WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated optical waveguide

  1. Advanced materials for integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Ph D, Xingcun Colin

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, ...

  2. Wave-guided optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, George

    2012-01-01

    This work primarily aims to fabricate and use two photon polymerization (2PP) microstructures capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. We have integrated optical waveguides into the structures and therefore have freestanding waveguides, which can be positioned anywhe...... bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the subwavelength domain....

  3. Designing neutral-atom nanotraps with integrated optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, James P. Jr.; Chu, S.-T.; Bryant, Garnett W.; Williams, C.J.; Julienne, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated optical structures offer the intriguing potential of compact, reproducible waveguide arrays, rings, Y junctions, etc., that could be used to design evanescent field traps to transport, store, and interact atoms in networks as complicated as any integrated optical waveguide circuit. We theoretically investigate three approaches to trapping atoms above linear integrated optical waveguides. A two-color scheme balances the decaying evanescent fields of red- and blue-detuned light to produce a potential minimum above the guide. A one-color surface trap proposal uses blue-detuned light and the attractive surface interaction to provide a potential minimum. A third proposal uses blue-detuned light in two guides positioned above and below one another. The atoms are confined to the 'dark' spot in the vacuum gap between the guides. We find that all three approaches can be used to trap atoms in two or three dimensions with approximately 100 mW of laser power. We show that the dark spot guide is robust to light scatter and provides the most viable approach for constructing integrated optical circuits that could be used to transport and manipulate atoms in a controlled manner

  4. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  5. Plasma synthesis of rare earth doped integrated optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoux, S.; Anders, S.; Yu, K.M.; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ivanov, I.C. [Charles Evans & Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    We describe a novel means for the production of optically active planar waveguides. The makes use of a low energy plasma deposition. Cathodic-arc-produced metal plasmas the metallic components of the films and gases are added to form compound films. Here we discuss the synthesis of Al{sub 2{minus}x}ER{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films. The erbium concentration (x) can vary from 0 to 100% and the thickness of the film can be from Angstroms to microns. In such material, at high active center concentration (x=l% to 20%), erbium ions give rise to room temperature 1.53{mu}m emission which has minimum loss in silica-based optical fibers. With this technique, multilayer integrated planar waveguide structures can be grown, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2{minus}x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si, for example.

  6. Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Andersen, Karin Nordström; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides clad in silica are presented as a high-index contrast platform for high density integrated optics. Performance of different cross-sectional geometries have been measured and are presented with regards to bending loss and insertion loss...

  7. Fluorescence monitoring of capillary electrophoresis separation of biomolecules with monolithically integrated optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Ramponi, R.; Cerullo, G.; van Weeghel, R.; Besselink, G.A.J.; van den Vlekkert, H.H.; Pollnau, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic integration of optical waveguides in a commercial lab-on-a-chip by femtosecond-laser material processing enables arbitrary 3D geometries of optical sensing structures in combination with fluidic microchannels. Integrated fluorescence monitoring of molecular separation, as applicable in

  8. Integrated-optic current sensors with a multimode interference waveguide device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Moon; Chu, Woo-Sung; Kim, Sang-Guk; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2016-04-04

    Optical current sensors based on polarization-rotated reflection interferometry are demonstrated using polymeric integrated optics and various functional optical waveguide devices. Interferometric sensors normally require bias feedback control for maintaining the operating point, which increases the cost. In order to resolve this constraint of feedback control, a multimode interference (MMI) waveguide device is integrated onto the current-sensor optical chip in this work. From the multiple outputs of the MMI, a 90° phase-shifted transfer function is obtained. Using passive quadrature demodulation, we demonstrate that the sensor could maintain the output signal regardless of the drift in the operating bias-point.

  9. Monolithic integration of DUV-induced waveguides into plastic microfluidic chip for optical manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2014-01-01

    A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 dB/mm at a wavelen......A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 d......B/mm at a wavelength of λ = 808 nm. An optimized bead tracking algorithm is implemented, allowing for determination of the optical forces acting on the particles. The algorithm features a spatio-temporal mapping of coordinates for uniting partial trajectories, without increased processing time. With an external laser...

  10. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Simone Fohrmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  11. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohrmann, Lena Simone; Sommer, Gerrit; Pitruzzello, Giampaolo; Krauss, Thomas F.; Petrov, Alexander Yu.; Eich, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC) mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  12. 24-ch microlens-integrated no-polish connector for optical interconnection with polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takashi; Yagisawa, Takatoshi; Ikeuchi, Tadashi; Daikuhara, Osamu; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2013-02-01

    We successfully developed a new 24-ch optical connector for polymer waveguides. The connector consists of a transparent thermoplastic resin that has two rectangular slits on one side for alignment of the waveguide films and integrated microlens arrays on the other side for coupling to the MT connector. Two 12-ch waveguide films were cut to a 3-mm width. The thickness of each waveguide film was controlled at 100 μm. The waveguide films were inserted into the slits until they touched the bottom face of the slit. Ultraviolet curing adhesive was used to achieve a short hardening process. The expanded beam in the transparent material is focused by the microlens arrays formed on the connector surface. This lens structure enables assembly without the need for a polishing process. We designed the lens for coupling between a step-index 40-μm rectangular waveguide and a graded-index 50-μm fiber. We achieved low-loss optical coupling by designing a method of providing asymmetric magnification between the horizontal and vertical directions in order to compensate for the asymmetric numerical aperture of the waveguide. The typical measured coupling losses from/to the waveguide to/from the fiber were 1.2 dB and 0.6 dB, respectively. The total coupling loss was as small as that of a physical contact connection.

  13. Complete achromatic and robustness electro-optic switch between two integrated optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Kyoseva, Elica

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel design of electro-optic modulator and optical switching device, based on current integrated optics technique. The advantages of our optical switching device are broadband of input light wavelength, robustness against varying device length and operation voltages, with reference to previous design. Conforming to our results of previous paper [Huang et al, phys. lett. a, 90, 053837], the coupling of the waveguides has a hyperbolic-secant shape. while detuning has a sign flip at maximum coupling, we called it as with a sign flip of phase mismatch model. The a sign flip of phase mismatch model can produce complete robust population transfer. In this paper, we enhance this device to switch light intensity controllable, by tuning external electric field based on electro-optic effect.

  14. Polymer waveguides for electro-optical integration in data centers and high-performance computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangel, Roger; Hofrichter, Jens; Horst, Folkert; Jubin, Daniel; La Porta, Antonio; Meier, Norbert; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Weiss, Jonas; Offrein, Bert Jan

    2015-02-23

    To satisfy the intra- and inter-system bandwidth requirements of future data centers and high-performance computers, low-cost low-power high-throughput optical interconnects will become a key enabling technology. To tightly integrate optics with the computing hardware, particularly in the context of CMOS-compatible silicon photonics, optical printed circuit boards using polymer waveguides are considered as a formidable platform. IBM Research has already demonstrated the essential silicon photonics and interconnection building blocks. A remaining challenge is electro-optical packaging, i.e., the connection of the silicon photonics chips with the system. In this paper, we present a new single-mode polymer waveguide technology and a scalable method for building the optical interface between silicon photonics chips and single-mode polymer waveguides.

  15. Monolithic integration of optical waveguides for absorbance detection in microfabricated electrophoresis devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Hübner, Jörg

    2001-01-01

    . The waveguides on the device were connected to optical fibers, which enabled alignment free operation due to the absence of free-space optics. A 750 mum long U-shaped detection cell was used to facilitate longitudinal absorption detection. To minimize geometrically induced band broadening at the turn in the U......The fabrication and performance of an electrophoretic separation chip with integrated of optical waveguides for absorption detection is presented. The device was fabricated on a silicon substrate by standard microfabrication techniques with the use of two photolithographic mask steps...

  16. Directional radiation of Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Cheon, Sangmo; Jeong Kim, Un; Hwang, Sung Woo; Park, Yeonsang; Lee, Chang-Won

    2015-07-01

    We present a Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide. Using an integrated nanoantenna, we can couple the plasmon guide mode in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure into the resonant antenna feed directly. The resonantly excited feed slot then radiates to free space and generates a magnetic dipole-like far-field pattern. The coupling efficiency of the integrated nanoantenna is calculated as being approximately 19% using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) simulation. By adding an auxiliary groove structure along with the feed, the radiation direction can be controlled similar to an optical Yagi-Uda antenna. We also determine, both theoretically and experimentally, that groove depth plays a significant role to function groove structure as a reflector or a director. The demonstrated Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide can be used as a “plasmonic via” in plasmonic nanocircuits.

  17. Structure of modes of smoothly irregular three-dimensional integrated optical four-layer waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.A.; Ajryan, Eh.A.; Sevast'yanov, A.L.; Sevast'yanov, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a method of research of an integrated optical multilayer waveguide, satisfying the condition of smooth modification of the shape of the studied three-dimensional structure, an asymptotic method is used. Three-dimensional fields of smoothly deforming modes of the integrated optical waveguide are circumscribed analytically. An evident dependence of the contributions of the first order of smallness in the amplitudes of the electrical and magnetic fields of the quasi-waveguide modes is obtained. The canonical type of the equations circumscribing propagation of quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes in the smoothly irregular part of a four-layer integrated optical waveguide is represented for an asymptotic method. With the help of the method of coupled waves and perturbation theory method, the shifts of complex propagation constants for quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes are obtained in an explicit form. The elaborated theory is applicable for the analysis of similar structures of dielectric, magnetic and metamaterials in a sufficiently broad band of electromagnetic wavelengths

  18. Optical waveguide demultiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdaj, Yu.O.; Maslyukyivs'kij, R.M.; Sirota, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    For channels division in fibre-optical networks with wavelength multiplexing, the planar waveguide together with a prism coupler is offered for using. The planar waveguide fulfils a role of a dispersing unit, and prism coupler is the selector of optical channels. The parameters of the planar waveguide which provide maximal space division of adjacent information channels in networks with coarse wavelength multiplexing are calculated

  19. Cantilever-based sensor with integrated optical read-out using single mode waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Calleja, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication and mechanical characterisation of an integrated optical read-out scheme for cantilever-based biosensors. A cantilever can be used as a biosensor by monitoring its bending caused by the surface stress generated due to chemical reactions occurring on its...... surface. Here, we present a novel integrated optical read-out scheme based on single-mode waveguides that enables the fabrication of a compact system. The complete system is fabricated in the polymer SU-8. This manuscript shows the principle of operation and the design well as the fabrication...

  20. Integrated optical waveguides and inertial focussing microfluidics in silica for microflow cytometry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butement, Jonathan T; Rowe, David J; Sessions, Neil P; Hua, Ping; Murugan, G Senthil; Wilkinson, James S; Clark, Owain; Chad, John E; Hunt, Hamish C

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in the development of a microflow cytometry platform is the integration of the optical components with the fluidics as this requires compatible micro-optical and microfluidic technologies. In this work a microflow cytometry platform is presented comprising monolithically integrated waveguides and deep microfluidics in a rugged silica chip. Integrated waveguides are used to deliver excitation light to an etched microfluidic channel and also collect transmitted light. The fluidics are designed to employ inertial focussing, a particle positioning technique, to reduce signal variation by bringing the flowing particles onto the same plane as the excitation light beam. A fabrication process is described which exploits microelectronics mass production techniques including: sputtering, ICP etching and PECVD. Example devices were fabricated and the effectiveness of inertial focussing of 5.6 µ m fluorescent beads was studied showing lateral and vertical confinement of flowing beads within the microfluidic channel. The fluorescence signals from flowing calibration beads were quantified demonstrating a CV of 26%. Finally the potential of this type of device for measuring the variation in optical transmission from input to output waveguide as beads flowed through the beam was evaluated. (paper)

  1. Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-04-28

    A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides. 7 figs.

  2. Coupled nanopillar waveguides: optical properties and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    , while guided modes dispersion is strongly affected by the waveguide structure. We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of coupled nanopillar waveguides and discuss their possible applications for integrated optics. (C) 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim......In this paper we review basic properties of coupled periodic and aperiodic nanopillar waveguides. A coupled nanopillar waveguide consists of several rows of periodically or aperiodically placed dielectric rods (pillars). In such a waveguide, light confinement is due to the total internal reflection...

  3. Ge22As20Se58 glass ultrafast laser inscribed waveguides for mid-IR integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, James M.; Mackenzie, Mark D.; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg

    2018-01-01

    Ultrafast laser inscription has been used to produce channel waveguides in Ge22As20Se58 glass (GASIR-1, Umicore N.V). The mode field diameter and waveguide losses at 2.94 mu m were measured along with the waveguide dispersion in the 1 to 4.5 mu m range, which is used to estimate the zero-dispersi...... ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide devices in GASIR-1 for mid-IR integrated optics applications. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.......Ultrafast laser inscription has been used to produce channel waveguides in Ge22As20Se58 glass (GASIR-1, Umicore N.V). The mode field diameter and waveguide losses at 2.94 mu m were measured along with the waveguide dispersion in the 1 to 4.5 mu m range, which is used to estimate the zero......-dispersion wavelength. Z-scan measurements of bulk samples have also been performed to determine the nonlinear refractive index. Finally, midIR supercontinuum generation has been shown when pumping the waveguides with femtosecond pulses centered at 4.6 mu m. Supercontinuum spanning approximately 4 mu m from 2.5 to 6...

  4. Integrated mechano-optical hydrogen gas sensor using cantilever bending readout with a Si3N4 grated waveguide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Dijkstra, Mindert; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Pollnau, Markus; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    We demonstrate a proof of concept of a novel and compact integrated mechano-optical sensor for H2 detection based on a microcantilever suspended above a Si3N4 grated waveguide. The fabricated devices are mechanically and optically modeled and characterized. Sensing operation of the sensor is

  5. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  6. Progress in planar optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianping; Cao, Zhuangqi

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of various slab waveguide structures ranged from graded-index waveguide to symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. In this book, the transfer Matrix method is developed and applied to analyze the simplest case and the complex generalizations. A novel symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide structure is proposed and systematically investigated for several issues of interest, such as biochemical sensing, Goos-Hänchen shift and the slow light effect, etc. Besides, this book summarizes the authors’ research works on waveguides over the last decade. The readers who are familiar with basic optics theory may find this book easy to read and rather inspiring.

  7. Optical waveguide theory

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Allan W

    1983-01-01

    This text is intended to provide an in-depth, self-contained, treatment of optical waveguide theory. We have attempted to emphasize the underlying physical processes, stressing conceptual aspects, and have developed the mathematical analysis to parallel the physical intuition. We also provide comprehensive supplementary sections both to augment any deficiencies in mathematical background and to provide a self-consistent and rigorous mathematical approach. To assist in. understanding, each chapter con­ centrates principally on a single idea and is therefore comparatively short. Furthermore, over 150 problems with complete solutions are given to demonstrate applications of the theory. Accordingly, through simplicity of approach and numerous examples, this book is accessible to undergraduates. Many fundamental topics are presented here for the first time, but, more importantly, the material is brought together to give a unified treatment of basic ideas using the simplest approach possible. To achieve such a goa...

  8. Silicon-Nitride-based Integrated Optofluidic Biochemical Sensors using a Coupled-Resonator Optical Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei eWANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nitride (SiN is a promising material platform for integrating photonic components and microfluidic channels on a chip for label-free, optical biochemical sensing applications in the visible to near-infrared wavelengths. The chip-scale SiN-based optofluidic sensors can be compact due to a relatively high refractive index contrast between SiN and the fluidic medium, and low-cost due to the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS-compatible fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate SiN-based integrated optofluidic biochemical sensors using a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW in the visible wavelengths. The working principle is based on imaging in the far field the out-of-plane elastic-light-scattering patterns of the CROW sensor at a fixed probe wavelength. We correlate the imaged pattern with reference patterns at the CROW eigenstates. Our sensing algorithm maps the correlation coefficients of the imaged pattern with a library of calibrated correlation coefficients to extract a minute change in the cladding refractive index. Given a calibrated CROW, our sensing mechanism in the spatial domain only requires a fixed-wavelength laser in the visible wavelengths as a light source, with the probe wavelength located within the CROW transmission band, and a silicon digital charge-coupled device (CCD / CMOS camera for recording the light scattering patterns. This is in sharp contrast with the conventional optical microcavity-based sensing methods that impose a strict requirement of spectral alignment with a high-quality cavity resonance using a wavelength-tunable laser. Our experimental results using a SiN CROW sensor with eight coupled microrings in the 680nm wavelength reveal a cladding refractive index change of ~1.3 × 10^-4 refractive index unit (RIU, with an average sensitivity of ~281 ± 271 RIU-1 and a noise-equivalent detection limit (NEDL of 1.8 ×10^-8 RIU ~ 1.0 ×10^-4 RIU across the CROW bandwidth of ~1 nm.

  9. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG

    1992-01-01

    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  10. Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyken B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The strong nonlinear response of silicon photonic nanowire waveguides allows for the integration of nonlinear optical functions on a chip. However, the detrimental nonlinear optical absorption in silicon at telecom wavelengths limits the efficiency of many such experiments. In this review, several approaches are proposed and demonstrated to overcome this fundamental issue. By using the proposed methods, we demonstrate amongst others supercontinuum generation, frequency comb generation, a parametric optical amplifier, and a parametric optical oscillator.

  11. Coupled-resonator optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor

    2010-01-01

    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex-valued paramet......Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex...

  12. Omnidirectional optical waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-08-02

    In one embodiment, a system includes a scintillator material; a detector coupled to the scintillator material; and an omnidirectional waveguide coupled to the scintillator material, the omnidirectional waveguide comprising: a plurality of first layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a first range; and a plurality of second layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a second range, the second range being lower than the first range, a plurality of interfaces being defined between alternating ones of the first and second layers. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing alternating layers of a material having a relatively high refractive index and a material having a relatively low refractive index on a substrate to form an omnidirectional waveguide; and coupling the omnidirectional waveguide to at least one surface of a scintillator material.

  13. Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bureau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the remarkable properties of chalcogenide (Chg glasses, Chg optical waveguides should play a significant role in the development of optical biosensors. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of chalcogenide fibres and planar waveguides. Using optical fibre transparent in the mid-infrared spectral range we have developed a biosensor that can collect information on whole metabolism alterations, rapidly and in situ. Thanks to this sensor it is possible to collect infrared spectra by remote spectroscopy, by simple contact with the sample. In this way, we tried to determine spectral modifications due, on the one hand, to cerebral metabolism alterations caused by a transient focal ischemia in the rat brain and, in the other hand, starvation in the mouse liver. We also applied a microdialysis method, a well known technique for in vivo brain metabolism studies, as reference. In the field of integrated microsensors, reactive ion etching was used to pattern rib waveguides between 2 and 300 μm wide. This technique was used to fabricate Y optical junctions for optical interconnections on chalcogenide amorphous films, which can potentially increase the sensitivity and stability of an optical micro-sensor. The first tests were also carried out to functionalise the Chg planar waveguides with the aim of using them as (biosensors.

  14. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in silica on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Peter; Hoppe, Karsten; Leistiko, Otto

    2001-01-01

    -back technique are possible, but troublesome. We present a simple but efficient alternative: By means of changing the waveguide layout, bonding pads are formed along the microfluidic channels. With the same height as the waveguide, they effectively prevent leakage and hermetically seal the channels during...

  15. Rare-earth-ion-doped Al2O3 waveguides for active integrated optical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradley, J.; Ay, F.; Blauwendraat, Tom; Worhoff, Kerstin; Pollnau, Markus; Orlovic, Valentin A.; Panchenko, Vladislav; Scherbakov, Ivan A.

    2007-01-01

    Reactively co-sputtered amorphous $Al_2O_3$ waveguide layers with low propagation losses have been deposited. In order to define channel waveguides in such $Al_2O_3$ films, the etching behaviour of $Al_2O_3$ has been investigated using an inductively coupled reactive ion etch system. The etch rate

  16. FIBER AND INTEGRATED OPTICS: Bandgap modes in a coupled waveguide array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usievich, B. A.; Nurligareev, D. Kh; Svetikov, V. V.; Sychugov, V. A.

    2009-08-01

    This work examines a waveguide array that consists of ten Nb2O5/SiO2 double layers and supports a 0.63-μm surface wave. The deposition of a Nb2O5 capping layer on top of the waveguide array enables a marked increase in the wave field intensity on its surface. The efficiency of surface-wave excitation in the Kretschmann configuration can be optimised by adjusting the number of double layers. We analyse the behaviour of the Bragg mode in relation to the thickness of the layer exposed to air and the transition of this mode from the second allowed band to the first through the bandgap of the system. In addition, the conventional leaky mode converts to a surface mode and then to a guided mode.

  17. Reconfigurable optical manipulation by phase change material waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhang; Mei, Shengtao; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hong; Lim, Chwee Teck; Teng, Jinghua

    2017-05-25

    Optical manipulation by dielectric waveguides enables the transportation of particles and biomolecules beyond diffraction limits. However, traditional dielectric waveguides could only transport objects in the forward direction which does not fulfill the requirements of the next generation lab-on-chip system where the integrated manipulation system should be much more flexible and multifunctional. In this work, bidirectional transportation of objects on the nanoscale is demonstrated on a rectangular waveguide made of the phase change material Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) by numerical simulations. Either continuous pushing forces or pulling forces are generated on the trapped particles when the GST is in the amorphous or crystalline phase. With the technique of a femtosecond laser induced phase transition on the GST, we further proposed a reconfigurable optical trap array on the same waveguide. This work demonstrates GST waveguide's potential of achieving multifunctional manipulation of multiple objects on the nanoscale with plausible optical setups.

  18. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  19. Planar integrated optical waveguide used as a transducer to yield chemical information: detection of the activity of proteolytic enzymes e.g. serine-proteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhylyak, Gleb; Ramoz-Perez, Victor; Linnhoff, Michael; Hug, Thomas; Citterio, Daniel; Spichiger-Keller, Ursula E.

    2005-03-01

    The paper shows the very first results of a feasibility study where the activity of proteolytic enzymes towards dye-labelled artificial substrates immobilized on the surface of planar optical Ta2O5 waveguide was investigated. Within this project, a chromophore label was developed, synthesized and attached to the carboxy-terminus of specific tripeptides. The goal was to develop a highly sensitive optical assay in order to monitor the activity of serine-proteases by cleavage of the amide bond between peptide and chromophore. On the one hand, a strategy was developed to immobilize the labeled tripeptide unto integrated planar waveguides. On the other hand, an instrument, the so-called "chip-reader" was developed to detect the biological process on the surface of the integrated planar optical waveguide. Surface characteristics were analyzed by XPS, TOF-SIMS and contact angle measurements. A comparison between the effectivity of ATR-photometry on chip using TE0 mode and photometry in transmission mode is discussed.

  20. Integrated optical devices based on sol – gel waveguides using the temperature dependence of the effective refractive index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, S V; Trofimov, N S; Chekhlova, T K [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-31

    A possibility of designing optical waveguide devices based on sol – gel SiO{sub 2} – TiO{sub 2} films using the temperature dependence of the effective refractive index is shown. The dependences of the device characteristics on the parameters of the film and opticalsystem elements are analysed. The operation of a temperature recorder and a temperature limiter with a resolution of 0.6 K mm{sup -1} is demonstrated. The film and output-prism parameters are optimised. (fibreoptic and nonlinear-optic devices)

  1. Investigation for connecting waveguide in off-planar integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Feng, Zhifang

    2017-09-01

    The transmission properties of a vertical waveguide connected by different devices in off-planar integrated circuits are designed, investigated, and analyzed in detail by the finite-difference time-domain method. The results show that both guide bandwidth and transmission efficiency can be adjusted effectively by shifting the vertical waveguide continuously. Surprisingly, the wide guide band (0.385[c/a]∼0.407[c/a]) and well transmission (-6  dB) are observed simultaneously in several directions when the vertical waveguide is located at a specific location. The results are very important for all-optical integrated circuits, especially in compact integration.

  2. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016...... approaches. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  3. Incorporating an optical waveguide into a neural interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolosa, Vanessa; Delima, Terri L.; Felix, Sarah H.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Shah, Kedar G.; Sheth, Heeral; Tooker, Angela C.

    2016-11-08

    An optical waveguide integrated into a multielectrode array (MEA) neural interface includes a device body, at least one electrode in the device body, at least one electrically conducting lead coupled to the at least one electrode, at least one optical channel in the device body, and waveguide material in the at least one optical channel. The fabrication of a neural interface device includes the steps of providing a device body, providing at least one electrode in the device body, providing at least one electrically conducting lead coupled to the at least one electrode, providing at least one optical channel in the device body, and providing a waveguide material in the at least one optical channel.

  4. Optical electronics self-organized integration and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Tetsuzo

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionFrom Electronics to Optical ElectronicsAnalysis Tools for Optical CircuitsSelf-Organized Optical Waveguides: Theoretical AnalysisSelf-Organized Optical Waveguides: Experimental DemonstrationsOptical Waveguide Films with Vertical Mirrors 3-D Optical Circuits with Stacked Waveguide Films Heterogeneous Thin-Film Device IntegrationOptical Switches OE Hardware Built by Optical ElectronicsIntegrated Solar Energy Conversion SystemsFuture Challenges.

  5. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-02-01

    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  6. Sm 3+-doped polymer optical waveguide amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihui; Tsang, Kwokchu; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Xu, Shiqing

    2010-04-01

    Trivalent samarium ion (Sm 3+) doped SU8 polymer materials were synthesized and characterized. Intense red emission at 645 nm was observed under UV laser light excitation. Spectroscopic investigations show that the doped materials are suitable for realizing planar optical waveguide amplifiers. About 100 μm wide multimode Sm 3+-doped SU8 channel waveguides were fabricated using a simple UV exposure process. At 250 mW, 351 nm UV pump power, a signal enhancement of ˜7.4 dB at 645 nm was obtained for a 15 mm long channel waveguide.

  7. Optical waveguides in lithium niobate: Recent developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzan, Marco, E-mail: marco.bazzan@unipd.it; Sada, Cinzia, E-mail: cinzia.sada@unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The state of the art of optical waveguide fabrication in lithium niobate is reviewed, with particular emphasis on new technologies and recent applications. The attention is mainly devoted to recently developed fabrication methods, such as femtosecond laser writing, ion implantation, and smart cut waveguides as well as to the realization of waveguides with tailored functionalities, such as photorefractive or domain engineered structures. More exotic systems, such as reconfigurable and photorefractive soliton waveguides, are also considered. Classical techniques, such as Ti in-diffusion and proton exchange, are cited and briefly reviewed as a reference standpoint to highlight the recent developments. In all cases, the application-oriented point of view is preferred, in order to provide the reader with an up-to date panorama of the vast possibilities offered by lithium niobate to integrated photonics.

  8. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2011-01-01

    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touching...

  9. Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowire Based Optical Waveguide Biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingyu; Liu, Yong; Chen, Yangqing; He, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire have been developed for label free molecular detection. This paper reviews our work on the design, fabrication and measurement of SOI nanowire based high-sensitivity biosensors employing Vernier effect. Biosensing experiments using cascaded double-ring sensor and Mach-Zehnder- ring sensor integrated with microfluidic channels are demonstrated (paper)

  10. Utilization of optical waveguides in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darikova, A.; Vanickova, M.; Matejec, V.; Pospisilova, M.

    1994-01-01

    Some optical waveguides used for communication purposes are very sensitive to ionizing radiation.Ionizing radiation radiation affects the optical waveguides by creating color centers that are responsible for the transmission loss.This transmission loss is the function of wavelength of the passing light. The dose of ionizing radiation will manifest itself not only in the magnitude of the transmission loss value but even in changing the position of maximum of the transmission loss curve with respect to the wavelength. The position of the maximum is stable in time and temperature and independent of dose rate. The study of effects of ionizing radiation on the optical waveguides leads to the possibility of utilizing them not only as sensors of ionizing radiation but even as a dosimeters. 4 figs., 2 refs. (author)

  11. A unified approach for radiative losses and backscattering in optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melati, D; Morichetti, F; Melloni, A

    2014-01-01

    Sidewall roughness in optical waveguides represents a severe impairment for the proper functionality of photonic integrated circuits. The interaction between the propagating mode and the roughness is responsible for both radiative losses and distributed backscattering. In this paper, a unified vision on these extrinsic loss phenomena is discussed, highlighting the fundamental role played by the sensitivity of the effective index n eff of the optical mode to waveguide width variations. The n w model presented applies to both 2D slab waveguides and 3D laterally confined waveguides and is in very good agreement with existing models that individually describe radiative loss or backscattering only. Experimental results are presented, demonstrating the validity of the n w model for arbitrary waveguide geometries and technologies. This approach enables an accurate description of realistic optical waveguides and provides simple design rules for optimization of the waveguide geometry in order to reduce the propagation losses generated by sidewall roughness. (paper)

  12. Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hiremath, K. R.; Hammer, M.; Stoffer, R.; Prkna, Ladislav; Čtyroký, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 37, 1/3 (2005), s. 37-61 ISSN 0306-8919 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0987 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) IST-2000-28018 NAIS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : integrated optics * optical waveguide theory * modelling Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.688, year: 2005

  13. Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, H K; Liu, Y

    2008-01-01

    Recent work on two-photon absorption (TPA), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and optical Kerr effect in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides is reviewed and some potential applications of these optical nonlinearities, including silicon-based autocorrelation detectors, optical amplifiers, high speed optical switches, optical wavelength converters and self-phase modulation (SPM), are highlighted. The importance of free carriers generated by TPA in nonlinear devices is discussed, and a generalized definition of the nonlinear effective length to cater for nonlinear losses is proposed. How carrier lifetime engineering, and in particular the use of helium ion implantation, can enhance the nonlinear effective length for nonlinear devices is also discussed

  14. Planar optical waveguide sensor of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Curley, Michael J.; Boykin, Courtney; Diggs, Darnell E.; Grote, James G.; Hopkins, Frank K.

    2004-12-01

    We describe a novel sensor of ammonia based on a planar optical waveguide made of a thin film of polymer polyimide doped with indicator dye bromocresol purple. The film of dye-doped polyimide demonstrated reversible increase of absorption with a peak near 600 nm in response to presence of ammonia in ambient air. Coupling of input and output optic fibers with the waveguide was done by means of coupling prisms or coupling grooves. The latter configuration has the advantage of low cost, less sensitivity to temperature variation, and the possibility of coupling from both sides of the waveguide. Special experimental setup was built to test the sensor. It included test gas chamber with sealed optic fiber feed-throughs, gas filling line, laser source, photodetector, and signal processing hardware and software. The sensor was capable of detecting 100 ppm of ammonia in air within 8 seconds. Further increase of sensitivity can be achieved by adding more dye dopant to the polymer, increase of the length of the waveguide, and suppression of noise. Overexposure of the sensor to more than 5000 ppm of ammonia led to the saturation of the polymer film and, as a result, significant decrease of sensitivity and increase of the response time. The sensor can be used as low cost component of a distributed optical network of chemical sensors for monitoring presence of hazardous industrial pollutants in air.

  15. Waveguide Cavity Resonator as a Source of Optical Squeezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefszky, M.; Ricken, R.; Eigner, C.; Quiring, V.; Herrmann, H.; Silberhorn, C.

    2017-04-01

    We present the generation of continuous-wave optical squeezing from a titanium-in-diffused lithium niobate waveguide resonator. We directly measure 2.9 ±0.1 dB of single-mode squeezing, which equates to a produced level of 4.9 ±0.1 dB after accounting for detection losses. This device showcases the current capabilities of this waveguide architecture and precipitates more complicated integrated continuous-wave quantum devices in the continuous-variable regime.

  16. Peptide Integrated Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Lapshina, Nadezda; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2018-02-01

    Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding. Developed new technology combining bottom-up controlled deposition of peptide planar wafers of a large area and top-down focus ion beam lithography provides direct fabrication of peptide optical integrated circuits. Finding a deep modification of peptide optical properties by reconformation of biological secondary structure from native phase to β-sheet architecture is followed by the appearance of visible fluorescence and unexpected transition from a native passive optical waveguiding to an active one. Original biocompatibility, switchable regimes of waveguiding, and multifunctional nonlinear optical properties make these new peptide planar optical materials attractive for application in emerging technology of lab-on-biochips, combining biomedical photonic and electronic circuits toward medical diagnosis, light-activated therapy, and health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical interchip communication on board level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The large bandwidth demand in long-distance telecom networks lead to single-mode fiber interconnects as result of low dispersion, low loss and dense wavelength multiplexing possibilities. In contrast, multi-mode interconnects are suitable for much shorter lengths up to 300 meters and are promising for optical links between racks and on board level. Active optical cables based on multi-mode fiber links are at the market and research in multi-mode waveguide integration on board level is still going on. Compared to multi-mode, a single-mode waveguide has much more integration potential because of core diameters of around 20% of a multi-mode waveguide by a much larger bandwidth. But light coupling in single-mode waveguides is much more challenging because of lower coupling tolerances. Together with the silicon photonics technology, a single-mode waveguide technology on board-level will be the straight forward development goal for chip-to-chip optical interconnects integration. Such a hybrid packaging platform providing 3D optical single-mode links bridges the gap between novel photonic integrated circuits and the glass fiber based long-distance telecom networks. Following we introduce our 3D photonic packaging approach based on thin glass substrates with planar integrated optical single-mode waveguides for fiber-to-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects. This novel packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. It consists of a thin glass substrate with planar integrated singlemode waveguide circuits, optical mirrors and lenses providing an integration platform for photonic IC assembly and optical fiber interconnect. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer formats and characterizes excellent optical and high-frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. The paper presents recent results in single-mode waveguide technology on wafer level and waveguide characterization. Furthermore the integration in a

  18. An Electrochromatography Chip with Integrated Waveguides for UV Absorbance Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Omar; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Ohlsson, Pelle Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A silicon-based microchip for electrochromatographic separations is presented. Apart from a microfluidic network, the microchip has integrated UV-transparent waveguides for detection and integrated couplers for optical fibers on the chip, yielding the most complete chromatography microchip to date...... to the waveguides. The entire oxidized silicon microchip structure is sealed with a glass lid. Reversed phase electrochromatographic separation of three neutral compounds is demonstrated using UV absorbance detection at 254 nm. Baseline separation of the analytes is achieved in less than two minutes....

  19. COMPACT ATHERMAL OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE USING THERMAL EXPANSION AMPLIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method of temperature stabilising optical waveguides having positive thermal optical path length expansion, in particular fiber Bragg gratings or optical fiber DFB lasers or optical fiber DBR lasers, comprising affixing the optical waveguide to at least two points of a negative expanding fixture...

  20. "Unmanned” optical micromanipulation using waveguide microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2013-01-01

    be shaped more arbitrarily, engineered light deflection could lead to more control in the resulting motion. We demonstrated this principle with the autonomous translation of bent waveguides though pre-defined light tracks. In our experiment, incoming light makes a near 90 degree turn, hence the resulting......As researchers meet the demands of real world problems, there is a trend for experiments to get multidisciplinary. For example, health monitoring, cell sorting or lab on a chip devices would require optical tools for vision or characterization and engineered fluidic chambers for loading...... that could be microfabricated, the study of how optical forces behave in such structures become useful in the emerging field of optofludics. Recently, we have shown how optically maneuverable tapered waveguide microstructures can augment beam shaping experiments by delivering strongly focused light...

  1. Mesoscale cavities in hollow-core waveguides for quantum optics with atomic ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haapamaki C.M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Single-mode hollow-core waveguides loaded with atomic ensembles offer an excellent platform for light–matter interactions and nonlinear optics at low photon levels. We review and discuss possible approaches for incorporating mirrors, cavities, and Bragg gratings into these waveguides without obstructing their hollow cores. With these additional features controlling the light propagation in the hollow-core waveguides, one could potentially achieve optical nonlinearities controllable by single photons in systems with small footprints that can be integrated on a chip. We propose possible applications such as single-photon transistors and superradiant lasers that could be implemented in these enhanced hollow-core waveguides.

  2. Scalable electro-photonic integration concept based on polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, E.; Van Steenberge, G.; Boersma, A.; Wiegersma, S.; Harmsma, P.; Karppinen, M.; Korhonen, T.; Offrein, B. J.; Dangel, R.; Daly, A.; Ortsiefer, M.; Justice, J.; Corbett, B.; Dorrestein, S.; Duis, J.

    2016-03-01

    A novel method for fabricating a single mode optical interconnection platform is presented. The method comprises the miniaturized assembly of optoelectronic single dies, the scalable fabrication of polymer single mode waveguides and the coupling to glass fiber arrays providing the I/O's. The low cost approach for the polymer waveguide fabrication is based on the nano-imprinting of a spin-coated waveguide core layer. The assembly of VCSELs and photodiodes is performed before waveguide layers are applied. By embedding these components in deep reactive ion etched pockets in the silicon substrate, the planarity of the substrate for subsequent layer processing is guaranteed and the thermal path of chip-to-substrate is minimized. Optical coupling of the embedded devices to the nano-imprinted waveguides is performed by laser ablating 45 degree trenches which act as optical mirror for 90 degree deviation of the light from VCSEL to waveguide. Laser ablation is also implemented for removing parts of the polymer stack in order to mount a custom fabricated connector containing glass fiber arrays. A demonstration device was built to show the proof of principle of the novel fabrication, packaging and optical coupling principles as described above, combined with a set of sub-demonstrators showing the functionality of the different techniques separately. The paper represents a significant part of the electro-photonic integration accomplishments in the European 7th Framework project "Firefly" and not only discusses the development of the different assembly processes described above, but the efforts on the complete integration of all process approaches into the single device demonstrator.

  3. Comparison of coupled mode theory and FDTD simulations of coupling between bent and straight optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolotti, M.; Symes, W.W.; Stoffer, Remco; Hiremath, K.R.; Driessen, A.; Michelotti, F; Hammer, Manfred

    Analysis of integrated optical cylindrical microresonators involves the coupling between a straight waveguide and a bent waveguide. Our (2D) variant of coupled mode theory is based on analytically represented mode profiles. With the bend modes expressed in Cartesian coordinates, coupled mode

  4. Time domain optical spectrometry with fiber optic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    Spectrometers which use optical fibers to obtain time domain spectral dispersion are reviewed. Pulse transmission through fiber optic waveguides is discussed and the basic requirements for sources and detectors are given. Multiplex spectrometry and time-of-flight spectrometry are then discussed. Resolution, fiber requirements, instrumentation and specific spectrometers are presented

  5. Electro-optics laboratory evaluation: Deutsch optical waveguide connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A description of a test program evaluating the performance of an optical waveguide connector system is presented. Both quality and effectiveness of connections made in an optical fiber, performance of the equipment used and applicability of equipment and components to field conditions are reviewed.

  6. Theory of absorption integrated optical sensor of gaseous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. A.

    2010-10-01

    The eigen and noneigen (leaky) modes of a three-layer planar integrated optical waveguide are described. The dispersion relation of a three-layer planar waveguide and other dependences are derived, and the cutoff conditions are analyzed. The diagram of propagation constants of the guided and radiation modes of an irregular asymmetric three-layer waveguide and the dependence of the electric field amplitudes of radiation modes of substrate on vertical coordinate in a tantalum integrated optical waveguide are presented. The operating principles of an absorption integrated optical waveguide sensor are investigated. The dependences of sensitivity of an integrated optical waveguide sensor on the sensory cell length, the coupling efficiency of the laser radiation into the waveguide, the absorption cross-section of the studied material, and the level of additive statistical noise are investigated. Some of the prospective areas of application of integrated-optical waveguide sensors are outlined.

  7. Creating large second-order optical nonlinearity in optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses in boro-aluminosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong-Lin; Arriola, Alexander; Gross, Simon; Fuerbach, Alexander; Withford, Michael J.; Fleming, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The thermal poling technique was applied to optical waveguides embedded in a commercial boro-aluminosilicate glass, resulting in high levels of induced second-order optical nonlinearity. The waveguides were fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique, and thermally poled samples were characterized with second harmonic optical microscopy to reveal the distribution profile of the induced nonlinearity. It was found that, in contrast to fused silica, the presence of waveguides in boro-aluminosilicate glass led to an enhancement of the creation of the second-order nonlinearity, which is larger in the laser written waveguiding regions when compared to the un-modified substrate. The magnitude of the nonlinear coefficient d33 achieved in the core of the laser-written waveguides, up to 0.2 pm/V, was comparable to that in thermally poled fused silica, enabling the realization of compact integrated electro-optic devices in boro-aluminosilicate glasses.

  8. Planar Silicon Optical Waveguide Light Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistiko, Otto; Bak, H.

    1994-01-01

    that values in the nanosecond region should be possible, however, the measured values are high, 20 microseconds, due to the large area of the injector junctions, 1× 10¿2 cm2, and the limitations imposed by the detection circuit. The modulating properties of these devices are impressive, measurements......The results of an experimental investigation of a new type of optical waveguide based on planar technology in which the liglht guiding and modulation are achieved by exploiting free carrier effects in silicon are presented. Light is guided between the n+ substrate and two p+ regions, which also...... serve as carrier injectors for controling absorption. Light confinement of single mode devices is good, giving spot sizes of 9 ¿m FWHM. Insertion loss measurements indicate that the absorption losses for these waveguides are extremely low, less 1 dB/cm. Estimates of the switching speed indicate...

  9. An electrochromatography chip with integrated waveguides for UV absorbance detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, O; Mogensen, K B; Ohlsson, P D; Kutter, J P; Liu, Y; Jacobson, S C

    2008-01-01

    A silicon-based microchip for electrochromatographic separations is presented. Apart from a microfluidic network, the microchip has integrated UV-transparent waveguides for detection and integrated couplers for optical fibers on the chip, yielding the most complete chromatography microchip to date in terms of the integration of optical components. The microfluidic network and the optical components are fabricated in a single etching step in silicon and subsequently thermally oxidized. The separation column consists of a regular array of microfabricated solid support structures with a monolayer of an octylsilane covalently bonded to the surfaces to provide chromatographic interaction. The chip features a 1 mm long U-shaped detection cell and planar silicon dioxide waveguides that couple light to and from the detection cell. Microfabricated on-chip fiber couplers assure perfect alignment of optical fibers to the waveguides. The entire oxidized silicon microchip structure is sealed with a glass lid. Reversed phase electrochromatographic separation of three neutral compounds is demonstrated using UV absorbance detection at 254 nm. Baseline separation of the analytes is achieved in less than two minutes

  10. Integration of quantum cascade lasers and passive waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Juan, E-mail: juan.montoya@ll.mit.edu; Wang, Christine; Goyal, Anish; Creedon, Kevin; Connors, Michael; Daulton, Jeffrey; Donnelly, Joseph; Missaggia, Leo; Aleshire, Chris; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio; Herzog, William [MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 244 Wood St, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We report on monolithic integration of active quantum cascade laser (QCL) materials with passive waveguides formed by using proton implantation. Proton implantation reduces the electron concentration in the QCL layers by creating deep levels that trap carriers. This strongly reduces the intersubband absorption and the free-carrier absorption in the gain region and surrounding layers, thus significantly reducing optical loss. We have measured loss as low as α = 0.33 cm{sup −1} in λ = 9.6 μm wavelength proton-implanted QCL material. We have also demonstrated lasing in active-passive integrated waveguides. This simple integration technique is anticipated to enable low-cost fabrication in infrared photonic integrated circuits in the mid-infrared (λ ∼ 3–16 μm)

  11. Integration of quantum cascade lasers and passive waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Juan; Wang, Christine; Goyal, Anish; Creedon, Kevin; Connors, Michael; Daulton, Jeffrey; Donnelly, Joseph; Missaggia, Leo; Aleshire, Chris; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio; Herzog, William

    2015-01-01

    We report on monolithic integration of active quantum cascade laser (QCL) materials with passive waveguides formed by using proton implantation. Proton implantation reduces the electron concentration in the QCL layers by creating deep levels that trap carriers. This strongly reduces the intersubband absorption and the free-carrier absorption in the gain region and surrounding layers, thus significantly reducing optical loss. We have measured loss as low as α = 0.33 cm −1 in λ = 9.6 μm wavelength proton-implanted QCL material. We have also demonstrated lasing in active-passive integrated waveguides. This simple integration technique is anticipated to enable low-cost fabrication in infrared photonic integrated circuits in the mid-infrared (λ ∼ 3–16 μm)

  12. Optical nonlinearity enhancement with graphene-decorated silicon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Atsushi; Kou, Rai; Goto, Takahiro; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Hitachi, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Tadashi; Yamada, Koji; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Gotoh, Hideki

    2017-04-01

    Broadband on-chip optical frequency combs (OFCs) are important for expanding the functionality of photonic integrated circuits. Here, we demonstrate a huge local optical nonlinearity enhancement using graphene. A waveguide is decorated with graphene by precisely manipulating graphene’s area and position. Our approach simultaneously achieves both an extremely efficient supercontinuum and ultra-short pulse generation. With our graphene-decorated silicon waveguide (G-SWG), we have achieved enhanced spectral broadening of femtosecond pump pulses, along with an eightfold increase in the output optical intensity at a wavelength approximately 200 nm shorter than that of the pump pulses. We also found that this huge nonlinearity works as a compressor that effectively compresses pulse width from 80 to 15.7 fs. Our results clearly show the potential for our G-SWG to greatly boost the speed and capacity of future communications with lower power consumption, and our method will further decrease the required pump laser power because it can be applied to decorate various kinds of waveguides with various two-dimensional materials.

  13. Surface transport and stable trapping of particles and cells by an optical waveguide loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesø, Olav Gaute; Løvhaugen, Pål; Subramanian, Ananth Z; Wilkinson, James S; Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh

    2012-09-21

    Waveguide trapping has emerged as a useful technique for parallel and planar transport of particles and biological cells and can be integrated with lab-on-a-chip applications. However, particles trapped on waveguides are continuously propelled forward along the surface of the waveguide. This limits the practical usability of the waveguide trapping technique with other functions (e.g. analysis, imaging) that require particles to be stationary during diagnosis. In this paper, an optical waveguide loop with an intentional gap at the centre is proposed to hold propelled particles and cells. The waveguide acts as a conveyor belt to transport and deliver the particles/cells towards the gap. At the gap, the diverging light fields hold the particles at a fixed position. The proposed waveguide design is numerically studied and experimentally implemented. The optical forces on the particle at the gap are calculated using the finite element method. Experimentally, the method is used to transport and trap micro-particles and red blood cells at the gap with varying separations. The waveguides are only 180 nm thick and thus could be integrated with other functions on the chip, e.g. microfluidics or optical detection, to make an on-chip system for single cell analysis and to study the interaction between cells.

  14. Direct Wafer Bonding and Its Application to Waveguide Optical Isolators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Shoji, Yuya; Takei, Ryohei

    2012-05-24

    This paper reviews the direct bonding technique focusing on the waveguide optical isolator application. A surface activated direct bonding technique is a powerful tool to realize a tight contact between dissimilar materials. This technique has the potential advantage that dissimilar materials are bonded at low temperature, which enables one to avoid the issue associated with the difference in thermal expansion. Using this technique, a magneto-optic garnet is successfully bonded on silicon, III-V compound semiconductors and LiNbO₃. As an application of this technique, waveguide optical isolators are investigated including an interferometric waveguide optical isolator and a semileaky waveguide optical isolator. The interferometric waveguide optical isolator that uses nonreciprocal phase shift is applicable to a variety of waveguide platforms. The low refractive index of buried oxide layer in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide enhances the magneto-optic phase shift, which contributes to the size reduction of the isolator. A semileaky waveguide optical isolator has the advantage of large fabrication-tolerance as well as a wide operation wavelength range.

  15. Direct Wafer Bonding and Its Application to Waveguide Optical Isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Takei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the direct bonding technique focusing on the waveguide optical isolator application. A surface activated direct bonding technique is a powerful tool to realize a tight contact between dissimilar materials. This technique has the potential advantage that dissimilar materials are bonded at low temperature, which enables one to avoid the issue associated with the difference in thermal expansion. Using this technique, a magneto-optic garnet is successfully bonded on silicon, III-V compound semiconductors and LiNbO3. As an application of this technique, waveguide optical isolators are investigated including an interferometric waveguide optical isolator and a semileaky waveguide optical isolator. The interferometric waveguide optical isolator that uses nonreciprocal phase shift is applicable to a variety of waveguide platforms. The low refractive index of buried oxide layer in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI waveguide enhances the magneto-optic phase shift, which contributes to the size reduction of the isolator. A semileaky waveguide optical isolator has the advantage of large fabrication-tolerance as well as a wide operation wavelength range.

  16. Indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated PIN waveguide photodiode readout for resonant cantilever sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siwak, N. P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Laboratory for the Physical Sciences, 8050 Greenmead Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Fan, X. Z.; Ghodssi, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kanakaraju, S.; Richardson, C. J. K. [Laboratory for the Physical Sciences, 8050 Greenmead Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    An integrated photodiode displacement readout scheme for a microelectromechanical cantilever waveguide resonator sensing platform is presented. III-V semiconductors are used to enable the monolithic integration of passive waveguides with active optical components. This work builds upon previously demonstrated results by measuring the displacement of cantilever waveguide resonators with on-chip waveguide PIN photodiodes. The on-chip integration of the readout provides an additional 70% improvement in mass sensitivity compared to off-chip photodetector designs due to measurement stability and minimized coupling loss. In addition to increased measurement stability, reduced packaging complexity is achieved due to the simplicity of the readout design. We have fabricated cantilever waveguides with integrated photodetectors and experimentally characterized these cantilever sensors with monolithically integrated PIN photodiodes.

  17. Femtosecond laser microfabrication of optical waveguides in commercial microfluidic lab-on-a-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osellame, R.; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Ramponi, R.; Cerullo, G.; Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Pollnau, Markus

    One of the main challenges of lab-on-a-chip technology is the on-chip integration of photonic functionalities by manufacturing optical waveguides for sensing biomolecules flowing in the microchannels. Such integrated approach has many advantages over traditional free-space optical sensing, such as

  18. Enhancing Optical Forces in InP-Based Waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryaee Panah, Mohammad Esmail; Semenova, Elizaveta S; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2017-06-08

    Cantilever sensors are among the most important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which are usually actuated by electrostatic forces or piezoelectric elements. Although well-developed microfabrication technology has made silicon the prevailing material for MEMS, unique properties of other materials are overlooked in this context. Here we investigate optically induced forces exerted upon a semi-insulating InP waveguide suspended above a highly doped InP:Si substrate, in three different regimes: the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ), with excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and phonons excitation. An order of magnitude amplification of the force is observed when light is coupled to SPPs, and three orders of magnitude amplification is achieved in the phonon excitation regime. In the ENZ regime, the force is found to be repulsive and higher than that in a waveguide suspended above a dielectric substrate. Low losses in InP:Si result in a big propagation length. The induced deflection can be detected by measuring the phase change of the light when passing through the waveguide, which enables all-optical functioning, and paves the way towards integration and miniaturization of micro-cantilevers. In addition, tunability of the ENZ and the SPP excitation wavelength ranges, via adjusting the carrier concentration, provides an extra degree of freedom for designing MEMS devices.

  19. Monolithic integration of SOI waveguide photodetectors and transimpedance amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxia; Tarr, N. Garry; Ye, Winnie N.

    2018-02-01

    In the absence of commercial foundry technologies offering silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonics combined with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, monolithic integration of conventional electronics with SOI photonics is difficult. Here we explore the implementation of lateral bipolar junction transistors (LBJTs) and Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) in a commercial SOI photonics technology lacking MOS devices but offering a variety of n- and p-type ion implants intended to provide waveguide modulators and photodetectors. The fabrication makes use of the commercial Institute of Microelectronics (IME) SOI photonics technology. Based on knowledge of device doping and geometry, simple compact LBJT and JFET device models are developed. These models are then used to design basic transimpedance amplifiers integrated with optical waveguides. The devices' experimental current-voltage characteristics results are reported.

  20. Nonlinear optical localization in embedded chalcogenide waveguide arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingshan; Huang, Sheng; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Kevin P.; Petek, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    We report the nonlinear optical localization in an embedded waveguide array fabricated in chalcogenide glass. The array, which consists of seven waveguides with circularly symmetric cross sections, is realized by ultrafast laser writing. Light propagation in the chalcogenide waveguide array is studied with near infrared laser pulses centered at 1040 nm. The peak intensity required for nonlinear localization for the 1-cm long waveguide array was 35.1 GW/cm 2 , using 10-nJ pulses with 300-fs pulse width, which is 70 times lower than that reported in fused silica waveguide arrays and with over 7 times shorter interaction distance. Results reported in this paper demonstrated that ultrafast laser writing is a viable tool to produce 3D all-optical switching waveguide circuits in chalcogenide glass

  1. Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil; Wolff, Anders

    2003-01-01

    A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar....... The emphasis of this paper is on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection and its relation to the sensitivity. Two absorbance cells with an optical path length of 100 μm and 1000 μm were characterized and compared in terms of sensitivity, limit of detection and effective path length for measurements...

  2. Thermal limiting effects in optical plasmonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, A.E.; Gerasimov, V.S.; Gavrilyuk, A.P.; Karpov, S.V.; Zakomirnyi, V.I.; Rasskazov, I.L.; Polyutov, S.P.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied thermal effects occurring during excitation of optical plasmonic waveguide (OPW) in the form of linear chain of spherical Ag nanoparticles by pulsed laser radiation. It was shown that heating and subsequent melting of the first irradiated particle in a chain can significantly deteriorate the transmission efficiency of OPW that is the crucial and limiting factor and continuous operation of OPW requires cooling devices. This effect is caused by suppression of particle's surface plasmon resonance due to reaching the melting point temperature. We have determined optimal excitation parameters which do not significantly affect the transmission efficiency of OPW. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic model was developed to study thermal effects at nanoscale. • Developed model considers temperature-dependent permittivity of the nanoparticles. • Thermal effects significantly suppress transmission efficiency of plasmonic chains. • Optimal parameters for stable operation of plasmonic chains were defined.

  3. Optical vortex propagation in few-mode rectangular polymer waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Chipouline, Arkadi; Zywietz, Urs

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that rectangular few-mode dielectric waveguides, fabricated with standard lithographic technique, can support on-chip propagation of optical vortices. We show that specific superpositions of waveguide eigenmodes form quasi-degenerate modes carrying light with high purity states...

  4. An experimental study of the fabrication of polycarbonate optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiao-yang; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Jing-song; Wu, Peng-qin; Zhou, Jing-lun; Fan, Jiang-feng; Yan, Hao-feng

    2008-12-01

    A novel polycarbonate (PC) was introduced to apply in the optical waveguide devices. PC has following distinct merits than common polycarbonate: good processability, high thermal stability up to 293 C° and high optical transparency. Optical properties of absorption behavior and propagation loss were investigated in slab waveguides, and low propagation losses of 0.335 dB/cm (@1550nm) and 0.197 dB/cm @632.8nm) have been achieved by using prismcoupler. Additionally, straight optical waveguide and MMI coupler of ring resonator were fabricated using ultraviolet (UV) cured resin Norland optical adhesive 61 (NOA61) as under or upper cladding layer and polycarbonate as waveguide core-layer material through conventional methods such as spin coating, photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The process was studied in detail and the experimental results were given.

  5. Integrated Lloyd's mirror on planar waveguide facet as a spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Alain; Benech, Pierre; Gri, Martine

    2017-12-10

    A low-cost and simple Fourier transform spectrometer based on the Lloyd's mirror configuration is proposed in order to have a very stable interferogram. A planar waveguide coupled to a fiber injection is used to spatially disperse the optical beam. A second beam superposed to the previous one is obtained by a total reflection of the incident beam on a vertical glass face integrated in the chip by dicing with a specific circular precision saw. The interferogram at the waveguide output is imaged on a near-infrared camera with an objective lens. The contrast and the fringe period are thus dependent on the type and the fiber position and can be optimized to the pixel size and the length of the camera. Spectral resolution close to λ/Δλ=80 is reached with a camera with 320 pixels of 25 μm width in a wavelength range from O to L bands.

  6. Optical Cladding Waveguides in Dielectric Crystals Produced by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Feng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the recent progress of our research on optical cladding waveguides in dielectric crystals produced by femtosecond laser inscription has been overviewed. With different scales at cross sections, the cladding waveguides support guidance from single mode to highly multi-modes, and work for wavelength till mid-infrared regimes. Applications of the fabricated cladding structures as new integrated light sources are introduced.

  7. Polymer slab waveguides for the optical detection of nanoparticles in evanescent field based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teigell Beneitez, N.; Missinne, J.; Schleipen, J.J.H.B.; Orsel, J.G.; Prins, M.W.J.; Steenberge, Van G.; Cartwright, A.N.; Nicolau, D.V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a polymer optical waveguide integration technology for the detection of nanoparticles in an evanescent field based biosensor. In the proposed biosensor concept, super-paramagnetic nanoparticles are used as optical contrast labels. The nanoparticles capture target molecules from a sample

  8. Active and passive silica waveguide integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    2001-01-01

    . The increasing complexity and functionality of optical networks prompts a demand for highly integrated optical circuits. On-board optical amplifiers, monolithically integrated with functionalities like switching or multiplexing/demultiplexing will allow flexible incorporation of optical integrated circuits...... in existing and future networks without affecting the power budget of the system. Silica on silicon technology offers a unique possibility to selectively dope sections of the integrated circuit with erbium where amplification is desired. Some techniques for active/passive integration are reviewed and a silica......Integrated optical amplifiers are currently regaining interest. Stand-alone single integrated amplifiers offer only limited advantage over current erbium doped fiber amplifiers, whereas arrays of integrated amplifiers are very attractive due to miniaturization and the possibility of mass production...

  9. Design of an ultra-thin near-eye display with geometrical waveguide and freeform optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Xu, Chen; Song, Weitao; Jin, Guofan

    2014-08-25

    Small thickness and light weight are two important requirements for a see-through near-eye display which are achieved in this paper by using two advanced technologies: geometrical waveguide and freeform optics. A major problem associated with the geometrical waveguide is the stray light which can severely degrade the display quality. The causes and solutions to this problem are thoroughly studied. A mathematical model of the waveguide is established and a non-sequential ray tracing algorithm is developed, which enable us to carefully examine the stray light of the planar waveguide and explore a global searching method to find an optimum design with the least amount of stray light. A projection optics using freeform surfaces on a wedge shaped prism is also designed. The near-eye display integrating the projection optics and the waveguide has a field of view of 28°, an exit pupil diameter of 9.6mm and an exit pupil distance of 20mm. In our final design, the proportion of the stray light energy over the image output energy of the waveguide is reduced to 2%, the modulation transfer function values across the entire field of the eyepiece are above 0.5 at 30 line pairs/mm (lps/mm). A proof-of-concept prototype of the proposed geometrical waveguide near-eye display is developed and demonstrated.

  10. Active composite waveguides with a suppressed competition of optical modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskii, D V; Elkin, N N; Napartovich, A P

    2008-01-01

    The possibilities of separating the fundamental optical mode in composite waveguides by selecting the structure of amplifying regions are analysed. Conditions are presented under which the fundamental mode preserves the highest gain at any saturation. (letters)

  11. Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Søndergaard, Thomas; Barkou, Stig Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Photonic crystals form a new class of intriguing building blocks to be utilized in future optoelectronics and electromagnetics. One of the most exciting possiblilties offered by phtonic crystals is the realization of new types of electromagnetic waveguides. In the optical domain, the most mature...... technology for such photonic bandgap (PBG) waveguides is in optical fibre configurations. These new fibres can be classified in a fundamentally different way to all optical waveguides and possess radically different guiding properties due to PBG guidance, as opposed to guidance by total internal refelction....... In this paper we summarize and review our theoretical work demonstrating the underlying physical principles of PBG guiding optical fibres and discuss some of their unique waveguiding properties....

  12. Sub-micrometer waveguide for nano-optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Dyndgaard, Morten Glarborg; Andersen, Karin Nordström

    2003-01-01

    With the recent progress within the field of processing nano structures, there is an increasing interest in coupling light into such structures both for characterization of optical properties and new optical components. In this work we propose the use of a sub-micrometer planar waveguide for prob......With the recent progress within the field of processing nano structures, there is an increasing interest in coupling light into such structures both for characterization of optical properties and new optical components. In this work we propose the use of a sub-micrometer planar waveguide...... for probing the reflection of light against a nano structure. The planar waveguide is based on a silicon nitride core layer, surrounded by a silica cladding region. In our design we utilize this waveguide to couple light into a nano-structure....

  13. Numerical simulation methods for wave propagation through optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.

    1993-01-01

    The simulation of the field propagation through waveguides requires numerical solutions of the Helmholtz equation. For this purpose a method based on the principle of orthogonal collocation was recently developed. The method is also applicable to nonlinear pulse propagation through optical fibers. Some of the salient features of this method and its application to both linear and nonlinear wave propagation through optical waveguides are discussed in this report. 51 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Amplitude and phase modulation with waveguide optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, S.C.; Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.; Penko, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed amplitude and phase modulation systems for glass lasers using integrated electro-optic modulators and solid state high-speed electronics. The present and future generation of lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion require laser beams with complex temporal and phase shaping to compensate for laser gain saturation, mitigate parametric processes such as transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering in optics, and to provide specialized drive to the fusion targets. These functions can be performed using bulk optoelectronic modulators, however using high-speed electronics to drive low voltage integrated optical modulators has many practical advantages. In particular, we utilize microwave GaAs transistors to perform precision, 250 ps resolution temporal shaping. Optical bandwidth is generated using a microwave oscillator at 3 GHz amplified by a solid state amplifier. This drives an integrated electrooptic modulator to achieve laser bandwidths exceeding 30 GHz

  15. Planar optical waveguides for civil and military applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, C R

    2009-01-01

    There is significant military and civil interest in being able to detect chemical species adsorbed from air or present in aqueous solutions. Planar optical waveguide transmission properties are sensitive to changes in parameters such as refractive index or absorption and to light-emitting processes such as fluorescence. These changes modulate light travelling in optical waveguides, and so may be used as sensors for detecting biological and chemical agents, non-ionizing and ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Several waveguide systems have been studied theoretically and experimentally, and their responses to basic influences such as alcohol and UV radiation, and gamma rays determined.

  16. Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, Donglei; Wang, Yaguo; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T

    2016-05-05

    Subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguide is an intriguing alternative to conventional optical waveguides due to the extra degree of freedom it offers in tuning a few important waveguide properties, such as dispersion and refractive index. Devices based on SWG waveguides have demonstrated impressive performances compared to conventional waveguides. However, the high loss of SWG waveguide bends jeopardizes their applications in integrated photonic circuits. In this work, we propose a geometrical tuning art, which realizes a pre-distorted refractive index profile in SWG waveguide bends. The pre-distorted refractive index profile can effectively reduce the mode mismatch and radiation loss simultaneously, thus significantly reduce the bend loss. This geometry tuning art has been numerically optimized and experimentally demonstrated in present study. Through such tuning, the average insertion loss of a 5 μm SWG waveguide bend is reduced drastically from 5.43 dB to 1.10 dB per 90° bend for quasi-TE polarization. In the future, the proposed scheme will be utilized to enhance performance of a wide range of SWG waveguide based photonics devices.

  17. Adapting an optical nanoantenna for high E-field probing applications to a waveguided optical waveguide (WOW)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Glückstad, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    In the current work we intend to use the optical nano-antenna to include various functionalities for the recently demonstrated waveguided optical waveguide (WOW) by Palima et al. (Optics Express 2012). Specifically, we intend to study a WOW with an optical nano-antenna which can block the guiding......-stop characteristic. We give geometrical parameters necessary for realizing functioning nanoantennas. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.......In the current work we intend to use the optical nano-antenna to include various functionalities for the recently demonstrated waveguided optical waveguide (WOW) by Palima et al. (Optics Express 2012). Specifically, we intend to study a WOW with an optical nano-antenna which can block the guiding...... light wavelength while admitting other wavelengths of light which address certain functionalities, e.g. drug release, in the WOW. In particular, we study a bow-tie optical nano-antenna to circular dielectric waveguides in aqueous environments. It is shown with finite element computer simulations...

  18. Wave-guided Optical Waveguides tracked and coupled using dynamic diffractive optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael

    With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro- and nano-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and near-field light delivery in advanced actuation and control atthe smallest physical dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro-actuation requ......With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro- and nano-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and near-field light delivery in advanced actuation and control atthe smallest physical dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro...... waveguides (WOWs) [2]. As the WOWs are optically trapped and maneuvered in 3D-space, it is important to maintain efficient light-coupling through these free-standing waveguides within their operating volume [3]. We propose the use ofdynamic diffractive techniques to create focal spots that will track...... and couple to the WOWs during full volume operation. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to encode the necessary diffractive phase patterns to generate the multiple and dynamic coupling spots. The method is initially tested for a single WOW and we have experimentally demonstrated dynamic tracking...

  19. Optical ridge waveguides preserving the thermo-optic features in LiNbO3 crystals fabricated by combination of proton implantation and selective wet etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yang; Chen, Feng

    2010-05-24

    We report on a new, simple method to fabricate optical ridge waveguides in a z-cut LiNbO3 wafer by using proton implantation and selective wet etching. The measured modal field is well confined in the ridge waveguide region, which is also confirmed by the numerical simulation. With thermal annealing treatment at 400 degrees C, the propagation loss of the ridge waveguides is determined to be as low as approximately 0.9 dB/cm. In addition, the measured thermo-optic coefficients of the waveguides are in good agreement with those of the bulk, suggesting potential applications in integrated photonics.

  20. Effect of patterns and inhomogeneities on the surface of waveguides used for optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Voros, J.; Graf, R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been found that patterns acid inhomogeneities on the surface of the waveguide used fur optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy applications can produce broadening and fine structure in the incoupled light peak spectra. During cell spreading on the waveguide, a broadening of the incoupling...

  1. Integrated graphene based modulators enabled by interfacing plasmonic slot and silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    Graphene has offered a new paradigm for extremely fast and active optoelectronic devices due to its unique electronic and optical properties [1]. With the combination of high-index dielectric waveguides/resonators, several integrated graphene-based optical modulators have already been demonstrated...

  2. Optical coupling of bare optoelectronic components and flexographically printed polymer waveguides in planar optronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiao; Wolfer, Tim; Lange, Alex; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2016-05-01

    Large scale, planar optronic systems allowing spatially distributed functionalities can be well used in diverse sensor networks, such as for monitoring the environment by measuring various physical quantities in medicine or aeronautics. In these systems, mechanically flexible and optically transparent polymeric foils, e.g. polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), are employed as carrier materials. A benefit of using these materials is their low cost. The optical interconnections from light sources to light transmission structures in planar optronic systems occupy a pivotal position for the sensing functions. As light sources, we employ the optoelectronic components, such as edgeemitting laser diodes, in form of bare chips, since their extremely small structures facilitate a high integration compactness and ensure sufficient system flexibility. Flexographically printed polymer optical waveguides are deployed as light guiding structures for short-distance communication in planar optronic systems. Printing processes are utilized for this generation of waveguides to achieve a cost-efficient large scale and high-throughput production. In order to attain a high-functional optronic system for sensing applications, one of the most essential prerequisites is the high coupling efficiency between the light sources and the waveguides. Therefore, in this work, we focus on the multimode polymer waveguide with a parabolic cross-section and investigate its optical coupling with the bare laser diode. We establish the geometrical model of the alignment based on the previous works on the optodic bonding of bare laser diodes and the fabrication process of polymer waveguides with consideration of various parameters, such as the beam profile of the laser diode, the employed polymer properties of the waveguides as well as the carrier substrates etc. Accordingly, the optical coupling of the bare laser diodes and the polymer waveguides was simulated

  3. The passive optical properties of a silicon nanoparticle-embedded benzocyclobutene polymer waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, J.-J.; Perng, Tsong P

    2008-01-01

    The passive optical properties of a silicon nanoparticle-embedded benzocyclobutene (BCB) waveguide were investigated. The silicon nanoparticles, of a size varying from 6 to 25 nm, were prepared by vapor condensation. The transmission modes and losses were examined by the prism coupler and cut-back methods. A He-Ne laser beam with a wavelength of 6328 A was used to measure the effective index and thickness of the waveguide. Laser light could be efficiently coupled into the BCB waveguide when the embedded Si nanoparticles were smaller than 6 nm. The film thickness and effective index of the Si-embedded BCB waveguide were measured to be 1.825 μm and 1.565, respectively. The optical transmission losses of the pure BCB and Si-embedded ridge waveguides measured by the cut-back method were 0.85 and 1.63 dB cm -1 , respectively. Although the optical loss was increased by the embedded Si, the disturbance of the output contour was quite small. This result demonstrates that the nanoparticle-embedded polymer waveguide may be used for optoelectronic integrated circuits

  4. Optical waveguide loop for planar trapping of blood cells and microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.; Hellesø, Olav G.

    2013-09-01

    The evanescent field from a waveguide can be used to trap and propel a particle. An optical waveguide loop with an intentional gap at the center is used for planar transport and stable trapping of particles. The waveguide acts as a conveyor belt to trap and deliver spheres towards the gap. At the gap, the counter-diverging light fields hold the sphere at a fixed position. Numerical simulation based on the finite element method was performed in three dimensions using a computer cluster. The field distribution and optical forces for rib and strip waveguide designs are compared and discussed. The optical force on a single particle was computed for various positions of the particle in the gap. Simulation predicted stable trapping of particles in the gap. Depending on the gap separation (2-50 μm) a single or multiple spheres and red blood cells were trapped at the gap. Waveguides were made of tantalum pentaoxide material. The waveguides are only 180 nm thick and thus could be integrated with other functions on the chip.

  5. Broadband and scalable optical coupling for silicon photonics using polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Porta, Antonio; Weiss, Jonas; Dangel, Roger; Jubin, Daniel; Meier, Norbert; Horst, Folkert; Offrein, Bert Jan

    2018-04-01

    We present optical coupling schemes for silicon integrated photonics circuits that account for the challenges in large-scale data processing systems such as those used for emerging big data workloads. Our waveguide based approach allows to optimally exploit the on-chip optical feature size, and chip- and package real-estate. It further scales well to high numbers of channels and is compatible with state-of-the-art flip-chip die packaging. We demonstrate silicon waveguide to polymer waveguide coupling losses below 1.5 dB for both the O- and C-bands with a polarisation dependent loss of <1 dB. Over 100 optical silicon waveguide to polymer waveguide interfaces were assembled within a single alignment step, resulting in a physical I/O channel density of up to 13 waveguides per millimetre along the chip-edge, with an average coupling loss of below 3.4 dB measured at 1310 nm.

  6. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benito-Peña, Elena; Valdés, Mayra Granda; Glahn-Martínez, Bettina; Moreno-Bondi, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. - Highlights: • Principles, configurations and fluorescence techniques using fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are discussed. • The biorecognition elements and sensing schemes used in fiber optic and planar waveguide platforms are reviewed. • Some major and recent applications of fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are introduced.

  7. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito-Peña, Elena [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valdés, Mayra Granda [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of La Habana, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Glahn-Martínez, Bettina [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno-Bondi, Maria C., E-mail: mcmbondi@quim.ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-02

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. - Highlights: • Principles, configurations and fluorescence techniques using fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are discussed. • The biorecognition elements and sensing schemes used in fiber optic and planar waveguide platforms are reviewed. • Some major and recent applications of fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are introduced.

  8. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Arentoft, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SHSOM) is performed on electric-field poled silica-based waveguides. Two operation modes of SHSOM are considered. Oblique transmission reflection and normal reflection modes are used to image the spatial distribution of nonlinear susceptibilities...... and limitations of the two operation modes when used for SHSOM studies of poled silica-based waveguides are discussed. The influence of surface defects on the resulting second-harmonic images is also considered. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  9. Adapting an optical nanoantenna for high E-field probing applications to a waveguided optical waveguide (WOW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindorf, Lars; Glückstad, Jesper

    2013-03-01

    In the current work we intend to use the optical nano-antenna to include various functionalities for the recently demonstrated waveguided optical waveguide (WOW) by Palima et al. (Optics Express 2012). Specifically, we intend to study a WOW with an optical nano-antenna which can block the guiding light wavelength while admitting other wavelengths of light which address certain functionalities, e.g. drug release, in the WOW. In particular, we study a bow-tie optical nano-antenna to circular dielectric waveguides in aqueous environments. It is shown with finite element computer simulations that the nanoantenna can be made to operate in a bandstop mode around its resonant wavelength where there is a very high evanescent strong electrical probing field close to the antennas, and additionally the fluorescence or Raman excitations will be be unpolluted by stray light from the WOW due to the band-stop characteristic. We give geometrical parameters necessary for realizing functioning nanoantennas.

  10. Observation of an optical event horizon in a silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciret, Charles; Leo, François; Kuyken, Bart; Roelkens, Gunther; Gorza, Simon-Pierre

    2016-01-11

    We report on the first experimental observation of an optical analogue of an event horizon in integrated nanophotonic waveguides, through the reflection of a continuous wave on an intense pulse. The experiment is performed in a dispersion-engineered silicon-on-insulator waveguide. In this medium, solitons do not suffer from Raman induced self-frequency shift as in silica fibers, a feature that is interesting for potential applications of optical event horizons. As shown by simulations, this also allows the observation of multiple reflections at the same time on fundamental solitons ejected by soliton fission.

  11. Heterogeneous integration of lithium niobate and silicon nitride waveguides for wafer-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lin; Pfeiffer, Martin H P; Volet, Nicolas; Zervas, Michael; Peters, Jon D; Manganelli, Costanza L; Stanton, Eric J; Li, Yifei; Kippenberg, Tobias J; Bowers, John E

    2017-02-15

    An ideal photonic integrated circuit for nonlinear photonic applications requires high optical nonlinearities and low loss. This work demonstrates a heterogeneous platform by bonding lithium niobate (LN) thin films onto a silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide layer on silicon. It not only provides large second- and third-order nonlinear coefficients, but also shows low propagation loss in both the Si3N4 and the LN-Si3N4 waveguides. The tapers enable low-loss-mode transitions between these two waveguides. This platform is essential for various on-chip applications, e.g., modulators, frequency conversions, and quantum communications.

  12. Integrated optical circuit comprising a polarization convertor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    An integrated optical circuit includes a first device and a second device, which devices are connected by a polarization convertor. The polarization convertor includes a curved section of a waveguide, integrated in the optical circuit. The curved section may have several differently curved

  13. The role of local heating in the formation process of UV written optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Andersen, Marc

    2005-01-01

    A behavior is reported where the index change process used for UV writing of integrated optical waveguides in deuterium loaded Ge:SiO2 glass can become unstable and suddenly switch off or on. It is shown that such discontinuities are associated with abrupt changes in the amount of absorbed UV power...

  14. ZnO - Wide Bandgap Semiconductor and Possibilities of Its Application in Optical Waveguide Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struk Przemysław

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the application of zinc oxide - a wideband gap semiconductor in optical planar waveguide structures. ZnO is a promising semiconducting material thanks to its attractive optical properties. The investigations were focused on the determination of the technology of depositions and the annealing of ZnO layers concerning their optical properties. Special attention was paid to the determination of characteristics of the refractive index of ZnO layers and their coefficients of spectral transmission within the UV-VIS-NIR range. Besides that, also the mode characteristics and the attenuation coefficients of light in the obtained waveguide structures have been investigated. In the case of planar waveguides, in which the ZnO layers have not been annealed after their deposition, the values of the attenuation coefficient of light modes amount to a~ 30 dB/cm. The ZnO layers deposited on the heated substrate and annealed by rapid thermal annealing in an N2 and O2 atmosphere, are characterized by much lower values of the attenuation coefficients: a~ 3 dB/cm (TE0 and TM0 modes. The ZnO optical waveguides obtained according to our technology are characterized by the lowest values of the attenuation coefficients a encountered in world literature concerning the problem of optical waveguides based on ZnO. Studies have shown that ZnO layers elaborated by us can be used in integrated optic systems, waveguides, optical modulators and light sources.

  15. Micropore and nanopore fabrication in hollow antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Matthew R; Shang, Tao; Hawkins, Aaron R; Rudenko, Mikhail; Measor, Philip; Schmidt, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of micropore and nanopore features in hollow antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides to create an electrical and optical analysis platform that can size select and detect a single nanoparticle. Micropores (4 μm diameter) are reactive-ion etched through the top SiO(2) and SiN layers of the waveguides, leaving a thin SiN membrane above the hollow core. Nanopores are formed in the SiN membranes using a focused ion-beam etch process that provides control over the pore size. Openings as small as 20 nm in diameter are created. Optical loss measurements indicate that micropores did not significantly alter the loss along the waveguide.

  16. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Truong X., E-mail: truong.tran@mpl.mpg.de [Department of Physics, Le Quy Don University, 236 Hoang Quoc Viet str., 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Longhi, Stefano [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Biancalana, Fabio [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.

  17. Single-mode optical waveguides on native high-refractive-index substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Grote

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High-refractive-index semiconductor optical waveguides form the basis for modern photonic integrated circuits (PICs. However, conventional methods for achieving optical confinement require a thick lower-refractive-index support layer that impedes large-scale co-integration with electronics and limits the materials on which PICs can be fabricated. To address this challenge, we present a general architecture for single-mode waveguides that confine light in a high-refractive-index material on a native substrate. The waveguide consists of a high-aspect-ratio fin of the guiding material surrounded by lower-refractive-index dielectrics and is compatible with standard top-down fabrication techniques. This letter describes a physically intuitive, semi-analytical, effective index model for designing fin waveguides, which is confirmed with fully vectorial numerical simulations. Design examples are presented for diamond and silicon at visible and telecommunications wavelengths, respectively, along with calculations of propagation loss due to bending, scattering, and substrate leakage. Potential methods of fabrication are also discussed. The proposed waveguide geometry allows PICs to be fabricated alongside silicon CMOS electronics on the same wafer, removes the need for heteroepitaxy in III-V PICs, and will enable wafer-scale photonic integration on emerging material platforms such as diamond and SiC.

  18. Integrated Miniature Arrays of Optical Biomolecule Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Lin, Ying; Le, Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Integrated miniature planar arrays of optical sensors for detecting specific biochemicals in extremely small quantities have been proposed. An array of this type would have an area of about 1 cm2. Each element of the array would include an optical microresonator that would have a high value of the resonance quality factor (Q . 107). The surface of each microresonator would be derivatized to make it bind molecules of a species of interest, and such binding would introduce a measurable change in the optical properties of the microresonator. Because each microresonator could be derivatized for detection of a specific biochemical different from those of the other microresonators, it would be possible to detect multiple specific biochemicals by simultaneous or sequential interrogation of all the elements in the array. Moreover, the derivatization would make it unnecessary to prepare samples by chemical tagging. Such interrogation would be effected by means of a grid of row and column polymer-based optical waveguides that would be integral parts of a chip on which the array would be fabricated. The row and column polymer-based optical waveguides would intersect at the elements of the array (see figure). At each intersection, the row and column waveguides would be optically coupled to one of the microresonators. The polymer-based waveguides would be connected via optical fibers to external light sources and photodetectors. One set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the row waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the sources to the resonators; the other set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the column waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the microresonators to the photodetectors. Each microresonator could be addressed individually by row and column for measurement of its optical transmission. Optionally, the chip could be fabricated so that each microresonator would lie inside a microwell, into which a microscopic liquid sample could be dispensed.

  19. GaN-based integrated photonics chip with suspended LED and waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Yongjin; Hane, Kazuhiro; Shi, Zheng; Yan, Jiang

    2018-05-01

    We propose a GaN-based integrated photonics chip with suspended LED and straight waveguide with different geometric parameters. The integrated photonics chip is prepared by double-side process. Light transmission performance of the integrated chip verse current is quantitatively analyzed by capturing light transmitted to waveguide tip and BPM (beam propagation method) simulation. Reduction of the waveguide width from 8 μm to 4 μm results in an over linear reduction of the light output power while a doubling of the length from 250 μm to 500 μm only results in under linear decrease of the output power. Free-space data transmission with 80 Mbps random binary sequence of the integrated chip is capable of achieving high speed data transmission via visible light. This study provides a potential approach for GaN-based integrated photonics chip as micro light source and passive optical device in VLC (visible light communication).

  20. Diffractive beam shaping, tracking and coupling for wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    techniques to create multiple focal spots that can be coupled into light manipulated WOWs. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to project the necessary phase to generate the multiple coupling light spots. We incorporate a diffractive setup in our Biophotonics Workstation (BWS) and demonstrate......We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). The full strength of this structure-mediated paradigm can be harnessed by addressing multiple WOWs and manipulating them to work in tandem. We propose the use of diffractive...

  1. Dynamics of optical signals in a nematic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. Adrian

    2001-03-01

    We study the modes in a nonlinear nematic waveguide above the Frederickz transition and calculate each of the thresholds associated with different optical and orientational modes. Then, we exhibit the presence of kink-like solutions for the orientational equation under the action of optical fields and study its propagation. Finally, we analyse the dynamics of optical signal in the presence of orientational kinks for different modes and type of signals.

  2. New architectures for integrated optics: low-loss tight bends and on-chip high-index-contrast potassium double Tungstate waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sefünç, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on improving the performance of low-index-contrast waveguides in terms of reducing the bend losses and increasing the index contrast of waveguides by heterogeneous adhesive bonding and thinning. In the first part of this thesis, we have demonstrated that introducing a thin

  3. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15......, 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation...... from the linear propagation regime of surface plasmon polaritons at the average input power of 100 mW and above. Possible reasons for this deviation are heating of the waveguides and subsequent changes in the coupling and propagation losses....

  4. Phonon Routing in Integrated Optomechanical Cavity-waveguide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    cavity (bottom beam of Fig. 1b), allowing for evanescent cou- pling of laser light into and out of the cavity. A single optical fiber taper is used to...couple light into the on- chip coupling waveguide, and a photonic crystal mirror is etched in to the end of the optical coupling waveguide so that light...coupled into the nanobeam cavity can be recollected by the optical fiber taper as per Ref. [36]. Figure 1c shows the band structure of the phonon

  5. Fiber-optic multipoint radiation sensing system using waveguide scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Yoda, Masaki; Tanaka, Koutarou; Masumaru, Tarou; Morimoto, Souichirou.

    1996-01-01

    Novel fiber-optic radiation sensors and a multipoint measurement method that takes advantage of them have been developed. The new sensor design, which we call a 'waveguide scintillator', consists of a scintillating material and a wavelength-shifting fiber (WLSF). The WLSF is embedded in the scintillating material, and each end is connected to a transparent optical fiber. These waveguide scintillators can be connected in series along an optical fiber loop to form a radiation monitoring system, and each end of the fiber loop is terminated with a photodetector. This new radiation monitoring arrangement dispenses with the need for electronic apparatus at each measuring point and consequently improves resistance to noise. Furthermore, it offers the advantages of multipoint monitoring - meaning that radiation intensity can be measured at multiple sensors - using only two photodetectors. We have examined the light output characteristics and time resolution of a prototype arrangement of these new waveguide scintillators, thus confirming the feasibility of multipoint measurements using a system of multiple waveguide scintillators connected in series in an optical fiber loop. (author)

  6. Synthesis of coupled resonator optical waveguides by cavity aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Pascual; Doménech, José David; Capmany, José

    2010-01-18

    In this paper, the layer aggregation method is applied to coupled resonator optical waveguides. Starting from the frequency transfer function, the method yields the coupling constants between the resonators. The convergence of the algorithm developed is examined and the related parameters discussed.

  7. Phase-sensitive optical processing in silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petermann, Klaus; Gajda, A.; Dziallas, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Parametric optical signal processing is reviewed for silicon nano-rib-waveguides with a reverse-biased pin-junction. Phase-sensitive parametric amplification with a phase-sensitive extinction of more than 20 dB has been utilized for the regeneration of DPSK signals...

  8. Low loss GaN waveguides at the visible spectral wavelengths for integrated photonics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Fu, Houqiang; Huang, Xuanqi; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yang, Tsung-Han; Montes, Jossue A; Baranowski, Izak; Zhao, Yuji

    2017-12-11

    We perform comprehensive studies on the fundamental loss mechanisms in III-nitride waveguides in the visible spectral region. Theoretical analysis shows that free carrier loss dominates for GaN under low photon power injection. When optical power increases, the two photon absorption loss becomes important and eventually dominates when photon energy above half-bandgap of GaN. When the dimensions of the waveguides reduce, the sidewall scattering loss will start to dominate. To verify the theoretical results, a high performance GaN-on-sapphire waveguide was fabricated and characterized. Experimental results are consistent with the theoretical findings, showing that under high power injection the optical loss changed significantly for GaN waveguides. A low optical loss ~2 dB/cm was achieved on the GaN waveguide, which is the lowest value ever reported for the visible spectral range. The results and fabrication processes developed in this work pave the way for the development of III-nitride integrated photonics in the visible and potentially ultraviolet spectral range for nonlinear optics and quantum photonics applications.

  9. Remote detection of single emitters via optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Patrick; Razinskas, Gary; Feichtner, Thorsten; Haas, Philippe; Wild, Andreas; Bellini, Nicola; Osellame, Roberto; Cerullo, Giulio; Hecht, Bert

    2014-05-01

    The integration of lab-on-a-chip technologies with single-molecule detection techniques may enable new applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology, and medicine. We describe a method based on the reciprocity theorem of electromagnetic theory to determine and optimize the detection efficiency of photons emitted by single quantum emitters through truncated dielectric waveguides of arbitrary shape positioned in their proximity. We demonstrate experimentally that detection of single quantum emitters via such waveguides is possible, confirming the predicted behavior of the detection efficiency. Our findings blaze the trail towards efficient lensless single-emitter detection compatible with large-scale optofluidic integration.

  10. Optically amplifying planar glass waveguides: Laser on a chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    with UV-light and that permanent Bragg-gratings can be induced. Planar waveguide lasers with integrated Bragg-gratings are manufactured and characterised. It is shown that linewidths below 125 kHz and output powers around 0.5 mW can be obtained, and that the manufactured lasers are resistant to mechanical...... lightwave circuits, as well as provide the gain medium for integrated planar waveguide lasers. The work and the obtained results are presented in this thesis: The manufacturing of silica thin films is described and it is shown that the refractive index of the films can be controlled by germanium co...... as well as thermal influence. A simple method for producing an array of planar waveguide lasers is presented and it is shown that the difference in output wavelength of the individual lasers can be controlled with great accuracy....

  11. Multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N.; Ingham, J. D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.; DeGroot, J. V.; Clapp, T. V.

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric multimode waveguides are of particular interest for optical interconnections in short-reach data links. In some applications, for example in space-borne systems, the use of advanced materials with outstanding performance in extreme environments is required (temperature and radiation). In this paper therefore, we present novel siloxane polymers suitable for these applications. The materials are used to form straight, 90° bent and spiral polymer waveguides by low-cost conventional photolithographic techniques on FR4 substrates. The samples have been tested to investigate their propagation characteristics and demonstrate their potential for high-speed data links. Overall, there is strong evidence that these multimode waveguides can be successfully employed as high-speed short-reach data links. Their excellent thermal properties, their low cost and the simple fabrication process indicate their suitability for a wide range of space applications.

  12. Small slot waveguide rings for on-chip quantum optical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Nir; Türschmann, Pierre; Haakh, Harald R; Martin-Cano, Diego; Götzinger, Stephan; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    2017-03-06

    Nanophotonic interfaces between single emitters and light promise to enable new quantum optical technologies. Here, we use a combination of finite element simulations and analytic quantum theory to investigate the interaction of various quantum emitters with slot-waveguide rings. We predict that for rings with radii as small as 1.44 μm, with a Q-factor of 27,900, near-unity emitter-waveguide coupling efficiencies and emission enhancements on the order of 1300 can be achieved. By tuning the ring geometry or introducing losses, we show that realistic emitter-ring systems can be made to be either weakly or strongly coupled, so that we can observe Rabi oscillations in the decay dynamics even for micron-sized rings. Moreover, we demonstrate that slot waveguide rings can be used to directionally couple emission, again with near-unity efficiency. Our results pave the way for integrated solid-state quantum circuits involving various emitters.

  13. Gratings in passive and active optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Martin Ole

    1999-01-01

    will not only couple to the backward propagating fundamental mode, but also to cladding modes. Cladding modes are strongly bound, but slightly leaky, higher-order modes in the core-cladding-air index structure. If the waveguide is not surrounded by air, but by a recoating the cladding modes become highly...... attenuated. In either case the cladding mode coupling gives loss on the short wavelength side of the reflection band. The cladding mode coupling loss is a major problem for the utilization of fiber Bragg gratings in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system. In this project, a numerical model for cladding...... mode coupling has been developed. The model can predict the spectral location and size of coupling, for various fiber designs. By the aid of this modeling tool, a fiber has been optimized to give low cladding-mode losses. The optimized fiber has been produced and the predicted reduction of cladding...

  14. Generation of optical vortices in an integrated optical circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Rebeca; Kusko, Mihai; Kusko, Cristian

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the generation of optical vortices in an optical integrated circuit is numerically demonstrated. The optical vortices with topological charge m = ±1 are obtained by the coherent superposition of the first order modes present in a waveguide with a rectangular cross section, where the phase delay between these two propagating modes is Δφ = ±π/2. The optical integrated circuit consists of an input waveguide continued with a y-splitter. The left and the right arms of the splitter form two coupling regions K1 and K2 with a multimode output waveguide. In each coupling region, the fundamental modes present in the arms of the splitter are selectively coupled into the output waveguide horizontal and vertical first order modes, respectively. We showed by employing the beam propagation method simulations that the fine tuning of the geometrical parameters of the optical circuit makes possible the generation of optical vortices in both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. Also, we demonstrated that by placing a thermo-optical element on one of the y-splitter arms, it is possible to switch the topological charge of the generated vortex from m = 1 to m = -1.

  15. Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, J.; García-Navarro, A.; Méndez, A.; Agulló-López, F.; García, G.; García-Cabañes, A.; Carrascosa, M.

    2007-04-01

    We review recent results on a novel method to modify crystalline dielectric materials and fabricate optical waveguides and integrated optics devices. It relies on irradiation with medium-mass high-energy ions (2-50 MeV) where the electronic stopping power is dominant over that one associated to nuclear collisions. By exploiting the processing capabilities of the method, novel optical structures can be achieved at moderate (1014 cm-2) and even low and ultralow (1012 cm-2) fluences. In particular, step-like waveguides with a high index jump Δn ∼ 0.1-0.2, guiding both ordinary and extraordinary modes, have been prepared with F and O ions (20 MeV) at moderate fluences. They present good non-linear and electrooptic perfomance and low losses. (1 dB/cm). Moreover, useful optical waveguiding has been also achieved at ultralow frequencies (isolated track regime), using Cl and Si ions (40-45 MeV). In this latter case, the individual amorphous nanotracks, whose radius increases with depth, create an effective optical medium causing optical trapping.

  16. Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, J.; Garcia-Navarro, A.; Mendez, A.; Agullo-Lopez, F.; Garcia, G.; Garcia-Cabanes, A.; Carrascosa, M.

    2007-01-01

    We review recent results on a novel method to modify crystalline dielectric materials and fabricate optical waveguides and integrated optics devices. It relies on irradiation with medium-mass high-energy ions (2-50 MeV) where the electronic stopping power is dominant over that one associated to nuclear collisions. By exploiting the processing capabilities of the method, novel optical structures can be achieved at moderate (10 14 cm -2 ) and even low and ultralow (10 12 cm -2 ) fluences. In particular, step-like waveguides with a high index jump Δn ∼ 0.1-0.2, guiding both ordinary and extraordinary modes, have been prepared with F and O ions (20 MeV) at moderate fluences. They present good non-linear and electrooptic perfomance and low losses. (1 dB/cm). Moreover, useful optical waveguiding has been also achieved at ultralow frequencies (isolated track regime), using Cl and Si ions (40-45 MeV). In this latter case, the individual amorphous nanotracks, whose radius increases with depth, create an effective optical medium causing optical trapping

  17. Techniques of surface optical breakdown prevention for low-depths femtosecond waveguides writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, M A; Skryabin, N N; Ganin, D V; Khudyakov, D V; Vartapetov, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated technique of direct femtosecond waveguide writing at record low depth (2-15 μm) under surface of lithium niobate, that play a key role in design of electrooptical modulators with low operating voltage. To prevent optical breakdown of crystal surface we used high numerical aperture objectives for focusing of light and non-thermal regime of inscription in contrast to widespread femtosecond writing technique at depths of tens micrometers or higher. Surface optical breakdown threshold was measured for both x- and z- cut crystals. Inscribed waveguides were examined for intrinsic microstructure. It also reported sharp narrowing of operating pulses energy range with writing depth under the surface of crystal, that should be taken in account when near-surface waveguides design. Novelty of the results consists in reduction of inscription depth under the surface of crystals that broadens applications of direct femtosecond writing technique to full formation of near-surface waveguides and postproduction precise geometry correction of near-surfaces optical integrated circuits produced with proton-exchanged technique. (paper)

  18. Enhancement of single mode operation in coaxial optical waveguide using DB boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohia, Pooja; Prajapati, Y.; Saini, J. P.; Rai, B. S.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a competent numerical strategy to compute the dispersion of optical waveguides is presented and propagation of electromagnetic waves in a coaxial optical waveguide with DB boundary conditions is instigated. For this intend, cylindrical coordinates are here being used to derive the DB boundary conditions and to obtain field components for the modes. The propagation constant for the waveguide to be studied is determined by solving the Bessel and the modified Bessel functions. The cutoff frequencies for various lower order modes have been calculated and their dispersion characteristics are plotted correspondingly. The behavior of the coaxial optical waveguide under DB boundary conditions is shown to be significantly different from that of coaxial optical waveguide and conventional optical waveguide under traditional or tangential boundary conditions. Finally, the effect of waveguide dimensions on the mode cutoff frequencies and fabrication issues are also addressed.

  19. Scalable electro-photonic integration concept based on polymer waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, E.; Steenberge, G. van; Boersma, A.; Wiegersma, S.; Harmsma, P.J.; Karppinen, M.; Korhonen, T.; Offrein, B.J.; Dangel, R.; Daly, A.; Ortsiefer, M.; Justice, J.; Corbett, B.; Dorrestein, S.; Duis, J.

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for fabricating a single mode optical interconnection platform is presented. The method comprises the miniaturized assembly of optoelectronic single dies, the scalable fabrication of polymer single mode waveguides and the coupling to glass fiber arrays providing the I/O's. The low

  20. Grated waveguide-based optical cavities as compact sensors for sub-nanometre cantilever deflections, and small refractive-index changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauppinen, L.J.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Dijkstra, Mindert; de Ridder, R.M.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; MacCraith, B; McDonagh, C.

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on theoretical and experimental results of integrated optical (IO) cavities defined by grated waveguides in $Si_3N_4$ and Si, for the accurate detection of cantilever deflection and bulk index changes.

  1. Process development for waveguide chemical sensors with integrated polymeric sensitive layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberkar, Raghu; Gao, Zhan; Park, Jongwon; Henthorn, David B.; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2008-02-01

    Due to the proper optical property and flexibility in the process development, an epoxy-based, high-aspect ratio photoresist SU-8 is now attracting attention in optical sensing applications. Manipulation of the surface properties of SU-8 waveguides is critical to attach functional films such as chemically-sensitive layers. We describe a new integration process to immobilize fluorescence molecules on SU-8 waveguide surface for application to intensity-based optical chemical sensors. We use two polymers for this application. Spin-on, hydrophobic, photopatternable silicone is a convenient material to contain fluorophore molecules and to pattern a photolithographically defined thin layer on the surface of SU-8. We use fumed silica powders as an additive to uniformly disperse the fluorophores in the silicone precursor. In general, additional processes are not critically required to promote the adhesion between the SU-8 and silicone. The other material is polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). Recently we demonstrated a novel photografting method to modify the surface of SU-8 using a surface bound initiator to control its wettability. The activated surface is then coated with a monomer precursor solution. Polymerization follows when the sample is exposed to UV irradiation, resulting in a grafted PEGDA layer incorporating fluorophores within the hydrogel matrix. Since this method is based the UV-based photografting reaction, it is possible to grow off photolithographically defined hydrogel patterns on the waveguide structures. The resulting films will be viable integrated components in optical bioanalytical sensors. This is a promising technique for integrated chemical sensors both for planar type waveguide and vertical type waveguide chemical sensors.

  2. FDTD modeling of anisotropic nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Chethiya M; Premaratne, Malin; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Agrawal, Govind P

    2010-09-27

    A deep insight into the inherent anisotropic optical properties of silicon is required to improve the performance of silicon-waveguide-based photonic devices. It may also lead to novel device concepts and substantially extend the capabilities of silicon photonics in the future. In this paper, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, we present a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for modeling optical phenomena in silicon waveguides, which takes into account fully the anisotropy of the third-order electronic and Raman susceptibilities. We show that, under certain realistic conditions that prevent generation of the longitudinal optical field inside the waveguide, this model is considerably simplified and can be represented by a computationally efficient algorithm, suitable for numerical analysis of complex polarization effects. To demonstrate the versatility of our model, we study polarization dependence for several nonlinear effects, including self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation, and stimulated Raman scattering. Our FDTD model provides a basis for a full-blown numerical simulator that is restricted neither by the single-mode assumption nor by the slowly varying envelope approximation.

  3. MWP phase shifters integrated in PbS-SU8 waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, Javier; Suárez, Isaac; Pérez, Joaquín; Cantó, Pedro J Rodríguez; Abargues, Rafael; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2015-06-01

    We present new kind of microwave phase shifters (MPS) based on dispersion of PbS colloidal quantum dots (QDs) in commercially available photoresist SU8 after a ligand exchange process. Ridge PbS-SU8 waveguides are implemented by integration of the nanocomposite in a silicon platform. When these waveguides are pumped at wavelengths below the band-gap of the PbS QDs, a phase shift in an optically conveyed (at 1550 nm) microwave signal is produced. The strong light confinement produced in the ridge waveguides allows an improvement of the phase shift as compared to the case of planar structures. Moreover, a novel ridge bilayer waveguide composed by a PbS-SU8 nanocomposite and a SU8 passive layer is proposed to decrease the propagation losses of the pump beam and in consequence to improve the microwave phase shift up to 36.5° at 25 GHz. Experimental results are reproduced by a theoretical model based on the slow light effect produced in a semiconductor waveguide due to the coherent population oscillations. The resulting device shows potential benefits respect to the current MPS technologies since it allows a fast tunability of the phase shift and a high level of integration due to its small size.

  4. Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by 6.0 MeV silicon ion implantation in Nd-doped phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Han-Qing; Zhang, Liao-Lin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Qi-Feng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Liu, Chun-Xiao

    2018-04-01

    We report the fabrication of a planar optical waveguide by silicon ion implantation into Nd-doped phosphate glass at an energy of 6.0 MeV and a dose of 5.0 × 1014 ions/cm2. The change in the surface morphology of the glass after the implantation can be clearly observed by scanning electron microscopy. The measurement of the dark mode spectrum of the waveguide is conducted using a prism coupler at 632.8 nm. The refractive index distribution of the waveguide is reconstructed by the reflectivity calculation method. The near-field optical intensity profile of the waveguide is measured using an end-face coupling system. The waveguide with good optical properties on the glass matrix may be valuable for the application of the Nd-doped phosphate glass in integrated optical devices.

  5. Integrable models of quantum optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudson Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We give an overview of exactly solvable many-body models of quantum optics. Among them is a system of two-level atoms which interact with photons propagating in a one-dimensional (1D chiral waveguide; exact eigenstates of this system can be explicitly constructed. This approach is used also for a system of closely located atoms in the usual (non-chiral waveguide or in 3D space. Moreover, it is shown that for an arbitrary atomic system with a cascade spontaneous radiative decay, the fluorescence spectrum can be described by an exact analytic expression which accounts for interference of emitted photons. Open questions related with broken integrability are discussed.

  6. Hypersingular integral equations, waveguiding effects in Cantorian Universe and genesis of large scale structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovane, G.; Giordano, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we introduce the hypersingular integral equations and analyze a realistic model of gravitational waveguides on a cantorian space-time. A waveguiding effect is considered with respect to the large scale structure of the Universe, where the structure formation appears as if it were a classically self-similar random process at all astrophysical scales. The result is that it seems we live in an El Naschie's o (∞) Cantorian space-time, where gravitational lensing and waveguiding effects can explain the appearing Universe. In particular, we consider filamentary and planar large scale structures as possible refraction channels for electromagnetic radiation coming from cosmological structures. From this vision the Universe appears like a large self-similar adaptive mirrors set, thanks to three numerical simulations. Consequently, an infinite Universe is just an optical illusion that is produced by mirroring effects connected with the large scale structure of a finite and not a large Universe

  7. Integrated optical interrogation of micro-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, III, Boyd M.; Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Rajic, Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    The invention is an integrated optical sensing element for detecting and measuring changes in position or deflection. A deflectable member, such as a microcantilever, is configured to receive a light beam. A waveguide, such as an optical waveguide or an optical fiber, is positioned to redirect light towards the deflectable member. The waveguide can be incorporated into the deflectable member or disposed adjacent to the deflectable member. Means for measuring the extent of position change or deflection of the deflectable member by receiving the light beam from the deflectable member, such as a photodetector or interferometer, receives the reflected light beam from the deflectable member. Changes in the light beam are correlated to the changes in position or deflection of the deflectable member. A plurality of deflectable members can be arranged in a matrix or an array to provide one or two-dimensional imaging or sensing capabilities.

  8. Light propagation studies on laser modified waveguides using scanning near-field optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrise, X.; Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Jimenez, D.

    2001-01-01

    By means of direct laser writing on Al, a new method to locally modify optical waveguides is proposed. This technique has been applied to silicon nitride waveguides, allowing modifications of the optical propagation along the guide. To study the formed structures, a scanning near-held optical mic...

  9. Materials and integration schemes for above-IC integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Jurriaan; Rangarajan, B.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.

    2014-01-01

    A study is presented on silicon oxynitride material for waveguides and germanium-silicon alloys for p-i-n diodes. The materials are manufactured at low, CMOS-backend compatible temperatures, targeting the integration of optical functions on top of CMOS chips. Low-temperature germanium-silicon

  10. Enhancing Optical Forces in InP-Based Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee; Semenova, Elizaveta; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Cantilever sensors are among the most important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which are usually actuated by electrostatic forces or piezoelectric elements. Although well-developed microfabrication technology has made silicon the prevailing material for MEMS, unique properties of other...... materials are overlooked in this context. Here we investigate optically induced forces exerted upon a semi-insulating InP waveguide suspended above a highly doped InP: Si substrate, in three different regimes: the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ), with excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and phonons...... excitation. An order of magnitude amplification of the force is observed when light is coupled to SPPs, and three orders of magnitude amplification is achieved in the phonon excitation regime. In the ENZ regime, the force is found to be repulsive and higher than that in a waveguide suspended above...

  11. Theoretical description and design of nanomaterial slab waveguides: application to compensation of optical diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivijärvi, Ville; Nyman, Markus; Shevchenko, Andriy; Kaivola, Matti

    2018-04-02

    Planar optical waveguides made of designable spatially dispersive nanomaterials can offer new capabilities for nanophotonic components. As an example, a thin slab waveguide can be designed to compensate for optical diffraction and provide divergence-free propagation for strongly focused optical beams. Optical signals in such waveguides can be transferred in narrow channels formed by the light itself. We introduce here a theoretical method for characterization and design of nanostructured waveguides taking into account their inherent spatial dispersion and anisotropy. Using the method, we design a diffraction-compensating slab waveguide that contains only a single layer of silver nanorods. The waveguide shows low propagation loss and broadband diffraction compensation, potentially allowing transfer of optical information at a THz rate.

  12. Multi-wavelength laser based on an arrayed waveguide grating and Sagnac loop reflectors monolithically integrated on InP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Doménech, J.D.; Rius, M.; Capmany, J.; Chen, L.R.; Habib, C.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Heck, M.J.R.; Augustin, L.M.; Nötzel, R.; Robbins, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-wavelength laser monolithically integrated on InP is presented. A linear laser cavity is built between two integrated Sagnac loop reflectors, with an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) as frequency selective device, and Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) as gain sections. The

  13. Cup waveguide antenna with integrated polarizer and OMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J. (Inventor); Kory, Carol (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cup waveguide antenna with integrated polarizer and OMT for simultaneously communicating left and right hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves is adjustable to obtain efficient propagation and reception of electromagnetic waves. The antenna includes a circular waveguide having an orthomode transducer utilizing first and second pins longitudinally spaced apart and oriented orthogonally with respect to each other. Six radially-oriented adjustable polarizer screws extend from the exterior to the interior of the waveguide. A septum intermediate the first and second pins is aligned with the first pin. Adjustment of the polarizer screws enables maximized propagation of and/or response to left hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves by the first pin while simultaneously enabling maximized propagation of and/or response to right hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves by the second pin.

  14. Analysis of silicon on insulator (SOI) optical microring add-drop filter based on waveguide intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Bogaerts, Wim; Van Thourhout, Dries; Drouard, Emmanuel; Rojo-Romeo, Pedro; Giannone, Domenico; Gaffiot, Frederic

    2008-04-01

    We present a compact passive optical add-drop filter which incorporates two microring resonators and a waveguide intersection in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. Such a filter is a key element for designing simple layouts of highly integrated complex optical networks-on-chip. The filter occupies an area smaller than 10μm×10μm and exhibits relatively high quality factors (up to 4000) and efficient signal dropping capabilities. In the present work, the influence of filter parameters such as the microring-resonators radii and the coupling section shape are analyzed theoretically and experimentally

  15. Femtosecond-laser inscribed double-cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG crystal: a promising prototype for integrated lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Jaque, D

    2013-09-01

    We report on the design and implementation of a prototype of optical waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG crystals by using femtosecond-laser irradiation. In this prototype, two concentric tubular structures with nearly circular cross sections of different diameters have been inscribed in the Nd:YAG crystals, generating double-cladding waveguides. Under 808 nm optical pumping, waveguide lasers have been realized in the double-cladding structures. Compared with single-cladding waveguides, the concentric tubular structures, benefiting from the large pump area of the outermost cladding, possess both superior laser performance and nearly single-mode beam profile in the inner cladding. Double-cladding waveguides of the same size were fabricated and coated by a thin optical film, and a maximum output power of 384 mW and a slope efficiency of 46.1% were obtained. Since the large diameters of the outer claddings are comparable with those of the optical fibers, this prototype paves a way to construct an integrated single-mode laser system with a direct fiber-waveguide configuration.

  16. Observation and investigation of narrow optical transitions of 167Er3+ ions in femtosecond laser printed waveguides in 7LiYF4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnegaliev, M. M.; Dyakonov, I. V.; Gerasimov, K. I.; Kalinkin, A. A.; Kulik, S. P.; Moiseev, S. A.; Saygin, M. Yu; Urmancheev, R. V.

    2018-04-01

    We produced optical waveguides in the 167Er3+:7 LiYF4 crystal with diameters ranging from 30 to 100 μm by using the depressed-cladding approach with femtosecond laser. Stationary and coherent spectroscopy was performed on the 809 nm optical transitions between the hyperfine sublevels of 4I15/2 and 4I9/2 multiplets of 167Er3+ ions both inside and outside of waveguides. It was found that the spectra of 167Er3+ were slightly broadened and shifted inside the waveguides compared to the bulk crystal spectra. We managed to observe a two-pulse photon echo on this transition and determined phase relaxation times for each waveguide. The experimental results show that the created crystal waveguides doped by rare-earth ions can be used in optical quantum memory and integrated quantum schemes.

  17. International Conference on Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering, 1st, Cambridge, MA, October 23-25, 1984, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, D. B.; Sriram, S.

    Aspects of waveguide technology are explored, taking into account waveguide fabrication techniques in GaAs/GaAlAs, the design and fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs phase couplers for optical integrated circuit applications, ion implanted GaAs integrated optics fabrication technology, a direct writing electron beam lithography based process for the realization of optoelectronic integrated circuits, and advances in the development of semiconductor integrated optical circuits for telecommunications. Other subjects examined are related to optical signal processing, optical switching, and questions of optical bistability and logic. Attention is given to acousto-optic techniques in integrated optics, acousto-optic Bragg diffraction in proton exchanged waveguides, optical threshold logic architectures for hybrid binary/residue processors, integrated optical modulation and switching, all-optic logic devices for waveguide optics, optoelectronic switching, high-speed photodetector switching, and a mechanical optical switch.

  18. Wavelength-tunable laser based on nonlinear dispersive-wave generation in a tapered optical waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a wavelength tunable laser comprising a first laser source configured to emit a first optical pulse having a pump wavelength, the first optical pulse being emitted in a first longitudinal direction. Furthermore, the wavelength tunable laser comprises...... a waveguide extending in the first longitudinal direction, the waveguide having longitudinally varying phase matching conditions, the waveguide being configured to generate a second optical pulse with a centre wavelength upon receiving the first optical pulse, wherein the wavelength tunable laser...... is configured to tune the centre wavelength of the second optical pulse by varying at least one pulse property of the first optical pulse....

  19. Combination of the optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy method with electrochemical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szendro, I.; Erdelyi, K.; Fabian, M. [MicroVacuum Ltd., Kerekgyarto u.: 10, H-1147 Budapest (Hungary); Puskas, Zs. [Minvasive Ltd., Goldmann Gy. ter 3., H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Adanyi, N. [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O.B. 393 (Hungary); Somogyi, K. [MicroVacuum Ltd., Kerekgyarto u.: 10, H-1147 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: karoly.somogyi@microvacuum.com

    2008-09-30

    Optical waveguides are normally sensitive to the surrounding media and also to the surface contaminations. The effective refractive index changes at the surface. Various sensor systems were developed based on this effect. One of the most sensitive and effective methods is the optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS). At the same time, electrochemical methods are widely used both in inorganic and organic chemistry, and also advantages in microbiology were demonstrated. In this work, efforts are made and results are presented for the combination of these two methods for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and electrical current changes caused by the presence of cells/molecules/ions to be investigated. An electrically conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) nanolayer is deposited and activated on the top of the OWLS planar waveguide oxide layer. ITO layers serve as working electrodes in the electrochemical measurements. The basic setup and an integrated system are demonstrated here. Measurements using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, toluidine blue solutions, and KCl and TRIS solutions as buffer and transport media are represented. Measurements show both the changes detected by the sensor layer and the effect of the applied potential in cyclic and chrono voltammetric measurements. Results demonstrate an effective combination of optical and electrochemical methods.

  20. Design and optimization of carbon-nanotube-material/dielectric hybrid nonlinear optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xin; Zheng, Zheng; Lu, Zhiting; Zhu, Jinsong; Zhou, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear optical characteristics of highly nonlinear waveguides utilizing carbon nanotube composite materials are investigated theoretically. The extremely high nonlinearity and relatively high loss of the carbon nanotube materials are shown to greatly affect the performance of such waveguides for nonlinear optical applications, in contrast to waveguides using conventional nonlinear materials. Different configurations based on applying the carbon nanotube materials to the popular ridge and buried waveguides are thoroughly studied, and the optimal geometries are derived through simulations. It is shown that, though the nonlinear coefficient is often huge for these waveguides, the loss characteristics can significantly limit the maximum achievable accumulated nonlinearity, e.g. the maximum nonlinear phase shift. Our results suggest that SOI-based high-index-contrast, carbon nanotube cladding waveguides, rather than the currently demonstrated low-contrast waveguides, could hold the promise of achieving significantly higher accumulated nonlinearity

  1. Optical pulling force and conveyor belt effect in resonator-waveguide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaraprasonk, Varat; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-09-01

    We present the theoretical condition and actual numerical design that achieves an optical pulling force in resonator-waveguide systems, where the direction of the force on the resonator is in the opposite direction to the input light in the waveguide. We also show that this pulling force can occur in conjunction with the lateral optical equilibrium effect, such that the resonator is maintained at the fixed distance from the waveguide while experiencing the pulling force.

  2. Refractive index modulation of SU-8 polymer optical waveguides by means of hybrid photothermal process

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Miranda, D.; Castillón, F. F.; Sánchez-Sánchez, J. J.; Angel-Valenzuela, J. L.; Márquez, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of multimode polymer optical waveguides obtained using a SU-8-2005 polymer by means of photolithographic process. Critical information about refractive index modulation of polymer waveguides as function of fabrication parameters as pre-baked and ultraviolet exposure times is presented. Physical properties of the waveguides were determined by means prism-coupling technique, optical and SEM microscopy. Este trabajo describe la fabrica...

  3. A Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Waveguide Beam Splitter for Velocity Measurements of Flowing Particles by Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kwok, Y.C.; Eijkel, J.C.T.

    2003-01-01

    A microfabricated capillary electrophoresis device for velocity measurements of flowing particles is presented. It consists of a 1 x 128 planar waveguide beam splitter monolithically integrated with an electrically insulated fluidic channel network for fluorescence excitation at multiple points...... optics. The integrated planar waveguide beam splitter was, furthermore, permanently connected to the light source by a glued-on optical fiber, to achieve a robust and alignment-free operation of the system. The velocity was measured using a Fourier transformation with a Shah function, since the response...... of the fight array was designed to approximate a square profile. Deviations from this response were observed as a result of the multimode nature of the integrated waveguides....

  4. The all-optical modulator in dielectric-loaded waveguide with graphene-silicon heterojunction structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feiying; Xia, Liangping; Nie, Changbin; Shen, Jun; Zou, Yixuan; Cheng, Guiyu; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Dongshan; Yin, Shaoyun; Du, Chunlei

    2018-04-01

    All-optical modulators based on graphene show great promise for on-chip optical interconnects. However, the modulation performance of all-optical modulators is usually based on the interaction between graphene and the fiber, limiting their potential in high integration. Based on this point, an all-optical modulator in a dielectric-loaded waveguide (DLW) with a graphene-silicon heterojunction structure (GSH) is proposed. The DLW raises the waveguide mode, which provides a strong light-graphene interaction. Sufficient tuning of the graphene Fermi energy beyond the Pauli blocking effect is obtained with the presented GSH structure. Under the modulation light with a wavelength of 532 nm and a power of 60 mW, a modulation efficiency of 0.0275 dB µm-1 is achieved for light with a communication wavelength of 1.55 µm in the experiment. This modulator has the advantage of having a compact footprint, which may make it a candidate for achieving a highly integrated all-optical modulator.

  5. Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Ranu; Gupta, Vinay; Dawar, A.L.; Sreenivas, K

    2003-11-24

    Optical waveguiding characteristics of amorphous TeO{sub 2-x} films deposited by reactive sputtering under different O{sub 2}:Ar gas mixtures are investigated on fused quartz and Corning glass substrates. Infra-red absorption band in the range 641-658 cm{sup -1} confirmed the formation of a Te-O bond, and a 20:80 O{sub 2}:Ar gas mixture ratio is found to be optimum for achieving highly uniform and transparent films at a high deposition rate. As grown amorphous films exhibited a large band gap (3.76 eV); a high refractive index value (2.042-2.052) with low dispersion over a wide wavelength range of 500-2000 nm. Optical waveguiding with low propagation loss of 0.26 dB/cm at 633 nm is observed on films subjected to a post-deposition annealing treatment at 200 deg. C. Packing density and etch rates have been determined and correlated with the lowering of optical propagation loss in the annealed films.

  6. Optical properties of erbium-doped porous silicon waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najar, A. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Charrier, J. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)]. E-mail: joel.charier@univ-rennes1.fr; Ajlani, H. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Lorrain, N. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Elhouichet, H. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Oueslati, M. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Haji, L. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)

    2006-12-15

    Planar and buried channel porous silicon waveguides (WG) were prepared from p{sup +}-type silicon substrate by a two-step anodization process. Erbium ions were incorporated into pores of the porous silicon layers by an electrochemical method using ErCl{sub 3}-saturated solution. Erbium concentration of around 10{sup 20} at/cm{sup 3} was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis performed on SEM cross-section. The luminescence properties of erbium ions in the IR range were determined and a luminescence time decay of 420 {mu}s was measured. Optical losses were studied on these WG. The increased losses after doping were discussed.

  7. Investigation on dispersion in the active optical waveguide resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zihan; Gao, Yining; Xie, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Introducing active gain in the optical waveguide resonator not only compensates the loss, but also can change the dispersion relationship in the ring resonator. It is demonstrated that the group delay time is negative when the resonator is in the undercoupled condition, which also means the resonator exhibits the fast light effect. Theoretical analysis indicates that fast light effect due to anomalous dispersion, would be manipulated by the gain coefficient controlled by the input pump light power and that fast light would enhance scale factor of the optical resonant gyroscope. Resonance optical gyroscope (ROG)'s scale factor for measuring rotation rate is enhanced by anomalous dispersion with superluminal light propagation. The sensitivity of ROG could be enhanced by anomalous dispersion by coupled resonators even considering the effect of anomalous dispersion and propagation gain on broadened linewidth, and this could result in at least two orders of magnitude enhancement in sensitivity.

  8. Eigenfunctions of the continuous spectrum of a two-dimensional periodic optical waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derguzov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    One proves the existence of the eigenfunctions of the continuous spectrum of a two-dimensional periodic optical waveguide. One gives a normalization of the eigenfunctions of the continuous spectrum relative to an indefinite inner product. One defines the concept of the genus of the multipliers of a Hamiltonian equation, corresponding to the continuous spectrum of the optical waveguide

  9. Monolithic photonic integrated circuit with a GaN-based bent waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Shuai; Yuan, Jialei; Zhang, Fenghua; Wang, Yongjin

    2018-06-01

    Integration of a transmitter, waveguide and receiver into a single chip can generate a multicomponent system with multiple functionalities. Here, we fabricate and characterize a GaN-based photonic integrated circuit (PIC) on a GaN-on-silicon platform. With removal of the silicon and back wafer thinning of the epitaxial film, ultrathin membrane-type devices and highly confined suspended GaN waveguides were formed. Two suspended-membrane InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well diodes (MQW-diodes) served as an MQW light-emitting diode (MQW-LED) to emit light and an MQW photodiode (MQW-PD) to sense light. The optical interconnects between the MQW-LED and MQW-PD were achieved using the GaN bent waveguide. The GaN-based PIC consisting of an MQW-LED, waveguides and an MQW-PD forms an in-plane light communication system with a data transmission rate of 70 Mbps.

  10. Impact of slow-light enhancement on optical propagation in active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Gregersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    We derive and validate a set of coupled Bloch wave equations for analyzing the reflection and transmission properties of active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. In such devices, slow-light propagation can be used to enhance the material gain per unit length, enabling, for example......, the realization of short optical amplifiers compatible with photonic integration. The coupled wave analysis is compared to numerical approaches based on the Fourier modal method and a frequency domain finite element technique. The presence of material gain leads to the build-up of a backscattered field, which...... is interpreted as distributed feedback effects or reflection at passive-active interfaces, depending on the approach taken. For very large material gain values, the band structure of the waveguide is perturbed, and deviations from the simple coupled Bloch wave model are found....

  11. Optical study of planar waveguides based on oxidized porous silicon impregnated with laser dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouket, A. [Unite de recherche de Spectroscopie Raman, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Elmanar 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Charrier, J. [Laboratoire d' Optronique CNRS-UMR FOTON 6082, Universite de Rennes 1, ENSSAT-6 rue de Kerampont, BP 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Elhouichet, H. [Unite de recherche de Spectroscopie Raman, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Elmanar 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)], E-mail: habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn; Oueslati, M. [Unite de recherche de Spectroscopie Raman, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Elmanar 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    Oxidized porous silicon optical planar waveguides were elaborated and impregnated with rhodamine B and rhodamine 6G. The waveguiding, absorption, and photoluminescence properties of these impregnated waveguides were studied. Successful impregnation of the structure with laser dyes is shown from photoluminescence and reflectivity measurements. Furthermore, the reflectivity spectra prove the homogenous incorporation of both dye molecules inside the pores of the matrices. The refractive indices of waveguide layers were determined before and after dye impregnation to indicate the conservation of guiding conditions. The optical losses in the visible wavelengths are studied as a function of dye concentration. The dye absorption is the main reason for these losses.

  12. Optical waveguides with memory effect using photochromic material for neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Keisuke; Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Yokoyama, Shin

    2018-04-01

    An optical neural network using a waveguide with a memory effect, a photodiode, CMOS circuits and LEDs was proposed. To realize the neural network, optical waveguides with a memory effect were fabricated using a cladding layer containing the photochromic material “diarylethene”. The transmittance of green light was decreased by UV light irradiation and recovered by the passage of green light through the waveguide. It was confirmed that the transmittance versus total energy of the green light that passed through the waveguide well fit the universal exponential curve.

  13. Mechanical Kerr nonlinearities due to bipolar optical forces between deformable silicon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2011-05-23

    We use an analytical method based on the perturbation of effective index at fixed frequency to calculate optical forces between silicon waveguides. We use the method to investigate the mechanical Kerr effect in a coupled-waveguide system with bipolar forces. We find that a positive mechanical Kerr coefficient results from either an attractive or repulsive force. An enhanced mechanical Kerr coefficient several orders of magnitude larger than the intrinsic Kerr coefficient is obtained in waveguides for which the optical mode approaches the air light line, given appropriate design of the waveguide dimensions.

  14. Bio-functional subwavelength optical waveguides for biodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirbuly, D J; Fischer, N; Huang, S; Artyukhin, A

    2007-07-10

    We report a versatile biofunctional subwavelength photonic device platform for real-time detection of biological molecules. Our devices contain lipid bilayer membranes fused onto metal oxide nanowire waveguides stretched across polymeric flow channels. The lipid bilayers incorporating target receptors are submersed in the propagating evanescent field of the optical cavity. We show that the lipid bilayers in our devices are continuous, have very high mobile fraction, and are resistant to fouling. We also demonstrate that our platform allows rapid membrane exchange. Finally we use this device for detection of specific DNA sequences in solution by anchoring complementary DNA target strands in the lipid bilayer. This evanescent wave sensing architecture holds great potential for portable, all-optical detection systems.

  15. Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Bañuls, María José; González-Pedro, Victoria; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Maquieira, A; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2008-04-01

    We demonstrate label-free molecule detection by using an integrated biosensor based on a Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2) slot-waveguide microring resonator. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA molecular binding events on the sensor surface are monitored through the measurement of resonant wavelength shifts with varying biomolecule concentrations. The biosensor exhibited sensitivities of 1.8 and 3.2 nm/(ng/mm(2)) for the detection of anti-BSA and BSA, respectively. The estimated detection limits are 28 and 16 pg/mm(2) for anti-BSA and BSA, respectively, limited by wavelength resolution.

  16. Optical propagation of the HE11 mode and Gaussian beams in hollow circular waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crenn, J.P.

    1993-05-01

    The propagation of the HE 11 mode and Gaussian beams in hollow oversized circular waveguides is analyzed using optical theories. Different types of waveguides are considered: hollow dielectric or conducting waveguides, dielectric-lined waveguides, corrugated waveguides. General formulas are derived which give the power transmission through these different guides. The best wall materials and structures are determined from a comparison of the waveguide transmissions, at the infrared and millimeter wavelengths. The question of the coupling between the HE 11 mode and Gaussian beams is discussed and from a review of coupling coefficients derived before, an optimum value is pointed out. The problem of matching a Gaussian beam into circular waveguides in order to achieve the maximum power transmission is analyzed

  17. Plasmonic Waveguide-Integrated Nanowire Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bermudez-Urena, Esteban; Tutuncuoglu, Gozde; Cuerda, Javier

    2017-01-01

    technologies. Despite significant advances in their fundamental aspects, the integration within scalable photonic circuitry remains challenging. Here we report on the realization of hybrid photonic devices consisting of nanowire lasers integrated with wafer-scale lithographically designed V-groove plasmonic......Next-generation optoelectronic devices and photonic circuitry will have to incorporate on-chip compatible nanolaser sources. Semiconductor nanowire lasers have emerged as strong candidates for integrated systems with applications ranging from ultrasensitive sensing to data communication...

  18. Low-loss optical waveguides in β-BBO crystal fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziqi; Cheng, Chen; Romero, Carolina; Lu, Qingming; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Chen, Feng

    2017-11-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of β-BBO depressed cladding waveguides fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing with no significant changes in the waveguide lattice microstructure. The waveguiding properties and the propagation losses of the cladding structures are investigated, showing good transmission properties at wavelengths of 400 and 800 nm along TM polarization. The minimum propagation losses are measured to be as low as 0.19 dB/cm at wavelength of 800 nm. The well-preserved waveguide lattice microstructure and good guiding performances with low propagation losses suggest the potential applications of the cladding waveguides in β-BBO crystal as novel integrated photonic devices.

  19. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, S.

    1985-04-01

    Implementation of single-mode optical fiber systems depends largely on the availability of integrated optical components for such functions as switching, multiplexing, and modulation. The technology of integrated optics is maturing very rapidly, and its growth justifies the optimism that now exists in the optical community.

  20. Praseodymium ion doped phosphate glasses for integrated broadband ion-exchanged waveguide amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, L.F. [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, B.J. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, H., E-mail: lhai8686@yahoo.com [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pun, E.Y.B. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effective near-infrared emission (1380-1525 nm) is observed in Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate glasses. • Effective bandwidth of {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 1}G{sub 4} transition emission is obtained to be 124 nm. • Channel waveguides have been fabricated by K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion-exchange method. • Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate glasses are promising in developing integrated broadband waveguide amplifier. - Abstract: Effective near-infrared emission covering the fifth optical telecommunication window (1380-1525 nm) has been observed in Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate (NMAP) glasses. Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω{sub 2} (6.38 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}), Ω{sub 4} (20.30 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) and Ω{sub 6} (0.40 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) indicate a high inversion asymmetrical and strong covalent environment in the optical glasses. The effective bandwidth (Δλ{sub eff}) of the corresponding {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 1}G{sub 4} transition emission is obtained to be 124 nm, and the maximum stimulated emission cross-section (σ{sub em-max}) at 1468 nm is derived to be 1.14 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}. Channel waveguide was fabricated successfully by K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion-exchange method with mode field diameter of 8.8 μm in the horizontal direction and 6.7 μm in the vertical direction. Broad effective bandwidth, large emission cross-section and perfect thermal ion-exchangeability indicate that Pr{sup 3+}-doped NMAP phosphate glasses are promising in developing integrated broadband waveguide amplifier, especially operating at E- and S-bands which belong to the fifth optical telecommunication window.

  1. Plasmonic Waveguide-Integrated Nanowire Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bermudez-Urena, Esteban; Tutuncuoglu, Gozde; Cuerda, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation optoelectronic devices and photonic circuitry will have to incorporate on-chip compatible nanolaser sources. Semiconductor nanowire lasers have emerged as strong candidates for integrated systems with applications ranging from ultrasensitive sensing to data communication technolog......Next-generation optoelectronic devices and photonic circuitry will have to incorporate on-chip compatible nanolaser sources. Semiconductor nanowire lasers have emerged as strong candidates for integrated systems with applications ranging from ultrasensitive sensing to data communication...... technologies. Despite significant advances in their fundamental aspects, the integration within scalable photonic circuitry remains challenging. Here we report on the realization of hybrid photonic devices consisting of nanowire lasers integrated with wafer-scale lithographically designed V-groove plasmonic...

  2. Integrated optical isolators using magnetic surface plasmon (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiromasa; Kaihara, Terunori; Umetsu, Saori; Hosoda, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    Optical isolators are one of the essential components to protect semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) from backward reflected light in integrated optics. In order to realize optical isolators, nonreciprocal propagation of light is necessary, which can be realized by magnetic materials. Semiconductor optical isolators have been strongly desired on Si and III/V waveguides. We have developed semiconductor optical isolators based on nonreciprocal loss owing to transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect, where the ferromagnetic metals are deposited on semiconductor optical waveguides1). Use of surface plasmon polariton at the interface of ferromagnetic metal and insulator leads to stronger optical confinement and magneto-optic effect. It is possible to modulate the optical confinement by changing the magnetic field direction, thus optical isolator operation is proposed2, 3). We have investigated surface plasmons at the interfaces between ferrimagnetic garnet/gold film, and applications to waveguide optical isolators. We assumed waveguides composed of Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG(1700nm)/Si(220nm)/Si , and calculated the coupling lengths between Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG plasmonic waveguide and Ce:YIG/Si(220nm)/Si waveguide for transversely magnetized Ce:YIG with forward and backward directions. The coupling length was calculated to 232.1um for backward propagating light. On the other hand, the coupling was not complete, and the length was calculated to 175.5um. The optical isolation by using the nonreciprocal coupling and propagation loss was calculated to be 43.7dB when the length of plasmonic waveguide is 700um. 1) H. Shimizu et al., J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 38 (2006). 2) V. Zayets et al., Materials, 5, 857-871 (2012). 3) J. Montoya, et al, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023108, (2009).

  3. Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS) as a Sensor for Thin Film and Quantum Dot Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hao; Eggleston, Carrick M.; Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Wenyong; Dai, Qilin; Tang, Jinke

    2012-01-01

    Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) is usually applied as a biosensor system to the sorption-desorption of proteins to waveguide surfaces. Here, we show that OWLS can be used to monitor the quality of oxide thin film materials and of coatings of pulsed laser deposition synthesized CdSe quantum dots (QDs) intended for solar energy applications. In addition to changes in data treatment and experimental procedure, oxide- or QD-coated waveguide sensors must be synthesized. We synthesi...

  4. Silicon-Based Technology for Integrated Waveguides and mm-Wave Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Vladimir; Gentile, Gennaro; Dekker, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    IC processing is used to develop technology for silicon-filled millimeter-wave-integrated waveguides. The front-end process defines critical waveguide sections and enables integration of dedicated components, such as RF capacitors and resistors. Wafer gluing is used to strengthen the mechanical...... support and deep reactive-ion etching forms the waveguide bulk with smooth and nearly vertical sidewalls. Aluminum metallization covers the etched sidewalls, fully enclosing the waveguides in metal from all sides. Waveguides are fabricated with a rectangular cross section of 560 μm x 280 μm. The measured...

  5. Slow light enhanced optical nonlinearity in a silicon photonic crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kato, Takumi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Takesue, Hiroki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya

    2011-10-10

    We demonstrate highly enhanced optical nonlinearity in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) in a four-wave mixing experiment. Using a CROW consisting of 200 coupled resonators based on width-modulated photonic crystal nanocavities in a line defect, we obtained an effective nonlinear constant exceeding 10,000 /W/m, thanks to slow light propagation combined with a strong spatial confinement of light achieved by the wavelength-sized cavities.

  6. Direct-Dispense Polymeric Waveguides Platform for Optical Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hajj-Hassan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe an automated robotic technique called direct-dispense to fabricate a polymeric platform that supports optical sensor arrays. Direct-dispense, which is a type of the emerging direct-write microfabrication techniques, uses fugitive organic inks in combination with cross-linkable polymers to create microfluidic channels and other microstructures. Specifically, we describe an application of direct-dispensing to develop optical biochemical sensors by fabricating planar ridge waveguides that support sol-gelderived xerogel-based thin films. The xerogel-based sensor materials act as host media to house luminophore biochemical recognition elements. As a prototype implementation, we demonstrate gaseous oxygen (O2 responsive optical sensors that operate on the basis of monitoring luminescence intensity signals. The optical sensor employs a Light Emitting Diode (LED excitation source and a standard silicon photodiode as the detector. The sensor operates over the full scale (0%-100% of O2 concentrations with a response time of less than 1 second. This work has implications for the development of miniaturized multisensor platforms that can be cost-effectively and reliably mass-produced.

  7. Low Loss 1×2 Optical Coupler Based on Cosine S-bend with Segmented Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Ian; Sahmah, Abu; Supa'at, M.; Idrus, Sevia M.; Ridwanto, Muhammad; Al-hetar, Abdulaziz M.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an optimization of 1×2 polymer Y-junction optical coupler. The optimized optical coupler comprises straight polymer waveguide as the input waveguide, tapered waveguide, modified cosine S-bend and linear waveguide. At the branching point, N short waveguides with small width are introduced to reduce evanescent field. At operating wavelength of 1550 nm the excess loss of the coupler is ˜0.18 dB. In term of polarization dependence loss (PDL), the proposed coupler also shows a good performance with PDL value of less than 0.015 dB for wavelength range of 1470 nm-1550 nm. The proposed coupler could reduce excess loss more than 25% compared to conventional Y junction optical coupler.

  8. General technique for the integration of MIC/MMIC'S with waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Bernard D. (Inventor); Zaghloul, Amir I. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A technique for packaging and integrating of a microwave integrated circuit (MIC) or monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) with a waveguide uses a printed conductive circuit pattern on a dielectric substrate to transform impedance and mode of propagation between the MIC/MMIC and the waveguide. The virtually coplanar circuit pattern lies on an equipotential surface within the waveguide and therefore makes possible single or dual polarized mode structures.

  9. Towards single photon generation using NV centers in diamond coupled to thin layer optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiyuki Tashima

    2014-01-01

    Single photon emitters like the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond are important for quantum communication such as quantum cryptography and quantum metrology. In this context, e.g. tapered optical nano-fibers are a promising approach as they allow efficient coupling of single photons into a single spatial mode. Yet, integration of such fibers in a compact integrated quantum circuit is demanding. Here we propose a NV defect center in diamond as a single photon emitter coupled to a thin layer photonic waveguide. The benefit is to allow smaller size devices while having a similar strong evanescent field like tapered nano-optical fibers. We present numerical simulations and fabrication steps of such structures. (author)

  10. ALL-OPTICAL CONTROL OF THZ RADIATION IN PARALLEL PLATE WAVEGUIDES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to control of THz radiation in parallel plate waveguides (PPWG) by forming components in the waveguide by use of optical radiation pulses. Patterns of excited regions induced in the PPWG by an optical excitation pulses changes the electromagnetic properties of the waveguide...... medium in the THz regime, thereby forming transient passive and active components for controlling THz radiation signals. The excitation can be generation of free charge carriers in a semiconductor material in the PPWG, to create metallic regions that form mirrors, lenses or photonic crystal structures......-on-a-chip applications. The optical and THz radiation can be ultrashort pulses with picosecond or femtosecond pulse durations. L...

  11. Mode analysis and structure parameter optimization of a novel SiGe-OI rib optical waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Song; Gao Yong; Yang Yuan [Department of Electronic Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Feng Yuchun, E-mail: vonfs@yahoo.com.c [Key Laboratories of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The mode of a novel SiGe-OI optical waveguide is analyzed, and its single-mode conditions are derived. The Ge content and structure parameters of SiGe-OI optical waveguides are respectively optimized. Under an operation wavelength of 1300 nm, the structures of SiGe-OI rib optical waveguides are built and analyzed with Optiwave software, and the optical field and transmission losses of the SiGe-OI rib optical waveguides are analyzed. The optimization results show that when the structure parameters H, h, W are respectively 500 nm, 250 nm, 500 nm and the Ge content is 5%, the total power loss of SiGe-OI rib waveguides is 0.3683 dB/cm considering the loss of radiation outside the waveguides and materials, which is less than the traditional value of 0.5 dB/cm. The analytical technique for SiGe-OI optical waveguides and structure parameters computed by this paper are proved to be accurate and computationally efficient compared with the beam propagation method (BPM) and the experimental results. (semiconductor devices)

  12. Fabrication and Characterisation of Silicon Waveguides for High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Asger Sellerup

    This Ph.D. thesis treats various aspects of silicon photonics. From the limitations of silicon as a linear and nonlinear waveguide medium to its synergy with other waveguide materials. Various methods for reducing sidewall roughness and line edge roughness of silicon waveguides are attempted...... was too high for any practical applications. It is speculated that the attempt at creating a material with low density of dangling bonds was unsuccessful. Nevertheless, linear losses of 2.4dB/cm at 1550nm wavelength in the silicon waveguides remained sufficiently low that high speed nonlinear optical...

  13. Dynamic diffraction-limited light-coupling of 3D-maneuvered wave-guided optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villangca, Mark; Bañas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2014-07-28

    We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). As the WOWs are maneuvered in 3D space, it is important to maintain efficient light coupling through the waveguides within their operating volume. We propose the use of dynamic diffractive techniques to create diffraction-limited spots that will track and couple to the WOWs during operation. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to encode the necessary diffractive phase patterns to generate the multiple and dynamic coupling spots. The method is initially tested for a single WOW and we have experimentally demonstrated dynamic tracking and coupling for both lateral and axial displacements.

  14. Dynamic diffraction-limited light-coupling of 3D-maneuvered wave-guided optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    2014-01-01

    We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). As the WOWs are maneuvered in 3D space, it is important to maintain efficient light coupling through the waveguides within their operating volume. We propose the use...... of dynamic diffractive techniques to create diffraction-limited spots that will track and couple to the WOWs during operation. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to encode the necessary diffractive phase patterns to generate the multiple and dynamic coupling spots. The method is initially tested...... for a single WOW and we have experimentally demonstrated dynamic tracking and coupling for both lateral and axial displacements....

  15. Optical Intensity Modulation in an LiNbO3 Slab-Coupled Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Lu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical intensity modulation has been demonstrated through switching the optical beam between the main core waveguide and a closely attached leaky slab waveguide by applying a low-voltage electrical field. Theory for simulating such an LiNbO3 slab-coupled waveguide structure was suggested, and the result indicates the possibility of making the spatial guiding mode large, circular and symmetric, which further allows the potential to significantly reduce the coupling losses with adjacent lasers and optical networks. Optical intensity modulation using electro-optic effect was experimentally demonstrated in a 5 cm long waveguide fabricated by using a procedure of soft proton exchange and then an overgrowth of thin LN film on top of a c-cut LiNbO3 wafer.

  16. Optical waveguides in LiTaO3 crystals fabricated by swift C5+ ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guiyuan; He, Ruiyun; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We report on the optical waveguides, in both planar and ridge configurations, fabricated in LiTaO 3 crystal by using carbon (C 5+ ) ions irradiation at energy of 15 MeV. The planar waveguide was produced by direct irradiation of swift C 5+ ions, whilst the ridge waveguides were manufactured by using femtosecond laser ablation of the planar layer. The reconstructed refractive index profile of the planar waveguide has showed a barrier-shaped distribution, and the near-field waveguide mode intensity distribution was in good agreement with the calculated modal profile. After thermal annealing at 260 °C in air, the propagation losses of both the planar and ridge waveguides were reduced to 10 dB/cm

  17. Integration of active and passive polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a wafer scale fabrication process for integration of active and passive polymer optics: Polymer DFB lasers and waveguides. Polymer dye DFB lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP). The CNP fabrication relies on an UV transparent stamp with nm sized...... wavelength from temperature and refractive index changes in the surroundings is investigated, pointing towards the use of the described fabrication method for on-chip polymer sensor systems....

  18. Integrated Optical Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    applications in optical disk memory systems [91. This device is constructed in a glass /SiO2/Si waveguide. The choice of a Si substrate allows for the...contact mask) were formed in the photoresist deposited on all of the samples, we covered the unwanted gratings on each sample with cover glass slides...processing, let us consider TeO2 (v, = 620 m/s) as a potential substrate for applications requiring large time delays. This con- sideration is despite

  19. Heterogeneous integration of thin film compound semiconductor lasers and SU8 waveguides on SiO2/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Sabarni; Kirch, Jeremy; Mawst, Luke; Kuech, Thomas; Jokerst, Nan Marie

    2010-02-01

    We present the heterogeneous integration of a 3.8 μm thick InGaAs/GaAs edge emitting laser that was metal-metal bonded to SiO2/Si and end-fire coupled into a 2.8 μm thick tapered SU8 polymer waveguide integrated on the same substrate. The system was driven in pulsed mode and the waveguide output was captured on an IR imaging array to characterize the mode. The waveguide output was also coupled into a multimode fiber, and into an optical head and spectrum analyzer, indicating lasing at ~997 nm and a threshold current density of 250 A/cm2.

  20. Fibre Optic Gyroscope Developments Using Integrated Optic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minford, W. J.; DePaula, R. M.

    1988-09-01

    The sensing of rotation using counterpropagating optical beams in a fiber loop (the SAGNAC effect) has gone through extensive developments and demonstrations since first proved feasible by Vali and Shorthilll in 1976. The interferometric fiber gyroscope minimum configuration2 which uses a common input-output port and single-mode filter was developed to provide the extreme high stability necessary to reach the sensitivities at low rotation rates attainable with current state-of-the-art detectors. The simplicity and performance of this configuration has led to its acceptance and wide-spread use. In order to increase the mechanical stability of this system, all single-mode fiber components are employed and a further advancement to integrated optics has enabled most of the optical functions to be placed on a single mass-producible substrate. Recent improvements in the components (eg polarization maintaining fiber and low coherence sources) have further enhanced the performance of the minimum configuration gyro. This presentation focused on the impact of LiNbO3 integrated optic components on gyroscope developments. The use of Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 waveguide optical circuits in interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes has taken two directions: to utilize only the phase modulator, or to combine many of the minimum configuration optical functions on the electro-optic substrate. The high-bandwidth phase modulator is the driving force for using LiNbO3 waveguide devices. This device allows both biasing the gyro for maximum sensitivity and closing the loop via frequency shifting, for example, thus increasing the dynamic range of the gyro and the linearity of the scale factor. Efforts to implement most of the minimum configuration optical functions onto a single LiNbO3 substrate have been led by Thomson CSF.3 They have demonstrated an interferometric gyroscope with excellent performance using a LiNbO3 optical circuit containing a Y-splitter, phase modulator, and surface

  1. Integrated optical delay lines for time-division multiplexers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Kleijn, E.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of integrated optical delay lines (DLs) for application in optical time-division multiplexers. The investigated DLs are formed by spirally folded waveguides. The components were designed in a generic approach and fabricated in multi-project wafer runs on an

  2. Integrated Active and Passive Polymer Optical Components with nm to mm Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides.......We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides....

  3. Waveguide-Integrated MEMS Concepts for Tunable Millimeter-Wave Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Baghchehsaraei, Zargham

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents two families of novel waveguide-integrated components based on millimeter-wave microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for reconfigurable systems. The first group comprises V-band (50–75 GHz) and W-band (75–110 GHz) waveguide switches and switchable irises, and their application as switchable cavity resonators, and tunable bandpass filters implemented by integration of novel MEMS-reconfigurable surfaces into a rectangular waveguide. The second category comprises MEMS-based ...

  4. Coupled-resonator optical waveguides: Q-factor and disorder influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure; Campaioli, Enrico; Raza, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) can significantly reduce light propagation pulse velocity due to pronounced dispersion properties. A number of interesting applications have been proposed to benefit from such slow-light propagation. Unfortunately, the inevitable presence of disorder...

  5. Low-loss, compact, and fabrication-tolerant Si-wire 90° waveguide bend using clothoid and normal curves for large scale photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Takeshi; Makino, Shuntaro; Sato, Takanori; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2017-04-17

    Ultimately low-loss 90° waveguide bend composed of clothoid and normal curves is proposed for dense optical interconnect photonic integrated circuits. By using clothoid curves at the input and output of 90° waveguide bend, straight and bent waveguides are smoothly connected without increasing the footprint. We found that there is an optimum ratio of clothoid curves in the bend and the bending loss can be significantly reduced compared with normal bend. 90% reduction of the bending loss for the bending radius of 4 μm is experimentally demonstrated with excellent agreement between theory and experiment. The performance is compared with the waveguide bend with offset, and the proposed bend is superior to the waveguide bend with offset in terms of fabrication tolerance.

  6. Performing derivative and integral operations for optical waves with optical metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Cun-Li [College of Engineering, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210031 (China); College of Science, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210095 (China); Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Li, Xiao-Lin [College of Engineering, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210031 (China); Yang, Hong-Wei, E-mail: phd_hwyang@njau.edu.cn [College of Science, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210095 (China)

    2016-12-01

    The graded refractive index waveguides can perform Fourier transform for an optical wave. According to this characteristic, simpler optical metamaterials with three waveguides are theoretically proposed, in which all of the waveguides are materials with a positive refractive index. By selecting the appropriate refractive index and structure size, the theory and simulations demonstrated that these metamaterials can perform mathematical operations for the outline of incident optical waves, including the first-order derivative, second-order derivative and the integral. - Highlights: • The derivative and integral operations of optical waves are achieved with a simpler model. • Both negative and positive refractive index boast the same functions. • The mathematical operations can be implemented only by changing the refractive index of the intermediate material. • The results will greatly expand the possible applications, including photon computers, picture processing, video displays and data storage.

  7. Efficient and ultra-narrow-linewidth integrated waveguide lasers in Al2O3:Yb and Al2O3:Er

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Pollnau, Markus

    The ability to integrate Bragg grating structures with optical waveguides provides the opportunity to realize a variety of compact monolithic optical devices, such as distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers. In this work, we report passive DBR cavities with

  8. Towards a portable microchip system with integrated thermal control and polymer waveguides for real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Sekulovic, Andrea; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2006-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR microchip platform with integrated thermal system and polymer waveguides has been developed. The integrated polymer optical system for real-time monitoring of PCR was fabricated in the same SU-8 layer as the PCR chamber, without additional masking steps. Two suitable DNA...... binding dyes, SYTOX Orange and TO-PRO-3, were selected and tested for the real-time PCR processes. As a model, cadF gene of Campylobacter jejuni has been amplified on the microchip. Using the integrated optical system of the real-time PCR microchip, the measured cycle threshold values of the real-time PCR...

  9. Computer Aided Analysis of TM-Multimode Planar Graded-index Optical Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, M.; Nasr, A.S.; Abou El-Fadl, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for analysis TM-Multimode Planar graded-index optical waveguides. A Modified Impedance Boundary Method of Moments (MIBMOM) for the analysis of planar graded-index optical waveguide structures is presented. The algorithm is used to calculate the dispersion characteristics and the field distribution of TM-multimode planar graded-index optical waveguides. The technique is based on Galerkin s procedure and the exact boundary condition at the interfaces between the graded index region and the step index cladding. Legendre polynomials are used as basis functions. The efficiency of this algorithm is examined with waveguides having various index profiles such as exponential, Gaussian and complementary error functions. The advantage of the MIBMOM is the complete solution of TM-multimode as presented which is very difficult by the other methods. With this algorithm a minimum number of basis functions to give accurate results is used. The obtained results show good agreement with the experimental results

  10. Analysis and design of substrate integrated waveguide using efficient 2D hybrid method

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xuan Hui

    2010-01-01

    Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) is a new type of transmission line. It implements a waveguide on a piece of printed circuit board by emulating the side walls of the waveguide using two rows of metal posts. It inherits the merits both from the microstrip for compact size and easy integration, and from the waveguide for low radiation loss, and thus opens another door to design efficient microwave circuits and antennas at a low cost. This book presents a two-dimensional fullwave analysis method to investigate an SIW circuit composed of metal and dielectric posts. It combines the cylindrical

  11. Liquid Core ARROW Waveguides: A Promising Photonic Structure for Integrated Optofluidic Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genni Testa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a liquid core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW as a novel optofluidic device that can be used to create innovative and highly functional microsensors. Liquid core ARROWs, with their dual ability to guide the light and the fluids in the same microchannel, have shown great potential as an optofluidic tool for quantitative spectroscopic analysis. ARROWs feature a planar architecture and, hence, are particularly attractive for chip scale integrated system. Step by step, several improvements have been made in recent years towards the implementation of these waveguides in a complete on-chip system for highly-sensitive detection down to the single molecule level. We review applications of liquid ARROWs for fluids sensing and discuss recent results and trends in the developments and applications of liquid ARROW in biomedical and biochemical research. The results outlined show that the strong light matter interaction occurring in the optofluidic channel of an ARROW and the versatility offered by the fabrication methods makes these waveguides a very promising building block for optofluidic sensor development.

  12. Optically reconfigurable patterning for control of the propagation characteristics of a planar waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Klittnick, A.; Clark, N. A.; Keller, P.

    2008-10-01

    We demonstrate an easily fabricated all-optical and freely reconfigurable method of controlling the propagating characteristics of the optic path within a planar waveguide with low insertion losses by employing the optical patterning of the refractive index of an erasable and rewriteable photosensitive liquid crystal polymer cladding layer.

  13. Optical microwave filter based on spectral slicing by use of arrayed waveguide gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José; Sales, Salvador; Martinez, Alfonso; Muñoz, Pascual

    2003-10-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a new optical signal processor based on the use of arrayed waveguide gratings. The structure exploits the concept of spectral slicing combined with the use of an optical dispersive medium. The approach presents increased flexibility from previous slicing-based structures in terms of tunability, reconfiguration, and apodization of the samples or coefficients of the transversal optical filter.

  14. Fabrication of optical channel waveguides in crystals and glasses using macro- and micro ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Rajta, I.; Nagy, G.U.L. [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Zolnai, Z. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Havranek, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute AV CR, Řež near Prague 250 68 (Czech Republic); Pelli, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Veres, M. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Righini, G.C. [“Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    Active and passive optical waveguides are fundamental elements in modern telecommunications systems. A great number of optical crystals and glasses were identified and are used as good optoelectronic materials. However, fabrication of waveguides in some of those materials remains still a challenging task due to their susceptibility to mechanical or chemical damages during processing. Researches were initiated on ion beam fabrication of optical waveguides in tellurite glasses. Channel waveguides were written in Er:TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} glass through a special silicon mask using 1.5 MeV N{sup +} irradiation. This method was improved by increasing N{sup +} energy to 3.5 MeV to achieve confinement at the 1550 nm wavelength, too. An alternative method, direct writing of the channel waveguides in the tellurite glass using focussed beams of 6–11 MeV C{sup 3+} and C{sup 5+} and 5 MeV N{sup 3+}, has also been developed. Channel waveguides were fabricated in undoped eulytine-(Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) and sillenite type (Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20}) bismuth germanate crystals using both a special silicon mask and a thick SU8 photoresist mask and 3.5 MeV N{sup +} irradiation. The waveguides were studied by phase contrast and interference microscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy. Guiding properties were checked by the end fire method.

  15. Polarization effects in silicon-clad optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, R. F.; Batchman, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    By changing the thickness of a semiconductor cladding layer deposited on a planar dielectric waveguide, the TE or TM propagating modes may be selectively attenuated. This polarization effect is due to the periodic coupling between the lossless propagating modes of the dielectric slab waveguide and the lossy modes of the cladding layer. Experimental tests involving silicon claddings show high selectivity for either polarization.

  16. Optical pulse dynamics for quantum-dot logic operations in a photonic-crystal waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xun; John, Sajeev [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 Canada (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We numerically demonstrate all-optical logic operations with quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a bimodal photonic-crystal waveguide using Maxwell-Bloch equations in a slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA). The two-level QD excitation level is controlled by one or more femtojoule optical driving pulses passing through the waveguide. Specific logic operations depend on the relative pulse strengths and their detunings from an inhomogeneouslly broadened (about 1% for QD transitions centered at 1.5 {mu}m) QD transition. This excitation controlled two-level medium then determines passage of subsequent probe optical pulses. Envelope equations for electromagnetic waves in the linear dispersion and cutoff waveguide modes are derived to simplify solution of the coupled Maxwell-Bloch equations in the waveguide. These determine the quantum mechanical evolution of the QD excitation and its polarization, driven by classical electromagnetic (EM) pulses near a sharp discontinuity in the EM density of states of the bimodal waveguide. Different configurations of the driving pulses lead to distinctive relations between driving pulse strength and probe pulse passage, representing all-optical logic and, or, and not operations. Simulation results demonstrate that such operations can be done on picosecond time scales and within a waveguide length of about 10 {mu}m in a photonic-band-gap (PBG) optical microchip.

  17. Advances in integrated optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, A; Bertolotti, M

    1994-01-01

    This volwne contains the Proceedings of a two-week summer conference titled "Advances in Integrated Optics" held June 1-9, 1993, in Erice, Sicily. This was the 18th annual course organized by the International School of Quantum Electronics, under the auspices of the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture. The term Integrated Optics signifies guided-wave optical circuits consisting of two or more devices on a single substrate. Since its inception in the late 1960's, Integrated Optics has evolved from a specialized research topic into a broad field of work, ranging from basic research through commercial applications. Today many devices are available on market while a big effort is devolved to research on integrated nonlinear optical devices. This conference was organized to provide a comprehensive survey of the frontiers of this technology, including fundamental concepts, nonlinear optical materials, devices both in the linear and nonlinear regimes, and selected applications. These Proceedings update a...

  18. Polarization independent polymer waveguide tunable receivers incorporating a micro-optic circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Park, Tae-Hyun; Park, Su-Hyun; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2018-06-01

    In order to simplify the receiver configuration in a wavelength division multiplexed optical fiber network, compact wavelength tunable filters have long been expected to be used as channel selectors. Bragg reflector inherently has the most suitable reflection spectrum for filtering a single wavelength from the densely multiplexed wavelength signal. Polymer has high thermo-optic coefficient and good thermal insulation property compared to the other optical waveguide materials such as silicon and silica materials. This can be used to broadly tune the reflection spectrum of Bragg reflector using a simple micro-heater. In this work, a micro-optic circulator component and a polymeric Bragg reflector device are assembled to produce a small form factor tunable receiver. Compared to the integrated-optical versions, the micro-optics are based on well-developed manufacturing processes and can achieve competitive production yields. The device exhibits high reflectivity with a flat top passband, and a polarization dependence of 0.06 nm achieved by virtue of the low birefringence of LFR polymer, which make a significant contribution to the implementation of polarization independent tunable receiver. The wavelength tuning range of 40 nm is demonstrated by using a bottom located heater with a groove for heat isolation.

  19. A nonlinear plasmonic waveguide based all-optical bidirectional switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bana, Xiaoqiang; Pang, Xingxing; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Bin; Guo, Yixuan; Zheng, Hairong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, an all-optical switching with a nanometer coupled ring resonator is demonstrated based on the nonlinear material. By adjusting the light intensity, we implement the resonance wavelength from 880 nm to 940 nm in the nonlinear material structure monocyclic. In the bidirectional switch structure, the center wavelength (i.e. 880 nm) is fixed. By changing the light intensity from I = 0 to I = 53 . 1 MW /cm2, the function of optical switching can be obtained. The results demonstrate that both the single-ring cavity and the T-shaped double-ring structure can realize the optical switching effect. This work takes advantage of the simple structure. The single-ring cavity plasmonic switches have many advantages, such as nanoscale size, low pumping light intensity, ultrafast response time (femtosecond level), etc. It is expected that the proposed all-optical integrated devices can be potentially applied in optical communication, signal processing, and signal sensing, etc.

  20. Three dimensional iterative beam propagation method for optical waveguide devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changbao; Van Keuren, Edward

    2006-10-01

    The finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) is an effective model for simulating a wide range of optical waveguide structures. The classical FD-BPMs are based on the Crank-Nicholson scheme, and in tridiagonal form can be solved using the Thomas method. We present a different type of algorithm for 3-D structures. In this algorithm, the wave equation is formulated into a large sparse matrix equation which can be solved using iterative methods. The simulation window shifting scheme and threshold technique introduced in our earlier work are utilized to overcome the convergence problem of iterative methods for large sparse matrix equation and wide-angle simulations. This method enables us to develop higher-order 3-D wide-angle (WA-) BPMs based on Pade approximant operators and the multistep method, which are commonly used in WA-BPMs for 2-D structures. Simulations using the new methods will be compared to the analytical results to assure its effectiveness and applicability.

  1. Ultra-low crosstalk, CMOS compatible waveguide crossings for densely integrated photonic interconnection networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam M; DeRose, Christopher T; Lentine, Anthony L; Trotter, Douglas C; Starbuck, Andrew L; Norwood, Robert A

    2013-05-20

    We explore the design space for optimizing CMOS compatible waveguide crossings on a silicon photonics platform. This paper presents simulated and experimental excess loss and crosstalk suppression data for vertically integrated silicon nitride over silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings. Experimental results show crosstalk suppression exceeding -49/-44 dB with simulation results as low as -65/-60 dB for the TE/TM mode in a waveguide crossing with a 410 nm vertical gap.

  2. Second-order optical nonlinearities in dilute melt proton exchange waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veng, Torben Erik; Skettrup, Torben; Pedersen, Kjeld

    1996-01-01

    Planar optical waveguides with different refractive indices are made in z-cut LiNbO3 with a dilute proton exchange method using a system of glycerol containing KHSO4 and lithium benzoate. The optical second-order susceptibilities of these waveguides are measured by detecting the 266 nm reflected...... second-harmonic signal generated by a 532 nm beam directed onto the waveguide surface. It is found for this kind of waveguides that in the waveguide region all the second-order susceptibilities take values of at least 90% of the original LiNbO; values for refractive index changes less than similar to 0...

  3. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-29

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions.

  4. Real-Time PCR using a PCR Microchip with Integrated Thermal System and Polymer Waveguides for the Detection of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Sekulovic, Andrea; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2006-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR microchip platform with integrated thermal system and polymer waveguides has been developed. By using the integrated optical system of the real-time PCR chip, cadF – a virulence gene of Campylobacter jejuni, could specifically be detected. Two different DNA binding dyes, SYTOX...

  5. Photonics-on-a-chip: recent advances in integrated waveguides as enabling detection elements for real-world, lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Adam L; Bailey, Ryan C

    2011-01-21

    By leveraging advances in semiconductor microfabrication technologies, chip-integrated optical biosensors are poised to make an impact as scalable and multiplexable bioanalytical measurement tools for lab-on-a-chip applications. In particular, waveguide-based optical sensing technology appears to be exceptionally amenable to chip integration and miniaturization, and, as a result, the recent literature is replete with examples of chip-integrated waveguide sensing platforms developed to address a wide range of contemporary analytical challenges. As an overview of the most recent advances within this dynamic field, this review highlights work from the last 2-3 years in the areas of grating-coupled, interferometric, photonic crystal, and microresonator waveguide sensors. With a focus towards device integration, particular emphasis is placed on demonstrations of biosensing using these technologies within microfluidically controlled environments. In addition, examples of multiplexed detection and sensing within complex matrices--important features for real-world applicability--are given special attention.

  6. Waveguide-type optical circuits for recognition of optical 8QAM-coded label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surenkhorol, Tumendemberel; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Goto, Nobuo; Gonchigsumlaa, Khishigjargal

    2017-10-01

    Optical signal processing is expected to be applied in network nodes. In photonic routers, label recognition is one of the important functions. We have studied different kinds of label recognition methods so far for on-off keying, binary phase-shift keying, quadrature phase-shift keying, and 16 quadrature amplitude modulation-coded labels. We propose a method based on waveguide circuits to recognize an optical eight quadrature amplitude modulation (8QAM)-coded label by simple passive optical signal processing. The recognition of the proposed method is theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated by the finite difference beam propagation method. The noise tolerance is discussed, and bit-error rate against optical signal-to-noise ratio is evaluated. The scalability of the proposed method is also discussed theoretically for two-symbol length 8QAM-coded labels.

  7. Integrated optical devices for wavelength division multiplexing using PECVD and direct UV writing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zauner, Dan; Leistiko, Otto

    1999-01-01

    channel waveguides are presented: a conventional method and direct UV writing. It is shown that an optimized three layer glass structure yields directly UV written waveguides with low insertion losses. Integrated optical structures have been designed and fabricated. The impact of process variations...

  8. Using Multilayered Substrate Integrated Waveguide to Design Microwave Gain Equalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and experiment of a novel microwave gain equalizer based on the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technique. The proposed equalizer is formed by an SIW loaded by SIW resonators, which has very compact structure and can compensate for gain slope of microwave systems. Equivalent circuit analysis is given about the proposed structure for a better insight into the structure’s response. A Ku-Band equalizer with four SIW resonators is simulated and fabricated with a multilayer printed circuit board process. The measured results show good performance and agreement with the simulated results; an attenuation slope of −4.5 dB over 12.5–13.5 GHz is reached with a size reduction of 76%.

  9. Acrylic and metal based Y-branch plastic optical fiber splitter with optical NOA63 polymer waveguide taper region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin; Rahman, Mohd Kamil Abd.

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a simple low-cost acrylic and metal-based Y-branch plastic optical fiber (POF) splitter which utilizes a low cost optical polymer glue NOA63 as the main waveguiding medium at the waveguide taper region. The device is composed of three sections: an input POF waveguide, a middle waveguide taper region and output POF waveguides. A desktop high speed CNC engraver is utilized to produce the mold inserts used for the optical devices. Short POF fibers are inserted into the engraved slots at the input and output ports. UV curable optical polymer glue NOA63 is injected into the waveguide taper region and cured. The assembling is completed when the top plate is positioned to enclose the device structure and connecting screws are secured. Both POF splitters have an average insertion loss of 7.8 dB, coupling ratio of 55: 45 and 57: 43 for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively. The devices have excess loss of 4.82 and 4.73 dB for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively.

  10. Integrated optic vector-matrix multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-27

    A vector-matrix multiplier is disclosed which uses N different wavelengths of light that are modulated with amplitudes representing elements of an N.times.1 vector and combined to form an input wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) light stream. The input WDM light stream is split into N streamlets from which each wavelength of the light is individually coupled out and modulated for a second time using an input signal representing elements of an M.times.N matrix, and is then coupled into an output waveguide for each streamlet to form an output WDM light stream which is detected to generate a product of the vector and matrix. The vector-matrix multiplier can be formed as an integrated optical circuit using either waveguide amplitude modulators or ring resonator amplitude modulators.

  11. Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Leosson, Kristjan

    2005-01-01

    New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded......), and a bend loss of ~5 dB for a bend radius of 15 mm are evaluated for 15-nm-thick and 8-mm-wide stripes at the wavelength of 1550 nm. LR-SPP-based 3-dB power Y-splitters, multimode interference waveguides, and directional couplers are demonstrated and investigated. At 1570 nm, coupling lengths of 1.9 and 0...

  12. Plasmonic nanopatch array for optical integrated circuit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shi-Wei; Nie, Zai-Ping

    2013-11-08

    Future plasmonic integrated circuits with the capability of extremely high-speed data processing at optical frequencies will be dominated by the efficient optical emission (excitation) from (of) plasmonic waveguides. Towards this goal, plasmonic nanoantennas, currently a hot topic in the field of plasmonics, have potential to bridge the mismatch between the wave vector of free-space photonics and that of the guided plasmonics. To manipulate light at will, plasmonic nanoantenna arrays will definitely be more efficient than isolated nanoantennas. In this article, the concepts of microwave antenna arrays are applied to efficiently convert plasmonic waves in the plasmonic waveguides into free-space optical waves or vice versa. The proposed plasmonic nanoantenna array, with nanopatch antennas and a coupled wedge plasmon waveguide, can also act as an efficient spectrometer to project different wavelengths into different directions, or as a spatial filter to absorb a specific wavelength at a specified incident angle.

  13. On the Theory of Coupled Modes in Optical Cavity-Waveguide Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Heuck, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Light propagation in systems of optical cavities coupled to waveguides can be conveniently described by a general rate equation model known as (temporal) coupled mode theory (CMT). We present an alternative derivation of the CMT for optical cavitywaveguide structures, which explicitly relies...... in the coupled systems. Practical application of the theory is illustrated using example calculations in one and two dimensions....

  14. Size-selective detection in integrated optical interferometric biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Harmen K P; Ymeti, Aurel; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S

    2012-01-01

    We present a new size-selective detection method for integrated optical interferometric biosensors that can strongly enhance their performance. We demonstrate that by launching multiple wavelengths into a Young interferometer waveguide sensor it is feasible to derive refractive index changes from

  15. Detection of avian influenza antigens in proximity fiber, droplet, and optical waveguide microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Heinze, Brian C.; Gamboa, Jessica; You, David J.

    2009-05-01

    Virus antigens of avian influenza subtype H3N2 were detected on two different microfluidic platforms: microchannel and droplet. Latex immunoagglutination assays were performed using 920-nm highly carboxylated polystyrene beads that are conjugated with antibody to avian influenza virus. The bead suspension was merged with the solutions of avian influenza virus antigens in a Y-junction of a microchannel made by polydimethylsiloxane soft lithography. The resulting latex immunoagglutinations were measured with two optical fibers in proximity setup to detect 45° forward light scattering. Alternatively, 10 μL droplets of a bead suspension and an antigen solution were merged on a superhydrophobic surface (water contact angle = 155°), whose movement was guided by a metal wire, and 180° back light scattering is measured with a backscattering optical probe. Detection limits were 0.1 pg mL-1 for both microchannel with proximity fibers and droplet microfluidics, thanks to the use of micro-positioning stages to help generate reproducible optical signals. Additionally, optical waveguide was tested by constructing optical waveguide channels (filled with mineral oil) within a microfluidic device to detect the same light scattering. Detection limit was 0.1 ng mL-1 for an optical waveguide device, with a strong potential of improvement in the near future. The use of optical waveguide enabled smaller device setup, easier operation, smaller standard deviations and broader linear range of assay than proximity fiber microchannel and droplet microfluidics. Total assay time was less than 10 min.

  16. Optical emission from a high-refractive-index waveguide excited by a traveling electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwamura, Yuji; Yamada, Minoru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Kanai, Takeshi; Fares, Hesham

    2008-01-01

    An optical emission scheme was demonstrated, in which a high-refractive-index waveguide is excited by a traveling electron beam in a vacuum environment. The waveguide was made of Si-SiO 2 layers. The velocity of light propagating in the waveguide was slowed down to 1/3 of that in free space due to the high refractive index of Si. The light penetrated partly into the vacuum in the form of a surface wave. The electron beam was emitted from an electron gun and propagated along the surface of the waveguide. When the velocity of the electron coincided with that of the light, optical emission was observed. This emission is a type of Cherenkov radiation and is not conventional cathode luminescence from the waveguide materials because Si and SiO 2 are transparent to light at the emitted wavelength. This type of emission was observed in an optical wavelength range from 1.2 to 1.6 μm with an electron acceleration voltage of 32-42 kV. The characteristics of the emitted light, such as the polarization direction and the relation between the acceleration voltage of the electron beam and the optical wavelength, coincided well with the theoretical results. The coherent length of an electron wave in the vacuum was confirmed to be equal to the electron spacing, as found by measuring the spectral profile of the emitted light

  17. Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Weijie; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Rocha, Uéslen; Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, Javier; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-15

    We report on the fabrication of optical lattice-like waveguide structures in an Nd:YAP laser crystal by using direct femtosecond laser writing. With periodically arrayed laser-induced tracks, the waveguiding cores can be located in either the regions between the neighbored tracks or the central zone surrounded by a number of tracks as outer cladding. The polarization of the femtosecond laser pulses for the inscription has been found to play a critical role in the anisotropic guiding behaviors of the structures. The confocal photoluminescence investigations reveal different stress-induced modifications of the structures inscribed by different polarization of the femtosecond laser beam, which are considered to be responsible for the refractive index changes of the structures. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient waveguide lasing at ∼1  μm wavelength has been realized from the optical lattice-like structure, which exhibits potential applications as novel miniature light sources.

  18. Optical Nano-antennae as Compact and Efficient Couplers from Free-space to Waveguide Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Vladimir A.; Malureanu, Radu; Volkov, Valentyn

    2015-01-01

    Optical nano-antennae are one of the possible solutions for coupling free-space radiation into subwavelength waveguides. Our efforts were concentrated on coupling between an optical fibre and a plasmonic slot waveguide. Such coupling is still an issue to be solved in order to advance the use...... of plasmonic waveguides for optical interconnects. During the talk, we will present our modelling optimisation, fabrication and measurement of the nano-antennae functionality. For the modelling part, we used CST Microwave studio for optimising the antenna geometry. Various antennae were modelled and fabricated....... The fabrication was based on electron beam lithography and lift-off processes. The measurements were performed with scattering scanning near-field microscope and allowed the retrieval of both amplitude and phase of the propagating plasmon. The obtained values agree very well with the theoretically predicted ones...

  19. Optical waveguides in fluoride lead silicate glasses fabricated by carbon ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-liang; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Qi-feng; Lü, Peng; Li, Wei-nan; Liu, Chun-xiao

    2018-03-01

    The carbon ion implantation with energy of 4.0 MeV and a dose of 4.0×1014 ions/cm2 is employed for fabricating the optical waveguide in fluoride lead silicate glasses. The optical modes as well as the effective refractive indices are measured by the prism coupling method. The refractive index distribution in the fluoride lead silicate glass waveguide is simulated by the reflectivity calculation method (RCM). The light intensity profile and the energy losses are calculated by the finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) and the program of stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM), respectively. The propagation properties indicate that the C2+ ion-implanted fluoride lead silicate glass waveguide is a candidate for fabricating optical devices.

  20. Sub-micron silicon nitride waveguide fabrication using conventional optical lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuewang; Zhao, Qiancheng; Kamyab, Lobna; Rostami, Ali; Capolino, Filippo; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2015-03-09

    We demonstrate a novel technique to fabricate sub-micron silicon nitride waveguides using conventional contact lithography with MEMS-grade photomasks. Potassium hydroxide anisotropic etching of silicon facilitates line reduction and roughness smoothing and is key to the technique. The fabricated waveguides is measured to have a propagation loss of 0.8dB/cm and nonlinear coefficient of γ = 0.3/W/m. A low anomalous dispersion of <100ps/nm/km is also predicted. This type of waveguide is highly suitable for nonlinear optics. The channels naturally formed on top of the waveguide also make it promising for plasmonics and quantum efficiency enhancement in sensing applications.

  1. Optical waveguides in Nd:GdVO4 crystals fabricated by swift N3+ ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ningning; Yao, Yicun; Chen, Feng

    2012-12-01

    Optical planar waveguides have been manufactured in Nd:GdVO4 crystal by swift N3+ ions irradiation at fluence of 1.5 × 1014 ions/cm2. A typical "barrier"-style refractive index profile was formed and the light can be well confined in the waveguide region. The modal distribution of the guided modes obtained from numerical calculation has a good agreement with the experimental modal distribution. The measured photoluminescence spectra revealed that the fluorescence properties of the Nd3+ ions have been modified to some extent in the waveguide's volume. The propagation loss of the planar waveguide can decrease to lower than 1 dB/cm after adequate annealing.

  2. Direct optical measurement of light coupling into planar waveguide by plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennanen, Antti M; Toppari, J Jussi

    2013-01-14

    Coupling of light into a thin layer of high refractive index material by plasmonic nanoparticles has been widely studied for application in photovoltaic devices, such as thin-film solar cells. In numerous studies this coupling has been investigated through measurement of e.g. quantum efficiency or photocurrent enhancement. Here we present a direct optical measurement of light coupling into a waveguide by plasmonic nanoparticles. We investigate the coupling efficiency into the guided modes within the waveguide by illuminating the surface of a sample, consisting of a glass slide coated with a high refractive index planar waveguide and plasmonic nanoparticles, while directly measuring the intensity of the light emitted out of the waveguide edge. These experiments were complemented by transmittance and reflectance measurements. We show that the light coupling is strongly affected by thin-film interference, localized surface plasmon resonances of the nanoparticles and the illumination direction (front or rear).

  3. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  4. Third-order optical nonlinearities in bulk and fs-laser inscribed waveguides in strengthened alkali aluminosilcate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Almeida, Juliana M. P.; Martins, Renato J.; De Boni, Leonardo; Arnold, Craig B.; Mendonca, Cleber R.

    2018-01-01

    The development of advanced photonics devices requires materials with large optical nonlinearities, fast response times and high optical transparency, while at the same time allowing for the micro/nano-processing needed for integrated photonics. In this context, glasses have been receiving considerable attention given their relevant optical properties which can be specifically tailored by compositional control. Corning Gorilla® Glass (strengthened alkali aluminosilicate glass) is well-known for its use as a protective screen in mobile devices, and has attracted interest as a potential candidate for optical devices. Therefore, it is crucial not only to expand the knowledge on the fabrication of waveguides in Gorilla Glass under different regimes, but also to determine its nonlinear optical response, both using fs-laser pulses. Thus, this paper reports, for the first time, characterization of the third-order optical nonlinearities of Gorilla Glass, as well as linear and nonlinear characterization of waveguide written with femtosecond pulses under the low repetition rate regime (1 kHz).

  5. All optical wavelength conversion and parametric amplification in Ti:PPLN channel waveguides for telecommunication applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouroozi, Rahman

    2010-10-19

    Efficient ultra-fast integrated all-optical wavelength converters and parametric amplifiers transparent to the polarization, phase, and modulation-level and -format are investigated. The devices take advantage of the optical nonlinearity of Ti:PPLN waveguides exploiting difference frequency generation (DFG). In a DFG, the signal ({lambda}{sub s}) is mixed with a pump ({lambda}{sub p}) to generate a wavelength shifted idler (1/{lambda}{sub i}=1/{lambda}{sub p}-1/{lambda}{sub s}). Efficient generation of the pump in Ti:PPLN channel guides is investigated using different approaches. In the waveguide resonators, first a resonance of the fundamental wave alone is considered. It is shown that the maximum power enhancement of the fundamental wave, and therefore the maximum second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency, can be achieved with low loss matched resonators. By this way, SHG efficiency of {proportional_to}10300%/W (10.3 %/mW) has been achieved in a 65 mm long waveguide resonator. Its operation for cSHG/DFG requires narrowband reflector for fundamental wave only. Thus, the SH (pump) wave resonator is investigated. The SH-wave resonator enhances the intracavity SH power only. Based on this scheme, an improvement of {proportional_to}10 dB for cSHG/DFG based wavelength conversion efficiency has been achieved with 50 mW of coupled fundamental power in a 30 mm long Ti:PPLN. However, operation was limited to relatively small fundamental power levels (<50 mW) due to the onset of photorefractive instabilities destroying the cavity stabilization. The cSHG/DFG efficiency can be considerably improved by using a double-pass configuration in which all the interacting waves were reflected by a broadband dielectric mirror deposited on the one endface of the waveguide. Three different approaches are investigated and up to 9 dB improvement of the wavelength conversion efficiency in comparison with the single-pass configuration is achieved. Polarization-insensitive wavelength

  6. UV writing of advanced Bragg gratings in optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2002-01-01

    of the novel polarization control method for UV writing of Bragg gratings with advanced apodization profiles including phase shifts. The principle of the polarization control method relies on a spatial separation of the s- and p-polarized components of a linearly polarized UV beam corresponding to half......, Technical University of Denmark. During fabrication the planar waveguides were annealed in an oxygen rich atmosphere. This reduces the photosensitivity to a negligible level and Bragg gratings cannot be written within reasonable time unless the waveguides are sensitized by deuterium loading. Samples were...

  7. Experimental investigations of optical nonlinearities in semiconductor-doped glass waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannberg, P.; Possner, T.; Braeuer, A.; Bartuch, U.

    1988-01-01

    Both, thermal and electronic optical nonlinearities are studied in semiconductor-doped glass (SDG) waveguides which are fabricated in commercially available sharp-cut filters by Cs + -K + ion exchange. The relaxation time in photodarkened substrates is measured to be 30 ps. By means of a prism coupling set-up the saturation value of the nonlinear index change is determined. Furthermore, a high stability dual-beam interferometer is presented for the measurement of both, thermal and electronic nonlinear refractive index n 2 in planar waveguides. Conclusions about the application of SDG to opto-optical switching are given. (author)

  8. Integrated Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    acoustooptic cell was employed to input each radar return into a time-and-space integrating optical architecture comprised of several lenses, a CCD area array...acoustooptic cell and parallel rib waveguide structure. During the course of the literature survey, we became aware of an elegant and poten- tially profound...wave.) scatterer at (f , A(t) is the far-field pattern of the antenna. From the geometry of Si. 1. R can be written as [I-2R,/c - nT1 r(t) = A(nT) rectj

  9. Optical spectroscopy in channel waveguides made in Nd:YAG crystals by femtosecond laser writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torchia, G.A.; Mendez, C.; Roso, L.; Tocho, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present an optical characterization of channel waveguides fabricated by means of femtosecond laser writing on Nd:YAG substrates. These guiding structures show a refractive index increment of about 1x10 -3 which allows TE propagation. By pumping with a CW solid-state laser at 532 nm reaching the 2 G 9/2 and 4 G 7/2 manifolds of Nd 3+ ions, we have explored the emission band corresponding to 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 9/2 optical transitions (peaked at 890 nm). From data, we have found that emission showed similar characteristics for waveguide and bulk. On the other hand, the lifetime corresponding to the 4 F 3/2 metaestable level was determined to be 240 μs for bulk and waveguide. Summarizing, we have made suitable channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals, by fs interaction, with similar spectroscopic properties to those of the bulk, a fact that boosters the photonics application of these devices. For the first time to our knowledge, a direct index increment waveguide made by interaction with ultra-short intense pulses in YAG crystals has been performed. This fabrication procedure can be an efficient tool to make several optical circuits in active materials by means of the one-step, fast and low-cost processing

  10. Channel optical waveguides in various silicate glasses - optimalization of their parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salavcová, Linda; Ondráček, František; Špirková, J.; Míka, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl. 1 (2007), S371-S373 ISSN 0957-4522. [ICOOPMA2006 - International Conference on Optical and Optoelectronic Properties of Materials and Applications /1./. Darwin, 15.07.2006-22.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : ion exchange * optical waveguides * optical measurement Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronic s, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.947, year: 2007

  11. Development of the multiwavelength monolithic integrated fiber optics terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, C. R.; Bryan, D. A.; Powers, J. K.; Rice, R. R.; Nettle, V. H.; Dalke, E. A.; Reed, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber Optic Terminal (MMIFOT) for the NASA Johnson Space Center. The program objective is to utilize guided wave optical technology to develop wavelength-multiplexing and -demultiplexing units, using a single mode optical fiber for transmission between terminals. Intensity modulated injection laser diodes, chirped diffraction gratings and thin film lenses are used to achieve the wavelength-multiplexing and -demultiplexing. The video and audio data transmission test of an integrated optical unit with a Luneburg collimation lens, waveguide diffraction grating and step index condensing lens is described.

  12. A Fully Automated Stage for Optical Waveguide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    the exit prism with the measurement prism off of the waveguide. This value, Peg , is used as the reference for all measurements taken along the points...Num of-choices,Choices$(*),Constraints$(*),Value$(*)) 3320 CLEAR SCREEN 3330 Filename$=Value$(3) 3340 3350

  13. Integrated optical transceiver with electronically controlled optical beamsteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul; DeRose, Christopher; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

    2017-08-22

    A beam-steering optical transceiver is provided. The transceiver includes one or more modules, each comprising an antenna chip and a control chip bonded to the antenna chip. Each antenna chip has a feeder waveguide, a plurality of row waveguides that tap off from the feeder waveguide, and a plurality of metallic nanoantenna elements arranged in a two-dimensional array of rows and columns such that each row overlies one of the row waveguides. Each antenna chip also includes a plurality of independently addressable thermo-optical phase shifters, each configured to produce a thermo-optical phase shift in a respective row. Each antenna chip also has, for each row, a row-wise heating circuit configured to produce a respective thermo-optic phase shift at each nanoantenna element along its row. The control chip includes controllable current sources for the independently addressable thermo-optical phase shifters and the row-wise heating circuits.

  14. A simple model for fibre optics: planar dielectric waveguides in rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Ocon, F; Pena, A; Jimenez, J R; Diaz, J A

    2006-01-01

    In planar dielectric waveguides, there is only one type of propagated ray: the one that crosses the waveguide axis after each total internal reflection. According to the model of geometrical optics, there are two types of guided ray in fibre optics: meridional and skew. Each one is formulated by a suitable mathematical treatment. In this work, we demonstrate that the complex mathematical treatment for the skew rays can be avoided by considering a planar waveguide (with the same refractive index profile as the fibre and thickness equal to its diameter) that rotates around the direction of the axis with angular velocity ω. A section of this fibre is inscribed in the hypothetical slab. This model has been successfully introduced to students of engineering and physics

  15. Study and realisation of plane optical waveguides in amorphous silica by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutonnet, Danielle

    1974-01-01

    Within the framework of the replacement of radio-electric waves by light waves as support of information transmission in telecommunications, this research thesis addresses the use of ion implantation for the development of small waveguides with low losses. The author first describes how such waveguides can be characterised by studying the propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a plane waveguide, and the different ways to introduce energy in these waveguides. Then, she discusses how the obtained results can be used to determine the main parameters of an optical waveguide, or more generally of a thin transparent layer for a chosen wavelength. In the second part, the author reports the application of this general method to the case of guides obtained by ion implantation. She notably identifies the possibilities of ion implantation as technological tool to develop waveguides, and discusses how the performed experiments allow a better understanding of physical mechanisms occurring during implantation. In this second part, she recalls generally admitted theories about ion implantation, describes experiment principles (implantation of oxygen or nitrogen ions into amorphous silica followed by annealing) and discusses the obtained results (increase of the refraction index, i.e. of the guiding effect, stronger for oxygen than for nitrogen) [fr

  16. Design of a compact and integrated TM-rotated/TE-through polarization beam splitter for silicon-based slot waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Xiao, Jinbiao

    2016-01-20

    A compact and integrated TM-rotated/TE-through polarization beam splitter for silicon-based slot waveguides is proposed and characterized. For the input TM mode, it is first transferred into the cross strip waveguide using a tapered directional coupler (DC), and then efficiently rotated to the corresponding TE mode using an L-shaped bending polarization rotator (PR). Finally, the TE mode for slot waveguide at the output end is obtained with the help of a strip-to-slot mode converter. By contrast, for the input TE mode, it almost passes through the slot waveguide directly and outputs at the bar end with nearly neglected coupling due to a large mode mismatch. Moreover, an additional S-bend connecting the tapered DC and bending PR is used to enhance the performance. Results show that a total device length of 19.6 μm is achieved, where the crosstalk (CT) and polarization conversion loss are, respectively -26.09 and 0.54 dB, for the TM mode, and the CT and insertion loss are, respectively, -22.21 and 0.41 dB, for the TE mode, both at 1.55 μm. The optical bandwidth is approximately 50 nm with a CT<-20  dB. In addition, fabrication tolerances and field evolution are also presented.

  17. Optical Splitters Based on Self-Imaging Effect in Multi-Mode Waveguide Made by Ion Exchange in Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Barkman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Design and modeling of single mode optical multi-mode interference structures with graded refractive index is reported. Several samples of planar optical channel waveguides were obtained by Ag+, Na+ and K+, Na+ one step thermal ion exchange process in molten salt on GIL49 glass substrate and new special optical glass for ion exchange technology. Waveguide properties were measured by optical mode spectroscopy. Obtained data were used for further design and modeling of single mode channel waveguide and subsequently for the design of 1 to 3 multimode interference power splitter in order to improve simulation accuracy. Designs were developed by utilizing finite difference beam propagation method.

  18. Integrated optical circuit engineering IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Sept. 16, 17, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Mark A.; Sriram, S.

    The design and implementation of integrated optical circuits are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include lithium niobate devices, silicon integrated optics, waveguide phenomena, coupling considerations, processing technology, nonlinear guided-wave optics, integrated optics for fiber systems, and systems considerations and applications. Also included are eight papers and a panel discussion from an SPIE conference on the processing of guided-wave optoelectronic materials (held in Los Angeles, CA, on January 21-22, 1986).

  19. Multi-level single mode 2D polymer waveguide optical interconnects using nano-imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.U.; Justice, J.; Petäjä, J.; Korhonen, T.; Boersma, A.; Wiegersma, S.; Karppinen, M.; Corbett, B.

    2015-01-01

    Single and multi-layer passive optical interconnects using single mode polymer waveguides are demonstrated using UV nano-imprint lithography. The fabrication tolerances associated with imprint lithography are investigated and we show a way to experimentally quantify a small variation in index

  20. All-optical broadcast and multicast technologies based on PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Lingyun; Wang, Ju; Hu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    All-optical 1×4 broadcast and 1×3 multicast experiments of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) signal based on a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide are demonstrated in this letter. Clear opened eye diagrams and error-free performance are achieved for the broadcast...

  1. Flexible long-range surface plasmon polariton single-mode waveguide for optical interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernoux, Christian; Chen, Yiting; Markey, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide arrays with materials, mainly silicones, carefully selected with the aim to be used as mechanically flexible single-mode optical interconnections, the socalled "plasmonic arc" working at 1.55μm...

  2. Optical properties of ion beam modified waveguide materials doped with erbium and silver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strohhöfer, C. (Christof)

    2001-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis we investigate codoping of erbium-doped waveguide materials with different ions in order to increase the efficiency of erbium-doped optical amplifiers. Codoping with ytterbium can overcome the limitations due to the small absorption cross section of Er3+ in Al2O3 at

  3. Low power excitation of gyrotron-type modes in cylindrical waveguide using quasi-optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, N.L.; Whaley, D.R.; Tran, M.Q.; Denisov, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    Experimental results of low power excitation of a 118 GHz TE 22,6 rotating mode are presented. A rectangular mode is converted to a TE 22,6 circular waveguide using quasi-optical techniques. A good conversion efficiency is measured and the experimentally observed field intensity profiles show the percentage of unwanted modes to be small. (author) 10 figs., 10 refs

  4. Integrated Optical lightguide device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an integrated optical lightguide device including a light-transmitting core layer, an inclusion or buffer layer, and an active or cladding layer. The cladding layer is divided into segments. Groups of different segments exhibit different refractive indices, light intensity profiles or different

  5. Integrated Optical lightguide device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    In an integrated optical lightguide device including a light-transmitting core layer, an inclusion or buffer layer, and an active or cladding layer. The cladding layer is divided into segments. Groups of different segments exhibit different refractive indices, light intensity profiles or different

  6. Integration of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a hollow waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Michael C [Albuquerque, NM; Nordquist, Christopher D [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    The present invention is directed to the integration of a quantum cascade laser with a hollow waveguide on a chip to improve both the beam pattern and manufacturability. By coupling the QCL output into a single-mode rectangular waveguide the radiation mode structure can be known and the propagation, manipulation, and broadcast of the QCL radiation can then be entirely controlled by well-established rectangular waveguide techniques. By controlling the impedance of the interface, enhanced functions, such as creating amplifiers, efficient coupling to external cavities, and increasing power output from metal-metal THz QCLs, are also enabled.

  7. Application of the method of integral equations to calculating the electrodynamic characteristics of periodically corrugated waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, V.E.; Rodygin, L.V.; Fil'chenko, S.E.; Yunakovskii, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for calculating the electrodynamic characteristics of periodically corrugated waveguide systems. This method is based on representing the field as the solution of the Helmholtz vector equation in the form of a simple layer potential, transformed with the use of the Floquet conditions. Systems of compound integral equations based on a weighted vector function of the simple layer potential are derived for waveguides with azimuthally symmetric and helical corrugations. A numerical realization of the Fourier method is cited for seeking the dispersion relation of azimuthally symmetric waves of a circular corrugated waveguide

  8. Integrated optical circuit engineering V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 17-20, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Mark A.

    Recent advances in the theoretical and practical design and applications of optoelectronic devices and optical circuits are examined in reviews and reports. Topics discussed include system and market considerations, guided-wave phenomena, waveguide devices, processing technology, lithium niobate devices, and coupling problems. Consideration is given to testing and measurement, integrated optics for fiber-optic systems, optical interconnect technology, and optical computing.

  9. Packaged and hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; McDougall, R.; Hill, M.T.; Maxwell, G.D.; Zhang, S.; Harmon, R.; Huijskens, Frans; Rivers, L.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Poustie, A.

    2006-01-01

    A fully-packaged hybrid-integrated all-optical flip-flop, where InP-based semiconductor optical amplifiers are assembled onto a planar silica waveguide board, is demonstrated. It is shown experimentally that the flip-flop can dynamically toggle between its two states by injecting 150 ps optical

  10. Utilization of Field Enhancement in Plasmonic Waveguides for Subwavelength Light-Guiding, Polarization Handling, Heating, and Optical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-09

    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted intensive attention for many applications in recent years because of the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface. First, this strong field enhancement makes it possible to break the diffraction limit and enable subwavelength optical waveguiding, which is desired for nanophotonic integrated circuits with ultra-high integration density. Second, the field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures occurs only for the polarization mode whose electric field is perpendicular to the metal/dielectric interface, and thus the strong birefringence is beneficial for realizing ultra-small polarization-sensitive/selective devices, including polarization beam splitters, and polarizers. Third, plasmonic nanostructures provide an excellent platform of merging electronics and photonics for some applications, e.g., thermal tuning, photo-thermal detection, etc. Finally, the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface helps a lot to realize optical sensors with high sensitivity when introducing plasmonic nanostrutures. In this paper, we give a review for recent progresses on the utilization of field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures for these applications, e.g., waveguiding, polarization handling, heating, as well as optical sensing.

  11. Utilization of Field Enhancement in Plasmonic Waveguides for Subwavelength Light-Guiding, Polarization Handling, Heating, and Optical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoxin Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted intensive attention for many applications in recent years because of the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface. First, this strong field enhancement makes it possible to break the diffraction limit and enable subwavelength optical waveguiding, which is desired for nanophotonic integrated circuits with ultra-high integration density. Second, the field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures occurs only for the polarization mode whose electric field is perpendicular to the metal/dielectric interface, and thus the strong birefringence is beneficial for realizing ultra-small polarization-sensitive/selective devices, including polarization beam splitters, and polarizers. Third, plasmonic nanostructures provide an excellent platform of merging electronics and photonics for some applications, e.g., thermal tuning, photo-thermal detection, etc. Finally, the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface helps a lot to realize optical sensors with high sensitivity when introducing plasmonic nanostrutures. In this paper, we give a review for recent progresses on the utilization of field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures for these applications, e.g., waveguiding, polarization handling, heating, as well as optical sensing.

  12. Empty substrate integrated waveguide technology for E plane high-frequency and high-performance circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenguer, Angel; Cano, Juan Luis; Esteban, Héctor; Artal, Eduardo; Boria, Vicente E.

    2017-01-01

    Substrate integrated circuits (SIC) have attracted much attention in the last years because of their great potential of low cost, easy manufacturing, integration in a circuit board, and higher-quality factor than planar circuits. A first suite of SIC where the waves propagate through dielectric have been first developed, based on the well-known substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) and related technological implementations. One step further has been made with a new suite of empty substrate integrated waveguides, where the waves propagate through air, thus reducing the associated losses. This is the case of the empty substrate integrated waveguide (ESIW) or the air-filled substrate integrated waveguide (air-filled SIW). However, all these SIC are H plane structures, so classical H plane solutions in rectangular waveguides have already been mapped to most of these new SIC. In this paper a novel E plane empty substrate integrated waveguide (ESIW-E) is presented. This structure allows to easily map classical E plane solutions in rectangular waveguide to this new substrate integrated solution. It is similar to the ESIW, although more layers are needed to build the structure. A wideband transition (covering the frequency range between 33 GHz and 50 GHz) from microstrip to ESIW-E is designed and manufactured. Measurements are successfully compared with simulation, proving the validity of this new SIC. A broadband high-frequency phase shifter (for operation from 35 GHz to 47 GHz) is successfully implemented in ESIW-E, thus proving the good performance of this new SIC in a practical application.

  13. An Integrative Biosensor Based on Contra-Directional Coupling Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Yu, Mao; Di-Bi, Yao; Ling-Yun, Zhao; Yi-Dong, Huang; Wei, Zhang; Jiang-De, Peng

    2008-01-01

    We propose an integrative biochemical sensor utilizing the dip in the transmission spectrum of a normal single-line defect photonic crystal (PC) waveguide, which has a contra-directional coupling with another PC waveguide. When the air holes in the PC slab are filled with a liquid analyte with different refractive indices, the dip has a wavelength shift By detecting the output power variation at a certain fixed wavelength, a sensitivity of 1.2 × 10 −4 is feasible. This structure is easy for integration due to its plane waveguide structure and omissible pump source. In addition, high signal to noise ratio can be expected because signal transmits via a normal single-line defect PC waveguide instead of the PC hole area or analyte

  14. Optical amplification in photonic integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    The recent results in the field of fabrication, characterization, and applications of optical waveguides in doped hard crystalline materials, specifically in Ti-doped sapphire and Yb-doped $KY(WO_4)_2$, are reviewed.

  15. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M. [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sato, Hiromu [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke [Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., 2-10-1 Tuboi Nishi, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiyoshi, E-mail: s-yokoyama@cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  16. Design and investigation of properties of nanocrystalline diamond optical planar waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajzler, Vaclav; Varga, Marian; Nekvindova, Pavla; Remes, Zdenek; Kromka, Alexander

    2013-04-08

    Diamond thin films have remarkable properties comparable with natural diamond. Because of these properties it is a very promising material for many various applications (sensors, heat sink, optical mirrors, chemical and radiation wear, cold cathodes, tissue engineering, etc.) In this paper we report about design, deposition and measurement of properties of optical planar waveguides fabricated from nanocrystalline diamond thin films. The nanocrystalline diamond planar waveguide was deposited by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and the structure of the deposited film was studied by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The design of the presented planar waveguides was realized on the bases of modified dispersion equation and was schemed for 632.8 nm, 964 nm, 1 310 nm and 1 550 nm wavelengths. Waveguiding properties were examined by prism coupling technique and it was found that the diamond based planar optical element guided one fundamental mode for all measured wavelengths. Values of the refractive indices of our NCD thin film measured at various wavelengths were almost the same as those of natural diamond.

  17. Optical study of Erbium-doped-porous silicon based planar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najar, A. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France) and Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia)]. E-mail: najar.adel@laposte.net; Ajlani, H. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Charrier, J. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Lorrain, N. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Haesaert, S. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Oueslati, M. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Haji, L. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)

    2007-06-15

    Planar waveguides were formed from porous silicon layers obtained on P{sup +} substrates. These waveguides were then doped by erbium using an electrochemical method. Erbium concentration in the range 2.2-2.5 at% was determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis performed on SEM cross sections. The refractive index of layers was studied before and after doping and thermal treatments. The photoluminescence of Er{sup 3+} ions in the IR range and the decay curve of the 1.53 {mu}m emission peak were studied as a function of the excitation power. The value of excited Er density was equal to 0.07%. Optical loss contributions were analyzed on these waveguides and the losses were equal to 1.1 dB/cm at 1.55 {mu}m after doping.

  18. Influence of surface effects on the performance of lead-niobium-germanate optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Martin, D.; Gonzalo, J.; Fernandez-Navarro, J.M.; Siegel, J.; Afonso, C.N.

    2007-01-01

    Lead-niobium-germanate planar waveguides have been produced by pulsed laser deposition. The composition of the waveguides is found to be relatively weakly dependent on the laser fluence, while their surface morphology is affected dramatically. Smooth surfaces are obtained for a narrow fluence range centered at 2.0 J/cm 2 , while particulates having typical diameters of 2 , which is close to the value of the bulk glass, and remains constant at higher fluences. Propagation losses show instead a minimum (∼6.5 dB/cm) at 2.0 J/cm 2 . The characteristics of the ablation process that leads to the ejection of solid particulates or molten droplets as well as the increase of the waveguides density on increasing the fluence are discussed to be responsible for the observed optical behavior

  19. Sol-gel coatings: An alternative route for producing planar optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey-Garcia, F.; Gomez-Reino, C. [Unidad Asociada de Optica and Microoptica GRIN (CSIC-ICMA), Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Universitaria de Optica e Optometria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Flores-Arias, M.T., E-mail: maite.flores@usc.es [Unidad Asociada de Optica and Microoptica GRIN (CSIC-ICMA), Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Universitaria de Optica e Optometria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); De La Fuente, G.F., E-mail: xerman@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), Maria de Luna 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Duran, A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Castro, Y., E-mail: castro@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-09-01

    Inorganic and hybrid planar waveguides with different compositions (silica-titania, methacrylate-silica-cerium oxide, zirconia-cerium oxide and silica-zirconia) have been obtained by sol-gel synthesis followed by dip-coating. Soda-lime glass slides and conventional commercial window glass were used as substrates. The thickness and refractive index of the coatings were determined by profilometry and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. Waveguide efficiency was measured at ca. 70.8% with a He-Ne laser beam, coupled with an optical microscope objective into and out of the waveguiding layer via a double prism configuration. Thicknesses between 150 and 2000 nm, along with refractive index values ranging between 1.45 and {approx} 1.99 ({lambda} = 633 nm) were obtained depending on the sol composition and the dip-coating conditions. This wide range of values allows designing multilayered guides that can be used in a variety of applications.

  20. Sol-gel coatings: An alternative route for producing planar optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey-Garcia, F.; Gomez-Reino, C.; Flores-Arias, M.T.; De La Fuente, G.F.; Duran, A.; Castro, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic and hybrid planar waveguides with different compositions (silica-titania, methacrylate-silica-cerium oxide, zirconia-cerium oxide and silica-zirconia) have been obtained by sol-gel synthesis followed by dip-coating. Soda-lime glass slides and conventional commercial window glass were used as substrates. The thickness and refractive index of the coatings were determined by profilometry and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. Waveguide efficiency was measured at ca. 70.8% with a He-Ne laser beam, coupled with an optical microscope objective into and out of the waveguiding layer via a double prism configuration. Thicknesses between 150 and 2000 nm, along with refractive index values ranging between 1.45 and ∼ 1.99 (λ = 633 nm) were obtained depending on the sol composition and the dip-coating conditions. This wide range of values allows designing multilayered guides that can be used in a variety of applications.

  1. Integrated optical isolators based on two-mode interference couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yiling; Zhou, Haifeng; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Hao, Yinlei; Yang, Jianyi; Wang, Minghua

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an optical waveguide isolator based on two-mode interference (TMI) couplers, by utilizing the magneto-optical nonreciprocal phase shift (NPS). The operating principle of this device is to utilize the difference between the nonreciprocal phase shifts of the two lowest-order modes. A two-dimensional (2D) semi-vectorial finite difference method is used to calculate the difference between the nonreciprocal phase shifts of the two lowest-order modes and optimize the parameters. The proposed device may play an important role in integrated optical devices and optical communication systems

  2. Integration of Quantum Cascade Lasers and Passive Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    convenience, we can de - fine an effective mirror loss eαmLA = R referenced to the active region such that αm = ln(R) LA . This definition al- lows us to...the waveguide loss. The current density threshold de - pendence in a QCL may be expressed in terms of a mirror loss αm and waveguide loss αw as in Jth...M. Licht - ensteiger, C. Gatos, and H. Gatos, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2659 (1980). 15O. Kim and W. Bonner, J. Electron. Mater. 12, 827 (1983). 16J

  3. Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS as a Sensor for Thin Film and Quantum Dot Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Tang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS is usually applied as a biosensor system to the sorption-desorption of proteins to waveguide surfaces. Here, we show that OWLS can be used to monitor the quality of oxide thin film materials and of coatings of pulsed laser deposition synthesized CdSe quantum dots (QDs intended for solar energy applications. In addition to changes in data treatment and experimental procedure, oxide- or QD-coated waveguide sensors must be synthesized. We synthesized zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4 coated (Si,TiO2 waveguide sensors, and used OWLS to monitor the relative mass of the film over time. Films lost mass over time, though at different rates due to variation in fluid flow and its physical effect on removal of film material. The Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD technique was used to deposit CdSe QD coatings on waveguides. Sensors exposed to pH 2 solution lost mass over time in an expected, roughly exponential manner. Sensors at pH 10, in contrast, were stable over time. Results were confirmed with atomic force microscopy imaging. Limiting factors in the use of OWLS in this manner include limitations on the annealing temperature that maybe used to synthesize the oxide film, and limitations on the thickness of the film to be studied. Nevertheless, the technique overcomes a number of difficulties in monitoring the quality of thin films in-situ in liquid environments.

  4. Radio-over-optical waveguide system-on-wafer for massive delivery capacity 5G MIMO access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Le N.

    2017-01-01

    Delivering maximum information capacity over MIMO antennae systems beam steering is critical so as to achieve the flexibility via beam steering, maximizing the number of users or community of users in Gb/s rate per user over distributed cloud-based optical-wireless access networks. This paper gives an overview of (i) demands of optical - wireless delivery with high flexibility, especially the beam steering of multi-Tbps information channels to information hungry community of users via virtualized beam steering MIMO antenna systems at the free-license mmW region; (ii) Proposing a novel photonic planar integrated waveguide systems composing several passive and active, passive and amplification photonic devices so as to generate mmW carrier and embedded baseband information channels to feed to antenna elements; (iii) Integration techniques to generate a radio over optical waveguide (RoOW) system-on-wafer (SoW) comprising MIMO planar antenna elements and associate photonic integrated circuits for both up- and down- links; (iv) Challenges encountered in the implementation of the SoW in both wireless and photonic domains; (v) Photonic modulation techniques to achieve maximum transmission capacity per wavelength per MIMO antenna system. (vi) A view on control-feedback systems for fast and accurate generation of phase pattern for MIMO beam steering via a bank of optical phase modulators to mmW carrier phases and their preservation in the converted mmW domain . (vi) The overall operational principles of the novel techniques and technologies based on the coherent mixing of two lightwave channels The entire SoW can be implemented on SOI Si-photonic technology or via hybrid integration. These technological developments and their pros- and cons- will be discussed to achieve 50Tera-bps over the extended 110 channel Cband single mode fiber with mmW centered at 58.6GHz and 7GHz free-license band.

  5. Fabrication of optical waveguides by imprinting: usage of positive tone resist as a mould for UV-curable polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Jussi; Hiltunen, Marianne; Puustinen, Jarkko; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Karioja, Pentti

    2009-12-07

    Optical ridge type waveguides based on UV-curable polymer were fabricated by imprinting method. Positive tone resist patterned on a silicon wafer was used as a mould. The characterization of waveguides was carried out by coupling TE-polarized light from a tapered fiber into a waveguide with 30 mm length and mapping the intensity distribution with another tapered fiber at the output facet of a waveguide. Proper single- or multimode operation was observed depending on the waveguide width being either 2 microm or 6 microm. Experimental observations on the mode profiles were also supported by the simulation results. Average power transmissions of 32% at 1530 nm wavelength and 45% at 1310 nm wavelength were characterized. The results suggest that the simple mould fabrication process might be a useful technique for device prototyping and that the performance of replicated waveguides can meet the requirements for certain applications.

  6. Optical waveguides in LiTaO{sub 3} crystals fabricated by swift C{sup 5+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guiyuan [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials and Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); School of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); He, Ruiyun [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials and Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Akhmadaliev, Shavkat [Institute of Ion Beam and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden 01314 (Germany); Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R. [Laser Microprocessing Group, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca 37008 (Spain); Zhou, Shengqiang [Institute of Ion Beam and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden 01314 (Germany); Chen, Feng [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials and Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-04-01

    We report on the optical waveguides, in both planar and ridge configurations, fabricated in LiTaO{sub 3} crystal by using carbon (C{sup 5+}) ions irradiation at energy of 15 MeV. The planar waveguide was produced by direct irradiation of swift C{sup 5+} ions, whilst the ridge waveguides were manufactured by using femtosecond laser ablation of the planar layer. The reconstructed refractive index profile of the planar waveguide has showed a barrier-shaped distribution, and the near-field waveguide mode intensity distribution was in good agreement with the calculated modal profile. After thermal annealing at 260 °C in air, the propagation losses of both the planar and ridge waveguides were reduced to 10 dB/cm.

  7. Waveguide-Plasmon Polaritons Enhance Transverse Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars E. Kreilkamp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-optical effects in ferrimagnetic or ferromagnetic materials are usually too weak for potential applications. The transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect (TMOKE in ferromagnetic films is typically on the order of 0.1%. Here, we demonstrate experimentally the enhancement of TMOKE due to the interaction of particle plasmons in gold nanowires with a photonic waveguide consisting of magneto-optical material, where hybrid waveguide-plasmon polaritons are excited. We achieve a large TMOKE that modulates the transmitted light intensity by 1.5%, accompanied by high transparency of the system. Our concept may lead to novel devices of miniaturized photonic circuits and switches, which are controllable by an external magnetic field.

  8. Passive integrated circuits utilizing slow light in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Têtu, Amélie; Yang, Lirong

    2006-01-01

    We report thorough investigations of photonic crystal waveguide properties in the slow light regime. The transmission and the group index near the cutoff wavelengths oscillate in phase in close analogy with the ID photonic crystal behavior. The influence of having a finite number of periods...

  9. Photorefractive response and optical damage of LiNbO3 optical waveguides produced by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, J.; Carrascosa, M.; García-Cabañes, A.; Caballero-Calero, O.; Crespillo, M.; Olivares, J.

    2009-06-01

    The photorefractive behaviour of a novel type of optical waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion irradiation is investigated. First, the electro-optic coefficient r 33 of these guides that is crucial in the photorefractive effect is measured. Second, two complementary aspects of the photorefractive response are studied: (i) recording and light-induced and dark erasure of holographic gratings; (ii) optical beam degradation in single-beam configuration. The main photorefractive parameters, recording and erasing time constants, maximum refractive-index change and optical damage thresholds are determined.

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency and ultraslow optical solitons in a coherent atomic gas filled in a slot waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-02-25

    We investigate the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear pulse propagation in a Λ-type three-level atomic gas filled in a slot waveguide, in which electric field is strongly confined inside the slot of the waveguide due to the discontinuity of dielectric constant. We find that EIT effect can be greatly enhanced due to the reduction of optical-field mode volume contributed by waveguide geometry. Comparing with the atomic gases in free space, the EIT transparency window in the slot waveguide system can be much wider and deeper, and the Kerr nonlinearity of probe laser field can be much stronger. We also prove that using slot waveguide ultraslow optical solitons can be produced efficiently with extremely low generation power.

  11. Optical biosensor based on a silicon nanowire ridge waveguide for lab on chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamal, Rania; Ismail, Yehea; Swillam, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel sensor using a silicon nanowire ridge waveguide (SNRW). This waveguide is comprised of an array of silicon nanowires on an insulator substrate that has the envelope of a ridge waveguide. The SNRW inherently maximizes the overlap between the material-under-test and the incident light wave by introducing voids to the otherwise bulk structure. When a sensing sample is injected, the voids within the SNRW adopt the refractive index of the material-under-test. Hence, the strong contribution of the material-under-test to the overall modal effective index will greatly augment the sensitivity. Additionally, the ridge structure provides a fabrication convenience as it covers the entire substrate, ensuring that the etching process would not damage the substrate. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are conducted and showed that the percentage change in the effective index due to a 1% change in the surrounding environment is more than 170 times the change perceived in an evanescent-detection based bulk silicon ridge waveguide. Moreover, the SNRW proves to be more sensitive than recent other, non-evanescent sensors. In addition, the detection limit for this structure was revealed to be as small as 10 −8 . A compact bimodal waveguide based on SNRW is designed and tested. It delivers high sensitivity values that offer comparable performance to similar low-index light-guiding sensing configurations; however, our proposed structure has much smaller footprints and allows high dense integration for lab-on-chip applications. (paper)

  12. Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisov, S.S.; Curley, M.J.; Williams, E.K.; Ila, D.; Svetchnikov, V.L.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Zykov, G.A.; Banks, C.; Wang, J.-C.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze microstructure, linear and nonlinear optical properties of planar waveguides produced by implantation of MeV Ag ions into LiNbO 3 . Linear optical properties are described by the parameters of waveguide propagation modes and optical absorption spectra. Nonlinear properties are described by the nonlinear refractive index. Operation of the implanted crystal as an optical waveguide is due to modification of the linear refractive index of the implanted region. The samples as implanted do not show any light-guiding. The implanted region has amorphous and porous microstructure with the refractive index lower than the substrate. Heat treatment of the implanted samples produces planar light-guiding layer near the implanted surface. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals re-crystallization of the host between the surface and the nuclear stopping region in the form of randomly oriented crystalline grains. They make up a light-guiding layer isolated from the bulk crystal by the nuclear stopping layer with low refractive index. Optical absorption of the sample as implanted has a peak at 430 nm. This peak is due to the surface plasmon resonance in nano-clusters of metallic silver. Heat treatment of the samples shifts the absorption peak to 545 nm. This is more likely due to the increase of the refractive index back to the value for the crystalline LiNbO 3 . The nonlinear refractive index of the samples at 532 nm (of the order of 10 -10 cm 2 W -1 ) was measured with the Z-scan technique using a picosecond laser source. Possible applications of the waveguides include ultra-fast photonic switches and modulators

  13. Summary of radiation-induced transient absorption and recovery in fiber optic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoog, C.D.

    1976-11-01

    The absorption induced in fiber optic waveguides by pulsed electron and X-ray radiation has been measured as a function of optical wavelength from 450 to 950 nm, irradiation temperature from -54 to 71 0 C, and dose from 1 to 500 krads. The fibers studied are Ge-doped silica core fibers (Corning Low Loss), ''pure'' vitreous silica core fibers (Schott, Bell Laboratories, Fiberoptic Cable Corp., and Valtec Fiberoptics), polymethyl-methacrylate core fibers (DuPont CROFON and PFX), and polystyrene core fibers (International Fiber Optics and Polyoptics). Models that have been developed to account for the observed absorption recovery are also summarized

  14. Ultrashort optical waveguide excitations in uniaxial silica fibers: elastic collision scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuetche, Victor K; Youssoufa, Saliou; Kofane, Timoleon C

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the dynamics of an uniaxial silica fiber under the viewpoint of propagation of ultimately ultrashort optical waveguide channels. As a result, we unveil the existence of three typical kinds of ultrabroadband excitations whose profiles strongly depend upon their angular momenta. Looking forward to surveying their scattering features, we unearth some underlying head-on scenarios of elastic collisions. Accordingly, we address some useful and straightforward applications in nonlinear optics through secured data transmission systems, as well as laser physics and soliton theory with optical soliton dynamics.

  15. Optical temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity by employing hybrid waveguides in a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    We report on a novel design of an on-chip optical temperature sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration where the two arms consist of hybrid waveguides providing opposite temperature-dependent phase changes to enhance the temperature sensitivity of the sensor. The sensitivity...... of the fabricated sensor with silicon/polymer hybrid waveguides is measured to be 172 pm/°C, which is two times larger than a conventional all-silicon optical temperature sensor (∼80 pm/°C). Moreover, a design with silicon/titanium dioxide hybrid waveguides is by calculation expected to have a sensitivity as high...

  16. Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing in Nonlinear Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Pu, Minhao

    2011-01-01

    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon nanowires for processing Tbit/s optical data signals. We perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28 Tbit/s and wavelength conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals.......We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon nanowires for processing Tbit/s optical data signals. We perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28 Tbit/s and wavelength conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals....

  17. Fluorescence detection using optical waveguide collection device with high efficiency on assembly of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaowen; Ma, Zongmin; Qin, Li; Fu, Yueping; Shi, Yunbo; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan Jun

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a fluorescence waveguide excitation and collection (FWEC) method that allows for an excess of 45% collection efficiency of pump photons into optically detected magnetic resonance. The FWEC system used can collect fluorescence 96 times higher than the confocal system under spin manipulation with a microwave. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the FWEC system is improved 9 times compared with that of the confocal system. In addition, the increase in contrast observed using the FWEC system shows that the integration of the system is much improved with 3D printing technology. Thus, this research has a great potential application in subsequent magnetic detection and quantum optics.

  18. UV/Vis visible optical waveguides fabricated using organic-inorganic nanocomposite layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Giuseppina; Perozziello, Gerardo

    2011-03-01

    Nanocomposite layers based on silica nanoparticles and a methacrylate matrix are synthesized by a solvent-free process and characterized in order to realize UV/Vis transparent optical waveguides. Chemical functionalization of the silica nanoparticles permits to interface the polymers and the silica. The refractive index, roughness and wettability and the machinability of the layers can be tuned changing the silica nanoparticle concentration and chemical modification of the surface of the nanoparticles. The optical transparency of the layers is affected by the nanoparticles organization between the organic chains, while it increased proportionally with respect to silica concentration. Nanocomposite layers with a concentration of 40 wt% in silica reached UV transparency for a wavelength of 250 nm. UV/Vis transparent waveguides were micromilled through nanocomposite layers and characterized. Propagation losses were measured to be around 1 dB cm(-1) at a wavelength of 350 nm.

  19. Simultaneous optical digital half-subtraction and -addition using SOAs and a PPLN waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeehan, John E; Kumar, Saurabh; Willner, Alan E

    2007-04-30

    We demonstrate an optical half-subtracter and half-adder module that performs simultaneous bit-wise subtraction and addition of two 5 Gbit/s RZ data streams. We generate Borrow (/X*Y) and Difference/Sum (X plus sign in circleY, or XOR) outputs using cross-gain modulation (XGM) in two parallel SOAs. Taking advantage of the gain saturation inherent to SOAs, we generate two signals, /X*Y, and X*/Y, and combine them using a passive optical coupler to generate the XOR Difference/Sum output. We use difference-frequency-generation-based lambda-conversion in a PPLN waveguide to generate the Carry (X*Y) output. The PPLN waveguide allows bit-synchronous wavelength shifting, is wide-bandwidth, and offers no intrinsic chirp. Our module uses three active elements to perform simultaneous half-subtraction and addition, and carries a maximum power penalty of 1.0 dB.

  20. Electro-optical phenomena based on ionic liquids in an optofluidic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaodong; Shao, Qunfeng; Cao, Pengfei; Kong, Weijie; Sun, Jiqian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Deng, Youquan

    2015-03-07

    An optofluidic waveguide with a simple two-terminal electrode geometry, when filled with an ionic liquid (IL), forms a lateral electric double-layer capacitor under a direct current (DC) electric field, which allows the realization of an extremely high carrier density in the vicinity of the electrode surface and terminals to modulate optical transmission at room temperature under low voltage operation (0 to 4 V). The unique electro-optical phenomenon of ILs was investigated at three wavelengths (663, 1330 and 1530 nm) using two waveguide geometries. Strong electro-optical modulations with different efficiencies were observed at the two near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, while no detectable modulation was observed at 663 nm. The first waveguide geometry was used to investigate the position-dependent modulation along the waveguide; the strongest modulation was observed in the vicinity of the electrode terminal. The modulation phase is associated with the applied voltage polarity, which increases in the vicinity of the negative electrode and decreases at the positive electrode. The second waveguide geometry was used to improve the modulation efficiency. Meanwhile, the electro-optical modulations of seven ILs were compared at an applied voltage ranging from ±2 V to ±3.5 V. The results reveal that the modulation amplitude and response speed increase with increasing applied voltage, as well as the electrical conductivity of ILs. Despite the fact that the response speed isn't fast due to the high ionic density of ILs, the modulation amplitude can reach up to 6.0 dB when a higher voltage (U = ±3.5 V) is applied for the IL [Emim][BF4]. Finally, the physical explanation of the phenomenon was discussed. The effect of the change in IL structure on the electro-optical phenomena was investigated in another new experiment. The results reveal that the electro-optical phenomenon is probably caused mainly by the change in carrier concentration (ion redistribution near charged

  1. Analytical analysis of sensitivity of optical waveguide sensor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Section 2 provides the principle and basic theory of optical sensors and the modal ... this paper for optical sensor, a chemically selective layer or adlayer is ... Applying boundary condition at n1/n2 and n1/n3 the interface, and using the above.

  2. Integrated optics and optoelectronics II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Jose, CA, Sept. 17-19, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ka-Kha

    1991-01-01

    The present volume on integrated optics and optoelectronics discusses proton- and ion-exchange technologies, radiation effects on GaAs optical system FET devices and on the dynamical behavior of LiNbO3 switching devices, advanced lightwave components and concepts, advanced optical interconnects concepts, advanced aircraft and engine control, IOCs for fiber-optic gyroscopes, and commercial integrated optical devices. Attention is given to integrated optical devices for high-data-rate serial-to-parallel conversion, the design of novel integrated optic devices using depressed index waveguides, and a low-loss L-band microwave fiber-optic link for control of a T/R module. Topics addressed include the temperature and modulation dependence of spectral linewidth in distributed Bragg reflector laser diodes, length-minimization design considerations in photonic integrated circuits incorporating directional couplers, and the photochemical formation of polymeric optical waveguides and devices for optical interconnection applications

  3. Design and investigation of properties of nanocrystalline diamond optical planar waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prajzler, V.; Varga, Marián; Nekvindová, P.; Remeš, Zdeněk; Kromka, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2013), s. 8417-8425 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0794; GA MŠk LH12186; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : waveguides, planar * diamond machining * optical design and fabrication Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.525, year: 2013

  4. Fabrication of optical channel waveguides in crystals and glasses using macro- and micro ion beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banyasz, I.; Rajta, I.; Nagy, G. U. L.; Zolnai, Z.; Havránek, Vladimír; Veres, M.; Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G.; Righini, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 331, JUL (2014), s. 157-162 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : channel optical waveguides * ion beam irradiation * focussed ion beam * Er-doped tungsten-tellurite glass * Bismuth germanate * Micro Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  5. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide: Development in microgravity by the sol gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.; Debsikdar, J. C.; Beam, T.

    1983-01-01

    The sol-gel process for the preparation of homogeneous gels in three binary oxide systems was investigated. The glass forming ability of certain compositions in the selected oxide systems (SiO-GeO2, GeO2-PbO, and SiO2-TiO2) were studied based on their potential importance in the design of optical waveguide at longer wavelengths.

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging in Medicine, Environment, Security and Defence

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Wojtek J; Tanev, Stoyan

    2008-01-01

    The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The main goal of the multi-disciplinarry team of Editors was to provide an useful reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of complementary topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.

  7. Optical Forces on Non-Spherical Nanoparticles Trapped by Optical Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan Ahmed, Dewan; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2011-07-01

    Numerical simulations of a solid-core polymer waveguide structure were performed to calculate the trapping efficiencies of particles with nanoscale dimensions smaller than the wavelength of the trapping beam. A three-dimensional (3-D) finite element method was employed to calculate the electromagnetic field. The inlet and outlet boundary conditions were obtained using an eigenvalue solver to determine the guided and evanescent mode profiles. The Maxwell stress tensor was considered for the calculation of the transverse and downward trapping efficiencies. A particle at the center of the waveguide showed minimal transverse trapping efficiency and maximal downward trapping efficiency. This trend gradually reversed as the particle moved away from the center of the waveguide. Particles with larger surface areas exhibited higher trapping efficiencies and tended to be trapped near the waveguide. Particles displaced from the wave input tended to be trapped at the waveguide surface. Simulation of an ellipsoidal particle showed that the orientation of the major axis along the waveguide's lateral z-coordinate significantly influenced the trapping efficiency. The particle dimensions along the z-coordinate were more critical than the gap distance (vertical displacement from the floor of the waveguide) between the ellipsoid particle and the waveguide. The present model was validated using the available results reported in the literature for different trapping efficiencies.

  8. Dosimetry of steady-state gamma rays or pulsed X rays using liquid-core optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radak, B.B.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Simic, M.G.; Warasawas, W.

    1987-01-01

    A liquid-core optical waveguide (OWG) sensor of ionizing radiation can be used for dosimetry over broad absorbed-dose ranges, by means of a relatively simple experimental arrangement. The analyzing visible light from one of several narrow wavelength-band sources at the proximal end of the OWG is propagated efficiently through a tightly coiled waveguide containing a radiochromic solution. This solution constitutes the sensor and attenuates the measuring light according to the simple Beer-Lambert relationship, where increases in the optical absorbance, measured photometrically at the distal end of the OWG, are proportional to the concentrations of the radiation-induced absorbing species (dye molecules), which in turn are proportional to the absorbed dose in the sensor. When the analyzing light is of broad spectral distribution, the absorbance vs dose relationship becomes sublinear. The apparatus may be adapted either to the spectrophotometric measurement of absorbed dose rate or integrated absorbed dose during gamma radiolysis or to dosimetry in the pulse radiolysis or flash photolysis of radiation-stimulated chromophores. The OWG principle works with any transparent liquid or gel sensor held as the core material of a flexible plastic tubing, whose refractive index is less than that of the light-propagating core. (author)

  9. Integrated optics nano-opto-fluidic sensor based on whispering gallery modes for picoliter volume refractometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilardi, G.; Beccherelli, R.

    2013-01-01

    We propose and numerically investigate an integrated optics refractometric nano-opto-fluidic sensor based on whispering gallery modes in sapphire microspheres. A measurand fluid is injected in a micromachined reservoir defined in between the microsphere and an optical waveguide. The wavelength shift

  10. Integrated optical readout for miniaturization of cantilever-based sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Calleja, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    The authors present the fabrication and characterization of an integrated optical readout scheme based on single-mode waveguides for cantilever-based sensors. The cantilever bending is read out by monitoring changes in the optical intensity of light transmitted through the cantilever that also acts...

  11. Formation of plasma induced surface damage in silica glass etching for optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, D.S.; Jung, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Ge, B, P-doped silica glass films are widely used as optical waveguides because of their low losses and inherent compatibility with silica optical fibers. These films were etched by ICP (inductively coupled plasma) with chrome etch masks, which were patterned by reactive ion etching (RIE) using chlorine-based gases. In some cases, the etched surfaces of silica glass were very rough (root-mean square roughness greater than 100 nm) and we call this phenomenon plasma induced surface damage (PISD). Rough surface cannot be used as a platform for hybrid integration because of difficulty in alignment and bonding of active devices. PISD reduces the etch rate of glass and it is very difficult to remove residues on a rough surface. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of PISD formation. To achieve this goal, PISD formation during different etching conditions of chrome etch mask and silica glass was investigated. In most cases, PISD sources are formed on a glass surface after chrome etching, and metal compounds are identified in theses sources. Water rinse after chrome etching reduces the PISD, due to the water solubility of metal chlorides. PISD is decreased or even disappeared at high power and/or low pressure in glass etching, even if PISD sources were present on the glass surface before etching. In conclusion, PISD sources come from the chrome etching process, and polymer deposition on these sources during the silica etching cause the PISD sources to grow. In the area close to the PISD source there is a higher ion flux, which causes an increase in the etch rate, and results in the formation of a pit

  12. Silicon microphotonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta'eed, V.; Steel, M.J.; Grillet, C.; Eggleton, B.; Du, J.; Glasscock, J.; Savvides, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Silicon microphotonic devices have been drawing increasing attention in the past few years. The high index-difference between silicon and its oxide (Δn = 2) suggests a potential for high-density integration of optical functions on to a photonic chip. Additionally, it has been shown that silicon exhibits strong Raman nonlinearity, a necessary property as light interaction can occur only by means of nonlinearities in the propagation medium. The small dimensions of silicon waveguides require the design of efficient tapers to couple light to them. We have used the beam propagation method (RSoft BeamPROP) to understand the principles and design of an inverse-taper mode-converter as implemented in several recent papers. We report on progress in the design and fabrication of silicon-based waveguides. Preliminary work has been conducted by patterning silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using optical lithography and reactive ion etching. Thus far, only rib waveguides have been designed, as single-mode ridge-waveguides are beyond the capabilities of conventional optical lithography. We have recently moved to electron beam lithography as the higher resolutions permitted will provide the flexibility to begin fabricating sub-micron waveguides

  13. Waveguide-based optofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnutsch, Christian; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Monat, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    blocks in many applications, from microlasers and biomedical sensor systems to optical switches and integrated circuits. In this paper, we show that PhC microcavities can be formed by infusing a liquid into a selected section of a uniform PhC waveguide and that the optical properties of these cavities...... and highlight the benefits of an optofluidic approach, focusing on optofluidic cavities created in silicon photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide platforms. These cavities can be spatially and spectrally reconfigured, thus allowing a dynamic control of their optical characteristics. PhC cavities are major building...... can be tuned and adapted. By taking advantage of the negative thermo-optic coefficient of liquids, we describe a method which renders PhC cavities insensitive to temperature changes in the environment. This is only one example where the fluid-control of optical elements results in a functionality...

  14. Manufacturing of polymer optical waveguides using self-assembly effect on pre-conditioned 3D-thermoformed flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gerd-Albert; Wolfer, Tim; Zeitler, Jochen; Franke, Jörg; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2017-02-01

    Optical data communication is increasingly interesting for many applications in industrial processes. Therefore mass production is required to meet the requested price and lot sizes. Polymer optical waveguides show great promises to comply with price requirements while providing sufficient optical quality for short range data transmission. A high efficient fabrication technology using polymer materials could be able to create the essential backbone for 3D-optical data transmission in the future. The approach for high efficient fabrication technology of micro optics described in this paper is based on a self-assembly effect of fluids on preconditioned 3D-thermoformed polymer foils. Adjusting the surface energy on certain areas on the flexible substrate by flexographic printing mechanism is presented in this paper. With this technique conditioning lines made of silicone containing UV-varnish are printed on top of the foils and create gaps with the exposed substrate material in between. Subsequent fabrication processes are selected whether the preconditioned foil is coated with acrylate containing waveguide material prior or after the thermoforming process. Due to the different surface energy this material tends to dewet from the conditioning lines. It acts like regional barriers and sets the width of the arising waveguides. With this fabrication technology it is possible to produce multiple waveguides with a single coating process. The relevant printing process parameters that affect the quality of the generated waveguides are discussed and results of the produced waveguides with width ranging from 10 to 300 μm are shown.

  15. Tunnelling of orbital angular momentum in parallel optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeyev, C N; Fadeyeva, T A; Yavorsky, M A; Boklag, N A

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of circularly polarized optical vortices (OVs) in the system of two coupled few-mode optical fibres. We demonstrate that upon propagation OVs tunnel into the adjacent fibre as a complex superposition of OVs that comprise also OVs of opposite polarization and topological charge. The initial OV may tunnel into the other fibre as the same vortex state of lesser energy. The evolution of the orbital angular momentum in coupled fibres is studied

  16. Ultra-high speed all-optical signal processing using silicon waveguides and a carbon nanotubes based mode-locked laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua

    This thesis concerns the use of nano-engineered silicon waveguides for ultra-high speed optical serial data signal processing. The fundamental nonlinear properties of nano-engineered silicon waveguides are characterized. Utilizing the nonlinear effect in nano-engineered silicon waveguides for dem...

  17. Azo biphenyl polyurethane: Preparation, characterization and application for optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Da, Zulin; Qiu, Fengxian; Yang, Dongya; Guan, Yijun; Cao, Guorong

    2018-01-01

    Azo waveguide polymers are of particular interest in the design of materials for applications in optical switch. The aim of this contribution was the synthesis and thermo-optic waveguide switch properties of azo biphenyl polyurethanes. A series of monomers and azo biphenyl polyurethanes (Azo BPU1 and Azo BPU2) were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and 1H NMR. The physical and mechanical properties of thin polymer films were measured. The refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) of polymer films were investigated for TE (transversal electric) polarizations by ATR technique. The transmission loss of film was measured using the Charge Coupled Device digital imaging devices. The results showed the Azo BPU2 containing chiral azobenzene chromophore had higher dn/dT and lower transmission loss. Subsequently, a 1 × 2 Y-branch and 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder optical switches based on the prepared polymers were designed and simulated. The results showed that the power consumption of all switches was less than 1.0 mW. Compared with 1 × 2 Y-branch optical switch, the 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder optical switches based on the same polymer have the faster response time, which were about only 1.2 and 2.0 ms, respectively.

  18. Near-infrared optical properties of Yb3+-doped silicate glass waveguides prepared by double-energy proton implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Zhu, Qi-Feng; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Lv, Peng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Liu, Chun-Xiao

    2018-03-01

    We report on the preparation and properties of an optical planar waveguide structure operating at 1539 nm in the Yb3+-doped silicate glass. The waveguide was formed by using (470 + 500) keV proton implantation at fluences of (1.0 + 2.0) × 1016 ions/cm2. The waveguiding characteristics including the guided-mode spectrum and the near-field image were investigated by the m-line technique and the finite-difference beam propagation method. The energy distribution for implanted protons and the refractive index profile for the proton-implanted waveguide were simulated by the stopping and range of ions in matter and the reflectivity calculation method. The proton-implanted Yb3+-doped silicate glass waveguide is a candidate for optoelectronic elements in the near-infrared region.

  19. Engineered Quasi-Phase Matching for Nonlinear Quantum Optics in Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Mackenzie A.

    Entanglement is the hallmark of quantum mechanics. Quantum entanglement--putting two or more identical particles into a non-factorable state--has been leveraged for applications ranging from quantum computation and encryption to high-precision metrology. Entanglement is a practical engineering resource and a tool for sidestepping certain limitations of classical measurement and communication. Engineered nonlinear optical waveguides are an enabling technology for generating entangled photon pairs and manipulating the state of single photons. This dissertation reports on: i) frequency conversion of single photons from the mid-infrared to 843nm as a tool for incorporating quantum memories in quantum networks, ii) the design, fabrication, and test of a prototype broadband source of polarization and frequency entangled photons; and iii) a roadmap for further investigations of this source, including applications in quantum interferometry and high-precision optical metrology. The devices presented herein are quasi-phase-matched lithium niobate waveguides. Lithium niobate is a second-order nonlinear optical material and can mediate optical energy conversion to different wavelengths. This nonlinear effect is the basis of both quantum frequency conversion and entangled photon generation, and is enhanced by i) confining light in waveguides to increase conversion efficiency, and ii) quasi-phase matching, a technique for engineering the second-order nonlinear response by locally altering the direction of a material's polarization vector. Waveguides are formed by diffusing titanium into a lithium niobate wafer. Quasi-phase matching is achieved by electric field poling, with multiple stages of process development and optimization to fabricate the delicate structures necessary for broadband entangled photon generation. The results presented herein update and optimize past fabrication techniques, demonstrate novel optical devices, and propose future avenues for device development

  20. All-optical LAN architectures based on arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woesner, Hagen

    1998-10-01

    The paper presents optical LAN topologies which are made possible using an Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexer (AWGM) instead of a passive star coupler to interconnect stations in an all-optical LAN. Due to the collision-free nature of an AWGM it offers the n-fold bandwidth compared to the star coupler. Virtual ring topologies appear (one ring on each wavelength) if the number of stations attached to the AWGM is a prime number. A method to construct larger networks using Cayley graphs is shown. An access protocol to avoid collisions on the proposed network is outlined.

  1. Tunable all-optical plasmonic rectifier in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Wang, Xiaomeng; Deng, Haidong; Guo, Kangxian

    2014-10-15

    We propose a tunable all-optical plasmonic rectifier based on the nonlinear Fano resonance in a metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and cavities coupling system. We develop a theoretical model based on the temporal coupled-mode theory to study the device physics of the nanoscale rectifier. We further demonstrate via the finite difference time domain numerical experiment that our idea can be realized in a plasmonic system with an ultracompact size of ~120×800  nm². The tunable plasmonic rectifier could facilitate the all-optical signal processing in nanoscale.

  2. Broadband Optical Active Waveguides Written by Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Lithium Fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiamenti, Ismael; Costa, Larissa N. da; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.; Bonfigli, Francesca; Montereali, Rosa Maria; Gomes Anderson, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Broadband waveguiding through light-emitting strips directly written in a blank lithium fluoride crystal with a femtosecond laser is reported. Light guiding was observed at several optical wavelengths, from blue, 458 nm, to near-infrared, at 1550 nm. Visible photoluminescence spectra of the optically active F 2 and F 3 + color centers produced by the fs laser writing process were measured. The wavelength-dependent refractive index increase was estimated to be in the order of 10 −3 −10 −4 in the visible and near-infrared spectral intervals, which is consistent with the stable formation of point defects in LiF

  3. Broadband Optical Active Waveguides Written by Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Lithium Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Chiamenti; Francesca, Bonfigli; Anderson, S. L. Gomes; Rosa, Maria Montereali; Larissa, N. da Costa; Hypolito, J. Kalinowski

    2014-01-01

    Broadband waveguiding through light-emitting strips directly written in a blank lithium fluoride crystal with a femtosecond laser is reported. Light guiding was observed at several optical wavelengths, from blue, 458 nm, to near-infrared, at 1550 nm. Visible photoluminescence spectra of the optically active F2 and F3+ color centers produced by the fs laser writing process were measured. The wavelength-dependent refractive index increase was estimated to be in the order of 10-3-10-4 in the visible and near-infrared spectral intervals, which is consistent with the stable formation of point defects in LiF.

  4. Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-02-28

    A high-performance waveguide photodetector (WPD) integrated with a laser diode (LD) sharing the single InGaN/GaN quantum well active region is demonstrated on a semipolar GaN substrate. The photocurrent of the integrated WPD is effectively tuned by the emitted optical power from the LD. The responsivity ranges from 0.018 to 0.051 A/W with increasing reverse bias from 0 to 10 V. The WPD shows a large 3 dB modulation bandwidth of 230 MHz. The integrated device, being used for power monitoring and on-chip communication, paves the way towards the eventual realization of a III–nitride on-chip photonic system.

  5. Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Lee, Changmin; Stegenburgs, Edgars; Lerma, Jorge Holguin; Ng, Tien Khee; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    A high-performance waveguide photodetector (WPD) integrated with a laser diode (LD) sharing the single InGaN/GaN quantum well active region is demonstrated on a semipolar GaN substrate. The photocurrent of the integrated WPD is effectively tuned by the emitted optical power from the LD. The responsivity ranges from 0.018 to 0.051 A/W with increasing reverse bias from 0 to 10 V. The WPD shows a large 3 dB modulation bandwidth of 230 MHz. The integrated device, being used for power monitoring and on-chip communication, paves the way towards the eventual realization of a III–nitride on-chip photonic system.

  6. The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, E.F.; Schipper, E.F.; Brugman, A.M.; Lechuga, L.M.; Lechuga, L.M.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan; Dominguez, C.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the realization of a symmetric integrated channel waveguide Mach-Zehnder sensor which uses the evanescent field to detect small refractive-index changes (¿nmin ¿ 1 × 10¿4) near the guiding-layer surface. This guiding layer consists of ridge structures with a height of 3 nm and a width of

  7. Electrophoresis microchip with integrated waveguides for simultaneous native UV fluorescence and absorbance detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlsson, Pelle Daniel; Sala, Olga Ordeig; Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous label-free detection of UV absorbance and native UV-excited fluorescence in an electrophoresis microchip is presented. UV transparent integrated waveguides launch light at a wavelength of 254 nm from a mercury lamp along the length of a 1-mm. long detection cell. Transmitted UV light...

  8. Printing polymer optical waveguides on conditioned transparent flexible foils by using the aerosol jet technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitberger, Thomas; Hoffmann, Gerd-Albert; Wolfer, Tim; Overmeyer, Ludger; Franke, Joerg

    2016-09-01

    The optical data transfer is considered as the future of signal transfer due to its various advantages compared to conventional copper-based technologies. The Aerosol Jet Printing (AJP) technology offers the opportunity to print materials with high viscosities, such as liquid transparent polymer adhesives (epoxy resins), on almost any possible substrate material and even in third dimension. This paper introduces a new flexible and comparatively cost-effective way of generating polymer optical waveguides through AJP. Furthermore, the conditioning of the substrate material and the printing process of planar waveguides are presented. In the first step, two lines with hydrophobic behavior are applied on foil material (PMMA, PVC, PI) by using a flexographic printing machine. These silicone based patterns containing functional polymer form barriers for the core material due to their low surface energy after curing. In the second step, the core material (liquid polymer, varnish) is printed between the barrier lines. Because of the hydrophobic behavior of the lines, the contact angle between the substrate surface and the liquid core material is increased which yields to higher aspect ratio. The distance between the barrier lines is at least 100 μm, which defines the width of the waveguide. The minimum height of the core shall be 50 μm. After UV-curing of the core polymer, the cladding material is printed on the top. This is also applied by using the AJP technology. Various tests were performed to achieve the optimal surface properties for adequate adhesion and machine process parameters.

  9. High-modulation-efficiency, integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode at 448 nm

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Leonard, John T.; Pourhashemi, Arash; Oubei, Hassan M.; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Eldesouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    To date, solid-state lighting (SSL), visible light communication (VLC) and optical clock generation functionalities in the blue-green color regime have been demonstrated based on discrete devices, including light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, and transverse-transmission modulators. This work presents the first integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode (IWM-LD) at 448 nm, offering the advantages of small-footprint, high-speed, and low power-consumption. A high modulation efficiency of 2.68 dB/V, deriving from a large extinction ratio of 9.4 dB and a low operating voltage range of 3.5 V, was measured. The electroabsorption characteristics revealed that the modulation effect, as observed from the red-shifting of the absorption edge, was resulted from the external-field-induced quantum-confined-Stark-effect (QCSE). A comparative analysis of the photocurrent versus wavelength spectra in semipolar- and polar-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) confirmed that the IWM-LD based on semipolar (20¯2 ¯1) QWs was able to operate in a manner similar to other III-V materials typically used in optical telecommunications, due to the reduced piezoelectric field. Utilizing the integrated modulator, a -3dB bandwidth of ~1 GHz was measured, and a data rate of 1 Gbit/s was demonstrated using on-off keying (OOK) modulation. Our experimental investigation highlighted the advantage of implementing the IWM-LD on the same semipolar QW epitaxy in enabling a high-efficiency platform for SSL-VLC dual-functionalities.

  10. High-modulation-efficiency, integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode at 448 nm

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2016-01-25

    To date, solid-state lighting (SSL), visible light communication (VLC) and optical clock generation functionalities in the blue-green color regime have been demonstrated based on discrete devices, including light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, and transverse-transmission modulators. This work presents the first integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode (IWM-LD) at 448 nm, offering the advantages of small-footprint, high-speed, and low power-consumption. A high modulation efficiency of 2.68 dB/V, deriving from a large extinction ratio of 9.4 dB and a low operating voltage range of 3.5 V, was measured. The electroabsorption characteristics revealed that the modulation effect, as observed from the red-shifting of the absorption edge, was resulted from the external-field-induced quantum-confined-Stark-effect (QCSE). A comparative analysis of the photocurrent versus wavelength spectra in semipolar- and polar-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) confirmed that the IWM-LD based on semipolar (20¯2 ¯1) QWs was able to operate in a manner similar to other III-V materials typically used in optical telecommunications, due to the reduced piezoelectric field. Utilizing the integrated modulator, a -3dB bandwidth of ~1 GHz was measured, and a data rate of 1 Gbit/s was demonstrated using on-off keying (OOK) modulation. Our experimental investigation highlighted the advantage of implementing the IWM-LD on the same semipolar QW epitaxy in enabling a high-efficiency platform for SSL-VLC dual-functionalities.

  11. Integrated phononic crystal resonators based on adiabatically-terminated phononic crystal waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Dehghannasiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we demonstrate a new design for integrated phononic crystal (PnC resonators based on confining acoustic waves in a heterogeneous waveguide-based PnC structure. In this architecture, a PnC waveguide that supports a single mode at the desired resonance frequencies is terminated by two waveguide sections with no propagating mode at those frequencies (i.e., have mode gap. The proposed PnC resonators are designed through combining the spatial-domain and the spatial-frequency domain (i.e., the k-domain analysis to achieve a smooth mode envelope. This design approach can benefit both membrane-based and surface-acoustic-wave-based architectures by confining the mode spreading in k-domain that leads to improved electromechanical excitation/detection coupling and reduced loss through propagating bulk modes.

  12. Design and analysis of optically pumped submillimeter waveguide maser amplifiers and oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantowicz, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    The design and experimental measurements are described of an optically pumped far-infrared (FIR) waveguide maser; preliminary measurements on a FIR waveguide amplifier are presented. The FIR maser was found to operate satisfactorily in a chopped CW mode using either methanol (CH3OH) or acetonitrile (CH3CN) as the active molecule. Two other gases, difluoroethane and difluoroethylene, produced an unstable output with high threshold and low output power when operated in the chopped CW mode. Experimental measurements include FIR output versus cavity length, output beam pattern, output power versus pressure, and input power. The FIR output was the input to an amplifier which was constructed similar to the oscillator. An increase of 10% in output power was noted on the 118.8 microns line of methanol.

  13. Er3+ phosphate glass optical waveguide amplifiers at 1.5 μm on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yingchao; Faber, Anne J.; de Waal, Henk

    1996-01-01

    RF-sputtering techniques were employed to produce Er-doped phosphate glass films on thermally oxidized silicon wafers. Film compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As-deposited films showed very low Er luminescence lifetimes. By postannealing of deposited films in pure oxygen, Er photoluminescence emission lifetime of the 4I13/2 - 4I15/2 transition could be increased from 1 - 2 ms to 8 - 9 ms. The long Er lifetime of the deposited films is very promising for achieving an optical gain. A dependence of measured lifetimes on pump power was observed which are related to a up-conversion quenching process. After postannealing, the sputtered waveguides showed relatively low attenuation loss at the potential pumping and signaling wavelengths. The loss spectrum from 700 nm to 1600 nm was measured by two-prism coupling. The films were easy to be patterned by lithography and ridge channel waveguides were developed by argon plasma etching.

  14. Optical gain at 650 nm from a polymer waveguide with dye-doped cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, M. A.; Coleman, B.; Pun, E. Y. B.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.; Ramon, M.; Xia, R.; Bradley, D. D. C.

    2005-12-01

    Signal amplification at the polymer optical fiber low-loss window of 650 nm is reported in an SU8 rib waveguide coated with Rhodamine-640 doped poly(methyl methacrylate). A signal beam is end-fired into the facet of a 7×100μm waveguide and amplified by top pumping of the 2-μm-thick cladding region with a pulsed pump source focused into a 9-mm-long stripe. A gain of 14dB and a minimum signal-to-noise ratio of around 2 dB are achieved in a 15-mm-long device with a low threshold pump intensity of 0.25μJ/mm2, which is an order of magnitude lower than previously reported.

  15. A three-dimensional wide-angle BPM for optical waveguide structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changbao; van Keuren, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Algorithms for effective modeling of optical propagation in three- dimensional waveguide structures are critical for the design of photonic devices. We present a three-dimensional (3-D) wide-angle beam propagation method (WA-BPM) using Hoekstra’s scheme. A sparse matrix algebraic equation is formed and solved using iterative methods. The applicability, accuracy and effectiveness of our method are demonstrated by applying it to simulations of wide-angle beam propagation, along with a technique for shifting the simulation window to reduce the dimension of the numerical equation and a threshold technique to further ensure its convergence. These techniques can ensure the implementation of iterative methods for waveguide structures by relaxing the convergence problem, which will further enable us to develop higher-order 3-D WA-BPMs based on Padé approximant operators.

  16. Optical Cherenkov radiation in an As2S3 slot waveguide with four zero-dispersion wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shaofei; Hu, Jungao; Guo, Hairun

    2013-01-01

    , dispersion profiles with four zero dispersion wavelengths are found to produce a phase-matching nonlinear process leading to a broadband resonant radiation. The broadband OCR investigated in the chalcogenide waveguide may find applications in on-chip wavelength conversion and near-infrared pulse generation.......We propose an approach for an efficient generation of optical Cherenkov radiation (OCR) in the near-infrared by tailoring the waveguide dispersion for a zero group-velocity mismatching between the radiation and the pump soliton. Based on an As2S3 slot waveguide with subwavelength dimensions...

  17. Optical Communication over Plastic Optical Fibers Integrated Optical Receiver Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Atef, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This book presents high-performance data transmission over plastic optical fibers (POF) using integrated optical receivers having good properties with multilevel modulation, i.e. a higher sensitivity and higher data rate transmission over a longer plastic optical fiber length. Integrated optical receivers and transmitters with high linearity are introduced for multilevel communication. For binary high-data rate transmission over plastic optical fibers, an innovative receiver containing an equalizer is described leading also to a high performance of a plastic optical fiber link. The cheap standard PMMA SI-POF (step-index plastic optical fiber) has the lowest bandwidth and the highest attenuation among multimode fibers. This small bandwidth limits the maximum data rate which can be transmitted through plastic optical fibers. To overcome the problem of the plastic optical fibers high transmission loss, very sensitive receivers must be used to increase the transmitted length over POF. The plastic optical fiber li...

  18. Toward photostable multiplex analyte detection on a single mode planar optical waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Harshini [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xei, Hongshi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Aaron S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jennifer S [NON LANL; Swanson, Basil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the sensitive and specific detection of biomarkers associated with disease. Our technology combines the superior optical properties of single-mode planar waveguides, the robust nature of functionalized self-assembled monolayer sensing films and the specificity of fluorescence sandwich immunoassays to detect biomarkers in complex biological samples such as serum, urine and sputum. We have previously reported the adaptation of our technology to the detection of biomarkers associated with breast cancer and anthrax. However, these approaches primarily used phospholipid bilayers as the functional film and organic dyes (ex: AlexaFluors) as the fluorescence reporter. Organic dyes are easily photodegraded and are not amenable to multiplexing because of their narrow Stokes' shift. Here we have developed strategies for conjugation of the detector antibodies with quantum dots for use in a multiplex detection platform. We have previously evaluated dihydroxylipoic acid quantum dots for the detection of a breast cancer biomarker. In this manuscript, we investigate the detection of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen using antibodies conjugated with polymer-coated quantum dots. Kinetics of binding on the waveguide-based biosensor is reported. We compare the sensitivity of quantum dot labeled antibodies to those labeled with AlexaFluor and demonstrate the photostability of the former in our assay platform. In addition, we compare sulfydryl labeling of the antibody in the hinge region to that of nonspecific amine labeling. This is but the first step in developing a multiplex assay for such biomarkers on our waveguide platform.

  19. Electro-optical modulator in a polymerinfiltrated silicon slotted photonic crystal waveguide heterostructure resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbern, Jan Hendrik; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred

    2009-01-05

    We present a novel concept of a compact, ultra fast electro-optic modulator, based on photonic crystal resonator structures that can be realized in two dimensional photonic crystal slabs of silicon as core material employing a nonlinear optical polymer as infiltration and cladding material. The novel concept is to combine a photonic crystal heterostructure cavity with a slotted defect waveguide. The photonic crystal lattice can be used as a distributed electrode for the application of a modulation signal. An electrical contact is hence provided while the optical wave is kept isolated from the lossy metal electrodes. Thereby, well known disadvantages of segmented electrode designs such as excessive scattering are avoided. The optical field enhancement in the slotted region increases the nonlinear interaction with an external electric field resulting in an envisaged switching voltage of approximately 1 V at modulation speeds up to 100 GHz.

  20. Oxide-Free Bonding of III-V-Based Material on Silicon and Nano-Structuration of the Hybrid Waveguide for Advanced Optical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pantzas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxide-free bonding of III-V-based materials for integrated optics is demonstrated on both planar Silicon (Si surfaces and nanostructured ones, using Silicon on Isolator (SOI or Si substrates. The hybrid interface is characterized electrically and mechanically. A hybrid InP-on-SOI waveguide, including a bi-periodic nano structuration of the silicon guiding layer is demonstrated to provide wavelength selective transmission. Such an oxide-free interface associated with the nanostructured design of the guiding geometry has great potential for both electrical and optical operation of improved hybrid devices.

  1. Optical near-field studies of waveguiding organic nanofibers by angular dependent excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibohm, Christian

    .                    2) Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Science, 119991 Moscow, Russia. Abstract:   Single crystalline organic nanofibers of para-phenylene are grown in UHV by MBE and dipole assisted self-assembly. In the optical far-field the fluorescence from a single nanofiber is spectrally well...... defined and highly polarized. By UV excitation in a fluorescence microscope it has also been shown that nanofibers have waveguiding properties. To further characterize the waveguiding properties the optical near-field has to be investigated. This is done by transferring nanofibers to an quartz half sphere...... where they are excited by the evanescent wave from a total internal reflected UV laser. The optical near-field is probed by the fiber tip of a SNOM (scanning near-field optical microscope). In the setup it is possible to change the angle of incidence of the excitation laser i.e. change the k...

  2. Floating dielectric slab optical interconnection between metal-dielectric interface surface plasmon polariton waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minsu; Park, Junghyun; Lee, Il-Min; Lee, Byoungho

    2009-01-19

    A simple and effective optical interconnection which connects two distanced single metal-dielectric interface surface plasmon waveguides by a floating dielectric slab waveguide (slab bridge) is proposed. Transmission characteristics of the suggested structure are numerically studied using rigorous coupled wave analysis, and design rules based on the study are given. In the wave-guiding part, if the slab bridge can support more than the fundamental mode, then the transmission efficiency of the interconnection shows strong periodic dependency on the length of the bridge, due to the multi-mode interference (MMI) effect. Otherwise, only small fluctuation occurs due to the Fabry-Pérot effect. In addition, light beating happens when the slab bridge is relatively short. In the wave-coupling part, on the other hand, gap-assisted transmission occurs at each overlapping region as a consequence of mode hybridization. Periodic dependency on the length of the overlap region also appears due to the MMI effect. According to these results, we propose design principles for achieving both high transmission efficiency and stability with respect to the variation of the interconnection distance, and we show how to obtain the transmission efficiency of 68.3% for the 1mm-long interconnection.

  3. Glass-based integrated optical splitters: engineering oriented research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yinlei; Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Jianyi; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Minghua

    2010-10-01

    Optical splitter is one of most typical device heavily demanded in implementation of Fiber To The Home (FTTH) system. Due to its compatibility with optical fibers, low propagation loss, flexibility, and most distinguishingly, potentially costeffectiveness, glass-based integrated optical splitters made by ion-exchange technology promise to be very attractive in application of optical communication networks. Aiming at integrated optical splitters applied in optical communication network, glass ion-exchange waveguide process is developed, which includes two steps: thermal salts ion-exchange and field-assisted ion-diffusion. By this process, high performance optical splitters are fabricated in specially melted glass substrate. Main performance parameters of these splitters, including maximum insertion loss (IL), polarization dependence loss (PDL), and IL uniformity are all in accordance with corresponding specifications in generic requirements for optic branching components (GR-1209-CORE). In this paper, glass based integrated optical splitters manufacturing is demonstrated, after which, engineering-oriented research work results on glass-based optical splitter are presented.

  4. Optical waveguiding and applied photonics technological aspects, experimental issue approaches and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Optoelectronics--technology based on applications light such as micro/nano quantum electronics, photonic devices, laser for measurements and detection--has become an important field of research. Many applications and physical problems concerning optoelectronics are analyzed in Optical Waveguiding and Applied Photonics.The book is organized in order to explain how to implement innovative sensors starting from basic physical principles. Applications such as cavity resonance, filtering, tactile sensors, robotic sensor, oil spill detection, small antennas and experimental setups using lasers are a

  5. Self-reflection of extremely short light pulses in nonlinear optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasov, Alexander E.; Kozlov, Sergei A.

    2004-07-01

    An equation describing the generation of reflected radiation during the propagation of high-intensity extremely short pulses in a nonlinear optical waveguide is derived. The phenomena taking place during the strong self-inducted changes of the temporal structure of the forward wave are studied. It is shown that the duration of the backward pulse is much greater than the duration of the forward pulse and that the main part of the energy of the backward wave is carried by lower frequencies than the central frequency of the forward wave.

  6. Modeling of mode-locked coupled-resonator optical waveguide lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Christian; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Gregersen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides made from coupled high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities are investigated for use as cavities in mode-locked lasers. Such devices show great potential in slowing down light and can serve to reduce the cavity length of a mode-locked laser. An explicit expression...... of the emerging pulse train. A range of tuning around this frequency allows for effective mode locking. Finally, noise is added to the generalized single-cavity eigenfrequencies in order to evaluate the effects of fabrication imperfections on the cold-cavity transmission properties and consequently on the locking...

  7. Design of novel SOI 1 × 4 optical power splitter using seven horizontally slotted waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Oded; Malka, Dror

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a compact silicon on insulator (SOI) 1 × 4 optical power splitter using seven horizontal slotted waveguides. Aluminum nitride (AIN) surrounded by silicon (Si) was used to confine the optical field in the slot region. All of the power analysis has been done in transverse magnetic (TM) polarization mode and a compact optical power splitter as short as 14.5 μm was demonstrated. The splitter was designed by using full vectorial beam propagation method (FV-BPM) simulations. Numerical investigations show that this device can work across the whole C-band (1530-1565 nm) with excess loss better than 0.23 dB.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Fluorinated Poly(phenylmaleimide-co-pentafluorophenylmaleimide) for Optical Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jongwan; Kim Nakjoong; Oh, Jinwoo

    2013-01-01

    Fluorinated polymaleimides with high thermal stability and low optical absorption loss in the optical communication wavelength of 1.55 μm were investigated for application in low-loss waveguide materials. The fluorinated polymaleimides were prepared from two monomers phenylmaleimide (H-PMI) and pentafluorophenylmaleimide (F-PMI). All synthesized copolymers had high thermal stability (decomposition temperature (T d ) = 380-430 .deg. C). The refractive index of the copolymers could be tuned from 1.4969 to 1.5950 in the TE mode and from 1.4993 to 1.5932 for the TM mode at 632.8 nm by copolymerizing different weight ratios of H-PMI and F-PMI. The refractive index of the copolymers decreased with increasing F-PMI content. In addition, when the amount of F-PMI was increased, optical loss and absorption loss at 632.8 nm and 1550 nm, respectively, decreased

  9. Pigtailing of integrated optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenth, Karin

    2001-01-01

    , but also a silicon motherboard for laser diode pigtailing and a Variable Optical Attenuator have been realized. The pigtailing method consists of three major parts: a waveguide chip with alignment trenches, a fiber array with alignment trenches, and a top plate with alignment rails. The top plate aligns....... The fiber array carrier and the top plate are fabricated by potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching. A method to align the mask pattern to the crystal orientation of the silicon substrate has been implemented. The impact of the etch of the nitride layer, used as an etch mask in KOH, on the line widths...... of the critical structures has been studied. The influence of the process parameters of a RIE etch process has been investigated with respect to the etch rate uniformity. After processing the variation of the line widths of the critical structures on the fiber array carrier and the top plate is determined...

  10. Optical coupling structure made by imprinting between single-mode polymer waveguide and embedded VCSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karppinen, M.; Salminen, N.; Korhonen, T.; Alajoki, T.; Petäjä, J.; Bosman, E.; Steenberge, G. van; Justice, J.; Khan, U.; Corbett, B.; Boersma, A.

    2015-01-01

    Polymer-based integrated optics is attractive for inter-chip optical interconnection applications, for instance, for coupling photonic devices to fibers in high density packaging. In such a hybrid integration scheme, a key challenge is to achieve efficient optical coupling between the photonic chips

  11. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-05-11

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  12. Silica suspended waveguide splitter-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. C.; Hawk, R. M.; Armani, A. M.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, a novel integrated optical waveguide 50/50 splitter was developed. It is fabricated using standard lithographic methods, a pair of etching steps and a laser reflow step. However, unlike other integrated waveguide splitters, the waveguide is elevated off of the silicon substrate, improving its interaction with biomolecules in solution and in a flow field. Additionally, because it is fabricated from silica, it has very low optical loss, resulting in a high signal-to-noise ratio, making it ideal for biosensing. By functionalizing the device using an epoxy-silane method using small samples and confining the protein solutions to the device, we enable highly efficient detection of CREB with only 1 μL of solution. Therefore, the waveguide coupler sensor is representative of the next generation of ultra-sensitive optical biosensors, and, when combined with microfluidic capabilities, it will be an ideal candidate for a more fully-realized lab-on-a-chip device.

  13. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Based Phase Shifter and Phased Array in a Ferrite Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic Package

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    that controls the phase of the signal passing through it. Among the technologies used to realize this device, traditional ferrite waveguide phase shifters offer the best performance. However, they are bulky and difficult to integrate with other system components

  14. Multilayered photonic integration on SOI platform using waveguide-based bridge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Saikat; Chakraborty, Rajib

    2018-06-01

    A waveguide based structure on silicon on insulator platform is proposed for vertical integration in photonic integrated circuits. The structure consists of two multimode interference couplers connected by a single mode (SM) section which can act as a bridge over any other underlying device. Two more SM sections acts as input and output of the first and second multimode couplers respectively. Potential application of this structure is in multilayered photonic links. It is shown that the efficiency of the structure can be improved by making some design modifications. The entire simulation is done using effective-index based matrix method. The feature size chosen are comparable to waveguides fabricated previously so as to fabricate the proposed structure easily.

  15. Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW 3 dB coupler for K-Band applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Nurehansafwanah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a designed coupler by using Rogers RO4003C with thickness (h 0.508 mm and relative permittivity (εr 3.55. The four port network coupler operates in K-band (18-27 GHz and design by using substrate integrated waveguide (SIW method. The reflection coefficient and isolation coefficient of propose Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW coupler is below than -10 dB. Meanwhile the coupler requirements are phase shift 90° between coupled port and output. SIW are high performance broadband interconnects with excellent immunity to electromagnetic interference and suitable for use in microwave and communication electronics, as well as increase bandwidth systems. The designs of coupler are investigated using CST Microwave Studio simulation tool. This proposed couplers are varied from parameters that cover the frequency range (21 -24 GHz and better performance of scattering (S-parameter.

  16. The formation and optical properties of planar waveguide in laser crystal Nd:YGG by carbon ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qin, Xi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Jiao, Yang; Guan, Jing; Fu, Gang

    2017-10-01

    As one kind of prominent laser crystal, Nd:Y3Ga5O12 (Nd:YGG) crystal has outstanding performance on laser excitation at multi-wavelength which have shown promising applications in optical communication field. In addition, Nd:YGG crystal has potential applications in medical field due to its ability of emit the laser at 1110 nm. Optical waveguide structure with high quality could improve the efficiency of laser emission. In this work, we fabricated the optical planar waveguide on Nd:YGG crystal by medium mass ion implantation which was convinced an effective method to realize a waveguide structure with superior optical properties. The sample is implanted by C ions at energy of 5.0 MeV with the fluence of 1 × 1015 ions/cm2. We researched the optical propagation properties in the Nd:YGG waveguide by end-face coupling and prism coupling method. The Nd ions fluorescent properties are obtained by a confocal micro-luminescence measurement. The fluorescent properties of Nd ions obtained good reservation after C ion implantation. Our work has reference value for the application of Nd:YGG crystal in the field of optical communication.

  17. Thermally controlled coupling of a rolled-up microtube integrated with a waveguide on a silicon electronic-photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiuhang; Tian, Zhaobing; Veerasubramanian, Venkat; Dastjerdi, M Hadi Tavakoli; Mi, Zetian; Plant, David V

    2014-05-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of the thermal control of coupling strength between a rolled-up microtube and a waveguide on a silicon electronic-photonic integrated circuit. The microtubes are fabricated by selectively releasing a coherently strained GaAs/InGaAs heterostructure bilayer. The fabricated microtubes are then integrated with silicon waveguides using an abruptly tapered fiber probe. By tuning the gap between the microtube and the waveguide using localized heaters, the microtube-waveguide evanescent coupling is effectively controlled. With heating, the extinction ratio of a microtube whispering-gallery mode changes over an 18 dB range, while the resonant wavelength remains approximately unchanged. Utilizing this dynamic thermal tuning effect, we realize coupling modulation of the microtube integrated with the silicon waveguide at 2 kHz with a heater voltage swing of 0-6 V.

  18. Photonic waveguides theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boudrioua, Azzedine

    2009-01-01

    This book presents the principles of non-linear integrated optics. The first objective is to provide the reader with a thorough understanding of integrated optics so that they may be able to develop the theoretical and experimental tools to study and control the linear and non-linear optical properties of waveguides.The potential use of these structures can then be determined in order to realize integrated optical components for light modulation and generation. The theoretical models are accompanied by experimental tools and their setting in order to characterize the studied phenomenon. Th

  19. Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Pauline; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Guendouz, Mohammed; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Carré, Christiane; Gadonna, Michel; Bosc, Dominique; Vignaud, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    Micro-resonators (MR) have become a key element for integrated optical sensors due to their integration capability and their easy fabrication with low cost polymer materials. Nowadays, there is a growing need on MRs as highly sensitive and selective functions especially in the areas of food and health. The context of this work is to implement and study integrated micro-ring resonators devoted to sensing applications. They are fabricated by processing SU8 polymer as core layer and PMATRIFE polymer as lower cladding layer. The refractive index of the polymers and of the waveguide structure as a function of the wavelength is presented. Using these results, a theoretical study of the coupling between ring and straight waveguides has been undertaken in order to define the MR design. Sub-micronic gaps of 0.5 μm to 1 μm between the ring and the straight waveguides have been successfully achieved with UV (i-lines) photolithography. Different superstrates such as air, water, and aqueous solutions with glucose at different concentrations have been studied. First results show a good normalized transmission contrast of 0.98, a resonator quality factor around 1.5 × 104 corresponding to a coupling ratio of 14.7%, and ring propagation losses around 5 dB/cm. Preliminary sensing experiments have been performed for different concentrations of glucose; a sensitivity of 115 ± 8 nm/RIU at 1550 nm has been obtained with this couple of polymers.

  20. [Research on symmetrical optical waveguide based surface plasmon resonance sensing with spectral interrogation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-long; Liu, Le; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Peng-fei; Guo, Ji-hua; Ma, Hui; He, Yong-hong

    2015-02-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors with spectral interrogation can adopt fiber to transmit light signals, thus leaving the sensing part separated, which is very convenient for miniaturization, remote-sensing and on-site analysis. Symmetrical optical waveguide (SOW) SPR has the same refractive index of the-two buffer media layers adjacent to the metal film, resulting in longer propagation distance, deeper penetration depth and better performance compared to conventional SPR In the present paper, we developed a symmetrical optical, waveguide (SOW) SPR sensor with wavelength interrogation. In the system, MgF2-Au-MgF2 film was used as SOW module for glucose sensing, and a fiber based light source and detection was used in the spectral interrogation. In the experiment, a refractive index resolution of 2.8 x 10(-7) RIU in fluid protocol was acquired. This technique provides advantages of high resolution and could have potential use in compact design, on-site analysis and remote sensing.

  1. Turnable Semiconductor Laser Spectroscopy in Hollow Optical Waveguides, Phase II SBIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory J. Fetzer, Ph.D.

    2001-12-24

    In this study a novel optical trace gas sensor based on a perforated hollow waveguide (PHW) was proposed. The sensor has been given the acronym ESHOW for Environmental Sensor using Hollow Optical Waveguides. Realizations of the sensor have demonstrated rapid response time (<2s), low minimum detection limits (typically around 3 x 10-5 absorbance). Operation of the PHW technology has been demonstrated in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid0infrared (MIR) regions of the spectrum. Simulation of sensor performance provided in depth understanding of the signals and signal processing required to provide high sensitivity yet retain rapid response to gas changes. A dedicated sensor electronics and software foundation were developed during the course of the Phase II effort. Commercial applications of the sensor are ambient air and continuous emissions monitoring, industrial process control and hazardous waste site monitoring. There are numerous other applications for such a sensor including medical diagnosis and treatment, breath analysis for legal purposes, water quality assessment, combustion diagnostics, and chemical process control. The successful completion of Phase II resulted in additional funding of instrument development by the Nations Institute of Heath through a Phase I SBIR grant and a strategic teaming relationship with a commercial manufacture of medical instrumentation. The purpose of the NIH grant and teaming relationship is to further develop the sensor to monitor NO in exhaled breath for the purposes of asthma diagnosis.

  2. The cross waveguide grating: proposal, theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Pascual; Pastor, Daniel; Capmany, José

    2005-04-18

    In this paper a novel grating-like integrated optics device is proposed, the Cross Waveguide Grating (XWG). The device is based upon a modified configuration of a traditional Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG). The Arrayed Waveguides part is changed, as detailed along this document, giving the device both the ability of multi/demultiplexing and power splitting/coupling. Design examples and transfer function simulations show good agreement with the presented theory. Finally, some of the envisaged applications are outlined.

  3. Characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides for integrated biochemical sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Nolli, D.; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Laporta, P.; Cerullo, G.; Pollnau, Markus; Emplit, Ph.; Delqué, M.; Gorza, S.-P.; Kockaart, P.; Leijtens, X

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence detection is known to be one of the most sensitive among the different optical sensing techniques. This work focuses on excitation and detection of fluorescence emitted by DNA strands labeled with fluorescent dye molecules that can be excited at a specific wavelength. Excitation occurs

  4. Erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradley, J.; Pollnau, Markus

    Erbium-doped fiber devices have been extraordinarily successful due to their broad optical gain around 1.5–1.6 μm. Er-doped fiber amplifiers enable efficient, stable amplification of high-speed, wavelength-division-multiplexed signals, thus continue to dominate as part of the backbone of longhaul

  5. Ultrastrong extraordinary transmission and reflection in PT-symmetric Thue-Morse optical waveguide networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaye; Yang, Xiangbo

    2017-10-30

    In this paper, we construct a 1D PT-symmetric Thue-Morse aperiodic optical waveguide network (PTSTMAOWN) and mainly investigate the ultrastrong extraordinary transmission and reflection. We propose an approach to study the photonic modes and solve the problem of calculating photonic modes distributions in aperiodic networks due to the lack of dispersion functions and find that in a PTSTMAOWN there exist more photonic modes and more spontaneous PT-symmetric breaking points, which are quite different from other reported PT-symmetric optical systems. Additionally, we develop a method to sort spontaneous PT-symmetric breaking point zones to seek the strongest extraordinary point and obtain that at this point the strongest extraordinary transmission and reflection arrive at 2.96316 × 10 5 and 1.32761 × 10 5 , respectively, due to the PT-symmetric coupling resonance and the special symmetry pattern of TM networks. These enormous gains are several orders of magnitude larger than the previous results. This optical system may possess potential in designing optical amplifier, optical logic elements in photon computers and ultrasensitive optical switches with ultrahigh monochromatity.

  6. Determination of multielement in optical waveguide and standard reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Kudo, K.

    1979-01-01

    Trace amounts of transition elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and V) and other seven elements in optical waveguide samples were determined by INAA. The contents of impurities in ultre-pure materials are less than those of high-purity materials and of G.R. grade. The increase of contamination of trace transition elements and iridium from furnace or crucible are observed in the production of optical glass fibers. Up to seventeen elements were determined in five NBS biological standard reference materials: Oyster Tissue: SRM-1566, Brewers Yeast: SRM-1569, Spinach: SRM-1570, Orchard Leaves: SRM-1571 and Tuna Fish, and in four Japanese biological standard reference materials: Tea Leaves B and C, Pepperbush and Shark Meat. The analytical results in NBS and Japanese standard reference materials are in good agreement with published values and certified values by NBS. (author)

  7. Single- and double energy N{sup +} ion irradiated planar optical waveguides in Er: Tungsten–tellurite oxide glass and sillenite type Bismuth Germanate crystals working up to telecommunications wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Department of Crystal Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zolnai, Z.; Fried, M.; Lohner, T. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S.; Righini, G.C. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Pelli, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Ion implantation proved to be a universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. Tellurite glasses are good hosts of rare-earth elements for the development of fibre and integrated optical amplifiers and lasers covering all the main telecommunication bands. Er{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses are good candidates for the fabrication of broadband amplifiers in wavelength division multiplexing around 1.55 μm, as they exhibit large stimulated cross sections and broad emission bandwidth. Fabrication of channel waveguides in such a material via N{sup +} ion implantation was reported recently. Sillenite type Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystals are good nonlinear optical materials. Parameters of waveguide fabrication in both materials via implantation of MeV-energy N{sup +} ions were optimized. First single-energy implantations at 3.5 MeV at various fluences were applied. Waveguide operation up to 1.5 μm was observed in both materials. Then double-energy implantations at a fixed upper energy of 3.5 MeV and lower energies between 2.5 and 3.1 MeV were performed to suppress leaky modes by increasing barrier width. Improvement of waveguide characteristics was found by m-line spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  8. Integrated optics on Lithium Niobate for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltron, A.; Bettella, G.; Pozza, G.; Zamboni, R.; Ciampolillo, M.; Argiolas, N.; Sada, C.; Kroesen, S.; Esseling, M.; Denz, C.

    2015-05-01

    In micro-analytical chemistry and biology applications, optofluidic technology holds great promise for creating efficient lab-on-chip systems where higher levels of integration of different stages on the same platform is constantly addressed. Therefore, in this work the possibility of integrating opto-microfluidic functionalities in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystals is presented. In particular, a T-junction droplet generator is directly engraved in a LiNbO3 substrate by means of laser ablation process and optical waveguides are realized in the same material by exploiting the Titanium in-diffusion approach. The coupling of these two stages as well as the realization of holographic gratings in the same substrate will allow creating new compact optical sensor prototypes, where the optical properties of the droplets constituents can be monitored.

  9. Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shiyang; Liow, T Y; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

    2011-04-25

    Horizontal metal/insulator/Si/insulator/metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide (PWG), which is inserted in a conventional Si wire waveguide, is fabricated using the standard Si-CMOS technology. A thin insulator between the metal and the Si core plays a key role: it not only increases the propagation distance as the theoretical prediction, but also prevents metal diffusion and/or metal-Si reaction. Cu-PWGs with the Si core width of ~134-21 nm and ~12-nm-thick SiO2 on each side exhibit a relatively low propagation loss of ~0.37-0.63 dB/µm around the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm, which is ~2.6 times smaller than the Al-counterparts. A simple tapered coupler can provide an effective coupling between the PWG and the conventional Si wire waveguide. The coupling efficiency as high as ~0.1-0.4 dB per facet is measured. The PWG allows a sharp bending. The pure bending loss of a Cu-PWG direct 90° bend is measured to be ~0.6-1.0 dB. These results indicate the potential for seamless integration of various functional nanoplasmonic devices in existing Si electronic photonic integrated circuits (Si-EPICs).

  10. Integrated-optics heralded controlled-NOT gate for polarization-encoded qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuner, Jonas; Sharma, Aditya N.; Tillmann, Max; Heilmann, René; Gräfe, Markus; Moqanaki, Amir; Szameit, Alexander; Walther, Philip

    2018-03-01

    Recent progress in integrated-optics technology has made photonics a promising platform for quantum networks and quantum computation protocols. Integrated optical circuits are characterized by small device footprints and unrivalled intrinsic interferometric stability. Here, we take advantage of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides' ability to process polarization-encoded qubits and present an implementation of a heralded controlled-NOT gate on chip. We evaluate the gate performance in the computational basis and a superposition basis, showing that the gate can create polarization entanglement between two photons. Transmission through the integrated device is optimized using thermally expanded core fibers and adiabatically reduced mode-field diameters at the waveguide facets. This demonstration underlines the feasibility of integrated quantum gates for all-optical quantum networks and quantum repeaters.

  11. Potential for integrated optical circuits in advanced aircraft with fiber optic control and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1991-02-01

    Fiber optic technology is expected to be used in future advanced weapons platforms as well as commercial aerospace applications. Fiber optic waveguides will be used to transmit noise free high speed data between a multitude of computers as well as audio and video information to the flight crew. Passive optical sensors connected to control computers with optical fiber interconnects will serve both control and monitoring functions. Implementation of fiber optic technology has already begun. Both the military and NASA have several programs in place. A cooperative program called FOCSI (Fiber Optic Control System Integration) between NASA Lewis and the NAVY to build environmentally test and flight demonstrate sensor systems for propul sion and flight control systems is currently underway. Integrated Optical Circuits (IOC''s) are also being given serious consideration for use in advanced aircraft sys tems. IOC''s will result in miniaturization and localization of components to gener ate detect optical signals and process them for use by the control computers. In some complex systems IOC''s may be required to perform calculations optically if the technology is ready replacing some of the electronic systems used today. IOC''s are attractive because they will result in rugged components capable of withstanding severe environments in advanced aerospace vehicles. Manufacturing technology devel oped for microelectronic integrated circuits applied to IOC''s will result in cost effective manufacturing. This paper reviews the current FOCSI program and describes the role of IOC''s in FOCSI applications.

  12. Imaging optical fields below metal films and metal-dielectric waveguides by a scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangfu; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Ruxue; Qiu, Dong; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Rosenfeld, Mary; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2017-09-01

    Laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSCM) is now an important method for tissue and cell imaging when the samples are located on the surfaces of glass slides. In the past decade, there has been extensive development of nano-optical structures that display unique effects on incident and transmitted light, which will be used with novel configurations for medical and consumer products. For these applications, it is necessary to characterize the light distribution within short distances from the structures for efficient detection and elimination of bulky optical components. These devices will minimize or possibly eliminate the need for free-space light propagation outside of the device itself. We describe the use of the scanning function of a LSCM to obtain 3D images of the light intensities below the surface of nano-optical structures. More specifically, we image the spatial distributions inside the substrate of fluorescence emission coupled to waveguide modes after it leaks through thin metal films or dielectric-coated metal films. The observed spatial distribution were in general agreement with far-field calculations, but the scanning images also revealed light intensities at angles not observed with classical back focal plane imaging. Knowledge of the subsurface optical intensities will be crucial in the combination of nano-optical structures with rapidly evolving imaging detectors.

  13. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  14. Scattering of a cross-polarized linear wave by a soliton at an optical event horizon in a birefringent nanophotonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciret, Charles; Gorza, Simon-Pierre

    2016-06-15

    The scattering of a linear wave on an optical event horizon, induced by a cross-polarized soliton, is experimentally and numerically investigated in integrated structures. The experiments are performed in a dispersion-engineered birefringent silicon nanophotonic waveguide. In stark contrast with copolarized waves, the large difference between the group velocity of the two cross-polarized waves enables a frequency conversion almost independent of the soliton wavelength. It is shown that the generated idler is only shifted by 10 nm around 1550 nm over a pump tuning range of 350 nm. Simulations using two coupled full vectorial nonlinear Schrödinger equations fully support the experimental results.

  15. Mode solvers for very thin long-range plasmonic waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francs, G. C.; Hugonin, J. P.; Čtyroký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 8 (2011), s. 557-570 ISSN 0306-8919. [18th International Workshop on Optical Waveguide Theory and Numerical Modelling (OWTNM). Cambridge, 09.04.2010-10.04.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : optical waveguide theory * integrated optics Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.822, year: 2011

  16. Direct milling and casting of polymer-based optical waveguides for improved transparency in the visible range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snakenborg, Detlef; Perozziello, Gerardo; Klank, Henning

    2006-01-01

    properties. Direct micromilling enabled us to fabricate 100 mu m wide optical waveguides. Propagation losses of less than 1 dB cm(-1) could be achieved throughout the entire visual range down to a wavelength of 400 nm. A casting process amenable to high number production of such devices was furthermore...

  17. Silicon Waveguide with Lateral p-i-n Diode for Nonlinearity Compensation by On-Chip Optical Phase Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajda, A.; Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson

    2018-01-01

    A 1-dB Q-factor improvement through optical phase conjugation in a silicon waveguide with a lateral p-i-n diode enables BER

  18. Portable waveguide display system with a large field of view by integrating freeform elements and volume holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Liu, Juan; Yao, Xincheng; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-02-09

    A compact waveguide display system integrating freeform elements and volume holograms is presented here for the first time. The use of freeform elements can broaden the field of view, which limits the applications of a holographic waveguide. An optimized system can achieve a diagonal field of view of 45° when the thickness of the waveguide planar is 3mm. Freeform-elements in-coupler and the volume holograms out-coupler were designed in detail in our study, and the influence of grating configurations on diffraction efficiency was analyzed thoroughly. The off-axis aberrations were well compensated by the in-coupler and the diffraction efficiency of the optimized waveguide display system could reach 87.57%. With integrated design, stability and reliability of this monochromatic display system were achieved and the alignment of the system was easily controlled by the record of the volume holograms, which makes mass production possible.

  19. On-chip broadband ultra-compact optical couplers and polarization splitters based on off-centered and non-symmetric slotted Si-wire waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Raktim; Mishra, V.; Dutt, Avik; Varshney, Shailendra K.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we propose novel schemes to design on-chip ultra-compact optical directional couplers (DC) and broadband polarization beam splitters (PBS) based on off-centered and asymmetric dielectric slot waveguides, respectively. Slot dimensions and positions are optimized to achieve maximum coupling coefficients between two symmetric and non-symmetric slotted Si wire waveguides through overlap integral method. We observe >88% of enhancement in the coupling coefficients when the size-optimized slots are placed in optimal positions, with respect to the same waveguides with no slot. When the waveguides are parallel, in that case, a coupling length as short as 1.73 μm is accomplished for TM mode with the off-centered and optimized slots. This scheme enables us to design optical DC with very small footprint, L c ∼ 0.9 μm in the presence of S-bends. We also report a compact (L c ∼ 1.1 μm) on-chip broadband PBS with hybrid slots. Extinction ratios of 13 dB and 22.3 dB are realized with very low insertion loss (0.055 dB and 0.008 dB) for TM and TE modes at 1.55 μm, respectively. The designed PBS exhibits a bandwidth of 78 nm for the TM mode (C-and partial L-bands) and >100 nm for the TE mode (S + C + L wavelength bands). Such on-chip devices can be used to design compact photonic interconnects and quantum information processing units efficiently. We have also investigated the fabrication tolerances of the proposed devices and described the fabrication steps to realize such hybrid devices. Our results are in good agreement with 3D FDTD simulations.

  20. Polymer Waveguide Fabrication Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Delvan A.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of integrated optic systems to compete in signal processing aplications with more traditional analog and digital electronic systems is discussed. The Acousto-Optic Spectrum Analyzer is an example which motivated the particular work discussed herein. Provided real time processing is more critical than absolute accuracy, such integrated optic systems fulfill a design need. Fan-out waveguide arrays allow crosstalk in system detector arrays to be controlled without directly limiting system resolution. A polyurethane pattern definition process was developed in order to demonstrate fan-out arrays. This novel process is discussed, along with further research needs. Integrated optic system market penetration would be enhanced by development of commercial processes of this type.

  1. Highly stable and low loss electro-optic polymer waveguides for high speed microring modulators using photodefinition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, M. B. J.; Driessen, A.; Faccini, M.; Verboom, W.; Reinhoudt, D. N.; Leinse, A.

    2006-02-01

    Different electro-optic polymer systems are analyzed with respect to their electro-optic activity, glass transition temperature (T g) and photodefinable properties. The polymers tested are polysulfone (PS) and SU8. The electro-optic chromophore, tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA), which was reported to have a high photochemical stability 1 has been employed in the current work. Tert-butyl-TCVDPA, having bulky side groups, was synthesized and a doubling of the electro-optic coefficient (r33) compared to the unmodified TCVDPA was shown. A microring resonator design was made based on the PS-TCVDPA system. SU8 (passive) and TCVDPA (active) channel waveguides were fabricated by the photodefinition technique and the passive waveguide losses were measured to be 5 dB/cm at 1550 nm.

  2. Integration of a photonic crystal polarization beam splitter and waveguide bend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wanhua; Xing, Mingxin; Ren, Gang; Johnson, Steven G; Zhou, Wenjun; Chen, Wei; Chen, Lianghui

    2009-05-11

    In this work, we present the design of an integrated photonic-crystal polarization beam splitter (PC-PBS) and a low-loss photonic-crystal 60 degrees waveguide bend. Firstly, the modal properties of the PC-PBS and the mechanism of the low-loss waveguide bend are investigated by the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and then the integration of the two devices is studied. It shows that, although the individual devices perform well separately, the performance of the integrated circuit is poor due to the multi-mode property of the PC-PBS. By introducing deformed airhole structures, a single-mode PC-PBS is proposed, which significantly enhance the performance of the circuit with the extinction ratios remaining above 20 dB for both transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) polarizations. Both the specific result and the general idea of integration design are promising in the photonic crystal integrated circuits in the future.

  3. Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Ohad; Katz, Moti; Atar, Gil; Paltiel, Yossi; Sicron, Noam

    2017-07-01

    Optical losses in c-plane (0001) GaN ridge waveguides, containing Mg-doped layers, were measured at 1064 nm, using the Fabry-Perot method. The losses increase linearly with the modal content of the p-layer, indicating that the absorption in these waveguides is dominated by p-layer absorption. The p-layer absorption is strongly anisotropic with E⊥c losses 4 times higher than E∥c. The absorption is temperature independent between 10 °C and 60 °C, supporting the possibility that it is related to Mg-bound holes.

  4. General Method for Calculating the Response and Noise Spectra of Active Fabry-Perot Semiconductor Waveguides With External Optical Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical method for calculating small-signal modulation responses and noise spectra of active Fabry-Perot semiconductor waveguides with external light injection. Small-signal responses due to either a modulation of the pump current or due to an optical amplitude or phase modulatio...... amplifiers and an injection-locked laser. We also demonstrate the applicability of the method to analyze slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides. Finite reflectivities of the facets are found to influence the phase changes of the injected microwave-modulated light....

  5. Analytical approach for modeling and performance analysis of microring resonators as optical filters with multiple output bus waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Suchita; Mandal, Sanjoy

    2017-06-01

    A quadruple micro-optical ring resonator (QMORR) with multiple output bus waveguides is mathematically modeled and analyzed by making use of the delay-line signal processing approach in Z-domain and Mason's gain formula. The performances of QMORR with two output bus waveguides with vertical coupling are analyzed. This proposed structure is capable of providing wider free spectral response from both the output buses with appreciable cross talk. Thus, this configuration could provide increased capacity to insert a large number of communication channels. The simulated frequency response characteristic and its dispersion and group delay characteristics are graphically presented using the MATLAB environment.

  6. Photonic bandpass filter characteristics of multimode SOI waveguides integrated with submicron gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Parimal; Das, Bijoy Krishna

    2018-03-20

    It has been shown that a fundamental mode adiabatically launched into a multimode SOI waveguide with submicron grating offers well-defined flat-top bandpass filter characteristics in transmission. The transmitted spectral bandwidth is controlled by adjusting both waveguide and grating design parameters. The bandwidth is further narrowed down by cascading two gratings with detuned parameters. A semi-analytical model is used to analyze the filter characteristics (1500  nm≤λ≤1650  nm) of the device operating in transverse-electric polarization. The proposed devices were fabricated with an optimized set of design parameters in a SOI substrate with a device layer thickness of 250 nm. The pass bandwidth of waveguide devices integrated with single-stage gratings are measured to be ∼24  nm, whereas the device with two cascaded gratings with slightly detuned periods (ΔΛ=2  nm) exhibits a pass bandwidth down to ∼10  nm.

  7. Nonclassical statistics of intracavity coupled chi((2)) waveguides: The quantum optical dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2003-01-01

    A model is proposed where two chi((2)) nonlinear waveguides are contained in a cavity suited for second-harmonic generation. The evanescent wave coupling between the waveguides is considered as weak, and the interplay between this coupling and the nonlinear interaction within the waveguides gives...

  8. Analysis of Waveguides on Lithium Niobate Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Waveguides formed by etching, proton-exchange (PE, and strip-loaded on single-crystal lithium niobate (LN thin film were designed and simulated by a full-vectorial finite difference method. The single-mode condition, optical power distribution, and bending loss of these kinds of waveguides were studied and compared systematically. For the PE waveguide, the optical power distributed in LN layer had negligible change with the increase of PE thickness. For the strip-loaded waveguide, the relationships between optical power distribution in LN layer and waveguide thickness were different for quasi-TE (q-TE and quasi-TM (q-TM modes. The bending loss would decrease with the increase of bending radius. There was a bending loss caused by the electromagnetic field leakage when the neff of q-TM waveguide was smaller than that of nearby TE planar waveguide. LN ridge waveguides possessed a low bending loss even at a relatively small bending radius. This study is helpful for the understanding of waveguide structures as well as for the optimization and the fabrication of high-density integrated optical components.

  9. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide development in microgravity by the sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Containerless melting of glasses in space for the preparation of ultrapure homogeneous glass for optical waveguides is discussed. The homogenization of the glass using conventional raw materials is normally achieved on Earth either by the gravity induced convection currents or by the mechanical stirring of the melt. Because of the absence of gravity induced convection currents, the homogenization of glass using convectional raw materials is difficult in the space environment. Multicomponent, homogeneous, noncrystalline oxide gels can be prepared by the sol-gel process and these gels are promising starting materials for melting glasses in the space environment. The sol-gel process is based on the polymerization reaction of alkoxysilane with other metal alkoxy compounds or suitable metal salts. Many of the alkoxysilanes or other metal alkoxides are liquids and thus can be purified by distillation.

  10. Three-dimensional patterning in polymer optical waveguides using focused ion beam milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Kevin; Burrell, Derek; Middlebrook, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Waveguide (WG) photonic-bridge taper modules are designed for symmetric planar coupling between silicon WGs and single-mode fibers (SMFs) to minimize photonic chip and packaging footprint requirements with improving broadband functionality. Micromachined fabrication and evaluation of polymer WG tapers utilizing high-resolution focused ion beam (FIB) milling is performed and presented. Polymer etch rates utilizing the FIB and optimal methods for milling polymer tapers are identified for three-dimensional patterning. Polymer WG tapers with low sidewall roughness are manufactured utilizing FIB milling and optically tested for fabrication loss. FIB platforms utilize a focused beam of ions (Ga+) to etch submicron patterns into substrates. Fabricating low-loss polymer WG taper prototypes with the FIB before moving on to mass-production techniques provides theoretical understanding of the polymer taper and its feasibility for connectorization devices between silicon WGs and SMFs.

  11. Enhancement of Lithium Niobate nanophotonic structures via spin-coating technique for optical waveguides application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Makram A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to investigation of temperature effects in Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3 nanostructures. The LiNbO3 nanostructures were deposited on glass substrate by spin-coating technique. LiNbO3 was set down at 3000 rpm for 30 sec and annealed from 100 to 600 °C. The structures were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and ultra-violet visible (UV-vis spectrophotometer. The measured results have showed that by increasing annealing temperatures, the structures start to be more crystallized and be more homogenized until the optimum arrangement was achieved. Once this was accomplished, it's applicable for optical waveguides development. Eventually, it starts to be less crystallization and non-homogeneous. Energy gap was recorded to be at average value of 3.9 eV.

  12. FD-TD modeling of 2-D dielectric waveguides for propagation and scattering of femtosecond optical solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rose; Goorjian, Peter; Taflove, Allen

    1993-01-01

    Experimentalists have produced all-optical switches capable of 100-fs responses. To adequately model such switches, nonlinear effects in optical materials (both instantaneous and dispersive) must be included. In principle, the behavior of electromagnetic fields in nonlinear dielectrics can be determined by solving Maxwell's equations subject to the assumption that the electric polarization has a nonlinear relation to the electric field. However, until our previous work, the resulting nonlinear Maxwell's equations have not been solved directly. Rather, approximations have been made that result in a class of generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equations (GNLSE) that solve only for the envelope of the optical pulses. In this paper, we present first-time calculations from the vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations of femtosecond soliton propagation and scattering, including carrier waves, in two-dimensional systems of dielectric waveguides exhibiting the Kerr and Raman quantum effects. We use the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method in an extension of our 1-D work. There, in a fundamental innovation, we treated the linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization as new dependent variables. By differentiating these convolutions in the time domain, we derived an equivalent system of coupled, nonlinear second-order ODE's. These equations together with Maxwell's equations form the system that is solved to determine the electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous nonlinear dispersive media. Backstorage in time is limited to only that needed by the time-integration algorithm for the ODE's, rather than that needed to store the time-history of the kernel functions of the convolutions (1000-10,000 time steps). Thus, a 2-D nonlinear optics model from Maxwell's equations is now feasible.

  13. Formation and characterization of ZnO : Tm+ optical waveguides fabricated by Tm+ and O+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Xianbing; Lu Fei; Liu Hanping; Chen Ming; Wang Lei

    2009-01-01

    Planar optical waveguides were formed in ZnO crystal by Tm + and O + ion implantation. The distributions of Tm + in as-implanted and annealed ZnO samples were investigated by the RBS technique. A shift of the Tm + peak towards the sample surface and out diffusion were observed after thermal treatment and subsequent O + ion implantation. Waveguide formation was determined after O + implantation in Tm + -implanted ZnO crystal. By using the prism-coupling method two guided modes were detected. The refractive index profile in the implanted waveguide was reconstructed according to the SRIM and RCM simulation. The RBS/channelling measurements show that the lattice structure of ZnO did not suffer detectable damage after O + implantation.

  14. Cylindrical integrated optical microresonators: modeling by 3-D vectorial coupled mode theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoffer, R.; Hiremath, K. R.; Hammer, M.; Prkna, Ladislav; Čtyroký, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 256, 1/3 (2005), s. 46-67 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0987 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) IST-2000-28018 NAIS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : integrated optics * optical waveguide theory * modelling Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.456, year: 2005

  15. Competition of Faraday rotation and birefringence in femtosecond laser direct written waveguides in magneto-optical glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Gross, S; Dekker, P; Withford, M J; Steel, M J

    2014-11-17

    We consider the process of Faraday rotation in femtosecond laser direct-write waveguides. The birefringence commonly associated with such waveguides may be expected to impact the observable Faraday rotation. Here, we theoretically calculate and experimentally verify the competition between Faraday rotation and birefringence in two waveguides created by laser writing in a commercial magneto-optic glass. The magnetic field applied to induce Faraday rotation is nonuniform, and as a result, we find that the two effects can be clearly separated and used to accurately determine even weak birefringence. The birefringence in the waveguides was determined to be on the scale of Δn = 10(-6) to 10(-5). The reduction in Faraday rotation caused by birefringence of order Δn = 10(-6) was moderate and we obtained approximately 9° rotation in an 11 mm waveguide. In contrast, for birefringence of order 10(-5), a significant reduction in the polarization azimuth change was found and only 6° rotation was observed.

  16. Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems with Integrated Waveguides in Cyclin Olefin Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    , in a collaboration with IMTEK in Freiburg, Germany, an optical detection principle was developed. Using the principle of total internal reflection of a laser beam incident on a fluidic channel, detection of air bubbles is possible. The principle was used on a rotating platform as well as on non-moving systems....... the substrate, optical layers and the lid in the microfluidic systems. • Thermal bonding of polymer structures, including roll lamination of foil onto substrates. • Laser bonding of two polymer layers, including transparent on black, and transparent on transparent with a particle doped spin coating. • Thermal...... treatment of waveguides to improve the surface roughness and lower the propagation loss. The fabrication methods have been characterised, and have been optimised to minimise parameters like fabrication time, surface roughness and interface bonding strength. Using these fabrication methods, microfluidic...

  17. Electro-optical logic gates based on graphene-silicon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Yang, Longzhi; Wang, Pengjun; Zhang, Yawei; Zhou, Liqiang; Yang, Tianjun; Wang, Yang; Yang, Jianyi

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, designs of electro-optical AND/NAND, OR/ NOR, XOR/XNOR logic gates based on cascaded silicon graphene switches and regular 2×1 multimode interference combiners are presented. Each switch consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in which silicon slot waveguides embedded with graphene flakes are designed for phase shifters. High-speed switching function is achieved by applying an electrical signal to tune the Fermi levels of graphene flakes causing the variation of modal effective index. Calculation results show the crosstalk in the proposed optical switch is lower than -22.9 dB within a bandwidth from 1510 nm to 1600 nm. The designed six electro-optical logic gates with the operation speed of 10 Gbit/s have a minimum extinction ratio of 35.6 dB and a maximum insertion loss of 0.21 dB for transverse electric modes at 1.55 μm.

  18. Quantum Optics with Near-Lifetime-Limited Quantum-Dot Transitions in a Nanophotonic Waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrrestrup, Henri; Kiršanskė, Gabija; Le Jeannic, Hanna; Pregnolato, Tommaso; Zhai, Liang; Raahauge, Laust; Midolo, Leonardo; Rotenberg, Nir; Javadi, Alisa; Schott, Rüdiger; Wieck, Andreas D; Ludwig, Arne; Löbl, Matthias C; Söllner, Immo; Warburton, Richard J; Lodahl, Peter

    2018-03-14

    Establishing a highly efficient photon-emitter interface where the intrinsic linewidth broadening is limited solely by spontaneous emission is a key step in quantum optics. It opens a pathway to coherent light-matter interaction for, e.g., the generation of highly indistinguishable photons, few-photon optical nonlinearities, and photon-emitter quantum gates. However, residual broadening mechanisms are ubiquitous and need to be combated. For solid-state emitters charge and nuclear spin noise are of importance, and the influence of photonic nanostructures on the broadening has not been clarified. We present near-lifetime-limited linewidths for quantum dots embedded in nanophotonic waveguides through a resonant transmission experiment. It is found that the scattering of single photons from the quantum dot can be obtained with an extinction of 66 ± 4%, which is limited by the coupling of the quantum dot to the nanostructure rather than the linewidth broadening. This is obtained by embedding the quantum dot in an electrically contacted nanophotonic membrane. A clear pathway to obtaining even larger single-photon extinction is laid out; i.e., the approach enables a fully deterministic and coherent photon-emitter interface in the solid state that is operated at optical frequencies.

  19. Rectangular-cladding silicon slot waveguide with improved nonlinear performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zengzhi; Huang, Qingzhong; Wang, Yi; Xia, Jinsong

    2018-04-01

    Silicon slot waveguides have great potential in hybrid silicon integration to realize nonlinear optical applications. We propose a rectangular-cladding hybrid silicon slot waveguide. Simulation result shows that, with a rectangular-cladding, the slot waveguide can be formed by narrower silicon strips, so the two-photon absorption (TPA) loss in silicon is decreased. When the cladding material is a nonlinear polymer, the calculated TPA figure of merit (FOMTPA) is 4.4, close to the value of bulk nonlinear polymer of 5.0. This value confirms the good nonlinear performance of rectangular-cladding silicon slot waveguides.

  20. Traveling Wave-Guide Channels of a New Coupled Integrable Dispersionless System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souleymanou, Abbagari; Kuetche, Victor K.; Bouetou, Thomas B.; Kofane, Timoleon C.

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the recent investigation of new coupled integrable dispersionless equations by means of the Darboux transformation [Zhaqilao, et al., Chin. Phys. B 18 (2009) 1780], we carry out the initial value analysis of the previous system using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta's computational scheme. As a result, while depicting its phase portraits accordingly, we show that the above dispersionless system actually supports two kinds of solutions amongst which the localized traveling wave-guide channels. In addition, paying particular interests to such localized structures, we construct the bilinear transformation of the current system from which scattering amongst the above waves can be deeply studied. (general)

  1. A New Kind of Circular Polarization Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of circular polarization leaky-wave antenna with N-shaped slots cut in the upper side of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW is investigated and presented. The radiation pattern and polarization axial ratio of the leaky-wave antenna are studied. The results show that the width of N-shaped slots has significant effect on the circular polarization property of the antenna. By properly choosing structural parameters, the SIW based leaky-wave antenna can realize circular polarization with excellent axial ratio in 8 GHz satellite band.

  2. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Cavity Filters: Miniaturization and New Materials for IoT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tomassoni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the current research trends in the field of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technology, with particular emphasis on the issues related to the emerging applications in the framework of the Internet of Things (IoT and the fifth generation of mobile communication (5G. More specifically, different techniques adopted to miniaturize SIW cavities are described, with the aim of reducing the footprint of SIW components and filters. Moreover, the use of innovative materials, like paper, textile and 3D printed dielectric substrates, is presented and discussed, and the implementation of ecofriendly, wearable, and fully 3D structures is illustrated.

  3. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Cross-Coupling Filter with Multilayer Hexagonal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal cavities and their applications to multilayer substrate integrated waveguide (SIW filters are presented. The hexagonal SIW cavity which can combine flexibility of rectangular one and performance of circular one is convenient for bandpass filter’s design. Three types of experimental configuration with the same central frequency of 10 GHz and bandwidth of 6%, including three-order and four-order cross-coupling topologies, are constructed and fabricated based on low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC technology. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented.

  4. Comb-like optical transmission spectrum resulting from a four-cornered two-waveguide-connected network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiangbo, E-mail: xbyang@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); School of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Huanhuan [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Liu, Timon Chengyi [School of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2013-12-06

    In this Letter a four-cornered two-waveguide-connected network (FCTWCN) is proposed to generate comb-like optical transmission spectrum, where nearest-neighbor nodes are connected by two segments of one-dimensional waveguides. We investigate the band structure and transmission spectrum of electromagnetic waves propagating through FCTWCNs and find that the transmission through a FCTWCN exhibits periodic comb-like characteristic and the range, number and width of continuous equidistant frequency bands can be controlled by adjusting the lengths of the two types of segments. The comb-like frequency bands may be useful for the designing of optical switches, optical narrowband filters, high capacity telecommunications, and multichannel filters, etc.

  5. Fabrication and optical characterization of GaN waveguides on (−201)-oriented β-Ga_2O_3

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.; Muhammad, Mufasila M.; Sivan, Madhavi; Bonca, Spencer; Roqan, Iman S.; Dolgaleva, Ksenia

    2017-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN), a wide-bandgap III-V semiconductor material with a bandgap wavelength λ = 366 nm (for Wurtzite GaN) and transparency window covering the visible spectrum, has a large number of applications for photonics and optoelectronics. However, the optical quality of this material suffers from growth imperfections due to the lack of a suitable substrate. Recent studies have shown that GaN grown on (-201) β - GaO (gallium oxide) has better lattice matching and hence superior optical quality as compared to GaN grown traditionally on AlO (sapphire). In this work, we report on the fabrication of GaN waveguides on GaO substrate, followed by a wet-etch process aimed at the reduction of waveguide surface roughness and improvement of side-wall verticality in these waveguides. The propagation loss in the resulting waveguides has been experimentally determined to be 7.5 dB/cm.

  6. Fabrication and optical characterization of GaN waveguides on (−201)-oriented β-Ga_2O_3

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.

    2017-12-19

    Gallium nitride (GaN), a wide-bandgap III-V semiconductor material with a bandgap wavelength λ = 366 nm (for Wurtzite GaN) and transparency window covering the visible spectrum, has a large number of applications for photonics and optoelectronics. However, the optical quality of this material suffers from growth imperfections due to the lack of a suitable substrate. Recent studies have shown that GaN grown on (-201) β - GaO (gallium oxide) has better lattice matching and hence superior optical quality as compared to GaN grown traditionally on AlO (sapphire). In this work, we report on the fabrication of GaN waveguides on GaO substrate, followed by a wet-etch process aimed at the reduction of waveguide surface roughness and improvement of side-wall verticality in these waveguides. The propagation loss in the resulting waveguides has been experimentally determined to be 7.5 dB/cm.

  7. Cooperative upconversion as the gain-limiting factor in Er doped miniature Al2O3 optical waveguide amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kik, P.G.; Polman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Erbium doped Al 2 O 3 waveguide amplifiers were fabricated using two different doping methods, namely Er ion implantation into sputter deposited Al 2 O 3 , and co-sputtering from an Er 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 target. Although the Er concentration in both materials is almost identical (0.28 and 0.31 at. %), the amplifiers show a completely different behavior. Upon pumping with 1.48 μm, the co-sputtered waveguide shows a strong green luminescence from the 4 S 3/2 level, indicating efficient cooperative upconversion in this material. This is confirmed by pump power dependent measurements of the optical transmission at 1.53 μm and the spontaneous emission at 1.53 and 0.98 μm. All measurements can be accurately modeled using a set of rate equations that include first order and second order cooperative upconversion. The first order cooperative upconversion coefficient C 24 is found to be 3.5x10 -16 cm 3 s -1 in the co-sputtered material, two orders of magnitude higher than the value obtained in Er implanted Al 2 O 3 of 4.1x10 -18 cm 3 s -1 . It is concluded that the co-sputtering process results in a strongly inhomogeneous atomic scale spatial distribution of the Er ions. As a result, the co-sputtered waveguides do not show optical gain, while the implanted waveguides do

  8. Nanoscale waveguiding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chia-Jean

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWhile 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  9. Optical XOR gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2013-11-12

    An optical XOR gate is formed as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) from two sets of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each set of the optical waveguide devices including an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical XOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs to generate an XOR function digital optical output. The optical XOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  10. Waveguide-coupled micro-ball lens array suitable for mass fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Lantian; Dijkstra, Meindert; Ismail, Nur; Pollnau, Markus; de Ridder, René M; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a fabrication procedure for the direct integration of micro-ball lenses on planar integrated optical channel waveguide chips with the aim to reduce the divergence of light that arises from the waveguide in both horizontal and vertical directions. Fabrication of the lenses is based on

  11. Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW)-Based Wireless Temperature Sensor for Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiulin; Guo, Yanjie; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Fei; Dong, Helei; Xiong, Jijun

    2018-05-03

    This paper presents a new wireless sensor structure based on a substrate integrated circular waveguide (SICW) for the temperature test in harsh environments. The sensor substrate material is 99% alumina ceramic, and the SICW structure is composed of upper and lower metal plates and a series of metal cylindrical sidewall vias. A rectangular aperture antenna integrated on the surface of the SICW resonator is used for electromagnetic wave transmission between the sensor and the external antenna. The resonant frequency of the temperature sensor decreases when the temperature increases, because the relative permittivity of the alumina ceramic increases with temperature. The temperature sensor presented in this paper was tested four times at a range of 30⁻1200 °C, and a broad band coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed antenna was used as an interrogation antenna during the test process. The resonant frequency changed from 2.371 to 2.141 GHz as the temperature varied from 30 to 1200 °C, leading to a sensitivity of 0.197 MHz/°C. The quality factor of the sensor changed from 3444.6 to 35.028 when the temperature varied from 30 to 1000 °C.

  12. Summary of radiation-induced transient absorption and recovery in fiber optic waveguides. [Pulsed electrons and x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoog, C.D.

    1976-11-01

    The absorption induced in fiber optic waveguides by pulsed electron and X-ray radiation has been measured as a function of optical wavelength from 450 to 950 nm, irradiation temperature from -54 to 71/sup 0/C, and dose from 1 to 500 krads. The fibers studied are Ge-doped silica core fibers (Corning Low Loss), ''pure'' vitreous silica core fibers (Schott, Bell Laboratories, Fiberoptic Cable Corp., and Valtec Fiberoptics), polymethyl-methacrylate core fibers (DuPont CROFON and PFX), and polystyrene core fibers (International Fiber Optics and Polyoptics). Models that have been developed to account for the observed absorption recovery are also summarized.

  13. Field of view of limitations in see-through HMD using geometric waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, Edward; Holmstedt, Jason; Aye, Tin

    2016-08-01

    Geometric waveguides are being integrated into head-mounted display (HMD) systems, where having see-through capability in a compact, lightweight form factor is required. We developed methods for determining the field of view (FOV) of such waveguide HMD systems and have analytically derived the FOV for waveguides using planar and curved geometries. By using real ray-tracing methods, we are able to show how the geometry and index of refraction of the waveguide, as well as the properties of the coupling optics, impact the FOV. Use of this analysis allows one to determine the maximum theoretical FOV of a planar or curved waveguide-based system.

  14. Optical data exchange of m-QAM signals using a silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide: proposal and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Chengcheng; Wang, Jian

    2014-10-06

    We present modulation-format-transparent data exchange for m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (m-QAM) signals using a single silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide which offers tight light confinement and enhanced nonlinearity. By exploiting the parametric depletion effect of non-degenerate four-wave mixing (ND-FWM) process in the slot waveguide, we simulate low-power (exchange of 640 Gbaud (2.56 Tbit/s) optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) 16-QAM and 640 Gbaud (3.84 Tbit/s) OTDM 64-QAM signals and characterize the operation performance in terms of error vector magnitude (EVM) and bit-error rate (BER). The calculated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) penalties of data exchange are negligible for 2.56 Tbit/s 16-QAM signals and less than 2 dB for 3.84 Tbit/s 64-QAM signals at a BER of 2e-3. For a given pump power of 9 mW, the operation performance dependence on the waveguide length is studied, showing an optimized waveguide length of ~17 mm. For a given waveguide length of 17 mm, the SNR penalty of data exchange, at a BER of 2e-3, is kept below 4 dB when varying input pump power from 8.4 to 9.8 mW for 2.56 Tbit/s 16-QAM and from 8.9 to 9.2 mW for 3.84 Tbit/s 64-QAM. In addition, data exchange running at low speed (e.g. 20 Gbaud) and data exchange taking into account waveguide propagation loss are also analyzed with favorable operation performance.

  15. Optical properties of an atomic ensemble coupled to a band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ewan; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Chang, Darrick E.

    2017-08-01

    We study the optical properties of an ensemble of two-level atoms coupled to a 1D photonic crystal waveguide (PCW), which mediates long-range coherent dipole-dipole interactions between the atoms. We show that the long-range interactions can dramatically alter the linear and nonlinear optical behavior, as compared to a typical atomic ensemble. In particular, in the linear regime, we find that the transmission spectrum contains multiple transmission dips, whose properties we characterize. Moreover, we show how the linear spectrum may be used to infer the number of atoms present in the system, constituting an important experimental tool in a regime where techniques for conventional ensembles break down. We also show that some of the transmission dips are associated with an effective ‘two-level’ resonance that forms due to the long-range interactions. In particular, under strong global driving and appropriate conditions, we find that the atomic ensemble is only capable of absorbing and emitting single collective excitations at a time. Our results are of direct relevance to atom-PCW experiments that should soon be realizable.

  16. Resonant Tunneling Quantum Well Integrated Optical Waveguide Modulator/ Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    perform this task. However, our search was not successful . Fortunately, we developed our own software as part of a Phase II SBIR program entitled...scattered waves can be represented as 5 Pinal 0794.3246 AF-QUANT Cont. No. F49620-94.C-0008 n=0T = tLt2.Le ikea (rrei2k2P, (I)i~k,Xa a, t1Lt2Le jklxa

  17. Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Michael; Marchewka, Astrid; Kurz, Heinrich

    2006-10-01

    A new type of dielectric THz waveguide based on recent approaches in the field of integrated optics is presented with theoretical and experimental results. Although the guiding mechanism of the low-index discontinuity (LID) THz waveguide is total internal reflection, the THz wave is predominantly confined in the virtually lossless low-index air gap within a high-index dielectric waveguide due to the continuity of electric flux density at the dielectric interface. Attenuation, dispersion and single-mode confinement properties of two LID structures are discussed and compared with other THz waveguide solutions. The new approach provides an outstanding combination of high mode confinement and low transmission losses currently not realizable with any other metal-based or photonic crystal approach. These exceptional properties might enable the breakthrough of novel integrated THz systems or endoscopy applications with sub-wavelength resolution.

  18. All-optical bit magnitude comparator device using metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Lokendra; Chen, Nan-Kuang

    2017-12-01

    A plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide has great success in confining the surface plasmon up to a deep subwavelength scale. The structure of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using a plasmonic MIM waveguide has been analyzed. A one-bit magnitude comparator has been designed using an MZI and two linear control waveguides. The device works on the Kerr effect inside the plasmonics waveguide. The mathematical description of the device is explained. The simulation of the device is done using MATLAB® and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.

  19. Ion beam energy attenuation for fabrication of buried, variable-depth, optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibra, M.L. von; Roberts, A.; Dods, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    Buried waveguides with graded depths have been fabricated using a focussed ion beam, direct-write process in fused silica by irradiation with 3 MeV protons through a tapered film varying in thickness from 5 to 40 μm. The resulting waveguides ramp uniformly from 25 to 80 μm below the substrate surface. The waveguides are also uniform in cross-section along their lengths. This demonstrates the potential for this fabrication technique to direct-write three-dimensional waveguide devices within a substrate

  20. Construction of local boundary conditions for an eigenvalue problem using micro-local analysis: application to optical waveguide problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barucq, Helene; Bekkey, Chokri; Djellouli, Rabia

    2004-01-01

    We present a general procedure based on the pseudo-differential calculus for deriving artificial boundary conditions for an eigenvalue problem that characterizes the propagation of guided modes in optical waveguides. This new approach allows the construction of local conditions that (a) are independent of the frequency regime, (b) preserve the sparsity pattern of the finite element discretization, and (c) are applicable to arbitrarily shaped convex artificial boundaries. The last feature has the potential for reducing the size of the computational domain. Numerical results are presented to highlight the potential of conditions of order 1/2 and 1, for improving significantly the computational efficiency of finite element methods for the solution of optical waveguide problems

  1. Integrated optics theory and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hunsperger, Robert G

    1984-01-01

    Our intent in producing this book was to provide a text that would be comprehensive enough for an introductory course in integrated optics, yet concise enough in its mathematical derivations to be easily readable by a practicing engineer who desires an overview of the field. The response to the first edition has indeed been gratifying; unusually strong demand has caused it to be sold out during the initial year of publication, thus providing us with an early opportunity to produce this updated and improved second edition. This development is fortunate, because integrated optics is a very rapidly progressing field, with significant new research being regularly reported. Hence, a new chapter (Chap. 17) has been added to review recent progress and to provide numerous additional references to the relevant technical literature. Also, thirty-five new problems for practice have been included to supplement those at the ends of chapters in the first edition. Chapters I through 16 are essentially unchanged, except for ...

  2. Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benayas, A.; Jaque, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Madrid (Spain); Silva, W.F.; Jacinto, C. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Grupo de Fotonica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil); Rodenas, A.; Thomsom, R.R.; Psaila, N.D.; Reid, D.T.; Kar, A.K. [Heriot-Watt University, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Vazquez de Aldana, J. [Universidad de Salamanca, Grupo de Optica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Salamanca (Spain); Chen, F.; Tan, Y. [Shandong University, School of Physics, Jinan (China); Torchia, G.A. [CONICET-CIC, Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-07-15

    We report the improvement of ultrafast laser written optical waveguides in Yb:YAG ceramics by tailoring the presence of heat accumulation effects. From a combination of ytterbium micro-luminescence and micro-Raman structural analysis, maps of lattice defects and stress fields have been obtained. We show how laser annealing can strongly reduce the concentration of defects and also reduce compressive stress, leading to an effective 50% reduction in the propagation losses and to more extended and symmetric propagation modes. (orig.)

  3. Waveguide analysis of heat-drawn and chemically etched probe tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moar, Peter N; Love, John D; Ladouceur, François; Cahill, Laurence W

    2006-09-01

    We analyze two basic aspects of a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) probe's operation: (i) spot-size evolution of the electric field along the probe with and without a metal layer, and (ii) a modal analysis of the SNOM probe, particularly in close proximity to the aperture. A slab waveguide model is utilized to minimize the analytical complexity, yet provides useful quantitative results--including losses associated with the metal coating--which can then be used as design rules.

  4. Single-mode propagation in optical waveguides and fibres: a critical review of its treatment in physics textbooks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruddock, Ivan S [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: i.s.ruddock@strath.ac.uk

    2009-03-15

    The derivation and description of the modes in optical waveguides and fibres are reviewed. The version frequently found in undergraduate textbooks is shown to be incorrect and misleading due to the assumption of an axial ray of light corresponding to the lowest order mode. It is pointed out that even the lowest order must still be represented in an elementary treatment by a ray reflecting between opposite core and cladding boundaries.

  5. Transmission and group-delay characterization of coupled resonator optical waveguides apodized through the longitudinal offset technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech, J D; Muñoz, P; Capmany, J

    2011-01-15

    In this Letter, the amplitude and group delay characteristics of coupled resonator optical waveguides apodized through the longitudinal offset technique are presented. The devices have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator technology employing deep ultraviolet lithography. The structures analyzed consisted of three racetracks resonators uniform (nonapodized) and apodized with the aforementioned technique, showing a delay of 5 ± 3 ps and 4 ± 0.5 ps over 1.6 and 1.4 nm bandwidths, respectively.

  6. Subwavelength optics with hyperbolic metamaterials: Waveguides, scattering, and optical topological transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials possess unique optical properties owing to their hyperbolic dispersion. As hyperbolic metamaterials can be constructed just from periodic multilayers of metals and dielectrics, they have attracted considerable attention in the nanophotonics community. Here, we review some...

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of solitary and optically injected two-element laser arrays with four different waveguide structures: a numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nianqiang; Susanto, H; Cemlyn, B R; Henning, I D; Adams, M J

    2018-02-19

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of solitary and optically injected two-element laser arrays with a range of waveguide structures. The analysis is performed with a detailed direct numerical simulation, where high-resolution dynamic maps are generated to identify regions of dynamic instability in the parameter space of interest. Our combined one- and two-parameter bifurcation analysis uncovers globally diverse dynamical regimes (steady-state, oscillation, and chaos) in the solitary laser arrays, which are greatly influenced by static design waveguiding structures, the amplitude-phase coupling factor of the electric field, i.e. the linewidth-enhancement factor, as well as the control parameter, e.g. the pump rate. When external optical injection is introduced to one element of the arrays, we show that the whole system can be either injection-locked simultaneously or display rich, different dynamics outside the locking region. The effect of optical injection is to significantly modify the nature and the regions of nonlinear dynamics from those found in the solitary case. We also show similarities and differences (asymmetry) between the oscillation amplitude of the two elements of the array in specific well-defined regions, which hold for all the waveguiding structures considered. Our findings pave the way to a better understanding of dynamic instability in large arrays of lasers.

  8. Fabrication and optical characteristics of silicon-based two-dimensional wavelength division multiplexing splitter with photonic crystal directional waveguide couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystals have many potential applications because of their ability to control lightwave propagation. We report on the fabrication and optical properties of quasi-two-dimensional photonic crystals with triangular lattice of dielectric rods in air. Rod-type photonic crystal structures were fabricated in silicon by electron beam lithography and dry-etching techniques. Wavelength division multiplexing splitters were fabricated from two-dimensional photonic crystal directional waveguide couplers. Transmission spectra were measured and device operation was shown to be in agreement with theoretical calculations. The splitters can be used in visible light region. Such an approach to photonic element systems should enable new applications for designing components in photonic integrated circuits. -- Highlights: → We report the fabrication and optical properties of rod-type photonic crystal. → The splitter was fabricated by electron beam lithography and dry-etching techniques. → The splitter was composed of directional waveguide couplers. → Measured transmission spectra are in agreement with theoretical calculations. → The splitters can be used in visible light region.

  9. Leaky mode suppression in planar optical waveguides written in Er:TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} glass and CaF{sub 2} crystal via double energy implantation with MeV N{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Department of Crystal Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zolnai, Z.; Fried, M. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Berneschi, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Pelli, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Ion implantation proved to be an universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. Tellurite glasses are good hosts of rare-earth elements for the development of fibre and integrated optical amplifiers and lasers covering all the main telecommunication bands. Er{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses are good candidates for the fabrication of broadband amplifiers in wavelength division multiplexing around 1.55 μm, as they exhibit large stimulated cross sections and broad emission bandwidth. Calcium fluoride is an excellent optical material, due to its perfect optical characteristics from UV wavelengths up to near IR. It has become a promising laser host material (doped with rare earth elements). Ion implantation was also applied to optical waveguide fabrication in CaF{sub 2} and other halide crystals. In the present work first single-energy implantations at 3.5 MeV at various fluences were applied. Waveguide operation up to 1.5 μm was observed in Er:Te glass, and up to 980 nm in CaF{sub 2}. Then double-energy implantations at a fixed upper energy of 3.5 MeV and lower energies between 2.5 and 3.2 MeV were performed to suppress leaky modes by increasing barrier width.

  10. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-05-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB.

  11. thermally poled channel waveguides with polarization independent electro-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Yitao; Marckmann, Carl Johan; Arentoft, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the poling-induced electrooptic (EO) effect in germanium and nitrogen codoped channel waveguides. The channel waveguides show attractive properties: (1) almost polarization independent EO effect; (2) a flat frequency response with the modulation frequency up...... to 100 kHz; and (3) low linear loss and low polarization dependent loss, which demonstrate great technological potential...

  12. Direct imaging of optical interference in erbium-doped Al2O3 waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, van den G.N.; Polman, A.; Dam, van C.; Uffelen, van J.W.M.; Smit, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Interference of 1.48-mu m light in multimode interference waveguides is made visible by imaging green and infrared upconversion luminescence from Er3+ ions dispersed in the waveguide. A two-dimensional mode density image can be derived from the data and agrees well with mode calculations for this

  13. Nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahigir, A.; Dastmalchi, P.; Shin, W.; Fan, S.; Veronis, G.

    2015-02-01

    Waveguide-resonator systems are particularly useful for the development of several integrated photonic devices, such as tunable filters, optical switches, channel drop filters, reflectors, and impedance matching elements. In this paper, we introduce nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators. In particular, we investigate threedimensional nanostructures consisting of plasmonic coaxial stub resonators side-coupled to a plasmonic coaxial waveguide. We use coaxial waveguides with square cross sections, which can be fabricated using lithography-based techniques. The waveguides are placed on top of a silicon substrate, and the space between inner and outer coaxial metals is filled with silica. We use silver as the metal. We investigate structures consisting of a single plasmonic coaxial resonator, which is terminated either in a short or an open circuit, side-coupled to a coaxial waveguide. We show that the incident waveguide mode is almost completely reflected on resonance, while far from the resonance the waveguide mode is almost completely transmitted. We also show that the properties of the waveguide systems can be accurately described using a single-mode scattering matrix theory. The transmission and reflection coefficients at waveguide junctions are either calculated using the concept of the characteristic impedance or are directly numerically extracted using full-wave three-dimensional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations.

  14. Ridge Waveguide Structures in Magnesium-Doped Lithium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmer, Phillip; Battle, Philip; Suckow, William; Switzer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes to establish the feasibility of fabricating isolated ridge waveguides in 5% MgO:LN. Ridge waveguides in MgO:LN will significantly improve power handling and conversion efficiency, increase photonic component integration, and be well suited to spacebased applications. The key innovation in this effort is to combine recently available large, high-photorefractive-damage-threshold, z-cut 5% MgO:LN with novel ridge fabrication techniques to achieve high-optical power, low-cost, high-volume manufacturing of frequency conversion structures. The proposed ridge waveguide structure should maintain the characteristics of the periodically poled bulk substrate, allowing for the efficient frequency conversion typical of waveguides and the high optical damage threshold and long lifetimes typical of the 5% doped bulk substrate. The low cost and large area of 5% MgO:LN wafers, and the improved performance of the proposed ridge waveguide structure, will enhance existing measurement capabilities as well as reduce the resources required to achieve high-performance specifications. The purpose of the ridge waveguides in MgO:LN is to provide platform technology that will improve optical power handling and conversion efficiency compared to existing waveguide technology. The proposed ridge waveguide is produced using standard microfabrication techniques. The approach is enabled by recent advances in inductively coupled plasma etchers and chemical mechanical planarization techniques. In conjunction with wafer bonding, this fabrication methodology can be used to create arbitrarily shaped waveguides allowing complex optical circuits to be engineered in nonlinear optical materials such as magnesium doped lithium niobate. Researchers here have identified NLO (nonlinear optical) ridge waveguide structures as having suitable value to be the leading frequency conversion structures. Its value is based on having the low-cost fabrication necessary to satisfy the challenging pricing

  15. Annealed proton exchanged optical waveguides in lithium niobate differences between the X- and Z-cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Nekvindova, P; Cervena, J; Budnar, M; Razpet, A; Zorko, B; Pelicon, P; 10.1016/S0925-3467(01)00186-0

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes results and assessments of our systematic fabrication and characterization of proton exchanged (PE) and annealed proton exchanged (APE) waveguides in lithium niobate. This study focused on different behavior of crystallographically diverse X(1120) and Z (0001) substrate cuts during waveguide fabrication, and differences in characteristics of the resulting waveguides. Non-toxic adipic acid was used as a proton source, and the waveguides properties were defined by mode spectroscopy (waveguide characteristics) and neutron depth profiling (NDP, lithium concentration and distribution), infrared vibration spectra and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA, concentration and depth distribution of hydrogen). It was discovered that the X-cut structure is more permeable for moving particles (lithium and hydrogen ions), which leads to a higher effectiveness of the PE process within the X-cut. The explanation of this phenomenon is based on fitting X-cut orientation towards cleavage planes of lithium niobate c...

  16. PMMA to SU-8 Bonding for Polymer Based Lab-on-a-chip Systems with Integrated Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Nielsen, Theodor; Nilsson, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    An adhesive bonding technique for wafer-level sealing of SU-8 based lab-on-a-chip microsystems with integrated optical components is presented. Microfluidic channels and optical components, e.g. waveguides, are fabricated in cross-linked SU-8 and sealed with a Pyrex glass substrate by means...... strength of 16 MPa is achieved at bonding temperatures between 110 oC and 120oC, at a bonding force of 2000 N on a 4-inch wafer. The optical propagation loss of multi-mode 10ym (thickness)x 30ym (width)SU-8 waveguides is measured. The propagation loss in PMMA bonded waveguide struc-tures is more than 5 d......B/cm lower, at wavelengths between 600nm and 900 nm, than in similar structures bonded by an intermediate layer of SU-8. Furthermore 950K PMMA shows no tendency to flow into the bonded structures during bonding because of its high viscosity....

  17. Optical spectroscopy and optical waveguide fabrication in Eu3+ and Eu3+/Tb3+ doped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldiño, U.; Speghini, A.; Berneschi, S.; Bettinelli, M.; Brenci, M.; Pasquini, E.; Pelli, S.; Righini, G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Optical and spectroscopic properties of 2.0% Eu(PO 3 ) 3 singly doped and 5.0% Tb(PO 3 ) 3 –2.0% Eu(PO 3 ) 3 codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses were investigated. Reddish-orange light emission, with x=0.64 and y=0.36 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained in the europium singly doped glass excited at 393 nm. Such chromaticity coordinates are close to those (0.67,0.33) standard of the National Television System Committee for the red phosphor. When the sodium–zinc–aluminosilicate glass is co-doped with Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ , reddish-orange light emission, with (0.61,0.37) CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Tb 3+ excitation at 344 nm. This reddish-orange luminescence is generated mainly by 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 and 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 emissions of Eu 3+ , europium being sensitized by terbium through a non-radiative energy transfer. From an analysis of the Tb 3+ emission decay curves it is inferred that the Tb 3+ →Eu 3+ energy transfer might take place between Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism, so that an electric dipole–quadrupole interaction appears to be the most probable transfer mechanism. The efficiency of this energy transfer is about 62% upon excitation at 344 nm. In the singly doped and codoped glasses multimode optical waveguides were successfully produced by Ag + –Na + ion exchange, and they could be characterized at various wavelengths. -- Highlights: • Reddish-orange light emission can be generated from Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses excited at 344 nm. • The Eu 3+ is sensitized by Tb 3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer. • Highly multimode waveguides can be fabricated by diluted silver–sodium exchange. • This type of AlGaN LEDs pumped glass phosphors might be useful for generation of reddish-orange light

  18. Optical pulse generation using fiber lasers and integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.F.; Burkhart, S.C.; VanWonterghem, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated an optical pulse forming system using fiber and integrated optics, and have designed a multiple-output system for a proposed fusion laser facility. Our approach is an advancement over previous designs for fusion lasers, and an unusual application of fiber lasers and integrated optics

  19. Omnidirectional Photonic Band Gap Using Low Refractive Index Contrast Materials and its Application in Optical Waveguides

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal Faez, Angelo

    2012-07-01

    Researchers have argued for many years that one of the conditions for omnidirectional reflection in a one-dimensional photonic crystal is a strong refractive index contrast between the two constituent dielectric materials. Using numerical simulations and the theory of Anderson localization of light, in this work we demonstrate that an omnidirectional band gap can indeed be created utilizing low refractive index contrast materials when they are arranged in a disordered manner. Moreover, the size of the omnidirectional band gap becomes a controllable parameter, which now depends on the number of layers and not only on the refractive index contrast of the system, as it is widely accepted. This achievement constitutes a major breakthrough in the field since it allows for the development of cheaper and more efficient technologies. Of particular interest is the case of high index contrast one-dimensional photonic crystal fibers, where the propagation losses are mainly due to increased optical scattering from sidewall roughness at the interfaces of high index contrast materials. By using low index contrast materials these losses can be reduced dramatically, while maintaining the confinement capability of the waveguide. This is just one of many applications that could be proven useful for this discovery.

  20. A hybrid humidity sensor using optical waveguides on a quartz crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinbo, Kazunari; Otuki, Shunya; Kanbayashi, Yuichi; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao; Miyadera, Nobuo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, slab and ridge optical waveguides (OWGs) made of fluorinated polyimides were deposited on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and hybrid sensors using OWG spectroscopy and the QCM technique were prepared. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film with CoCl 2 was deposited on the OWGs, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated. A prism coupler was used to enter a He-Ne laser beam (λ = 632.8 nm) to the slab OWG. The output light intensity markedly changed due to chromism of the CoCl 2 as a result of humidity sorption, and this change was dependent on the incident angle of the laser beam to the slab OWG. During the measurement of output light, the QCM frequency was simultaneously monitored. The humidity dependence of the sensor with the slab OWG was also investigated in the range from 15 to 85%. For the sensor with the ridge OWG, white light was entered by butt-coupling, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated by observing the output light spectrum and the QCM frequency.

  1. Synthesis of the Thickness Profile of the Waveguide Layer of the Thin Film Generalized Waveguide Luneburg Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayryan E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A local variation in the thickness of the waveguide layer of integrated optics waveguide causes a local decrease of phase velocity, and hence bending of rays and of the wave front. The relationship of the waveguide layer thickness profile h (y, z with the distribution of the effective refractive index of the waveguide β (y, z is described in terms of a particular model of waveguide solutions of the Maxwell equations. In the model of comparison waveguides the support of the thickness irregularity of the waveguide layer Δh coincides with the support of inhomogeneity of the effective refractive index Δβ. A more adequate but more cumbersome model of the adiabatic waveguide modes allows them to mismatch supp Δh ⊃ supp Δβ. In this paper, we solve the problem of the Δh reconstruction on the base of given Δβ of the thin film generalized waveguide Luneburg lens in a model of adiabatic waveguide modes. The solution is found in the form of a linear combination of Gaussian exponential functions and in the form of a cubic spline for the cylindrically symmetric Δh (r and in the form of a cubic spline for Δβ (r.

  2. A compact, all-optical, THz wave generator based on self-modulation in a slab photonic crystal waveguide with a single sub-nanometer graphene layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, R; Ouyang, Z; Mohammd, M M

    2015-07-14

    We design a compact, all-optical THz wave generator based on self-modulation in a 1-D slab photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide with a single sub-nanometer graphene layer by using enhanced nonlinearity of graphene. It has been shown that at the bandgap edge of higher bands of a 1-D slab PhC, through only one sub-nanometer graphene layer we can obtain a compact, high modulation factor (about 0.98 percent), self-intensity modulator at a high frequency (about 0.6 THz) and low threshold intensity (about 15 MW per square centimeter), and further a compact, all-optical THz wave generator by integrating the self-modulator with a THz photodiode or photonic mixer. Such a THz source is expected to have a relatively high efficiency compared with conventional sources based on optical methods. The proposed THz source can find wide applications in THz science and technology, e.g., in THz imaging, THz sensors and detectors, THz communication systems, and THz optical integrated logic circuits.

  3. Substrate-Integrated Waveguide PCB Leaky-Wave Antenna Design Providing Multiple Steerable Beams in the V-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Steeg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A periodic leaky-wave antenna (LWA design based on low loss substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW technology with inset half-wave microstrip antennas is presented. The developed LWA operates in the V-band between 50 and 70 GHz and has been fabricated using standard printed circuit board (PCB technology. The presented LWA is highly functional and very compact supporting 1D beam steering and multibeam operation with only a single radio frequency (RF feeding port. Within the operational 50–70 GHz bandwidth, the LWA scans through broadside, providing over 40° H-plane beam steering. When operated within the 57–66 GHz band, the maximum steering angle is 18.2°. The maximum gain of the fabricated LWAs is 15.4 dBi with only a small gain variation of +/−1.5 dB across the operational bandwidth. The beam steering and multibeam capability of the fabricated LWA is further utilized to support mobile users in a 60 GHz hot-spot. For a single user, a maximum wireless on-off keying (OOK data rate of 2.5 Gbit/s is demonstrated. Multibeam operation is achieved using the LWA in combination with multiple dense wavelength division multiplexing (WDM channels and remote optical heterodyning. Experimentally, multibeam operation supporting three users within a 57–66 GHz hot-spot with a total wireless cell capacity of 3 Gbit/s is achieved.

  4. Waveguide-integrated vertical pin photodiodes of Ge fabricated on p+ and n+ Si-on-insulator layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazuki; Hiraki, Tatsurou; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Vertical pin structures of Ge photodiodes (PDs) integrated with Si optical waveguides are fabricated by depositing Ge epitaxial layers on Si-on-insulator (SOI) layers, and the performances of n+-Ge/i-Ge/p+-SOI PDs are compared with those of p+-Ge/i-Ge/n+-SOI PDs. Both types of PDs show responsivities as high as 1.0 A/W at 1.55 µm, while the dark leakage current is different, which is consistent with previous reports on free-space PDs formed on bulk Si wafers. The dark current of the p+-Ge/i-Ge/n+-SOI PDs is higher by more than one order of magnitude. Taking into account the activation energies for dark current as well as the dependence on PD area, the dark current of the n+-Ge/i-Ge/p+-SOI PDs is dominated by the thermal generation of carriers via mid-gap defect levels in Ge, while for the p+-Ge/i-Ge/n+-SOI PDs, the dark current is ascribed to not only thermal generation but also other mechanisms such as locally formed conduction paths.

  5. A grating coupler with a trapezoidal hole array for perfectly vertical light coupling between optical fibers and waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Akio; Eto, Yohei; Kikuta, Hisao

    2017-12-01

    A grating coupler with a trapezoidal hole array was designed and fabricated for perfectly vertical light coupling between a single-mode optical fiber and a silicon waveguide on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The grating coupler with an efficiency of 53% was computationally designed at a 1.1-µm-thick buried oxide (BOX) layer. The grating coupler and silicon waveguide were fabricated on the SOI substrate with a 3.0-µm-thick BOX layer by a single full-etch process. The measured coupling efficiency was 24% for TE-polarized light at 1528 nm wavelength, which was 0.69 times of the calculated coupling efficiency for the 3.0-µm-thick BOX layer.

  6. Design and length optimization of an adiabatic coupler for on-chip vertical integration of rare-earth-doped double tungstate waveguide amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Jinfeng; Sefünç, Mustafa; García Blanco, Sonia Maria

    2014-01-01

    The integration of rare-earth doped double tungstate waveguide amplifiers onto passive technology platforms enables the on-chip amplification of very high bit rate signals. In this work, a methodology for the optimized design of vertical adiabatic couplers between a passive Si3N4 waveguide and the

  7. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  8. Optical displacement measurement with GaAs/AlGaAs-based monolithically integrated Michelson interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, H. P.; Dändliker, René

    2008-01-01

    Two monolithically integrated optical displacement sensors fabricated in the GaAs/AlGaAs material system are reported. These single-chip microsystems are configured as Michelson interferometers and comprise a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser, photodetectors, phase shifters, and waveguide couplers. While the use of a single Michelson interferometer allows measurement of displacement magnitude only, a double Michelson interferometer with two interferometer signals in phase quadrature als...

  9. Optical characterisation of photonic wire and photonic crystal waveguides fabricated using nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    We have characterised photonic-crystal and photonic-wire waveguides fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The structures, with feature sizes down below 20 nm, are benchmarked against similar structures defined by direct electron beam lithography.......We have characterised photonic-crystal and photonic-wire waveguides fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The structures, with feature sizes down below 20 nm, are benchmarked against similar structures defined by direct electron beam lithography....

  10. Probing Field Distributions on Waveguide Structures with an Atomic Force/Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgonjen, E.G.; Borgonjen, E.G.; Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Ruiter, A.G.T.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    A 'stand-alone' Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope combined with an Atomic force Microscope, using a micro-fabricated silicon-nitride probe, is applied to the imaging of field distribution in integrated optical ridge waveguides. The electric field on the waveguide is locally probed by coupling to

  11. M-line spectroscopic, spectroscopic ellipsometric and microscopic measurements of optical waveguides fabricated by MeV-energy N{sup +} ion irradiation for telecom applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S. [“Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Fried, M.; Lohner, T. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary); Conti, G. Nunzi; Righini, G.C.; Pelli, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Zolnai, Z. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-08-31

    Irradiation with N{sup +} ions of the 1.5–3.5 MeV energy range was applied to optical waveguide formation. Planar and channel waveguides have been fabricated in an Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass, and in both types of bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals: Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (eulytine) and Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20} (sillenite). Multi-wavelength m-line spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used for the characterisation of the ion beam irradiated waveguides. Planar waveguides fabricated in the Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass using irradiation with N{sup +} ions at 3.5 MeV worked even at the 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength. 3.5 MeV N{sup +} ion irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine-type BGO worked up to 1550 nm and those in sillenite-type BGO worked up to 1330 nm. - Highlights: ► Waveguides were fabricated in glass and crystals using MeV energy N{sup +} ions. ► SRIM simulation and spectroscopic ellipsometry yielded similar waveguide structures. ► Multi-wavelength m-line spectroscopy was used to study the waveguides. ► Waveguides fabricated in an Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass worked up to 1.5 μm. ► Waveguides in Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20} remained operative up to 1.5 μm.

  12. Lattice damage assessment and optical waveguide properties in LaAlO3 single crystal irradiated with swift Si ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Crespillo, M. L.; Huang, Q.; Wang, T. J.; Liu, P.; Wang, X. L.

    2017-02-01

    As one of the representative ABO3 perovskite-structured oxides, lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) crystal has emerged as one of the most valuable functional-materials, and has attracted plenty of fundamental research and promising applications in recent years. Electronic, magnetic, optical and other properties of LaAlO3 strongly depend on its crystal structure, which could be strongly modified owing to the nuclear or electronic energy loss deposited in an ion irradiation environment and, therefore, significantly affecting the performance of LaAlO3-based devices. In this work, utilizing swift (tens of MeV) Si-ion irradiation, the damage behavior of LaAlO3 crystal induced by nuclear or electronic energy loss has been studied in detail utilizing complementary characterization techniques. Differing from other perovskite-structured crystals in which the electronic energy loss could lead to the formation of an amorphous region based on the thermal spike mechanism, in this case, intense electronic energy loss in LaAlO3 will not induce any obvious structural damage. The effects of ion irradiation on the mechanical properties, including hardness increase and elastic modulus decrease, have been confirmed. On the other hand, considering the potential applications of LaAlO3 in the field of integrated optoelectronics, the optical-waveguide properties of the irradiation region have been studied. The significant correspondence (symmetrical inversion) between the iWKB-reconstructed refractive-index profile and SRIM-simulated dpa profile further proves the effects (irradiation-damage production and refractive-index decrease) of nuclear energy loss during the swift-ion penetration process in LaAlO3 crystal. In the case of the rather-thick damage layer produced by swift-ion irradiation, obtaining a damage profile will be constrained owing to the analysis-depth limitation of the characterization techniques (RBS/channeling), and our analysis process (optical guided-mode measurement and

  13. Lattice damage assessment and optical waveguide properties in LaAlO3 single crystal irradiated with swift Si ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y; Wang, T J; Liu, P; Wang, X L; Crespillo, M L; Huang, Q

    2017-01-01

    As one of the representative ABO 3 perovskite-structured oxides, lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO 3 ) crystal has emerged as one of the most valuable functional-materials, and has attracted plenty of fundamental research and promising applications in recent years. Electronic, magnetic, optical and other properties of LaAlO 3 strongly depend on its crystal structure, which could be strongly modified owing to the nuclear or electronic energy loss deposited in an ion irradiation environment and, therefore, significantly affecting the performance of LaAlO 3 -based devices. In this work, utilizing swift (tens of MeV) Si-ion irradiation, the damage behavior of LaAlO 3 crystal induced by nuclear or electronic energy loss has been studied in detail utilizing complementary characterization techniques. Differing from other perovskite-structured crystals in which the electronic energy loss could lead to the formation of an amorphous region based on the thermal spike mechanism, in this case, intense electronic energy loss in LaAlO 3 will not induce any obvious structural damage. The effects of ion irradiation on the mechanical properties, including hardness increase and elastic modulus decrease, have been confirmed. On the other hand, considering the potential applications of LaAlO 3 in the field of integrated optoelectronics, the optical-waveguide properties of the irradiation region have been studied. The significant correspondence (symmetrical inversion) between the iWKB-reconstructed refractive-index profile and SRIM-simulated dpa profile further proves the effects (irradiation-damage production and refractive-index decrease) of nuclear energy loss during the swift-ion penetration process in LaAlO 3 crystal. In the case of the rather-thick damage layer produced by swift-ion irradiation, obtaining a damage profile will be constrained owing to the analysis-depth limitation of the characterization techniques (RBS/channeling), and our analysis process (optical guided

  14. Integrated Sources of Polarization Entangled Photon Pair States via Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing in AlGaAs Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultavewuti, Pisek

    Polarization-entangled photon pair states (PESs) are indispensable in several quantum protocols that should be implemented in an integrated photonic circuit for realizing a practical quantum technology. Preparing such states in integrated waveguides is in fact a challenge due to polarization mode dispersion. Unlike other conventional ways that are plagued with complications in fabrication or in state generation, in this thesis, the scheme based on parallel spontaneous four-wave mixing processes of two polarization waveguide modes is thoroughly studied in theory and experimentation for the polarization entanglement generation. The scheme in fact needs the modal dispersion, contradictory to the general perception, as revealed by a full quantum mechanical framework. The proper modal dispersion balances the effects of temporal walk-off and state factorizability. The study also shows that the popular standard platform such as a silicon-on-insulator wafer is far from suitable to implement the proposed simple generation technique. Proven by the quantum state tomography, the technique produces a highly-entangled state with a maximum concurrence of 0.97 +/- 0:01 from AlGaAs waveguides. In addition, the devices directly generated Bell states with an observed fidelity of 0.92 +/- 0:01 without any post-generation compensating steps. Novel suspended device structures, including their components, are then investigated numerically and experimentally characterized in pursuit of finding the geometry with the optimal dispersion property. The 700 nm x 1100 nm suspended rectangular waveguide is identified as the best geometry with a predicted maximum concurrence of 0.976 and a generation bandwidth of 3.3 THz. The suspended waveguide fabrication procedure adds about 15 dB/cm and 10 dB/cm of propagation loss to the TE and TM mode respectively, on top of the loss in corresponding full-cladding waveguides. Bridges, which structurally support the suspended waveguides, are optimized using

  15. Pulse reshaping in photonic crystal waveguides and microcavities with Kerr nonlinearity: Critical issues for all-optical switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujic, Dragan; John, Sajeev

    2005-01-01

    We delineate critical issues for 'controlling light with light' in photonic crystal (PC) waveguides coupled to Kerr-nonlinear microresonators. These arise from (a) fundamental trade-off between switching speed and switching intensity threshold inherent in high-quality Q-factor cavities and (b) the dynamical nonlinear oscillation of such cavities in response to incident light pulses. Using finite-difference time-domain simulations of electromagnetic pulse propagation, we consider both (i) a nonlinear Fabry-Perot microresonator (embedded within a PC waveguide) exhibiting a narrow transmission resonance and (ii) a nonlinear point defect (side-coupled to a PC waveguide) exhibiting a narrow reflection spectrum. We describe self-induced switching from transmission to reflection induced by pulse intensity tuning as well as control of pulse transmission induced by the secondary, continuous (cw) laser field propagating through the same PC waveguide. For the Fabry-Perot microresonator, a well-defined self-switching threshold is obtained. However, this is accompanied by considerable temporal and spectral distortion of the pulse caused by the oscillatory nonlinear response of the microresonator. When the quality factor of the microresonator is increased, the switching intensity threshold can be lowered but the pulse transit (switching) time and the pulse distortion are increased. For the side-coupled microresonator, a gradual (not sharp) self-switching behavior as a function of incident intensity is obtained. For both the Fabry-Perot and side-coupled nonlinear microresonators, control of pulse transmission can be achieved by means of a secondary cw laser field. The cw power required for switching with realistic Kerr nonlinearities is in excess of 1 W/μm 2 and may cause optical damage to the semiconducting PC backbone. Both instantaneous and noninstantaneous Kerr-response models are considered. Our results underscore the limitations and trade-offs inherent in the possible

  16. Optical integrated circuit of a 40-channel electrooptical LiNbO/sub 3/ modulator for data-processing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukreev, I.N.; Venediktov, V.V.; Gorbatovskii, M.V.; Demina, T.P.; Kashintsev, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    An optical integrated circuit for a 40-channel electrooptical phase modulator has been developed. The channel waveguides are prepared through Ti thermal diffusion into a Y-cut LiNbO/sub 3/ substrate. The half-wave voltage for each channel is 1.6 V at a modulating frequency bandwidth of 0-290 MHz. Results are presented from an experiment concerning the use of the modulator as an input device for the optical processing of radio signals.

  17. Application of electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy for studying the effect of different stress factors on lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adanyi, Nora [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O. Box 393 (Hungary)]. E-mail: n.adanyi@cfri.hu; Nemeth, Edina [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O. Box 393 (Hungary); Halasz, Anna [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O. Box 393 (Hungary); Szendro, Istvan [MicroVacuum Ltd., H-1147 Budapest, Kerekgyarto u. 10 (Hungary); Varadi, Maria [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O. Box 393 (Hungary)

    2006-07-28

    Electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (EC-OWLS) has been developed to combine evanescent-field optical sensing with electrochemical control of surface adsorption processes. For bioanalytical sensing, a layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) served as both a high-refractive index waveguide and a conductive electrode. In addition, an electrochemical flow-through fluid cuvette was applied, which incorporated working, reference, and counter electrodes, and was compatible with the constraints of optical sensing. The subject of our study was to monitor how the different stress factors (lactic acid, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) influence the survival of lactic acid bacteria. The advantage of EC-OWLS technique is that we could carry out kinetic studies on the behaviour of bacteria under stress conditions, and after exposure of lactobacilli to acid and oxidative stress we get faster results about the status of bacteria compared to the traditional quantitative methods. After optimization of the polarization potential used, calibration curve was determined and the sensor response of different rate of living and damaged cells was studied. The bacterial cells were adsorbed in native form on the surface of the sensor by ensuring polarizing potential (1 V) and were exposed to different concentration of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide solution to 1 h, respectively and the behaviour of bacteria was monitored. Results were compared to traditional micro-assay method.

  18. Application of electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy for studying the effect of different stress factors on lactic acid bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adanyi, Nora; Nemeth, Edina; Halasz, Anna; Szendro, Istvan; Varadi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (EC-OWLS) has been developed to combine evanescent-field optical sensing with electrochemical control of surface adsorption processes. For bioanalytical sensing, a layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) served as both a high-refractive index waveguide and a conductive electrode. In addition, an electrochemical flow-through fluid cuvette was applied, which incorporated working, reference, and counter electrodes, and was compatible with the constraints of optical sensing. The subject of our study was to monitor how the different stress factors (lactic acid, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) influence the survival of lactic acid bacteria. The advantage of EC-OWLS technique is that we could carry out kinetic studies on the behaviour of bacteria under stress conditions, and after exposure of lactobacilli to acid and oxidative stress we get faster results about the status of bacteria compared to the traditional quantitative methods. After optimization of the polarization potential used, calibration curve was determined and the sensor response of different rate of living and damaged cells was studied. The bacterial cells were adsorbed in native form on the surface of the sensor by ensuring polarizing potential (1 V) and were exposed to different concentration of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide solution to 1 h, respectively and the behaviour of bacteria was monitored. Results were compared to traditional micro-assay method

  19. Raman mediated all-optical cascadable inverter using silicon-on-insulator waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Mrinal; Das, Mukul K

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter, we propose an all-optical circuit for a cascadable and integrable logic inverter based on stimulated Raman scattering. A maximum product criteria for noise margin is taken to analyze the cascadability of the inverter. Variation of noise margin for different model parameters is also studied. Finally, the time domain response of the inverter is analyzed for different widths of input pulses.

  20. Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibres and waveguides: a quantitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, S.T.; Mulvaney, P.; Roberts, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    The use of preferential etching and atomic force microscopy to measure refractive index profiles of optical fibres is investigated. Both the etch rate and the position of lateral features are shown to be independent of etch time. An elliptical core fibre has been studied and the resultant profile found to be in qualitative agreement with the preform index profile. It is shown, however, that the ellipticity of the core has changed during the drawing process. The method has been extended to fluorine and germanium doped planar waveguides and the results correlated with the fabrication process

  1. Mode-field half-widths of Gaussian approximation for the fundamental mode of two kinds of optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian-Huang, Li; Fu-Yuan, Guo

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the characteristic of matching efficiency between the fundamental mode of two kinds of optical waveguides and its Gaussian approximate field. Then, it presents a new method where the mode-field half-width of Gaussian approximation for the fundamental mode should be defined according to the maximal matching efficiency method. The relationship between the mode-field half-width of the Gaussian approximate field obtained from the maximal matching efficiency and normalized frequency is studied; furthermore, two formulas of mode-field half-widths as a function of normalized frequency are proposed

  2. Gallium nitride on gallium oxide substrate for integrated nonlinear optics

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.; Dolgaleva, Ksenia; Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila; Roqan, Iman S.

    2017-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN), being a direct bandgap semiconductor with a wide bandgap and high thermal stability, is attractive for optoelectronic and electronic applications. Furthermore, due to its high optical nonlinearity — the characteristic of all 111-V semiconductors — GaN is also expected to be a suitable candidate for integrated nonlinear photonic circuits for a plethora of apphcations, ranging from on-chip wavelength conversion to quantum computing. Although GaN devices are in commercial production, it still suffers from lack of a suitable substrate material to reduce structural defects like high densities of threading dislocations (TDs), stacking faults, and grain boundaries. These defects significandy deteriorate the optical quality of the epi-grown GaN layer, since they act as non-radiative recombination centers. Recent studies have shown that GaN grown on (−201) β-Gallium Oxide (Ga2O3) has superior optical quality due to a better lattice matching as compared to GaN grown on Sapphire (Al2O3) [1-3]. In this work, we report on the fabrication of GaN waveguides on GaiOj substrate and their optical characterization to assess their feasibihty for efficient four-wave mixing (FWM).

  3. Gallium nitride on gallium oxide substrate for integrated nonlinear optics

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.

    2017-11-22

    Gallium Nitride (GaN), being a direct bandgap semiconductor with a wide bandgap and high thermal stability, is attractive for optoelectronic and electronic applications. Furthermore, due to its high optical nonlinearity — the characteristic of all 111-V semiconductors — GaN is also expected to be a suitable candidate for integrated nonlinear photonic circuits for a plethora of apphcations, ranging from on-chip wavelength conversion to quantum computing. Although GaN devices are in commercial production, it still suffers from lack of a suitable substrate material to reduce structural defects like high densities of threading dislocations (TDs), stacking faults, and grain boundaries. These defects significandy deteriorate the optical quality of the epi-grown GaN layer, since they act as non-radiative recombination centers. Recent studies have shown that GaN grown on (−201) β-Gallium Oxide (Ga2O3) has superior optical quality due to a better lattice matching as compared to GaN grown on Sapphire (Al2O3) [1-3]. In this work, we report on the fabrication of GaN waveguides on GaiOj substrate and their optical characterization to assess their feasibihty for efficient four-wave mixing (FWM).

  4. Optical Amplification at 1525 nm in BaYF5: 20% Yb3+, 2% Er3+ Nanocrystals Doped SU-8 Polymer Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated optical amplification in BaYF5: 20% Yb3+, 2% Er3+ (BYF nanocrystals doped polymer waveguide. BYF nanocrystals with an average size of ∼13 nm were synthesized by a high-boiling solvent process. Intense 1.53 μm fluorescence was obtained in the nanocrystals under excitation at 980 nm. An optical polymer waveguide was fabricated by using BYF nanocrystals doped SU-8 polymer as the core material. A relative optical gain of ∼10.4 dB at 1525 nm was achieved in a 1.1 cm long waveguide for an input signal power of ∼0.09 mW and a pump power of ∼212 mW.

  5. Modeling of Slot Waveguide Sensors Based on Polymeric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettotti, Paolo; Pitanti, Alessandro; Rigo, Eveline; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Slot waveguides are very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper we have carried out a detailed analysis of mode confinement properties in slot waveguides realized in very low refractive index materials. We show that the sensitivity of a slot waveguide is not directly related to the refractive index contrast of high and low materials forming the waveguide. Thus, a careful design of the structures allows the realization of high sensitivity devices even in very low refractive index materials (e.g., polymers) to be achieved. Advantages of low index dielectrics in terms of cost, functionalization and ease of fabrication are discussed while keeping both CMOS compatibility and integrable design schemes. Finally, applications of low index slot waveguides as substitute of bulky fiber capillary sensors or in ring resonator architectures are addressed. Theoretical results of this work are relevant to well established polymer technologies. PMID:22164020

  6. Modeling of Slot Waveguide Sensors Based on Polymeric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pavesi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Slot waveguides are very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper we have carried out a detailed analysis of mode confinement properties in slot waveguides realized in very low refractive index materials. We show that the sensitivity of a slot waveguide is not directly related to the refractive index contrast of high and low materials forming the waveguide. Thus, a careful design of the structures allows the realization of high sensitivity devices even in very low refractive index materials (e.g., polymers to be achieved. Advantages of low index dielectrics in terms of cost, functionalization and ease of fabrication are discussed while keeping both CMOS compatibility and integrable design schemes. Finally, applications of low index slot waveguides as substitute of bulky fiber capillary sensors or in ring resonator architectures are addressed. Theoretical results of this work are relevant to well established polymer technologies.

  7. Optical waveguide formed in Yb:GdCOB and Yb:YCOB crystals by 3.0MeV O{sup +} implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Yang, E-mail: sdujy@163.com [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Planar optical waveguides were formed in Yb:GdCOB and Yb:YCOB crystals by 3.0 MeV O{sup +} ion implantation at fluence of 2 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature, respectively. The prism coupling method was performed to characterize the dark-mode property of the waveguides. The refractive index profiles in the waveguides were reconstructed by reflectivity calculation method (RCM). The results show that after the implantation, a 1.5 μm-wide region with enhanced refractive-index was formed beneath the sample surfaces to act as waveguide structures for both Yb:GdCOB and Yb:YCOB.

  8. Rapidly reconfigurable high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation in heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoqi; Qin, Chuan; Shang, Kuanping; Pathak, Shibnath; Lai, Weicheng; Guan, Binbin; Clements, Matthew; Su, Tiehui; Liu, Guangyao; Lu, Hongbo; Scott, Ryan P; Ben Yoo, S J

    2017-04-17

    This paper demonstrates rapidly reconfigurable, high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) in a heterogeneous photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The heterogeneous PIC combines advantages of high-speed indium phosphide (InP) modulators and low-loss, high-contrast silicon nitride (Si3N4) arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) so that high-fidelity optical waveform syntheses with rapid waveform updates are possible. The generated optical waveforms spanned a 160 GHz spectral bandwidth starting from an optical frequency comb consisting of eight comb lines separated by 20 GHz channel spacing. The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) values of the generated waveforms were approximately 16.4%. The OAWG module can rapidly and arbitrarily reconfigure waveforms upon every pulse arriving at 2 ns repetition time. The result of this work indicates the feasibility of truly dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation where the reconfiguration rate or the modulator bandwidth must exceed the channel spacing of the AWG and the optical frequency comb.

  9. Effect of D2 outdiffusion on direct writing of optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that the performance of UV written waveguides can be influenced strongly by the outdiffusion of molecular deuterium during fabrication. By cooling the sample to -33 °C, the time available for UV writing may be increased to > 10 h, compared to ~15 min at room temperature.......It is shown that the performance of UV written waveguides can be influenced strongly by the outdiffusion of molecular deuterium during fabrication. By cooling the sample to -33 °C, the time available for UV writing may be increased to > 10 h, compared to ~15 min at room temperature....

  10. GHz modulation enabled using large extinction ratio waveguide-modulator integrated with 404 nm GaN laser diode

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Lee, Changmin; Ng, Tien Khee; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Eldesouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    A 404-nm emitting InGaN-based laser diode with integrated-waveguide-modulator showing a large extinction ratio of 11.3 dB was demonstrated on semipolar (2021) plane GaN substrate. The device shows a low modulation voltage of −2.5 V and ∼ GHz −3 dB bandwidth, enabling 1.7 Gbps data transmission.

  11. GHz modulation enabled using large extinction ratio waveguide-modulator integrated with 404 nm GaN laser diode

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-01-30

    A 404-nm emitting InGaN-based laser diode with integrated-waveguide-modulator showing a large extinction ratio of 11.3 dB was demonstrated on semipolar (2021) plane GaN substrate. The device shows a low modulation voltage of −2.5 V and ∼ GHz −3 dB bandwidth, enabling 1.7 Gbps data transmission.

  12. Low threshold all-optical crossbar switch on GaAs-GaAlAs channel waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    1994-09-01

    During the Phase 2 project entitled 'Low Threshold All-Optical Crossbar Switch on GaAs - GaAlAs Channel Waveguide Array,' Physical Optics Corporation (POC) developed the basic principles for the fabrication of all-optical crossbar switches. Based on this development. POC fabricated a 2 x 2 GaAs/GaAlAs switch that changes the direction of incident light with minimum insertion loss and nonlinear distortion. This unique technology can be used in both analog and digital networks. The applications of this technology are widespread. Because the all-optical network does not have any speed limitations (RC time constant), POC's approach will be beneficial to SONET networks, phased array radar networks, very high speed oscilloscopes, all-optical networks, IR countermeasure systems, BER equipment, and the fast growing video conferencing network market. The novel all-optical crossbar switch developed in this program will solve interconnect problems. and will be a key component in the widely proposed all-optical 200 Gb/s SONET/ATM networks.

  13. Ultraviolet transparent silicon oxynitride waveguides for biochemical microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Friis, Peter; Hübner, Jörg

    2001-01-01

    The UV wavelength region is of great interest in absorption spectroscopy, which is employed for chemical analysis, since many organic compounds absorb in only this region. Germanium-doped silica, which is often preferred as the waveguide core material in optical devices for telecommunication....... The applicability of these waveguides was demonstrated in a biochemical microsystem consisting of multimode buried-channel SiOxNy waveguides that were monolithically integrated with microfluidic channels. Absorption measurements of a beta -blocking agent, propranolol, at 212-215 nm were performed. The detection...

  14. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering For Optical Fiber Gyrocopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Julian P.; We, Albert C.; Keur, M.; Lukas, Greg; Ott, Daniel M...; Sriram, S.

    1988-03-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes are of interest for low-cost, high performance rotation sensors. Integrated optical implementations of the processing optics offer the hope of mass-production, and associated cost reductions. The development of a suitable integrated optical system has been reported by other authors at a wavelength of 850nm [1]. Despite strong technical advantages at 1.3μm wavelength [2], no results have yet appeared. This wavelength is preferred for telecommunications applications applications, thus significantly reduced fiber costs may be realized. Lithium niobate is relatively immune from the photorefractive effect at this wavelength, whereas it is not at at 850nm [3].

  15. Ultra-compact plasmonic waveguide modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia

    of developing new material platforms for integrated plasmonic devices. Furthermore, novel plasmonic materials such as transparent conductive oxides and transition metal nitrides can offer a variety of new opportunities. In particular, they offer adjustable/tailorable and nonlinear optical properties, dynamic...... modulators based on ultra-compact waveguides with different active cores. Plasmonic modulators with the active core such as indium phosphides or ferroelectrics sandwiched between metal plates have promising characteristics. Apart from the speed and dimensions advantages, the metal plates can serve...... as electrodes for electrical pumping of the active material making it easier to integrate. Including an additional layer in the plasmonic waveguide, in particular an ultrathin transparent conductive oxide film, allows the control of the dispersive properties of the waveguide and thus the higher efficiency...

  16. Complementary Walsh-Hadamard coded optical CDMA coder/decoders structured over arrayed-waveguide grating routers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Fa; Yang, Chao-Chin; Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system with complementary Walsh-Hadamard coded optical encoder/decoder configuration structured over arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) routers is examined. In the proposed system, each network user requires only two AWG routers to accomplish spectral encoding and decoding for complementary keying, thus, resulting a simpler and low cost system. Performance of the proposed system is analyzed by taking the effect of phase-induced intensity noise into account. The result indicates that the established system not only preserves the capability of suppressing multiple-access interference (MAI), but also improves bit-error-rate performance as compared to the conventional coders employing simple on-off keying.

  17. Optical modeling of waveguide coupled TES detectors towards the SAFARI instrument for SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, N.; Bracken, C.; Doherty, S.; Gao, J. R.; Glowacka, D.; Goldie, D.; Griffin, D.; Hijmering, R.; Jackson, B.; Khosropanah, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Morozov, D.; Murphy, A.; O'Sullivan, C.; Ridder, M.; Withington, S.

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of space missions targeting far-infrared wavelengths will require large-format arrays of extremely sensitive detectors. The development of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) array technology is being developed for future Far-Infrared (FIR) space applications such as the SAFARI instrument for SPICA where low-noise and high sensitivity is required to achieve ambitious science goals. In this paper we describe a modal analysis of multi-moded horn antennas feeding integrating cavities housing TES detectors with superconducting film absorbers. In high sensitivity TES detector technology the ability to control the electromagnetic and thermo-mechanical environment of the detector is critical. Simulating and understanding optical behaviour of such detectors at far IR wavelengths is difficult and requires development of existing analysis tools. The proposed modal approach offers a computationally efficient technique to describe the partial coherent response of the full pixel in terms of optical efficiency and power leakage between pixels. Initial wok carried out as part of an ESA technical research project on optical analysis is described and a prototype SAFARI pixel design is analyzed where the optical coupling between the incoming field and the pixel containing horn, cavity with an air gap, and thin absorber layer are all included in the model to allow a comprehensive optical characterization. The modal approach described is based on the mode matching technique where the horn and cavity are described in the traditional way while a technique to include the absorber was developed. Radiation leakage between pixels is also included making this a powerful analysis tool.

  18. Ridge optical waveguide in an Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glass produced by He+ ion implantation combined with Ar+ ion beam etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Yang; Chen Feng; Hu Lili; Xing Pengfei; Chen Yanxue; Wang Xuelin; Wang Keming

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a ridge optical waveguide in an Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped phosphate glass. The He + ion implantation (at energy of 2.8 MeV) is first applied onto the sample to produce a planar waveguide substrate, and then Ar + ion beam etching (at energy of 500 eV) is carried out to construct rib stripes on the sample surface that has been deposited by a specially designed photoresist mask. According to a reconstructed refractive index profile of the waveguide cross section, the modal distribution of the waveguide is simulated by applying a computer code based on the beam propagation method, which shows reasonable agreement with the experimentally observed waveguide mode by using the end-face coupling method. Simulation of the incident He ions at 2.8 MeV penetrating into the Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped phosphate glass substrate is also performed to provide helpful information on waveguide formation

  19. Compact beam splitters in coupled waveguides using shortcuts to adiabaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wen, Rui-Dan; Shi, Jie-Long; Tseng, Shuo-Yen

    2018-04-01

    There are various works on adiabatic (three) waveguide coupler devices but most are focused on the quantum optical analogies and the physics itself. We successfully apply shortcuts to adiabaticity techniques to the coupled waveguide system with a suitable length for integrated optics devices. Especially, the counter-diabatic driving protocol followed by unitary transformation overcomes the previously unrealistic implemention, and is used to design feasible and robust 1 × 2 and 1 × 3 beam splitters for symmetric and asymmetric three waveguide couplers. Numerical simulations with the beam propagation method demonstrate that these shortcut designs for beam splitters are shorter than the adiabatic ones, and also have a better tolerance than parallel waveguides resonant beam splitters with respect to spacing errors and wavelength variation.

  20. Compact Si-based asymmetric MZI waveguide on SOI as a thermo-optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, C. S.; Niraula, B.

    2018-03-01

    A compact low power consuming asymmetric MZI based optical modulator with fast response time has been proposed on SOI platform. The geometrical and performance characteristics were analyzed in depth and optimized using coupled mode analysis and FDTD simulation tools, respectively. It was tested with and without implementation of thermo-optic (TO) effect. The device showed good frequency modulating characteristics when tested without the implementation of the TO effect. The fabricated device showed quality factor, Q ≈ 10,000, and this value is comparable to the Q of the device simulated with 25% transmission loss, showing FSR of 0.195 nm, FWHM ≈ 0.16 nm, and ER of 13 dB. With TO effect, it showed temperature sensitivity of 0.01 nm/°C and FSR of 0.19 nm. With the heater length of 4.18 mm, the device required 0.26 mW per π shift power with a switching voltage of 0.309 V, response time of 10 μ, and figure-of-merit of 2.6 mW μs. All of these characteristics make this device highly attractive for use in integrated Si photonics network as optical switch and wavelength modulator.

  1. Single-chip ring resonator-based 1 x 8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, L.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Heideman, Rene; Borreman, A.; Meijerink, Arjan; van Etten, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Optical ring resonators (ORRs) are good candidates to provide continuously tunable delay in optical beam forming networks (OBFNs) for phased array antenna systems. Delay and splitting/combining elements can be integrated on a single optical chip to form an OBFN. A state-of-the-art ring resonator-

  2. Synthesis of highly integrated optical network based on microdisk-resonator add-drop filters in silicon-on-insulator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Dortu, Fabian; Giannone, Domenico; Bogaerts, Wim; Drouard, Emmanuel; Rojo-Romeo, Pedro; Gaffiot, Frederic

    2009-10-01

    We analyze a highly compact optical add-drop filter topology based on a pair of microdisk resonators and a bus waveguide intersection. The filter is further assessed on an integrated optical 4×4 network for optical on-chip communication. The proposed network structure, as compact as 50×50 μm, is fabricated in a CMOS-compatible process on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate the proper operation of the fabricated devices.

  3. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications. PMID:27073154

  4. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-04-13

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications.

  5. Preparation and optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond coatings for infrared planar waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marián; Stuchlík, Jiří; Jirásek, Vít; Prajzler, Václav; Nekvindová, P.; Kromka, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 618, Nov (2016), s. 130-133 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) MOST-15-04 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogenated amorphous silicon * nanocrystalline diamond * planar waveguides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  6. Dichroic mirror embedded in a submicrometer waveguide for enhanced resonant nonlinear optical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaccabarozzi, Luigi; Fejer, M M; Huo, Yijie; Fan, Shanhui; Yu, Xiaojun; Harris, James S

    2006-11-15

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of novel dichroic mirrors embedded in a tightly confining AlGaAs/Al(x)O(y) waveguide. Reflection at the first-harmonic wavelength as high as 93% is achieved, while high transmission is maintained at the second-harmonic wavelength. The measured cavity spectrum is in excellent agreement with finite-difference time-domain simulations. Such a mirror is essential for achieving resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation.

  7. Optical Waveform Sampling and Error-Free Demultiplexing of 1.28 Tb/s Serial Data in a Nanoengineered Silicon Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental demonstrations of using a pure nanoengineered silicon waveguide for 1.28 Tb/s serial data optical waveform sampling and 1.28 Tb/s–10 Gb/s error free demultiplexing. The 330-fs pulses are resolved in each 780-fs time slot in waveform sampling. Error...

  8. Tunable All-Optical Wavelength Conversion Based on Cascaded SHG/DFG in a Ti:PPLN Waveguide Using a Single CW Control Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, Rahman; Wang, Wenrui

    2012-01-01

    Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) of a 40-Gb/s RZ-OOK data signal based on cascaded second-harmonic generation (SHG) and difference-frequency generation (DFG) in a Ti:PPLN waveguide is demonstrated. Error-free performances with negligible power penalty are achieved for the wavelength...

  9. Attenuation of an optical wave propagating in a waveguide, formed by layers of a semiconductor heterostructure, owing to scattering on inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogatov, Alexandr P; Burmistrov, I S

    1999-01-01

    The scattering of an optical wave, propagating in a waveguide made up of layers of a semiconductor heterostructure, is analysed. The attenuation coefficient of the wave is found both for quasi-homogeneous single-crystal layers of a semiconductor solid solution and for layers containing quantum dots. (active media)

  10. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Based Phase Shifter and Phased Array in a Ferrite Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic Package

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed A.

    2014-03-01

    Phased array antennas, capable of controlling the direction of their radiated beam, are demanded by many conventional as well as modern systems. Applications such as automotive collision avoidance radar, inter-satellite communication links and future man-portable satellite communication on move services require reconfigurable beam systems with stress on mobility and cost effectiveness. Microwave phase shifters are key components of phased antenna arrays. A phase shifter is a device that controls the phase of the signal passing through it. Among the technologies used to realize this device, traditional ferrite waveguide phase shifters offer the best performance. However, they are bulky and difficult to integrate with other system components. Recently, ferrite material has been introduced in Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) multilayer packaging technology. This enables the integration of ferrite based components with other microwave circuitry in a compact, light-weight and mass producible package. Additionally, the recent concept of Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) allowed realization of synthesized rectangular waveguide-like structures in planar and multilayer substrates. These SIW structures have been shown to maintain the merits of conventional rectangular waveguides such as low loss and high power handling capabilities while being planar and easily integrable with other components. Implementing SIW structures inside a multilayer ferrite LTCC package enables monolithic integration of phase shifters and phased arrays representing a true System on Package (SoP) solution. It is the objective of this thesis to pursue realizing efficient integrated phase shifters and phased arrays combining the above mentioned technologies, namely Ferrite LTCC and SIW. In this work, a novel SIW phase shifter in ferrite LTCC package is designed, fabricated and tested. The device is able to operate reciprocally as well as non-reciprocally. Demonstrating a measured maximum

  11. Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2012-08-13

    We report on the fabrication of depressed cladding waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG (neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet, Nd:Y3Al5O12) ceramics microstructured by femtosecond laser pulses. Full control over the confined light spatial distribution is demonstrated by the fabrication of high contrast waveguides with hexagonal, circular and trapezoidal configurations. The confocal fluorescence measurements of the waveguides reveal that the original luminescence features of Nd3+ ions are well-preserved in the waveguide regions. Under optical pump at 808 nm, cladding waveguides showed continuous wave efficient laser oscillation. The maximum output power obtained at 1064.5 nm is ~181 mW with a slope efficiency as high as 44%, which suggests that the fabricated Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides are promising candidates for efficient integrated laser sources.

  12. Fabrication of planar waveguide in KNSBN crystal by swift heavy ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Jing; Wang, Lei; Qin, Xifeng

    2013-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of the planar waveguides in the KNSBN crystal by using 17 MeV C 5+ ions at a fluence of 2 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 . After implantation, near surface regions of the crystal, there has a positive extraordinary refractive index (n e ) change and the light inside the waveguides can propagate in a non-leaky manner. The two-dimensional modal profiles of the planar waveguides, measured by using the end-coupling arrangement, are in good agreement with the reconstructed modal distributions. The propagation loss for C 5+ irradiated waveguide is ∼0.8 dB/cm at 633 nm and ∼0.72 dB/cm at 1064 nm. The waveguide gives good confinement of waveguide modes, which exhibits acceptable guiding qualities for potential applications in integrated optics

  13. Fabrication of planar waveguide in KNSBN crystal by swift heavy ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jing; Wang, Lei; Qin, Xifeng

    2013-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of the planar waveguides in the KNSBN crystal by using 17 MeV C5+ ions at a fluence of 2 × 1014 ions/cm2. After implantation, near surface regions of the crystal, there has a positive extraordinary refractive index (ne) change and the light inside the waveguides can propagate in a non-leaky manner. The two-dimensional modal profiles of the planar waveguides, measured by using the end-coupling arrangement, are in good agreement with the reconstructed modal distributions. The propagation loss for C5+ irradiated waveguide is ∼0.8 dB/cm at 633 nm and ∼0.72 dB/cm at 1064 nm. The waveguide gives good confinement of waveguide modes, which exhibits acceptable guiding qualities for potential applications in integrated optics.

  14. All-optical 40Gbit/s format conversion from NRZ to RZ based on SFG in a PPLN waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang

    2006-01-01

    A novel all-optical 40Gbit/s NRZ-to-RZ data format conversion scheme based on sum-frequency generation (SFG) interaction in a periodically poled LiNbO 3 (PPLN) waveguide is presented for the first time, using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The conversion mechanism relies on the combination of attenuation and nonlinear phase shift Φ NL induced on the signal field. The performance of the conversion is numerically evaluated, with the result showing that it is more effective to yield Φ NL when appropriately phase mismatched for SFG process but Φ NL~0 when quasi-phase-matching (QPM). Compared with the cascaded second-order nonlinear interactions (SHG+DFG) with the influence of walk-off effect, a high conversion efficiency and good performance are achieved with peak power 500mw and width 2ps of the pump, which can be used in super high-speed situation (40Gbit/s and above). Finally, the inverse process of SFG and corresponding walk-off effect are analyzed and the optimum arrangement of power is proposed, showing that proper power, pump width, and waveguide length are necessary for achieving a satisfied conversion effect.

  15. Combined nanoimprint and photolithography of integrated polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    are defined in SU-8 resist, doped with Rhodamine 6G laser dye, shaped as planar slab waveguides on a Fused Silica buffer substrate, and with a lst-order DFB surface corrugation forming the laser resonator. When optically pumped at 532 nm, lasing is obtained in the wavelength range 560 nm -600 nm, determined...

  16. Integrated Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements in a Borosilicate Glass Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Parisi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The surface plasmon resonance (SPR technique is a well-known optical method that can be used to measure the refractive index of organic nano-layers adsorbed on a thin metal film. Although there are many configurations for measuring biomolecular interactions, SPR-based techniques play a central role in many current biosensing experiments, since they are the most suited for sensitive and quantitative kinetic measurements. Here we give some results from the analysis and numerical elaboration of SPR data from integrated optics experiments in a particular borosilicate glass, chosen for its composition offering the rather low refractive index of 1.4701 at 633 nm wavelength. These data regard the flow over the sensing region (metal window of different solutions with refractive indexes in the range of interest (1.3÷1.5 for the detection of contaminants in aqueous solutions. After a discussion of the principles of SPR, of the metal window design optimization by means of optical interaction numerical modeling, and of waveguide fabrication techniques, we give a description of system setup and experimental results. Optimum gold film window thickness and width in this guided-wave configuration has been for the first time derived and implemented on an integrated optic prototype device. Its characterization is given by means of the real time waveguide output intensity measurements, which correspond to the interaction between the sensing gold thin film window and the flowing analyte. The SPR curve was subsequently inferred. Finally, a modified version of the device is reported, with channel waveguides arranged in a Y-junction optical circuit, so that laser source stability requirements are lowered by a factor of 85 dB, making possible the use of low cost sources in practical applications.

  17. Integrated Optical Interconnect Architectures for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a broad overview of current research in optical interconnect technologies and architectures. Introductory chapters on high-performance computing and the associated issues in conventional interconnect architectures, and on the fundamental building blocks for integrated optical interconnect, provide the foundations for the bulk of the book which brings together leading experts in the field of optical interconnect architectures for data communication. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which the photonic components are assembled into architectures to address the needs of data-intensive on-chip communication, and to the performance evaluation of such architectures for specific applications.   Provides state-of-the-art research on the use of optical interconnects in Embedded Systems; Begins with coverage of the basics for high-performance computing and optical interconnect; Includes a variety of on-chip optical communication topologies; Features coverage of system integration and opti...

  18. Guidance and control of MIR TDL radiation via flexible hollow metallic rectangular pipes and fibers for possible LHS and other optical system compaction and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C.

    1983-01-01

    Flexible hollow metallic rectangular pipes and infrared fibers are proposed as alternate media for collection, guidance and manipulation of mid-infrared tunable diode laser (TDL) radiation. Certain features of such media are found to be useful for control of TDL far field patterns, polarization and possibly intensity fluctuations. Such improvement in dimension compatibility may eventually lead to laser heterodyne spectroscopy (LHS) and optical communication system compaction and integration. Infrared optical fiber and the compound parabolic coupling of light into a hollow pipe waveguide are discussed as well as the design of the waveguide.

  19. Integrated microfluidic capillary in a waveguide resonator for chemical and biomedical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavuluri, S K; Lopez-Villarroya, R; McKeever, E; Goussetis, G; Desmulliez, M P Y; Kavanagh, D

    2009-01-01

    A novel microfluidic sensing device based on waveguide cavity filters is proposed for the characterisation, detection of cells in solution and chemical substances in micro-litre volumes. The sensor consists of a micromachined microfluidic channel within a waveguide-based resonator localised increased near-fields and could potentially be designed for different frequency regimes to improve the sensitivity. The present sensor has been proposed for fabrication in different manufacturing platforms and an initial prototype with a 100μm micromachined channel that is embedded within an X-band E-plane waveguide has been fabricated and tested. The design methodology for the microfluidic channel and the E-plane filter is also presented.

  20. Highly sensitive digital optical sensor with large measurement range based on the dual-microring resonator with waveguide-coupled feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xing-Ye; Wang Kui-Ru; Yuan Jin-Hui; Jin Bo-Yuan; Sang Xin-Zhu; Yu Chong-Xiu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel high-performance digital optical sensor based on the Mach—Zehnder interferential effect and the dual-microring resonators with the waveguide-coupled feedback. The simulation results show that the sensitivity of the sensor can be orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional sensor, and high quality factor is not critical in it. Moreover, by optimizing the length of the feedback waveguide to be equal to the perimeter of the ring, the measurement range of the proposed sensor is twice as much as that of the conventional sensor in the weak coupling case