93%) in both systems. Initially, phosphorus removal was also high (>90%) in both systems, but removal efficacy declined significantly over time. Nitrate removal was significantly better in the system that provided sequential aerobic and anoxic environments. Short hydraulic retention times coupled with sustained removal of COD and ammonia indicate that the ReCip components could be a least-cost wastewater treatment technology in the decentralized market sector.

  18. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlance, R.J.; Allain, C.J.; Laughton, P.J.; Henry, J.G.

    2003-07-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115 000 m{sup 3}/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Universite de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and ''cumulative effects'' as part of the overall biosolids management strategy is also discussed. (author)

  19. Removal of Furfural From Wastewater Using Integrated Catalytic Ozonation and Biological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Leili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Furfural with a chemical formula of C5H4O2 is a toxic compound which has several health problems for both humans and environment. It has a few exposure routes for entering the human body such as oral, dermal or nasal. In the present study, the efficacies of an integrated catalytic ozonation process (COP and novel cyclic biological reactor (CBR were explored for the removal of furfural from aqueous solutions. Activated carbon was purchased from Merck Company. It had a Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET specific surface area of 1100 m2/g, with an average micropore volume and size of 0.385 cm3/g and 595 µm, respectively. The results indicated that 30% pretreatment with COP could increase furfural and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiency with CBR 5.56% and 27.01%, respectively. With 70% pretreatment by COP, 98.57% furfural and 95.34% COD removal efficiencies happen in CBR. Generally, batch and continuous experiments showed that the integrated COP/CBR could be efficient in eliminating furfural from wastewater and thus may be a promising technique for treating furfural-containing wastewater.

  20. SOLUTIONS FOR INTEGRATED ADMINISTRATION OF URBAN GREEN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide an administrative model for green spaces in any geographical area, especially in urban areas. The organizational proposed model also concerns the possibilities to develop new areas with green spaces for both recreation and leisure. Current structures leave much to be desired and, unfortunately, they do not seek to manage the green spaces on types of activities and these activities are not integrated into a unit structure to ensure coordination of operations for maintenance and expansion of these spaces. In the study, for the administrative plan are proposed those necessary changes to create organizational structures needed to implement a coherent strategy and policy to support the development of green space. Given the necessity of an integrated management for urban space, the model proposes solutions to eliminate functional overlaps of the various decision-making bodies by creating a unit of action, together with arrangements for its effective support. Developing effective solutions to managing green spaces for recreation and leisure becomes an obligation for the next period under conditions of increasing green areas arranged as parks and other types of green spaces and hence an increase for the cost of their administration. On the other hand, the paper addresses the issue of integrated management for both, green areas and recreational and leisure facilities existing within the urban areas, by giving more importance and impact for these spaces within communities. In this framework of integrated administration, it is possible to ensure modern leisure amenities in these urban green areas, and on the other hand it is possible to provide a very important prospect of additional revenues for the general budget of the community and also for future budget of planning for new green areas.

  1. A gain-loss framework based on ensemble flow forecasts to switch the urban drainage-wastewater system management towards energy optimization during dry periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courdent, Vianney; Grum, Morten; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Peter S.

    2017-05-01

    Precipitation is the cause of major perturbation to the flow in urban drainage and wastewater systems. Flow forecasts, generated by coupling rainfall predictions with a hydrologic runoff model, can potentially be used to optimize the operation of integrated urban drainage-wastewater systems (IUDWSs) during both wet and dry weather periods. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models have significantly improved in recent years, having increased their spatial and temporal resolution. Finer resolution NWP are suitable for urban-catchment-scale applications, providing longer lead time than radar extrapolation. However, forecasts are inevitably uncertain, and fine resolution is especially challenging for NWP. This uncertainty is commonly addressed in meteorology with ensemble prediction systems (EPSs). Handling uncertainty is challenging for decision makers and hence tools are necessary to provide insight on ensemble forecast usage and to support the rationality of decisions (i.e. forecasts are uncertain and therefore errors will be made; decision makers need tools to justify their choices, demonstrating that these choices are beneficial in the long run). This study presents an economic framework to support the decision-making process by providing information on when acting on the forecast is beneficial and how to handle the EPS. The relative economic value (REV) approach associates economic values with the potential outcomes and determines the preferential use of the EPS forecast. The envelope curve of the REV diagram combines the results from each probability forecast to provide the highest relative economic value for a given gain-loss ratio. This approach is traditionally used at larger scales to assess mitigation measures for adverse events (i.e. the actions are taken when events are forecast). The specificity of this study is to optimize the energy consumption in IUDWS during low-flow periods by exploiting the electrical smart grid market (i.e. the actions are taken

  2. Managing urban wastewater in China: a survey of build-operate-transfer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, O.D.; Zhang, M.S.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a nationwide field survey of wastewater plants under build-operate-transfer ( BOT) contracts in China. The survey yielded information on contracting parties, size, duration and location of 37 BOT contracts. The key findings are that municipal governments feature as first

  3. Monitoring MDMA metabolites in urban wastewater as novel biomarkers of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariño, Iria; Zuccato, Ettore; Santos, Miquel M; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-05-15

    Consumption of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has been always estimated by measuring the parent substance through chemical analysis of wastewater. However, this may result in an overestimation of the use if the substance is directly disposed in sinks or toilets. Using specific urinary metabolites may overcome this limitation. This study investigated for the first time the suitability of a panel of MDMA metabolites as biomarkers of consumption, considering the specific criteria recently proposed, i.e. being detectable and stable in wastewater, being excreted in a known percentage in urine, and having human excretion as the sole source. A new analytical method was developed and validated for the extraction and analysis of MDMA and three of its main metabolites in wastewater. 24-h composite raw wastewater samples from three European cities were analysed and MDMA use was back-calculated. Results from single MDMA loads, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) loads and from the sum of MDMA, HMMA and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA) loads were in line with the well-known recreational use of this drug: consumption was higher during the weekend in all cities. HMMA and HMA turned out to be suitable biomarkers of consumption; however, concentrations measured in wastewater did not resemble the expected pharmacokinetic profiles, quite likely due to the very limited information available on excretion profiles. Different options were tested to back-calculate MDMA use, including the sum of MDMA and its metabolites, to balance the biases associated with each single substance. Nevertheless, additional pharmacokinetic studies are urgently needed in order to get more accurate excretion rates and, therefore, improve the estimates of MDMA use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated Quality Management System in Public Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husein Pašagić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Public urban traffic (PUT requirements are based on thespecific characteristics that dictate the requirements themselves.The problems faced by all the big cities regarding public urbantransport are very similar, and they range from unacceptabilityof the very organisational structure of the system facing the populationgrowth, limitations and congestions of the traffic routesloaded by an increasing number of automobiles, to the chroniclack of economic funds for the investments that would createthe necessary conditions for positive shifts. In PUT there aremany random parameters whose statistical laws are not easy todetermine and it is often the topic of research of various profilesof scientists. There is always the satisfaction, that is, the lack ofsatisfaction by the final user of the public urban transport andall the other involved groups. The result is that the potential usersof public urban transport give up and try to find other solutionsfor their transport needs, turning in principle to individualtraffic. Consequently, the number of passenger cars on the trafficroutes increases along with all the resulting negative effects.The complex systems of public urban transport facing the increasingrequirements to improve efficiency have to be subjectedto certain changes in order to achieve physical sustainability oftraffic at all, and to satisfy the environmental requirements thatoccur as counterbalance to the pollution of the urban area.With the aim of achieving optimal conditions for the qualityof service, and by introducing acceptable traffic solutionscombined with the integrated quality management systembased on the standards ISO 9001 and ISO 14000 high-qualityshifts are made possible. The integration of these standards resultsin the rational combining of the quality management systeminto a single efficient system, reflected in achieving high-quality traffic and transport service, improved informationflow, unique documentation, positive

  5. Helminth infections among people using wastewater and human excreta in peri-urban agriculture and aquaculture in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thuy Trang; Mølbak, Kåre; Phung, Dac Cam; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2007-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of helminth infections and their associated risks in a community using both wastewater and human excreta in agriculture and aquaculture. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a peri-urban area in Hanoi, Vietnam. Data on the demography, socioeconomics and sanitation were collected from a survey of 400 agricultural households. Parasitological examination for the eggs of Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and hookworm was performed on single stool specimens obtained from study household members' 15-70 years and 0-72 months of age. Of 807 stool samples collected from 620 adults and 187 children, 39% were infected with helminths. The prevalence of infections with Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and hookworm was 21.6%, 9.8% and 21.8%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that being an adult, female gender, living in a household without a latrine, excreta composted for less than 1 month and use of fresh human excreta were significantly associated with co-infection with all three helminths. Being an adult was an independent determinant for infections with individual helminths. The absence of a latrine and use of stored urine for irrigation were associated with an increased risk of Ascaris infection. Risk factors for Trichuris infection were inadequately composted excreta and year-round wastewater contact; risk factors for hookworm infection were female gender, household without a latrine and use of fresh human excreta. Wastewater exposure did not pose a major risk for helminth infection in this community. Instead, lack of sanitation facilities and use of fresh or inadequately composted human excreta in agriculture were important risk factors.

  6. Sorghum Biomass Production for Energy Purpose Using Treated Urban Wastewater and Different Fertilization in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Maucieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim at enhancing the sustainability of biomass production in the Mediterranean area, this paper analyzes, for the first time, the production of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench biomass for bioenergy production using urban treated wastewaters and bio-fertilization. For this purpose, the effects on biomass production of three different fertilizations (no-nitrogen control, biofertilizer, and mineral ammonium nitrate, four levels of constructed wetland (CW wastewater restitutions (0%, 33%, 66% and 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc and three harvesting dates (at full plant maturity, at the initial senescence stage, and at the post-senescence stage were evaluated in a two year trial. For bio-fertilization, a commercial product based on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was used. Mineral nitrogen (N fertilization significantly increased dry biomass (+22.8% in the first year and +16.8% in the second year compared to the control (95.9 and 188.2 g·plant−1, respectively. The lowest and highest biomass production, in 2008 and 2009, was found at 0% (67.1 and 118.2 g·plant−1 and 100% (139.2 and 297.4 g·plant−1 ETc restitutions. In both years, the first harvest gave the highest biomass yield (124.3 g·plant−1 in the first year and 321.3 g·plant−1 in the second, followed by the second and the third one. The results showed that in Mediterranean areas, constructed wetlands treated wastewaters, when complying with the European restrictions for their use in agriculture, may represent an important tool to enhance and stabilize the biomass of energy crops by recycling scarce quality water and nutrients otherwise lost in the environment.

  7. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in urban sewage: Role of full-scale wastewater treatment plants on environmental spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turolla, A; Cattaneo, M; Marazzi, F; Mezzanotte, V; Antonelli, M

    2018-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in wastewater was investigated and the role of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in promoting or limiting antibiotic resistance was assessed. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline was monitored in three WWTPs located in Milan urban area (Italy), differing among them for the operating parameters of biological process, for the disinfection processes (based on sodium hypochlorite, UV radiation, peracetic acid) and for the discharge limits to be met. Wastewater was collected from three sampling points along the treatment sequence (WWTP influent, effluent from sand filtration, WWTP effluent). Antibiotic resistance to ampicillin was observed both for E. coli and for THB. Ampicillin resistant bacteria in the WWTP influents were 20-47% of E. coli and 16-25% of THB counts. A limited resistance to chloramphenicol was observed only for E. coli, while neither for E. coli nor for THB tetracycline resistance was observed. The biological treatment and sand filtration led to a decrease in the maximum percentage of ampicillin-resistant bacteria (20-29% for E. coli, 11-21% for THB). However, the conventionally adopted parameters did not seem adequate to support an interpretation of WWTP role in ARB spread. Peracetic acid was effective in selectively acting on antibiotic resistant THB, unlike UV radiation and sodium hypochlorite. The low counts of E. coli in WWTP final effluents in case of agricultural reuse did not allow to compare the effect of the different disinfection processes on antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Countermeasures for Intensive Use of Land from the Perspective of Urban-Rural Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Li-bin

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes problems of excessive emphasis on expansion of urban land, improper village and town construction, and low land utilization efficiency in urban-rural integration construction. In line with characteristics and principle of intensive land use of urban-rural integration, it puts forward integration of urban-rural land layout, practically exploring connotation, and improving land intensification in many ways. Based on these, it presents countermeasures for intensive use of lan...

  9. Integrating Microbial Electrochemical Technology with Forward Osmosis and Membrane Bioreactors: Low-Energy Wastewater Treatment, Energy Recovery and Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2014-06-01

    Wastewater treatment is energy intensive, with modern wastewater treatment processes consuming 0.6 kWh/m3 of water treated, half of which is required for aeration. Considering that wastewater contains approximately 2 kWh/m3 of energy and represents a reliable alternative water resource, capturing part of this energy and reclaiming the water would offset or even eliminate energy requirements for wastewater treatment and provide a means to augment traditional water supplies. Microbial electrochemical technology is a novel technology platform that uses bacteria capable of producing an electric current outside of the cell to recover energy from wastewater. These bacteria do not require oxygen to respire but instead use an insoluble electrode as their terminal electron acceptor. Two types of microbial electrochemical technologies were investigated in this dissertation: 1) a microbial fuel cell that produces electricity; and 2) a microbial electrolysis cell that produces hydrogen with the addition of external power. On their own, microbial electrochemical technologies do not achieve sufficiently high treatment levels. Innovative approaches that integrate microbial electrochemical technologies with emerging and established membrane-based treatment processes may improve the overall extent of wastewater treatment and reclaim treated water. Forward osmosis is an emerging low-energy membrane-based technology for seawater desalination. In forward osmosis water is transported across a semipermeable membrane driven by an osmotic gradient. The microbial osmotic fuel cell described in this dissertation integrates a microbial fuel cell with forward osmosis to achieve wastewater treatment, energy recovery and partial desalination. This system required no aeration and generated more power than conventional microbial fuel cells using ion exchange membranes by minimizing electrochemical losses. Membrane bioreactors incorporate semipermeable membranes within a biological wastewater

  10. Occurrence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Bacterial Markers in a Tropical River Receiving Hospital and Urban Wastewaters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Devarajan

    Full Text Available The occurrence of emerging biological contaminants including antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs and Faecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB is still little investigated in developing countries under tropical conditions. In this study, the total bacterial load, the abundance of FIB (E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (ENT, Pseudomonas spp. and ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaNDM and aadA were quantified using quantitative PCR in the total DNA extracted from the sediments recovered from hospital outlet pipes (HOP and the Cauvery River Basin (CRB, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India. The abundance of bacterial marker genes were 120, 104 and 89 fold higher for the E. coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp., respectively at HOP when compared with CRB. The ARGs aadA and blaTEM were most frequently detected in higher concentration than other ARGs at all the sampling sites. The ARGs blaSHV and blaNDM were identified in CRB sediments contaminated by hospital and urban wastewaters. The ARGs abundance strongly correlated (r ≥ 0.36, p < 0.05, n = 45 with total bacterial load and E. coli in the sediments, indicating a common origin and extant source of contamination. Tropical aquatic ecosystems receiving wastewaters can act as reservoir of ARGs, which could potentially be transferred to susceptible bacterial pathogens at these sites.

  11. Fitness and Recovery of Bacterial Communities and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Urban Wastewaters Exposed to Classical Disinfection Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Andrea; Fontaneto, Diego; Doppelbauer, Julia; Corno, Gianluca

    2016-09-20

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are increasingly appreciated to be important as micropollutants. Indirectly produced by human activities, they are released into the environment, as they are untargeted by conventional wastewater treatments. In order to understand the fate of ARGs and of other resistant forms (e.g., phenotypical adaptations) in urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), we monitored three WWTPs with different disinfection processes (chlorine, peracetic acid (PAA), and ultraviolet light (UV)). We monitored WWTPs influx and pre- and postdisinfection effluent over 24 h, followed by incubation experiments lasting for 96 h. We measured bacterial abundance, size distribution and aggregational behavior, the proportion of intact (active) cells, and the abundances of four ARGs and of the mobile element integron1. While all the predisinfection treatments of all WWTPs removed the majority of bacteria and of associated ARGs, of the disinfection processes only PAA efficiently removed bacterial cells. However, the stress imposed by PAA selected for bacterial aggregates and, similarly to chlorine, stimulated the selection of ARGs during the incubation experiment. This suggests disinfections based on chemically aggressive destruction of bacterial cell structures can promote a residual microbial community that is more resistant to antibiotics and, given the altered aggregational behavior, to competitive stress in nature.

  12. Urban wastewater photobiotreatment with microalgae in a continuously operated photobioreactor: growth, nutrient removal kinetics and biomass coagulation-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennaa, Fatima Zahra; Arbib, Zouhayr; Perales, José Antonio

    2017-11-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the growth, nutrient removal and harvesting of a natural microalgae bloom cultivated in urban wastewater in a bubble column photobioreactor. Batch and continuous mode experiments were carried out with and without pH control by means of CO 2 dosage. Four coagulants (aluminium sulphate, ferric sulphate, ferric chloride and polyaluminium chloride (PAC)) and five flocculants (Chemifloc CM/25, FO 4498SH, cationic polymers Zetag (Z8165, Z7550 and Z8160)) were tested to determine the optimal dosage to reach 90% of biomass recovery. The maximum volumetric productivity obtained was 0.11 g SS L -1  d -1 during the continuous mode. Results indicated that the removal of total dissolved nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorous under continuous operation were greater than 99%. PAC, Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 were the best options from an economical point of view for microalgae harvesting.

  13. Environmental life cycle assessment of different domestic wastewater streams: policy effectiveness in a tropical urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Bernard J H; Zhou, Jin; Giannis, Apostolos; Chang, Victor W-C; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To enhance local water security, the Singapore government promotes two water conservation policies: the use of eco-friendly toilets to reduce yellow water (YW) disposal and the installation of water efficient devices to minimize gray water (GW) discharge. The proposed water conservation policies have different impacts on the environmental performance of local wastewater management. The main purpose of this study is to examine and compare the impacts of different domestic wastewater streams and the effectiveness of two water conservation policies by means of life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA is used to compare three scenarios, including a baseline scenario (BL), YW-reduced scenario (YWR) and GW-reduced scenario (GWR). The BL is designed based on the current wastewater management system, whereas the latter two scenarios are constructed according to the two water conservation policies that are proposed by the Singapore government. The software SIMPARO 7.3 with local data and an eco-invent database is used to build up the model, and the functional unit is defined as the daily wastewater disposal of a Singapore resident. Due to local water supply characteristics, the system boundary is extended to include the sewage sludge management and tap water production processes. The characterization results indicate that the GWR has a significant impact reduction (22-25%) while the YWR has only a 2-4% impact reduction compared with the BL. The contribution analysis reveals that the GW dominates many impact categories except eutrophication potential. The tap water production is identified as the most influential process due to its high embodied energy demand in a local context. Life cycle costing analysis shows that both YWR and GWR are financially favorable. It is also revealed that the current water conservation policies could only achieve Singapore's short-term targets. Therefore, two additional strategies are recommended for achieving long-term goals. This study provides a

  14. Calibration and field evaluation of polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) for monitoring pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, Emilie; Levi, Yves; Karolak, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a new tool for the sampling of organic pollutants in water. We tested this device for the monitoring of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater. After calibration, a field application was carried out in a French hospital for six pharmaceutical compounds (Atenolol, Prednisolone, Methylprednisolone, Sulfamethoxazole, Ofloxacin, Ketoprofen). POCIS were calibrated in tap water and wastewater in laboratory conditions close to relevant environmental conditions (temperature, flow velocity). Sampling rates (R s ) were determined and we observed a significant increase with flow velocity and temperature. Whatever the compound, the R s value was lower in wastewater and the linear phase of uptake was shorter. POCIS were deployed in a hospital sewage pipe during four days and the estimated water concentrations were close to those obtained with twenty-four hour composite samples. -- Highlights: ► Calibration of POCIS for the monitoring of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater. ► Uptake profile presents a shorter linear phase in wastewater than in tap water. ► Influence of R s values by temperature, flow velocity and bio-fouling. ► Correlation between concentrations estimated from POCIS or measured in TWA samples. ► Deployment period should be no longer than five days. -- After calibration in tap water and hospital wastewater, POCIS were used to monitor pharmaceuticals in hospital sewage and were compared to TWA sampling

  15. Modeling the Effects of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrate Loads Using SWAT in an Urban Watershed of Metropolitan Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoghooghi, Nahal; Radcliffe, David E; Habteselassie, Mussie Y; Jeong, Jaehak

    2017-05-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) can be a source of nitrogen (N) pollution in both surface and ground waters. In metropolitan Atlanta, GA, >26% of homes are on OWTSs. In a previous article, we used the Soil Water Assessment Tool to model the effect of OWTSs on stream flow in the Big Haynes Creek Watershed in metropolitan Atlanta. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of OWTSs, including failing systems, on nitrate as N (NO-N) load in the same watershed. Big Haynes Creek has a drainage area of 44 km with mainly urban land use (67%), and most of the homes use OWTSs. A USGS gauge station where stream flow was measured daily and NO-N concentrations were measured monthly was used as the outlet. The model was simulated for 12 yr. Overall, the model showed satisfactory daily stream flow and NO-N loads with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of 0.62 and 0.58 for the calibration period and 0.67 and 0.33 for the validation period at the outlet of the Big Haynes Watershed. Onsite wastewater treatment systems caused an average increase in NO-N load of 23% at the watershed scale and 29% at the outlet of a subbasin with the highest density of OWTSs. Failing OWTSs were estimated to be 1% of the total systems and did not have a large impact on stream flow or NO-N load. The NO-N load was 74% of the total N load in the watershed, indicating the important effect of OWTSs on stream loads in this urban watershed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Design of a pilot plant to study wastewater treatability. Utilization to nitrification-denitrification treatment of urban wastewater; Diseno de una plant pilot para estudios de tratabilidad de aguas residuales. Aplicacion a la nitrificacion/desnitrificaciond e aguas urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otal, E.; Vilches, L. F.; Pineda, D.; Garcia, A.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.

    2002-07-01

    The conventional design and the operation of secondary treatment of urban wastewater treatment plants presents different problems such as bulking foaming, the removal of nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorus, and the excess of sludge. to prevent these problems the use of selectors was initially proposed to selects the floc-formers bacteria against the filamentous microorganisms. In addition, these configurations removed nitrogen by the nitrification-denitrification mechanism and some of them removed both nitrogen and phosphors. In the last years, new systems have been developed to remove nitrogen, reducing the consumption of oxygen and the production of sludge by the use of different microorganisms, and by modifying environmental and operational conditions. To study the treatment urban wastewater in conditions similar to those existing in wastewater treatment plants and to improve the design and operational parameters of a large scale wastewater treatment plant, a versatile pilot plant has been designed. The main components of the plant are described in this paper. (Author) 18 refs.

  17. Recovery and removal of nutrients from swine wastewater by using a novel integrated reactor for struvite decomposition and recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiming; Xiao, Dean; Liu, Jiahui; Hou, Li; Ding, Li

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, struvite decomposition was performed by air stripping for ammonia release and a novel integrated reactor was designed for the simultaneous removal and recovery of total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN) and total orthophosphate (PT) from swine wastewater by internal struvite recycling. Decomposition of struvite by air stripping was found to be feasible. Without supplementation with additional magnesium and phosphate sources, the removal ratio of TAN from synthetic wastewater was maintained at >80% by recycling of the struvite decomposition product formed under optimal conditions, six times. Continuous operation of the integrated reactor indicated that approximately 91% TAN and 97% PT in the swine wastewater could be removed and recovered by the proposed recycling process with the supplementation of bittern. Economic evaluation of the proposed system showed that struvite precipitation cost can be saved by approximately 54% by adopting the proposed recycling process in comparison with no recycling method. PMID:25960246

  18. Methane production as from the mixture of the urban solid waste lixiviate and municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy-Hermosillo, Oscar; Ramírez-Vives, Florina; Rodríguez-Pimentel, Reyna I.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Suyén

    2015-01-01

    The generation of solid wastes and wastewater in Mexico , as other countries, has increased considerably of late years, so its treatment is very important to reduce the pollution. In this work are presented the results on the anaerobic digestion of lixiviate generated with the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste recollected in the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Unidad Iztapalapa coffee shop. Theses lixiviated were diluted with municipal wastewater to different organic loads (2,3-20 gCOD/L.d) and after treated anaerobically in UASB reactor. Biogas's average production in the last load of the UASB reactor was up to 12 L/L.d with an efficiency to remove COD on top of 90 % and a production of methane of 0,38 LCH4. gSSV-1. (author)

  19. Safe Re-use Practices in Wastewater-Irrigated Urban Vegetable Farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Abaidoo, R.C; Beernaerts, I.

    2012-01-01

    of stakeholders at different levels along the food chain. This paper presents an overview of safe re-use practices including farm-based water treatment methods, water application techniques, post-harvest handling practices, and washing methods. The overview is based on a comprehensive analysis of the literature......Irrigation using untreated wastewater poses health risks to farmers and consumers of crop products, especially vegetables. With hardly any wastewater treatment in Ghana, a multiple-barrier approach was adopted and safe re-use practices were developed through action research involving a number...... and our own specific studies, which used data from a broad range of research methods and approaches. Identifying, testing, and assessment of safe practices were done with the active participation of key actors using observations, extensive microbiological laboratory assessments, and field...

  20. An innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for the treatment of decentralized wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changfu; Liu, Junxin; Liang, Hanwen; Guo, Xuesong; Li, Lin

    2013-02-01

    This article reports an innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for decentralized wastewater treatment, which consists of an oxidation ditch with double channels and a photovoltaic (PV) system without a storage battery. Because the system operates without a storage battery, which can reduce the cost of the PV system, the solar radiation intensity affects the amount of power output from the PV system. To ensure that the power output is sufficient in all different weather conditions, the solar radiation intensity of 78 W/m2 with 95% confidence interval was defined as a threshold of power output for the PV system according to the monitoring results in this study, and a step power output mode was used to utilize the solar energy as well as possible. The oxidation ditch driven by the PV system without storage battery ran during the day and stopped at night. Therefore, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions could periodically appear in the oxidation ditch, which was favorable to nitrogen and phosphate removal from the wastewater. The experimental results showed that the system was efficient, achieving average removal efficiencies of 88% COD, 98% NH4+-N, 70% TN and 83% TP, under the loading rates of 140 mg COD/(g MLSS x day), 32 mg NH4+-N/(g MLSS x day), 44 mg TN/(g MLSS x day) and 5 mg TP/(g MLSS x day).

  1. Integrated system of phytodepuration and water reclamation: A comparative evaluation of four municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Andrea; Giannotti, Maurizio; Marras, Tatiana; Allegrini, Elena

    2017-06-03

    In dry regions, water resources have become increasingly limited, and the use of alternative sources is considered one of the main strategies in sustainable water management. A highly viable alternative to commonly used water resources is treated municipal wastewater, which could strongly benefit from advanced and low-cost techniques for depuration, such as the integrated system of phytodepuration (ISP). The current manuscript investigates four Italian case studies with different sizes and characteristics. The raw wastewaters and final effluents were sampled on a monthly basis over a period of up to five years, allowing the quantification of the ISP performances. The results obtained show that the investigated plants are characterized by an average efficiency value of approximately 83% for chemical oxygen demand removal, 84% for biochemical oxygen demand, 89% for total nitrogen, 91% for total phosphorus, and 85% for total suspended solids. Moreover, for three of the case studies, the ISP final effluent is suitable for irrigation, and in the fourth case study, the final effluent can be released in surface water.

  2. Evaluation of an integrated continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor: Wastewater treatment, energy recovery and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiman; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Da; Zhou, Xiangtong; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    A continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor (CSMER) was developed by integrating anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrochemical system (MES). The system was capable of treating high strength artificial wastewater and simultaneously recovering electric and methane energy. Maximum power density of 583±9, 562±7, 533±10 and 572±6 mW m(-2) were obtained by each cell in a four-independent circuit mode operation at an OLR of 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). COD removal and energy recovery efficiency were 87.1% and 32.1%, which were 1.6 and 2.5 times higher than that of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Larger amount of Deltaproteobacteria (5.3%) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens (47%) can account for the better performance of CSMER, since syntrophic associations among them provided more degradation pathways compared to the CSTR. Results demonstrate the CSMER holds great promise for efficient wastewater treatment and energy recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling electrodialysis and a photochemical process for their integration in saline wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation processes can be used to treat industrial wastewater containing non-biodegradable organic compounds. However, the presence of dissolved salts may inhibit or retard the treatment process. In this study, wastewater desalination by electrodialysis (ED associated with an advanced oxidation process (photo-Fenton was applied to an aqueous NaCl solution containing phenol. The influence of process variables on the demineralization factor was investigated for ED in pilot scale and a correlation was obtained between the phenol, salt and water fluxes with the driving force. The oxidation process was investigated in a laboratory batch reactor and a model based on artificial neural networks was developed by fitting the experimental data describing the reaction rate as a function of the input variables. With the experimental parameters of both processes, a dynamic model was developed for ED and a continuous model, using a plug flow reactor approach, for the oxidation process. Finally, the hybrid model simulation could validate different scenarios of the integrated system and can be used for process optimization.

  4. An integrated remediation system using synthetic and natural zeolites for treatment of wastewater and contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios Reyes, Carlos; Appasamy, Danen; Clive, Roberts

    2011-01-01

    The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal, industrial, and agricultural. Different types of polluted aqueous effluents and sediments may be produced, which contain relatively high levels of heavy metals. During the 1990s, the large-scale development of constructed wetlands around the world drew much attention from public and environmental groups. The present study looks at the use of an integrated remediation system using zeolites for the treatment of wastewater and sediments. Zeolites have been widely studied in the past 10 years due to their attractive properties such as molecular-sieving, high cation exchange capacities, and their affinity for heavy metals. Coal industry by-products-based zeolites (faujasite type) have been tested as an effective and low-cost novel alternative for wastewater treatment, particularly their removing of heavy metals. On the other hand, a preliminary laboratory-scale experiment was conducted on the use of natural zeolites (clinoptilolite type) for the retention of heavy metals from canal sediments. Experimental work revealed promising results, which could be replicated on a bigger scale. Although this has been developed for canal sediments, the remediation strategy can be adapted to different waterways such as rivers. The development of the proposed remediation system in a specific experimental site as the major part of an innovation park can provide great benefits to a population living near contaminated effluents. It provides not only opportunities for the mitigation of environmental impact, improving water quality and landscape amenity, but also allows for several recreational opportunities

  5. Biotransformation of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge by Two-Stage Integrated Processes -Lsb & Ssb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahangir Alam, A. H. Molla and A. Fakhru’l-Razi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of biotransformation of domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP sludge was conducted in laboratory-scale by two-stage integrated process i.e. liquid state bioconversion (LSB and solid state bioconversion (SSB processes. The liquid wastewater sludge [4% w/w of total suspended solids (TSS] was treated by mixed filamentous fungi Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger, isolated, screened and mixed cultured in terms of their higher biodegradation potential to wastewater sludge. The biosolids was increased to about 10% w/w. Conversely, the soluble [i.e. Total dissolve solid (TDS] and insoluble substances (TSS in treated supernatant were decreased effectively in the LSB process. In the developed LSB process, 93.8 g kg-1of biosolids were enriched with fungal biomass protein and nutrients (NPK, and 98.8% of TSS, 98.2% of TDS, 97.3% of turbidity, 80.2% of soluble protein, 98.8% of reducing sugar and 92.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD in treated sludge supernatant were removed after 8 days of treatment. Specific resistance to filtration (1.39x1012 m/kg was decreased tremendously by the microbial treatment of DWTP sludge after 6 days of fermentation. The treated biosolids in DWTP sludge was considered as pretreated resource materials for composting and converted into compost by SSB process. The SSB process was evaluated for composting by monitoring the microbial growth and its subsequent roles in biodegradation in composting bin (CB. The process was conducted using two mixed fungal cultures, Trichoderma harzianum with Phanerochaete chrysosporium 2094 and (T/P and T. harzianum and Mucor hiemalis (T/M; and two bulking materials, sawdust (SD and rice straw (RS. The most encouraging results of microbial growth and subsequent solid state bioconversion were exhibited in the RS than the SD. Significant decrease of the C/N ratio and germination index (GI were attained as well as the higher value of glucosamine was exhibited in compost; which

  6. Natural attenuation of NDMA precursors in an urban, wastewater-dominated wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Gwen C; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2016-02-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a disinfection by-product (DBP) that is potentially carcinogenic and has been found to occur in drinking water treatment systems impacted with treated wastewater. A major gap in NDMA research is an understanding of the persistence of wastewater-derived precursors within the natural environment. This research sought to fill this knowledge gap by surveying NDMA precursors across the length of a wastewater effluent-dominated wash. Significant precursor reduction (17%) was found to occur from introduction into the wash to a point 9 h downstream. This reduction translates into a half-life of roughly 32 h for bulk NDMA precursors. Further laboratory experiments examining rates of photolysis, biodegradation and loss to sediments, illustrated that both photolytic and biological degradation were effective removal mechanisms for NDMA precursors. Loss to sediments that were acquired from the wash did not appear to reduce NDMA precursors in the water column, although a control conducted with DI water provided evidence that significant NDMA precursors could be released from autoclaved sediments (suggesting that sorption does occur). Microbial experiments revealed that microbes associated with sediments were much more effective at degrading precursors than microbes within the water column. Overall, this study demonstrated that natural processes are capable of attenuating NDMA precursors relatively quickly within the environment, and that utilities might benefit from maximizing source water residency time in the environment, prior to introduction into treatment plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Urban wastewater treatment by using Ag/ZnO and Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia Mesa, Julie J; Arias Bolivar, Lizeth G; Sarmiento, Hugo Alfonso Rojas; Martínez, Elsa Giovanna Ávila; Páez, César Jaramillo; Lara, Mayra Anabel; Santos, José Antonio Navío; Del Carmen Hidalgo López, María

    2018-03-02

    In this study, the treatment of wastewater coming from a river highly polluted with domestic and industrial effluents was evaluated. For this purpose, series of photocatalysts obtained by ZnO and TiO 2 modification were evaluated. The effect of metal addition and Ti precursor (in the case of the titania series) over the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of the materials obtained was also analyzed. The evaluation of the photocatalytic activity showed that semiconductor modification and precursor used in the materials synthesis are important factors influencing the physicochemical and therefore the photocatalytic properties of the materials obtained. The water samples analyzed in the present work were taken from a highly polluted river, and it was found that the effectiveness of the photocatalytic treatment increases when the reaction time increases and for both, wastewater samples and isolated Escherichia coli strain follow the next order Pt/TiO 2 < ZnO. It was also observed that biochemical and chemical demand oxygen and turbidity significantly decrease after treatment, thus indicating that photocatalysis is a non-selective technology, which can lead to recover wastewater containing different pollutants.

  8. Removal of cadmium in urban wastewater with systems based on zeolite type clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barragan P, P.

    2016-01-01

    From an environmental issue detected in wastewater samples taken in a municipal wastewater collector in Nogales, Sonora, which is related to cadmium pollution, a research project came out where the principal aim was to implement a system to remove metallic ions of cadmium in wastewater, based on modified and unmodified natural zeolites. The zeolitic material used was natural clinoptilolite modified with NaCl and thiourea, sourced in El Cajon and Guaymas, Sonora. The materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, Sem, Ft-IR spectra, and Bet analysis. The kinetics of four modified zeolites was investigated at ph=5 and initial concentration of 30 mgL"-"1 of Cd"2"+. The pseudo-first, the pseudo-second order, and Elovich models were applied to the experimental results. The results best fitted to pseudo-second order model. The maximum sorption capacity of modified zeolites was investigated through isotherms, The Langmuir model, Freundlich, and the combined Langmuir-Freundlich models were applied to the experimental results afterwards. ZGuayThio showed the highest sorption capacity, 11.60 mgg"-"1, with R"2=0.978 according to Langmuir-Freundlich model. Fixed-bed column adsorption experiments were carried out with ZGuayNa and ZGuayThio with three bed heights with 30 mgL"-"1 solution of Cd"2"+. influent at a flow rate of 1 mLmin"-"1, at ph=5. The Thomas, mass balance, and Bed Depth Service Time models were applied to the results. The dynamic adsorption capacity (No) and the constant of sorption velocity (K a) were determined, 28.67 gL"-"1 and 0.072 Lg"-"1min"-"1 respectively for ZGuayNa with R"2= 0.9954. Column experiments with municipal wastewater from Colinas del Yaqui sub-collector, previously characterized, were conducted using ZGuayNa and ZGuayThio. A mass transference model was applied to the results which accounted for K_p= 0.815 m"3Kg"-1 with R"2= 0.9789 for ZGuayNa, and K_p= 3.1 m"3Kg"-1 for ZGuayThio with R"2= 0.78. Finally, the capacity of the column system

  9. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Sustainable water supply and sanitation is fundamental, especially in countries that are also particularly vulnerable to water-related problems. The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach makes sure that water management is organised in a transdisciplinary way taking into account the river basin, the hydrologic system and the appendant organisation like culture, law and economics. The main objective of IWRM is the sustainable organisation of water resources quality and quantity (GWP and INBO 2009). However there are more important targets in sustainable use of water resources. New sanitation systems are focussing on adding value and maintaining essential resources in circular flow. Focussing on material fluxes can contribute on water quality, food security, sustainable use of renewable energy, adaption on water scarcity and also on rising water and sanitation demand because of rapid urban and suburban growth (Price and Vojinović 2011; Rost et al 2013; Stäudel et al 2014). Problem: There are several planning tools for IWRM as well as for urban water management. But to complete the IWRM approach for the resource oriented concept a systematic assessment tool is missing. The assessment of crucial indicators obviously requires a lot of data from different subjects/disciplines, in different scales of detail and in different accuracy and in data acquisition (Karthe et al 2014). On the one hand there will be data abundance and on the other hand the data can be unavailable or unfeasible for example because of scale and specification(Rost et al 2013). Such a complex integrated concept requires a clearly worked out structure for the way of managing and priority setting. Purpose: To get systematic in the complex planning process the toolbox model is going to develop. The assessment of the environmental screening (one part of the toolbox) is going to be presented in this paper. The first step of assessment leans on the assertion that each of the

  10. Contemplating ‘Quality Street’ : integration of environmental quality in planning sustainable urban development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stigt, M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of sustainable urban development entails integration of environmental interests in decision-making about urban plans. In practice, this is not always successful. This dissertation offers explanations and suggests some strategies for further improvement. Three different perspectives are

  11. Integrated city as a model for a new wave urban tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, V.

    2018-03-01

    Cities are a major player for an urban tourism destination. Massive tourism movement for urban tourism gains competitiveness to the city with similar characteristic. The new framework model for new wave urban tourism is crucial to give more experience to the tourist and valuing for the city itself. The integrated city is the answer for creating a new model for an urban tourism destination. The purpose of this preliminary research is to define integrated city framework for urban tourism development. It provides a rationale for tourism planner pursuing an innovative approach, competitive advantages, and general urban tourism destination model. The methodology applies to this research includes desk survey, literature review and focus group discussion. A conceptual framework is proposed, discussed and exemplified. The framework model adopts a place-based approach to tourism destination and suggests an integrated city model for urban tourism development. This model is a tool for strategy making in re-invention integrated city as an urban tourism destination.

  12. Profiles of illicit drug use during annual key holiday and control periods in Australia: wastewater analysis in an urban, a semi-rural and a vacation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Foon Yin; Bruno, Raimondo; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral; Ort, Christoph; Kirkbride, Paul; Prichard, Jeremy; Thai, Phong K; Carter, Steve; Mueller, Jochen F

    2013-03-01

    To examine changes in illicit drug consumption between peak holiday season (23 December-3 January) in Australia and a control period two months later in a coastal urban area, an inland semi-rural area and an island populated predominantly by vacationers during holidays. Analysis of representative daily composite wastewater samples collected from the inlet of the major wastewater treatment plant in each area. Three wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plants serviced approximately 350, 000 persons in the urban area, 120,000 in the semi-rural area and 1100-2400 on the island. Drug residues were analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer. Per capita drug consumption was estimated. Changes in drug use were quantified using Hedges' g. During the holidays, cannabis consumption in the semi-rural area declined (g = -2.8) as did methamphetamine (-0.8), whereas cocaine (+1.5) and ecstasy (+1.6) use increased. In the urban area, consumption of all drugs increased during holidays (cannabis +1.6, cocaine +1.2, ecstasy +0.8 and methamphetamine +0.3). In the vacation area, methamphetamine (+0.7), ecstasy (+0.7) and cocaine (+1.1) use increased, but cannabis (-0.5) use decreased during holiday periods. While the peak holiday season in Australia is perceived as a period of increased drug use, this is not uniform across all drugs and areas. Substantial declines in drug use in the semi-rural area contrasted with substantial increases in urban and vacation areas. Per capita drug consumption in the vacation area was equivalent to that in the urban area, implying that these locations merit particular attention for drug use monitoring and harm minimisation measures. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. [The Influence of Runoff Pollution to DOM Features in an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Ji, Fang-ying; Lai, Ming-sheng; Xu, Xuan; Zhou, Wei-wei; Mao, Bo-lin; Yang, Ming-jia

    2015-03-01

    Combined with wastewater treatment process, the sewage in sunny and rainy day was collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Chongqing. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra was used to investigate the characteristic fluorescence of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), fluorescence index (ƒ450/500) and fluorescence intensity ratio γ (A, C) of fulvic acid in ultraviolet and visible region were used to analyze the impact of rain runoff pollution on sewage DOM. According to the experimental data, the DOM fluorescence fingerprints of this wastewater treatment plant were quite different from typical municipal sewage, and the main component was tryptophan with low excitation wavelength (Peak S), then the tryptophan with long wavelength excitation (Peak T) followed. A2/O process had an approximative degradation of the protein-like both in sunny day and rainy day, but had a better degradation of fulvic-like, DOC and COD in rainy day than that in sunny day. Morever, the fluorescence peaks got red-shifted after the biological treatment. The differences of DOM fluorescence fingerprint between sunny and rainy day were significant, the fluorescence center of UV fulvic (Peak A) in rainy day getting blue-shifted obviously, shifting from 240 - 248/390 - 440 to 240 - 250/370 - 400 nm. Although the DOM types in sunny and rainy day were the same, the source of fulvic got more complex by runoff and the component ratio of DOM also changed. Compared with the sunny day, the proportion of Peak S in DOM dereased by 10%, and the proportion of Peak A increased by 7% in rainy day.

  14. Current as an indicator of ammonia concentration during wastewater treatment in an integrated microbial electrolysis cell - Nitrification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2018-01-01

    with synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater. A good linear relationship (R2 = 0.9419) was observed between current (0.5130–3.906 mA) and ammonia levels (0–62.1 mg NH4+-N/L). Such linear relationship was always obtained regardless of the tested external power supply or wastewater pH. The external electrochemical cell......A key challenge for ammonia monitoring during nitrogen removal process is the extra cost and toxic reagent consuming. Herein the feasibility of current generated by an integrated microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) - nitrification reactor as an indicator of initial ammonia levels (NH3/NH4......+) in wastewater was explored. In this loop system, ammonia was first oxidized to nitrate in the nitrification reactor, and then the effluent was introduced into the cathode of MEC where nitrate was reduced as electron acceptor. The correlation between current and ammonia concentration was first investigated...

  15. Shear-induced hydrodynamic cavitation as a tool for pharmaceutical micropollutants removal from urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Mojca; Kosjek, Tina; Petkovšek, Martin; Dular, Matevž; Kompare, Boris; Širok, Brane; Stražar, Marjeta; Heath, Ester

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the removal of clofibric acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, carbamazepine and diclofenac residues from wastewater, using a novel shear-induced cavitation generator has been systematically studied. The effects of temperature, cavitation time and H2O2 dose on removal efficiency were investigated. Optimisation (50°C; 15 min; 340 mg L(-1) of added H2O2) resulted in removal efficiencies of 47-86% in spiked deionised water samples. Treatment of actual wastewater effluents revealed that although matrix composition reduces removal efficiency, this effect can be compensated for by increasing H2O2 dose (3.4 g L(-1)) and prolonging cavitation time (30 min). Hydrodynamic cavitation has also been investigated as either a pre- or a post-treatment step to biological treatment. The results revealed a higher overall removal efficiency of recalcitrant diclofenac and carbamazepine, when hydrodynamic cavitation was used prior to as compared to post biological treatment i.e., 54% and 67% as compared to 39% and 56%, respectively. This is an important finding since diclofenac is considered as a priority substance to be included in the EU Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling of wastewater quality in an urban area during festival and rainy days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, H A; Shahid, S; Basim, K N; Chelliapan, S

    2015-01-01

    Water pollution during festival periods is a major problem in all festival cities across the world. Reliable prediction of water pollution is essential in festival cities for sewer and wastewater management in order to ensure public health and a clean environment. This article aims to model the biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)), and total suspended solids (TSS) parameters in wastewater in the sewer networks of Karbala city center during festival and rainy days using structural equation modeling and multiple linear regression analysis methods. For this purpose, 34 years (1980-2014) of rainfall, temperature and sewer flow data during festival periods in the study area were collected, processed, and employed. The results show that the TSS concentration increases by 26-46 mg/l while BOD(5) concentration rises by 9-19 mg/l for an increase of rainfall by 1 mm during festival periods. It was also found that BOD(5) concentration rises by 4-17 mg/l for each increase of 10,000 population.

  17. Formation of transformation products from wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals in an urban lowland stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, A.; Posselt, M.; Schaper, J. L.; Lewandowski, J.

    2017-12-01

    Not only transport, but especially transformation of polar organic micropollutants in urban streams is of increasing concern for urban water management. While concentrations of pharmaceuticals might decrease down the river, concentrations of their more persistent metabolites potentially increase due to microbial transformation. The river Erpe, an urban lowland stream located in Berlin, Germany, receives high loads of treated waste water. A Lagrangian sampling scheme was applied to follow water parcels 4.7 km down the river using the diurnal fluctuations of electrical conductivity as an intrinsic conservative tracer. Each experiment comprised of hourly sample collection for two days, accompanied by discharge measurements and continuous data logging of electrical conductivity. The fate of pharmaceuticals and their transformation products was compared between seasons (April and June) and before and after a stretch of the river has been cleared of macrophytes. The set of micropollutants was analysed by a newly developed direct injection-UHPLC-MS/MS method. The behaviour of individual micropollutants was compound-specific. Valsartan and metoprolol were attenuated by up to 18% of their original concentration. At the same time the transformation products valsartan acid and metoprolol acid increased in concentration by up to 24%. Their formation along the reach varied between seasons and was influenced by macrophyte removal. The findings indicate that the self-purification capacity of urban rivers is variable in time and sensitive to changes in the river's hydrological regime and emphasize the relevance of formation of transformation products in urban rivers.

  18. Microbial contamination along the main open wastewater and storm water channel of Hanoi, Vietnam, and potential health risks for urban farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Cissé, Guéladio; Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Thu Ha, Hoang; Dung, Do Trung; Ngoc, Pham; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Anh Vuong, Tuan; Utzinger, Jürg; Schindler, Christian; Winkler, Mirko S.

    2016-01-01

    The use of wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture has a long tradition throughout Asia. For example, in Hanoi, it creates important livelihood opportunities for > 500,000 farmers in peri-urban communities. Discharge of domestic effluents pollute the water streams with potential pathogenic organisms posing a public health threat to farmers and consumers of wastewater-fed foodstuff. We determined the effectiveness of Hanoi's wastewater conveyance system, placing particular emphasis on the quality of wastewater used in agriculture and aquaculture. Between April and June 2014, a total of 216 water samples were obtained from 24 sampling points and the concentrations of total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and helminth eggs determined. Despite applied wastewater treatment, agricultural field irrigation water was heavily contaminated with TC (1.3 × 10"7 colony forming unit (CFU)/100 mL), E. coli (1.1 × 10"6 CFU/100 mL) and Salmonella spp. (108 most probable number (MPN)/100 mL). These values are 110-fold above Vietnamese discharge limits for restricted agriculture and 260-fold above the World Health Organization (WHO)'s tolerable safety limits for unrestricted agriculture. Mean helminth egg concentrations were below WHO tolerable levels in all study systems (< 1 egg/L). Hence, elevated levels of bacterial contamination, but not helminth infections, pose a major health risk for farmers and consumers of wastewater fed-products. We propose a set of control measures that might protect the health of exposed population groups without compromising current urban farming activities. This study presents an important example for sanitation safety planning in a rapidly expanding Asian city and can guide public and private entities working towards Sustainable Development Goal target 6.3, that is to improve water quality by reducing pollution, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and increasing recycling and safe reuse globally. - Highlights: • We

  19. Microbial contamination along the main open wastewater and storm water channel of Hanoi, Vietnam, and potential health risks for urban farmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.fuhrimann@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Pham-Duc, Phuc [Center for Public Health and Ecosystem Research, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Cissé, Guéladio [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Thu Ha, Hoang [Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Dung, Do Trung [Department of Parasitology, National Institute of Malaria, Parasitology, and Entomology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ngoc, Pham [Department of Animal Hygiene, National Institute for Veterinary Research, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen-Viet, Hung [Center for Public Health and Ecosystem Research, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi (Viet Nam); International Livestock Research Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Anh Vuong, Tuan [Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Utzinger, Jürg; Schindler, Christian; Winkler, Mirko S. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-10-01

    The use of wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture has a long tradition throughout Asia. For example, in Hanoi, it creates important livelihood opportunities for > 500,000 farmers in peri-urban communities. Discharge of domestic effluents pollute the water streams with potential pathogenic organisms posing a public health threat to farmers and consumers of wastewater-fed foodstuff. We determined the effectiveness of Hanoi's wastewater conveyance system, placing particular emphasis on the quality of wastewater used in agriculture and aquaculture. Between April and June 2014, a total of 216 water samples were obtained from 24 sampling points and the concentrations of total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and helminth eggs determined. Despite applied wastewater treatment, agricultural field irrigation water was heavily contaminated with TC (1.3 × 10{sup 7} colony forming unit (CFU)/100 mL), E. coli (1.1 × 10{sup 6} CFU/100 mL) and Salmonella spp. (108 most probable number (MPN)/100 mL). These values are 110-fold above Vietnamese discharge limits for restricted agriculture and 260-fold above the World Health Organization (WHO)'s tolerable safety limits for unrestricted agriculture. Mean helminth egg concentrations were below WHO tolerable levels in all study systems (< 1 egg/L). Hence, elevated levels of bacterial contamination, but not helminth infections, pose a major health risk for farmers and consumers of wastewater fed-products. We propose a set of control measures that might protect the health of exposed population groups without compromising current urban farming activities. This study presents an important example for sanitation safety planning in a rapidly expanding Asian city and can guide public and private entities working towards Sustainable Development Goal target 6.3, that is to improve water quality by reducing pollution, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and increasing recycling and safe reuse globally

  20. Interactive urban design using integrated planning requirements control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Tabak, V.; Achten, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Urban planning and urban design are separated disciplines. As a consequence, there is hardly any feedback from the urban design process to the urban planning process. To improve interaction between these two, an interactive urban design (IUD) tool has been developed. The tool is implemented in a

  1. Pollutant exposure at wastewater treatment works affects the detoxification organs of an urban adapter, the Banana Bat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene; Schoeman, M. Corrie

    2016-01-01

    The Banana Bat, Neoromicia nana, exploits pollution-tolerant chironomids at wastewater treatment works (WWTWs). We investigated how pollutant exposure impacts the detoxification organs, namely the liver and kidney of N. nana. (i) We performed SEM-EDS to quantify metal content and mineral nutrients, and found significant differences in essential metal (Fe and Zn) content in the liver, and significant differences in Cu and one mineral nutrient (K) in the kidneys. (ii) We performed histological analysis and found more histopathological lesions in detoxification organs of WWTW bats. (iii) We calculated hepatosomatic/renalsomatic indices (HSI/RSI) to investigate whole organ effects, and found significant increases in organ size at WWTWs. (iv) We quantified metallothionein 1E (MT1E), using Western Blot immunodetection. Contrary to predictions, we found no significant upregulation of MT1E in bats at WWTWs. Ultimately, N. nana exploiting WWTWs may suffer chronic health problems from sub-lethal damage to organs responsible for detoxifying pollutants. - Highlights: • We measured pollutant exposure effects on detoxification organs in bats. • Iron, zinc, copper and potassium levels were altered in pollutant-exposed bats. • There was no significant upregulation of metallothionein in liver or kidney. • Pollutant-exposed bats had increased organ indices and histopathological lesions. • These organ effects suggest health risks and increased mortality in the long-term. - Wastewater treatment plants provide a short-term benefit of abundant pollution-tolerant prey, but cause long-term physiological damage to the liver and kidneys in urban bats.

  2. Reclamation of urban wastewaters in an experimental plant with tertiary treatment; Regeneracion de aguas residuales urbanas en una planta piloto mediante tratamientos terciariarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Ramirez, J. A.; Sahuquillo, S.; Sales, D.; Quiroga, J. M. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Among the most interesting techniques for reclamation or urban wastewaters, reverse osmosis stands out, because the good results obtained in several facilities. In this paper results of the operation of an experimental Reverse Osmosis (RO) pilot plant of 100 cu. m/day capacity, for the reuse or urban wastewaters are showed. Membranes used were of cellulose acetate and previously has been optimized in laboratory, the dose of reagents used in pretreatment in order to minimize, as far as possible, any type of fouling. The water quality obtained under the conditions determined as optimum is high, this quality allows the water to be injected into a local aquifer to counteract seawater intrusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  3. Effects of Urban Wastewater Loading on Macro- and Meio-infauna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benthic infaunal community studies are a useful tool to determine the health of an ecosystem. In this study, an unbalanced ACI (After Control/Impact) design was used to compare the infaunal community structure in a contaminated peri-urban mangrove swamp with two nearby pristine mangroves of similar ecological traits in ...

  4. Proposals for future activities agreed upon at the seminar on wastewater treatment in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The programme of the seminar was divided into three different sections: - Sewerage systems, - Discharge of industrial wastewater to municipal sewerage systems, - Reduction of nitrogen. For each subject the participants of the seminar agreed upon the following proposal for future activities: Sewerage systems: a) Combined sewer overflows (CSO). Brief state-of-the-art reports should be compiled by the Contracting Parties. The reports should provide information on: - extent of combined sewers (in % of sewered area), - design practices including flow equalization, - rates of inflow/infiltration, - pollution due to CSO, - current research, - trends. A compilation of these reports may hopefully lead to the derivation of suitable effluent standards, which may be expressed as frequencies, total volumes or total amount of pollution load. The effluent standards may be expressed as monthly to yearly values

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from an intermittent aeration activated sludge system of an urban wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Z. de Mello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the emission of N2O during the sequential aerated (60-min and non-aerated (30-min stages of an intermittent aeration cycle in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. N2O emission occurred during both stages; however, emission was much higher during aeration. Air stripping is the major factor controlling transfer of N2O from the sewage to the atmosphere. The N2O emissions exclusively from the aeration tank represented 0.10% of the influent total nitrogen load and the per capita emission factor was almost 3 times higher than that suggested by the IPCC for inventories of N2O emission from WWTPs.

  6. Microbial fuel cells for direct electrical energy recovery from urban wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, A G; Molognoni, D; Dallago, E; Liberale, A; Cella, R; Longoni, P; Pantaleoni, L

    2013-01-01

    Application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to wastewater treatment for direct recovery of electric energy appears to provide a potentially attractive alternative to traditional treatment processes, in an optic of costs reduction, and tapping of sustainable energy sources that characterizes current trends in technology. This work focuses on a laboratory-scale, air-cathode, and single-chamber MFC, with internal volume of 6.9 L, operating in batch mode. The MFC was fed with different types of substrates. This study evaluates the MFC behaviour, in terms of organic matter removal efficiency, which reached 86% (on average) with a hydraulic retention time of 150 hours. The MFC produced an average power density of 13.2 mW/m(3), with a Coulombic efficiency ranging from 0.8 to 1.9%. The amount of data collected allowed an accurate analysis of the repeatability of MFC electrochemical behaviour, with regards to both COD removal kinetics and electric energy production.

  7. Risk Perceptions of Wastewater Use for Urban Agriculture in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi-Agyei, Prince; Peasey, Anne; Biran, Adam; Bruce, Jane; Ensink, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Poor food hygiene is a significant risk to public health globally, but especially in low and middle-income countries where access to sanitation, and general hygiene remain poor. Food hygiene becomes even more pertinent when untreated, or poorly treated wastewater is used in agriculture. In such circumstances the WHO recommends the adoption of a multiple-barrier approach that prescribes health protective measures at different entry points along the food chain. This study sought to assess the knowledge and awareness of wastewater use for crop production, its related health risks, and adoption of health protective measures by farmers, market salespersons and consumers using questionnaires and focus group discussions. In the period from September 2012 to August 2013, 490 respondents were interviewed during two cropping seasons. The study found that awareness of the source of irrigation water was low among consumers and street food vendors, though higher among market vendors. In contrast, health risk awareness was generally high among salespersons and consumers, but low among farmers. The study found that consumers did not prioritize health indicators when buying produce from vendors but were motivated to buy produce, or prepared food based on taste, friendship, cost, convenience and freshness of produce. Similarly, farmers' awareness of health risk did not influence their adoption of safer farm practices. The study recommends the promotion of interventions that would result in more direct benefits to both producers and vendors, together with hygiene education and enforcement of food safety byelaws in order to influence behaviour change, and increase the uptake of the multiple-barrier approach.

  8. Risk Perceptions of Wastewater Use for Urban Agriculture in Accra, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Antwi-Agyei

    Full Text Available Poor food hygiene is a significant risk to public health globally, but especially in low and middle-income countries where access to sanitation, and general hygiene remain poor. Food hygiene becomes even more pertinent when untreated, or poorly treated wastewater is used in agriculture. In such circumstances the WHO recommends the adoption of a multiple-barrier approach that prescribes health protective measures at different entry points along the food chain. This study sought to assess the knowledge and awareness of wastewater use for crop production, its related health risks, and adoption of health protective measures by farmers, market salespersons and consumers using questionnaires and focus group discussions. In the period from September 2012 to August 2013, 490 respondents were interviewed during two cropping seasons. The study found that awareness of the source of irrigation water was low among consumers and street food vendors, though higher among market vendors. In contrast, health risk awareness was generally high among salespersons and consumers, but low among farmers. The study found that consumers did not prioritize health indicators when buying produce from vendors but were motivated to buy produce, or prepared food based on taste, friendship, cost, convenience and freshness of produce. Similarly, farmers' awareness of health risk did not influence their adoption of safer farm practices. The study recommends the promotion of interventions that would result in more direct benefits to both producers and vendors, together with hygiene education and enforcement of food safety byelaws in order to influence behaviour change, and increase the uptake of the multiple-barrier approach.

  9. Integration in urban climate adaptation: Lessons from Rotterdam on integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.M.E.; Bosch, P.R.; Buijs, S.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the experience acquired in the Bergpolder Zuid district in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, this paper presents lessons learned so far on science-policy interactions supporting the adaptation to climate change in an urban district. Two types of integration issues were considered: (1)

  10. Integrating Fenton's process and ion exchange for olive mill wastewater treatment and iron recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Patrícia M; Martins, Pedro J M; Martins, Rui C; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2018-02-01

    A novel integrated methodology involving Fenton's process followed by ion exchange (IE) was proposed for the treatment of olive mill wastewater. Fenton's process was optimized and it was able to remove up to 81% of chemical oxygen demand when pH 3.5, reaction time 1 h, [Fe 2+ ] = 50 mg L -1 and [Fe 2+ ]/[H 2 O 2 ] = 0.002 were applied. In spite of the potential of this treatment approach, final iron removal from the liquid typically entails pH increase and iron sludge production. The integration of an IE procedure using Lewatit TP 207 resin was found to be able to overcome this important environmental shortcoming. The resin showed higher affinity toward Fe 3+ than to Fe 2+ . However, the iron removal efficiency of an effluent coming from Fenton's was independent of the type of the initial iron used in the process. The presence of organic matter had no significant effect over the resin iron removal efficiency. Even if some efficiency decrease was observed when a high initial iron load was applied, the adsorbent mass quantity can be easily adapted to reach the desired iron removal. The use of IE is an interesting industrial approach able to surpass Fenton's peroxidation drawback and will surely boost its full-scale application in the treatment of bio-refractory effluents.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTEGRATED WATER RECOVERY ASSEMBLY (IRA) FOR RECYCLING HABITATION WASTEWATER STREAMS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Paragon Space Development Corporation and our partner Research Institution Texas Tech University (TTU) propose to develop a spacecraft habitat wastewater recycling...

  12. Water quality-based real time control of integrated urban drainage: a preliminary study from Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Lund Christensen, Margit; Thirsing, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage systems is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution for responding to increasing performance demands. This study investigated the potential for including water-quality based RTC into the global control strategy which is under implementation...... in the Lynetten catchment (Copenhagen, Denmark). Two different strategies were simulated, considering: (i) water quality at the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) inlet and (ii) pollution discharge to the bathing areas. These strategies were included in the Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) RTC strategy......, which allows for prioritization of the discharge points in the systems according to their sensitivity. A conceptual hydrological model was used to assess the performance of the integrated control strategy over an entire year. The simulation results showed the benefits of the proposed approaches...

  13. Framework for integration of urban planning, strategic environmental assessment and ecological planning for urban sustainability within the context of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jia; Bao Cunkuan; Shu Tingfei; Yun Xiaoxue; Jiang Dahe; Brwon, Lex

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable development or sustainability has been highlighted as an essential principle in urban master planning, with increasing recognition that uncontrollable urbanization may well give rise to various issues such as overexploitation of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and large-scale climate change. Thus, it is deemed necessary to modify the existing urban and regional administrative system so as to cope with the challenges urban planning is being confronted with and realize the purpose of urban sustainability. This paper contributed to proposing a mechanism which helps to make urban planning with full consideration of issues with respect to sustainable development. We suggested that the integration of urban planning, SEA and ecological planning be a multi-win strategy to offset deficiency of each mentioned political tool being individually applied. We also proposed a framework where SEA and ecological planning are fully incorporated into urban planning, which forms a two-way constraint mechanism to ascertain environmental quality of urban planning, although in practice, planning and SEA processes may conditionally be unified. Moreover, as shown in the case study, the integration of the three political tools may be constrained due to slow changes in the contextual factors, in particular the political and cultural dimensions. Currently within the context of China, there may be three major elements which facilitate integration of the three political tools, which are (1) regulatory requirement of PEIA on urban planning, (2) the promotion or strong administrative support from government on eco-district building, and (3) the willingness of urban planners to collaborate with SEA experts or ecologists.

  14. Dynamic heterogeneity: a framework to promote ecological integration and hypothesis generation in urban systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. T. A. Pickett; M. L. Cadenasso; E. J. Rosi-Marshall; Ken Belt; P. M. Groffman; Morgan Grove; E. G. Irwin; S. S. Kaushal; S. L. LaDeau; C. H. Nilon; C. M. Swan; P. S. Warren

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas are understood to be extraordinarily spatially heterogeneous. Spatial heterogeneity, and its causes, consequences, and changes, are central to ecological science. The social sciences and urban design and planning professions also include spatial heterogeneity as a key concern. However, urban ecology, as a pursuit that integrates across these disciplines,...

  15. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-07-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.

  16. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  17. Solar photocatalytic disinfection of agricultural pathogenic fungi (Curvularia sp.) in real urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguas, Yelitza; Hincapie, Margarita; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Polo-López, María Inmaculada

    2017-12-31

    The interest in developing alternative water disinfection methods that increase the access to irrigation water free of pathogens for agricultural purposes is increasing in the last decades. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have been demonstrated to be very efficient for the abatement of several kind of pathogens in contaminated water. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate and compare the capability of several solar AOPs for the inactivation of resistant spores of agricultural fungi. Solar photoassisted H 2 O 2 , solar photo-Fenton at acid and near-neutral pH, and solar heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO 2, with and without H 2 O 2 , have been studied for the inactivation of spores of Curvularia sp., a phytopathogenic fungi worldwide found in soils and crops. Different concentrations of reagents and catalysts were evaluated at bench scale (solar vessel reactors, 200mL) and at pilot plant scale (solar Compound Parabolic Collector-CPC reactor, 20L) under natural solar radiation using distilled water (DW) and real secondary effluents (SE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Inactivation order of Curvularia sp. in distilled water was determined, i.e. TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 /sunlight (100/50mgL -1 )>H 2 O 2 /sunlight (40mgL -1 )>TiO 2 /sunlight (100mgL -1 )>photo-Fenton with 5/10mgL -1 of Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 at pH3 and near-neutral pH. For the case of SE, at near neutral pH, the most efficient solar process was H 2 O 2 /Solar (60mgL -1 ); nevertheless, the best Curvularia sp. inactivation rate was obtained with photo-Fenton (10/20mgL -1 of Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 ) requiring a previous water adicification to pH3, within 300 and 210min of solar treatment, respectively. These results show the efficiency of solar AOPs as a feasible option for the inactivation of resistant pathogens in water for crops irrigation, even in the presence of organic matter (average Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC): 24mgL -1 ), and open a window for future wastewater reclamation and irrigation

  18. Wastewater treatment plant effluents change abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in mediterranean urban stream biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbt, Stephanie N; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Blesa, Alba; Martí, Eugènia; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2015-01-01

    Streams affected by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are hotspots of nitrification. We analyzed the influence of WWTP inputs on the abundance, distribution, and composition of epilithic ammonia-oxidizing (AO) assemblages in five Mediterranean urban streams by qPCR and amoA gene cloning and sequencing of both archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). The effluents significantly modified stream chemical parameters, and changes in longitudinal profiles of both NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) indicated stimulated nitrification activity. WWTP effluents were an allocthonous source of both AOA, essentially from the Nitrosotalea cluster, and mostly of AOB, mainly Nitrosomonas oligotropha, Nitrosomonas communis, and Nitrosospira spp. changing the relative abundance and the natural composition of AO assemblages. Under natural conditions, Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus AOA dominated AO assemblages, and AOB were barely detected. After the WWTP perturbation, epilithic AOB increased by orders of magnitude whereas AOA did not show quantitative changes but a shift in population composition to dominance of Nitrosotalea spp. The foraneous AOB successfully settled in downstream biofilms and probably carried out most of the nitrification activity. Nitrosotalea were only observed downstream and only in biofilms exposed to either darkness or low irradiance. In addition to other potential environmental limitations for AOA distribution, this result suggests in situ photosensitivity as previously reported for Nitrosotalea under laboratory conditions.

  19. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  20. Integrated environmental management of wastewater discharged from a cluster of five textile factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gohary, F. A.; Nasr, F. A.; Abdel Baset, N.; Shoush, M.; Ali, H. I.

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the cleaner production opportunities for a cluster of five factories discharging their wastewater into agricultural drain prior to wastewater treatment the financial and environmental benefits accrued upon the implementation of the proposed cleaner production schemes have been estimated. This was followed by a laboratory study to propose the appropriate treatment system. (Author)

  1. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2015-11-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  2. Wastewater garden--a system to treat wastewater with environmental benefits to community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Jaya

    2008-01-01

    Many communities and villages around the world face serious problems with lack of sanitation especially in disposing of the wastewater-black water and grey water from the houses, or wash outs from animal rearing sheds. Across the world diverting wastewater to the surroundings or to the public spaces are not uncommon. This is responsible for contaminating drinking water sources causing health risks and environmental degradation as they become the breeding grounds of mosquitoes and pathogens. Lack of collection and treatment facilities or broken down sewage systems noticed throughout the developing world are associated with this situation. Diverting the wastewater to trees and vegetable gardens was historically a common practice. However the modern world has an array of problems associated with such disposal such as generation of large quantity of wastewater, unavailability of space for onsite disposal or treatment and increase in population. This paper considers the wastewater garden as a means for wastewater treatment and to improve the vegetation and biodiversity of rural areas. This can also be implemented in urban areas in association with parks and open spaces. This also highlights environmental safety in relation to the nutrient, pathogen and heavy metal content of the wastewater. The possibilities of different types of integration and technology that can be adopted for wastewater gardens are also discussed. IWA Publishing 2008.

  3. The occurrence of antibiotics in an urban watershed: From wastewater to drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, A.J.; Murby, E.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Costanzo, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of 28 antibiotics in three hospital effluents, five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), six rivers and a drinking water storage catchment were investigated within watersheds of South–East Queensland, Australia. All antibiotics were detected at least once, with the exception of the polypeptide bacitracin which was not detected at all. Antibiotics were found in hospital effluent ranging from 0.01–14.5 μg L-1, dominated by the β-lactam, quinolone and sulphonamide groups. Antibiotics were found in WWTP influent up to 64 μg L-1, dominated by the β-lactam, quinolone and sulphonamide groups. Investigated WWTPs were highly effective in removing antibiotics from the water phase, with an average removal rate of greater than 80% for all targeted antibiotics. However, antibiotics were still detected in WWTP effluents in the low ng L-1 range up to a maximum of 3.4 μg L-1, with the macrolide, quinolone and sulphonamide antibiotics most prevalent. Similarly, antibiotics were detected quite frequently in the low ng L-1 range, up to 2 μg L-1 in the surface waters of six investigated rivers including freshwater, estuarine and marine samples. The total investigated antibiotic concentration (TIAC) within the Nerang River was significantly lower (p p antibiotics to streams. Despite the presence of antibiotics in surface waters used for drinking water extraction, no targeted antibiotics were detected in any drinking water samples.

  4. Very Low Surface Energy (Membrane Separations: An Integrated Polymer Chemistry/Engineering Approach and The Influence of Backpulsing on Fouling Properties of Novel Nanofiltration Membranes for Wastewater Remediation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Benny

    1998-01-01

    ...: An Integrated Polymer Chemistry/Engineering Approach, is to explore several new classes of polymeric materials to identify promising routes for developing low-fouling nanofiltration membranes for wastewater remediation...

  5. Urban agglomerations in the function of regional integration of Serbia in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragutin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is analyzed the importance of urban agglomerations in the regional organization of Serbian space at one side, and on the other side they are taken as carriers of the future integration of the Serbian urban system into the urban of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE. In the regional configuration of Serbia, more different forms of territorial impacts of urbanization, urban areas and urban regions. High level of urban centralization is formed under the influence of the population density and functions of the metropolitan area of Belgrade. The problems of unbalanced disposition of population growth and qualitative transformation of urban centers are stressed and analyzed. Based on the role in integration process in the SEE, the metropolitan region of Belgrade is pointed out as its principal carrier and the metropolitan region of Niš as its secondary carrier, as well as the urban centers of importance for the cross-border regional cooperation. As the most suitable instrument of internal regional integration the model of Functional Urban Regions (FURs or Functional Urban Areas (FUAs is proposed, and for external regional integration is proposed the model of Metropolitan European Growth Areas (MEGAs. The coherent short-term and long-term development strategies for Serbian towns and their regions seem absent.

  6. Integrated treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of Fenton's reaction and anaerobic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gohary, F.A.; Badawy, M.I. [Water Pollution Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); El-Khateeb, M.A. [Water Pollution Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: elkhateebcairo@yahoo.com; El-Kalliny, A.S. [Water Pollution Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-03-15

    The use of an integrated treatment scheme consisting of wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) followed by two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor (10 l each) for the treatment of olive mill wastewater was the subject of this study. The diluted wastewater (1:1) was pre-treated using Fenton's reaction. Optimum operating conditions namely, pH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose, Fe{sup +2}, COD:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ratio and Fe{sup +2}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ratio were determined. The UASB reactor was fed continuously with the pre-treated wastewater. The hydraulic retention time was kept constant at 48 h (24 h for each stage). The conventional parameters such as COD, BOD, TOC, TKN, TP, TSS, oil and grease, and total phenols were determined. The concentrations of polyphenolic compounds in raw wastewater and effluents of each treatment step were measured using HPLC. The results indicated a good quality final effluent. Residual concentrations of individual organic compounds ranged from 0.432 mg l{sup -1} for {rho}-hydroxy-benzaldhyde to 3.273 mg l{sup -1} for cinnamic acid.

  7. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase catalysts enables effective degradation of cyanide and phenol in coking wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínková, Ludmila; Chmátal, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to design an effective method for the bioremediation of coking wastewaters, specifically for the concurrent elimination of their highly toxic components - cyanide and phenols. Almost full degradation of free cyanide (0.32-20 mM; 8.3-520 mg L(-1)) in the model and the real coking wastewaters was achieved by using a recombinant cyanide hydratase in the first step. The removal of cyanide, a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase, enabled an effective degradation of phenols by this enzyme in the second step. Phenol (16.5 mM, 1,552 mg L(-1)) was completely removed from a real coking wastewater within 20 h and cresols (5.0 mM, 540 mg L(-1)) were removed by 66% under the same conditions. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase open up new possibilities for the bioremediation of wastewaters with complex pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Micropollutants throughout an integrated urban drainage model: Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Cosenza, Alida; Viviani, Gaspare

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of an integrated urban drainage model which includes micropollutants. Specifically, a bespoke integrated model developed in previous studies has been modified in order to include the micropollutant assessment (namely, sulfamethoxazole - SMX). The model takes into account also the interactions between the three components of the system: sewer system (SS), wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and receiving water body (RWB). The analysis has been applied to an experimental catchment nearby Palermo (Italy): the Nocella catchment. Overall, five scenarios, each characterized by different uncertainty combinations of sub-systems (i.e., SS, WWTP and RWB), have been considered applying, for the sensitivity analysis, the Extended-FAST method in order to select the key factors affecting the RWB quality and to design a reliable/useful experimental campaign. Results have demonstrated that sensitivity analysis is a powerful tool for increasing operator confidence in the modelling results. The approach adopted here can be used for blocking some non-identifiable factors, thus wisely modifying the structure of the model and reducing the related uncertainty. The model factors related to the SS have been found to be the most relevant factors affecting the SMX modeling in the RWB when all model factors (scenario 1) or model factors of SS (scenarios 2 and 3) are varied. If the only factors related to the WWTP are changed (scenarios 4 and 5), the SMX concentration in the RWB is mainly influenced (till to 95% influence of the total variance for SSMX,max) by the aerobic sorption coefficient. A progressive uncertainty reduction from the upstream to downstream was found for the soluble fraction of SMX in the RWB.

  9. Integrating Surface Water Management in Urban and Regional Planning, Case Study of Wuhan in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, N.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the study is to examine and develop a spatial planning methodology that would enhance the sustainability of urban development by integrating the surface water system in the urban and regional planning process. Theoretically, this study proposes that proactive-integrated policy and

  10. The occurrence of antibiotics in an urban watershed: from wastewater to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, A J; Murby, E J; Kolpin, D W; Costanzo, S D

    2009-04-01

    The presence of 28 antibiotics in three hospital effluents, five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), six rivers and a drinking water storage catchment were investigated within watersheds of South-East Queensland, Australia. All antibiotics were detected at least once, with the exception of the polypeptide bacitracin which was not detected at all. Antibiotics were found in hospital effluent ranging from 0.01-14.5 microg L(-1), dominated by the beta-lactam, quinolone and sulphonamide groups. Antibiotics were found in WWTP influent up to 64 microg L(-1), dominated by the beta-lactam, quinolone and sulphonamide groups. Investigated WWTPs were highly effective in removing antibiotics from the water phase, with an average removal rate of greater than 80% for all targeted antibiotics. However, antibiotics were still detected in WWTP effluents in the low ng L(-1) range up to a maximum of 3.4 microg L(-1), with the macrolide, quinolone and sulphonamide antibiotics most prevalent. Similarly, antibiotics were detected quite frequently in the low ng L(-1) range, up to 2 microg L(-1) in the surface waters of six investigated rivers including freshwater, estuarine and marine samples. The total investigated antibiotic concentration (TIAC) within the Nerang River was significantly lower (pWWTP discharge to this river is a likely explanation for the significantly lower TIAC and suggests that WWTP discharges are a dominant source of antibiotics to investigated surface waters. A significant difference (pWWTP discharge compared to sites with no WWTP discharge, providing further evidence that WWTPs are an important source of antibiotics to streams. Despite the presence of antibiotics in surface waters used for drinking water extraction, no targeted antibiotics were detected in any drinking water samples.

  11. Integration of an innovative biological treatment with physical or chemical disinfection for wastewater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sanctis, Marco; Del Moro, Guido; Levantesi, Caterina; Luprano, Maria Laura; Di Iaconi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, the effectiveness of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) and its integration with different disinfection strategies (UV irradiation, peracetic acid) for producing an effluent suitable for agricultural use was evaluated. The plant treated raw domestic sewage, and its performances were evaluated in terms of the removal efficiency of a wide group of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The SBBGR resulted really efficient in removing suspended solids, COD and nitrogen with an average effluent concentration of 5, 32 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Lower removal efficiency was observed for phosphorus with an average concentration in the effluent of 3 mg/L. Plant effluent was also characterized by an average electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio of 680 μS/cm and 2.9, respectively. Therefore, according to these gross parameters, the SBBGR effluent was conformed to the national standards required in Italy for agricultural reuse. Moreover, disinfection performances of the SBBGR was higher than that of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants and met the quality criteria suggested by WHO (Escherichia coli < 1000 CFU/100 mL) for agricultural reuse. In particular, the biological treatment by SBBGR removed 3.8 ± 0.4 log units of Giardia lamblia, 2.8 ± 0.8 log units of E. coli, 2.5 ± 0.7 log units of total coliforms, 2.0 ± 0.3 log units of Clostridium perfringens, 2.0 ± 0.4 log units of Cryptosporidium parvum and 1.7 ± 0.7 log units of Somatic coliphages. The investigated disinfection processes (UV and peracetic acid) resulted very effective for total coliforms, E. coli and somatic coliphages. In particular, a UV radiation and peracetic acid doses of 40 mJ/cm"2 and 1 mg/L respectively reduced E. coli content in the effluent below the limit for agricultural reuse in Italy (10 CFU/100 mL). Conversely, they were both ineffective on C.perfringens spores. - Highlights: • SBBGR system showed high

  12. Integration of an innovative biological treatment with physical or chemical disinfection for wastewater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sanctis, Marco, E-mail: marco.desanctis@ba.irsa.cnr.it [Water Research Institute, CNR, Via F. De Blasio 5, 70123 Bari (Italy); Del Moro, Guido [Water Research Institute, CNR, Via F. De Blasio 5, 70123 Bari (Italy); Levantesi, Caterina; Luprano, Maria Laura [Water Research Institute, CNR, Via Salaria Km 29.600, 00015 Monterotondo, RM (Italy); Di Iaconi, Claudio [Water Research Institute, CNR, Via F. De Blasio 5, 70123 Bari (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    In the present paper, the effectiveness of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) and its integration with different disinfection strategies (UV irradiation, peracetic acid) for producing an effluent suitable for agricultural use was evaluated. The plant treated raw domestic sewage, and its performances were evaluated in terms of the removal efficiency of a wide group of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The SBBGR resulted really efficient in removing suspended solids, COD and nitrogen with an average effluent concentration of 5, 32 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Lower removal efficiency was observed for phosphorus with an average concentration in the effluent of 3 mg/L. Plant effluent was also characterized by an average electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio of 680 μS/cm and 2.9, respectively. Therefore, according to these gross parameters, the SBBGR effluent was conformed to the national standards required in Italy for agricultural reuse. Moreover, disinfection performances of the SBBGR was higher than that of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants and met the quality criteria suggested by WHO (Escherichia coli < 1000 CFU/100 mL) for agricultural reuse. In particular, the biological treatment by SBBGR removed 3.8 ± 0.4 log units of Giardia lamblia, 2.8 ± 0.8 log units of E. coli, 2.5 ± 0.7 log units of total coliforms, 2.0 ± 0.3 log units of Clostridium perfringens, 2.0 ± 0.4 log units of Cryptosporidium parvum and 1.7 ± 0.7 log units of Somatic coliphages. The investigated disinfection processes (UV and peracetic acid) resulted very effective for total coliforms, E. coli and somatic coliphages. In particular, a UV radiation and peracetic acid doses of 40 mJ/cm{sup 2} and 1 mg/L respectively reduced E. coli content in the effluent below the limit for agricultural reuse in Italy (10 CFU/100 mL). Conversely, they were both ineffective on C.perfringens spores. - Highlights: • SBBGR system showed high

  13. Integrative approach for wastewater treatment facilities with biomass transformation into energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anker Yaakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current industrial environmental regulations favor processes with Integrative Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC. While several systems are regarded by different international directives as IPPC Best Available Techniques or Technologies (BAT, none of these systems are capable handling various pollutants of both gaseous and aquatic effluents. Additional hinder to a BAT-IPPC complete procedure are hazardous or uneconomical byproducts of the IPPC processes and significant auxiliary costs for consumables and energy. The current research and subsequent projects are aimed to the development of a Biological Integrative Pollution Prevention and Control (Bio-IPPC system. Such system can be incorporated in various industrial processes, in a way that the byproduct is without hazardous potential and may be used as an economical raw material. The main initiative and heart of these systems is a micro-algae reactor, which is capable of treating various types of industrial pollutants both in the gaseous and aquatic phases. The algae nutrition is through thin-film circulation of the aquatic effluent and the reactor atmosphere is enriched by flue gases. The excessive algal biomass may be utilized for economic purposes starting with animal feedstock, through organic fertilizer and as industrial raw material for biofuels production or direct energy production. The first industrial project is a wastewater (WW polishing stage to an industry zone WW treatment facility, which ensures high level effluent purification and assimilation of greenhouse gases, which are released during the WW bioremediation process. The second industrial application aims to treat aquatic and gaseous effluents from coal propelled power plants. The raw algal material from both projects although very different, is used for the development of new efficient scheme for bioethanol production. In summary, the system presented is an actual Bio-IPPC that can interactively treat several industrial

  14. A Monte-Carlo-Based Method for the Optimal Placement and Operation Scheduling of Sewer Mining Units in Urban Wastewater Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Psarrou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressures on water resources, which have increased significantly nowadays mainly due to rapid urbanization, population growth and climate change impacts, necessitate the development of innovative wastewater treatment and reuse technologies. In this context, a mid-scale decentralized technology concerning wastewater reuse is that of sewer mining. It is based on extracting wastewater from a wastewater system, treating it on-site and producing recycled water applicable for non-potable uses. Despite the technology’s considerable benefits, several challenges hinder its implementation. Sewer mining disturbs biochemical processes inside sewers and affects hydrogen sulfide build-up, resulting in odor, corrosion and health-related problems. In this study, a tool for optimal sewer mining unit placement aiming to minimize hydrogen sulfide production is presented. The Monte-Carlo method coupled with the Environmental Protection Agency’s Storm Water Management Model (SWMM is used to conduct multiple simulations of the network. The network’s response when sewage is extracted from it is also examined. Additionally, the study deals with optimal pumping scheduling. The overall methodology is applied in a sewer network in Greece providing useful results. It can therefore assist in selecting appropriate locations for sewer mining implementation, with the focus on eliminating hydrogen sulfide-associated problems while simultaneously ensuring that higher water needs are satisfied.

  15. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  16. Urban wastewater treatment by seven species of microalgae and an algal bloom: Biomass production, N and P removal kinetics and harvestability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennaa, Fatima Zahra; Arbib, Zouhayr; Perales, José Antonio

    2015-10-15

    This study evaluates the capacity of seven species and a Bloom of microalgae to grow in urban wastewater. Nutrient removal kinetics and biomass harvesting by means of centrifugation and coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation have been also tested. Results show that the best biomass productivities ranged from between 118 and 108 mgSS L(-1) d(-1) for the Bloom (Bl) and Scenedesmus obliquus (Sco). Regarding nutrient removal, microalgae were able to remove the total dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations by more than 80% and 87% respectively, depending on the species tested. The final total dissolved concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the culture media complies with the European Commission Directive 98/15/CE on urban wastewater treatment. Regarding harvesting, the results of coagulation-flocculation sedimentation using a 60 mg L(-1) dose of Ferric chloride were similar between species, exceeding the biomass removal efficiency by more than 90%. The results of centrifugation (time required to remove 90% of solids at 1000 rpm) were not similar between species, with the shortest time being 2.9 min for Sco, followed by the bloom (7.25 min). An overall analysis suggested that the natural bloom and Scenedesmus obliquus seem to be the best candidates to grow in pre-treated wastewater, according to their biomass production, nutrient removal capability and harvestability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. El cultivo de alfalfa utilizando agua de perforación, agua residual urbana y precipitaciones The cultivation of alfalfa using artesian well water, urban wastewater and rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Plevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la producción de biomasa aérea, la eficiencia del uso de agua y el valor nutritivo de alfalfa cultivada aplicando riego con agua residual urbana, agua de perforación y un testigo (precipitaciones, en el Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. Los tratamientos de riego tuvieron un efecto positivo sobre la producción de biomasa aérea obteniéndose un 24% más de producción de biomasa que en la situación de secano (precipitaciones. Entre los tratamientos con riego también se manifestaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La alfalfa regada con aguas residuales urbana supero en un 19% a la cultivada con agua de perforación. La eficiencia del uso del agua por parte del cultivo se incrementó cuando el riego se realizó con aguas residuales urbanas. Además, se determinó que la alfalfa regada con agua residual, supera los valores nutritivos del cultivo que crece en condiciones sin riego; encontrándose 39% más de proteínas, 14% más de digestibilidad e igual porcentaje de energía metabólica. Se puede concluir que el agua residual urbana representa otra posible fuente de agua, factible de ingresar al suelo y estar a disposición para el cultivo de alfalfa.The objective of this study was to analyse the production of alfalfa biomass, the efficiency of water use and the nutritional value of forage, inside an irrigation structure of an experimental facility that uses treated urban wastewater, artesian well water and rainfall, at the campus of the Universidad National de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. The irrigation treatment had a positive effect on the production of biomass of alfalfa. On an average 24% increase in production was observed when compared to dry-land farming. Regarding the quality of the irrigation water, statistical differences in production were observed, the irrigation with urban wastewater produced 19% more than that of well water. The

  18. Potential and limitations of modern equipment for real time control of urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campisano, A.; Cabot Ple, J.; Muschalla, D.

    2013-01-01

    Real Time Control (RTC) has become an accepted technique for improving the performance of Urban Drainage Systems (UDS) due to its flexibility and sustainability. Numerous implementations of RTC have been reported during the last decades. At the same time, guideline documents and state...... describes the specific components in detail. This comprises the introduction of available technologies for sensors, actuators, controllers and telemetry systems in the context of RTC and the discussion of their potential and limitations. Lessons learned from the field operational experiences and future......-of-the-art reports have been published. Whereas the general aspects and challenges of planning and installation of RTC systems are well covered, there is a lack of information about the adequate equipment for RTC of UDS. After identifying and briefly discussing the basic components of RTC systems for UDS, this paper...

  19. Human infective potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in urban wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis are important waterborne diseases. In the standard for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in China and...

  20. Effects of biologically-active chemical mixtures on fish in a wastewater-impacted urban stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Nettesheim, Todd G.; Murphy, Elizabeth W.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2011-01-01

    Stream flow in urban aquatic ecosystems often is maintained by water-reclamation plant (WRP) effluents that contain mixtures of natural and anthropogenic chemicals that persist through the treatment processes. In effluent-impactedstreams, aquatic organisms such as fish are continuously exposed to biologically-activechemicals throughout their life cycles. The North Shore Channel of the Chicago River (Chicago, Illinois) is part of an urban ecosystem in which > 80% of the annual flow consists of effluent from the North Side WRP. In this study, multiple samplings of the effluent and stream water were conducted and fish (largemouth bass and carp) were collected on 2 occasions from the North Shore Channel. Fish also were collected once from the Outer Chicago Harbor in Lake Michigan, a reference site not impacted by WRP discharges. Over 100 organic chemicals with differing behaviors and biological effects were measured, and 23 compounds were detected in all of the water samples analyzed. The most frequently detected and highest concentration (> 100 μg/L) compounds were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxycarboxylic acids. Other biologically-activechemicals including bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates, 4-tert-octylphenol, and 4-tert-octylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates were detected at lower concentrations (cis-androsterone were detected at even lower concentrations (the North Side WRP effluent and the North Shore Channel, indicating minimal in-stream attenuation. Fish populations are continuously exposed to mixtures of biologically-activechemicals because of the relative persistency of the chemicals with respect to stream hydraulic residence time, and the lack of a fresh water source for dilution. The majority of male fish exhibited vitellogenin induction, a physiological response consistent with exposure to estrogenic compounds. Tissue-level signs of reproductive disruption, such as ovatestis, were not

  1. Following a drop of water from the cloud, throughout the sewer system, into the receiving water - Model predictive control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Vezzaro, Luca; Sharma, Anitha Kumari

    This article presents selected examples of model-based prediction and control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems, developed within the framework of the Storm- and Wastewater Informatics project (SWI). By exploiting all the available on-line information (e.g. radar based rainfall...... of pollutants discharged from treatment plants, etc.). The tools developed in the SWI project include (but are not limited to (i) rainfall nowcasting based on radar measurements, (ii) probabilistic flow forecasting based on data assimilation and stochastic models, (iii) prediction and optimization of wet......-weather performance of wastewater treatment plants, and (iv) integrated control of the different elements of the integrated wastewater systems. Full-scale testing of these tools in different catchment located in Denmark ensure that the developed tools can represent an important step forwards for on-line operation...

  2. Integrated site investigation and groundwater monitoring in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherl, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding groundwater dynamics around cities and other areas of human influence is of crucial importance for water resource management and protection, especially in a time of environmental and societal change. The human environment presents a unique challenge in terms of hydrological characterization, as the water cycle is generally artificialized and emissions of treated waste and chemical products into the surface- and groundwater system tend to disrupt the natural aqueous signature in significant ways. This project presents an integrated approach for robust characterization and monitoring of an urban aquifer which is actively exploited for municipal water supply. The study is carried out in the town of Fehraltorf, in the canton of Zürich, Switzerland. This particular town encompasses industrial and agricultural zones in addition to its standard urban setting. A minimal amount of data exist at this site, and the data that do exist are spatially and temporally sparse. Making use of traditional hydrogeological methods alongside evolving and emerging technologies, we aim to identify sources of contamination and to define groundwater flow and solute transport through space and time. Chemical and physical indicator parameters are identified for tracing contaminations including micropollutants and plant nutrients. Wireless sensors are installed for continuous on-line monitoring of essential parameters (electrical conductivity, temperature, water level). A wireless sensor network has previously been installed in the sewer system of the study site, facilitating investigation into interactions between sewer water and groundwater. Our approach illustrates the relations between land use, climate, rainfall dynamics, and the groundwater signature through time. At its conclusion, insights gained from this study will be used by municipal authorities to refine protective zones around pumping wells and to direct resources towards updating practices and replacing

  3. An Integrated Model Based on a Hierarchical Indices System for Monitoring and Evaluating Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulin Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of world’s population presently resides in cities, and this number is expected to rise to ~70% by 2050. Increasing urbanization problems including population growth, urban sprawl, land use change, unemployment, and environmental degradation, have markedly impacted urban residents’ Quality of Life (QOL. Therefore, urban sustainability and its measurement have gained increasing attention from administrators, urban planners, and scientific communities throughout the world with respect to improving urban development and human well-being. The widely accepted definition of urban sustainability emphasizes the balancing development of three primary domains (urban economy, society, and environment. This article attempts to improve the aforementioned definition of urban sustainability by incorporating a human well-being dimension. Major problems identified in existing urban sustainability indicator (USI models include a weak integration of potential indicators, poor measurement and quantification, and insufficient spatial-temporal analysis. To tackle these challenges an integrated USI model based on a hierarchical indices system was established for monitoring and evaluating urban sustainability. This model can be performed by quantifying indicators using both traditional statistical approaches and advanced geomatic techniques based on satellite imagery and census data, which aims to provide a theoretical basis for a comprehensive assessment of urban sustainability from a spatial-temporal perspective.

  4. An alternative for urban wastewater from small villages: the symbiotic treatment; Una alternative para el tratamiento de aguas residuales urbanas de pequenos nucleos de poblacion: la depuracion simbiotica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorens Pascual del Riquelme, M.; Portero Escribano, S.; Saez Mercader, J.; Aguilar Sanchis, M. I.; Ortuno Sandoval, J. F.; Meseguer Zapata, V. F. [Universidad de Murcia. Murcia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The symbiotic treatment is a technology of new development, that combines a natural and subterranean treatment with the generation of green areas over the surface of the plant. It presents low-costs of construction and maintenance due to the simplicity of its constructive elements and the low demand of energy. This technology patented. The treatment of urban wastewaters from small villages is one of its possible applications. In this paper this technology is applied to the treatment of the wastewater produced in the Campus of Espinardo (University of Murcia. Spain). The objective is to prove it the effluent complies with the requirements established the Directive 91/271/EEC. A pilot plant that receives a flow of 13.81/h has been constructed, and a study of its operation has been carried out. The plant effluent satisfies the requirements established by the Directive for the current operation conditions. (Author) 7 refs.

  5. Wastewater reuse. What can be learned from the Israel experience; Reutilizacion de aguas residuales. Que se puede aprender de la experiencia israeli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanico, M.

    2007-07-01

    In Israel, wastewater is defined as an integral part of the water resources of the country and massive water reuse has been performed for almost four decades. Today, reuse achieves 75% of the produced wastewater. The present paper analyzes the historical development of wastewater reuse in Israel, addressing main events, regulations, coexistence of projects of different sizes and characteristics, institutional organization, the contractual relationship between the urban and rural sectors, nutrients recycling, quality of the treated wastewater and the problem of salination of soils and aquifers. The paper gives an holistic and impartial description of the controversial issues that are presently discussed in the country regarding wastewater reuse. (Author) 42 refs.

  6. Caffeine in an Urbanized Estuary: Past and Present Influence of Wastewater Effluents in Boston Harbor, MA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffeine has been identified by previous research as a potential tracer of sanitary wastewater. To further assess the utility of caffeine as a tracer of wastewater sources, samples from 25 sites throughout Boston Harbor were collected and analyzed for caffeine by LC-MS/MS. Caff...

  7. Integration of an innovative biological treatment with physical or chemical disinfection for wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Marco; Del Moro, Guido; Levantesi, Caterina; Luprano, Maria Laura; Di Iaconi, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    In the present paper, the effectiveness of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) and its integration with different disinfection strategies (UV irradiation, peracetic acid) for producing an effluent suitable for agricultural use was evaluated. The plant treated raw domestic sewage, and its performances were evaluated in terms of the removal efficiency of a wide group of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The SBBGR resulted really efficient in removing suspended solids, COD and nitrogen with an average effluent concentration of 5, 32 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Lower removal efficiency was observed for phosphorus with an average concentration in the effluent of 3 mg/L. Plant effluent was also characterized by an average electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio of 680 μS/cm and 2.9, respectively. Therefore, according to these gross parameters, the SBBGR effluent was conformed to the national standards required in Italy for agricultural reuse. Moreover, disinfection performances of the SBBGR was higher than that of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants and met the quality criteria suggested by WHO (Escherichia colidisinfection processes (UV and peracetic acid) resulted very effective for total coliforms, E. coli and somatic coliphages. In particular, a UV radiation and peracetic acid doses of 40 mJ/cm(2) and 1 mg/L respectively reduced E. coli content in the effluent below the limit for agricultural reuse in Italy (10 CFU/100 mL). Conversely, they were both ineffective on C.perfringens spores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated urban water management for residential areas: a reuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A B; Argue, J R

    2009-01-01

    Global concern over growing urban water demand in the face of limited water resources has focussed attention on the need for better management of available water resources. This paper takes the "fit for purpose" concept and applies it in the development of a model aimed at changing current practices with respect to residential planning by integrating reuse systems into the design layout. This residential reuse model provides an approach to the design of residential developments seeking to maximise water reuse. Water balance modelling is used to assess the extent to which local water resources can satisfy residential demands with conditions based on the city of Adelaide, Australia. Physical conditions include a relatively flat topography and a temperate climate, with annual rainfall being around 500 mm. The level of water-self-sufficiency that may be achieved within a reuse development in this environment is estimated at around 60%. A case study is also presented in which a conventional development is re-designed on the basis of the reuse model. Costing of the two developments indicates the reuse scenario is only marginally more expensive. Such costings however do not include the benefit to upstream and downstream environments resulting from reduced demand and discharges. As governments look to developers to recover system augmentation and environmental costs the economics of such approaches will increase.

  9. Integrated adsorptive technique for efficient recovery of m-cresol and m-toluidine from actual acidic and salty wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Da; Liu, Fuqiang; Zong, Lidan; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Changqing; Tao, Xuewen; Li, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated adsorptive technique was designed. • Most resources could be recovered efficiently. • Reagents consumption decreased sharply. • Zero emission might be realized with the integrated technique. - Abstract: An integrated adsorptive technique combining an m-cresol adsorption unit, an acid retardation unit and an m-toluidine adsorption unit in sequence was designed to recover m-cresol and m-toluidine from highly acidic and salty m-cresol manufacturing wastewater. In the first column packed with hypercrosslinked polymeric resin (NDA-99), most m-cresol was captured through π-π and hydrogen-bonding interactions as well as the salting-out effect, while m-toluidine was not absorbed due to protonation. To separate acid from salt, an acid retardation unit was introduced successively to adsorb sulfuric acid by strong base anion exchange resin (201 × 7). After the acid retardation unit and mild neutralization reaction, the last column filled with NDA-99 was applied to trap neutral m-toluidine from the salty effluent. Moreover, the eluent of the acid retardation unit was utilized as the regenerant to recover m-toluidine, and the recycled high-acidity and low-salinity solution of m-toluidine was directly used to produce m-cresol as the raw material. Therefore, the proposed method not only efficiently recycled m-cresol and m-toluidine, but also reduced the consumption of alkali dramatically (saving 0.1628 t/t wastewater). These findings will inspire design of integrated adsorptive techniques for treating complex organic wastewater with high efficiency and low cost.

  10. Integrated adsorptive technique for efficient recovery of m-cresol and m-toluidine from actual acidic and salty wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Da [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Liu, Fuqiang, E-mail: jogia@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Organic Chemical Industrial Waste Water Disposal Resource Reuse, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zong, Lidan; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Changqing; Tao, Xuewen [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Li, Aimin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Organic Chemical Industrial Waste Water Disposal Resource Reuse, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • An integrated adsorptive technique was designed. • Most resources could be recovered efficiently. • Reagents consumption decreased sharply. • Zero emission might be realized with the integrated technique. - Abstract: An integrated adsorptive technique combining an m-cresol adsorption unit, an acid retardation unit and an m-toluidine adsorption unit in sequence was designed to recover m-cresol and m-toluidine from highly acidic and salty m-cresol manufacturing wastewater. In the first column packed with hypercrosslinked polymeric resin (NDA-99), most m-cresol was captured through π-π and hydrogen-bonding interactions as well as the salting-out effect, while m-toluidine was not absorbed due to protonation. To separate acid from salt, an acid retardation unit was introduced successively to adsorb sulfuric acid by strong base anion exchange resin (201 × 7). After the acid retardation unit and mild neutralization reaction, the last column filled with NDA-99 was applied to trap neutral m-toluidine from the salty effluent. Moreover, the eluent of the acid retardation unit was utilized as the regenerant to recover m-toluidine, and the recycled high-acidity and low-salinity solution of m-toluidine was directly used to produce m-cresol as the raw material. Therefore, the proposed method not only efficiently recycled m-cresol and m-toluidine, but also reduced the consumption of alkali dramatically (saving 0.1628 t/t wastewater). These findings will inspire design of integrated adsorptive techniques for treating complex organic wastewater with high efficiency and low cost.

  11. Ubiquitous Integrity via Network Integration and Parallelism—Sustaining Pedestrian/Bike Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yen Hsu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the concern regarding environmental issues, establishing pedestrian/bike friendly urbanism is widely encouraged. To promote safety-assured, mobile communication environments, efficient, reliable maintenance, and information integrity need to be designed, especially in highly possibly interfered places. For busy traffic areas, regular degree-3 dedicated short range communication (DSRC networks are safety and information featured with availability, reliability, and maintainability in paths of multi-lanes. For sparsely populated areas, probes of wireless sensors are rational, especially if sensor nodes can be organized to enhance security, reliability, and flexibility. Applying alternative network topologies, such as spider-webs, generalized honeycomb tori, and cube-connected cycles, for comparing and analyzing is proposed in DSRC and cellular communications to enhance integrity in communications.

  12. Phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater: An integrated comparative technological, environmental and economic assessment of P recovery technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, L; Rechberger, H; Krampe, J; Zessner, M

    2016-11-15

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential and limited resource. Municipal wastewater is a promising source of P via reuse and could be used to replace P derived from phosphate rocks. The agricultural use of sewage sludge is restricted by legislation or is not practiced in several European countries due to environmental risks posed by organic micropollutants and pathogens. Several technologies have been developed in recent years to recover wastewater P. However, these technologies target different P-containing flows in wastewater treatment plants (effluent, digester supernatant, sewage sludge, and sewage sludge ash), use diverse engineering approaches and differ greatly with respect to P recycling rate, potential of removing or destroying pollutants, product quality, environmental impact and cost. This work compares 19 relevant P recovery technologies by considering their relationships with existing wastewater and sludge treatment systems. A combination of different methods, such as material flow analysis, damage units, reference soil method, annuity method, integrated cost calculation and a literature study on solubility, fertilizing effects and handling of recovered materials, is used to evaluate the different technologies with respect to technical, ecological and economic aspects. With regard to the manifold origins of data an uncertainty concept considering validity of data sources is applied. This analysis revealed that recovery from flows with dissolved P produces clean and plant-available materials. These techniques may even be beneficial from economic and technical perspectives under specific circumstances. However, the recovery rates (a maximum of 25%) relative to the wastewater treatment plant influent are relatively low. The approaches that recover P from sewage sludge apply complex technologies and generally achieve effective removal of heavy metals at moderate recovery rates (~40-50% relative to the WWTP input) and comparatively high costs. Sewage sludge ash is

  13. Seasonal and spatial variations of PPCP occurrence, removal and mass loading in three wastewater treatment plants located in different urbanization areas in Xiamen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qian; Li, Mingyue; Ma, Cong; Chen, Xiangqiang; Xie, Xiaoqing; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence and fate of 48 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in different urbanization areas in Xiamen, China was investigated over one year. Results showed that PPCPs were widely detected, but the major PPCPs in the influent, effluent, and sludge were different. Spatial and seasonal variations of PPCP levels in the influent and sludge were observed. The removal efficiencies for most PPCPs were similar among the three WWTPs, although they employed different biological treatment processes. Furthermore, the mass loadings per inhabitant of most pharmaceuticals had a positive correlation with the urbanization levels, indicating that most pharmaceutical usage was higher in the urban core compared to the suburban zones. The total mass loadings of all the 48 PPCPs in the effluent and waste sludge showed close proportions, which suggested the importance of proper waste sludge disposal to prevent a large quantity of PPCPs from entering the environment. - Highlights: • The major components in the influent, effluent, and sludge were different. • Removal rates were similar for most PPCPs under different treatment processes. • Pharmaceutical usage was higher in the urban core compared to suburban zones. • Effluent and sludge shared close proportions for PPCP releasing to the environment. - The total mass loadings of PPCPs per inhabitant in the influent, effluent and waste sludge of WWTPs were higher in the urban core compared to the suburban zones.

  14. Energy-positive wastewater treatment and desalination in an integrated microbial desalination cell (MDC)-microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Styczynski, Jordyn; Huang, Yuankai; Xu, Zhiheng; McCutcheon, Jeffrey; Li, Baikun

    2017-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of nitrogen in municipal wastewater, metal in industrial wastewater and saline in seawater was achieved in an integrated microbial desalination cell-microbial electrolysis cell (MDC-MEC) system. Batch tests showed that more than 95.1% of nitrogen was oxidized by nitrification in the cathode of MDC and reduced by heterotrophic denitrification in the anode of MDC within 48 h, leading to the total nitrogen removal rate of 4.07 mg L-1 h-1. Combining of nitrogen removal and desalination in MDC effectively solved the problem of pH fluctuation in anode and cathode, and led to 63.7% of desalination. Power generation of MDC (293.7 mW m-2) was 2.9 times higher than the one without salt solution. The electric power of MDC was harvested by a capacitor circuit to supply metal reduction in a MEC, and 99.5% of lead (II) was removed within 48 h. A kinetic MDC model was developed to elucidate the correlation of voltage output and desalination efficiency. Ratio of wastewater and sea water was calculated for MDC optimal operation. Energy balance of nutrient removal, metal removal and desalination in the MDC-MEC system was positive (0.0267 kW h m-3), demonstrating the promise of utilizing low power output of MDCs.

  15. Integral sustainability as a basic (fundamental requirement for (urban innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalošević Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors are of the opinion that there is no alternative to sustainable development, and discuss on thesis that sustainability is now a key driver of innovation, but also its essential requirement. This paper discusses the sustainability as a concept that has, above all, the environmental, economic, social and cultural dimension. The aim of the study was to understand sustainability as a fundamental development principle and key benchmark in organisation and development of cities in the future. This paper explores the meaning of innovation processes, sustainability and innovation in urban planning, innovative approaches to sustainable urban development, initiatives in urban sustainability, the key elements of the implementation, modalities of providing financial resources for sustainable projects of public interest, as well as identification of areas suitable for innovation in urban planning, relying on the good practices implemented through multi-sector sustainable projects. In a broader sense, the objective of this paper is to emphasize the need: to promote concept of human dimension in urban development, to direct continual urban development towards 'green' orientation, to implement innovative and smart technologies in the management of modern cities; to promote public participation and multi-sectoral policies in urban development, and to encourage and stimulate sustainable (urban innovation.

  16. Integrating mobility and urban development agendas: a manifesto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolini, L.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary urban lifestyles and business practices are increasingly dependent on mobility. At the same time, the negative impacts of mobility on natural and social environments are growing dramatically, as is the public outcry for their reversal. Urban planners are faced with a difficult dilemma:

  17. The Metacity: A Conceptual Framework for Integrating Ecology and Urban Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. A. Pickett

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the term metacity as a conceptual framework that can be shared by ecologists and designers and applied across the wide variety of urban habitats found around the world. While the term metacity was introduced by UN-HABITAT to designate hyper cities of over twenty million people, for us it is not limited to large urban agglomerations, but rather refers to the proliferation of new forms of urbanization, each with distinct ecological and social attributes. These various urban configurations when combined with new digital sensing, communication and social networking technologies constitute a virtual meta-infrastructure, present in all cities today. This new metacity has the potential to integrate new activist forms of ecological and urban design research and practice in making the transition from sanitary to sustainable city models globally. The city of Baltimore, Maryland will be used both as a site to illustrate these recent urban trends, and also as an example of the integration of ecology and urban design pursued by the two authors over the past seven years [1,2]. Metacity theory is drawn from both an architectural analysis of contemporary forms of urbanism, new forms of digital monitoring and communication technologies, as well as metapopulation and metacommunity theories in ecology. We seek to provide tools and lessons from our experiences for realizing an integrated metacity approach to achieving social sustainability and ecological resilience on an increasingly urbanized planet.

  18. Pretreatment of Real Wastewater from the Chocolate Manufacturing Industry through an Integrated Process of Electrocoagulation and Sand Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. García-Morales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of suspended solids in terms of turbidity, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD when integrating the electrocoagulation process using aluminum sacrificial anodes and the sand filtration process as a pretreatment of wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing plant in Toluca, México. Wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing industry used in this study is classified as nontoxic, but is characterized as having a high content of color (5952 ± 76 Pt-Co, turbidity (1648 ± 49 FAU, and COD (3608 ± 250 mg/L. Therefore, enhanced performance could be achieved by combining pretreatment techniques to increase the efficiencies of the physical, chemical, and biological treatments. In the integrated process, there was a turbidity reduction of 96.1 ± 0.2% and an increase in dissolved oxygen from 3.8 ± 0.05 mg/L (inlet sand filtration to 6.05 ± 0.03 mg/L (outlet sand filtration after 120 min of treatment. These results indicate good water quality necessary for all forms of elemental life. Color and COD removals were 98.2 ± 0.2% and 39.02 ± 2.2%, respectively, during the electrocoagulation process (0.2915 mA/cm2 current density and 120 min of treatment. The proposed integrated process could be an attractive alternative of pretreatment of real wastewater to increase water quality of conventional treatments.

  19. A Three-Year Journey: Lessons Learned from Integrating Teacher Preparation and Urban Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yontz, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    This narrative outlines the process of how an independent liberal arts college integrated coursework and learning experiences focused on urban school teacher preparation with an existing university program in Urban Studies. Programmatic changes and additions to teacher education programs at independent liberal arts colleges are often very…

  20. Human infective potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in urban wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis are important waterborne diseases. In the standard for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in China and other countries, fecal coliform is the only microbial indicator, raising concerns about the potential for pathogen t...

  1. Contamination Profiles and Mass Loadings of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The ...

  2. Integrated Urban Flood Analysis considering Optimal Operation of Flood Control Facilities in Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Y. I.; Kim, M. S.; Choi, J. H.; Yuk, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    eavy rainfall has become a recent major cause of urban area flooding due to the climate change and urbanization. To prevent property damage along with casualties, a system which can alert and forecast urban flooding must be developed. Optimal performance of reducing flood damage can be expected of urban drainage facilities when operated in smaller rainfall events over extreme ones. Thus, the purpose of this study is to execute: A) flood forecasting system using runoff analysis based on short term rainfall; and B) flood warning system which operates based on the data from pump stations and rainwater storage in urban basins. In result of the analysis, it is shown that urban drainage facilities using short term rainfall forecasting data by radar will be more effective to reduce urban flood damage than using only the inflow data of the facility. Keywords: Heavy Rainfall, Urban Flood, Short-term Rainfall Forecasting, Optimal operating of urban drainage facilities. AcknowledgmentsThis research was supported by a grant (17AWMP-B066744-05) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  3. Ontology-based data integration from heterogeneous urban systems : A knowledge representation framework for smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psyllidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel knowledge representation framework for smart city planning and management that enables the semantic integration of heterogeneous urban data from diverse sources. Currently, the combination of information across city agencies is cumbersome, as the increasingly available

  4. Integrated approaches to long-term studies of urban ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy B. Grimm; J. Morgan Grove; Steward T.A. Pickett; Charles L. Redman

    2000-01-01

    Urban ecological systems present multiple challenges to ecologists—pervasive human impact and extreme heterogeneity of cities, and the need to integrate social and ecological approaches, concepts, and theory.

  5. An integrated membrane bioreactor - nanofiltration concept with concentrate recirculation for wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappel, C.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing water shortages drive the need for water reuse. Membranes are a very suitable technology for purification of wastewater. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) permeate can be polished by nanofiltration (NF), allowing the production of high quality reusable water. The NF concentrate potentially is an

  6. Potential chemical and microbiological risks on human health from urban wastewater reuse in agriculture. Case study of wastewater effluents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ivan; Tomàs, Núria; Mas, Jordi; García-Reyes, Juan Fracisco; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    Potential health risks derived from wastewater reuse in agriculture have been evaluated with Risk Assessment modelling techniques, in a case study involving the effluents of two Spanish wastewater treatment plants. One of the plants applies primary and secondary treatment, and the other one applies an additional tertiary treatment. Health risks were assessed on the basis of ingesting contaminated food, due to exposure to: (i) 22 chemical pollutants, namely pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and priority pollutants included in the European Framework Directive, and (ii) microorganisms, namely enterovirus. Chemical Risk Assessment has been carried out following the European Commission's technical guidelines, while risks from exposure to viruses have been evaluated by means of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, assuming a virus to coliform ratio of 1:10(5). The results of the chemical assessment show that there is a margin of safety above 100 for all substances, with the exception of gemfibrozil, for which the mean margin of safety (MOS) is above 100, but the lower bound of MOS with a 95 % confidence interval lies in the 3-4 range. A MOS under 100 was also found for 2,3,7,8-TCDD in one of the effluents. The assessment of risks from viruses shows a very low probability of infection. The overall results show that risks are lower for the plant applying tertiary treatment, especially concerning microbiological parameters.

  7. Simultaneous determination of several veterinary pharmaceuticals in effluents from urban, livestock and slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plants using a simple chromatographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenati, Simone; Carvalho, Pedro N; Almeida, C Marisa R; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2012-01-01

    Minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and ceftiofur, commonly used veterinary pharmaceuticals, were searched in four urban, two livestock and two slaughterhouse effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the north of Portugal. A simple method that includes solid-phase extraction followed with analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector was established and applied to the simultaneous determination of the five pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents. This method, which is expeditious, inexpensive and available in most laboratories, showed to be useful for screening for problematic levels of drugs in WWTP effluents. It is known that several livestock and slaughterhouse effluents (pre-treated or treated) are discharged to the urban network before discharge into the environment. The presence of these drugs in such effluents can constitute a significant environmental problem that should be addressed, by the monitoring of these drugs and by implementation of methodologies that contribute to their decrease/elimination from wastewaters. Minocycline (≤6 μg L(-1)), oxytetracycline (≤7 μg L(-1)), tetracycline (≤6 μg L(-1)) and enrofloxacin (effluents. Detectable levels of enrofloxacin (effluents.

  8. Urban water metabolism efficiency assessment: integrated analysis of available and virtual water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Long; Vause, Jonathan; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Resolving the complex environmental problems of water pollution and shortage which occur during urbanization requires the systematic assessment of urban water metabolism efficiency (WME). While previous research has tended to focus on either available or virtual water metabolism, here we argue that the systematic problems arising during urbanization require an integrated assessment of available and virtual WME, using an indicator system based on material flow analysis (MFA) results. Future research should focus on the following areas: 1) analysis of available and virtual water flow patterns and processes through urban districts in different urbanization phases in years with varying amounts of rainfall, and their environmental effects; 2) based on the optimization of social, economic and environmental benefits, establishment of an indicator system for urban WME assessment using MFA results; 3) integrated assessment of available and virtual WME in districts with different urbanization levels, to facilitate study of the interactions between the natural and social water cycles; 4) analysis of mechanisms driving differences in WME between districts with different urbanization levels, and the selection of dominant social and economic driving indicators, especially those impacting water resource consumption. Combinations of these driving indicators could then be used to design efficient water resource metabolism solutions, and integrated management policies for reduced water consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of organics and degradation products from industrial wastewater by a membrane bioreactor integrated with ozone or UV/H₂O₂ treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laera, G; Cassano, D; Lopez, A; Pinto, A; Pollice, A; Ricco, G; Mascolo, G

    2012-01-17

    The treatment of a pharmaceutical wastewater resulting from the production of an antibacterial drug (nalidixic acid) was investigated employing a membrane bioreactor (MBR) integrated with either ozonation or UV/H(2)O(2) process. This was achieved by placing chemical oxidation in the recirculation stream of the MBR. A conventional configuration with chemical oxidation as polishing for the MBR effluent was also tested as a reference. The synergistic effect of MBR when integrated with chemical oxidation was assessed by monitoring (i) the main wastewater characteristics, (ii) the concentration of nalidixic acid, (iii) the 48 organics identified in the raw wastewater and (iv) the 55 degradation products identified during wastewater treatment. Results showed that MBR integration with ozonation or UV/H(2)O(2) did not cause relevant drawbacks to both biological and filtration processes, with COD removal rates in the range 85-95%. Nalidixic acid passed undegraded through the MBR and was completely removed in the chemical oxidation step. Although the polishing configuration appeared to give better performances than the integrated system in removing 15 out of 48 secondary organics while similar removals were obtained for 19 other compounds. The benefit of the integrated system was however evident for the removal of the degradation products. Indeed, the integrated system allowed higher removals for 34 out of 55 degradation products while for only 4 compounds the polishing configuration gave better performance. Overall, results showed the effectiveness of the integrated treatment with both ozone and UV/H(2)O(2).

  10. Integration of aerial oblique imagery and terrestrial imagery for optimized 3D modeling in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Xie, Linfu; Hu, Han; Zhu, Qing; Yau, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Photorealistic three-dimensional (3D) models are fundamental to the spatial data infrastructure of a digital city, and have numerous potential applications in areas such as urban planning, urban management, urban monitoring, and urban environmental studies. Recent developments in aerial oblique photogrammetry based on aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer promising techniques for 3D modeling. However, 3D models generated from aerial oblique imagery in urban areas with densely distributed high-rise buildings may show geometric defects and blurred textures, especially on building façades, due to problems such as occlusion and large camera tilt angles. Meanwhile, mobile mapping systems (MMSs) can capture terrestrial images of close-range objects from a complementary view on the ground at a high level of detail, but do not offer full coverage. The integration of aerial oblique imagery with terrestrial imagery offers promising opportunities to optimize 3D modeling in urban areas. This paper presents a novel method of integrating these two image types through automatic feature matching and combined bundle adjustment between them, and based on the integrated results to optimize the geometry and texture of the 3D models generated from aerial oblique imagery. Experimental analyses were conducted on two datasets of aerial and terrestrial images collected in Dortmund, Germany and in Hong Kong. The results indicate that the proposed approach effectively integrates images from the two platforms and thereby improves 3D modeling in urban areas.

  11. Climate forcing and infectious disease transmission in urban landscapes: integrating demographic and socioeconomic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Vega, Mauricio; Martinez, Pamela P; Pascual, Mercedes

    2016-10-01

    Urbanization and climate change are the two major environmental challenges of the 21st century. The dramatic expansion of cities around the world creates new conditions for the spread, surveillance, and control of infectious diseases. In particular, urban growth generates pronounced spatial heterogeneity within cities, which can modulate the effect of climate factors at local spatial scales in large urban environments. Importantly, the interaction between environmental forcing and socioeconomic heterogeneity at local scales remains an open area in infectious disease dynamics, especially for urban landscapes of the developing world. A quantitative and conceptual framework on urban health with a focus on infectious diseases would benefit from integrating aspects of climate forcing, population density, and level of wealth. In this paper, we review what is known about these drivers acting independently and jointly on urban infectious diseases; we then outline elements that are missing and would contribute to building such a framework. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Integrating sequencing batch reactor with bio-electrochemical treatment for augmenting remediation efficiency of complex petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Dileep Kumar; Jukuri, Srinivas; Velvizhi, G; Naresh Kumar, A; Swamy, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the sequential integration of two advanced biological treatment methods viz., sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and bioelectrochemical treatment systems (BET) for the treatment of real-field petrochemical wastewater (PCW). Initially two SBR reactors were operated in aerobic (SBR(Ae)) and anoxic (SBR(Ax)) microenvironments with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 9.68 kg COD/m(3)-day. Relatively, SBR(Ax) showed higher substrate degradation (3.34 kg COD/m(3)-day) compared to SBR(Ae) (2.9 kg COD/m(3)-day). To further improve treatment efficiency, the effluents from SBR process were fed to BET reactors. BET(Ax) depicted higher SDR (1.92 kg COD/m(3)-day) with simultaneous power generation (17.12 mW/m(2)) followed by BET(Ae) (1.80 kg COD/m(3)-day; 14.25 mW/m(2)). Integrating both the processes documented significant improvement in COD removal efficiency due to the flexibility of combining multiple microenvironments sequentially. Results were supported with GC-MS and FTIR, which confirmed the increment in biodegradability of wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated detoxification methodology of hazardous phenolic wastewaters in environmentally based trickle-bed reactors: Experimental investigation and CFD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Rodrigo J.G.; Almeida, Teresa S.A.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    Centralized environmental regulations require the use of efficient detoxification technologies for the secure disposal of hazardous wastewaters. Guided by federal directives, existing plants need reengineering activities and careful analysis to improve their overall effectiveness and to become environmentally friendly. Here, we illustrate the application of an integrated methodology which encompasses the experimental investigation of catalytic wet air oxidation and CFD simulation of trickle-bed reactors. As long as trickle-bed reactors are determined by the flow environment coupled with chemical kinetics, first, on the optimization of prominent numerical solution parameters, the CFD model was validated with experimental data taken from a trickle bed pilot plant specifically designed for the catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastewaters. Second, several experimental and computational runs were carried out under unsteady-state operation to evaluate the dynamic performance addressing the TOC concentration and temperature profiles. CFD computations of total organic carbon conversion were found to agree better with experimental data at lower temperatures. Finally, the comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that this integrated framework was able to describe the mineralization of organic matter in trickle beds and the validated consequence model can be exploited to promote cleaner remediation technologies of contaminated waters.

  14. Integrated detoxification methodology of hazardous phenolic wastewaters in environmentally based trickle-bed reactors: Experimental investigation and CFD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rodrigo J G; Almeida, Teresa S A; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2011-05-15

    Centralized environmental regulations require the use of efficient detoxification technologies for the secure disposal of hazardous wastewaters. Guided by federal directives, existing plants need reengineering activities and careful analysis to improve their overall effectiveness and to become environmentally friendly. Here, we illustrate the application of an integrated methodology which encompasses the experimental investigation of catalytic wet air oxidation and CFD simulation of trickle-bed reactors. As long as trickle-bed reactors are determined by the flow environment coupled with chemical kinetics, first, on the optimization of prominent numerical solution parameters, the CFD model was validated with experimental data taken from a trickle bed pilot plant specifically designed for the catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastewaters. Second, several experimental and computational runs were carried out under unsteady-state operation to evaluate the dynamic performance addressing the TOC concentration and temperature profiles. CFD computations of total organic carbon conversion were found to agree better with experimental data at lower temperatures. Finally, the comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that this integrated framework was able to describe the mineralization of organic matter in trickle beds and the validated consequence model can be exploited to promote cleaner remediation technologies of contaminated waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry. Part 3: Experience of Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Dunn, Russell; Gottrup, Lene

    2002-01-01

    This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience with indu......This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience......’s experience with defining the scope of the system and with identifying water flow constraints and water quality constraints is discussed. It is shown, how physical constraints for the system design often set a limit for the sophistication of the water recycle network and thereby also a limit for how...... sophisticated the method for system design should be. Finally, pinch analysis and system designs for water recycling in a practical case study are shown, documenting large water saving potentials and achievements....

  16. Plant-integrated measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    experiencing operational problems, such as during foaming events in anaerobic digesters and during sub-optimal operation of biological nitrogen removal in the secondary treatment of wastewater. Methane emissions detected during measurement campaigns corresponded to 2.07-32.7% of the methane generated......Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its spatial and temporal variation in emissions, whole plant characterization of GHG emissions from WWTPs face a number of obstacles. In this study, a tracer dispersion method was applied...... in the plant. As high as 4.27% of nitrogen entering the WWTP was emitted as nitrous oxide under the sub-optimal operation of biological treatment processes. The study shows that the unit process configuration, as well as the operation of the WWTP, determines the rate of GHG emission. The applied plant...

  17. An integrated knowledge-based and optimization tool for the sustainable selection of wastewater treatment process concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, A.; Cheali, Peam; Gómez, V.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand on wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has involved an interest in improving the alternative treatment selection process. In this study, an integrated framework including an intelligent knowledge-based system and superstructure-based optimization has been developed and applied...... to a real case study. Hence, a multi-criteria analysis together with mathematical models is applied to generate a ranked short-list of feasible treatments for three different scenarios. Finally, the uncertainty analysis performed allows for increasing the quality and robustness of the decisions considering...... benefit and synergy is achieved when both tools are integrated because expert knowledge and expertise are considered together with mathematical models to select the most appropriate treatment alternative...

  18. Faecal and protozoan parasite contamination of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) cultivated in urban wastewater in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anh, Vuong Tuan; Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Klank, Lise Tønner

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify the level of contamination with thermotolerant coliforms (ThC), intestinal helminth eggs and protozoan parasites in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) cultivated in a wastewater-fed lake in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods The investigation was carried out from July 2004 to May...... into a stream. Water spinach samples were harvested at each of the three locations with and without wastewater contact according to the normal practices of farmers, and analysed for ThC, protozoan parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora), and helminth eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura...... and hookworm) using standard methods. Wastewater samples were also collected at each of the three locations and analysed for ThC and helminth eggs. Results High concentrations of ThC (approximately 10(5)-10(7)/g) were found in water spinach samples. ThC mean counts did not differ significantly, neither between...

  19. Integrated bio-oxidation and adsorptive filtration reactor for removal of arsenic from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamde, Kalyani; Dahake, Rashmi; Pandey, R A; Bansiwal, Amit

    2018-01-08

    Recently, removal of arsenic from different industrial effluent discharged using simple, efficient and low-cost technique has been widely considered. In this study, removal of arsenic (As) from real wastewater has been studied employing modified bio-oxidation followed by adsorptive filtration method in a novel continuous flow through the reactor. This method includes biological oxidation of ferrous to ferric ions by immobilized Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria on granulated activated carbon (GAC) in fixed bed bio-column reactor with the adsorptive filtration unit. Removal efficiency was optimized regarding the initial flow rate of media and ferrous ions concentration. Synthetic wastewater sample having different heavy metal ions such as Arsenic (As), Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Manganese (Mn) were also used in the study. The structural and surface changes occurring after the treatment process were scrutinized using FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. The finding showed that not only arsenic can be removed considerably in the bioreactor system, but also removing efficiency was much more (oxidation with adsorptive filtration method improves the removal efficiency of arsenic and other heavy metal ions in wastewater sample.

  20. Integration of Neural Networks and Cellular Automata for Urban Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony Gar-on Yeh; LI Xia

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of cellular automata (CA) model for the simulation of alternative land development using neural networks for urban planning. CA models can be regarded as a planning tool because they can generate alternative urban growth. Alternative development patterns can be formed by using different sets of parameter values in CA simulation. A critical issue is how to define parameter values for realistic and idealized simulation. This paper demonstrates that neural networks can simplify CA models but generate more plausible results. The simulation is based on a simple three-layer network with an output neuron to generate conversion probability. No transition rules are required for the simulation. Parameter values are automatically obtained from the training of network by using satellite remote sensing data. Original training data can be assessed and modified according to planning objectives. Alternative urban patterns can be easily formulated by using the modified training data sets rather than changing the model.

  1. The integrated indicator of sustainable urban development based on standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonova Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper justifies the necessity for the system of planned indicators for sustainable urban development design in accordance with the requirements of international standards and the Russian standard GOST R ISO 37120-2015, and the estimation of their actual achievement based on complex qualimetric models. An analysis of opinions on this issue and an overview of Russian normative documents for assessing the effectiveness of the municipalities, including urban development are presented. General methodological principles and sequence for the construction of qualimetric models, as well as formulas for the calculation of complex indicators, taking into account the specific weights obtained on the basis of expert assessment, are presented, the need for careful selection of experts and determination of the consistency of expert opinions is indicated. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are shown. Conclusions are drawn on the use of qualimetric models for sustainable urban development.

  2. Urban Water Management Considering Reclaimed Wastewater and Runoff as a New Water Resource for City of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedeh Abdolghafoorian

    2012-12-01

    According to this study, improving wastewater treatment plants and control of water quality in canals and streams in order to substitute these two new resource for freshwater and groundwater have positive environmental and economic effects. The examples of environmental benefits are reducing pollution loads to receiving streams, adjusting increasing water demand and preventing groundwater level drawdown especially in the period of drought. In addition to the environmental benefits, although improving wastewater treatment plants and control of water quality in canals and streams need considerable investments, long usage of these two new recourses is more worthwhile.

  3. Spatial and temporal shifts in gross primary productivity, respiration, and nutrient concentrations in urban streams impacted by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Toran, L.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of wastewater treatment plant effluent on nutrient retention and stream productivity are highly varied. The working theory has been that large pulses of nutrients from plants may hinder in-stream nutrient retention. We evaluated nitrate, total dissolved phosphorus, and dissolved oxygen in Wissahickon Creek, an urban third-order stream in Montgomery and Philadelphia counties, PA, that receives effluent from four wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plant effluent had nitrate concentrations of 15-30 mg N/L and total dissolved phosphorus of 0.3 to 1.8 mg/L. Seasonal longitudinal water quality samples showed nitrate concentrations were highest in the fall, peaking at 22 mg N/L, due to low baseflow, but total dissolved phosphorous concentrations were highest in the spring, reaching 0.6 mg/L. Diurnal dissolved oxygen patterns above and below one of the treatment plants provided estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER). A site 1 km below effluent discharge had higher GPP in April (80 g O2 m-2 d-1) than the site above the plant (28 g O2 m-2 d-1). The pulse in productivity did not continue downstream, as the site 3 km below the plant had GPP of only 12 g O2 m-2 d-1. Productivity fell in June to 1-2 g O2 m-2 d-1 and the differences in productivity above and below plants were minimal. Ecosystem respiration followed a similar pattern in April, increasing from -17 g O2 m-2 d-1 above the plant to -47 g O2 m-2 d-1 1 km below the plant, then decreasing to -8 g O2 m-2 d-1 3 km below the plant. Respiration dropped to -3 g O2 m-2 d-1 above the plant in June but only fell to -9 to -10 g O2 m-2 d-1 at the two downstream sites. These findings indicate that large nutrient pulses from wastewater treatment plants spur productivity and respiration, but that these increases may be strongly seasonally dependent. Examining in-stream productivity and respiration is critical in wastewater impacted streams to understanding the seasonal and

  4. Social-ecological research in urban natural areas: an emergent process for integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle L. Johnson; D. S. Novem Auyeung; Nancy F. Sonti; Clara C. Pregitzer; Heather L. McMillen; Richard Hallett; Lindsay K. Campbell; Helen M. Forgione; Mina Kim; Sarah Charlop-Powers; Erika S. Svendsen

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of urban landscapes requires integrating social and ecological research. Here, we integrate parallel social and ecological assessments of natural areas within New York City. We examined social data (from a rapid assessment of park use and meaning, collected at a park zone level) alongside ecological data (froma plot-based...

  5. Towards integrated urban and horticultural planning in Hanoi and Nanjing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den L.; Xiaoping, S.; Kamphuis, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    In an international and interdisciplinary research project, partly funded by the European Union, the possibilities were explored of having specialized horticultural production around East Asian cities benefit from urban growth. Anywhere in the world, farmers around cities have to cope with two

  6. A vision on methodology for integrated sustainable urban development: bequest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentivegna, V.; Curwell, S.; Deakin, M.; Lombardi, P.; Mitchell, G.; Nijkamp, P.

    2002-01-01

    The concepts and visions of sustainable development that have emerged in the post-Brundtland era are explored in terms laying the foundations for a common vision of sustainable urban development (SUD). The described vision and methodology for SUD resulted from the activities of an international

  7. Integration amidst Separation: Religion, Urban Education, and the First Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaldi-Dopman, Danielle; Park-Taylor, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    In today's urban schools, foreign-born children and children of immigrants are the fastest growing sector of the student population and as a result of this changing demographic, our schools are more ethnically, racially and religiously diverse than they have ever been (Suárez-Orozco et al. in "Thriving and spirituality among youth:…

  8. The integral treatment of urban solid wastes. Experience at Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon U, R.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, which is the origin of the urban solid wastes in a City, how is it classify and which are the most important methods for its elimination, once have been collected are presented. Statistics on the Spanish Case, how is the treatment system and which are the most representative methods for its elimination is describe

  9. Impediments to integrated urban stormwater management: the need for institutional reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebekah R

    2005-09-01

    It is now well established that the traditional practice of urban stormwater management contributes to the degradation of receiving waterways, and this practice was more recently critiqued for facilitating the wastage of a valuable water resource. However, despite significant advances in alternative "integrated urban stormwater management" techniques and processes over the last 20 years, wide-scale implementation has been limited. This problem is indicative of broader institutional impediments that are beyond current concerns of strengthening technological and planning process expertise. Presented here is an analysis of the institutionalization of urban stormwater management across Sydney with the objective of scoping institutional impediments to more sustainable management approaches. The analysis reveals that the inertia with the public administration of urban stormwater inherently privileges and perpetuates traditional stormwater management practices at implementation. This inertia is characterized by historically entrained forms of technocratic institutional power and expertise, values and leadership, and structure and jurisdiction posing significant impediments to change and the realization of integrated urban stormwater management. These insights strongly point to the need for institutional change specifically directed at fostering horizontal integration of the various functions of the existing administrative regime. This would need to be underpinned with capacity-building interventions targeted at enabling a learning culture that values integration and participatory decision making. These insights also provide guideposts for assessing the institutional and capacity development needs for improving urban water management practices in other contexts.

  10. Numerical Weather Prediction and Relative Economic Value framework to improve Integrated Urban Drainage- Wastewater management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas

    domains during which the IUDWS can be coupled with the electrical smart grid to optimise its energy consumption. The REV framework was used to determine which decision threshold of the EPS (i.e. number of ensemble members predicting an event) provides the highest benefit for a given situation...... in cities where space is scarce and large-scale construction work a nuisance. This the-sis focuses on flow domain predictions of IUDWS from numerical weather prediction (NWP) to select relevant control objectives for the IUDWS and develops a framework based on the relative economic value (REV) approach...... to evaluate when acting on the forecast is beneficial or not. Rainfall forecasts are extremely valuable for estimating near future storm-water-related impacts on the IUDWS. Therefore, weather radar extrapolation “nowcasts” provide valuable predictions for RTC. However, radar nowcasts are limited...

  11. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  12. Strategic enhancement of Desertifilum tharense MSAK01 on dairy wastewater: an integrated approach for remediation and biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemka, Ankita; Saraf, Meenu

    2017-10-01

    The present study is an integrated approach to study the potential of Desertifilum tharense MSAK01 for treatment of dairy wastewater (DWW) and enrichment of biomass. The present research includes the experiment designed for treatment of DWW. The physical and chemical parameters of wastewater quality, such as nitrate, phosphate, chloride, sulphur, and hardness, were studied. The level of nitrate and phosphate in water bodies was reduced by 94 and 98% in the effluent, respectively. The level of BOD and COD, measure of organic contaminants, were reduced to 70% (BOD5, initial level of 1840 mg O2 L-1) and 56% (COD, initial level of 2470 mg O2 L-1). The second module of the experiment was designed for biochemical extractions by harvesting the biomass (algal strain) grown in DWW. The result of this study shows that algal strain D. tharense is not only an agent for mitigation of pollutant load, but it can also be used as potential source for lipid, protein and carbohydrate.

  13. Efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plants: A data envelopment analysis approach integrating technical, economic, and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellet, Lledó; Molinos-Senante, María

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential to compare their performance and consequently to identify the best operational practices that can contribute to the reduction of operational costs. Previous studies have evaluated the efficiency of WWTPs using conventional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. Most of these studies have considered the operational costs of the WWTPs as inputs, while the pollutants removed from wastewater are treated as outputs. However, they have ignored the fact that each pollutant removed by a WWTP involves a different environmental impact. To overcome this limitation, this paper evaluates for the first time the efficiency of a sample of WWTPs by applying the weighted slacks-based measure model. It is a non-radial DEA model which allows assigning weights to the inputs and outputs according their importance. Thus, the assessment carried out integrates environmental issues with the traditional "techno-economic" efficiency assessment of WWTPs. Moreover, the potential economic savings for each cost item have been quantified at a plant level. It is illustrated that the WWTPs analyzed have significant room to save staff and energy costs. Several managerial implications to help WWTPs' operators make informed decisions were drawn from the methodology and empirical application carried out. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    irrigation for years, and studies have shown that its use does not cause health problems. Reuse of gray water means less energy consumption and less chemicals in wastewater treatment plants, which is good for the community, i.e. households will be spending significantly less money on water bills. Reuse of wastewater from industry In industry, water is used in refrigeration, industrial process and power boilers. In the  purification of industrial wastewater two approaches are generally distinguished: a pretreatment of wastewater that must be implemented to meet the criteria for its   discharge  into public sewers and a singular wastewater treatment (without interference from household waste to meet the criteria for effluent to be discharged. More and more freguently companies release their waste into urban sewage,having previously partially refined it to the level where it is mixed with wastewater from households and then finally purified in the same installation. The composition of water for steam boilers is of very great importance, because the slightest disturbance in the steam boiler can cause a disturbance in the entire industrial process. The quality of water for steam boilers depends on the type of a plant, steam pressure and the purpose for which steam is used. Water should be of such quality that it does not leave residues and deposits and it should not have a corroding effect. The purity of produced steam should correspond to the purpose of the steam in question. Water should not contain substances that could cause foaming (fats, oils and other organic substances and should be slightly alkaline (pH = 7 to 9.5. Industrial water, depending on the processes in the industry, can be purified up to a certain degree. When discharged into natural water systems, it must meet the principles underpinning the system of the limit  values of major wastewater parameters, developed by The Association for wastewater from the Federal Republic of Germany and presented in Table 6

  15. Stepwise impact of urban wastewater treatment on the bacterial community structure, antibiotic contents, and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Shen, Weitao; Yan, Lei; Wang, Xin-Hua; Xu, Hai

    2017-12-01

    Bacteria, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance determinants are key biological pollutants in aquatic systems, which may lead to bacterial infections or prevent the cure of bacterial infections. In this study, we investigated how the wastewater treatment processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) affect these pollutants. We found that the addition of oxygen, polyaluminum chloride (PAC), and polyacrylamide (PAM), as well as ultraviolet (UV) disinfection could significantly alter the bacterial communities in the water samples. An overall shift from Gram-negative bacteria to Gram-positive bacteria was observed throughout the wastewater treatment steps, but the overall bacterial biomass was not reduced in the WWTP samples. The antibiotic contents were reduced by the WWTP, but the size of the reduction and the step when antibiotic degradation occurred differed among antibiotics. Ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin could be removed completely by the WWTP, whereas cephalexin could not. The removal of ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, and erythromycin occurred in the anaerobic digester, whereas the removal of sulfamethoxazole occurred after the addition of PAC and PAM, and UV disinfection. Antimicrobial resistance determinants were highly prevalent in all of the samples analyzed, except for those targeting vancomycin and colistin. However, wastewater treatment was ineffective at removing antimicrobial resistance determinants from wastewater. There were strong correlations between intI1, floR, sul1, and ermB, thereby suggesting the importance of integrons for the spread of these antimicrobial resistance genes. In general, this study comprised a stepwise analysis of the impact of WWTPs on three biological pollutants: bacteria, antibiotics, and antimicrobial resistance determinants, where our results suggest that the design of WWTPs needs to be improved to address the threats due to these pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Landscape Optimization in a Highly Urbanized Tourism Destination: An Integrated Approach in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning and developing urban tourism destinations must encompass landscape optimization to achieve healthy urban ecosystems, as well as for evolution sustainability. This study explored sustainable landscape planning by examining the optimization of landscape spatial distribution in an urban tourism destination–Nanjing, China—using an integrated approach that included remote sensing (RS, geographic information system (GIS, and landscape metrics in the context of an urban tourism destination evolution model. Least-cost modeling in GIS was also used to optimize decision-making from an ecological perspective. The results indicated that landscapes were more homogenous, fragmented, and less connected. Except for the eastern area, the landscape evolution showed characteristics of both degeneration and growth. A complete greenway network including sources, greenways, and nodes were constructed, and an increase in natural landscapes was strongly recommended. The findings provide geographic insights for sustainable urban tourism planning and development via comprehensive methodological applications.

  17. Integrated wastewater management planning for DOE's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, J.; Barthel, J.; Wheeler, M.; Conroy, K.

    1996-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, L.L.C. (RMRS), jointly formed by Morrison Knudsen Corporation and BNFL Inc., provides international experience in the nuclear, environmental, waste management, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) , and project management industry. The company is currently the environmental restoration, waste management, and D ampersand D subcontractor for Kaiser-Hill Company at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). RMRS offers unique solutions and state-of-the-art technology to assist in resolving the issues that face industries today. RMRS has been working on methods to improve cost savings recognized at RFETS, through application of unique technologies and process engineering. RMRS prepared and is implementing a strategy that focused on identifying an approach to improve cost savings in current wastewater treatment systems and to define a low-cost, safe and versatile wastewater treatment system for the future. Development of this strategy, was targeted by Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, DOE Rocky Flats Field Office and Kaiser-Hill as a ''Project Breakthrough'' where old concepts were thrown out the door and the project goals and objectives were developed from the groundup. The objectives of the strategy developed in a project break through session with DOE included lower lifecycle costs, shutdown of one of two buildings at RFETS, Building 374 or Building 774, reduced government capital investment, and support of site closure program goals, identified as the site's Accelerated Site Action Plan (ASAP). The recommended option allows for removal of water treatment functions from Building 374, the existing process wastewater treatment facility. This option affords the lowest capital cost, lowest unit operating cost, lowest technical management risk, greatest support of ASAP phasing and provides the greatest flexibility for design with unforeseen future needs

  18. Comprehensive Regional Modeling for Long-Range Planning: Linking Integrated Urban Models and Geographic Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Robert; de la Barra, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This study demonstrates the sequential linking of two types of models to permit the comprehensive evaluation of regional transportation and land use policies. First, we operate an integrated urban model (TRANUS), which represents both land and travel markets with zones and networks. The travel and land use projections from TRANUS are outlined, to demonstrate the general reasonableness of the results, as this is the first application of a market-based urban model in the US. Second, the land us...

  19. Approaching integrated urban-rural development in China: The changing institutional roles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuheng; Hu, Zhichao; Liu, Yansui

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the twenty-first century, the Chinese government has been undertaking a series of rural-favored policies and measures to promote comprehensive development in rural China. The fundamental purpose is to accomplish integrated urban-rural development (IURD) given the ever enlarging urban-rural inequalities during the post-reform era. Considering the long time biased policies against the countryside, the paper aims to examine the institutional roles in approaching the IURD. IURD at prov...

  20. Integrating Microbial Electrochemical Technology with Forward Osmosis and Membrane Bioreactors: Low-Energy Wastewater Treatment, Energy Recovery and Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater treatment is energy intensive, with modern wastewater treatment processes consuming 0.6 kWh/m3 of water treated, half of which is required for aeration. Considering that wastewater contains approximately 2 kWh/m3 of energy and represents

  1. Diversity of phytoplankton in some domestic wastewater-fed urban fish pond ecosystems of the Chota Nagpur Plateau in Bankura, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debjyoti; Pathak, Arabinda; Pal, Sudin

    2018-06-01

    The present limnological investigation is conducted to study the relationship between phytoplankton abundance and five important physicochemical factors in urban wastewater-fed seven fish ponds of Chota Nagpur Plateau area. A total number of 43 phytoplankton taxa representing four classes, namely Cyanophyceae (7), Chlorophyceae (29), Bacillariophyceae (5) and Euglenophyceae (2), are thriving in these ponds which may suggest that different nutrient-rich wastewater supports the diversity and abundance of the phytoplankton. Different values of diversity indices, results of post hoc analysis and rarefaction curve are depicted spatial variations of phytoplankton abundance and physicochemical factors. From the Principal Component Analysis, out of 43 phytoplankton species, 23 important species are extracted. The canonical correspondence analysis presents that most of the phytoplankton species densities are associated with higher values of the physicochemical variables in these ponds. Correspondingly, in the present study, Algal Genus Pollution Index (AGPI) is employed to study the water quality of seven sites. From the AGPI score, it is revealed that Site 4 has probable high organic pollution and Site 2 and Site 3 have moderate organic pollution. Therefore, long-term intensive studies and proper management are necessary to protect these ponds toward eutrophication and degradation, because these ponds not only act as a safeguard of livelihoods but also contribute significantly at local level food and water security and economic prosperity.

  2. Effects of fertigation with purified urban wastewater on soil and pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.) production, fruit quality and pollutant contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Delgado, C.; Eymar, E.; Contreras, J. I.; Segura, M. L.

    2012-11-01

    The effects, in greenhouse conditions, of Purified Urban Wastewater (PW) from Almeria (Spain), in the fertigation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) on sandy mulch soil, were evaluated. Primary, secondary (active sludges) and tertiary (Chlorination + ozonation) purification treatments were applied to wastewater. Irrigation treatments applied were PW, natural Ground Water (GW), Fertilizer PW (FPW) and Fertilizer GW (FGW). The vegetal biomass, yield and fruit quality were controlled. Heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cu and Zn), arsenic (As) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in water, soil, leaf, and fruit were analysed. The PW presented heavy metal, As and PAH contents acceptable for its use in drip irrigation. In the soil, fertigated with PW, the concentration of heavy metals and As did not increase, whilst the PAH concentration decreased. The PW treatment supplied enough nutrients to obtain yield and fruit quality equal to that of GW with fertilization. A significant saving on N, P and K fertilizers (37%, 66% and 12% respectively) was achieved by using PW. The Cd, Pb and As contents of the fruit did not show risk for human consumption. The total PAH concentrations in the fruit were low, the highest of which was phenathrene, with no carcinogenic signification. (Author) 39 refs.

  3. A new strategy to maximize organic matter valorization in municipalities: Combination of urban wastewater with kitchen food waste and its treatment with AnMBR technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moñino, P; Aguado, D; Barat, R; Jiménez, E; Giménez, J B; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of treating the kitchen food waste (FW) jointly with urban wastewater (WW) in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by anaerobic membrane technology (AnMBR). The experience was carried out in six different periods in an AnMBR pilot-plant for a total of 536days, varying the SRT, HRT and the food waste penetration factor (PF) of food waste disposers. The results showed increased methane production of up to 190% at 70days SRT, 24h HRT and 80% PF, compared with WW treatment only. FW COD and biodegradability were higher than in WW, so that the incorporation of FW into the treatment increases the organic load and the methane production and reduces sludge production (0.142 vs 0.614kgVSSkgremovedCOD -1 , at 70days SRT, 24h HRT and 80% PF, as compared to WW treatment only). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrative approach for utilization of olive mill wastewater and lebna's whey for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M A; Hayek, B O; Al-Hmoud, N; Al-Gogazeh, L

    2009-09-15

    The industry of olive oil extraction in Jordan involves an intensive consumption of water and generates large quantities of olive mill wastewater (OMW). This wastewater has a high pollution risk with biological oxygen demand (BOD). The organic fraction of OMW includes sugars, tannins, polyphenols, polyalcohols, pectins and lipids. The presence of remarkable amounts of aromatic compounds in OMW is responsible for its phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. The environmental problems and potential hazards caused by OMW had led olive oil producing countries to limit their discharge and to propose and develop new technologies for OMW treatments, such as physicochemical and biological treatments. In the present investigation lebna's whey a local byproduct of widely consumed local yogurt was used with OMW for ethanol production. The obtained results showed that the proteins of lebna's whey can remove substantial amounts of aromatic compounds present in OMW. This was reflected on the reduction of the intensity of black color of OMW and removal of 37% polyphenols. Moreover, the production of ethanol was ascertained in fermentation media composed of whey and in presence of various concentrations of OMW up to 20% OMW. The obtained results showed the possibility to develop a process for improvement and enhancement of ethanol production from whey and olive oil waste in mixed yeast cultures. (au)

  5. Integrated nitrogen removal biofilter system with ceramic membrane for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong-Jin; Yun, Chan-Young; Kim, Woo-Yeol; Zhang, Xing-Ya; Kim, Dae-Gun; Chang, Duk; Sunwoo, Young; Hong, Ki-Ho

    2016-12-01

    The pre-denitrification biofilm process for nitrogen removal was combined with ceramic membrane with pore sizes of 0.05-0.1 µm as a system for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater. The system was operated under an empty bed hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h, recirculation ratio of 3, and transmembrane pressure of 0.47 bar. The system showed average removals of organics, total nitrogen, and solids as high as 93%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Rapid nitrification could be achieved and denitrification was performed in the anoxic filter without external carbon supplements. The residual particulate organics and nitrogen in effluent from biofilm process could be also removed successfully through membrane filtration and the removal of total coliform was noticeably improved after membrane filtration. Thus, a system composed of the pre-denitrification biofilm process with ceramic membrane would be a compact and flexible option for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

  6. Integral approaches to wastewater treatment plant upgrading for odor prevention: Activated Sludge and Oxidized Ammonium Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R; Lebrero, R; Muñoz, R

    2015-11-01

    Traditional physical/chemical end-of-the-pipe technologies for odor abatement are relatively expensive and present high environmental impacts. On the other hand, biotechnologies have recently emerged as cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternatives but are still limited by their investment costs and land requirements. A more desirable approach to odor control is the prevention of odorant formation before being released to the atmosphere, but limited information is available beyond good design and operational practices of the wastewater treatment process. The present paper reviews two widely applicable and economic alternatives for odor control, Activated Sludge Recycling (ASR) and Oxidized Ammonium Recycling (OAR), by discussing their fundamentals, key operating parameters and experience from the available pilot and field studies. Both technologies present high application potential using readily available plant by-products with a minimum plant upgrading, and low investment and operating costs, contributing to the sustainability and economic efficiency of odor control at wastewater treatment facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Purification and reuse of non-point source wastewater via Myriophyllum-based integrative biotechnology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhang, Shunan; Luo, Pei; Zhuang, Xuliang; Chen, Xiang; Wu, Jinshui

    2018-01-01

    In this review, the applications of Myriophyllum-based integrative biotechnology to remove common non-point source (NPS) pollutants, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metals, and organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides and antibiotics) are summarized. The removal of these pollutants via various mechanisms, including uptake by plant and microbial communities in macrophyte-based treatment systems are discussed. This review highlights the potential use of Myriophyllum biomass to produce animal feed, fertilizer, and other valuable by-products, which can yield cost-effective returns and attract more attention to the regulation and recycling of NPS pollutants. In addition, it demonstrates that utilization of Myriophyllum species is a promising and reliable strategy for wastewater treatment. The future development of sustainable Myriophyllum-based treatment systems is discussed from various perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sustainable Urban (re-Development with Building Integrated Energy, Water and Waste Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Goo Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The construction and service of urban infrastructure systems and buildings involves immense resource consumption. Cities are responsible for the largest component of global energy, water, and food consumption as well as related sewage and organic waste production. Due to ongoing global urbanization, in which the largest sector of the global population lives in cities which are already built, global level strategies need to be developed that facilitate both the sustainable construction of new cities and the re-development of existing urban environments. A very promising approach in this regard is the decentralization and building integration of environmentally sound infrastructure systems for integrated resource management. This paper discusses such new and innovative building services engineering systems, which could contribute to increased energy efficiency, resource productivity, and urban resilience. Applied research and development projects in Germany, which are based on integrated system approaches for the integrated and environmentally sound management of energy, water and organic waste, are used as examples. The findings are especially promising and can be used to stimulate further research and development, including economical aspects which are crucial for sustainable urban (re-development.

  9. Assessment of bioaerosol contamination (bacteria and fungi) in the largest urban wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Sadegh; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nabavi, Samira; Faridi, Sasan; Dehghani, Asghar; Hoseini, Mohammad; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Mokamel, Adel; Kashani, Homa; Yarali, Navid; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-10-01

    Bioaerosol concentration was measured in wastewater treatment units in south of Tehran, the largest wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East. Active sampling was carried out around four operational units and a point as background. The results showed that the aeration tank with an average of 1016 CFU/m(3) in winter and 1973 CFU/m(3) in summer had the greatest effect on emission of bacterial bioaerosols. In addition, primary treatment had the highest impact on fungal emission. Among the bacteria, Micrococcus spp. showed the widest emission in the winter, and Bacillus spp. was dominant in summer. Furthermore, fungi such as Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were the dominant types in the seasons. Overall, significant relationship was observed between meteorological parameters and the concentration of bacterial and fungal aerosols.

  10. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of hospital wastewater: a proposed framework for raw effluents discharging into urban sewer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanuel, E.; Perrodin, Y.; Keck, G.; Blanchard, J.-M.; Vermande, P.

    2005-01-01

    In hospitals a large variety of substances are in use for medical purposes such as diagnostics and research. After application, diagnostic agents, disinfectants and excreted non-metabolized pharmaceuticals by patients, reach the wastewater. This form of elimination may generate risks for aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to present: (i) the steps of an ecological risk assessment and management framework related to hospital effluents evacuating into wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without preliminary treatment; and (ii) the results of its application on wastewater from an infectious and tropical diseases department of a hospital of a large city in southeastern France. The characterization of effects has been made under two assumptions, which were related to: (a) the effects of hospital wastewater on biological treatment process of WWTP, particularly on the community of organisms in charge of the biological decomposition of the organic matter; (b) the effects on aquatic organisms. COD and BOD 5 have been measured for studying global organic pollution. Assessment of halogenated organic compounds was made using halogenated organic compounds absorbable on activated carbon (AOX) concentrations. Heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc) were measured. Low most probable number (MPP) for faecal coliforms has been considered as an indirect detection of antibiotics and disinfectants presence. For toxicity assessment, bioluminescence assay using Vibrio fischeri photobacteria, 72-h EC 50 algae growth Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and 24-h EC 50 on Daphnia magna were used. The scenario allows to a semi-quantitative risk characterization. It needs to be improved on some aspects, particularly those linked to: long term toxicity assessment on target organisms (bioaccumulation of pollutants, genotoxicity, etc.); ecotoxicological interactions between pharmaceuticals, disinfectants used both in diagnostics and in cleaning of

  11. THE IMPACT OF FOOD WASTE DISCHARGE INTO THE MUNICIPAL SEWERAGE ON COD CONCENTRATION IN URBAN WASTEWATER IN OLSZTYN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Janczukowicz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The operators of wastewater treatment plants in Poland have been observing an increase in the concentration of raw sewage for several years. In particular for organic substances. This is the effect of water consumption reduction, restoration of the sewerage networks, growing wealth, widespread waste of food. The most serious adverse, influencing on the municipal wastewater composition is colloid mills application in gastronomical objects and the discharge of shredded food waste to sewer. That widespread behavior has been noticed and negated, in 2010 year, by the common position of GIS and the ME. Far too late, which confirms the situation observed at the Olsztyn wastewater treatment plant, where the biggest increase of COD values ​​was observed in 2008–2010. The average concentration of COD of sewage in the period 2011–2014 was almost twice higher than in 1996, real PE is close to the design value, despite the fact that the hydraulic load of the object slightly exceeded 50% of design value. Removing such large organic pollutant loads generates high costs, that could be avoided by reasonable food waste management.

  12. Comparative study on the efficiency of peracetic acid and chlorine dioxide at low doses in the disinfection of urban wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Giovanna; Sacchetti, Rossella; Zanetti, Franca; Leoni, Erica

    2008-01-01

    A comparison was made between the efficiency of low doses of peracetic acid (PAA: 1.5 mg/l) and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2): 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l) in the disinfection of secondary effluents of a wastewater treatment plant. Peracetic acid was seen to be more active than chlorine dioxide and less influenced by the organic content of the waste. Both PAA and ClO(2) (2.0 mg/l) lead to a higher reduction in total and faecal coliforms and E. coli than in phages (somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA bacteriophages) and enterococci. Detection of faecal coliforms and E. coli should therefore be accompanied by a search for these more resistant microorganisms when assessing the conformity of wastewater for irrigation use, or for discharge into surface waters. Coliphages are also considered suitable indicators of the presence of enteric viruses. Although the application of low doses of both disinfectants offers advantages in terms of costs and produces not significant quantities of byproducts, it is not sufficient to obtain wastewater suitable for irrigation according to the Italian norms (E. coli < 10/100 ml in 80 % of samples and <100/100 ml in the remaining samples). Around 65 % of the samples, however, presented concentrations of E. coli lower than the limit of 5,000/100 ml established by Italian norms for discharge into surface waters.

  13. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Larry B.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Vajda, Alan M.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Douville, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m 3 d −1 design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration = 2.7 μg L −1 ; n = 5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 4.5 μg L −1 ), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 1.4 μg L −1 ) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative

  14. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Larry B. [U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Hladik, Michelle L. [U.S. Geological Survey, 6000 J Street Placer Hall, Sacramento, CA 95819 (United States); Vajda, Alan M. [University of Colorado, Department of Integrative Biology, CB 171, Denver, CO 80217 (United States); Fitzgerald, Kevin C. [U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); AECOM, 500 West Jefferson St., Ste. 1600, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Douville, Chris [City of Boulder, 4049 75th Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m{sup 3} d{sup −1} design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration = 2.7 μg L{sup −1}; n = 5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 4.5 μg L{sup −1}), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 1.4 μg L{sup −1}) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had

  15. Holistic Analysis of the Urban Water Systems in Greater Cincinnati Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban water and wastewater systems with two utilities in Greater Cincinnati region were evaluated as a case study to elucidates a bigger picture of a typical centralized urban water system. Two different integrated assessment metrics were used to analyze the same system. LCA an...

  16. Integrating ecosystem services in the assessment of urban energy trajectories – A study of the Stockholm Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mörtberg, Ulla; Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Kordas, Olga; Deal, Brian; Balfors, Berit; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Urban development trajectories are changing towards compact, energy-efficient cities and renewable energy sources, and this will strongly affect ecosystem services (ES) that cities are dependent on but tend to disregard. Such ES can be provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, around which competition over land resources will increase with energy system shifts. Much of this can be foreseen to take place within urbanising regions that are simultaneously the living environment of a major part of the human population today. In order to inform critical urban policy decisions, tools for integrated assessment of urban energy and transport options and ecosystem services need to be developed. For this purpose, a case study of the Stockholm region was conducted, analysing three scenarios for the future urbanisation of the region, integrating a transport energy perspective and an ES perspective. The results showed that a dense but polycentric development pattern gives more opportunities for sustainable urban development, while the dense monocentric scenario has apparent drawbacks from an ES perspective. The methodology is compatible with a model integration platform for urban policy support and will thus enable integrated policy assessment of complex urban systems, with the goal of increasing their sustainability. - Highlights: • A diffuse urban pattern leads to low access to jobs and high energy consumption. • A dense monocentric urban pattern implies high energy efficiency and low access to ES. • A dense polycentric urban pattern allows for a combination of urban functions. • ES needs to be integrated into sustainability assessments of urban policy options.

  17. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated biological and advanced oxidation based treatment of hexamine bearing wastewater: Effect of cow-dung as a co-substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Mandeep Kumar; Mittal, Atul K., E-mail: akmittal@civil.iitd.ac.in

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Treatment by biological process and Fenton’s reagent. • Cow dung as co-substrate. • Hydrolysis of wastewater improved treatment. - Abstract: This work examines the treatment of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) bearing effluent from N, N-dinitroso pentamethylene tetra-mine producing industrial plants in India. Chemical treatment using Fenton’s reagent and aerobic treatment using batch reactors with co-substrate were investigated. Aerobic batch reactors integrated with advanced oxidation process of Fenton’s reagent provides effective treatment of HMT effluents. Influence of Fenton’s reagent dose reaction/contact and effect of varying co-substrate with effluent initial concentration was observed. Higher dose 100 mL of Fenton’s reagent with higher reaction time 20 h resulted better degradation (34.88%) of wastewater. HMT hydrolyzes in acidic environment to ammonia and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde under normal conditions is toxic for biological treatment processes. When hydrolysis and acidification in the reactors are accompanied by low pH, aerobic batch reactors with use of co-substrates glucose, sucrose, and cow-dung extract separately in different proportion to wastewater ranging from 0.67 to 4.00, degraded wastewater effectively. Higher proportion of co-substrate to wastewater resulted better degradation. The relationships between nitrate, pH, turbidity and COD are discussed.

  19. Integrated biological and advanced oxidation based treatment of hexamine bearing wastewater: Effect of cow-dung as a co-substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mandeep Kumar; Mittal, Atul K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Treatment by biological process and Fenton’s reagent. • Cow dung as co-substrate. • Hydrolysis of wastewater improved treatment. - Abstract: This work examines the treatment of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) bearing effluent from N, N-dinitroso pentamethylene tetra-mine producing industrial plants in India. Chemical treatment using Fenton’s reagent and aerobic treatment using batch reactors with co-substrate were investigated. Aerobic batch reactors integrated with advanced oxidation process of Fenton’s reagent provides effective treatment of HMT effluents. Influence of Fenton’s reagent dose reaction/contact and effect of varying co-substrate with effluent initial concentration was observed. Higher dose 100 mL of Fenton’s reagent with higher reaction time 20 h resulted better degradation (34.88%) of wastewater. HMT hydrolyzes in acidic environment to ammonia and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde under normal conditions is toxic for biological treatment processes. When hydrolysis and acidification in the reactors are accompanied by low pH, aerobic batch reactors with use of co-substrates glucose, sucrose, and cow-dung extract separately in different proportion to wastewater ranging from 0.67 to 4.00, degraded wastewater effectively. Higher proportion of co-substrate to wastewater resulted better degradation. The relationships between nitrate, pH, turbidity and COD are discussed.

  20. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  1. A study of ecological sanitation as an integrated urban water supply system: case study of sustainable strategy for Kuching City, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Darrien Mah Yau; Putuhena, Frederik Josep; Said, Salim; Ling, Law Puong

    2009-03-01

    A city consumes a large amount of water. Urban planning and development are becoming more compelling due to the fact of growing competition for water, which has lead to an increasing and conflicting demand. As such, investments in water supply, sanitation and water resources management is a strong potential for a solid return. A pilot project of greywater ecological treatment has been established in Kuching city since 2003. Such a treatment facility opens up an opportunity of wastewater reclamation for reuse as secondary sources of water for non-consumptive purposes. This paper aims to explore the potential of the intended purposes in the newly developed ecological treatment project. By utilizing the Wallingford Software model, InfoWorks WS (Water Supply) is employed to carry out a hydraulic modeling of a hypothetical greywater recycling system as an integrated part of the Kuching urban water supply, where the greywater is treated, recycled and reused in the domestic environment. The modeling efforts have shown water savings of about 40% from the investigated system reinstating that the system presents an alternative water source worth exploring in an urban environment.

  2. Assessment of the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharges using co-integration analysis: a case study for China's Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth.

  3. iSPUW: integrated sensing and prediction of urban water for sustainable cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, S. J.; Nazari, B.; Habibi, H.; Norouzi, A.; Nabatian, M.; Seo, D. J.; Bartos, M. D.; Kerkez, B.; Lakshman, L.; Zink, M.; Lee, J.

    2016-12-01

    Many cities face tremendous water-related challenges in this Century of the City. Urban areas are particularly susceptible not only to excesses and shortages of water but also to impaired water quality. To addresses these challenges, we synergistically integrate advances in computing and cyber-infrastructure, environmental modeling, geoscience, and information science to develop integrative solutions for urban water challenges. In this presentation, we describe the various efforts that are currently ongoing in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW) area for iSPUW: real-time high-resolution flash flood forecasting, inundation mapping for large urban areas, crowdsourcing of water observations in urban areas, real-time assimilation of crowdsourced observations for street and river flooding, integrated control of lawn irrigation and rainwater harvesting for water conservation and stormwater management, feature mining with causal discovery for flood prediction, and development of the Arlington Urban Hydroinformatics Testbed. Analyzed is the initial data of sensor network for water level and lawn monitoring, and cellphone applications for crowdsourcing flood reports. New data assimilation approaches to deal with categorical and continuous observations are also evaluated via synthetic experiments.

  4. An Integrated Approach to Evaluate Urban Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangsheng Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and accelerated urbanization have posed severe challenges to urban development, resulting in a growing series of climate and environmental problems that have a significant impact on industrial production and urban life. In a developing country such as China, more than 57% of the population lives in urban areas. It is vital for these cities to adapt to climate-induced risks. A better understanding of how to improve adaptive capacity could enhance the ability to achieve a desirable state when the city experiences stress. This paper used an integrated approach for evaluating the urban adaptive capacity to climate change. It developed the evaluation index system of urban adaptive capacity (UAC based on the driver–pressure–state–impact–response model (DPSIR, and adopted grey relational analysis (GRA and the entropy method to analyze the level of UAC in Changsha, the capital city of Hunan Province, from 2006 to 2015. The results revealed that the UAC of Changsha showed a significant increase from 2006 to 2015. Among the five first-grade indicators, the response dimension had the greatest influence on the improvement of UAC. The study may provide suggestions for adaptive capacity building and sustainable development in other urban areas.

  5. Making meaning of urban American Indian identity: a multistage integrative process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nancy M

    2010-10-01

    The cultural identity and tribal connectedness of American Indians are commonly believed to have been negatively affected by the urbanization process in which American Indians have been involved during the past half century. This phenomenological study examined the processes through which cultural identity was formed and maintained by a group of American Indians who had lived since childhood in urban areas, away from their reservations or tribal communities. Seven urban Indian adults, each from a different tribe, shared their experiences related to coming to understand what it means to be American Indian and the development of their American Indian cultural identity. Four themes emerged from participant interviews and were seen to correspond to stages that participants passed through, from their teens through their 30s, that led to understanding and integration of their American Indian identity. Findings point to the importance of considering issues of cultural identity development when providing social work services to urban American Indian young adults.

  6. Interaction Between the Environment and Animals in Urban Settings: Integrated and Participatory Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsitano, Elvira

    2006-11-01

    In urban ecosystems, the ecological system has become completely unbalanced; this, in turn, has led to an increase in well-known problems such as air pollution, ground pollution, and water pollution. This imbalance has also led to the growth and spread of pathogens harmful to man, animals, and plants. Urban sustainability indicators, both global and local, also “indicate” the percentage of population, but these refer only to the human population, not the animal population. Cities need good waste, water, and air management, effective traffic planning, and good zoning of businesses, crafts, and services; over and above these activities, cities also need for planning to take into account the existence of pets (dogs, cats, and etc.) and nonpet animals (insects, birds, mice, etc.). Cities tend to be designed around humans and “on a human scale,” without taking into account the fact that a huge animal population is living side by side with people. That explains why overcrowding tends to go hand in hand with urbanization; all these populations, including humans, need to adapt to new spaces and often need to drastically change their behavior. This is a fact that must be included when drafting sustainable city plans. The supposed strategy is that of “integrated-participatory” control of the interactions between the environment and animals in the cities. Strategy will focus on the development of integrated approaches and tools for environment and animal management in the context of urban settings. This will require such specific methods as ecological balance sheets and ecoplans for the planning, management, and control of the interrelation among environment, animal, and public health. The objective is to develop a better understanding of urban biodiversity and of urban ecosystem functioning, in order to understand and minimize the negative impacts of human activities on them. The research will focus on assessing and forecasting changes in urban biodiversity

  7. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental...... medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc) In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios...... on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water concentrations...

  8. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modelling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants have the tendency to occur in more than one...... environmental medium. In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is “wrapped around” a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment. The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios: a reference scenario...... and a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in a reduced surface water concentration for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense...

  9. Costs and benefits of biogas recovery from communal anaerobic digesters treating domestic wastewater: Evidence from peri-urban Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramee, Jeannette; Tilmans, Sebastien; Davis, Jennifer

    2018-03-15

    Communal anaerobic digesters (ADs) have been promoted as a waste-to-energy strategy that can provide sanitation and clean energy co-benefits. However, little empirical evidence is available regarding the performance of such systems in field conditions. This study assesses the wastewater treatment efficiency, energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and financial costs and benefits of communal ADs used for domestic wastewater treatment in Zambia. Primary data on the technical performance of 15 ADs were collected over a 6-month period and in-person interviews were conducted with heads of 120 households. Findings from this study suggest that ADs offer comparable wastewater treatment efficiencies and greater GHG emission reduction benefits relative to conventional septic tanks (STs), with the greatest benefits in settings with reliable access to water, use of low efficiency solid fuels and with sufficient demand for biogas in proximity to supply. However, absent a mechanism to monetize additional benefits from biogas recovery, ADs in this context will not be a financially attractive investment relative to STs. Our financial analysis suggests that, under the conditions in this study, a carbon price of US$9 to $28 per tCO 2 e is necessary for positive investment in ADs relative to STs. Findings from this study contribute empirical evidence on ADs as a sanitation and clean energy strategy, identify conditions under which the greatest benefits are likely to accrue and inform international climate efforts on the carbon price required to attract investment in emissions reduction projects such as ADs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Concentration of PAHs in Municipal Wastewater in Selected Sewer Collectors of the Upper Silesian Urban Area, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistelok Franciszek

    2014-12-01

    (GC-MS. The concentrations of 16 PAHs sum (EPA list ranged between 1.025 and 3.056 μg/L. Phenanthrene dominated in nearly all the analysed samples. The contents of PAHs, which are priority hazardous substances according to the directive, were high in the analysed samples. The obtained results and the analysis of diagnostic ratios for the emissions of PAHs into the air helped to reach the conclusion that traffic emissions were the main source of PAHs in the examined wastewater.

  11. Literacy and Arts-Integrated Science Lessons Engage Urban Elementary Students in Exploring Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P.; Elser, C. F.; Klein, J. L.; Rule, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined student attitudes, writing skills and content knowledge of urban fourth and fifth graders (6 males, 9 female) during a six-week literacy, thinking skill, and art-integrated environmental science unit. Pre- and post-test questions were used to address knowledge of environmental problems and student environmental…

  12. A web GIS based integrated flood assessment modeling tool for coastal urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A. T.; Mohanty, J.; Eldho, T. I.; Rao, E. P.; Mohan, B. K.

    2014-03-01

    Urban flooding has become an increasingly important issue in many parts of the world. In this study, an integrated flood assessment model (IFAM) is presented for the coastal urban flood simulation. A web based GIS framework has been adopted to organize the spatial datasets for the study area considered and to run the model within this framework. The integrated flood model consists of a mass balance based 1-D overland flow model, 1-D finite element based channel flow model based on diffusion wave approximation and a quasi 2-D raster flood inundation model based on the continuity equation. The model code is written in MATLAB and the application is integrated within a web GIS server product viz: Web Gram Server™ (WGS), developed at IIT Bombay, using Java, JSP and JQuery technologies. Its user interface is developed using open layers and the attribute data are stored in MySQL open source DBMS. The model is integrated within WGS and is called via Java script. The application has been demonstrated for two coastal urban watersheds of Navi Mumbai, India. Simulated flood extents for extreme rainfall event of 26 July, 2005 in the two urban watersheds of Navi Mumbai city are presented and discussed. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of the flood simulation tool in a web GIS environment to facilitate data access and visualization of GIS datasets and simulation results.

  13. Sustainable urban development, the Dutch method: best practice for the European integrated approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeve, M.N.; van Middelkoop, L.

    2010-01-01

    An important European environmental policy aim is to create "sustainable cities". The aim of this article is to explore the possible tensions between environmental measures and urban spatial planning law that can arise in creating such sustainable cities and examine opportunities for integrated

  14. Activity markers and household space in Swahili urban contexts: An integrated geoarchaeological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynne-Jones, Stephanie; Sulas, Federica

    , this paper draws from recent work at a Swahili urban site to illustrate the potential and challenges of an integrated geoarchaeological approach to the study of household space. The site of Songo Mnara (14th–16thc. AD) thrived as a Swahili stonetown off the coast of Tanzania. Here, our work has concentrated...

  15. Agromere: Integrating urban agriculture in the development of the city of Almere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Visser, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of Agromere, a planning concept for an area situated in the rapidly growing Dutch city of Almere (185,000 inhabitants), was to explore opportunities to re-integrate agriculture into modern Dutch city life, while at the same time inspiring stakeholders to incorporate urban agriculture

  16. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  17. Cultivating the Academic Integrity of Urban Adolescents with Ethical Philosophy Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott; Novick, Sarah; Gomez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study considered the effects of ethical philosophy programming at a high-performing, high-poverty urban high school upon the academic integrity of participating adolescents ("n" = 279). Analyses of pre-post survey data revealed that participating adolescents reported significantly higher levels of academic integrity…

  18. Fate of As, Se, and Hg in a Passive Integrated System for Treatment of Fossil Plant Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Yost; Paul Pier; Gregory Brodie

    2007-12-31

    TVA is collaborating with EPRI and DOE to demonstrate a passive treatment system for removing SCR-derived ammonia and trace elements from a coal-fired power plant wastewater stream. The components of the integrated system consist of trickling filters for ammonia oxidation, reaction cells containing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for trace contaminant removal, a settling basin for storage of iron hydroxide floc, and anaerobic vertical-flow wetlands for biological denitrification. The passive integrated treatment system will treat up to 0.25 million gallons per day (gpd) of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pond effluent, with a configuration requiring only gravity flow to obviate the need for pumps. The design of the system will enable a comparative evaluation of two parallel treatment trains, with and without the ZVI extraction trench and settling/oxidation basin components. One of the main objectives is to gain a better understanding of the chemical transformations that species of trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in passive treatment system components with differing environmental conditions. This progress report details the design criteria for the passive integrated system for treating fossil power plant wastewater as well as performance results from the first several months of operation. Engineering work on the project has been completed, and construction took place during the summer of 2005. Monitoring of the passive treatment system was initiated in October 2005 and continued until May 18 2006. The results to date indicate that the treatment system is effective in reducing levels of nitrogen compounds and trace metals. Concentrations of both ammonia and trace metals were lower than expected in the influent FGD water, and additions to increase these concentrations will be done in the future to further test the removal efficiency of the treatment system. In May 2006, the wetland cells were drained of FGD water, refilled with

  19. An Implentation Methodology for Integrated Resource Management in Urban Water Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, G.; Thurm, B.; Klein, D. R.; Öberg, G.

    2014-12-01

    Urban water management requires innovative and integrative approaches to improve sustainability in cities keeping in touch with science progress. Integrated Resource Management (IRM) is one of these strategies and has been developed to integrate various natural and human resources. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that it is challenging to move from vision to implementation. The aim of this paper is to identify strengths and weaknesses of IRM and analyze if the approach might facilitate implementation of sustainability objectives in the water management field. A literature review was performed on peer-reviewed papers that were identified through Google Scholar search for the term 'Integrated Resource Management'. It was found that IRM has been used in a number of contexts such as urban planning, forestry, and management of waste and livestock. Significant implementation challenges are highlighted in the literature. Based on the lessons learned in many different fields, from forestry to communication sciences, important characteristics of IRM approach were found such as the need for adequate governance and strong leaderships, stakeholder's involvement, the learning process and the critical need of appropriate evaluation criteria. We conclude developing an implementation methodology and presenting several recommendations to implement IRM in urban management. While Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is recognized as a fruitful approach to achieve sustainable water management, this study suggests that a shift toward Integrated Resource Management (IRM) can be beneficial as it is designed to facilitate consideration of the interrelationships between various natural and human resources.

  20. Pollution control activities for waste-water treatment plants: planning, integrated approach, functionality controls and small plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serena, F.; Tomiato, L.; Ostoich, M.; Falletti, L.

    2009-01-01

    The work presents the problem of the Wastewater Treatment Plants' (WWTPs) controls and the organization of the consequential activities with reference to the priorities of the Environmental Agencies through a hierarchy assessment according to the environmental importance of the pressure sources. The European Recommendation 2001/331/EC bases the environmental controls of industrial sites and also of WWTPs on an integrated approach overtaking the simple analytic control; the integrated approach requires documentary, technical, management and analytic controls. The Veneto Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARPAV) has recently developed and applied a check-list for the implementation of the European Recommendation for WWTPs. The check-list includes the functionality assessment of the WWTP in case of discharge control delegation to the plant manager as consented with Annex 5 third part Italian Decree 3/04/2006 n. 152. In the paper the general framework of environmental controls on public WWTPs in the Veneto region is described. Particular importance for the numerousness and for the required control typology is referred to the small WWTP ( [it

  1. Integrated Modelling and Performance Analysis of Green Roof Technologies in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Mijic, Ana; Maksimovic, Cedo

    2014-05-01

    As a result of the changing global climate and increase in urbanisation, the behaviour of the urban environment has been significantly altered, causing an increase in both the frequency of extreme weather events, such as flooding and drought, and also the associated costs. Moreover, uncontrolled or inadequately planned urbanisation can exacerbate the damage. The Blue-Green Dream (BGD) project therefore develops a series of components for urban areas that link urban vegetated areas (green infrastructure) with existing urban water (blue) systems, which will enhance the synergy of urban blue and green systems and provide effective, multifunctional BGD solutions to support urban adaptation to future climatic changes. Coupled with new urban water management technologies and engineering, multifunctional benefits can be gained. Some of the technologies associated with BGD solutions include green roofs, swales that might deal with runoff more effectively and urban river restoration that can produce benefits similar to those produced from sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS). For effective implementation of these technologies, however, appropriate tools and methodologies for designing and modelling BGD solutions are required to be embedded within urban drainage models. Although several software packages are available for modelling urban drainage, the way in which green roofs and other BGD solutions are integrated into these models is not yet fully developed and documented. This study develops a physically based mass and energy balance model to monitor, test and quantitatively evaluate green roof technology for integrated BGD solutions. The assessment of environmental benefits will be limited to three aspects: (1) reduction of the total runoff volume, (2) delay in the initiation of runoff, and (3) reduction of building energy consumption, rather than water quality, visual, social or economic impacts. This physically based model represents water and heat dynamics in a

  2. Agricultural reuse of municipal wastewater through an integral water reclamation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriago, Juan Carlo; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Vivaldi, Gaetano Alessandro; Camposeo, Salvatore; Nicolás Nicolás, Emilio; Alarcón, Juan José; Pedrero Salcedo, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    The DESERT-prototype, a state-of-the-art compact combination of water treatment technologies based on filtration and solar-based renewable energy, was employed to reclaim water for agricultural irrigation. Water reclaimed through the DESERT-prototype (PW) from a secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, as well as conventional irrigation water (CW) and the secondary effluent (SW) itself, were employed to cultivate baby romaine lettuces in a greenhouse in Murcia (Spain), by means of drip and sprinkler irrigation methods, thus establishing six treatments. Assessments of physicochemical and microbiological quality of irrigation water, as well as agronomic and microbiological quality of crops from all treatments, showed that results associated to PW complied in all cases with relevant standards and guidelines. In contrast, results linked to SW and CW presented certain non-compliance cases of water and crop microbiological quality. These assessments lead to conclude that the DESERT-prototype is an appropriate technology for safe water reclamation oriented to agricultural production, that can be complemented by a proper irrigation method in reaching safety targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integration of cabs and hired cars in urban transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer,

    1984-01-01

    Integrating taxis and limousine services into the public transit system has become a major goal in designing new forms of public transportation. Expanding the spectrum of possible use for these vehicles - for both scheduled and on-demand service - requires, first of all, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the current state of affairs in this area. Administrative, organizational, technical, and legal issues as well as the respective traffic patterns had to be investigated. This investigation was to find out if, and in what ways, taxis and limousine services could actually be incorporated into the public transit system. In addition, the results were interpreted against the background of experiments and tentative models for regular, scheduled and supplementary public transit. As a result, we developed a generalized concept for integrating the two systems and proposed possible forms of service, organization, and financial calculation. Included were legal issues and comments on contractual relations between the partners.

  4. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    wastewater-derived products, and to relate this to the availability from other P-containing waste products and mineral P fertiliser. This included aspects of development over time and soil accumulation, as well as effects of soil pH and the spatial distribution in soil. The P sources applied in this PhD work...... reserves. Wastewater represents the largest urban flow of P in waste. Hence, knowledge about plant P availability of products from the wastewater treatment system, and also comparison to other waste P sources and mineral P is essential to obtain an efficient recycling and to prioritise between different P...... recycling options. The work of this PhD focused on the plant P availability of sewage sludge, a P-rich residue from wastewater treatment which is commonly applied to agricultural soil in Denmark. The overall objective of the PhD work was to evaluate the plant availability of P in sewage sludge and other...

  5. Fate of NDMA precursors through an MBR-NF pilot plant for urban wastewater reclamation and the effect of changing aeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Julian; Insa, Sara; Monclús, Hèctor; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Comas, Joaquim; Barceló, Damià; Farré, Maria José

    2016-10-01

    The removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential through a membrane bioreactor (MBR) coupled to a nanofiltration (NF) pilot plant that treats urban wastewater is investigated. The results are compared to the fate of the individual NDMA precursors detected: azithromycin, citalopram, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ranitidine, venlafaxine and its metabolite o-desmethylvenlafaxine. Specifically, the effect of dissolved oxygen in the aerobic chamber of the MBR pilot plant on the removal of NDMA formation potential (FP) and individual precursors is studied. During normal aerobic operation, implying a fully nitrifying system, the MBR was able to reduce NDMA precursors above 94%, however this removal percentage was reduced to values as low as 72% when changing the conditions to minimize nitrification. Removal decreased also for azithromycin (68-59%), citalopram (31-17%), venlafaxine (35-15%) and erythromycin (61-16%) on average during nitrifying versus non-nitrifying conditions. The removal of clarithromycin, o-desmethylvenlafaxine and ranitidine could not be correlated with the nitrification inhibition, as it varied greatly during the experiment time. The MBR pilot plant is coupled to a nanofiltration (NF) system and the results on the rejection of both, NDMA FP and individual precursors, through this system was above 90%. Finally, results obtained for the MBR pilot plant are compared to the percentage of removal by a conventional full scale biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) fed with the same influent. During aerobic operation, the removal of NDMA FP by the MBR pilot plant was similar to the full scale WWTP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural treatment system models for wastewater management: a study from Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkamble, Sahebrao; Wajihuddin, Md; Jampani, Mahesh; Sarah, S; Somvanshi, V K; Ahmed, Shakeel; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Boisson, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Wastewater generated on a global scale has become a significant source of water resources which necessitates appropriate management strategies. However, the complexities associated with wastewater are lack of economically viable treatment systems, especially in low- and middle-income countries. While many types of treatment systems are needed to serve the various local issues, we propose natural treatment systems (NTS) such as natural wetlands that are eco-friendly, cost-effective, and can be jointly driven by public bodies and communities. In order for it to be part of wastewater management, this study explores the NTS potential for removal of pollutants, cost-effectiveness, and reuse options for the 1.20 million m 3 /day of wastewater generated in Hyderabad, India. The pilot study includes hydro-geophysical characterization of natural wetland to determine pollutant removal efficiency and its effective utilization for treated wastewater in the peri-urban habitat. The results show the removal of organic content (76-78%), nutrients (77-97%), and microbes (99.5-99.9%) from the wetland-treated wastewater and its suitability for agriculture applications. Furthermore, the wetland efficiency integrated with engineered interventions led to the development of NTS models with different application scenarios: (i) constructed wetlands, (ii) minimized community wetlands, and (iii) single outlet system, suitable for urban, peri-urban and rural areas, respectively.

  7. Occurrence and Variety of β-Lactamase Genes among Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Piotrowska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Aeromonas that commonly occur in various aquatic ecosystems are taken into account as vectors spreading antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in the environment. In our study strains of Aeromonas spp. (n = 104 not susceptible to ampicillin were isolated from municipal sewage of different levels of purification – raw sewage, activated sludge and treated wastewater. The crucial step of the study was the identification of β-lactamase resistance genes. The identified genes encode β-lactamases from 14 families – blaTEM, blaOXA, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaMOX, blaACC, blaFOX, blaGES, blaPER, blaV EB, blaKPC, cphA, imiH, and cepH. There were no significant differences in number of identified ARGs between isolation points. BlaOXA, blaFOX variants and, characteristic for Aeromonas genus, metallo-β-lactamase cphA-related genes were the most commonly identified types of β-lactam resistance determinants. Moreover, we found four extended-spectrum β-lactamases (blaSHV -11, blaCTX-M-27, blaCTX-M-98, and blaPER-4 – and seven AmpC (blaACC, blaFOX-2-like, blaFOX-3, blaFOX-4-like, blaFOX-9, blaFOX-10-like, and blaFOX-13-like types and variants of genes that had never been found among Aeromonas spp. before. Five of the β-lactamases families (blaTEM, blaOXA, blaFOX, blaV EB, and cphA were identified in all three isolation sites, which supports the hypothesis that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are hot spots of ARGs dissemination. The obtained ARGs sequences share high identity with previously described β-lactamases, but new variants of those genes have to be considered as well. Characterization of antibiotic susceptibility was performed using disk the diffusion method with 12 different antibiotics according to CLSI guidelines. Over 60% of the strains are unsusceptible to cefepime and chloramphenicol and the majority of the strains have a multidrug resistance phenotype (68%. Finally, analysis of plasmid profiles among the resistant strains

  8. The Tarsoft software: A computer program to learn the elemental theory for the urban wastewater treatment; Tarsoft: programa de ordenador para el aprendizaje de la teoria basica sobre la depuracion de las aguas residuales urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra Narvaez, R.; Baldasano Recio, J.M. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    It` ve been developed a first version of the computer program Tarsoft, with the objective to be a Informatic contribution for the education and training of the knowledge about the urban wastewater treatment. This article describe in general form, the main characteristic of this computer program, the minimal hardware and software requirements, the theoretical topics than it include, the presentation form of the variety alfanumerical and graphical interactive information and design modules of the different treatment process. (Author) 20 refs.

  9. PIXE analysis of tree leaves as a possible comparative integral monitor of particulates in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiati, A.; Annegarm, H.J.; Chisci, R.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of obtaing integral comparative data for particulate distribution in urban areas from PIXE analysis of tree leaves is discussed in relation to the leaf gross anatomy, to the diffusion of selected tree species in such areas and to the implementation of experimental techniques necessary to make PIXE analysis effective. Multielemental scans were performed on a small set samples; results are compared to PIXE analysis of typical urban aerosols. The validity of the method and the criteria for yearly relative comparisons of different areas are discissed

  10. Impacts of NF concentrate recirculation on membrane performance in an integrated MBR and NF membrane process for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappel, C.; Kemperman, A.J.B.; Temmink, B.G.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Rijnaarts, H.; Nijmeijer, K.

    2014-01-01

    As water shortages are increasing, the need for sustainable water treatment and the reuse of water is essential. Water reuse from wastewater can be accomplished in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in the secondary activated sludge stage of a wastewater treatment plant. To remove viruses, dissolved

  11. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Hladik, Michelle; Vajda, Alan M.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Douville, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m3 d−1 design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration = 2.7 μg L−1; n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 4.5 μg L−1), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 1.4 μg L−1) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative

  12. Identification of transformation products of antiviral drugs formed during biological wastewater treatment and their occurrence in the urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jan; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    The fate of five antiviral drugs (abacavir, emtricitabine, ganciclovir, lamivudine and zidovudine) was investigated in biological wastewater treatment. Investigations of degradation kinetics were accompanied by the elucidation of formed transformation products (TPs) using activated sludge lab experiments and subsequent LC-HRMS analysis. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.46 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (zidovudine) and 55.8 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (abacavir). Despite these differences of the degradation kinetics, the same main biotransformation reaction was observed for all five compounds: oxidation of the terminal hydroxyl-moiety to the corresponding carboxylic acid (formation of carboxy-TPs). In addition, the oxidation of thioether moieties to sulfoxides was observed for emtricitabine and lamivudine. Antiviral drugs were detected in influents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with concentrations up to 980 ng L(-1) (emtricitabine), while in WWTP effluents mainly the TPs were found with concentration levels up to 1320 ng L(-1) (carboxy-abacavir). Except of zidovudine none of the original antiviral drugs were detected in German rivers and streams, whereas the concentrations of the TPs ranged from 16 ng L(-1) for carboxy-lamivudine up to 750 ng L(-1) for carboxy-acyclovir. These concentrations indicate an appreciable portion from WWTP effluents present in rivers and streams, as well as the high environmental persistence of the carboxy-TPs. As a result three of the carboxylic TPs were detected in finished drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality Evaluation of Household Wastewater for Irrigation MUSA, J J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    waste-water discharge and disposal practices that may ... impacts from sewage contamination in urban areas are well documented ... tanks, aerated wastewater treatment systems (AWTS) ..... water sources in selected rural communities of the.

  14. Development and assessment of an integrated ecological modelling framework to assess the effect of investments in wastewater treatment on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin-Gonzalez, Javier E; Boets, Pieter; Everaert, Gert; Pauwels, Ine S; Lock, Koen; Gobeyn, Sacha; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Goethals, Peter L M

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, large investments in wastewater treatment are made to improve water quality. However, the impacts of these investments on river water quality are often not quantified. To assess water quality, the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated ecological modelling framework for the River Drava (Croatia) that includes physical-chemical and hydromorphological characteristics as well as the ecological river water quality status. The developed submodels and the integrated model showed accurate predictions when comparing the modelled results to the observations. Dissolved oxygen and nitrogen concentrations (ammonium and organic nitrogen) were the most important variables in determining the ecological water quality (EWQ). The result of three potential investment scenarios of the wastewater treatment infrastructure in the city of Varaždin on the EWQ of the River Drava was assessed. From this scenario-based analysis, it was concluded that upgrading the existing wastewater treatment plant with nitrogen and phosphorus removal will be insufficient to reach a good EWQ. Therefore, other point and diffuse pollution sources in the area should also be monitored and remediated to meet the European WFD standards.

  15. Integrated urban flood risk assessment – adapting a multicriteria approach to a city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kubal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk assessment is an essential part of flood risk management. As part of the new EU flood directive it is becoming increasingly more popular in European flood policy. Particularly cities with a high concentration of people and goods are vulnerable to floods. This paper introduces the adaptation of a novel method of multicriteria flood risk assessment, that was recently developed for the more rural Mulde river basin, to a city. The study site is Leipzig, Germany. The "urban" approach includes a specific urban-type set of economic, social and ecological flood risk criteria, which focus on urban issues: population and vulnerable groups, differentiated residential land use classes, areas with social and health care but also ecological indicators such as recreational urban green spaces. These criteria are integrated using a "multicriteria decision rule" based on an additive weighting procedure which is implemented into the software tool FloodCalc urban. Based on different weighting sets we provide evidence of where the most flood-prone areas are located in a city. Furthermore, we can show that with an increasing inundation extent it is both the social and the economic risks that strongly increase.

  16. Decentralised schemes for integrated management of wastewater and domestic organic waste: the case of a small community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijó, Lucía; Malamis, Simos; González-García, Sara; Moreira, María Teresa; Fatone, Francesco; Katsou, Evina

    2017-12-01

    This study assesses from an environmental perspective two different configurations for the combined treatment of wastewater and domestic organic waste (DOW) in a small and decentralised community having a population of 2000. The applied schemes consist of an upflow anaerobic blanket (UASB) as core treatment process. Scheme A integrates membranes with the anaerobic treatment; while in Scheme B biological removal of nutrients in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is applied as a post treatment to UASB effluent. In energy-related categories, the main contributor is electricity consumption (producing 18-50% of the impacts); whereas in terms of eutrophication-related categories, the discharge of the treated effluent arises as a major hotspot (with 57-99% of the impacts). Scheme B consumes 25% more electricity and produces 40% extra sludge than Scheme A, resulting in worse environmental results for those energy categories. However, the environmental impact due to the discharge of the treated effluent is 75% lower in eutrophication categories due to the removal of nutrients. In addition, the quality of the final effluent in Scheme B would allow its use for irrigation (9.6 mg N/L and 2 mg P/L) if proper tertiary treatment and disinfection are provided, expanding its potential adoption at a wider scale. Direct emissions due to the dissolved methane in the UASB effluent have a significant environmental impact in climate change (23-26%). Additionally, the study shows the environmental feasibility of the use of food waste disposers for DOW collection in different integration rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electre III method in assessment of variants of integrated urban public transport system in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna SOLECKA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of methods which are currently used for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation e.g. economic analysis, mostly Cost-Benefit Analysis – CBA, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - CEA, hybrid methods, measurement methods (survey e.g. among passengers and measurement of traffic volume, vehicles capacity etc., and multicriteria decision aiding methods (multicriteria analysis. The main aim of multicriteria analysis is the choice of the most desirable solution from among alternative variants according to different criteria which are difficult to compare against one another. There are several multicriteria methods for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation, e.g. AHP, ANP, Electre, Promethee, Oreste. The paper presents an application of one of the most popular variant ranking methods – Electre III method. The algorithm of Electre III method usage is presented in detail and then its application for assessment of variants of urban public transport system integration in Cracow is shown. The final ranking of eight variants of integration of urban public transport system in Cracow (from the best to the worst variant was drawn up with the application of the Electre III method. For assessment purposes 10 criteria were adopted: economical, technical, environmental, and social; they form a consistent criteria family. The problem was analyzed with taking into account different points of view: city authorities, public transport operators, city units responsible for transport management, passengers and others users. Separate models of preferences for all stakeholders were created.

  18. Toward a Theory of Integrated Urban Ecology: Complementing Pickett et al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mugerauer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The analyses substantially delineating "integrative studies of large urban areas as bio-physical-social complexes" and the suggestions by Pickett et al. in "Beyond Urban Legends" (Bioscience 2008 58 139-150 provide an initial framework for a theory of urban ecology. This article intends to contribute to the project by: 1 improving the philosophical rigor of critical concepts and epistemologies; 2 making explicit the complementary theoretical and empirical work in urban ecology already being done that can be better integrated, for example, studies from outside the U.S. and uses of actor network theory; 3 bringing forward more disciplines and theories which successfully deploy modes of thinking, research procedures, and practices more adequate to the phenomena at all scales and levels of particularity, i.e., micro, phenomenal, macro, to fill in some of the empirical gaps in the middle, specifically those having to do with human values and the richness of the everyday lifeworld. In addition to what is available within complexity theory itself, chief among the approaches to be utilized are phenomenology, ethnographic thick description, and actor network theory.

  19. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF SAND AND COCONUT SUBSTRATE IN URBAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PERFORMANCES COMPAREES DU SABLE ET DU SUBSTRAT DE COCO EN TRAITEMENT D’EAUX RESIDUAIRES URBAINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINE KONE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban wastewater has been treated by infiltration-percolation on sand and on coconut substrate, in order to highlight their comparative performance. The pilots were fed to the hydraulic loading rate of 40 L·m-2·d-1 during three days a week and kept at rest the next four days. Parameters are measured on an average sample of 24 hours taken on the output of each pilot at the end of the third day of treatment. The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD were respectively, 94.8 and 39.61 % with the sand and the coconut substrate while the average yields of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 were 99.01 and 98.12 %. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of fecal coliform bacteria were respectively, 98.8 and 91 %. Conductivities have increased by an average of 39.88 % with the sand and 4.65 % with coconut substrate.

  20. Integrative approach for wastewater treatment facilities with biomass transformation into energy

    OpenAIRE

    Anker Yaakov; Mualem David; Langstadter Hagai; Nakonechny Faina; Nisnevitch Marina

    2017-01-01

    Current industrial environmental regulations favor processes with Integrative Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC). While several systems are regarded by different international directives as IPPC Best Available Techniques or Technologies (BAT), none of these systems are capable handling various pollutants of both gaseous and aquatic effluents. Additional hinder to a BAT-IPPC complete procedure are hazardous or uneconomical byproducts of the IPPC processes and significant auxiliary costs f...

  1. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  2. [Application of biotope mapping model integrated with vegetation cover continuity attributes in urban biodiversity conservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Qiu, Ling; Chen, Cun-gen

    2010-09-01

    Based on the biotope classification system with vegetation structure as the framework, a modified biotope mapping model integrated with vegetation cover continuity attributes was developed, and applied to the study of the greenbelts in Helsingborg in southern Sweden. An evaluation of the vegetation cover continuity in the greenbelts was carried out by the comparisons of the vascular plant species richness in long- and short-continuity forests, based on the identification of woodland continuity by using ancient woodland indicator species (AWIS). In the test greenbelts, long-continuity woodlands had more AWIS. Among the forests where the dominant trees were more than 30-year-old, the long-continuity ones had a higher biodiversity of vascular plants, compared with the short-continuity ones with the similar vegetation structure. The modified biotope mapping model integrated with the continuity features of vegetation cover could be an important tool in investigating urban biodiversity, and provide corresponding strategies for future urban biodiversity conservation.

  3. An economic model for energisation and its integration into the urban energy planning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissing, Christian; Blottnitz, Harro von

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea, and if implemented in its full complexity it should have multiple beneficial effects. To demonstrate this, an economic model is developed for an urban developmental context, drawing on the theory of urban ecosystems and illustrating energy and waste production and consumption issues with current South African data sets. This new understanding of the concept of energisation is then integrated into a local government energy planning process, by means of a checklist for energy planners, covering 18 aspects that between them affect all 7 identifiable tiers of the energy service supply network. A 6-step structured approach is proposed for integrating sustainable energisation into the first four phases of the advanced local energy planning (ALEP) tool.

  4. Effect of hog production wastewater in the development and quality of Eucalyptus urophylla substrate produced in urban solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Oliveira Batista

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the use of hog production wastewater in the production of seedlings of Eucalyptus urophylla, using a compound of municipal solid waste (SRSU as substrate, and evaluating the effect of different proportions of ARS and of seedling ages in their morphological and nutritional quality. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Experimental Hydraulics, Irrigation and Drainage, Department of Agricultural Engineering. The statistical design was randomized blocks with different numbers of repetitions, consisting of 10 treatments in a 5 x 2 factorial design (5 proportions of ARS supplemented with nitrogen fertilization and 2 seedling ages. The variables measured were shoot height (H, stem diameter (SD, shoot dry matter (SDM, root dry mass (RDM, total dry matter (TDM, ratio of seedling height / diameter of the girth (H / SD, ratio of dry weight of shoot / root dry mass (SDM / RDM, Dickson quality index (DQI and concentrations of nutrients in the plants leaf, stem and root. These characteristics were evaluated at 75 and 90 days after seeding (DAS. It was concluded that the proportion of 50% ARS improved the nutritional and morphological characteristics of eucalyptus. The seedlings achieved morphological characteristics suitable for planting in the field 90 days after sowing and showed appropriate levels for most nutrients at both ages.

  5. Contamination profiles and mass loadings of macrolide antibiotics and illicit drugs from a small urban wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Bommanna; Phillips, Malia; Mowery, Holly; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L

    2009-03-01

    Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The objective of this study was to determine the contamination profiles and mass loadings of urobilin (a chemical marker of human waste), macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin), and two drugs of abuse (methamphetamine and ecstasy), from a small (antibiotics analyzed, azithromycin was consistently detected in influent and effluent samples. In general, influent samples contained relatively higher concentrations of the analytes than the effluents. Based on the daily flow rates and an average concentration of 17.5 ng L(-1) in the effluent, the estimated discharge of azithromycin was 200 mg day(-1) (range 63-400 mg day(-1)). Removal efficiency of the detected analytes from this WWTP were in the following order: urobilin>methamphetamine>azithromycin with percentages of removal of 99.9%, 54.5% and 47%, respectively, indicating that the azithromycin and methamphetamine are relatively more recalcitrant than others and have potential for entering receiving waters.

  6. Impact of synthetic or real urban wastewater on membrane bioreactor (MBR) performances and membrane fouling under stable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Maud; Bourven, Isabelle; Guibaud, Gilles; Marrot, Benoît

    2014-03-01

    Influence of substrate type (synthetic (SWW) or real wastewater (RWW)) on lab scale MBR performances (e.g. COD and N-NH4(+) removal rates and bioactivities) was assessed. Membrane fouling was related to MBR biological medium characteristics. With RWW, autotrophic biomass was better acclimated with complete ammonium removal. MBR biological medium was characterized by main soluble microbial products (SMP) (proteins, polysaccharides and humic-like substances) quantification and molecular weights (MW) distribution determination. The biological medium of SWW acclimation contained 60mgL(-1) more of SMP, mainly composed of proteins and polysaccharides. A protein fraction having high MW (>600kDa) could be responsible for higher removable fouling fraction in that case. SMP of RWW experiment were mainly composed of small proteic and humic-like fractions, poorly retained by the membrane and resulting in a weak augmentation of irremovable and irreversible fouling fractions compared to SWW acclimation. Therefore RWW utilization is preferable to approach real operating MBR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Ant-Colony-Optimization algorithm for improved management of first flush effects in urban wastewater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer, M; Clara, N; Gutiérrez, O; Poch, M

    2014-07-01

    The first flush effect in combined sewer systems during storm events often causes overflows and overloads of the sewage treatment, which reduces the efficiency of the sewage treatment and decreases the quality of the receiving waters due to the pollutants that are contributed. The use of retention tanks constitutes a widely used way to mitigate this effect. However, the management of the pollutant loads encounters difficulties when the retention tanks are emptied. A new approach is proposed to solve this problem by fulfilling the treatment requirements in real time, focussing on the characteristics of the wastewater. The method is based on the execution of an Ant Colony Optimisation algorithm to obtain a satisfactory sequence for the discharge of the retention tanks. The discharge sequence considers the volume of stormwater and its concentration of pollutants including Suspended Solids, Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus. The Ant Colony Optimisation algorithm was applied successfully to a case study with overall reduction of pollutant loads stored in retention tanks. The algorithm can be adapted in a simple way to the different scenarios, infrastructures and controllers of sewer systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ARTICULATED MODES OF INTEGRATION: THE STRUCTURING OF THE EUROPEAN URBAN SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenblat, Céline; Pumain, Denise

    2008-01-01

    European integration is for its essential part reflected in the building of urban networks that are increasing interdependencies between cities. Evidence of this process is brought through the observation of a variety of networks whose nodes are located in cities, especially the development of international functions. Analysis of airlines networks (2000) as well as the economic linkages between multinational firms (1990,1996) provide a good illustration reflecting the dominant features of suc...

  9. THE GREEN AREAS MANAGEMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU; LIVIU NEAMTU

    2014-01-01

    The situation that exists at the level of the urban areas from Romania testifies a natural environment with a high risk for the health of the inhabitants as a consequence of the low level of the ecological development resulted from the lack of an integrated management of the green areas and spaces in comparison with the other components of the sustainable development. In the strategic management of the green areas and spaces having as purpose the improvement of the quality of ...

  10. Integration of deep geothermal energy and woody biomass conversion pathways in urban systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moret, Stefano; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Gerber, Léda; Maréchal, François

    2016-01-01

    Urban systems account for about two-thirds of global primary energy consumption and energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, with a projected increasing trend. Deep geothermal energy and woody biomass can be used for the production of heat, electricity and biofuels, thus constituting a renewable alternative to fossil fuels for all end-uses in cities: heating, cooling, electricity and mobility. This paper presents a methodology to assess the potential for integrating deep geothermal energy and...

  11. Integrating Informational, Social, and Behavioral Exchanges Between Humans, Urban Centers, and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    behaviors were solely enacted within the physical bounds of an urban center- mall , outdoor shopping plaza, or downtown, to name a few. The Internet has...Homans, G. 1974. Social Behavior , revised ed. New York: Harcourt-Brace. Langford, Gary O. 2012. Engineering Systems Integration: Theory , Metrics, and...merging of city theory ( plans , goals, aggregate functions) with physical design (Levy 2013). City planning takes into consideration the needs, benefits

  12. Methodological procedures and analytical instruments to evaluate an indicators integrated archive for urban management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Ciello, R.; Napoleoni, S.

    1998-01-01

    This guide provides the results of a research developed at ENEA (National Agency for new Technology, Energy and the Environment) Casaccia center (Rome, Italy) aimed to define methodological procedures and analytical instruments needed to carry out an indicators integrated archive for urban management. The guide also defines the scheme of a negotiation process aimed to reach and exchange data and information among governmental and local administrations, non-governmental organizations and scientific bodies [it

  13. The visual-landscape analysis during the integration of high-rise buildings within the historic urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Akristiniy Vera A.; Dikova Elena A.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to one of the types of urban planning studies - the visual-landscape analysis during the integration of high-rise buildings within the historic urban environment for the purposes of providing pre-design and design studies in terms of preserving the historical urban environment and the implementation of the reconstructional resource of the area. In the article formed and systematized the stages and methods of conducting the visual-landscape analysis taking into account t...

  14. Integration or Disintegration of the Ecological and Urban Functions of the River in the City? A Polish Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna KUBIAK-WÓJCICKA; Justyna CHODKOWSKA-MISZCZUK; Krzysztof ROGATKA

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to find whether the urbanized area experiences integration or disintegration of the ecological and urban functions of the river. The river has always played an important role in urban areas, although over the centuries, it has come through radical changes. At first, it decided on the location of the city, served as a defense and means of transport, and during the period of industrialization it became the technical base for the city. Currently, the river has again come to be ...

  15. Health financing and integration of urban and rural residents' basic medical insurance systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun; Zhang, Luying; Yuan, Shasha; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zhiruo

    2017-11-07

    China is in the process of integrating the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) and the urban residents' basic medical insurance system (URBMI) into the urban and rural residents' basic medical insurance system (URRBMI). However, how to integrate the financing policies of NCMS and URBMI has not been described in detail. This paper attempts to illustrate the differences between the financing mechanisms of NCMS and URBMI, to analyze financing inequity between urban and rural residents and to identify financing mechanisms for integrating urban and rural residents' medical insurance systems. Financing data for NCMS and URBMI (from 2008 to 2015) was collected from the China health statistics yearbook, the China health and family planning statistics yearbook, the National Handbook of NCMS Information, the China human resources and social security statistics yearbook, and the China social security yearbook. "Ability to pay" was introduced to measure inequity in health financing. Individual contributions to NCMS and URBMI as a function of per capita disposable income was used to analyze equity in health financing between rural and urban residents. URBMI had a financing mechanism that was similar to that used by NCMS in that public finance accounted for more than three quarters of the pooling funds. The scale of financing for NCMS was less than 5% of the per capita net income of rural residents and less than 2% of the per capita disposable income of urban residents for URBMI. Individual contributions to the NCMS and URBMI funds were less than 1% of their disposable and net incomes. Inequity in health financing between urban and rural residents in China was not improved as expected with the introduction of NCMS and URBMI. The role of the central government and local governments in financing NCMS and URBMI was oscillating in the past decade. The scale of financing for URRBMI is insufficient for the increasing demands for medical services from the insured. The pooling fund

  16. Passive Sensor Integration for Vehicle Self-Localization in Urban Traffic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Gu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes an accurate vehicular positioning system which can achieve lane-level performance in urban canyons. Multiple passive sensors, which include Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers, onboard cameras and inertial sensors, are integrated in the proposed system. As the main source for the localization, the GNSS technique suffers from Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS propagation and multipath effects in urban canyons. This paper proposes to employ a novel GNSS positioning technique in the integration. The employed GNSS technique reduces the multipath and NLOS effects by using the 3D building map. In addition, the inertial sensor can describe the vehicle motion, but has a drift problem as time increases. This paper develops vision-based lane detection, which is firstly used for controlling the drift of the inertial sensor. Moreover, the lane keeping and changing behaviors are extracted from the lane detection function, and further reduce the lateral positioning error in the proposed localization system. We evaluate the integrated localization system in the challenging city urban scenario. The experiments demonstrate the proposed method has sub-meter accuracy with respect to mean positioning error.

  17. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  18. Integrating microbial fuel cells with anaerobic acidification and forward osmosis membrane for enhancing bio-electricity and water recovery from low-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinmeng; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Zhiwei; Lu, Yuqin; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2017-03-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and forward osmosis (FO) are two emerging technologies with great potential for energy-efficient wastewater treatment. In this study, anaerobic acidification and FO membrane were simultaneously integrated into an air-cathode MFC (AAFO-MFC) for enhancing bio-electricity and water recovery from low-strength wastewater. During a long-term operation of approximately 40 days, the AAFO-MFC system achieved a continuous and relatively stable power generation, and the maximum power density reached 4.38 W/m 3 . The higher bio-electricity production in the AAFO-MFC system was mainly due to the accumulation of ethanol resulted from anaerobic acidification process and the rejection of FO membrane. In addition, a proper salinity environment in the system controlled by the addition of MF membrane enhanced the electricity production. Furthermore, the AAFO-MFC system produced a high quality effluent, with the removal rates of organic matters and total phosphorus of more than 97%. However, the nitrogen removal was limited for the lower rejection of FO membrane. The combined biofouling and inorganic fouling were responsible for the lower water flux of FO membrane, and the Desulfuromonas sp. utilized the ethanol for bio-electricity production was observed in the anode. These results substantially improve the prospects for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery, and further studies are needed to optimize the system integration and operating parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy use and carbon footprints differ dramatically for diverse wastewater-derived carbonaceous substrates: An integrated exploration of biokinetics and life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbo; Wang, Xu; Butler, David; Liu, Junxin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-03-21

    Energy neutrality and reduction of carbon emissions are significant challenges to the enhanced sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Harvesting energy from wastewater carbonaceous substrates can offset energy demands and enable net power generation; yet, there is limited research about how carbonaceous substrates influence energy and carbon implications of WWTPs with integrated energy recovery at systems-level. Consequently, this research uses biokinetics modelling and life cycle assessment philology to explore this notion, by tracing and assessing the quantitative flows of energy embodied or captured, and by exploring the carbon footprint throughout an energy-intensive activated sludge process with integrated energy recovery facilities. The results indicate that energy use and carbon footprint per cubic meter of wastewater treated, varies markedly with the carbon substrate. Compared with systems driven with proteins, carbohydrates or other short-chain fatty acids, systems fed with acetic acid realized energy neutrality with maximal net gain of power from methane combustion (0.198 kWh) and incineration of residual biosolids (0.153 kWh); and also achieved a negative carbon footprint (72.6 g CO 2 ). The findings from this work help us to better understand and develop new technical schemes for improving the energy efficiency of WWTPs by repurposing the stream of carbon substrates across systems.

  20. Disposable self-support paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) as the real time "shock" biosensor for wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiheng; Liu, Yucheng; Williams, Isaiah; Li, Yan; Qian, Fengyu; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Dingyi; Wang, Lei; Li, Baikun

    2016-11-15

    A paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) was developed as a disposable self-support real-time "shock" biosensor for wastewater. PMMFCs were examined at three types of shocks (chromium, hypochlorite and acetate) in a batch-mode chamber, and exhibited various responses to shock types and concentrations. The power output of PMMFC sensor was four times as the carbon cloth (CC)-based MFCs, indicating the advantage of paper-based anode for bacterial adhesion. The power output was more sensitive than the voltage output under shocks, and thus preventing the false signals. The simulation of power harvest using PMS indicated that PMMFC could accomplish more frequent data transmission than single-anode MFCs (PSMFC) and CC anode MFCs (CCMMFC), making the self-support wastewater monitor and data transmission possible. Compared with traditional MFC sensors, PMMFCs integrated with PMS exhibit the distinct advantages of tight paper-packed structure, short acclimation period, high power output, and high sensitivity to a wide range of shocks, posing a great potential as "disposable self-support shock sensor" for real time in situ monitoring of wastewater quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Loose and Tight GNSS/INS Integrations: Comparison of Performance Assessed in Real Urban Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Gianluca; Pini, Marco; Marucco, Gianluca

    2017-01-29

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) remain the principal mean of positioning in many applications and systems, but in several types of environment, the performance of standalone receivers is degraded. Although many works show the benefits of the integration between GNSS and Inertial Navigation Systems (INSs), tightly-coupled architectures are mainly implemented in professional devices and are based on high-grade Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). This paper investigates the performance improvements enabled by the tight integration, using low-cost sensors and a mass-market GNSS receiver. Performance is assessed through a series of tests carried out in real urban scenarios and is compared against commercial modules, operating in standalone mode or featuring loosely-coupled integrations. The paper describes the developed tight-integration algorithms with a terse mathematical model and assesses their efficacy from a practical perspective.

  2. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Junchao; Wang, Thanh; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ 13 C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m −2 ⋅y −1 . Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial

  3. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Junchao [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Thanh, E-mail: bswang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Han, Shanlong [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ{sup 13}C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m{sup −2}⋅y{sup −1}. Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the

  4. Impact of spatiotemporal characteristics of rainfall inputs on integrated catchment dissolved oxygen simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Rodenas, A.M.; Cecinati, Francesca; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated Catchment Modelling aims to simulate jointly urban drainage systems, wastewater treatment plant and rivers. The effect of rainfall input uncertainties in the modelling of individual urban drainage systems has been discussed in several studies already. However, this influence changes

  5. Integrated model of biopurification system for home sewage. A proposal for peri-urban communities from south center of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Pierart, Izaul; Chiang Rojas, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of world population and its impacts has led to search new sources of water supply. Wastewater constitutes an additional source to satisfy the demand of this resource. Diverse researchers have designed alternatives for improve its processing and promote its utilization. This study examines some alternatives of bio-purification and proposes a conceptual design of a hybrid system that combines the use of a bio filter with artificial wetlands. The model designed contributes to improve water resources management and has educational, landscape and environmental benefits for peri-urban communities. Besides constitutes an alternative to promote more efficiently natural resources management at the local level.

  6. Integrated GIS-Based Site Selection of Hillside Development for Future Growth of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmed Chandio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a challenging issue for developing countries, like Malaysia. Penang Island is one of the states of Malaysia selected as a study area where limited flat land exists. As a result, this would create urban environmental problems, such as unstable slopes and landslides due to uneven topography. The purpose of this study was to develop land suitability model for hillside development. Hence, this research aims land suitability analysis modelling for hillside development by using integrated GIS (Geographic Information System based MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making approach. The hill land portion of Penang Island was selected for hillside site development using GIS and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process as a MCDM method for sustainable hillside development. This study found that 15% of land was highly suitable, 27% moderately suitable, 41% less suitable, and 17% not suitable. Therefore, this research can be consistently used by the concerned authorities for sustainable hillside urban planning and development. This approach can be used as a policy tool in decision making of urban planning and development.

  7. Collective Sensing: Integrating Geospatial Technologies to Understand Urban Systems—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey J. Hay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cities are complex systems composed of numerous interacting components that evolve over multiple spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, no single data source is sufficient to satisfy the information needs required to map, monitor, model, and ultimately understand and manage our interaction within such urban systems. Remote sensing technology provides a key data source for mapping such environments, but is not sufficient for fully understanding them. In this article we provide a condensed urban perspective of critical geospatial technologies and techniques: (i Remote Sensing; (ii Geographic Information Systems; (iii object-based image analysis; and (iv sensor webs, and recommend a holistic integration of these technologies within the language of open geospatial consortium (OGC standards in-order to more fully understand urban systems. We then discuss the potential of this integration and conclude that this extends the monitoring and mapping options beyond “hard infrastructure” by addressing “humans as sensors”, mobility and human-environment interactions, and future improvements to quality of life and of social infrastructures.

  8. An integrated approach to assess heavy metal source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Tingqiang; Wu, Chengxian [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Japenga, Jan; Deng, Meihua [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xeyang@zju.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Heavy metal source apportionment was conducted in peri-urban agricultural areas. • Precise and quantified results were obtained by using isotope ratio analysis. • The integration of IRA, GIS, PCA, and CA was proved to be more reliable. • Hg pollution was from the use of organic fertilizers in this area. - Abstract: Three techniques (Isotope Ratio Analysis, GIS mapping, and Multivariate Statistical Analysis) were integrated to assess heavy metal pollution and source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils. The soils in the study area were moderately polluted with cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), lightly polluted with lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). GIS Mapping suggested Cd pollution originates from point sources, whereas Hg, Pb, Cr could be traced back to both point and non-point sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) were mainly inherited from natural sources, while Hg, Pb, and Cd were associated with two different kinds of anthropogenic sources. Cluster analysis (CA) further identified fertilizers, waste water, industrial solid wastes, road dust, and atmospheric deposition as potential sources. Based on isotope ratio analysis (IRA) organic fertilizers and road dusts accounted for 74–100% and 0–24% of the total Hg input, while road dusts and solid wastes contributed for 0–80% and 19–100% of the Pb input. This study provides a reliable approach for heavy metal source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area, with a clear potential for future application in other regions.

  9. An integrated approach to assess heavy metal source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Tingqiang; Wu, Chengxian; He, Zhenli; Japenga, Jan; Deng, Meihua; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metal source apportionment was conducted in peri-urban agricultural areas. • Precise and quantified results were obtained by using isotope ratio analysis. • The integration of IRA, GIS, PCA, and CA was proved to be more reliable. • Hg pollution was from the use of organic fertilizers in this area. - Abstract: Three techniques (Isotope Ratio Analysis, GIS mapping, and Multivariate Statistical Analysis) were integrated to assess heavy metal pollution and source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils. The soils in the study area were moderately polluted with cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), lightly polluted with lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). GIS Mapping suggested Cd pollution originates from point sources, whereas Hg, Pb, Cr could be traced back to both point and non-point sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) were mainly inherited from natural sources, while Hg, Pb, and Cd were associated with two different kinds of anthropogenic sources. Cluster analysis (CA) further identified fertilizers, waste water, industrial solid wastes, road dust, and atmospheric deposition as potential sources. Based on isotope ratio analysis (IRA) organic fertilizers and road dusts accounted for 74–100% and 0–24% of the total Hg input, while road dusts and solid wastes contributed for 0–80% and 19–100% of the Pb input. This study provides a reliable approach for heavy metal source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area, with a clear potential for future application in other regions.

  10. Assessment of Urbanization on the Integrated Land-Ocean-Atmosphere Environment in Coastal Metropolis in Preparation for HyspIRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequera, Pedro; McDonald, Kyle C.; Gonzalez, Jorge; Arend, Mark; Krakauer, Nir; Bornstein, Robert; Luvll, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The need for comprehensive studies of the relationships between past and projected changes of regional climate and human activity in comple x urban environments has been well established. The HyspIRI preparato ry airborne activities in California, associated science and applicat ions research, and eventually HyspIRI itself provide an unprecedented opportunity for development and implementation of an integrated data and modeling analysis system focused on coastal urban environments. We will utilize HyspIRI preparatory data collections in developing ne w remote sensing-based tools for investigating the integrated urban e nvironment, emphasizing weather, climate, and energy demands in compl ex coastal cities.

  11. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG, soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3 in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid

  12. Community medicine in action: an integrated, fourth-year urban continuity preceptorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, John R; Jackson, Thomas C; Stearns, Marjorie A

    2002-07-01

    To provide an opportunity for fourth-year students at the University of Wisconsin Medical School in Madison to immerse in urban community medicine during a 34-week program. This experience enhances the integrity of the fourth year as well as merges medicine and public health perspectives in medical education as called for by the Medicine and Public Health Initiative. A limited number of fourth-year Wisconsin medical students have the opportunity to select a one-year, continuity-based preceptorship at the Milwaukee clinical campus with a focus in one of three domains: family medicine, internal medicine, or women's health. Students participate in the following clinical activities: a one-year, integrated preceptorship (one to three half days per week in a primary preceptor's office), medicine subinternship, senior surgery clerkship, selectives (16-20 weeks of clerkships relevant to preceptorship focus area), and one month of out-of-city electives. Complementing this community-based clinical experience is the opportunity to develop an increased appreciation for urban community health issues and resources by participating in a required urban community medicine clerkship and a mentored student scholarly project focusing on an aspect of urban community medicine and population health. All students begin the year in July with a four-week urban community medicine clerkship, which is based on the St. Luke's family practice residency's community medicine rotation and arranged by residency faculty. They conduct a "windshield survey" of a Milwaukee neighborhood, observing health hazards and identifying assets, and then present these observations to others in the clerkship. During this first month, students are introduced to the work of a variety of social service agencies, the Milwaukee City Health Department, and the Aurora Health Care/UW community clinics, which serve the state's most diverse zip codes. They meet with providers and researchers who share their expertise in

  13. An Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Biological Responses to Municipal Wastewater Effluent in Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) Collected along an Urban Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Leslie M.; Tetreault, Gerald R.; Bahamonde, Paulina A.; Tanna, Rajiv N.; Bennett, Charles J.; McMaster, Mark E.; Servos, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE) and its constituents, such as chemicals of emerging concern, pose a potential threat to the sustainability of fish populations by disrupting key endocrine functions in aquatic organisms. While studies have demonstrated changes in biological markers of exposure of aquatic organisms to groups of chemicals of emerging concern, the variability of these markers over time has not been sufficiently described in wild fish species. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal variability of biological markers in response to MWWE exposure and to test the consistency of these responses between seasons and among years. Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) were collected in spring and fall seasons over a 5-year period in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. In addition to surface water chemistry (nutrients and selected pharmaceuticals), measures were taken across levels of biological organization in rainbow darter. The measurements of hormone production, gonad development, and intersex severity were temporally consistent and suggested impaired reproduction in male fish collected downstream of MWWE outfalls. In contrast, ovarian development and hormone production in females appeared to be influenced more by urbanization than MWWE. Measures of gene expression and somatic indices were highly variable between sites and years, respectively, and were inconclusive in terms of the impacts of MWWE overall. Robust biomonitoring programs must consider these factors in both the design and interpretation of results, especially when spatial and temporal sampling of biological endpoints is limited. Assessing the effects of contaminants and other stressors on fish in watersheds would be greatly enhanced by an approach that considers natural variability in the endpoints being measured. PMID:27776151

  14. An Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Biological Responses to Municipal Wastewater Effluent in Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum Collected along an Urban Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan L M Fuzzen

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE and its constituents, such as chemicals of emerging concern, pose a potential threat to the sustainability of fish populations by disrupting key endocrine functions in aquatic organisms. While studies have demonstrated changes in biological markers of exposure of aquatic organisms to groups of chemicals of emerging concern, the variability of these markers over time has not been sufficiently described in wild fish species. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal variability of biological markers in response to MWWE exposure and to test the consistency of these responses between seasons and among years. Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum were collected in spring and fall seasons over a 5-year period in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. In addition to surface water chemistry (nutrients and selected pharmaceuticals, measures were taken across levels of biological organization in rainbow darter. The measurements of hormone production, gonad development, and intersex severity were temporally consistent and suggested impaired reproduction in male fish collected downstream of MWWE outfalls. In contrast, ovarian development and hormone production in females appeared to be influenced more by urbanization than MWWE. Measures of gene expression and somatic indices were highly variable between sites and years, respectively, and were inconclusive in terms of the impacts of MWWE overall. Robust biomonitoring programs must consider these factors in both the design and interpretation of results, especially when spatial and temporal sampling of biological endpoints is limited. Assessing the effects of contaminants and other stressors on fish in watersheds would be greatly enhanced by an approach that considers natural variability in the endpoints being measured.

  15. The impact of hospital and urban wastewaters on the bacteriological contamination of the water resources in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Kayembe, John M; Laffite, Amandine; Thevenon, Florian; Devarajan, Naresh; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mubedi, Josué I; Yav, Zéphirin G; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-10-14

    Although the United Nations General Assembly recognized in 2010 the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights, the contamination of water supplies with faecal pathogens is still a major and unsolved problem in many parts of the world. In this study, faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT), were quantified over the period of June/July 2014 and June/July 2015 to assess the quality of hospital effluents (n = 3: H1, H2 and H3) and of rivers receiving wastewaters from the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The water and sediment samples from the river-receiving systems were collected in, upstream and downstream of the hospital outlet pipe (HOP) discharge. The analysis of E. coli and ENT in water and sediment suspension was performed using the cultural membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for general E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis) and human-specific Bacteroides by PCR using specific primers. The results revealed very high FIB concentration in the hospital effluent waters, with E. coli reaching the values of 4.2 × 10(5), 16.1 × 10(5) and 5.9 × 10(5) CFU 100 mL(-1), for the hospital effluents from H1, H2, and H3, respectively; and Enterococcus reaching the values of 2.3 × 10(4), 10.9 × 10(4) and 4.1 × 10(4) CFU 100 mL(-1), respectively. Interestingly, the FIB levels in the water and sediment samples from river-receiving systems are spatially and temporally highly variable and present in some samples with higher values than the hospital effluents. The PCR assays for human-specific Bacteroides HF183/HF134 further indicate that more than 98% of bacteria were from human origin. The results of this research therefore confirm the hypothesis of our previous studies, indicating that in developing countries (e.g., Democratic Republic of Congo and South India), the

  16. The capacity for integrated community energy solutions policies to reduce urban greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, C.; Goldberg, S.; Sharp, J.; Melton, N.; Peters, J.; Wolinetz, M. [Quality Urban Energy Systems of Tomorrow, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Miller, E. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cavens, D. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-08-26

    The implementation of policies promoting integrated urban energy solutions (ICES) could allow a reduction in Canada's urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050. The concept and its related policies impact all urban sectors of the economy, such as residential, commercial, urban and inter-city personal transportation, freight transportation, waste and water. ICES policies are considered feasible and necessary, and many cities around the world, like Stockholm and Utrecht, have implemented them successfully. Sustainable land use policies should be the first to be developed since all urban form, transportation, and energy use decisions are made within the framework they generate. In the long term, moderate to aggressive ICES policies generate reductions of GHG emission and energy use but also an increase of 0.3-0.9% of the GDP. Aggressive ICES policies also allow a reduction in the structural unemployment and an increase of the number of jobs. While the effects of the implementation of targeted abatement policies such as the carbon tax or technology regulations are observed within a few years, ICES produce effects on a longer term. In the short term, they allow the release of money that could be spent by households to reduce the economic burden generated by abatement policies. In the longer term, they allow reductions to take over the effects of the short term policies, taking into consideration the increasing size of the population and the economy. Therefore, ICES policies seem to be an important part of comprehensive policy efforts intending to satisfy Canada's energy use and GHG emissions objectives. 218 refs., 49 tabs., 41 figs.

  17. Urban slum structure: integrating socioeconomic and land cover data to model slum evolution in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Kathryn P; Seto, Karen C; Costa, Federico; Corburn, Jason; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2013-10-20

    The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution. The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas. Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading.

  18. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  19. Cool City Design: Integrating Real-Time Urban Canyon Assessment into the Design Process for Chinese and Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus White

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many cities are undergoing rapid urbanisation and intensification with the unintended consequence of creating dense urban fabric with deep ‘urban canyons’. Urban densification can trap longwave radiation impacting on local atmospheric conditions, contributing to the phenomena known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI. As global temperatures are predicted to increase, there is a critical need to better understand urban form and heat retention in cities and integrate analysis tools into the design decision making process to design cooler cities. This paper describes the application and validation of a novel three-dimensional urban canyon modelling approach calculating Sky View Factor (SVF, one important indicator used in the prediction of UHI. Our modified daylighting system based approach within a design modelling environment allows iterative design decision making informed by SVF on an urban design scale. This approach is tested on urban fabric samples from cities in both Australia and China. The new approach extends the applicability in the design process of existing methods by providing ‘real-time’ SVF feedback for complex three-dimensional urban scenarios. The modelling approach enables city designers to mix intuitive compositional design modelling with dynamic canyon feedback. The approach allows a greater understanding of existing and proposed urban forms and identifying potential canyon problem areas, improved decision making and design advocacy, and can potentially have an impact on cities’ temperature.

  20. Understanding the health impacts of urbanization in China: A living laboratory for urban biogeochemistry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population in the world, and by 2011, more than 50% of its population are now living in cities. This ongoing societal change has profound impacts on environmental quality and population health. In addition to intensive discharges of waste, urbanization is not only changing the land use and land cover, but also inducing fundamental changes in biogeochemical processes. Unlike biogeochemistry in non-urban environment, the biological component of urban biogeochemistry is dominated by direct human activities, such as air pollution derived from transport, wastewater treatment, garbage disposal and increase in impervious surface etc. Managing urban biogeochemistry will include source control over waste discharge, eco-infrastructure (such as green space and eco-drainage), resource recovery from urban waste stream, and integration with peri-urban ecosystem, particularly with food production system. The overall goal of managing urban biogeochemistry is for human health and wellbeing, which is a global challenge. In this paper, the current status of urban biogeochemistry research in China will be briefly reviewed, and then it will focus on nutrient recycling and waste management, as these are the major driving forces of environmental quality changes in urban areas. This paper will take a holistic view on waste management, covering urban metabolism analysis, technological innovation and integration for resource recovery from urban waste stream, and risk management related to waste recycling and recovery.

  1. Energy efficiency of urban transportation system in Xiamen, China. An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanxin; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Casazza, Marco; Cui, Shenghui; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated life cycle approach is used to study Urban Transport Metabolism (UTM). • A selection of different material, energy and environmental assessment methods is synergically applied. • The study is based on an accurate inventory of infrastructure, machinery and operative resource costs. • Results show that the different methods provide much needed insight into different aspects of UTM. • Innovative Bus Rapid Transport shows better resource and environmental performance than Normal Bus Transport system. - Abstract: An integrated life cycle approach framework, including material flow analysis (MFA), Cumulative Energy Demand (CED), exergy analysis (EXA), Emergy Assessment (EMA), and emissions (EMI) has been constructed and applied to examine the energy efficiency of high speed urban bus transportation systems compared to conventional bus transport in the city of Xiamen, Fujian province, China. This paper explores the consistency of the results achieved by means of several evaluation methods, and explores the sustainability of innovation in urban public transportation systems. The case study dealt with in this paper is a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system compared to Normal Bus Transit (NBT). All the analyses have been performed based on a common yearly database of natural resources, material, labor, energy and fuel input flows used in all life cycle phases (resource extraction, processing and manufacturing, use and end of life) of the infrastructure, vehicle and vehicle fuel. Cumulative energy, material and environmental support demands of transport are accounted for. Selected pressure indicators are compared to yield a comprehensive picture of the public transportation system. Results show that Bus Rapid Transit system (BRT) shows much better energy and environmental performance than NBT, as indicated by the set of sustainability indicators calculated by means of our integrated approach. This is because of the higher efficiency of such

  2. Integrative assessment of climate change for fast-growing urban areas: Measurement and recommendations for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Dagmar; Volk, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Over the 20th century, urbanization has substantially shaped the surface of Earth. With population rapidly shifting from rural locations towards the cities, urban areas have dramatically expanded on a global scale and represent crystallization points of social, cultural and economic assets and activities. This trend is estimated to persist for the next decades, and particularly the developing countries are expected to face rapid urban growth. The management of this growth will require good governance strategies and planning. By threatening the livelihoods, assets and health as foundations of human activities, another major global change contributor, climate change, became an equally important concern of stakeholders. Based on the climate trends observed over the 20th century, and a spatially explicit model of urbanization, this paper investigates the impacts of climate change in relation to different stages of development of urban areas, thus evolving a more integrated perspective on both processes. As a result, an integrative measure of climate change trends and impacts is proposed and estimated for urban areas worldwide. We show that those areas facing major urban growth are to a large extent also hotspots of climate change. Since most of these hotspots are located in the Global South, we emphasize the need for stakeholders to co-manage both drivers of global change. The presented integrative perspective is seen as a starting point to foster such co-management, and furthermore as a means to facilitate communication and knowledge exchange on climate change impacts. PMID:29232695

  3. Free water surface constructed wetlands for urban-industrial wastewater treatment; Utilizacion de humedales construidos de flujo superficial en el tratamiento de aguas residuales de origen urbano-industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Garcia, M.; Cabezas Beaumont, A.; Comin Sebastian, F.

    2009-07-01

    In order to assay superficial flow wetlands efficiency in the urban-industrial mixed wastewater quality improve and their effect in its re valorization for potential reuse in irrigation, three Free Water Surface Flow Wetlands were studied. the system presents a high capacity to reduce TSS, nitrate, nitrite and NT concentrations and this efficiency was growing up as the system mature. Denitrification processes in sediment is the main cause of nitrogen elimination. On the other hand reeds biomass development during this period could be contributing to treatment efficiency by means of reeds nutrients assimilation. (Author) 25 refs.

  4. Microbial community analysis in sludge of anaerobic wastewater treatment systems : integrated culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, C.

    2007-01-01

    The need for clean water is increasing and anaerobic wastewater treatment can be used as a cost-effective solution for purification of organically polluted industrial waste streams. This thesis presents results from microbiological investigations of several full-scale and lab-scale anaerobic

  5. Integrated Evaluation Concept to Assess the Efficacy of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes for the Elimination of Micropollutants and Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, Thomas A; Prasse, Carsten; Eversloh, Christian Lütke; Knopp, Gregor; Cornel, Peter; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Schwartz, Thomas; Alexander, Johannes; Seitz, Wolfram; Coors, Anja; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-03

    A multidisciplinary concept has been developed to compare advanced wastewater treatment processes for their efficacy of eliminating micropollutants and pathogens. The concept is based on (i) the removal/formation of selected indicator substances and their transformation products (TPs), (ii) the assessment of ecotoxicity via in vitro tests, and (iii) the removal of pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria. It includes substances passing biological wastewater treatment plants regulated or proposed to be regulated in the European Water Framework Directive, TPs formed in biological processes or during ozonation, agonistic/antagonistic endocrine activities, mutagenic/genotoxic activities, cytotoxic activities, further activities like neurotoxicity as well as antibiotics resistance genes, and taxonomic gene markers for pathogens. At a pilot plant, ozonation of conventionally treated wastewater resulted in the removal of micropollutants and pathogens and the reduction of estrogenic effects, whereas the in vitro mutagenicity increased. Subsequent post-treatment of the ozonated water by granular activated carbon (GAC) significantly reduced the mutagenic effects as well as the concentrations of remaining micropollutants, whereas this was not the case for biofiltration. The results demonstrate the suitability of the evaluation concept to assess processes of advanced wastewater treatment including ozonation and GAC by considering chemical, ecotoxicological, and microbiological parameters.

  6. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area.

  7. THE GREEN AREAS MANAGEMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The situation that exists at the level of the urban areas from Romania testifies a natural environment with a high risk for the health of the inhabitants as a consequence of the low level of the ecological development resulted from the lack of an integrated management of the green areas and spaces in comparison with the other components of the sustainable development. In the strategic management of the green areas and spaces having as purpose the improvement of the quality of air the priority role is held by the obtainment of necessary information in the view of adopting decision. In this context, monitoring the existent green areas represents a fundamental element that has to provide the necessary information. In correlation with this monitoring it is necessary the realization of the operative informational system for supervising the air quality constituted automatically from fix monitoring points and in a real time of the main air pollutants. The domains of sustainable development at the level of urban areas are considered to be: urban planning, the management of green areas and air quality, the management and the reduction of the sweepings, water quality, energy efficiency, clean and efficient transportation, etc.

  8. Adaption to extreme rainfall with open urban drainage system: an integrated hydrological cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a cross-disciplinary framework for assessment of climate change adaptation to increased precipitation extremes considering pluvial flood risk as well as additional environmental services provided by some of the adaptation options. The ability of adaptation alternatives to cope with extreme rainfalls is evaluated using a quantitative flood risk approach based on urban inundation modeling and socio-economic analysis of corresponding costs and benefits. A hedonic valuation model is applied to capture the local economic gains or losses from more water bodies in green areas. The framework was applied to the northern part of the city of Aarhus, Denmark. We investigated four adaptation strategies that encompassed laissez-faire, larger sewer pipes, local infiltration units, and open drainage system in the urban green structure. We found that when taking into account environmental amenity effects, an integration of open drainage basins in urban recreational areas is likely the best adaptation strategy, followed by pipe enlargement and local infiltration strategies. All three were improvements compared to the fourth strategy of no measures taken.

  9. DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR URBAN AND ENERGY PLANNING TOWARDS A LOW-CARBON CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hideto; Nakakubo, Toyohiko; Tokai, Akihiro

    In this study, we developed an integrated management model that supports local government to make a promising energy saving measure on a block-scale combined with urban planning. We applied the model to Osaka city and estimated CO2 emissions from the residential and commercial buildings to 2050. The urban renewal cases selected in this study included advanced multipole accumulation case, normal multipole accumulation case, and actual trend continuation case. The energy saving options introduced in each case included all-electric HP system, micro grid system, and we also set the option where the greater CO2 reduction one is selected in each block. The results showed that CO2 emission in 2050 would be reduced by 54.8-57.6% relative to the actual condition by introducing the new energy system in all cases. In addition, the amount of CO2 reduction in actual trend continuation case was highest. The major factor was that the effect of CO2 emission reductions by installing the solar power generation panel was higher than the effect by utilizing heated water mutually on the high-density blocks in terms of total urban buildings' energy consumption.

  10. Between theory and quantification: An integrated analysis of metabolic patterns of informal urban settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacic, Zora; Giampietro, Mario

    2017-01-01

    As informal urban settlements grow in size and population across the developing world, the issue of how to design and implement effective policies to provide for the needs and the aspirations of dwellers becomes ever more pressing. This paper addresses the challenge of how to characterise in quantitative terms the complex and fast-changing phenomenon of informal urban settlements without falling into oversimplification and a narrow focus on the material deficits of informal settlements. Energy policies are taken as an example to illustrate the shortcomings of oversimplification in producing policy relevant information. We adopt a semantically open representation of informal settlements that can capture the diversity of adaptive strategies used by different settlement typologies, based on the societal metabolism approach. Results show that as settlements grow in size and complexity, they remain economically and politically marginalised and fail to integrate into the city. We argue that in the case of energy policy, the analysis must go beyond the definition of problems such as access to energy at the level of the individual, and focus on a multi-scale assessment including the household and community levels studying the capacity of the household to increase it energy throughput through exosomatic devices and infrastructure. - Highlights: • The policy challenges of fast changing informal urban settlements are assessed. • Metabolic patterns are used to assess and compare different typologies of slums. • Semantically open representations are used to capture the complexity of slums.

  11. Effects of rapid urban sprawl on urban forest carbon stocks: integrating remotely sensed, GIS and forest inventory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yin; Yan, Jing; Wei, Xiaohua; Wang, Yajun; Yang, Yusheng; Hua, Lizhong; Xiong, Yongzhu; Niu, Xiang; Song, Xiaodong

    2012-12-30

    Research on the effects of urban sprawl on carbon stocks within urban forests can help support policy for sustainable urban design. This is particularly important given climate change and environmental deterioration as a result of rapid urbanization. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of urban sprawl on dynamics of forest carbon stock and density in Xiamen, a typical city experiencing rapid urbanization in China. Forest resource inventory data collected from 32,898 patches in 4 years (1972, 1988, 1996 and 2006), together with remotely sensed data (from 1988, 1996 and 2006), were used to investigate vegetation carbon densities and stocks in Xiamen, China. We classified the forests into four groups: (1) forest patches connected to construction land; (2) forest patches connected to farmland; (3) forest patches connected to both construction land and farmland and (4) close forest patches. Carbon stocks and densities of four different types of forest patches during different urbanization periods in three zones (urban core, suburb and exurb) were compared to assess the impact of human disturbance on forest carbon. In the urban core, the carbon stock and carbon density in all four forest patch types declined over the study period. In the suburbs, different urbanization processes influenced forest carbon density and carbon stock in all four forest patch types. Urban sprawl negatively affected the surrounding forests. In the exurbs, the carbon stock and carbon density in all four forest patch types tended to increase over the study period. The results revealed that human disturbance played the dominant role in influencing the carbon stock and density of forest patches close to the locations of human activities. In forest patches far away from the locations of human activities, natural forest regrowth was the dominant factor affecting carbon stock and density. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrating wastewater reuse in water resources management for hotels in arid coastal regions - Case Study of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, A; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water (using reverse osmosis) for their domestic water supply, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their potable and non-potable water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum amount of water that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). Hotels have to carefully analyse their water requirements in order to determine which percentage of the hotel's peak water demand should be used in the contract in order to reduce water costs and avoid the risk of water shortage. This paper describes a model to optimise the contracted-for irrigation water supply with the objective function to minimise total water cost to hotels. It analyses what the contracted-for irrigation water supply of a given hotel should be, based on the size of the green irrigated area on one hand and the unit prices of the different types of water on the other hand. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh (Sharm), Egypt. This paper presents costs of wastewater treatment using waste stabilisation ponds, which is the prevailing treatment mechanism in the case study area for centralised plants, as well as aerobic/anaerobic treatment used for decentralised wastewater treatment plants in the case study area. There is only one centralised wastewater treatment plant available in the city exerting monopoly and selling treated wastewater to hotels at a much higher price than the actual cost that a hotel would bear if it treated its own wastewater. Contracting for full peak irrigation demand is the highest total cost option. Contracting for a portion of the peak irrigation demand and complementing the rest from desalination water is a cheaper option. A better option still is to complement the excess irrigation demand

  13. Evaluation of organic matter removal and electricity generation by using integrated microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ogino, Akifumi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A floating all-in-one type of microbial fuel cell (Fa-MFC) that allows simple operation and installation in existing wastewater reservoirs for decomposition of organic matter was designed. A prototype cell was constructed by fixing a tubular floater to an assembly composed of a proton-exchange membrane and an air-cathode. To compare anode materials, carbon-cloth anodes or carbon-brush anodes were included in the assembly. The fabricated assemblies were floated in 1-L beakers filled with acetate medium. Both reactors removed acetate at a rate of 133-181 mg/L/d. The Fa-MFC quipped with brush anodes generated a 1.7-fold higher maximum power density (197 mW/m(2)-cathode area) than did that with cloth anodes (119 mW/m(2)-cathode area). To evaluate the performance of the Fa-MFCs on more realistic substrates, artificial wastewater, containing peptone and meat extract, was placed in a 2-L beaker, and the Fa-MFC with brush anodes was floated in the beaker. The Fa-MFC removed the chemical oxygen demand of the wastewater at a rate of 465-1029 mg/L/d, and generated a maximum power density of 152 mW/m(2)-cathode area. When the Fa-MFC was fed with actual livestock wastewater, the biological oxygen demand of the wastewater was removed at a rate of 45-119 mg/L/d, with electricity generation of 95 mW/m(2)-cathode area. Bacteria related to Geobacter sulfurreducens were predominantly detected in the anode biofilm, as deduced from the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence.

  14. Sustainable Approach to Wastewater Management in the Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As population grows and urbanization increases, more wastewater is generated and there is great awareness on the health and environmental implication of poorly disposed wastewater. This research work develops a sustainable approach to wastewater disposal in the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The existing ...

  15. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment plants were ...

  16. Integrating Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation with Urban planning for a Livable city in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rafieian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts are seen within growing numbers of cities in low- and middle-income countries, so there is growing interest in the adaptation and mitigation plans and programs put forward by city authorities. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the constraints which cities face them in this subject by analyzing the case of Tehran. City has a commitment to decentralization, transparency, accountability and participation. There are some new programs and plansin urban planning which has evolved to include a broad vision of urban challenges and responses, a commitment to environmental sustainability and a strategic plan that has involved multiple stakeholders. This paper describes the principles for integrating climate change adaptation and mitigation with urban planning which can be useful for urban authorities. Then it analysesthe many measures implemented in Tehran over the last years, which provide a solid foundation for more systematically addressing adaptation. It also describes the significant challenges faced by the city’s administration, especially around funding, data and the challenge of responding to pressing and competing interests.Tehran city is still struggling to complete greenhouse gas inventories andit has, however, implemented several specific mitigation measures and tries continuously to place this issue on the government’s agenda.However, Tehran’s particular way of responding to current development challenges has put in place the flexibility, creativity and commitment needed for adaptation, regardless of whether this is made explicit or not. The results of this study reveal thatTehran’s policies have had continuity and consistency, despite being frequently revised over years, because each administration has built upon the progress of its predecessor. This is quite unusual; it is more common for there to be a revision of all that has been accomplished and for the need to point out the negative

  17. Integrity monitoring of vehicle positioning in urban environment using RTK-GNSS, IMU and speedometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed; Kubo, Nobuaki

    2017-05-01

    Continuous and trustworthy positioning is a critical capability for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). To achieve continuous positioning, methods such as global navigation satellite systems real-time kinematic (RTK), Doppler-based positioning, and positioning using low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU) with car speedometer data are combined in this study. To ensure reliable positioning, the system should have integrity monitoring above a certain level, such as 99%. Achieving this level when combining different types of measurements that have different characteristics and different types of errors is a challenge. In this study, a novel integrity monitoring approach is presented for the proposed integrated system. A threat model of the measurements of the system components is discussed, which includes both the nominal performance and possible fault modes. A new protection level is presented to bound the maximum directional position error. The proposed approach was evaluated through a kinematic test in an urban area in Japan with a focus on horizontal positioning. Test results show that by integrating RTK, Doppler with IMU/speedometer, 100% positioning availability was achieved. The integrity monitoring availability was assessed and found to meet the target value where the position errors were bounded by the protection level, which was also less than an alert level, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Integrity monitoring of vehicle positioning in urban environment using RTK-GNSS, IMU and speedometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed; Kubo, Nobuaki

    2017-01-01

    Continuous and trustworthy positioning is a critical capability for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). To achieve continuous positioning, methods such as global navigation satellite systems real-time kinematic (RTK), Doppler-based positioning, and positioning using low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU) with car speedometer data are combined in this study. To ensure reliable positioning, the system should have integrity monitoring above a certain level, such as 99%. Achieving this level when combining different types of measurements that have different characteristics and different types of errors is a challenge. In this study, a novel integrity monitoring approach is presented for the proposed integrated system. A threat model of the measurements of the system components is discussed, which includes both the nominal performance and possible fault modes. A new protection level is presented to bound the maximum directional position error. The proposed approach was evaluated through a kinematic test in an urban area in Japan with a focus on horizontal positioning. Test results show that by integrating RTK, Doppler with IMU/speedometer, 100% positioning availability was achieved. The integrity monitoring availability was assessed and found to meet the target value where the position errors were bounded by the protection level, which was also less than an alert level, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (paper)

  19. The selection of a mode of urban transportation: Integrating psychological variables to discrete choice models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoba Maquilon, Jorge E; Gonzalez Calderon, Carlos A; Posada Henao, John J

    2011-01-01

    A study using revealed preference surveys and psychological tests was conducted. Key psychological variables of behavior involved in the choice of transportation mode in a population sample of the Metropolitan Area of the Valle de Aburra were detected. The experiment used the random utility theory for discrete choice models and reasoned action in order to assess beliefs. This was used as a tool for analysis of the psychological variables using the sixteen personality factor questionnaire (16PF test). In addition to the revealed preference surveys, two other surveys were carried out: one with socio-economic characteristics and the other with latent indicators. This methodology allows for an integration of discrete choice models and latent variables. The integration makes the model operational and quantifies the unobservable psychological variables. The most relevant result obtained was that anxiety affects the choice of urban transportation mode and shows that physiological alterations, as well as problems in perception and beliefs, can affect the decision-making process.

  20. Urban Environmental Education for Global Transformation Initiatives - Integrating Information and Communication Systems for Urban Sustainability in 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Urban population of developing countries is predicted to rise from one third in 1990 to over 50% by 2025. In 1950 the world's total urban population was 734 million, of whom 448 million were living in developed countries and remaining 286 were in developing region. The total population on earth is predicted to increase by more than one billion people within the next 15 years, reaching 8.5 billion in 2030, and to increase further to 9.7 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Looking at the ever increasing urbanization.In 2016, an estimated 54.5 per cent of the world's populations inhabited in urban region. By 2030, urban areas are projected to shelter 60 per cent of people worldwide and one in every three people will live in cities with at least half a million inhabitants.On the basis of these figures and other global trends, it would appear that Africa and Asia will have the highest share of world's urban growth in next 25 years, resulting consideration rise of large number of metropolitan cities and towns. Therefore issues related to urban climate change will be important for socio economic development for urban transformation through environmental sustainability.The information and communication systems plays an important role in achieving the social sustainability through environmental sustainability for urban transformation. This presentation aims to start the Global initiatives on the problem identifications in environment education for global transformation, education for socio-economic and environmental sustainability due to urbanization in 2050 to investigate problems related to social-economic risks and management issues resulting from urbanization to aid mitigation planning in globalized world and to educate scientists and local populations to form a basis for sustainable solutions in environment learning.The presentation aims to assess the potential of information and communication technology for environment education,both within different

  1. Integral emission factors for methane determined using urban flux measurements and local-scale inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Johnson, Mark; Molodovskaya, Marina; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Crawford, Ben; Giometto, Marco; van der Laan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    The most important long-lived greenhouse gas (LLGHG) emitted during combustion of fuels is carbon dioxide (CO2), however also traces of the LLGHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are released, the quantities of which depend largely on the conditions of the combustion process. Emission factors determine the mass of LLGHGs emitted per energy used (or kilometre driven for cars) and are key inputs for bottom-up emission modelling. Emission factors for CH4 are typically determined in the laboratory or on a test stand for a given combustion system using a small number of samples (vehicles, furnaces), yet associated with larger uncertainties when scaled to entire fleets. We propose an alternative, different approach - Can integrated emission factors be independently determined using direct micrometeorological flux measurements over an urban surface? If so, do emission factors determined from flux measurements (top-down) agree with up-scaled emission factors of relevant combustion systems (heating, vehicles) in the source area of the flux measurement? Direct flux measurements of CH4 were carried out between February and May, 2012 over a relatively densely populated, urban surface in Vancouver, Canada by means of eddy covariance (EC). The EC-system consisted of an ultrasonic anemometer (CSAT-3, Campbell Scientific Inc.) and two open-path infrared gas analyzers (Li7500 and Li7700, Licor Inc.) on a tower at 30m above the surface. The source area of the EC system is characterised by a relative homogeneous morphometry (5.3m average building height), but spatially and temporally varying emission sources, including two major intersecting arterial roads (70.000 cars drive through the 50% source area per day) and seasonal heating in predominantly single-family houses (natural gas). An inverse dispersion model (turbulent source area model), validated against large eddy simulations (LES) of the urban roughness sublayer, allows the determination of the spatial area that

  2. Integration of deep geothermal energy and woody biomass conversion pathways in urban systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moret, Stefano; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Gerber, Léda; Maréchal, François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel optimization-based methodology to integrate renewable energy systems in cities. • Multiperiod model including storage, heat integration and Life Cycle Assessment. • Case study: systematic assessment of deep geothermal and wood conversion pathways. • Identification of novel wood-geothermal hybrid systems leading to higher efficiencies. • Extensive Supplementary Material to ensure full reproducibility of the work. - Abstract: Urban systems account for about two-thirds of global primary energy consumption and energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, with a projected increasing trend. Deep geothermal energy and woody biomass can be used for the production of heat, electricity and biofuels, thus constituting a renewable alternative to fossil fuels for all end-uses in cities: heating, cooling, electricity and mobility. This paper presents a methodology to assess the potential for integrating deep geothermal energy and woody biomass in an urban energy system. The city is modeled in its entirety as a multiperiod optimization problem with the total annual cost as an objective, assessing as well the environmental impact with a Life Cycle Assessment approach. For geothermal energy, deep aquifers and Enhanced Geothermal Systems are considered for stand-alone production of heat and electricity, and for cogeneration. For biomass, besides direct combustion and cogeneration, conversion to biofuels by a set of alternative processes (pyrolysis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and synthetic natural gas production) is studied. With a scenario-based approach, all pathways are first individually evaluated. Secondly, all possible combinations between geothermal and biomass options are systematically compared, taking into account the possibility of hybrid systems. Results show that integrating these two resources generates configurations featuring both lower costs and environmental impacts. In particular, synergies are found in innovative hybrid systems using

  3. Model of complex integrated use of alternative energy sources for highly urbanized areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Elena Ivanovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase of population and continuous development of highly urbanized territories poses new challenges to experts in the field of energy saving technologies. Only a multifunctional and autonomous system of building engineering equipment formed by the principles of energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness meets the needs of modern urban environment. Alternative energy sources, exploiting the principle of converting thermal energy into electrical power, show lack of efficiency, so it appears to be necessary for reaching a visible progress to skip this middle step. A fuel cell, converting chemical energy straight into electricity, and offering a vast diversity of both fuel types and oxidizing agents, gives a strong base for designing a complex integrated system. Regarding the results of analysis and comparison conducted among the most types of fuel cells proposed by contemporary scholars, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is approved to be able to ensure the smooth operation of such a system. While the advantages of this device meet the requirements of engineering equipment for modern civil and, especially, dwelling architecture, its drawbacks do not contradict with the operating regime of the proposed system. The article introduces a model of a multifunctional system based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and not only covering the energy demand of a particular building, but also providing the opportunity for proper and economical operation of several additional sub-systems. Air heating and water cooling equipment, ventilating and conditioning devices, the circle of water supply and preparation of water discharge for external use (e.g. agricultural needs included into a closed circuit of the integrated system allow evaluating it as a promising model of further implementation of energy saving technologies into architectural and building practice. This, consequently, will positively affect both ecological and economic development of urban environment.

  4. Construction of an integrated social vulnerability index in urban areas prone to flash flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Jimenez, Estefania; Bodoque, Jose Maria; Garcia, Juan Antonio; Diez-Herrero, Andres

    2017-09-01

    Among the natural hazards, flash flooding is the leading cause of weather-related deaths. Flood risk management (FRM) in this context requires a comprehensive assessment of the social risk component. In this regard, integrated social vulnerability (ISV) can incorporate spatial distribution and contribution and the combined effect of exposure, sensitivity and resilience to total vulnerability, although these components are often disregarded. ISV is defined by the demographic and socio-economic characteristics that condition a population's capacity to cope with, resist and recover from risk and can be expressed as the integrated social vulnerability index (ISVI). This study describes a methodological approach towards constructing the ISVI in urban areas prone to flash flooding in Castilla y León (Castile and León, northern central Spain, 94 223 km2, 2 478 376 inhabitants). A hierarchical segmentation analysis (HSA) was performed prior to the principal components analysis (PCA), which helped to overcome the sample size limitation inherent in PCA. ISVI was obtained from weighting vulnerability factors based on the tolerance statistic. In addition, latent class cluster analysis (LCCA) was carried out to identify spatial patterns of vulnerability within the study area. Our results show that the ISVI has high spatial variability. Moreover, the source of vulnerability in each urban area cluster can be identified from LCCA. These findings make it possible to design tailor-made strategies for FRM, thereby increasing the efficiency of plans and policies and helping to reduce the cost of mitigation measures.

  5. Traffic Multiresolution Modeling and Consistency Analysis of Urban Expressway Based on Asynchronous Integration Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies multiresolution traffic flow simulation model of urban expressway. Firstly, compared with two-level hybrid model, three-level multiresolution hybrid model has been chosen. Then, multiresolution simulation framework and integration strategies are introduced. Thirdly, the paper proposes an urban expressway multiresolution traffic simulation model by asynchronous integration strategy based on Set Theory, which includes three submodels: macromodel, mesomodel, and micromodel. After that, the applicable conditions and derivation process of the three submodels are discussed in detail. In addition, in order to simulate and evaluate the multiresolution model, “simple simulation scenario” of North-South Elevated Expressway in Shanghai has been established. The simulation results showed the following. (1 Volume-density relationships of three submodels are unanimous with detector data. (2 When traffic density is high, macromodel has a high precision and smaller error and the dispersion of results is smaller. Compared with macromodel, simulation accuracies of micromodel and mesomodel are lower but errors are bigger. (3 Multiresolution model can simulate characteristics of traffic flow, capture traffic wave, and keep the consistency of traffic state transition. Finally, the results showed that the novel multiresolution model can have higher simulation accuracy and it is feasible and effective in the real traffic simulation scenario.

  6. Stability analyses of urban water supply systems with wastewater reuse; Toshi haisui no junkan riyo ni yoru mizu kyokyu anteika ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H.; Zhang, S. [Meijo Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Okada, N. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Disaster Prevention Research Inst.

    1995-10-20

    Wastewater reuse can be considered as a type of water resource development which is expected to improve the aquatic environment, as well as the stability and reliability of municipal water supply systems. To this extent, wastewater reuse has been taken into account in the planning of water supply systems in several Japanese cities. However, to date the effect of wastewater reuse on water supply system stabilization has not been discussed quantitatively, and the relation between waster water reuse rate and water supply system stability has not been analyzed. In this study, a stochastic model has been presented to evaluate the stability of water supply systems with optimal wastewater reuse rate. Some theoretical analyses and numerical studies were performed, and all of the results have shown that the model is reliable for not only basic studies on water supply system stability, but also for practical use as well. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Integrating seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation forward osmosis process using thin-film composite mixed matrix membrane with functionalized carbon nanotube blended polyethersulfone support layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Gyu; Son, Moon; Choi, Heechul

    2017-10-01

    Thin-film composite mixed matrix membrane (TFC MMM) with functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT) blended in polyethersulfone (PES) support layer was synthesized via interfacial polymerization and phase inversion. This membrane was firstly tested in lab-scale integrating seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation forward osmosis (FO) process. Water flux of TFC MMM was increased by 72% compared to that of TFC membrane due to enhanced hydrophilicity. Although TFC MMM showed lower water flux than TFC commercial membrane, enhanced reverse salt flux selectivity (RSFS) of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane (15% higher) and TFC commercial membrane (4% higher), representing membrane permselectivity. Under effluent organic matter (EfOM) fouling test, 16% less normalized flux decline of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane. There was 8% less decline of TFC MMM compared to TFC commercial membrane due to fCNT effect on repulsive foulant-membrane interaction enhancement, caused by negatively charged membrane surface. After 10 min physical cleaning, TFC MMM displayed higher recovered normalized flux than TFC membrane (6%) and TFC commercial membrane (4%); this was also supported by visualized characterization of fouling layer. This study presents application of TFC MMM to integrated seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation FO process for the first time. It can be concluded that EfOM fouling of TFC MMM was suppressed due to repulsive foulant-membrane interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The visual-landscape analysis during the integration of high-rise buildings within the historic urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akristiniy, Vera A.; Dikova, Elena A.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to one of the types of urban planning studies - the visual-landscape analysis during the integration of high-rise buildings within the historic urban environment for the purposes of providing pre-design and design studies in terms of preserving the historical urban environment and the implementation of the reconstructional resource of the area. In the article formed and systematized the stages and methods of conducting the visual-landscape analysis taking into account the influence of high-rise buildings on objects of cultural heritage and valuable historical buildings of the city. Practical application of the visual-landscape analysis provides an opportunity to assess the influence of hypothetical location of high-rise buildings on the perception of a historically developed environment and optimal building parameters. The contents of the main stages in the conduct of the visual - landscape analysis and their key aspects, concerning the construction of predicted zones of visibility of the significant historically valuable urban development objects and hypothetically planned of the high-rise buildings are revealed. The obtained data are oriented to the successive development of the planning and typological structure of the city territory and preservation of the compositional influence of valuable fragments of the historical environment in the structure of the urban landscape. On their basis, an information database is formed to determine the permissible urban development parameters of the high-rise buildings for the preservation of the compositional integrity of the urban area.

  9. The role of municipal committees in the development of an integrated urban water policy in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G M; Costa, H S M; Dias, J B; Welter, M G

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges involved in adopting an integrated approach to urban water policies and management, a particularly problematic issue in Brazil due to the incomplete nature of urbanization, defined as the lack of adequate and/or universalized access to infrastructure and services, informal housing and conflicts between environmental protection and social housing needs. In the last two decades strong social movements have influenced urban environmental policies from national to local levels. In Belo Horizonte since 1993, decision-making processes have involved important mechanisms of democratic inclusion, which have contributed to fairer urban policies. A brief discussion of the concept of governance follows, introducing the municipal urban policy within which drainage and sanitation policies have been implemented. This paper presents the constitutional and institutional role of the five municipal committees dealing with water governance issues, as they are important arenas for civil society participation. The main constraints to achieving integrated urban water governance at the local level and the extent to which such policies are able to reduce social inequalities and promote social environmental justice in the use and appropriation of urban water, are discussed. This paper is part of the SWITCH-Sustainable Water Management Improves Tomorrow's Cities' Health-research network.

  10. The visual-landscape analysis during the integration of high-rise buildings within the historic urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akristiniy Vera A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the types of urban planning studies - the visual-landscape analysis during the integration of high-rise buildings within the historic urban environment for the purposes of providing pre-design and design studies in terms of preserving the historical urban environment and the implementation of the reconstructional resource of the area. In the article formed and systematized the stages and methods of conducting the visual-landscape analysis taking into account the influence of high-rise buildings on objects of cultural heritage and valuable historical buildings of the city. Practical application of the visual-landscape analysis provides an opportunity to assess the influence of hypothetical location of high-rise buildings on the perception of a historically developed environment and optimal building parameters. The contents of the main stages in the conduct of the visual - landscape analysis and their key aspects, concerning the construction of predicted zones of visibility of the significant historically valuable urban development objects and hypothetically planned of the high-rise buildings are revealed. The obtained data are oriented to the successive development of the planning and typological structure of the city territory and preservation of the compositional influence of valuable fragments of the historical environment in the structure of the urban landscape. On their basis, an information database is formed to determine the permissible urban development parameters of the high-rise buildings for the preservation of the compositional integrity of the urban area.

  11. Separation of cadmium and lead from wastewater using supported liquid membrane integrated with in-situ electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatluri, Kamal Kumar; Manna, Mriganka Sekhar; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Saha, Prabirkumar

    2017-01-01

    A novel process for separation of heavy metals from liquid wastes and/or industrial effluents has been developed as described in this paper wherein the technique of supported liquid membrane based extraction and stripping of heavy metals has been augmented with electroplating inside the stripping chamber of SLM. Wastewater, infested with cadmium and lead, has been subject of research in this work. The said process is employed in transporting the heavy metals from the polluted source phase (wastewater) to the sink (or strip) phase while simultaneously depositing the heavy metals in-situ on the electrode placed inside the strip phase, and thereby the strip phase is remained ever-unsaturated. This arrangement yields high gradient of chemical potential across the liquid membrane and thereby facilitates enhanced and faster recovery of said heavy metals and also yields value added component, viz. electroplated items, for suitable end use.

  12. Two-step treatment of harmful industrial wastewater: an analysis of microbial reactor with integrated membrane retention for benzene and toluene removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trusek-Holownia Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Standards for highly toxic and carcinogenic pollutants impose strict guidelines, requiring values close to zero, regarding the degradation of such pollutants in industrial streams. In many cases, classic bioremoval processes fail. Therefore, we proposed a stream leaving the microbial membrane bioreactor (MBR that is directed to an additional membrane separation mode (NF/RO. Under certain conditions, the integrated process not only benefits the environment but may also increase the profitability of the bioreactor operation. An appropriate model was developed and tested in which the bioremoval of benzene and toluene by Pseudomonas fluorescens was used as an example. This paper presents equations for selecting the operation parameters of the integrated system to achieve the expected degree of industrial wastewater purification.

  13. Glocal assessment of integrated wastewater treatment and recovery concepts using partial nitritation/Anammox and microalgae for environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiewwijit, Rungnapha; Rijnaarts, Huub; Temmink, Hardy; Keesman, Karel J

    2018-07-01

    This study explored the feasibility and estimated the environmental impacts of two novel wastewater treatment configurations. Both include combined bioflocculation and anaerobic digestion but apply different nutrient removal technologies, i.e. partial nitritation/Anammox or microalgae treatment. The feasibility of such configurations was investigated for 16 locations worldwide with respect to environmental impacts, such as net energy yield, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, CO 2 emission, and area requirements. The results quantitatively support the applicability of partial nitritation/Anammox in tropical regions and some locations in temperate regions, whereas microalgae treatment is only applicable the whole year round in tropical regions that are close to the equator line. Microalgae treatment has an advantage over the configuration with partial nitritation/Anammox with respect to aeration energy and nutrient recovery, but not with area requirements. Differential sensitivity analysis points out the dominant influence of microalgal biomass yield and wastewater nutrient concentrations on area requirements and effluent quality. This study provides initial selection criteria for worldwide feasibility and corresponding environmental impacts of these novel municipal wastewater treatment plant configurations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The next generation of urban MACCs. Reassessing the cost-effectiveness of urban mitigation options by integrating a systemic approach and social costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saujot, Mathieu; Lefèvre, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Many cities are implementing policies and climate action plans. Yet local climate policies suffer from a lack of scientific understanding and evaluation methods able to support the definition of efficient mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to build on classical approaches in the energy policy field that exist at the national and international level to propose an urban MACCs methodology able to fulfill this lack and inform local debates. The methodology is an extension of static “expert-based” MACCs; it combines a land use transport integrated model and an abatement cost methodology that integrates co-benefits, and takes into account the spatial and systemic dimensions of cities. The methodology is implemented for the transportation sector of a mid-sized European city (Grenoble, France). Our results present the cost-effectiveness and political feasibility of several proposed measures. We find that the inclusion of co-benefits can profoundly change the cost-benefit assessment of transport mitigation options. Moreover we underline the key