WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated household survey

  1. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  2. A time use survey derived integrative human-physical household system energy performance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Y.S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a virtual experiment that extrapolated the stochastic yet patterned behaviour of the integrative model of a 4-bedroom house in Chicago with 4 different household compositions. The integrative household system theory considers the household as a combination of 2 sub-systems, notably the physical system and the human system. The physical system is the materials and devices of a dwelling, and the human system is the occupants that live within the dwelling. A third element is the environment that influences the operation of the 2 sub-systems. The human-physical integrative household energy model provided a platform to simulate the effect of sub-house energy conservation measures. The virtual experiment showed that the use of the bootstrap sampling approach on American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data to determine the occupant's stochastic energy consumption behaviour has resulted in a robust complex system model. Bell-shaped distributions were presented for annual appliance, heating and cooling load demands. The virtual experiment also pointed to the development of advanced multi-zone residential HVAC system as a suitable strategy for major residential energy efficiency improvement. The load profiles generated from the integrative model simulation were found to be in good agreement with those from field studies. It was concluded that the behaviour of the integrative model is a good representation of the energy consumption behaviour of real households. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  3. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    England, Middle Atlantic, and Pacific), MSA size, and the availability of rail. Extrapolating NHTS data within small geographic areas could risk developing and subsequently using unreliable estimates. For example, if a planning agency in City X of State Y estimates travel rates and other travel characteristics based on survey data collected from NHTS sample households that were located in City X of State Y, then the agency could risk developing and using unreliable estimates for their planning process. Typically, this limitation significantly increases as the size of an area decreases. That said, the NHTS contains a wealth of information that could allow statistical inferences about small geographic areas, with a pre-determined level of statistical certainty. The question then becomes whether a method can be developed that integrates the NHTS data and other data to estimate key travel characteristics for small geographic areas such as Census tract and transportation analysis zone, and whether this method can outperform other, competing methods.

  4. [Health services access survey for Colombian households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Aristizabal, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Mauricio; Estrada, Victoria Eugenia

    The aim of this study was to design and validate a health services access survey for households in Colombia to provide a methodological tool that allows the country to accumulate evidence of real-life access conditions experienced by the Colombian population. A validation study with experts and a pilot study were performed. It was conducted in the municipality of Jamundi, located in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Probabilistic, multistage and stratified cluster sampling was carried out. The final sample was 215 households. The survey was composed of 63 questions divided into five modules: socio-demographic profile of the head of the household or adult informant, household socioeconomic profile, access to preventive services, access to curative and rehabilitative services and household out of pocket expenditure. In descriptive terms, the promotion of preventive services only reached 44%; the use of these services was always highest among children younger than one year old and up to the age of ten. The perceived need for emergency medical care and hospitalisation was between 82% and 85%, but 36% perceived the quality of care to be low or very low. Delays were experienced in medical visits with GPs and specialists. The designed survey is valid, relevant and representative of access to health services in Colombia. Empirically, the pilot showed institutional weaknesses in a municipality of the country, indicating that health coverage does not in practice mean real and effective access to health services. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  6. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  7. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  8. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  9. Integration of Smart Grid Technologies in Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Freja; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between new smart grid technologies and households everyday practices. The research focuses on how Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Dynamic Pricing influence on Danish households’ everyday life and how these technologies constitutes and change routines and practice...... to a more complex and multiple consideration of the interplay between households’ social practices and new smart grid technologies - and thereby helps to fill out the lack of research on the integration of peak-shaving technologies in the end-user design.......This article considers the interplay between new smart grid technologies and households everyday practices. The research focuses on how Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Dynamic Pricing influence on Danish households’ everyday life and how these technologies constitutes and change routines and practices......, is analysed from the analytical concept offered by the Social Practice Theory. Overall, the case-study demonstrates that the smart grid technologies influence the ‘way of driving’ and changed the temporal patterns of consumption in the families during the test-period. The inquiry attempts to contribute...

  10. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers' perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the "Take Cover" communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  11. Pittsburgh American Community Survey Data 2015 - Household Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on relationship to householder were derived from answers to Question 2 in the 2015 American Community Survey (ACS), which was asked of all people in...

  12. Allocation of expenditures within the household: A new Danish survey*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Browning, Martin

    We report on a new data initiative that is designed to address the question of “who gets what” within the household. The data consists of supplements to the Danish Expenditure Survey (DES) which is a traditional nationally representative, diary based survey of expenditures. We collect supplementary...... data of two kinds for all couples (with or without children) in the survey. The first addition is that respondents report on the intra-household allocation of each item of expenditure (‘joint’, ‘her’, ‘him’, ‘children’ and ‘outside’). The second addition is an extra set of ‘sociological’ questions...... concerning household management, autonomy and family background. These types of information for the same respondents may facilitate research bridging the divergent views of economist and sociologists concerning the allocation of resources within the household. The paper focuses on the survey design and gives...

  13. Renewable energy in Dutch households. An online survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mors, B.; Both, J.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the title survey was to find out how households in the Netherlands can be interested and involved in the use of renewable energy, in particular biomass, wind power and solar energy [nl

  14. Survey of household energy use (SHEU) : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    A survey was conducted to gather information on energy use and the factors affecting energy use in households residing in houses and residential buildings with fewer than 5 storeys. Dwelling characteristics, usage of appliances, and energy efficiency and consumption data were collected. An overview of the main findings were presented in this summary and included details of thermal envelopes; residential heating, air-conditioning and ventilation; household appliances; hot water; lighting; and Energy Star systems and appliances. The survey covered over 11 million households in all 10 Canadian provinces. Data were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews with owners, renters, landlords and property managers. It was observed that the average heated area of a Canadian dwelling was 1321 square feet, and that dwellings constructed after 1979 were larger and more energy efficient than previous dwellings. The majority of households located west of Quebec used natural gas, whereas the majority of Quebec households used electricity. Households in the Atlantic region used both electricity and oil. Penetration rates for high efficiency furnaces using natural gas, propane or oil furnaces was 62 per cent among dwellings built between 1990-2003. It was noted that more basements, attics, crawlspaces and garages are now being insulated. An increasing number of households use both a main and a secondary refrigerator. Nearly 25 per cent of households used 3 or more televisions. The use of central and window/room air-conditioners has increased, with Ontario households accounting for more than 60 per cent of all air-conditioning systems. Nearly 25 per cent of light bulbs were energy-efficient bulbs. It was also observed that Energy Star products have had a high penetration since the inception of the Energy Star initiative. However, a significant number of households were not aware if their products were Energy Star qualified. tabs., figs.

  15. Indonesia's Domestic Biogas Programme – Household panel survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedi, Arjun S.; Sparrow, Robert; Tasciotti, Luca

    2018-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research paper titled, “The impact of a household biogas programme on energy use and expenditure in East Java” (A.S. Bedi, R. Sparrow, L. Tasciotti, 2017) [1]. This Data in Brief article presents two rounds of survey data conducted in 2011 and

  16. Sexual debut in Mexico: a comparison of household national surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Gayet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate calendar of sexual debut in Mexico and its trends using national representative household surveys. Materials and methods. Analysis of five birth cohorts extracted from four national population based household surveys in Mexico (National Health Survey 2000, National Survey on Demographic Dynamics 2009, National Youth Survey 2010, and National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, using as outcome the proportion of individuals that reported sexual debut before the age of 16 and before the age of 20. Results. Overall, the four analyzed surveys produce consistent results, although some differences were found. While a larger proportion among younger cohorts reported sexual debut before the age of 20, that was not the case for sexual debut before 16 years. Conclusions. While data seems to reflect a relative stable age of sexual debut in Mexico, there is a recent trend to prepone sexual initiation that highlights the need to strengthen comprehensive sexual education and the supply of sexual and reproductive health services that are accessible and friendly to adolescents thus responding to the growing demand from this age group.

  17. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. O' Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  18. The use of income information of census enumeration area as a proxy for the household income in a household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fabio S; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Tl; Anjos, Luiz A

    2009-09-22

    Some of the Census Enumeration Areas' (CEA) information may help planning the sample of population studies but it can also be used for some analyses that require information that is more difficult to obtain at the individual or household level, such as income. This paper verifies if the income information of CEA can be used as a proxy for household income in a household survey. A population-based survey conducted from January to December 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Uniform semi-association models were adjusted in order to obtain information about the agreement/disagreement structure of data. The distribution of nutritional status categories of the population of Niterói according to income quintiles was performed using both CEA- and household-level income measures and then compared using Wald statistics for homogeneity. Body mass index was calculated using body mass and stature data measured in the households and then used to define nutritional status categories according to the World Health Organization. All estimates and statistics were calculated accounting for the structural information of the sample design and a significance level lower than 5% was adopted. The classification of households in the quintiles of household income was associated with the classification of these households in the quintiles of CEA income. The distribution of the nutritional status categories in all income quintiles did not differ significantly according to the source of income information (household or CEA) used in the definition of quintiles. The structure of agreement/disagreement between quintiles of the household's monthly per capita income and quintiles of the head-of-household's mean nominal monthly income of the CEA, as well as the results produced by these measures when they were associated with the nutritional status of the population, showed that the CEA's income information can be used when income

  19. National Alcohol Survey of households in Trinidad and Tobago (NASHTT: Alcohol use in households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Maharaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the patterns of alcohol use among households in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T and to estimate the association between alcohol use and negative psychological, social, or physical events experienced by the household. Methods A convenience sample of 1837 households across T&T. We identified bivariate correlates of alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking using chi-square and t-test analyses and used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted associations between household alcohol use and experiences within the past 12 months adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Results One thousand five hundred two households had complete data for all variables (82% response rate. Nearly two thirds (64% of households included alcohol users; 57% of household that consumed alcohol also reported heavy episodic drinking. Households that reported alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to report illnesses within the households, relationship problems, and behavioral and antisocial problems with children. Among households where a member was employed, those who consumed alcohol were nearly twice as likely (OR = 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03, 3.82 to have a household member call in sick to work and 2.9 times as likely (OR = 2.9; CI 1.19, 7.04 to have a household member suffer work related problems compared with households who reported not consuming alcohol. Conclusions Approximately two thirds of households in T&T reported using alcohol. These households were more likely to report psychological, physical, and social problems. These findings would support efforts to enforce current policies, laws, and regulations as well as new strategies to reduce the impact of harmful alcohol consumption on households in T&T.

  20. The use of income information of census enumeration area as a proxy for the household income in a household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Mauricio TL

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some of the Census Enumeration Areas' (CEA information may help planning the sample of population studies but it can also be used for some analyses that require information that is more difficult to obtain at the individual or household level, such as income. This paper verifies if the income information of CEA can be used as a proxy for household income in a household survey. Methods A population-based survey conducted from January to December 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Uniform semi-association models were adjusted in order to obtain information about the agreement/disagreement structure of data. The distribution of nutritional status categories of the population of Niterói according to income quintiles was performed using both CEA- and household-level income measures and then compared using Wald statistics for homogeneity. Body mass index was calculated using body mass and stature data measured in the households and then used to define nutritional status categories according to the World Health Organization. All estimates and statistics were calculated accounting for the structural information of the sample design and a significance level lower than 5% was adopted. Results The classification of households in the quintiles of household income was associated with the classification of these households in the quintiles of CEA income. The distribution of the nutritional status categories in all income quintiles did not differ significantly according to the source of income information (household or CEA used in the definition of quintiles. Conclusion The structure of agreement/disagreement between quintiles of the household's monthly per capita income and quintiles of the head-of-household's mean nominal monthly income of the CEA, as well as the results produced by these measures when they were associated with the nutritional status of the population

  1. BEHAVIOR RISK FACTORS IN INDONESIA: NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD HEALTH SURVEY 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. M. Kristanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of National Household Health Surveys (NHHS reported the occurrence of epidemiological transition caused by demographic transition and prolonged economical diversity, Communicable diseases are still prevalent, followed by the emergence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs, which are due to an increasing level of behavior risk factors in the population. In the NHHS 2001, a morbidity survey collected information about behavioral risk indicators, whereas the WHO'S STEPwise approach was one of the study instruments. The 'WHO Step 1 questionnaire' was adapted with some modifications. Samples of NHHS, morbidity survey was sub-sample of module sample of National Social Economic Survey (NSES 2001. A sample of 15,148 people aged 10 years+ were analyzed to identify their behavior regarding smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. These findings are a representation of the national figures, which were presented by characteristics of the population such as: sex, age, residence, region and economic status. Economic status was divided into 5 strata, which were calculated from a quintile of household expenditure. The results showed that 29.7% of the population aged 10 years+ are daily smokers. This is more prevalent in males than females (58.9% vs. 3.7%. This behavior increases by age group, except for the oldest; there are slightly more smokers in rural areas than urban areas (31% vs. 28%, and no difference among regions (30-31%. Those with better economic status are less likely to smoke than poorer ones. Alcohol consumption is reportedly very low (2.7%, more prevalent in males than females (4.9% vs. 0.8%, and higher in rural areas than urban areas (3.1% vs. 2.1%. Eastern Indonesia, was higher than Sumatra, Java and Bali (6.3%, 4.7%, and 1.2% respectively. There were no differences in alcohol consumption according to economic status'.' Physical inactivity is very high (68%, more prevalent in females than males (73% vs. 63%, and higher in

  2. 75 FR 5370 - Notice of Request for Clearance of an Information Collection: Omnibus Household Survey Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    .../tolerance of transportation security risk management procedures Information on journey to work...-2010-0001] Notice of Request for Clearance of an Information Collection: Omnibus Household Survey... Household Survey Program. Background: In 2005, Congress passed, and the President signed, the Safe...

  3. Using a Calendar and Explanatory Instructions to Aid Within-Household Selection in Mail Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Mathew; Smyth, Jolene D.; Olson, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Although researchers can easily select probability samples of addresses using the U.S. Postal Service's Delivery Sequence File, randomly selecting respondents within households for surveys remains challenging. Researchers often place within-household selection instructions, such as the next or last birthday methods, in survey cover letters to…

  4. GPS-based household interview survey for the Cincinnati, Ohio Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Methods for Conducting a Large-Scale GPS-Only Survey of Households: Past Household Travel Surveys (HTS) in the United States have only piloted small subsamples of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) completes compared with 1-2 day self-reported travel i...

  5. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements

  6. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, Shonali E-mail: shonali.pachauri@cepe.mavt.ethz.ch

    2004-10-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements.

  7. Debts of Cyprus Households: Lessons from the First Cyprus Survey of Consumer Finances

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Haliassos; Christis Hassapis; Alex Karagrigoriou; George Kyriacou; Michalis C. Michael; George Syrichas

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes participation of Cyprus households in various debts using data from the first (1999) Cyprus Survey of Consumer Finances. It complements our previous paper that described household participation in various types of assets (Haliassos et al., 2001). Debts considered encompass personal unsecured loans, including credit card debt, and loans secured by housing collateral, mainly mortgage debt. Findings are of policy interest, as they show the extent of household participation i...

  8. Catastrophic household expenditure on health in Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    To determine the incidence of - and illnesses commonly associated with - catastrophic household expenditure on health in Nepal. We did a cross-sectional population-based survey in five municipalities of Kathmandu Valley between November 2011 and January 2012. For each household surveyed, out-of-pocket spending on health in the previous 30 days that exceeded 10% of the household's total expenditure over the same period was considered to be catastrophic. We estimated the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure. We identified the illnesses most commonly associated with such expenditure using a Poisson regression model and assessed the distribution of expenditure by economic quintile of households using the concentration index. Overall, 284 of the 1997 households studied in Kathmandu, i.e. 13.8% after adjustment by sampling weight, reported catastrophic health expenditure in the 30 days before the survey. After adjusting for confounders, this expenditure was found to be associated with injuries, particularly those resulting from road traffic accidents. Catastrophic expenditure by households in the poorest quintile were associated with at least one episode of diabetes, asthma or heart disease. In an urban area of Nepal, catastrophic household expenditure on health was mostly associated with injuries and noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and asthma. Throughout Nepal, interventions for the control and management of noncommunicable diseases and the prevention of road traffic accidents should be promoted. A phased introduction of health insurance should also reduce the incidence of catastrophic household expenditure.

  9. 77 FR 65201 - Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... eligible areas. Harvest survey data help to ensure that customary and traditional subsistence uses of... harvest report form. We have designed the survey methods to streamline procedures and reduce respondent...-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Household Survey...

  10. Epidemiological patterns of mental disorders and stigma in a community household survey in urban slum and rural settings in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutiso, Victoria N.; Musyimi, Christine W.; Tomita, Andrew; Loeffen, Lianne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Ndetei, David M.

    Purpose: This study investigated the epidemiological patterns of mental illness and stigma in community households in Kenya using a cross-sectional community household survey among 846 participants. Methods: A cross-sectional community household survey was conducted around urban slum (Kangemi) and

  11. How much are households willing to contribute to the cost recovery of drinking water supply? Results from a household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tarfasa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial resources are crucial to improve existing urban drinking water supply in developing countries typically characterized by low cost recovery rates and high and rapidly growing demand for more reliable services. This study examines the willingness to pay for improved urban drinking water supply employing a choice model (CM in an urban context in Ethiopia, Hawassa, with a household survey of 170 respondents. The design of the choice model allows the estimation of the values of two attributes of urban drinking water service (extra day water delivery per week and safer water. The findings indicate that households are willing to pay up to 60% extra for improved levels of water supply over and above their current water bill. Especially those households living in the poorest part of the city with the lowest service levels demonstrate that they are willing to pay more despite significant income constraints they are facing. Women value the improvement of water quality most, while a significant effect is found for averting behavior and expenditures. The estimated economic values can be used in policy appraisals of investment decisions.

  12. Characterizing Walk Trips in communities by Using Data from 2009 National Household Travel Survey, American Community Survey, and Other Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [Macrosys; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Murakami, Elaine [FHWA USDOT

    2013-01-01

    Non-motorized travel (i.e. walking and bicycling) are of increasing interest to the transportation profession, especially in context with energy consumption, reducing vehicular congestion, urban development patterns, and promotion of healthier life styles. This research project aimed to identify factors impacting the amount of travel for both walk and bike trips at the Census block group or tract level, using several public and private data sources. The key survey of travel behavior is the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) which had over 87,000 walk trips for persons 16 and over, and over 6000 bike trips for persons 16 and over. The NHTS, in conjunction with the Census Bureau s American Community Survey, street density measures using Census Bureau TIGER, WalkScore , Nielsen Claritas employment estimates, and several other sources were used for this study. Stepwise Logistic Regression modeling techniques as well as Discriminant Analysis were applied using the integrated data set. While the models performed reasonably well for walk trips, travel by bike was abandoned due to sparseness of data. This paper discusses data sources utilized and modeling processes conducted under this study. It also presents a summary of findings and addresses data challenges and lesson-learned from this research effort.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting of Urban Residential Consumption: A Household Survey Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  15. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households׳ energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jridi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG. The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015 [2].

  16. Burden of Surgical Conditions in Uganda: A Cross-sectional Nationwide Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tu M; Fuller, Anthony T; Butler, Elissa K; Makumbi, Fredrick; Luboga, Samuel; Muhumuza, Christine; Ssennono, Vincent F; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Galukande, Moses; Haglund, Michael M

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the burden of surgical conditions in Uganda. Data on the burden of disease have long served as a cornerstone to health policymaking, planning, and resource allocation. Population-based data are the gold standard, but no data on surgical burden at a national scale exist; therefore, we adapted the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need survey and conducted a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of Uganda to quantify the burden of surgically treatable conditions. The 2-stage cluster sample included 105 enumeration areas, representing 74 districts and Kampala Capital City Authority. Enumeration occurred from August 20 to September 12, 2014. In each enumeration area, 24 households were randomly selected; the head of the household provided details regarding any household deaths within the previous 12 months. Two household members were randomly selected for a head-to-toe verbal interview to determine existing untreated and treated surgical conditions. In 2315 households, we surveyed 4248 individuals: 461 (10.6%) reported 1 or more conditions requiring at least surgical consultation [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9%-12.4%]. The most frequent barrier to surgical care was the lack of financial resources for the direct cost of care. Of the 153 household deaths recalled, 53 deaths (34.2%; 95% CI 22.1%-46.3%) were associated with surgically treatable signs/symptoms. Shortage of time was the most frequently cited reason (25.8%) among the 11.6% household deaths that should have, but did not, receive surgical care (95% CI 6.4%-16.8%). Unmet surgical need is prevalent in Uganda. There is an urgent need to expand the surgical care delivery system starting with the district-level hospitals. Routine surgical data collection at both the health facility and household level should be implemented.

  17. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  18. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  19. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  20. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  1. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1982)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  2. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1988)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  3. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  4. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  5. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1985)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  6. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1996)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  7. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  8. Characteristics of residential energy consumption in China: Findings from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu; Qin, Ping; Guo, Jin; Yu, Yihua; Song, Feng; Chen, Zhanming

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of 1450 households in 26 Chinese provinces was undertaken in 2012 to identify the characteristics and potential driving forces of residential energy consumption in China. The survey covers six areas: household characteristics, dwelling characteristics, kitchen and home appliances, space heating and cooling, residential transportation, and electricity billing, metering, and pricing options. The results show that a typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms standard coal equivalent, which is approximately 44 percent of the 2009 level in the United States and 38 percent of the 2008 level in the EU-27. District heating, natural gas, and electricity are three major residential energy sources, while space heating, cooking, and water heating are three major end-use activities. Moreover, the results suggest a large urban–rural gap in terms of energy sources and purpose of usage. Commercial energy is used mainly for space heating in urban areas, while biomass dominates mainly for cooking purpose in rural areas. The survey results can help decision makers and scholars identify energy conservation opportunities, and evaluate the effectiveness of energy policies. - Highlights: • We develop the first comprehensive survey of residential energy consumption in China. • A typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms coal equivalent. • Space heating accounts for half of energy demand. • A large rural–urban gap exists in terms of energy sources and end-use activities. • Results reveal challenges and opportunities for China's energy policy

  9. Costing Household Surveys for Monitoring Progress Toward Ending Extreme Poverty and Boosting Shared Prosperity

    OpenAIRE

    Kilic, Talip; Serajuddin, Umar; Uematsu, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    On October 15, 2015, World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim announced the World Bank Group’s commitment to support the 78 poorest countries to implement a multi-topic household survey every three years between 2016 and 2030, for monitoring progress toward ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. This paper estimates the resource requirements to achieve the objectives of impl...

  10. Investigation into the phenomenon of reduced household travel survey derived trip generation rates in Gauteng Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gauteng Province has carried out two household travel surveys (HTS) – the first was carried out in 2000 and the recent one was completed in 2014. HTSs are the mainstay of transport planning and modelling, being used by the province to update...

  11. Knowledge and opinions about banking supervision : Evidence from a survey of Dutch households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.; Jansen, D.J.; de Haan, J.; Mosch, R.H.J.

    What does the general public know about banking supervision? What objectives does the public think bank supervisors should pursue? We investigate these issues using a survey among Dutch households. First, we find that the public's knowledge about banking supervision is far from perfect. We also find

  12. Household costs among patients hospitalized with malaria: evidence from a national survey in Malawi, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessee, Ian; Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Briggs-Hagen, Melissa; Bauleni, Andy; Shah, Monica P; Chalira, Alfred; Moyo, Dubulao; Dodoli, Wilfred; Luhanga, Misheck; Sande, John; Ali, Doreen; Gutman, Julie; Lindblade, Kim A; Njau, Joseph; Mathanga, Don P

    2017-10-02

    With 71% of Malawians living on malaria are likely a major economic burden for low income families and may constitute an important barrier to care seeking. Nevertheless, few efforts have been made to examine these costs. This paper describes household costs associated with seeking and receiving inpatient care for malaria in health facilities in Malawi. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative nationwide sample of 36 health facilities providing inpatient treatment for malaria from June-August, 2012. Patients admitted at least 12 h before study team visits who had been prescribed an antimalarial after admission were eligible to provide cost information for their malaria episode, including care seeking at previous health facilities. An ingredients-based approach was used to estimate direct costs. Indirect costs were estimated using a human capital approach. Key drivers of total household costs for illness episodes resulting in malaria admission were assessed by fitting a generalized linear model, accounting for clustering at the health facility level. Out of 100 patients who met the eligibility criteria, 80 (80%) provided cost information for their entire illness episode to date and were included: 39% of patients were under 5 years old and 75% had sought care for the malaria episode at other facilities prior to coming to the current facility. Total household costs averaged $17.48 per patient; direct and indirect household costs averaged $7.59 and $9.90, respectively. Facility management type, household distance from the health facility, patient age, high household wealth, and duration of hospital stay were all significant drivers of overall costs. Although malaria treatment is supposed to be free in public health facilities, households in Malawi still incur high direct and indirect costs for malaria illness episodes that result in hospital admission. Finding ways to minimize the economic burden of inpatient malaria care is crucial to protect

  13. Financial access to health care in Karuzi, Burundi: a household-survey based performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Evans, Sophie; Ponsar, Frederique; Reid, Tony; Bachy, Catherine; Van Herp, Michel; Philips, Mit

    2009-10-24

    In 2003, Médecins Sans Frontières, the provincial government, and the provincial health authority began a community project to guarantee financial access to primary health care in Karuzi province, Burundi. The project used a community-based assessment to provide exemption cards for indigent households and a reduced flat fee for consultations for all other households. An evaluation was carried out in 2005 to assess the impact of this project. Primary data collection was through a cross-sectional household survey of the catchment areas of 10 public health centres. A questionnaire was used to determine the accuracy of the community-identification method, households' access to health care, and costs of care. Household socioeconomic status was determined by reported expenditures and access to land. Financial access to care at the nearest health centre was ensured for 70% of the population. Of the remaining 30%, half experienced financial barriers to access and the other half chose alternative sites of care. The community-based assessment increased the number of people of the population who qualified for fee exemptions to 8.6% but many people who met the indigent criteria did not receive a card. Eighty-eight percent of the population lived under the poverty threshold. Referring to the last sickness episode, 87% of households reported having no money available and 25% risked further impoverishment because of healthcare costs even with the financial support system in place. The flat fee policy was found to reduce cost barriers for some households but, given the generalized poverty in the area, the fee still posed a significant financial burden. This report showed the limits of a programme of fee exemption for indigent households and a flat fee for others in a context of widespread poverty.

  14. Assessing floods and droughts in the Mékrou River basin (West Africa): a combined household survey and climatic trends analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markantonis, Vasileios; Farinosi, Fabio; Dondeynaz, Celine; Ameztoy, Iban; Pastori, Marco; Marletta, Luca; Ali, Abdou; Carmona Moreno, Cesar

    2018-05-01

    The assessment of natural hazards such as floods and droughts is a complex issue that demands integrated approaches and high-quality data. Especially in African developing countries, where information is limited, the assessment of floods and droughts, though an overarching issue that influences economic and social development, is even more challenging. This paper presents an integrated approach to assessing crucial aspects of floods and droughts in the transboundary Mékrou River basin (a portion of the Niger River basin in West Africa), combining climatic trends analysis and the findings of a household survey. The multivariable trend analysis estimates, at the biophysical level, the climate variability and the occurrence of floods and droughts. These results are coupled with an analysis of household survey data that reveals the behaviour and opinions of local residents regarding the observed climate variability and occurrence of flood and drought events, household mitigation measures, and the impacts of floods and droughts. Based on survey data analysis, the paper provides a per-household cost estimation of floods and droughts that occurred over a 2-year period (2014-2015). Furthermore, two econometric models are set up to identify the factors that influence the costs of floods and droughts to impacted households.

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Data from a Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ghattas

    Full Text Available Lebanon hosts the highest per capita refugee concentration worldwide. The Palestinian presence in Lebanon dates from 1948 and they remain a marginalized population. No information on their food security status has been reported previously. A survey of a representative sample of Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon (n = 2501 was conducted using a stratified two stage cluster sampling approach. We measured food insecurity using a modified USDA household food security module, locally validated. We collected data on household demographic, socioeconomic, health, housing, coping strategies and household intake of food groups and analysed these by food security status. About 41% (CI: 39-43 of households reported being food insecure and 20% (CI: 18-22 severely food insecure. Poor households were more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.41 (1.06-1.86 while higher education of the head of household was significantly associated with protection against severe food insecurity (OR 0.66 (0.52-0.84. Additionally, higher food expenditure and possession of food-related assets were significantly associated with food security (OR 0.93 (0.89-0.97 and OR 0.74 (0.59-0.92, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, households where at least one member suffered from an acute illness remained significantly more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.31(1.02-1.66, as were households whose proxy respondent reported poor mental health (OR 2.64 (2.07-3.38 and poor self-reported health (OR 1.62 (1.22-2.13. Severely food insecure households were more likely to eat cheaper foods when compared to non-severely food insecure households (p<0.001 and were more likely to rely on gifts (p<0.001 or welfare (p<0.001. They were also more likely to have exhausted all coping strategies, indicating significantly more frequently that they could not do anything (p = 0.0102. Food insecurity is a significant problem among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and is likely to be

  16. Alcohol Use and STI among men in India: Evidences from a national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol use has been found to correlate with risky sexual behavior as well as with sexually transmitted infections (STI among populations with high-risk behavior in India. Objective: To examine the correlates of alcohol use and its association with STI among adult men in India. Materials and Methods: Data from a national representative large-scale household sample survey in the country were used. It included information on sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use as a part of substance use. Clinical as well laboratory testing was done to ascertain the STI. Results: The overall STI prevalence among adult males was found to be 2.5% (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.9-3.1. Over 26% adult men were found to have been using alcohol in the study population. It was higher among men who were illiterate and unskilled industrial workers/drivers. The men who consumed alcohol had higher prevalence of STI (3.6%; 95% CI: 2.9-5.1 than those who did not consume alcohol (2.1%; 95% CI: 1.5-2.6. The degree of association between alcoholism and STI was slightly reduced after adjusting for various sociodemographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 0.9-2.3; P=0.06. Conclusions: The findings of present study suggest integrating alcohol risk reduction into STI/HIV prevention programmes.

  17. National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM: household survey component methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotero Serrate Mengue

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methodological aspects of the household survey National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM related to sampling design and implementation, the actual obtained sample, instruments and fieldwork. METHODS A cross-sectional, population-based study with probability sampling in three stages of the population living in households located in Brazilian urban areas. Fieldwork was carried out between September 2013 and February 2014. The data collection instrument included questions related to: information about households, residents and respondents; chronic diseases and medicines used; use of health services; acute diseases and events treated with drugs; use of contraceptives; use of pharmacy services; behaviors that may affect drug use; package inserts and packaging; lifestyle and health insurance. RESULTS In total, 41,433 interviews were carried out in 20,404 households and 576 urban clusters corresponding to 586 census tracts distributed in the five Brazilian regions, according to eight domains defined by age and gender. CONCLUSIONS The results of the survey may be used as a baseline for future studies aiming to assess the impact of government action on drug access and use. For local studies using a compatible method, PNAUM may serve as a reference point to evaluate variations in space and population. With a comprehensive evaluation of drug-related aspects, PNAUM is a major source of data for a variety of analyses to be carried out both at academic and government level.

  18. Determinants of Household Water Conservation Retrofit Activity: A Discrete Choice Model Using Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, T. A.; Wright, M. B.

    1990-02-01

    Economic analyses of residential water demand have typically concentrated on price and income elasticities. In the short run a substantial change in water prices might induce only small changes in consumption levels. As time passes, however, households will have the opportunity to "retrofit" existing water-using equipment to make it less water-intensive. This produces medium- to long-run demand elasticities that are higher than short-run studies suggest. We examine responses to water conservation questions appearing on the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's 1983 residential energy survey. We find that households' decisions to install shower retrofit devices are influenced by the potential to save money on water heating bills. We attribute toilet retrofit decisions more to noneconomic factors which might be characterized as "general conservation mindedness." The endogeneity of these retrofit decisions casts some doubt on the results of studies of individual households that treat voluntary retrofits as exogenous.

  19. Telephone versus face-to-face interviewing for household drug use surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, W S

    1992-01-01

    This research investigated the use of telephone versus face-to-face interviewing to gather data on the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. Telephone and personal drug use surveys of the 18-34 year-old household population were conducted in the state of New Jersey in 1986-1987. Survey modes were compared in terms of unit and item nonresponse rates, sample coverage, and levels of self-reported drug use. Results showed that the telephone survey achieved response rates lower than the personal survey, but comparable to telephone surveys of less threatening topics. Item nonresponse to sensitive drug questions was lower by phone than with the self-administered answer sheets in the personal mode. The exclusion of households without telephones in the telephone survey is a potential source of bias, and may lead to underestimation of alcohol and drug use for minority populations. After controlling for telephone status, the telephone survey furnished significantly lower drug use estimates on several indicators than the personal survey, with the largest mode differences found for Blacks.

  20. Identifying electricity-saving potential in rural China: Empirical evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yihua; Guo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a fast-growing body of literature examining energy-saving potential in relation to electricity. However, empirical studies focusing on non-Western nations are limited. To fill this gap, this study intends to examine the electricity-saving potential of rural households in China using a unique data set from the China Residential Electricity Consumption Survey (CRECS) in collaboration with the China General Social Survey (CGSS), conducted nationwide at the household level in rural China. We use a stochastic frontier model, which allows us to decompose residential electricity consumption into the minimum necessary amount of consumption based on physical characteristics (e.g. house size, house age, number of televisions or refrigerators) and estimate the consumption slack (i.e. the amount of electricity consumption that could be saved), which depends on various factors. We find that rural households in China are generally efficient in electricity saving and the saving potential is affected by (fast) information feedback and social-demographic characteristics, instead of by the (averaged) electricity price, or energy efficiency labelling signals. In addition, we find no evidence of regional heterogeneity on electricity saving potential for rural households. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: •Electricity saving potential of rural households in China is examined. •Unique survey data from the CRECS in collaboration with the CGSS are used. •A stochastic frontier model is applied. •Information feedback and social-demographic characteristics matter. •Electricity price or energy efficiency tier rating does not matter.

  1. Obesity awareness among elders living in rural area: a household survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maycon Sousa Pegorari; Alisson Fernandes Bolina; Darlene Mara dos Santos Tavares

    2017-01-01

    The acceptance of the disease is essential to health self-care, elder’s awareness regarding obesity is suggested to influence their search for health services, and consequently, in obesity’s treatment. This study aimed to verify obesity awareness of elders living in rural areas and associated socioeconomic and demographic factors. We conducted a cross-sectional household survey with 562 individuals, who were older than 60 years and were rural residents from a Brazil southeast city. The identi...

  2. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  3. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Newman

    Full Text Available Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized.The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages.Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person.We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability.Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval of having 0-2, 3-6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6-19.3, 32.4% (31.0-33.9, and 49.6% (47.8-51.4, respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education.About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability.

  4. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sarah L.; Tumin, Rachel; Andridge, Rebecca; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized. Design The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Setting Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years) who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person). Subjects We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability. Results Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of having 0–2, 3–6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6–19.3), 32.4% (31.0–33.9), and 49.6% (47.8–51.4), respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education. Conclusions About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability. PMID:26636976

  5. Activity markers and household space in Swahili urban contexts: An integrated geoarchaeological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynne-Jones, Stephanie; Sulas, Federica

    , this paper draws from recent work at a Swahili urban site to illustrate the potential and challenges of an integrated geoarchaeological approach to the study of household space. The site of Songo Mnara (14th–16thc. AD) thrived as a Swahili stonetown off the coast of Tanzania. Here, our work has concentrated...

  6. Long-lasting insecticidal net source, ownership and use in the context of universal coverage: a household survey in eastern Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateera, Fredrick; Ingabire, Chantal M; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Karinda, Parfait; Grobusch, Martin P; Mutesa, Leon; van Vugt, Michèle; Mens, Petra F

    2015-10-06

    Universal long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage (ULC) has reduced malaria morbidity and mortality across Africa. Although information is available on bed net use in specific groups, such as pregnant women and children under 5 years, there is paucity of data on their use among the general population. Bed net source, ownership and determinants of use among individuals from households in an eastern Rwanda community 8 months after a ULC were characterized. Using household-based, interviewer-administered questionnaires and interviewer-direct observations, data on bed net source, ownership and key determinants of net use, including demographics, socio-economic status indicators, house structure characteristics, as well as of bed net quantity, type and integrity, were collected from 1400 randomly selected households. Univariate and mixed effects logistic regression modelling was done to assess for determinants of bed net use. A total of 1410 households and 6598 individuals were included in the study. Overall, the proportion of households with at least one net was 92 % while bed net usage was reported among 72 % of household members. Of the households surveyed, a total ownership of 2768 nets was reported, of which about 96 % were reportedly LLINs received from the ULC. By interviewer-physical observation, 88 % of the nets owned were of the LLIN type with the remaining 12 % did not carry any mark to enable type recognition. The odds of bed net use were significantly lower among males and individuals: from households of low socio-economic status, from households with economic status, number of bed nets and type and number of sleeping spaces were key determinants of bed net use. To maximize impact of ULC, strategies that target males as well as those that ensure ITN coverage for all, address barriers to feasible and convenient bed net use including covering over all sleeping space types, and provide net hanging supports, are needed.

  7. Health and human rights: a statistical measurement framework using household survey data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesonga, Ronald; Owino, Abraham; Ssekiboobo, Agnes; Atuhaire, Leonard; Jehopio, Peter

    2015-05-03

    Health is intertwined with human rights as is clearly reflected in the right to life. Promotion of health practices in the context of human rights can be accomplished if there is a better understanding of the level of human rights observance. In this paper, we evaluate and present an appraisal for a possibility of applying household survey to study the determinants of health and human rights and also derive the probability that human rights are observed; an important ingredient into the national planning framework. Data from the Uganda National Governance Baseline Survey were used. A conceptual framework for predictors of a hybrid dependent variable was developed and both bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques employed. Multivariate post estimation computations were derived after evaluations of the significance of coefficients of health and human rights predictors. Findings, show that household characteristics of respondents considered in this study were statistically significant (p human rights observance. For example, a unit increase of respondents' schooling levels results in an increase of about 34% level of positively assessing human rights observance. Additionally, the study establishes, through the three models presented, that household assessment of health and human rights observance was 20% which also represents how much of the entire continuum of human rights is demanded. Findings propose important evidence for monitoring and evaluation of health in the context human rights using household survey data. They provide a benchmark for health and human rights assessments with a focus on international and national development plans to achieve socio-economic transformation and health in society.

  8. An integral evaluation of dieselisation policies for households' cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Reducing energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the transport sector is a priority for Great Britain and other European countries as part of their agreements made in the Kyoto protocol and the Voluntary Agreement. To achieve these goals, it has been proposed to increase the market share of diesel vehicles which are more efficient than petrol ones. Based on partial approaches, previous research concluded that increasing the share of diesel vehicles will decrease CO 2 emissions (see ; ). Unlike these approaches, I use an integral approach based on discrete choice models to analyse diesel vehicle penetration in a broader context of transport in Great Britain. I provide for the first time, empirical evidence which is in line with argument that only improvements in vehicle efficiency will not be enough to achieve their goals of mitigation of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. The model shows the technical limitations that the penetration of diesel vehicles faces and that a combination of improvements in public transportation and taxes on fuel prices is the most effective policy combination to reduce the total amount of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions among the analysed dieselisation polices. - Highlights: → Unlike other approaches, I use an integral one to analyse diesel vehicle penetration. → It is needed to make diesel cars lighter and accessible to all kind of drivers. → Having more diesel vehicles will not reduce the amount of energy and CO 2 emissions. → It provides empirical evidence of the effect of improving vehicle efficiency. → Taxing petrol cars and improving public transportation is the more efficient policy.

  9. Modelling household responses to energy efficiency interventions via system dynamics and survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Davis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An application of building a system dynamics model of the way households might respond to interventions aimed at reducing energy consumption (specifically the use of electricity is described in this paper. A literature review of past research is used to build an initial integrated model of household consumption, and this model is used to generate a small number of research hypotheses about how households possessing different characteristics might react to various types of interventions. These hypotheses are tested using data gathered from an efficiency intervention conducted in a town in the South African Western Cape in which households were able to exchange regular light bulbs for more efficient compact fluorescent lamp light bulbs. Our experiences are (a that a system dynamics approach proved useful in advancing a non-traditional point of view for which, for historical and economic reasons, data were not abundantly available; (b that, in areas where traditional models are heavily quantitative, some scepticism to a system dynamics model may be expected; and (c that a statistical comparison of model results by means of empirical data may be an effective tool in reducing such scepticism.

  10. Epidemiology of Unintentional Child Injuries in the Makwanpur District of Nepal: A Household Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspa Raj Pant

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary sources of information indicate that the proportion of child deaths due to injuries is increasing in Nepal. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of unintentional injuries in children, explore risk factors and estimate the burden faced by families and the community in the Makwanpur district. We conducted a household survey in Makwanpur, covering 3441 households. Injuries that occurred during the 12 months before the survey and required treatment or caused the child to be unable to take part in usual activities for three or more days were included. We identified 193 cases of non-fatal unintentional child injuries from 181 households and estimated an annual rate of non-fatal injuries of 24.6/1000 children; rates for boys were double (32.7/1000 that for girls (16.8/1000. The rates were higher among the children of age groups 1–4 years and 5–9 years. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal child injuries followed by burns in preschool children and road traffic injuries were the most likely cause in adolescence. Mean period of disability following injury was 25 days. The rates and the mechanisms of injury vary by age and gender. Falls and burns are currently the most common mechanisms of injury amongst young children around rural homes.

  11. Opinions on cell phone use on airplanes, congestion, and telecommuting — from the 2006 and 2007 Omnibus Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The annual Omnibus Household Survey (OHS), administered by the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), asks respondents about their weekly travel habits, journey to work, opinions about the transportation syst...

  12. Emergence of Wealth Inequality in China: Evidence from Rural Household Survey, 1986 -2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongwon Yoo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on relatively recent household survey data (1986 2000 in rural China, this paper analyzes the composition and inequality in non-land wealth. We first document the evolution of rural households wealth during the sample period. Our results show that the housing assets have played a dominant role in their wealth composition although the share of the assets tends to decrease during the period. We also observe that financial and fixed assets have become relatively important in their wealth composition. Based on various inequality measures we are able to provide consistent evidence that the inequality of wealth distribution has worsened in rural China. We find that financial asset holdings appear to have significant unequalizing effect on the total non-land wealth distribution, mostly due to the growing differential in rural non-farm opportunities.

  13. An Overview of Food Patterns and Diet Quality in Qatar: Findings from the National Household Income Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Hammad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Availability of accurate data pertaining to a population’s dietary patterns and associated health outcomes is critical for proper development and implementation of related policies. This article is a first attempt to share the food patterns, amounts and diet quality among households (HH) in Qatar. Methods Data from the 2012-2013 Qatar National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was used. This cross-sectional survey included 3723 HH (1826 Qatar...

  14. An Overview of Food Patterns and Diet Quality in Qatar: Findings from the National Household Income Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Thani, Mohammed; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud; Al-Mahdi, Nasser; Al-Kareem, Hefzi; Barakat, Darine; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Tawfik, Afaf; Akram, Hammad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Availability of accurate data pertaining to a population?s dietary patterns and associated health outcomes is critical for proper development and implementation of related policies. This article is a first?attempt to share the food patterns, amounts and diet quality among households (HH) in Qatar. Methods Data from the 2012-2013 Qatar National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was used. This cross-sectional survey included 3723 HH (1826 Qatari HH and 1897 non-Qatari ...

  15. Household food security in Isfahan based on current population survey adapted questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Rafiei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food security is a state in which all people at every time have physical and economic access to adequate food to obviate nutritional needs and live a healthy and active life. Therefore, this study was performed to quantitatively evaluate the household food security in Esfahan using the localized version of US Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in year 2006 on 3000 households of Esfahan. The study instrument used in this work is 18-item US food security module, which is developed into a localized 15-item questionnaire. This study is performed in two stages of families with no children (under 18 years old and families with children over 18 years old. Results: The results showed that item severity coefficient, ratio of responses given by households and item infit and outfit coefficient in adult′s and children′s questionnaire respectively. According to obtained data, scale score of +3 in adults group is described as determination limit of slight food insecurity and +6 is stated as the limit for severe food insecurity. For children′s group, scale score of +2 is defined to be the limit of slight food insecurity and +5 is the determination limit of severe food insecurity. Conclusions: The main hypothesis of this survey analysis is based on the raw scale score of USFSSM The item of "lack of enough money for buying food" (item 2 and the item of "lack of balanced meal" (3 rd item have the lowest severity coefficient. Then, the ascending rate of item severity continues in first item, 4 th item and keeps increasing into 10 th item.

  16. Early Childhood Program Participation, Results from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016. First Look. NCES 2017-101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Lisa; Steinley, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016 (NHES:2016). The Early Childhood Program Participation Survey collected data on children's participation in relative care, nonrelative care, and center-based care arrangements. It also collected…

  17. National Household Education Surveys Program of 2012: Data File User's Manual. Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey. Early Childhood Program Participation Survey. NCES 2015-030

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, C.; Bielick, S.; Masterton, M.; Flores, L.; Parmer, R.; Amchin, S.; Stern, S.; McGowan, H.

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES:2012) Data File User's Manual provides documentation and guidance for users of the NHES:2012 data files. The manual provides information about the purpose of the study, the sample design, data collection procedures, data processing procedures, response rates, imputation, weighting and…

  18. Potential demand for household alternative fuelled vehicles in Hamilton, Canada : a stated choices experiment and survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potoglou, D.; Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Centre for Spatial Analysis]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Earth Science

    2005-07-01

    Alternative fuelled vehicle (AFV) technologies are a key strategy towards improved air quality and sustainable development. These fuel-efficient, low- or zero-emission vehicles have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other negative externalities linked with the transportation sector. They include battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles with internal combustion engines. This paper discussed AFVs development trends and modelling the demand for AFVs. It was noted that before creating policy measures that promote new vehicle technologies, one should first evaluate the demand for AFVs and the effectiveness of incentives and marketing promotions. This paper discussed the design and application of a stated choices experiment in which urban level surveys were conducted on the Internet to obtain data and public opinion on the demand for AFVs. A Choice Internet Based Experiment for Research on Cars (CIBER-CARS) was designed. This self-administered online questionnaire was used in Hamilton, Ontario. The survey design was described in detail and its implementation and data collection procedures were reviewed. Measures for evaluating the efficiency of the Internet survey were also highlighted and the characteristics of the collected information were summarized with emphasis on the profiles of respondents and households. The purpose was to determine the impact of vehicle attributes and household characteristics to the actual choice of certain vehicles. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. The determinants of household energy-saving behavior: Survey and comparison in five major Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Shiro; Kondo, Kayoko; Nogata, Daisuke; Ben, Han

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to control household energy consumption through regulation. From a policy standpoint, it is particularly challenging to identify the factors that influence people’s actions. Moreover, whatever these factors are, they are unlikely to uniformly span multiple cities in the Asian region. In this paper, we conduct a survey of energy-saving behavior to clarify the differences among such factors across five major Asian cities. The results from these surveys in Dalian, Chongqing, Fukuoka, Bangkok, and Ho Chi Minh indicate that global warming consciousness, environmental behavior, and social interaction significantly affect energy-saving behavior. Income and age also had weak positive effects on energy-saving behaviors. Social interaction was strongly linked to energy-saving behaviors, particularly in the rural areas of Dalian and Chongqing. This result indicates that community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors. - Highlights: ► We conduct a survey of energy saving behavior in household in major Asian cities. ► We identify the factors that influence people's actions. ► Global warming consciousness and social interaction affect people behavior. ► This indicates community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors in Asia.

  20. Food balance sheet and household budget survey dietary data and mortality patterns in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naska, Androniki; Berg, Mari-Anna; Cuadrado, Carmen; Freisling, Heinz; Gedrich, Kurt; Gregoric, Matej; Kelleher, Cecily; Leskova, Emilia; Nelson, Michael; Pace, Lucienne; Remaut, Anne-Marie; Rodrigues, Sara; Sekula, Wlodzimierz; Sjöstrom, Michael; Trygg, Kerstin; Turrini, Aida; Volatier, Jean Luc; Zajkas, Gabor; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2009-07-01

    Worldwide dietary data for nutrition monitoring and surveillance are commonly derived from food balance sheets (FBS) and household budget surveys (HBS). We have compared food supply from FBS and food availability data from HBS among eighteen European countries and have estimated the extent to which they correlate, focusing on food groups which are comparably captured by FBS and HBS and for which there is epidemiological evidence that they can have a noticeable impact on population mortality. Spearman's correlation coefficient was +0.78 (P 0.05 in some instances). FBS and HBS have their own strengths and weaknesses, but they may complement each other in dietary assessments at the population level.

  1. The Impact of Public Pension on Household Consumption: Evidence from China’s Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is of vital importance to examine the relationship between pensions and household consumption/saving because this forms a link between social policy and economic development. Based on theories of absolute income, permanent income, and the life-cycle hypothesis, this paper constructs panel data models to investigate the effect of public pension participation and benefit level on household consumption. Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS 2011 and 2013 survey data shows that, compared with those not covered by any public pension program, individuals enrolled in the public pension system tend to consume more within respective income-quantile groups. Moreover, for the retired population, we found lower income groups have a higher marginal propensity to consume than higher income groups. In other words, lower income groups are likely to spend a higher proportion of any increase in pension benefit on consumption than higher income groups. To achieve a virtuous cycle between public pension, household consumption, and economic growth and, thus, a social-economically sustainable development, we suggest that China’s pension system should be extended to cover all in the lowest income group, and the benefit level should be increased gradually to secure a stable expectation for the future and motivate current consumption.

  2. North–South debate on district heating: Evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jin; Huang, Ying; Wei, Chu

    2015-01-01

    There has been a long debate on whether South China should supply district heating for the residential sector, a system that is widely used in North China. The major concern is that it may further accelerate China's energy demand. Using a unique urban household level dataset, the China Residential Energy Consumption Survey (CRECS), we investigate residential energy consumption for heating and examine the energy intensity and energy cost of distributed heating in South China and district heating in North China during the 2012 heating season. Our results show that the total energy consumption for distributed heating system users in southern cities is significantly lower than for users of district heating systems in northern cities. However, when accounting for the heating area and heating season, the distributed heating households in the South consumed 32% more energy and paid 189% higher cost per unit area and per hour, but had lower comfort than district heating users in the North. These findings suggest promoting the district heating market in appropriate areas in South China. This not only can improve residential welfare, but also can indirectly reduce energy consumption and financial burdens. - Highlights: • The debate on whether Southern China apply district heating is present. • The household data in 2012 is used to compare the energy efficient and cost. • South resident use more energy and higher cost but less comfort than North. • Government should not prevent the district heating market.

  3. Farm Household Economic Model of The Integrated Crop Livestock System: Conceptual and Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach to enhance rice production in Indonesia is very prospectus throughout the implementation of adapted and liable integrated program. One of the challenges in rice crop sub sector is the stagnation of its production due to the limitation of organic matter availability. This provides an opportunity for livestock development to overcome the problems on land fertility through the use of manure as the source of organic fertilizer. Ministry of Agriculture had implemented a program on Increasing Integrated Rice Productivity with an Integrated Crop Livestock System as one of the potential components since 2002. Integrated crop livestock system program with special reference to rice field and beef cattle is an alternative to enhance the potential development of agriculture sector in Indonesia. The implementation on this integrated program is to enhance rice production and productivity through a system involving beef cattle with its goal on increasing farmers’ income. Household economic model can be used as one of the analysis to evaluate the success of the implemented crop livestock system program. The specificity of the farmers is that rationality behavior of the role as production and consumption decision making. In this case, farmers perform the production to meet home consumption based on the resources that used directly for its production. The economic analysis of farmers household can be described to anticipate policy options through this model. Factors influencing farmers’ decisions and direct interrelations to production and consumption aspects that have complex implications for the farmers’ welfare of the integrated crop livestock system program.

  4. Measuring coverage in MNCH: tracking progress in health for women and children using DHS and MICS household surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Hancioglu

    Full Text Available Household surveys are the primary data source of coverage indicators for children and women for most developing countries. Most of this information is generated by two global household survey programmes-the USAID-supported Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. In this review, we provide an overview of these two programmes, which cover a wide range of child and maternal health topics and provide estimates of many Millennium Development Goal indicators, as well as estimates of the indicators for the Countdown to 2015 initiative and the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. MICS and DHS collaborate closely and work through interagency processes to ensure that survey tools are harmonized and comparable as far as possible, but we highlight differences between DHS and MICS in the population covered and the reference periods used to measure coverage. These differences need to be considered when comparing estimates of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health indicators across countries and over time and we discuss the implications of these differences for coverage measurement. Finally, we discuss the need for survey planners and consumers of survey results to understand the strengths, limitations, and constraints of coverage measurements generated through household surveys, and address some technical issues surrounding sampling and quality control. We conclude that, although much effort has been made to improve coverage measurement in household surveys, continuing efforts are needed, including further research to improve and refine survey methods and analytical techniques.

  5. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  6. A Survey of Privacy on Data Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Do Son, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This survey is an integrated view of other surveys on privacy preserving for data integration. First, we review the database context and challenges and research questions. Second, we formulate the privacy problems for schema matching and data matching. Next, we introduce the elements of privacy models. Then, we summarize the existing privacy techniques and the analysis (proofs) of privacy guarantees. Finally, we describe the privacy frameworks and their applications.

  7. Lessons for integrated household energy conservation policies from an intervention study in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kua, H.W.; Wong, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for a community energy conservation program in the southwest district of Singapore, a pilot intervention study was conducted between August and November 2008 to study the effectiveness of tailored information and feedback in promoting household conservation. A sample of 125 households was involved in the study, of which 63 were the control group. Both self-reported behavioral changes and actual energy reductions were measured and any Hawthorne effect was identified. It was found that self-reported behavioral changes were strongly correlated to the level of trust in the energy conservation information given, the need for ease in practicing the recommended conservation measures and feeling of satisfaction in executing the measures; these results differ from several past studies on energy interventions. 60.7% of those who reported behavioral changes actually reduced energy consumption. Reasons were found and discussed. Lessons from this intervention study can be applied to design integrated policies aimed at promoting energy conservation in households. - Highlights: ► Energy intervention was implemented on 125 households. ► Outreach instruments included stickers, pamphlets and counseling. ► Self-reported behavioral and actual reductions were recorded. ► Self-reported behavioral change was only correlated to trust of information given. ► It was also correlated to ease of actions and feeling of satisfaction from actions.

  8. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda.

  9. Estimation of urban residential electricity demand in China using household survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shaojie; Teng, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses annual urban household survey data of Sichuan Province from 2007 to 2009 to estimate the income and price elasticities of residential electricity demand, along with the effects of lifestyle-related variables. The empirical results show that in the urban area of Sichuan province, the residential electricity demand is price- and income-inelastic, with price and income elasticities ranging from −0.35 to −0.50 and from 0.14 to 0.33, respectively. Such lifestyle-related variables as demographic variables, dwelling size and holdings of home appliances, are also important determinants of residential electricity demand, especially the latter. These results are robust to a variety of sensitivity tests. The research findings imply that urban residential electricity demand continues to increase with the growth of income. The empirical results have important policy implications for the Multistep Electricity Price, which been adopted in some cities and is expected to be promoted nationwide through the installation of energy-efficient home appliances. - Highlights: • We estimate price and income elasticities in China using household survey data. • The current study is the first such study in China at this level. • Both price and income are inelastic. • Behavior factors have important impact on electricity consumption

  10. Prevalence of asthma in Saudi adults: findings from a national household survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Daoud, Farah; Tuffaha, Marwa; Kravitz, Hannah; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-07-28

    There are not enough data on the epidemiology of asthma in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We analyzed data from a national household survey conducted in KSA in 2013 to estimate prevalence, associated risk factors and control measurements of asthma. The Saudi Health Interview Survey was a cross-sectional national multistage survey of 10,735 individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey included a detailed household questionnaire and a physical exam. We used self-reported clinical diagnosis of asthma to assess prevalence of asthma. The prevalence of asthma in KSA was 4.05 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 3.54-4.62 %). Asthma was less frequent in individuals with higher education but higher in former smokers and obese individuals. Around 76.7 % of asthma patients (95 % CI: 70.6-82.0 %) experienced an asthmatic attack, and 61.6 % (95 % CI: 54.4-68.4 %) visited a hospital/emergency room because of asthma during the past year. Asthma attack was less frequent in older patients (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78, 95 %CI: 0.59-0.96 for each decade of life). Current use of medication for asthma was highly associated with asthma attacks (OR = 9.14, 95 % CI: 3.29-25.38). Asthma attack was also more frequent in individuals who were exposed to secondhand smoking (OR = 2.17, 95 %CI: 1.05-4.45) and those who were obese (OR = 3.01, 95 %CI: 1.34-6.78). Saudi Arabia has a relatively low prevalence of diagnosed asthma; however, many of the patients with known asthma do not have it under good control. Our study calls for programs to inform patients about the importance and proper means of controlling their condition. Implementing and monitoring of clinical guidelines can also help to improve asthma control among patients as well as identify undiagnosed cases.

  11. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  12. Predictors of high out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure: an analysis using Bangladesh household income and expenditure survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Azaher Ali; Chi, Chunhuei; Mondaca, Alicia Lorena Núñez

    2017-01-31

    Predictors of high out-of-pocket household healthcare expenditure are essential for creating effective health system finance policy. In Bangladesh, 63.3% of health expenditure is out-of-pocket and born by households. It is imperative to know what determines household health expenditure. This study aims to investigate the predicting factors of high out-of-pocket household healthcare expenditure targeting to put forward policy recommendations on equity in financial burden. Bangladesh household income and expenditure survey 2010 provides data for this study. Predictors of high out-of-pocket household healthcare expenditure were analyzed using multiple linear regressions. We have modeled non-linear relationship using logarithmic form of linear regression. Heteroscedasticity and multicollinearity were checked using Breusch-Pagan/Cook-Weishberg and VIF tests. Normality of the residuals was checked using Kernel density curve. We applied required adjustment for survey data, so that standard errors and parameters estimation are valid. Presence of chronic disease and household income were found to be the most influential and statistically significant (p financing in Bangladesh to minimize the burden of high OOP healthcare expenditure.

  13. Firearm Storage in Gun-Owning Households with Children: Results of a 2015 National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrael, Deborah; Cohen, Joanna; Salhi, Carmel; Miller, Matthew

    2018-06-01

    Data from a nationally representative probability-based online survey sample of US adults conducted in 2015 (n = 3949, response rate 55%) were used to assess self-reported gun storage practices among gun owners with children. The presence of firearms and children in the home, along with other household and individual level characteristics, was ascertained from all respondents. Questions pertaining to household firearms (how guns are stored, number, type, etc.) were asked only of those respondents who reported that they personally owned a gun. We found that approximately one in three US households contains at least one firearm, regardless of whether children lived in the home (0.34 [0.29-0.39]) or not (0.35 [0.32-0.38]). Among gun-owning households with children, approximately two in ten gun owners store at least one gun in the least safe manner, i.e., loaded and unlocked (0.21 [0.17-0.26]); three in ten store all guns in the safest manner, i.e., unloaded and locked (0.29, [0.24-0.34]; and the remaining half (0.50 [0.45-0.55]) store firearms in some other way. Although firearm storage practices do not appear to vary across some demographic characteristics, including age, sex, and race, gun owners are more likely to store at least one gun loaded and unlocked if they are female (0.31 [0.23-0.41]) vs. male (0.17 [0.13-0.22]); own at least one handgun (0.27 [0.22-0.32] vs. no handguns (0.05 [0.02-0.15]); or own firearms for protection (0.29 [0.24-0.35]) vs. do not own for protection (0.03 [0.01-0.08]). Approximately 7% of US children (4.6 million) live in homes in which at least one firearm is stored loaded and unlocked, an estimate that is more than twice as high as estimates reported in 2002, the last time a nationally representative survey assessed this outcome. To the extent that the high prevalence of children exposed to unsafe storage that we observe reflects a secular change in public opinion towards the belief that having a gun in the home makes the home

  14. Comparing Lay Community and Academic Survey Center Interviewers in Conducting Household Interviews in Latino Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Glik, Deborah C; Prelip, Michael L; Belin, Thomas R; Brookmeyer, Ron; Santos, Robert; Chen, Jie; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The employment of professional interviewers from academic survey centers to conduct surveys has been standard practice. Because one goal of community-engaged research is to provide professional skills to community residents, this paper considers whether employing locally trained lay interviewers from within the community may be as effective as employing interviewers from an academic survey center with regard to unit and item nonresponse rates and cost. To study a nutrition-focused intervention, 1035 in-person household interviews were conducted in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, 503 of which were completed by lay community interviewers. A chi-square test was used to assess differences in unit nonresponse rates between professional and community interviewers and Welch's t tests were used to assess differences in item nonresponse rates. A cost comparison analysis between the two interviewer groups was also conducted. Interviewers from the academic survey center had lower unit nonresponse rates than the lay community interviewers (16.2% vs. 23.3%; p < 0.01). However, the item nonresponse rates were lower for the community interviewers than the professional interviewers (1.4% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.01). Community interviewers cost approximately $415.38 per survey whereas professional interviewers cost approximately $537.29 per survey. With a lower cost per completed survey and lower item nonresponse rates, lay community interviewers are a viable alternative to professional interviewers for fieldwork in community-based research. Additional research is needed to assess other important aspects of data quality interviewer such as interviewer effects and response error.

  15. Amostra mestra e geoprocessamento: tecnologias para inquéritos domiciliares Master sample and geoprocessing: technologies for household surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Nunes da Silva

    2003-08-01

    census enumeration areas in several epidemiological surveys using updated information from the National Survey of Households (PNAD. METHODS: Address data file comprising 72 census enumeration areas was kept as primary sampling units for the city of São Paulo. During the period 1995-2000, three distinct household samples were drawn using the two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Geographic Information System (GIS technology allowed delimiting boundaries, blocks and streets for any primary sampling unit and printing updated maps for selected sub-samples. RESULTS: Twenty-five thousand dwellings made up the permanent address data file of the master sample. A cheaper and quicker selection of each sample, plus gathering information on demographic and topographical profiles of census enumeration areas were the main contribution of the study results. CONCLUSIONS: The master sample concept, integrated with GIS technology, is an advantageous alternative sampling design for household surveys in urban areas. Using the list of addresses from the PNAD updated yearly, although limiting its application to the most populated Brazilian cities, avoids the need of creating an independent sampling procedure for each individual survey carried out in the period between demographic censuses, and it is an important contribution for planning sampling surveys in public health.

  16. Household dietary diversity and Animal Source Food consumption in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2011 Welfare Monitoring Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workicho, Abdulhalik; Belachew, Tefera; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Wondafrash, Beyene; Lachat, Carl; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-11-25

    It is imperative to track dietary quality and progress in nutritional outcomes in a population to develop timely interventions. Dietary diversity is a commonly used proxy to assess dietary quality in low-income countries. This study identified predictors of household dietary diversity in Ethiopia and pattern of consumption of animal source food (ASF) among households. Secondary data were analyzed from the 2011 Ethiopian Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS). This survey used a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and economic data. Dietary data were collected using a dietary diversity questionnaire measuring dietary diversity over the past 1 week. A Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) was constructed according to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) guidelines. Consumption of ASFs is described by its distribution among the regions and by HDDS. Multiple logistic regression analysis was fitted to identify independent predictors for HDDS. A total of 27,995 households were included in the analyses. A little over half of the study households (52.2%) had more than four household members, and 75% of households were male headed. The mean HHDS was five food groups. Cereals were the most commonly (96%) consumed food groups. Fish, egg and fruits, on the other hand, were the least consumed food groups. ASFs were consumed in greater proportion among households with higher HDDS. Being part of the higher and middle socio economic strata (P < 0.001), literacy (P < 0.01), urban residence (P < 0.01), male headed household (P < 0.01), larger family size (P <0.01) and owning livestock (P < 0.01) were positively associated with higher HDDS. Considering these findings, nutrition sensitive interventions which address the problem through economic and educational empowerment and modern technologies supporting agricultural practices need to be designed to increase both local production and increased consumption.

  17. Indicators to examine quality of large scale survey data: an example through district level household and facility survey.

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    Kakoli Borkotoky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large scale surveys are the main source of data pertaining to all the social and demographic indicators, hence its quality is also of great concern. In this paper, we discuss the indicators used to examine the quality of data. We focus on age misreporting, incompleteness and inconsistency of information; and skipping of questions on reproductive and sexual health related issues. In order to observe the practical consequences of errors in a survey; the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3 is used as an example dataset. METHODS: Whipple's and Myer's indices are used to identify age misreporting. Age displacements are identified by estimating downward and upward transfers for women from bordering age groups of the eligible age range. Skipping pattern is examined by recording the responses to the questions which precede the sections on birth history, immunization, and reproductive and sexual health. RESULTS: The study observed errors in age reporting, in all the states, but the extent of misreporting differs by state and individual characteristics. Illiteracy, rural residence and poor economic condition are the major factors that lead to age misreporting. Female were excluded from the eligible age group, to reduce the duration of interview. The study further observed that respondents tend to skip questions on HIV/RTI and other questions which follow a set of questions. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that age misreporting, inconsistency and incomplete response are three sources of error that need to be considered carefully before drawing conclusions from any survey. DLHS-3 also suffers from age misreporting, particularly for female in the reproductive ages. In view of the coverage of the survey, it may not be possible to control age misreporting completely, but some extra effort to probe a better answer may help in improving the quality of data in the survey.

  18. Survey the environmental effects of the household batteries on decreasing of compost quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davari, A.; Sharifan, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    The household batteries consisted the heavy metals are one of the important pollutant for Environment. whereas Iran has no environmental policy for them and without environmental planning they input to urban waste solid so this study has surveyed effect of the household batteries in urban waste solid to decreasing of compost quality that produced in Karaj composting. For this research has sampled of compost production then analyzed for assess the heavy metal. In the laboratory the samples were grind then hair sieve to convert them to similar pieces. For the measuring metal concentration first they should be extract and finally measure by adsorption atomic spectroscope. The result show high concentration of heavy metal such as Ni, Cd, Zn, Hg, etc. that there were in produced compost. So major cause of law quality of this compost refer to concentration of heavy metals. Findings were in contrary to standard concentration for agriculture soil. It's obvious the heavy metals concentration depend to quantity of consumption the kinds of batteries

  19. Integrative teaching in Radiology. A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettmer, S.; Weidemann, J.; Wacker, F.; Fischer, V.

    2015-01-01

    To survey integrative teaching in radiology at German universities. A questionnaire about radiological education was sent electronically to all 37 chairpersons of university radiology departments in Germany. The questions included the course type, teaching methods, concept, perception, and advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching. Statistical analysis was performed with nonparametric statistics and chi-square test. The survey was considered representative with a return rate of 68%. Integrative teaching is established at 4/5 of all departments. Integrative teaching is well accepted with an acceptance rate that is significantly higher in so-called 'Modellstudiengaengen' (model courses of study) (100%) compared to conventional courses of study (72%). The advantages of integrative teaching include linking of content (92%) and preparation for interdisciplinary work (76%). The disadvantages include high effort (75%) and time (67%) for organization. Furthermore, there is a risk that basic radiological facts and knowledge cannot be conveyed and that the visibility of radiology as an independent discipline is lost. Conventional radiological teaching has a similarly high acceptance (84%) compared to integrative courses (76%). Integrative teaching has a high acceptance among chairpersons in radiology in Germany despite the greater effort. A good interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for integrative teaching and at the same time this can be conveyed to the students. However, the visibility of radiology as a discipline and the possibility to cover basic radiological content must be ensured. Therefore, both conventional courses and integrative teaching seems reasonable, especially in cross-disciplinary subjects such as radiology.

  20. Self-perceived health in Belarus: Evidence from the income and expenditures of households survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Grigoriev

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from five cross-sectional household surveys conducted during 1996-2007, this study provides initial results of an analysis of self-perceived health in Belarus. The findings suggest that there has been a compression of morbidity. Self-perceived health has been improving steadily for both sexes and at all ages. Despite this notable improvement, Belarus still remains far behind Western Europe in terms of healthy life expectancy. This disadvantage is mainly due to higher mortality among the working-age population, but health at older ages also plays an important role. Education appears to be the most important factor associated with self-rated health.

  1. A solid waste management survey in Davao del Sur (school and household waste management survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondillo, Mark Jude F.; Amaba, Jeneley A.; Paniza, Lyndelle Ann D.; Cubol, John Rhico V.

    2018-02-01

    Environmental degradation has become a very alarming issue at present. Human activities have been the primary cause of this unfortunate event which has resulted to other complications such as health problems. The resources are limited and people solely depend on it for living. Thus, the necessity to address these concerns arises. Various solid waste management programs have been established however the people's commitment has continued to challenge the local authorities as well as the cooperating agencies. This study was conducted in order to assess the awareness, practice and attitude towards the existing solid waste management programs of the selected students in Davao del Sur. It also aims to measure the effectiveness and current status of these implemented programs. The study used survey method. One hundred sixty eight of 227 students were surveyed using a validated, self-administered instrument. The study revealed that majority of the students is well aware of the existing solid waste management programs, practice them and is willing to learn more about the issue. Others, on the other hand, do the opposite. It is of great importance that all citizens must commit in the implementation of environmental programs so as to be more effective.

  2. Treatment of Febrile illness with artemisinin combination therapy: prevalence and predictors in five African household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle-Valentin, Catherine E; LeCates, Robert F; Zhang, Fang; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the determinants of compliance with national policies recommending Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the community. We used data from Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda national household surveys that were conducted with a standardized World Health Organization (WHO) methodology to measure access to and use of medicines. We analyzed all episodes of acute fever reported in the five surveys. We used logistic regression models accounting for the clustered design of the surveys to identify determinants of seeking care in public healthcare facilities, of being treated with antimalarials, and of receiving ACT. Overall, 92% of individuals with a febrile episode sought care outside the home, 96% received medicines, 67% were treated with antimalarials, and 16% received ACT. The choice of provider was influenced by perceptions about medicines availability and affordability. In addition, seeking care in a public healthcare facility was the single most important predictor of treatment with ACT [odds ratio (OR): 4.64, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.98-7.22, P policies recommending ACT for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria depends not only on restricting ACT to confirmed malaria cases, but also on ensuring that ACT is available and affordable for those who need it.

  3. Trends in the use of illicit substances in Thailand: Results from national household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Thaikla, Kanittha; Kanato, Manop; Perngparn, Usaneya; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Aramrattana, Apinun

    2018-02-27

    Thailand borders some of the world's largest methamphetamine and opioid producing countries and trafficking routes. Thailand's 'War on Drugs' campaign was launched in 2003. This study reports trends in illicit substance use in Thailand over the period 2001-2011. National Household surveys on illicit drug use were conducted in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2011. A stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling technique was implemented for each survey. Provinces in four regions were systematically selected using a probability proportionate to the size of the targeted population. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires on their history of substance use. The prevalence of illicit drug use within the past drastically decreased from 4.5% in 2001 to 1.0% in 2003 (P survey. Other types of illicit drugs were less commonly used in Thailand. There was a decrease in prevalence of illicit drug use within the past year between 2001 and 2003 in Thailand. Since 2003, the past year prelavence of illicit drug use has remained relatively stable. From 2001 to 2011, cannabis, kratom and yaba have remained the three most commonly reported types of illicit drugs used in Thailand. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. TRENDS IN RETIREMENT SAVING: EVIDENCE FROM AN ONLINE SURVEY OF ROMANIAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GURAN (TEODORESCU ILEANA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the population aging and the demographic crisis throughout Europe and the developed world, the public pension systems will become increasingly strained as the proportion of pensioners to the working population will continue to increase. Empirical evidence shows that individuals fail to save enough for retirement to compensate for the less than optimal level of public pensions, and thus are facing the risk of a decrease in the standard of living in their post-retirement years. This larger context makes the study of retirement saving behavior an important matter. The objective of this paper is to document current trends in retirement saving behavior from the data collected through an online survey of Romanian households. The survey was distributed as an online questionnaire that collected 1285 of responses. The survey’s objective was to document households’ financial situation, as well as other psychological and social factors that might explain saving behavior. The analysis of the survey results indicates that there is a gap between intentions and actions when it comes to retirement saving. This gap and the resulting suboptimal retirement saving rates are explained in behavioral economics literature by anomalies in the inter-temporal choices of individuals, subject to self-control issues. We will see to what extent this gap is due to self-control issues and to what extent it is explained by the current financial situation of individuals. We will also conclude about possible retirement saving behavior influencing factors and motives.

  5. First household survey on drug abuse in São Paulo, Brazil, 1999: principal findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In order to establish prevention programs regarding psychotropic drug use that are adapted to specific populations it is, first of all, important to have data on the realities of such consumption. Single data points are not enough for drawing up a profile of society in relation to drugs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this household survey was to determine the incidence of illegal drug, alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication use, and thus the number of persons dependent on drugs, alcohol and nicotine, and to evaluate their perception regarding how easy it is to obtain psychotropic drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: Epidemiological survey. SETTING: All of the 24 cities in the State of Sao Paulo with more 200,000 inhabitants participated in the study. METHOD: The sampling was constructed from weighted probabilistic stratified conglomerates obtained via two-stage selection. In each municipality sampled, census sectors (generally 200-300 households were first selected. Then, households and a respondent were selected to provide information from his/her point of view. The SAMHSA questionnaire (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Public Health was used, after translation and adaptation to Brazilian conditions. RESULTS: A total of 2,411 persons aged 12-65 years old were interviewed, of whom 39.9% weremen. Lifetime use of any psychotropic drug other than alcohol and tobacco was 11.6%: much less than in the U.S. (34.8%. The alcohol dependence rate was 6%, similar to findings from other countries. Marijuana was the illegal drug most cited as used daily (6.6%: a prevalence much lower than in the U.S. (32.0%. Inhalant use was next in frequency of use (2.7%: about 10 times less than in the United Kingdom (20%. Cocaine use (2.1% was about 5 times less than in the U.S. (10.6%. There was no report of heroin use, although there was a surprisingly high perception regarding the ease of obtaining heroin: 38.3% said it was

  6. Determinants of households’ investment in energy efficiency and renewables: evidence from the OECD survey on household environmental behaviour and attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameli, Nadia; Brandt, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides novel evidence on the main factors behind consumer choices regarding investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies using the OECD Survey on Household Environmental Behaviour and Attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on the estimation of binary logit regression models. Empirical results suggest that households’ propensity to invest in clean energy technologies depends mainly on home ownership, income, social context and household energy conservation practices. Indeed, home owners and high-income households are more likely to invest than renters and low-income households. In addition, environmental attitudes and beliefs, as manifest in energy conservation practices or membership in an environmental non-governmental organisation, also play a relevant role in technology adoption. (letter)

  7. Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Installation of decentralized grey water treatment systems in small rural communities contributes to a more sustainable water supply. In order to gauge community attitudes about collection and use of grey water, a door-to-door survey in the farming community of Deir Alla, Jordan was conducted by Royal Scientific Society interviewers. Outcomes of a detailed survey, designed specifically for this project, offer insights on people’s views on general water and wastewater issues, as well as their motivation, practices and concerns related to using grey water treatment for a portion of their household wastewater and reuse of the treated grey water for irrigation. A total of 47 respondents from different socio-economic background, aged over 18 years, from this community in the Jordan valley took part in the survey. The level of formal education of the respondents was low, and most of households’ incomes were below the poverty line in Jordan. Most of the respondents reported that the quality of water supplied by public network is acceptable, but the quantity is insufficient to meet their demand, with supplies being delivered to the household once a week. Respondents relied on the public water network as a first-most important resource (85.1%, and 57.4% of the respondent relied on private water tankers as a second-most important resource in addition to the public network. However, 6% of the respondents relied only on private water tankers with no access to the public network. Storage tanks are common practice in all the houses in order to store enough water for at least one week. The survey responses provide evidence that rural communities are willing to accept reuse of treated grey water for irrigation. Furthermore, some of people in the studied area are willing to learn more about grey water treatment and reuse in order to operate grey water systems for irrigation purposes. Water scarcity in this rural area of Jordan is the main determinant of

  8. Credit market access in Uganda: evidence from household survey data 1999/2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FN Okurut

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the individual and household characteristics that influenced credit market access in Uganda using household data for 1999/2000. The results suggest that credit market access was significantly influenced by gender, household wealth, age, regional location, and urban/rural location.

  9. Integrative teaching in radiology - a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, S; Weidemann, J; Fischer, V; Wacker, F K

    2015-04-01

    To survey integrative teaching in radiology at German universities. A questionnaire about radiological education was sent electronically to all 37 chairpersons of university radiology departments in Germany. The questions included the course type, teaching methods, concept, perception, and advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching. Statistical analysis was performed with nonparametric statistics and chi-square test. The survey was considered representative with a return rate of 68 %. Integrative teaching is established at 4/5 of all departments. Integrative teaching is well accepted with an acceptance rate that is significantly higher in so-called "Modellstudiengängen" [model courses of study] (100 %) compared to conventional courses of study (72 %). The advantages of integrative teaching include linking of content (92 %) and preparation for interdisciplinary work (76 %). The disadvantages include high effort (75 %) and time (67 %) for organization. Furthermore, there is a risk that basic radiological facts and knowledge cannot be conveyed and that the visibility of radiology as an independent discipline is lost. Conventional radiological teaching has a similarly high acceptance (84 %) compared to integrative courses (76 %). Integrative teaching has a high acceptance among chairpersons in radiology in Germany despite the greater effort. A good interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for integrative teaching and at the same time this can be conveyed to the students. However, the visibility of radiology as a discipline and the possibility to cover basic radiological content must be ensured. Therefore, both conventional courses and integrative teaching seems reasonable, especially in cross-disciplinary subjects such as radiology. Both integrative teaching and conventional radiological teaching are highly accepted. The advantages include the linking of multidisciplinary content and the preparation for interdisciplinary cooperation

  10. Comparison of the characteristics of fire and non-fire households in the 2004-2005 survey of fire department-attended and unattended fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michael A

    2012-06-01

    Comparison of characteristics of fire with non-fire households to determine factors differentially associated with fire households (fire risk factors). National household telephone survey in 2004-2005 by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission with 916 fire households and a comparison sample of 2161 non-fire households. There were an estimated 7.4 million fires (96.6% not reported to fire departments) with 130,000 injuries. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess differences in household characteristics. Significant factors associated with fire households were renting vs. owning (OR 1.988 pfire households with non-cooking fires (OR 1.383 p=0.0011). Single family houses were associated with non-fire households in the bivariate analysis but not in the multivariate analyses. Renting, household members under 18 years old and smokers are risk factors for unattended fires, similar to the literature for fatal and injury fires. Differences included household members over 65 years old (associated with non-fire households), college/postgraduate education (associated with fire households) and lack of significance of income. Preventing cooking fires (64% of survey incidents), smoking prevention efforts and fire prevention education for families with young children have the potential for reducing unattended fires and injuries.

  11. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Daniel; Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-05-01

    Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining "own" children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems.

  12. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. Approach A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Local setting Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining “own” children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Relevant changes Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Lessons learnt Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems. PMID:21556307

  13. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

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    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  14. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  15. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.; Schuurman, J.; Bomhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations

  16. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: A household diary-survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Schuurman, J.; Bomhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    In a diary–survey study in 234 households with children aged 4–12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations

  17. Factors of influence on flood damage mitigation behaviour by households - Literature review and results from a French survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poussin, J.K.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a literature review, this paper proposes and empirically tests an extended version of the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) of individual disaster preparedness. A survey was completed by 885 households in three flood-prone regions in France. Regression models provide insights into the

  18. Epidemiological patterns of mental disorders and stigma in a community household survey in urban slum and rural settings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiso, Victoria N; Musyimi, Christine W; Tomita, Andrew; Loeffen, Lianne; Burns, Jonathan K; Ndetei, David M

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological patterns of mental illness and stigma in community households in Kenya using a cross-sectional community household survey among 846 participants. A cross-sectional community household survey was conducted around urban slum (Kangemi) and rural (Kibwezi) selected health facilities in Kenya. All households within the two sites served by the selected health facilities were included in the study. To select the main respondent in the household, the oldest adult who could speak English, Kiswahili or both (the official languages in Kenya) was selected to participate in the interview. The Opinion about Mental Illness in Chinese Community (OMICC) questionnaire and the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus Version 5 (MINI) tools were administered to the participants. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare prevalence according to gender, while adjusted regression models examined the association between mental illness and views about mental illness, stratified by gender. The overall prevalence of mental illness was 45%, showing gender differences regarding common types of illness. The opinions about mental illness were similar for men and women, while rural respondents were more positively opinionated than urban participants. Overall, suffering from mental illness was associated with more positive opinions among women and more negative opinions among men. More research is needed into the factors explaining the observed differences in opinion about mental illness between the subgroups, and the impact of mental illness on stigma in Kenya in order to create an evidence-based approach against stigma.

  19. Proximity to natural gas wells and reported health status: results of a household survey in Washington County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Slizovskiy, Ilya B; Lamers, Vanessa; Trufan, Sally J; Holford, Theodore R; Dziura, James D; Peduzzi, Peter N; Kane, Michael J; Reif, John S; Weiss, Theresa R; Stowe, Meredith H

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the environmental and public health impact of unconventional natural gas extraction activities, including hydraulic fracturing, that occur near residential areas. Our aim was to assess the relationship between household proximity to natural gas wells and reported health symptoms. We conducted a hypothesis-generating health symptom survey of 492 persons in 180 randomly selected households with ground-fed wells in an area of active natural gas drilling. Gas well proximity for each household was compared with the prevalence and frequency of reported dermal, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms. The number of reported health symptoms per person was higher among residents living 2 km from the nearest gas well (mean ± SD, 1.60 ± 2.14; p = 0.0002). In a model that adjusted for age, sex, household education, smoking, awareness of environmental risk, work type, and animals in house, reported skin conditions were more common in households 2 km from the nearest gas well (odds ratio = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4, 12.3; p = 0.01). Upper respiratory symptoms were also more frequently reported in persons living in households gas wells (39%) compared with households 1-2 km or > 2 km from the nearest well (31 and 18%, respectively) (p = 0.004). No equivalent correlation was found between well proximity and other reported groups of respiratory, neurological, cardiovascular, or gastrointestinal conditions. Although these results should be viewed as hypothesis generating, and the population studied was limited to households with a ground-fed water supply, proximity of natural gas wells may be associated with the prevalence of health symptoms including dermal and respiratory conditions in residents living near natural gas extraction activities. Further study of these associations, including the role of specific air and water exposures, is warranted.

  20. Estimating family planning coverage from contraceptive prevalence using national household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Aluisio J D; Boerma, Ties; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R; Restrepo-Méndez, María C; Wong, Kerry L M; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    Contraception is one of the most important health interventions currently available and yet, many women and couples still do not have reliable access to modern contraceptives. The best indicator for monitoring family planning is the proportion of women using contraception among those who need it. This indicator is frequently called demand for family planning satisfied and we argue that it should be called family planning coverage (FPC). This indicator is complex to calculate and requires a considerable number of questions to be included in a household survey. We propose a model that can predict FPC from a much simpler indicator - contraceptive use prevalence - for situations where it cannot be derived directly. Using 197 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys from 82 countries, we explored least-squares regression models that could be used to predict FPC. Non-linearity was expected in this situation and we used a fractional polynomial approach to find the best fitting model. We also explored the effect of calendar time and of wealth on the models explored. Given the high correlation between the variables involved in FPC, we managed to derive a relatively simple model that depends only on contraceptive use prevalence but explains 95% of the variability of the outcome, with high precision for the estimated regression line. We also show that the relationship between the two variables has not changed with time. A concordance analysis showed agreement between observed and fitted results within a range of ±9 percentage points. We show that it is possible to obtain fairly good estimates of FPC using only contraceptive prevalence as a predictor, a strategy that is useful in situations where it is not possible to estimate FPC directly.

  1. Urban partnership agreement and congestion reduction demonstration programs : lessons learned on congestion pricing from the Seattle and Atlanta household travel behavior surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents lessons learned from household traveler surveys administered in Seattle and Atlanta as part of the evaluation of the Urban Partnership Agreement and Congestion Reduction Demonstration Programs. The surveys use a two-stage panel su...

  2. Discrete Choice Model of Food Store Trips Using National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hillier, Amy; Smith, Tony E.; Whiteman, Eliza D.; Chrisinger, Benjamin W.

    2017-01-01

    Where households across income levels shop for food is of central concern within a growing body of research focused on where people live relative to where they shop, what they purchase and eat, and how those choices influence the risk of obesity and chronic disease. We analyzed data from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS) using a conditional logit model to determine where participants shop for food to be prepared and eaten at home and how individual and hous...

  3. The economic status of older people's households in urban and rural settings in Peru, Mexico and China: a 10/66 INDEP study cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin J; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Gallardo, Sara; Guerchet, Maelenn; Mayston, Rosie; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Ezeah, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Few data are available from middle income countries regarding economic circumstances of households in which older people live. Many such settings have experienced rapid demographic, social and economic change, alongside increasing pension coverage. Population-based household surveys in rural and urban catchment areas in Peru, Mexico and China. Participating households were selected from all households with older residents. Descriptive analyses were weighted back for sampling fractions and non-response. Household income and consumption were estimated from a household key informant interview. 877 Household interviews (3177 residents). Response rate 68 %. Household income and consumption correlated plausibly with other economic wellbeing indicators. Household Incomes varied considerably within and between sites. While multigenerational households were the norm, older resident's incomes accounted for a high proportion of household income, and older people were particularly likely to pool income. Differences in the coverage and value of pensions were a major source of variation in household income among sites. There was a small, consistent inverse association between household pension income and labour force participation of younger adult co-residents. The effect of pension income on older adults' labour force participation was less clear-cut. Historical linkage of social protection to formal employment may have contributed to profound late-life socioeconomic inequalities. Strategies to formalise the informal economy, alongside increases in the coverage and value of non-contributory pensions and transfers would help to address this problem.

  4. Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES): a primer for food and nutrition analysts in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Bermudez, Odilia I; Smitz, Marc-Francois

    2012-09-01

    The dearth of 24-hour recall and observed-weighed food record data--what most nutritionists regard as the gold standard source of food consumption data-has long been an obstacle to evidence-based food and nutrition policy. There have been a steadily growing number of studies using household food acquisition and consumption data from a variety of multipurpose, nationally representative household surveys as a proxy measure to overcome this fundamental information gap. To describe the key characteristics of these increasingly available Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) in order to help familiarize food and nutrition analysts with the strengths and shortcomings of these data and thus encourage their use in low- and middle-income countries; and to identify common shortcomings that can be readily addressed in the near term in a country-by-country approach, as new HCES are fielded, thereby beginning a process of improving the potential of these surveys as sources of useful data for better understanding food- and nutrition-related issues. Common characteristics of key food and nutrition information that is available in HCES and some basic common steps in processing HCES data for food and nutrition analyses are described. The common characteristics of these surveys are documented, and their usefulness in addressing major food and nutrition issues, as well as their shortcomings, is demonstrated. Despite their limitations, the use of HCES data constitutes a generally unexploited opportunity to address the food consumption information gap by using survey data that most countries are already routinely collecting.

  5. Contraception coverage and methods used among women in South Africa: A national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Chersich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Globally, family planning services are being strengthened and the range of contraceptive choices expanded. Data on contraceptive coverage and service gaps could help to shape these initiatives. Objective. To assess contraception coverage in South Africa (SA and identify underserved populations and aspects of programming that require strengthening. Methods. Data from a 2012 SA household survey assessed contraception coverage among 6 296 women aged 15 - 49 years and identified underserved populations. Results. Two-thirds had an unintended pregnancy in the past 5 years, a quarter of which were contraceptive failures. Most knew of injectable (92.0% and oral contraception (89.9%, but fewer of intrauterine devices (56.1% and emergency contraception (47.3%. Contraceptive prevalence was 49.1%, and 41.8% women used modern non-barrier methods. About half had ever used injectable contraception. Contraception was lower in black Africans and younger women, who used a limited range of methods. Conclusion. Contraception coverage is higher than many previous estimates. Rates of unintended pregnancy, contraceptive failure and knowledge gaps, however, demonstrate high levels of unmet need, especially among black Africans and young women.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of smoking in Belarus: a national household survey, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M; Rose, R

    2001-01-01

    A clear, up-to-date picture of smoking prevalence and its determinants is needed to inform the development of effective tobacco control policy in Belarus and other parts of the former Soviet Union. It is particularly important in view of the way the tobacco industry has targeted this region since transition. A nationally representative household survey designed to explore smoking behaviour and its determinants was undertaken in Belarus in April 2000. Data were available on 1090 individuals aged 18 years and over (response rate 53.4%). Respondents were similar demographically to the population of Belarus. Fifty three percent of men and 9% of women are current smokers and an additional 18% and 7% respectively are ex-smokers. Differences in smoking habits between successive generations were identified. These included a ninefold higher rate of ever-smoking amongst 18-29 years old women compared with those aged over 60 years (p workplace where 65% smoke, is common. Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to have positive beliefs about the health impact of active and passive smoking (p < 0.0001). Amongst women the odds of smoking is 13 times higher in those living in large cities compared with those living in villages. In men, disadvantage and a positive attitude to the west appear to increase the likelihood of smoking. To date policy responses have been inadequate. Unless effective tobacco control policies are introduced, tobacco will continue to make an increasingly large contribution to premature morbidity and mortality in Belarus.

  7. Electricity consumption by battery-powered consumer electronics: A household-level survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, J. Andrew; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of battery-powered consumer electronics and their reliance on inefficient linear transformers has been suggested to be an important part of the rapid growth in 'miscellaneous' electricity consumption in recent years, but detailed data are scarce. We conducted a survey of 34 randomly selected households (HHs) in Northern California about the number, type, and usage of consumer electronics. We also measured the energy consumption of 85 typical consumer electronic devices through various parts of the charge cycle. These primary data were supplemented by national sales information for consumer electronics. Results indicate that typical HHs own 8.4 rechargeable devices, which have a total average demand of 12-17 W per HH. Statewide, this amounts to 160-220 MW of demand, with the peak occurring in the late evening, and about 1600 GWh per year. Only about 15% of this energy is used for battery charging, the rest is lost as waste heat during no-load and charge maintenance periods. Technical options to increase the efficiency of these devices, and the research and policy steps needed to realize these savings are discussed

  8. Has the Financial Protection Been Materialized in Iranian Health System? Analyzing Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Hesam; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Majdzadeh, Reza; Abdi, Zhaleh; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-03

    The financial protection against catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures is one of the main aspects of the universal health coverage. This study aimed to present a clear picture of the financial protection situation in Iran from 2003-2014. This is an analytical study on secondary data of Statistical Center of Iran (SCI). The study has some policy implications for policy makers; therefore, it is an applied one. Data related to the Iranian rural and urban household payments on health expenditures was obtained from annual surveys of the SCI. WHO researchers' approach was used to calculate the Fairness of Financial Contribution Indicator (FFCI), the headcount and overshoot ratios of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures. A logistic regression was conducted to identify the determinants of probability of occurrence of catastrophic health expenditure among Iranian households in 2014. The mean of FFCI for rural and urban households was 0.854 (0.41) and 0.867 (0.32), respectively. The average headcount ratios of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures were 1.32% (0.24) and 0.33% (P=0.006) for rural households and 1.4% (0.6) and 0.28% (P=0.001) for urban households. Concerning rural households, the overshoot of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures was 14.94% (P=0.001) and 7.22% (0.53); it was 15.59% (1.54) and 7.76% (0.52) for urban households. No significant and considerable change was found in the headcount ratios of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditure and in their overshoot or gap amounts. This suggested a lack of well-designed and effective schemes for materializing the financial protection in Iran.

  9. Food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, 10 years after the invasion of Iraq: data from a household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Hala; Sassine, AnnieBelle J; Seyfert, Karin; Nord, Mark; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2014-07-14

    Iraqi refugees in Lebanon are vulnerable to food insecurity because of their limited rights and fragile livelihoods. The objective of the present study was to assess household food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, almost 10 years after the invasion of Iraq. A representative survey of 800 UN High Commissioner for Refugees-registered refugee households in Lebanon was conducted using multi-stage cluster random sampling. We measured food insecurity using a modified US Department of Agriculture household food security module. We collected data on household demographic, socio-economic, health, housing and dietary diversity status and analysed these factors by food security status. Hb level was measured in a subset of children below 5 years of age (n 85). Weighted data were used in univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the Iraqi refugee households surveyed (n 630), 20·1% (95% CI 17·3, 23·2) were found to be food secure, 35·5% (95% CI 32·0, 39·2) moderately food insecure and 44·4% (95% CI 40·8, 48·1) severely food insecure. Severe food insecurity was associated with the respondent's good self-reported health (OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·2, 0·5), length of stay as a refugee (OR 1·1, 95% CI 1·0, 1·2), very poor housing quality (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·6, 6·5) and the number of children in the household (OR 1·2, 95% CI 1·0, 1·4), and resulted in poor dietary diversity (PLebanon call for urgent programmes to address the food and health situation of this population with restricted rights.

  10. Correlations of indoor second-hand smoking, household smoking rules, regional deprivation and children mental health: Scottish Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-07-01

    It has been known that second-hand smoking and deprivation could cluster together affecting child health. However, little is known on the role of household smoking rules. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships among indoor second-hand smoking, household smoking rules, deprivation level and children mental health in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from and analysed in Scottish Health Survey, 2013. Information on demographics, indoor second-hand smoking status, household smoking rules, deprivation level and child mental health by Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was obtained by household interview through parents. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling. Of 1019 children aged 4-12, 17.9% (n = 182) lived in the 15% most deprivation areas. Deprived areas tended to be where indoor smoking occurred (p Scottish children are greater Glasgow, Ayrshire & Arran and Forth Valley while the top three sub-regions of exposure to the indoor second-hand smoking are Fife, Forth Valley and Ayrshire & Arran. The top three sub-regions with indoor smoking allowed are greater Glasgow, Western Isles and Borders. Children emotional and behavioural problems were reduced when the strict household smoking rules (not allowed or outdoor areas) applied. One in six Scottish children lived in the 15% most deprivation areas and exposed to indoor second-hand smoking that could have led to emotional and behavioural problems. Public health programs promoting strict household smoking rules should be encouraged in order to optimise children mental health.

  11. [Trends and factors associated with food insecurity in Brazil: the National Household Sample Survey, 2004, 2009, and 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Taíse Gama Dos; Silveira, Jonas Augusto Cardoso da; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Ramires, Elyssia Karine Nunes Mendonça; Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito de

    2018-03-29

    The aim of this study was to analyze trends and factors associated with food insecurity in Brazil in 2004, 2009, and 2013, using microdata from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD). Food insecurity was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Independent variables were selected from a conceptual model of determination of food insecurity, which was also used in the elaboration of multiple generalized linear models. The results show a downward trend in food insecurity prevalence from 2004 to 2013, especially for moderate and severe food insecurity, from 17% in 2004 (95%CI: 15.7-18.4) to 7.9% in 2013 (95%CI: 7.2-8.7). Despite important decreases in the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, regardless of the level of determination, the population strata with the lowest prevalence in 2004 showed the largest relative reduction. As for factors associated with moderate and severe food insecurity, they remained the same in the ten years covered by the PNAD survey, namely: the North and Northeast regions, urban areas with inadequate sanitation, household density > 2 persons per bedroom, ≤ 4 household durable consumer goods, and households headed by females, individuals insecurity dropped by half, but from the perspective of equity the advances occurred unequally and were lower in strata with greater social, economic, and demographic vulnerability.

  12. The determinants of intention to smoke waterpipe among adolescents in Lebanon: a national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Claudia; Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Mahfoud, Ziyad

    2016-03-01

    The phenomenon of waterpipe smoking (WPS) among adolescents has become eminent, and it is especially prevalent in Lebanon. Unlike cigarette smoking, WPS is parentally and socially acceptable. This study aims at examining the association between intention to smoke waterpipe in the next 6 months, and knowledge, attitudes and parental and social influences. This is a secondary data analysis from a national survey in 2007 on 1028 households. This study addresses 258 non-smoking adolescents and their parents. Consent was sought and the study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the American University of Beirut. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Descriptive analysis, crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were generated. At the bivariate level, late adolescence, mothers without university education, prior adolescents' WPS experiences, best friends' and parents' WPS habits and adolescents' and parents' lower attitude scores were associated with smoking intention. In the adjusted model, adolescents' beliefs about positive effects, best friends' similar habits and prior smoking remained significant (respective ORs [95% confidence interval ]: 1.81 [1.33-2.45], 2.51 [1.24-5.10], 4.91 [2.35-10.36]). Parents' perceived attitude against smoking was protective (OR: 0.57 [0.39-0.83]). Adolescents' intention to smoke is highly influenced by parents' permissive attitudes and peer pressure. Interventions targeting these two groups and limiting access to smoking by adolescents should be instigated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Correlates of Untreated Hypercholesterolemia in Older Adults: A Community-Based Household Survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi; Zaman, M. Justin; Wang, Jingjing; Peacock, Janet L.; Chen, Ruoling

    2015-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is common in older adults and less treated, but little is known about correlates of untreated hypercholesterolemia. Using a standard interview method we examined a random sample of 7,572 participants aged ≥60 years in a community-based household survey across 7 provinces of China during 2007–2012, and documented 328 cases of hypercholesterolemia from self-reported doctor diagnosis. Compared to participants with normal cholesterol, older adults with hypercholesterolemia had higher socioeconomic position and larger body mass index. In patients with hypercholesterolemia, 209 were not treated using lipid-lowering medications (63.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 58.5%–68.9%). Untreated hypercholesterolemia was significantly associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio 2.13, 95%CI 1.17–3.89), current smoking (3.48, 1.44–8.44), heavy alcohol drinking (3.13,1.11–8.84), chronic bronchitis (2.37,1.14–4.90) and high level of meat consumptions (2.85,1.22–6.65). Although having coronary heart disease exposed participants for treatment, half of participants with coronary heart disease did not receive lipid-lowering medications. Among hypercholesterolemia participants with stroke, hypertension or diabetes, more than half of them did not receive lipid-lowering medications. The high proportion of untreated hypercholesterolemia in older, high-risk Chinese adults needs to be mitigated through multi-faceted primary and secondary prevention strategies to increase population opportunities of treating hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26161751

  14. Simulation platform for direct load control of household appliances. Literature survey and G2 implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolm, J; Vlaheli, A

    1996-10-01

    There is an incentive for the power utilities to look for other ways than building new power stations to satisfy increasing customer power needs. One way to fulfill this demand is by redistributing the available electric power between the different power consumers. This method can successfully be used during high peak hours. The utility is also able to make financial profits selling the redistributed electric power at a higher price to customers with temporary high power demands. Direct Load Control - DLC, a Demand Side Management - DSM tool, is one way to achieve a redistribution of electric power. This masters thesis project consisted in developing a user-friendly simulation platform for domestic appliances combined with an electric power control system to be employed for Direct Load Control. The platform contains the necessary facilities for designing an electrical distribution network model and is implemented in G2, an object-oriented real-time environment. The final application provides an on-line instrument for the utility to control the power consumption over the entire system in terms of dispensing power in an electrical network. The report consists of two main parts. The first part describes a literature survey we systematically compiled to gather literature sources. The second part outlines our design and implementation of the G2 simulation platform for a water-heater model with a Direct Load Control system. The entire simulation platform is designed to allow a flexible change and improvement of the different models. Consequently, our software is a powerful tool for studying a wide range of problems related to a Load Management program involving electrical household loads. 9 refs, 32 figs

  15. Oral healthcare-related expenditure among people residing in Durg, Chhattisgarh: A household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is a functional unit of general health. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are considered as the major diseases prevailing in the modern era. Over decades, the perception toward maintaining oral health and interest for preventive oral health measures has decreased, thus increasing the healthcare expenditure. Aim: This study aims to estimate the household expenditure on oral health care among people residing in Durg, Chhattisgarh, India. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and sixty participants were surveyed who were residents of Durg, Chhattisgarh (C.G.. Participants were selected through multistage cluster random sampling. A self-designed pretested and validated 20 item questionnaire was used to assess the expenditure on oral health care. Data collected were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 23 for Windows (New York, USA. Frequency, mean and percentage, and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Out of 860 individuals, 204 (23.7% were males and 656 (76.3% were females. Eight hundred and thirty-two (96.7% individuals reported using a toothbrush as an oral hygiene aid. Majority (58.3% of the families reported changing toothbrush at 3 months or more duration, while 37.8% of the families in 1 month or less. A statistically significant weak correlation was observed when education, occupation, and income were compared with annual expenditure on dental care (r = 0.219, 0.239, and 0.350, respectively. While a moderately strong correlation was observed between the socioeconomic status of families and annual expenditure on dental care (r = 0.438. Conclusion: People should be aware of preventive oral hygiene aids, and appropriate policies should be formulated which will ultimately result in decreased expenditure on a curative aspect of the dental disease.

  16. Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the home: a household survey in the North of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Nisreen; Siddiqi, Kamran; Thomson, Heather; Cameron, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS) leads to increased risk of health and social problems and uptake of smoking in the future. We aimed to assess the prevalence of children's exposure to SHS in their homes, in a deprived area in the North of England and identify what people thought would help them achieve a smoke-free home (SFH). We performed a cross-sectional survey of 318 households with at least one child aged under 16 years in Beeston Hill, a deprived locality in Leeds, England in June 2008. One hundred and seventy-three households [54%, 95% confidence interval (C.I.) 49-60] had at least one smoker in the house. In 42% (95% C.I. 35-50) of these households (n = 73), smoking took place in the presence of children. The odds of allowing smoking in front of children were 2.2 (95% C.I. 1.1-4.5) times greater in households whose head had less than A-level (national exams at 18 years) or equivalent qualification than in homes with a more qualified head of household. 92% of respondents were aware that SHS has negative effects on children's health. However, 71% felt more information about health risks to children would help reduce exposure to SHS in the home. Smoking in the presence of children takes place in a relatively high proportion of households with smoker(s), despite media awareness campaigns regarding the dangers of passive smoking launched alongside the recently enforced smoke-free public and workplaces legislation. Specific promotion of SFHs is needed to protect the health of children.

  17. Growing inequities in maternal health in South Africa: a comparison of serial national household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabiri, Njeri; Chersich, Matthew; Shisana, Olive; Blaauw, Duane; Rees, Helen; Dwane, Ntabozuko

    2016-09-01

    Rates of maternal mortality and morbidity vary markedly, both between and within countries. Documenting these variations, in a very unequal society like South Africa, provides useful information to direct initiatives to improve services. The study describes inequalities over time in access to maternal health services in South Africa, and identifies differences in maternal health outcomes between population groups and across geographical areas. Data were analysed from serial population-level household surveys that applied multistage-stratified sampling. Access to maternal health services and health outcomes in 2008 (n = 1121) were compared with those in 2012 (n = 1648). Differences between socio-economic quartiles were quantified using the relative (RII) and slope (SII) index of inequality, based on survey weights. High levels of inequalities were noted in most measures of service access in both 2008 and 2012. Inequalities between socio-economic quartiles worsened over time in antenatal clinic attendance, with overall coverage falling from 97.0 to 90.2 %. Nationally, skilled birth attendance remained about 95 %, with persistent high inequalities (SII = 0.11, RII = 1.12 in 2012). In 2012, having a doctor present at childbirth was higher than in 2008 (34.4 % versus 27.8 %), but inequalities worsened. Countrywide, levels of planned pregnancy declined from 44.6 % in 2008 to 34.7 % in 2012. The RII and SII rose over this period and in 2012, only 22.4 % of the poorest quartile had a planned pregnancy. HIV testing increased substantially by 2012, though remains low in groups with a high HIV prevalence, such as women in rural formal areas, and from Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces. Marked deficiencies in service access were noted in the Eastern Cape ad North West provinces. Though some population-level improvements occurred in access to services, inequalities generally worsened. Low levels of planned pregnancy, antenatal clinic access and having a

  18. Understanding household preferences for hurricane risk mitigation information: evidence from survey responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Chiradip; Mozumder, Pallab

    2014-06-01

    Risk information is critical to adopting mitigation measures, and seeking risk information is influenced by a variety of factors. An essential component of the recently adopted My Safe Florida Home (MSFH) program by the State of Florida is to provide homeowners with pertinent risk information to facilitate hurricane risk mitigation activities. We develop an analytical framework to understand household preferences for hurricane risk mitigation information through allowing an intensive home inspection. An empirical analysis is used to identify major drivers of household preferences to receive personalized information regarding recommended hurricane risk mitigation measures. A variety of empirical specifications show that households with home insurance, prior experience with damages, and with a higher sense of vulnerability to be affected by hurricanes are more likely to allow inspection to seek information. However, households with more members living in the home and households who live in manufactured/mobile homes are less likely to allow inspection. While findings imply MSFH program's ability to link incentives offered by private and public agencies in promoting mitigation, households that face a disproportionately higher level of risk can get priority to make the program more effective. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. A survey of the influencing factors and models for resident's household waste management behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The problem of household solid waste has been concerned and researched on by municipalities and researchers.At present, household solid waste has been changed to management problem from technical one. From the point view of management, the research on household solid waste is to study the factors which influence resident's behavior of managtng their waste. Based on the literature review, firstly, this paper summarizes those factors which have already been identified to have impact on resident's behavior of managing their waste. They are social-demographic variables,knowledge, environmental values, psychological factors, publicity and system design. Secondly, three typical models of the relationship between factors and behavior, which are factors determining task performance in waste management,conceptualization of waste management behavior and the theoretical model of repeated behavior on household waste management, are analyzed and the deficiencies of these models are also analyzed. Finally, according to the current situation in household waste management and the culture and resident's habits in China, this paper puts forward a research focus and suggestions about resident 's behavior of household solid waste management.

  20. Household adjustment to flood risk: a survey of coastal residents in Texas and Florida, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Samuel D; Lee, Yoonjeong; Highfield, Wesley E

    2017-07-01

    Individual households have increasingly borne responsibility for reducing the adverse impacts of flooding on their property. Little observational research has been conducted, however, at the household level to examine the major factors contributing to the selection of a particular household adjustment. This study addresses the issue by evaluating statistically the factors influencing the adoption of various household flood hazard adjustments. The results indicate that respondents with higher-value homes or longer housing tenure are more likely to adopt structural and expensive techniques. In addition, the information source and the Community Rating System (CRS) score for the jurisdiction where the household is located have a significant bearing on household adjustment. In contrast, proximity to risk zones and risk perception yield somewhat mixed results or behave counter to assumptions in the literature. The study findings provide insights that will be of value to governments and decision-makers interested in encouraging homeowners to take protective action given increasing flood risk. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  1. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.girod@env.ethz.c [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Haan, Peter de [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns.

  2. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels. Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien; De Haan, Peter [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns. (author)

  3. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Haan, Peter de

    2009-01-01

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO 2 -equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns.

  4. Food crop production, nutrient availability, and nutrient intakes in Bangladesh: exploring the agriculture-nutrition nexus with the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L

    2014-12-01

    Systematic collection of national agricultural data has been neglected in many low- and middle-income countries for the past 20 years. Commonly conducted nationally representative household surveys collect substantial quantities of highly underutilized food crop production data. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of commonly available household survey databases for analyzing the agriculture-nutrition nexus. Using household data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, the role and significance of crop selection, area planted, yield, nutrient production, and the disposition of 34 food crops in affecting the adequacy of farming households' nutrient availability and nutrient intake status are explored. The adequacy of each farming household's available energy, vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc and households' apparent intakes and intake adequacies are estimated. Each household's total apparent nutrient intake adequacies are estimated, taking into account the amount of each crop that households consume from their own production, together with food purchased or obtained from other sources. Even though rice contains relatively small amounts of micronutrients, has relatively low nutrient density, and is a relatively poor source of nutrients compared with what other crops can produce on a given tract of land, because so much rice is produced in Bangladesh, it is the source of 90% of the total available energy, 85% of the zinc, 67% of the calcium, and 55% of the iron produced by the agricultural sector. The domination of agriculture and diet by rice is a major constraint to improving nutrition in Bangladesh. Simple examples of how minor changes in the five most common cropping patterns could improve farming households' nutritional status are provided. Household surveys' agricultural modules can provide a useful tool for better understanding national nutrient production realities and possibilities.

  5. A survey of joint activities and travel of household members in the Greater Copenhagen Metropolitan Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel; Vuk, Goran; Kaplan, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    and family quality time, within a daily schedule. The current study unveils the joint activity and travel patterns of household members in the Copenhagen area, as part of the ACTUM research project, funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council, for the development of a new generation of activity......The traditional approach for modeling transport-related choices in Denmark refers to individual decision makers. However, in daily activities and travel choices individuals function according to the commitments as family members, and thus their choices derive from the welfare needs of other family...... members. A family-based approach enables to capture intra-household interactions and the priorities of household members in scheduling their daily activities, thus adding to the realism and the predictive strength of transport models. Joint activities and travel occur in order to maximize efficiency...

  6. Nonresponse and Underreporting Errors Increase over the Data Collection Week Based on Paradata from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengyao; Gremel, Garrett W; Kirlin, John A; West, Brady T

    2017-05-01

    Background: Food acquisition diary surveys are important for studying food expenditures, factors affecting food acquisition decisions, and relations between these decisions with selected measures of health (e.g., body mass index, self-reported health). However, to our knowledge, no studies have evaluated the errors associated with these diary surveys, which can bias survey estimates and research findings. The use of paradata, which has been largely ignored in previous literature on diary surveys, could be useful for studying errors in these surveys. Objective: We used paradata to assess survey errors in the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS). Methods: To evaluate the patterns of nonresponse over the diary period, we fit a multinomial logistic regression model to data from this 1-wk diary survey. We also assessed factors influencing respondents' probability of reporting food acquisition events during the diary process by using logistic regression models. Finally, with the use of an ordinal regression model, we studied factors influencing respondents' perceived ease of participation in the survey. Results: As the diary period progressed, nonresponse increased, especially for those starting the survey on Friday (where the odds of a refusal increased by 12% with each fielding day). The odds of reporting food acquisition events also decreased by 6% with each additional fielding day. Similarly, the odds of reporting ≥1 food-away-from-home event (i.e., meals, snacks, and drinks obtained outside the home) decreased significantly over the fielding period. Male respondents, larger households, households that eat together less often, and households with frequent guests reported a significantly more difficult time getting household members to participate, as did non-English-speaking households and households currently experiencing difficult financial conditions. Conclusions: Nonresponse and underreporting of food acquisition events tended to

  7. Injuries caused by pets in Asian urban households: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Gao, Yang; Li, Liping; Lee, Po Yi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about pet-related injuries in Asian populations. This study primarily aimed to investigate the incidence rate of pet-related household injuries in Hong Kong, an urban Chinese setting. Setting Cantonese-speaking non-institutionalised population of all ages in Hong Kong accessible by telephone land-line. Participants A total of 43 542 telephone numbers were dialled and 6570 residents successfully completed the interviews. Primary and secondary outcome measures Data of pet-related household injuries in the previous 12 months, pet ownership and socio-demographic characteristics were collected with a questionnaire. Direct standardisation of the incidence rates of pet-related household injuries by gender and age to the 2009 Hong Kong Population Census was estimated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to estimate risks of socio-demographic factors and pet ownership for the injury. Results A total of 84 participants experienced pet-related household injuries in the past 12 months, with an overall person-based incidence rate of 1.28%. The majority of the victims were injured once (69.6%). Cats (51.6%) were the most common pets involved. Pet owners were at an extremely higher risk after controlling for other factors (adjusted OR: 52.0, 95% CI 22.1 to 98.7). Females, the unmarried, those with higher monthly household income and those living in lower-density housing were more likely to be injured by pets. Conclusions We project a pet-related household injury incidence rate of 1.24% in the general Hong Kong population, with 86 334 residents sustaining pet-related injuries every year. Pet ownership puts people at extremely high risk, especially the unmarried. Further studies should focus on educating pet owners to reduce pet-related injuries in urban Greater China. PMID:28110284

  8. USE OF UNSAFE COOKING FUELS AND BOILING PRACTICE AMONG INDONESIAN HOUSEHOLDS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE 2012 DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Irianti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved drinking-water sources need not be microbiologically safe. Hence, households usually boil their water prior to drinking. However, this practice can potentially harm health when households rely on unsafe cooking fuels. In Indonesia, little is known about the association of use of unsafe fuels with boiling practice. Hence, an analysis was carried out to elicit information regarding boiling practice using unsafe fuels. Such information would be useful in determining appropriate household water treatments. Data from the 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS were analysed to examine the relationship between the use of unsafe cooking fuel and choosing boiling as household water treatment. Bivariate and multivariate probit regression models (PRM were fitted and compared using average marginal effects (AME and its respective 95 per cent confidence interval (95% CI as measures of association. The results suggest that using kerosene as cooking fuel is positively significantly associated with higher probability of practicing boiling (p = 0.006; AME: 0.019; 95% CI: 0.0056, 0.0333. This is also true for use of solid fuel (p< 0.001; AME: 0.3115; 95% CI: 0.3026, 0.3203. These association holds, albeit attenuated (Kerosene, p< 0.001; AME: 0.02706; 95% CI: 0.0186, 0.0355; Solid fuel, p< 0.001; AME: 0.0373; 95% CI: 0.02839, 0.0463, after the control variables are included. The authors suggest that stakeholders should promote the use of other household water treatment technologies to reduce the boiling practice using unsafe cooking fuels as to minimize the risk of smoke related infections. Moreover, universal access and equity to safe drinking water and sanitation facility in Indonesia should be realised to reduce demand of boiling water using unsafe cooking fuels.

  9. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-07-01

    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  10. Survey of metals on antimicrobial and deodorant agents in household Necessities; Mukikei kokinsei kakoseihin no shiyojittai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Teruo

    1999-11-01

    It measured the metal bearing quantity in household necessities in order to clarify use actual condition of the metal system drug. And, it tried the detection of the drug used from detected metal. Too there is the report until now in the investigation of the metallic element in household necessities. However, metals examined this time are silver and zinc, four of copper and aluminum that it says that it has the antimicrobial action and is Key element of inorganic system antimicrobial agent. And, it carried out the analysis by inductive coupling plasma emission analysis method, after the wet digestion of the sample was done. (NEDO)

  11. Individual, household and contextual factors associated with skilled delivery care in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ethiopian demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezmur, Markos; Navaneetham, Kannan; Letamo, Gobopamang; Bariagaber, Hadgu

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence that social contexts are key determinants of health, research into factors associated with maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia has often focused on individual and household factors. The downside is that this underestimates the importance of taking contextual factors into account when planning appropriate interventions in promoting safe motherhood in the country. The purpose of this study is to fill this knowledge gap drawing attention to the largely unexplored contextual factors affecting the uptake of skilled attendance at delivery in a nationally representative sample. Data for the study comes from two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) conducted in the year 2005 and 2011. Analysis was done using a two-level multivariable multilevel logistic regression model with data from 14, 242 women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the surveys clustered within 540 (in the year 2005) and 624 (in the year 2011) communities. The results of the study point to multiple levels of measured and unmeasured factors affecting the uptake of skilled delivery care in the country. At community level, place of residence, community level of female education and fertility significantly predict the uptake of skilled delivery care. At individual and household level, maternal age, birth order, maternal education, household wealth and access to media predict the uptake of such service. Thus, there is a need to consider community contexts in the design of maternal health programs and employ multi-sectorial approach to addressing barriers at different levels. For example, improving access and availability of skilled delivery care should eventually enhance the uptake of such services at community level in Ethiopia. At individual level, efforts to promote the uptake of such services should constitute targeted interventions paying special attention to the needs of the youth, the multiparous, the less educated and women in the

  12. Individual, household and contextual factors associated with skilled delivery care in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ethiopian demographic and health surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Mezmur

    Full Text Available Despite evidence that social contexts are key determinants of health, research into factors associated with maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia has often focused on individual and household factors. The downside is that this underestimates the importance of taking contextual factors into account when planning appropriate interventions in promoting safe motherhood in the country. The purpose of this study is to fill this knowledge gap drawing attention to the largely unexplored contextual factors affecting the uptake of skilled attendance at delivery in a nationally representative sample. Data for the study comes from two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS conducted in the year 2005 and 2011. Analysis was done using a two-level multivariable multilevel logistic regression model with data from 14, 242 women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the surveys clustered within 540 (in the year 2005 and 624 (in the year 2011 communities. The results of the study point to multiple levels of measured and unmeasured factors affecting the uptake of skilled delivery care in the country. At community level, place of residence, community level of female education and fertility significantly predict the uptake of skilled delivery care. At individual and household level, maternal age, birth order, maternal education, household wealth and access to media predict the uptake of such service. Thus, there is a need to consider community contexts in the design of maternal health programs and employ multi-sectorial approach to addressing barriers at different levels. For example, improving access and availability of skilled delivery care should eventually enhance the uptake of such services at community level in Ethiopia. At individual level, efforts to promote the uptake of such services should constitute targeted interventions paying special attention to the needs of the youth, the multiparous, the less educated and

  13. Household income and expenditure surveys: a tool for accelerating the development of evidence-based fortification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Dupriez, Olivier; Friedman, Jed

    2008-12-01

    One-third of the world's population suffers from micronutrient deficiencies due primarily to inadequate dietary intake. Food fortification is often touted as the most promising short- to medium-term strategy for combating these deficiencies. Despite its appealing characteristics, progress in fortification has been slow. To assess the potential of household food-purchase data to fill the food-consumption information gap, which has been an important factor contributing to the slow growth of fortification programs. Household income and expenditure survey (HIES) data about: (a) a population's distribution of apparent household consumption, which are essential to setting safe fortification levels, (b) the proportion of households purchasing "fortifiable" food, and (c) the quantity of food being purchased were used to proxy food-consumption data and develop suggested fortification levels. The usefulness of the approach in addressing several common fortification program design issues is demonstrated. HIES-based suggested fortification levels are juxtaposed with ones developed using the most common current approach, which relies upon Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food Balance Sheets. Despite its limitations, the use of HIES data constitutes a generally unexploited opportunity to address the food-consumption information gap by using survey data that nearly every country of the world is already routinely collecting. HIES data enable the design of fortification programs to become more based on country-specific data and less on general rules of thumb. The more routine use of HIES data constitutes a first step in improving the precision of fortification feasibility analyses and improving estimates of the coverage, costs, and impact of fortification programs.

  14. Parent and Family Involvement in Education: Results from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016. First Look. NCES 2017-102

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiggan, Meghan; Megra, Mahi

    2017-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016 (NHES:2016). The Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey collected data on children enrolled in public or private school for kindergarten through 12th grade or homeschooled for these grades.…

  15. Using Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey (HCES) data to assess dietary intake in relation to the nutrition transition: a case study from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dop, Marie Claude; Pereira, Clodomir; Mistura, Lorenza; Martinez, Claudio; Cardoso, Edith

    2012-09-01

    Few surveys of food and nutrient intakes are conducted at the individual level in low- and middle-income countries, whereas Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are regularly carried out to monitor economic conditions. Because of the paucity of individual-level data, there is interest in using HCES to aid in the design of food and nutrition policies. Data from the 2001/02 HCES from Cape Verde were used to assess household dietary intakes in the context of the country's nutrition transition. The survey included weighed measurements of household food intake and measurements of the weight and height of all household members. Households were classified as "underweight" if they had at least one underweight member, "overweight" if they had at least one overweight member, and "dual burden" if they had at least one underweight and one overweight member. The proportion of households classified as underweight, overweight, and dual burden was 18%, 41%, and 14%, respectively. Household food and nutrient intakes were higher in the overweight households (particularly protein, vitamin A, and calcium) and lower in the underweight households, while there was no clear pattern of intakes in the dual burden group. Overweight households consumed more animal food groups than other households. Intakes of fruits and vegetables were low in all groups. The HCES data for Cape Verde were useful for assessing the extent of the nutrition transition and characterizing dietary intakes by anthropometric classification. Analysis of nutrient and food intakes showed that ensuring sufficient energy availability is no longer the most important issue for Cape Verde, but that ensuring dietary quality is equally crucial, in particular increasing access to fruits and vegetables.

  16. Household wealth inequality, entrepreneurs’ financial constraints, and the great recession: evidence from the Kauffman Firm Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, F. (Fabio); Dwarkasing, M. (Mintra); S. Ongena (Steven)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe empirically test if household wealth inequality affects borrowing constraints of young entrepreneurs. We construct a measure of wealth inequality at the US county level based on the distribution of financial rents in 2004. We find that in more unequal areas, entrepreneurs are less

  17. TB/HIV risk factors identified from a General Household Survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sathiya Susuman Appunni

    2014-05-13

    May 13, 2014 ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: An. Open Access ... Analyses have been undertaken based on data from the General. Household .... with HIV and/or TB from an epidemiological perspective in. South Africa. ... The South Africa GHS (2006) is the large-scale data source used in this article.

  18. Sex Differences in Civilian Injury in Baghdad From 2003 to 2014: Results of a Randomized Household Cluster Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaak, Kyle; Lafta, Riyadh; Stewart, Barclay T; Fowler, Thomas R; Al-Shatari, Sahar A Esa; Burnham, Gilbert; Cherewick, Megan; Wren, Sherry M; Groen, Reinou S; Kushner, Adam L

    2018-06-01

    To examine sex differences in injury mechanisms, injury-related death, injury-related disability, and associated financial consequences in Baghdad since the 2003 invasion of Iraq to inform prevention initiatives, health policy, and relief planning. Reliable estimates of injury burden among civilians during conflict are lacking, particularly among vulnerable subpopulations, such as women. A 2-stage, cluster randomized, community-based household survey was conducted in May 2014 to determine the civilian burden of injury in Baghdad since 2003. Households were surveyed regarding injury mechanisms, healthcare required, disability, deaths, connection to conflict, and resultant financial hardship. We surveyed 900 households (5148 individuals), reporting 553 injuries, 162 (29%) of which were injuries among women. The mean age of injury was higher among women compared with men (34 ± 21.3 vs 27 ± 16.5 years; P < 0.001). More women than men were injured while in the home [104 (64%) vs 82 (21%); P < 0.001]. Fewer women than men died from injuries [11 (6.8%) vs 77 (20%); P < 0.001]; however, women were more likely than men to live with reduced function [101 (63%) vs 192 (49%); P = 0.005]. Of intentional injuries, women had higher rates of injury by shell fragments (41% vs 26%); more men were injured by gunshots [76 (41%) vs 6 (17.6%); P = .011). Women experienced fewer injuries than men in postinvasion Baghdad, but were more likely to suffer disability after injury. Efforts to improve conditions for injured women should focus on mitigating financial and provisional hardships, providing counseling services, and ensuring access to rehabilitation services.

  19. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Wright

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012−2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR = 32.3, p < 0.001, whilst packaged (sachet or bottled water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p < 0.001, compared to water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.

  20. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Wardrop, Nicola A; Johnston, Richard; Hill, Allan; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Adanu, Richard

    2016-03-09

    There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012-2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 32.3, p water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero) in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.

  1. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  2. Universal Health Insurance and the Reasons of not Coverage in Iran: Secondary Analysis of a National Household Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Nosratnejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Universal insurance coverage is considered as one of the main goals of health systems around the world. Although Universal Health Insurance Law was legislated with the objective of covering all Iranian population under health insurance coverage in 1994, but imperfect insurance coverage has remained as a threatening dilemma. Heterogeneous statistics reported by insurer in Iran and the lack of appropriate, comprehensive databases have failed any judgments about the number of uninsured people and the reasons for it. Present study aimed to give better insight on insurance coverage among Iranian people and examine key reasons of imperfect coverage through a deep analysis of a national household survey. Material and Methods : Data which were collected from a national survey of health care utilization in Iran that covered over 102000 people of Iranians were analyzed. The survey had been implemented in 2007 by Iran's Ministry of Health. In order to identify possible reasons for imperfect coverage, national and international databases like SID, Iranmedex, ISC, Pubmed, Scopus, official statistics of Statistical Center of Iran (SCI, Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO and Central Insurance of IRIRAN (CII were searched. Data management was accomplished in Microsoft Excel software.  Results : Study results showed that 85% of Iranian households had health insurance coverage, compared to 15% without any coverage. Medical services insurance fund had the greater proportion of coverage (59.27% and basic private insurance coverage was accountable for the least coverage (0.2%. More than half of households (51% stated financial inability to pay as the main reason for not getting coverage, followed by the lack of knowledge about insurance (12%, unemployment (12% and bypass by employers (10%. A worthwhile finding was that, 13% of households implied they felt no need to health insurance and 2% found it useless. Conclusion : Despite

  3. Household Survey of Pesticide Practice, Deliberate Self-Harm, and Suicide in the Sundarban Region of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicological impact and intentional ingestion of pesticides are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to estimate the extent of deliberate self-harm (DSH and suicides (suicidal behaviour and document pesticide practices in Namkhana block of the Sundarban region, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1680 households (21 villages following a mixed random and cluster design sampling. The survey questionnaire (Household Information on Pesticide Use and DSH was developed by the research team to elicit qualitative and quantitative information. The Kappa statistic and McNemar’s test were used to assess the level of agreement and association between respondents’ and investigators’ opinions about safe storage of pesticides. Over five years, 1680 households reported 181 incidents of suicidal behaviour. Conflict with family members was the most frequently reported reason for suicidal behaviour (53.6%. The Kappa statistic indicated poor agreement between respondents and investigators about safe storage of pesticides. The pesticide-related annual DSH rate was 158.1 (95% CI 126.2–195.5, and for suicide it was 73.4 (95% CI 52.2–100.3 per 100,000. Unsafe pesticide practice and psychosocial stressors are related to the high rates of suicidal behaviour. An intersectoral approach involving the local governments, agricultural department and the health sector would help to reduce the magnitude of this public health problem.

  4. Discrete Choice Model of Food Store Trips Using National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Amy; Smith, Tony E; Whiteman, Eliza D; Chrisinger, Benjamin W

    2017-09-27

    Where households across income levels shop for food is of central concern within a growing body of research focused on where people live relative to where they shop, what they purchase and eat, and how those choices influence the risk of obesity and chronic disease. We analyzed data from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS) using a conditional logit model to determine where participants shop for food to be prepared and eaten at home and how individual and household characteristics of food shoppers interact with store characteristics and distance from home in determining store choice. Store size, whether or not it was a full-service supermarket, and the driving distance from home to the store constituted the three significant main effects on store choice. Overall, participants were more likely to choose larger stores, conventional supermarkets rather than super-centers and other types of stores, and stores closer to home. Interaction effects show that participants receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) were even more likely to choose larger stores. Hispanic participants were more likely than non-Hispanics to choose full-service supermarkets while White participants were more likely to travel further than non-Whites. This study demonstrates the value of explicitly spatial discrete choice models and provides evidence of national trends consistent with previous smaller, local studies.

  5. Discrete Choice Model of Food Store Trips Using National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hillier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Where households across income levels shop for food is of central concern within a growing body of research focused on where people live relative to where they shop, what they purchase and eat, and how those choices influence the risk of obesity and chronic disease. We analyzed data from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS using a conditional logit model to determine where participants shop for food to be prepared and eaten at home and how individual and household characteristics of food shoppers interact with store characteristics and distance from home in determining store choice. Store size, whether or not it was a full-service supermarket, and the driving distance from home to the store constituted the three significant main effects on store choice. Overall, participants were more likely to choose larger stores, conventional supermarkets rather than super-centers and other types of stores, and stores closer to home. Interaction effects show that participants receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP were even more likely to choose larger stores. Hispanic participants were more likely than non-Hispanics to choose full-service supermarkets while White participants were more likely to travel further than non-Whites. This study demonstrates the value of explicitly spatial discrete choice models and provides evidence of national trends consistent with previous smaller, local studies.

  6. Temporal variation of residential pesticide use and comparison of two survey platforms: a longitudinal study among households with young children in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Ritz, Beate; Tancredi, Daniel J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2013-08-20

    Pesticide use patterns are essential inputs into human pesticide exposure models. Currently, data included for modeling purposes have mostly been collected in cross-sectional surveys. However, it is questionable whether responses to one-time surveys are representative of pesticide use over longer periods, which is needed for assessment of health impact. This study was designed to evaluate population-wide temporal variations and within-household variations in reported residential pesticide use patterns and to compare alternative pesticide data collection methods - web surveys versus telephone interviews. A total of 481 households in Northern California provided up to 3 annual telephone interviews on residential pesticide use; 182 of these households provided up to 6 quarterly web surveys that covered the same topics for some of the same time periods. Information on frequency and areas of application were collected for outdoor and indoor sprays, indoor foggers, professional applications, and behind-the-neck treatments for pets. Population-wide temporal variation and within-household consistency were examined both within telephone surveys and within web surveys, and quantified using Generalized Estimating Equations and Mixed Effect Modeling. Reporting between the two methods, the telephone survey and the web survey, was also compared. Use prevalence of outdoor sprays across the population reported in both the annual telephone surveys and the quarterly web surveys decreased over time, as did behind-the-neck treatment of pets reported in the quarterly web survey. Similarly, frequencies of use of these products decreased in the quarterly web surveys. Indoor sprays showed no statistically significant population-wide temporal variation in either survey. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated consistent use within a household for behind-the-neck treatment on pets and outdoor sprays but great variability for the use of indoor sprays. Indoor sprays were most

  7. Subjective measures of household resilience to climate variability and change: insights from a nationally representative survey of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Jones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Promoting household resilience to climate extremes has emerged as a key development priority. Yet tracking and evaluating resilience at this level remains a critical challenge. Most quantitative approaches rely on objective indicators and assessment frameworks, but these are not fully satisfactory. Much of the difficulty arises from a combination of conceptual ambiguities, challenges in selecting appropriate indicators, and in measuring the many intangible aspects that contribute to household resilience. More recently, subjective measures of resilience have been advocated in helping to overcome some of the limitations of traditional objective characterizations. However, few large-scale studies of quantitative subjective approaches to resilience measurement have been conducted. In this study, we address this gap by exploring perceived levels of household resilience to climate extremes in Tanzania and the utility of standardized subjective methods for its assessment. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey involving 1294 individuals was carried out by mobile phone in June 2015 among randomly selected adult respondents aged 18 and above. Factors that are most associated with resilience-related capacities are having had advance knowledge of a previous flood, and to a lesser extent, believing flooding to be a serious community problem. Somewhat surprisingly, though a small number of weak relationships are apparent, most socio-demographic variables do not exhibit statistically significant differences with regards to perceived resilience-related capacities. These findings may challenge traditional assumptions about what factors characterize household resilience, offering a motivation for studying both subjective and objective perspectives, and understanding better their relationship to one another. If further validated, subjective measures may offer potential as both a complement and alternative to traditional objective methods of resilience

  8. Effect of payments for health care on poverty estimates in 11 countries in Asia: an analysis of household survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorslaer, Eddy; O'Donnell, Owen; Rannan-Eliya, Ravi P; Somanathan, Aparnaa; Adhikari, Shiva Raj; Garg, Charu C; Harbianto, Deni; Herrin, Alejandro N; Huq, Mohammed Nazmul; Ibragimova, Shamsia; Karan, Anup; Ng, Chiu Wan; Pande, Badri Raj; Racelis, Rachel; Tao, Sihai; Tin, Keith; Tisayaticom, Kanjana; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Vasavid, Chitpranee; Zhao, Yuxin

    2006-10-14

    Conventional estimates of poverty do not take account of out-of-pocket payments to finance health care. We aimed to reassess measures of poverty in 11 low-to-middle income countries in Asia by calculating total household resources both with and without out-of-pocket payments for health care. We obtained data on payments for health care from nationally representative surveys, and subtracted these payments from total household resources. We then calculated the number of individuals with less than the internationally accepted threshold of absolute poverty (US1 dollar per head per day) after making health payments. We also assessed the effect of health-care payments on the poverty gap--the amount by which household resources fell short of the 1 dollar poverty line in these countries. Our estimate of the overall prevalence of absolute poverty in these countries was 14% higher than conventional estimates that do not take account of out-of-pocket payments for health care. We calculated that an additional 2.7% of the population under study (78 million people) ended up with less than 1 dollar per day after they had paid for health care. In Bangladesh, China, India, Nepal, and Vietnam, where more than 60% of health-care costs are paid out-of-pocket by households, our estimates of poverty were much higher than conventional figures, ranging from an additional 1.2% of the population in Vietnam to 3.8% in Bangladesh. Out-of-pocket health payments exacerbate poverty. Policies to reduce the number of Asians living on less than 1 dollar per day need to include measures to reduce such payments.

  9. Exploring HIV risk perception and behaviour in the context of antiretroviral treatment: results from a township household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulle, A; Hilderbrand, K; Menten, J; Coetzee, D; Ford, N; Matthys, F; Boelaert, M; Van der Stuyft, P

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional household survey was to assess factors influencing HIV risk perception, behaviour and intervention uptake in a community characterised by high HIV prevalence and availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The survey was conducted in Khayelitsha, South Africa and involved two-stage sampling with self-weighting clusters and random selection of households within clusters. One man and woman between 14 and 49 years old was interviewed in each household; 696 men and 879 women were interviewed for a response rate of 84% and 92% respectively. Ninety-three percent and 94% were sexually active with median age of sexual debut 15.3 and 16.5 years. Eighty-three percent and 82% reported a partner at the time of interview and 29% and 8% had additional partner(s). Forty-one percent and 33% reported condom use during the last sexual encounter. Thirty-seven percent of men not using condoms did not as they believed their partner to be faithful, whilst 27% of women did not as their partner refused. Twenty-eight percent and 53% had been tested for HIV. Having undergone HIV testing was not associated with condom usage, whilst current relationship status was the strongest association with condom usage for both men and women. In spite of a relatively high uptake of condoms and testing as well as ART availability, the HIV epidemic has continued unabated in Khayelitsha. Even greater coverage of preventive interventions is required, together with a national social and political environment that builds on the availability of both preventive and treatment services.

  10. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghizadeh Atefeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food insecurity in Isfahan, Iran, using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model. Methods The U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module was translated into Farsi and after adaptation, administered to a representative sample. Data were provided by 2,004 randomly selected households from all sectors of the population of Isfahan, Iran, during 2005. Results 53.1 percent reported that their food had run out at some time during the previous 12 months and they did not have money to buy more, while 26.7 percent reported that an adult had cut the size of a meal or skipped a meal because there was not enough money for food, and 7.2 percent reported that an adult did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money for food. The severity of the items in the adult scale, estimated under Rasch-model assumptions, covered a range of 6.65 logistic units, and those in the child scale 11.68 logistic units. Most Item-infit statistics were near unity, and none exceeded 1.20. Conclusion The range of severity of items provides measurement coverage across a wide range of severity of food insecurity for both adults and children. Both scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal validity, although several items should be improved. The similarity of the response patterns in the Isfahan and the U.S. suggests that food insecurity is experienced, managed, and described similarly in the two countries.

  11. A quantile regression analysis of the rebound effect: Evidence from the 2009 National Household Transportation Survey in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qing

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies quantile regression method to measure the rebound effect and differentiate it with respect to demand for mobility using the 2009 National Household Transportation Survey (NHTS). The quantile regression results indicate that the rebound effect varies with the distribution of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), ranging between 0.11 and 0.19. Road network density and population density also play an important role in determining travel demand. Regression results indicate that travelers living in areas with higher road network density travel more miles although this positive impact consistently declines along the VMT distribution. Travelers living in areas with population density of at most 3000 persons per square miles travel more miles than those living in higher density areas. The quantile regression results also indicate that the impact of income is positive but declines consistently along the VMT distribution. - Highlights: ► This paper examines the magnitude of rebound effect using the 2009 National Household Transportation Survey data. ► Quantile regression method is applied to capture the variation of the rebound effect given the heterogeneous travelers. ► The regression results indicate that the rebound effect varies with VMT distribution. ► The estimated rebound effect fluctuates between 0.11 and 0.19.

  12. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs

  13. Design, Data Collection, Monitoring, Interview Administration Time, and Data Editing in the 1993 National Household Education Survey (NHES:93). Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, J. Michael; Collins, Mary A.; Nolin, Mary Jo; Davies, Elizabeth; Feibus, Mary L.

    The National Household Education Survey (NHES) is a data collection system of the National Center for Education Statistics that collects and publishes data on the condition of education in the United States. It is a telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized population of the country, and it focuses on issues that are best studied through…

  14. Measuring fertility through mobile‒phone based household surveys: Methods, data quality, and lessons learned from PMA2020 surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonjoung Choi; Qingfeng Li; Blake Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Background: PMA2020 is a survey platform with resident enumerators using mobile phones. Instead of collecting full birth history, total fertility rates (TFR) have been measured with a limited number of questions on recent births. Employing new approaches provides opportunities to test and advance survey methods. Objective: This study aims to assess the quality of fertility data in PMA2020 surveys, focusing on bias introduced from the questionnaire and completeness and distribution of birth...

  15. Linking Federal Administrative Records to Respondents and Nonrespondents in Household Surveys: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Sakshaug

    2017-04-01

    We conclude with a general discussion of the practical implications of this work for survey organizations considering performing similar linkages and highlight some opportunities for future linkage research.

  16. Social influcences on household location, mobility and activity choice in integrated micro-simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Arentze, T.; Timmermans, H.

    2011-01-01

    Agent-based approaches to simulating long-term location and mobility decisions and short-term activity and travel decisions of households and individuals are receiving increasing attention in land-use and transportation interaction (LUTI) models to predict land-use changes and travel behaviour in

  17. Semantic Web meets Integrative Biology: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huajun; Yu, Tong; Chen, Jake Y

    2013-01-01

    Integrative Biology (IB) uses experimental or computational quantitative technologies to characterize biological systems at the molecular, cellular, tissue and population levels. IB typically involves the integration of the data, knowledge and capabilities across disciplinary boundaries in order to solve complex problems. We identify a series of bioinformatics problems posed by interdisciplinary integration: (i) data integration that interconnects structured data across related biomedical domains; (ii) ontology integration that brings jargons, terminologies and taxonomies from various disciplines into a unified network of ontologies; (iii) knowledge integration that integrates disparate knowledge elements from multiple sources; (iv) service integration that build applications out of services provided by different vendors. We argue that IB can benefit significantly from the integration solutions enabled by Semantic Web (SW) technologies. The SW enables scientists to share content beyond the boundaries of applications and websites, resulting into a web of data that is meaningful and understandable to any computers. In this review, we provide insight into how SW technologies can be used to build open, standardized and interoperable solutions for interdisciplinary integration on a global basis. We present a rich set of case studies in system biology, integrative neuroscience, bio-pharmaceutics and translational medicine, to highlight the technical features and benefits of SW applications in IB.

  18. Prevalence of major depressive disorder and socio-demographic correlates: Results of a representative household epidemiological survey in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Yan, Fang; Ma, Xin; Guo, Hong-Li; Tang, Yi-Lang; Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Zhu, Hong; Guo, Xiao-Bing; Yang, Yang; Li, Peng; Cao, Xin-Dong; Li, Hai-Ying; Li, Zhen-Bo; Wang, Ping; Xu, Qiu-Yue

    2015-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent mental disorder in the general population and has been associated with socioeconomic factors. Beijing has undergone significant socioeconomic changes in last decade, however no large-scale community epidemiological surveys of MDD have been conducted in Beijing since 2003. To determine the prevalence of MDD and its socio-demographic correlates in a representative household sample of the general population in Beijing, China. Data were collected from the 2010 representative household epidemiological survey of mental disorders in Beijing. The multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select qualified subjects in 18 districts and counties, and then face-to-face interviews were administered using the Chinese version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition (SCID-I/P) during November 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. 19,874 registered permanent residents were randomly identified and 16,032 (response rate=80.7%) completed face-to-face interviews. The time-point and life-time prevalence rates of MDD were estimated to be 1.10% (95% CI: 0.94-1.26%) and 3.56% (95% CI: 3.27-3.85%) respectively. Significant differences were found in sex, age, location of residence, marital status, education, employment status, personal/family monthly income, perception of family environment and relationship with others, when comparing residents with MDD to those without MDD. Those who were female, aged 45 or above, reported low family income, or reported an "average" or "poor" family environment were associated with a higher risk of MDD. The prevalence of MDD reported in this survey is relatively lower than that in other western countries. Female sex, age older than 45, low family income, and poor family environment appear to be independent risk factors for MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Household costs of illness during different phases of tuberculosis treatment in Central Asia: a patient survey in Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdualimova Hanifa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illness-related costs incurred by patients constitute a severe economic burden for households especially in low-income countries. High household costs of illness lead to impoverishment; they impair affordability and equitable access to health care and consequently hamper tuberculosis (TB control. So far, no study has investigated patient costs of TB in the former Soviet Union. Methods All adult new pulmonary TB cases enrolled into the DOTS program in 12 study districts during the study period were enrolled. Medical and non-medical expenditure as well as loss of income were quantified in two interviews covering separate time periods. Costs of different items were summed up to calculate total costs. For missing values, multiple imputation was applied. Results A cohort of 204 patients under DOTS, 114 men and 90 women, participated in the questionnaire survey. Total illness costs of a TB episode averaged $1053 (c. $4900 purchasing power parity, PPP, of which $292, $338 and $422 were encountered before the start of treatment, during intensive phase and in continuation phase, respectively. Costs per month were highest before the start of treatment ($145 and during intensive phase ($153 and lower during continuation phase ($95. These differences were highly significant (paired t-test, p Conclusions The illness-related costs of an episode of TB exceed the per capita GDP of $1600 PPP about two-and-a-half times. Hence, these costs are catastrophic for concerned households and suggest a high risk for impoverishment. Costs are not equally spread over time, but peak in early stages of treatment, exacerbating the problem of affordability. Mitigation strategies are needed in order to control TB in Tajikistan and may include social support to the patients as well as changes in the management of TB cases. These mitigation strategies should be timed early in treatment when the cost burden is highest.

  20. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steve

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113 and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063 reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape. Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.

  1. Potential use of telephone surveys for non-communicable disease surveillance in developing countries: evidence from a national household survey in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Abla M; Ghandour, Lilian A; Chaaban, Rawan; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-05-31

    Given the worldwide proliferation of cellphones, this paper examines their potential use for the surveillance of non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors in a Middle Eastern country. Data were derived from a national household survey of 2,656 adults (aged 18 years or older) in Lebanon in 2009. Responses to questions on phone ownership yielded two subsamples, the 'cell phone sample' (n = 1,404) and the 'any phone sample' (n = 2,158). Prevalence estimates of various socio-demographics and 11 key NCD risk factors and comorbidities were compared between each subsample and the overall household sample. Adjusting for baseline age and sex distribution, no differences were observed for all NCD indicators when comparing either of subsamples to the overall household sample, except for binge drinking [(OR = 1.55, 95 % CI: 1.33-1.81) and (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.85) for 'cell phone subsample' and 'any phone subsample', respectively] and self-rated health (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.10-1.36) and (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI: 1.02-1.32), respectively). Differences in the odds of hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.27, 95 % CI: 1.06-1.51) was also found in the subsample of 'any phone' carriers. Multi-mode telephone surveillance techniques provide viable alternative to face-to-face surveys in developing countries. Cell phones may also be useful for personalized public health and medical care interventions in young populations.

  2. Measuring fertility through mobile‒phone based household surveys: Methods, data quality, and lessons learned from PMA2020 surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonjoung Choi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: PMA2020 is a survey platform with resident enumerators using mobile phones. Instead of collecting full birth history, total fertility rates (TFR have been measured with a limited number of questions on recent births. Employing new approaches provides opportunities to test and advance survey methods. Objective: This study aims to assess the quality of fertility data in PMA2020 surveys, focusing on bias introduced from the questionnaire and completeness and distribution of birth month and year, and to estimate TFR adjusted for identified data quality issues. Methods: To assess underestimation from the questionnaire, we simulated births that would be counted using the PMA2020 questionnaires compared to births identified from full birth history. We analyzed the latest Demographic and Health Surveys in ten countries where PMA2020 surveys have been implemented. We assessed the level of reporting completeness for birth month and year and heaping of birth month, analyzing 39 PMA2020 surveys. Finally, TFR were calculated and adjusted for biases introduced from the questionnaire and heaping in birth month. Results: Simple questions introduced minor bias from undercounting multiple births, which was expected and correctable. Meanwhile, incomplete reporting of birth month was relatively high, and the default value of January in data collection software systematically moved births with missing months out of the reference period. On average across the 39 surveys, TFR increased by 1.6Š and 2.4Š, adjusted for undercounted multiple births and heaping on January, respectively. Contribution: This study emphasizes the importance of enumerator training and provides critical insight in software programming in surveys using mobile technologies.

  3. The association of household food security, household characteristics and school environment with obesity status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis children and youth in Canada: results from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Cooke, Martin J; Guo, Yanling; Wilk, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Indigenous children are twice as likely to be classified as obese and three times as likely to experience household food insecurity when compared with non- Indigenous Canadian children. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between food insecurity and weight status among Métis and off-reserve First Nations children and youth across Canada. We obtained data on children and youth aged 6 to 17 years (n = 6900) from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. We tested bivariate relationships using Pearson chi-square tests and used nested binary logistic regressions to examine the food insecurity-weight status relationship, after controlling for geography, household and school characteristics and cultural factors. Approximately 22% of Métis and First Nations children and youth were overweight, and 15% were classified as obese. Over 80% of the sample was reported as food secure, 9% experienced low food security and 7% were severely food insecure. Off-reserve Indigenous children and youth from households with very low food security were at higher risk of overweight or obese status; however, this excess risk was not independent of household socioeconomic status, and was reduced by controlling for household income, adjusted for household size. Negative school environment was also a significant predictor of obesity risk, independent of demographic, household and geographic factors. Both food insecurity and obesity were prevalent among the Indigenous groups studied, and our results suggest that a large proportion of children and youth who are food insecure are also overweight or obese. This study reinforces the importance of including social determinants of health, such as income, school environment and geography, in programs or policies targeting child obesity.

  4. Relationships between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental well-being: results from an English national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hughes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals’ childhood experiences can strongly influence their future health and well-being. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs such as abuse and dysfunctional home environments show strong cumulative relationships with physical and mental illness yet less is known about their effects on mental well-being in the general population. Methods A nationally representative household survey of English adults (n = 3,885 measuring current mental well-being (Short Edinburgh-Warwick Mental Well-being Scale SWEMWBS and life satisfaction and retrospective exposure to nine ACEs. Results Almost half of participants (46.4 % had suffered at least one ACE and 8.3 % had suffered four or more. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs for low life satisfaction and low mental well-being increased with the number of ACEs. AORs for low ratings of all individual SWEMWBS components also increased with ACE count, particularly never or rarely feeling close to others. Of individual ACEs, growing up in a household affected by mental illness and suffering sexual abuse had the most relationships with markers of mental well-being. Conclusions Childhood adversity has a strong cumulative relationship with adult mental well-being. Comprehensive mental health strategies should incorporate interventions to prevent ACEs and moderate their impacts from the very earliest stages of life.

  5. CATS Household Travel Survey, Volume One: Documentation for the Chicago Central Business District

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the surveying concepts, the editing and : coding logic, the data base structure, several summary tables and the data base : for the Chicago Central Business District. Also, because the data at this time : are unfa...

  6. Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mashaqbeh, Othman A.; Ghrair, Ayoup M.; Megdal, Sharon B.

    2012-01-01

    Installation of decentralized grey water treatment systems in small rural communities contributes to a more sustainable water supply. In order to gauge community attitudes about collection and use of grey water, a door-to-door survey in the farming community of Deir Alla, Jordan was conducted by Royal Scientific Society interviewers. Outcomes of a detailed survey, designed specifically for this project, offer insights on people’s views on general water and wastewater issues, as well as their ...

  7. Complex association between rural/urban residence, household wealth and women's overweight: evidence from 30 cross-sectional national household surveys in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madise, Nyovani Janet; Letamo, Gobopamang

    2017-01-01

    We sought to demonstrate that the relationship between urban or rural residence and overweight status among women in Sub-Saharan Africa is complex and confounded by wealth status. We applied multilevel logistic regression to data from 30 sub-Saharan African countries which were collected between 2006 and 2012 to examine the association between women's overweight status (body mass index ≥ 25) and household wealth, rural or urban place of residence, and their interaction. Macro-level statistics from United Nations agencies were used as contextual variables to assess the link between progress in globalization and patterns of overweight. Household wealth was associated with increased odds of being overweight in nearly all of the countries. Urban/rural living and household wealth had a complex association with women's overweight status, shown by 3 patterns. In one group of countries, characterised by low national wealth (median per capita gross national income (GNI) = $660 in 2012) and lower overall prevalence of female overweight (median = 24 per cent in 2010), high household wealth and urban living had independent associations with increased risks of being overweight. In the second group of less poor countries (median per capita GNI = $870) and higher national levels of female overweight (median = 29), there was a cross-over association where rural women had lower risks of overweight than urban women at lower levels of household wealth, but in wealthier households, rural women had higher risks of overweight than urban women. In the final group of countries, household wealth was an important predictor of overweight status, but the association between urban or rural place of residence and overweight status was not statistically significant. The median per capita GNI for this third group was $800 and national prevalence of female overweight was high (median = 32% in 2010). As nations develop and household wealth increases, rural African women

  8. Decomposing inequality in financial protection situation in Iran after implementing the health reform plan: What does the evidence show based on national survey of households' budget?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Tayebeh; Naghdi, Seyran; Brown, Heather; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza

    2018-03-24

    Lack of well-designed healthcare financing mechanisms and high level of out-of-pocket payments in Iran over the last decades led to implementing Health Transformation Plan, in 2014. This study aims to decompose inequality in financial protection of Iranian households after the implementation of the Health Transformation Plan. The data of Statistical Center of Iran (SCI) Survey on Rural and Urban Households Income-Expenditure in 2015 to 2016 were used. The headcount ratio of catastrophic health expenditures was calculated. The corrected concentration index was estimated. The role of contributors on inequality in the exposure to catastrophic health expenditures among poor and nonpoor households was calculated using Farelie's model. The headcount ratio of the exposure to catastrophic health expenditures in urban and rural households was 4.58% and 5.65%, respectively. The difference in households' income levels was the main contributor in explaining the inequality in facing catastrophic health expenditures between poor and nonpoor households. Even after implementing the HTP, the headcount ratios of catastrophic health expenditure are still considerable. The results show that income is the greatest determinant of inequality in facing catastrophic health expenditure and in urban households. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An Overview of Food Patterns and Diet Quality in Qatar: Findings from the National Household Income Expenditure Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Mohammed; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud; Al-Mahdi, Nasser; Al-Kareem, Hefzi; Barakat, Darine; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Tawfik, Afaf; Akram, Hammad

    2017-05-15

    Availability of accurate data pertaining to a population's dietary patterns and associated health outcomes is critical for proper development and implementation of related policies. This article is a first attempt to share the food patterns, amounts and diet quality among households (HH) in Qatar. Data from the 2012-2013 Qatar National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was used. This cross-sectional survey included 3723 HH (1826 Qatari HH and 1897 non-Qatari HH). Dietary data on monthly amounts food items available at HH according to the nationality was used. The food items were expressed in terms of grams per capita per day and aggregated into groups to examine the food patterns, energy, and adequacy. The overall average amount of purchased food at HH in Qatar was 1885 g/capita/day. Qatari HH purchased more food (2118 g/capita/day) versus non-Qataris (1373 g/capita/day); however, the percentages of the amounts purchased by food types were similar among both nationalities. Average daily energy (kcal) per capita was almost double among Qatari HH (4275 kcal) vs. non-Qatari HH (2424 kcal). The food items under subsidy program for Qatari citizens provided 1753 kcal/capita/day and accounted for 41% of total daily energy. Proteins (29.2), fats (39.2), sodium (3.3), and vitamin C (32.5) had higher than recommended levels of nutrient density (grams per 1000 kcal). Calcium (227), vitamin A (302.3), fiber (2.0), and carbohydrates (132.6) had lower than recommended levels of nutrient energy density (g/1000 kcal). The study predicts unhealthy dietary habits among HH in Qatar and provides useful information for policy makers and healthcare community.

  10. Challenges in Estimating Vaccine Coverage in Refugee and Displaced Populations: Results From Household Surveys in Jordan and Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberton, Timothy; Weiss, William; Doocy, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring the sustained immunization of displaced persons is a key objective in humanitarian emergencies. Typically, humanitarian actors measure coverage of single vaccines following an immunization campaign; few measure routine coverage of all vaccines. We undertook household surveys of Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon, outside of camps, using a mix of random and respondent-driven sampling, to measure coverage of all vaccinations included in the host country’s vaccine schedule. We analyzed the results with a critical eye to data limitations and implications for similar studies. Among households with a child aged 12–23 months, 55.1% of respondents in Jordan and 46.6% in Lebanon were able to produce the child’s EPI card. Only 24.5% of Syrian refugee children in Jordan and 12.5% in Lebanon were fully immunized through routine vaccination services (having received from non-campaign sources: measles, polio 1–3, and DPT 1–3 in Jordan and Lebanon, and BCG in Jordan). Respondents in Jordan (33.5%) and Lebanon (40.1%) reported difficulties obtaining child vaccinations. Our estimated immunization rates were lower than expected and raise serious concerns about gaps in vaccine coverage among Syrian refugees. Although our estimates likely under-represent true coverage, given the additional benefit of campaigns (not captured in our surveys), there is a clear need to increase awareness, accessibility, and uptake of immunization services. Current methods to measure vaccine coverage in refugee and displaced populations have limitations. To better understand health needs in such groups, we need research on: validity of recall methods, links between campaigns and routine immunization programs, and improved sampling of hard-to-reach populations. PMID:28805672

  11. Are low-to-middle-income households experiencing food insecurity in Victoria, Australia? An examination of the Victorian Population Health Survey, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleve, Sue; Davidson, Zoe E; Gearon, Emma; Booth, Sue; Palermo, Claire

    2017-07-01

    Food insecurity affects health and wellbeing. Little is known about the relationship between food insecurity across income levels. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and frequency of food insecurity in low-to-middle-income Victorian households over time and identify factors associated with food insecurity in these households. Prevalence and frequency of food insecurity was analysed across household income levels using data from the cross-sectional 2006-09 Victorian Population Health Surveys (VPHS). Respondents were categorised as food insecure, if in the last 12 months they had run out of food and were unable to afford to buy more. Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe factors associated with food insecurity in low-to-middle-income households (A$40000-$80000 in 2008). Between 4.9 and 5.5% for total survey populations and 3.9-4.8% in low-to-middle-income respondents were food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with limited help from friends, home ownership status, inability to raise money in an emergency and cost of some foods. Food insecurity exists in households beyond those on a very low income. Understanding the extent and implications of household food insecurity across all income groups in Australia will inform effective and appropriate public health responses.

  12. Financial burden of household out-of pocket health expenditure in Viet Nam: findings from the National Living Standard Survey 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Saksena, Priyanka; James, Chris D; Xu, Ke

    2013-11-01

    In Viet Nam, household direct out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure as a share of the total health expenditure has been always high, ranging from 50% to 70%. The high share of OOP expenditure has been linked to different inequity problems such as catastrophic health expenditure (households must reduce their expenditure on other necessities) and impoverishment. This paper aims to examine catastrophic and poverty impacts of household out-of-pocket health expenditure in Viet Nam over time and identify socio-economic indicators associated with them. Data used in this research were obtained from a nationally representative household survey, Viet Nam Living Standard Survey 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. The findings revealed that there were problems in health care financing in Viet Nam - many households encountered catastrophic health expenditure and/or were pushed into poverty due to health care payments. The issues were pervasive over time. Catastrophic expenditure and impoverishment problems were more common among the households who had more elderly people and those located in rural areas. Importantly, the financial protection aspect of the national health insurance schemes was still modest. Given these findings, more attention is needed on developing methods of financial protection in Viet Nam. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The stability of income inequality in Brazil, 2006-2012: an estimate using income tax data and household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Marcelo; de Souza, Pedro Herculano Guimarães Ferreira; de Castro, Fábio Ávila

    2015-04-01

    the level and evolution of income inequality among adults in Brazil between 2006 and 2012. to calculate the level of inequality, its trend over the years and the share of income growth appropriated by different social groups. We combined tax data from the Annual Personal Income Tax Returns (Declaração Anual de Ajuste do Imposto de Renda da Pessoa Física - DIRPF) and the Brazilian National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD) to construct a complete distribution of total income among adults in Brazil. We applied Pareto interpolations to income tax tabulations to arrive at the distribution within income groups. We tested the results, comparing the PNAD to the Brazilian Consumption and Expenditure Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares - POF) and to data from the Census Subsample Survey (Census. We found evidence that income inequality in Brazil is higher than previously thought and that it remained stable between 2006 and 2012; in making these findings, we thus diverged from most studies on the dynamics of inequality in Brazil.. There was income growth, but the top incomes have appropriated most of this growth.

  14. The stability of income inequality in Brazil, 2006-2012: an estimate using income tax data and household surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Medeiros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Object: the level and evolution of income inequality among adults in Brazil between 2006 and 2012.Objectives: to calculate the level of inequality, its trend over the years and the share of income growth appropriated by different social groups.Methodology: We combined tax data from the Annual Personal Income Tax Returns (Declaração Anual de Ajuste do Imposto de Renda da Pessoa Física - DIRPF and the Brazilian National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD to construct a complete distribution of total income among adults in Brazil. We applied Pareto interpolations to income tax tabulations to arrive at the distribution within income groups. We tested the results, comparing the PNAD to the Brazilian Consumption and Expenditure Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares - POF and to data from the Census Subsample Survey (Census.Results: We found evidence that income inequality in Brazil is higher than previously thought and that it remained stable between 2006 and 2012; in making these findings, we thus diverged from most studies on the dynamics of inequality in Brazil.. There was income growth, but the top incomes have appropriated most of this growth.

  15. Home literacy experiences and early childhood disability: a descriptive study using the National Household Education Surveys (NHES) program database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit-Smith, Allison; Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M

    2010-01-01

    The present article illustrates how the National Household Education Surveys (NHES; U.S. Department of Education, 2009) database might be used to address questions of relevance to researchers who are concerned with literacy development among young children. Following a general description of the NHES database, a study is provided that examines the extent to which parent-reported home literacy activities and child emergent literacy skills differ for children with (a) developmental disabilities versus those who are developing typically, (b) single disability versus multiple disabilities, and (c) speech-language disability only versus other types of disabilities. Four hundred and seventy-eight preschool-age children with disabilities and a typically developing matched sample (based on parent report) were identified in the 2005 administration of the Early Childhood Program Participation (ECPP) Survey in the NHES database. Parent responses to survey items were then compared between groups. After controlling for age and socioeconomic status, no significant differences were found in the frequency of home literacy activities for children with and without disabilities. Parents reported higher levels of emergent literacy skills for typically developing children relative to children with disabilities. These findings suggest the importance of considering the home literacy experiences and emergent literacy skills of young children with disabilities when making clinical recommendations.

  16. Determinants of Farmers’ Willingness to Pay and Its Level for Ecological Compensation of Poyang Lake Wetland, China: A Household-Level Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanbin Kong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the determinants of farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP and their payment levels for ecological compensation of the Poyang Lake Wetland in China. We developed a farmer household survey and gathered 292 effective responses. The contingent valuation method (CVM and Heckman’s two-step model were employed for the empirical study. Results show that 46.58% of farmers are willing to pay ecological compensation, with an average price of $64.39/household per year. The influencing factors that significantly influence farmers’ WTP include household income, residential location, emphasis on improvement of wetland resources, arable land area, and contracted water area. In addition, household income, residential location, arable land area, and contracted water area are significantly related to their payment levels. The results of this empirical study inform important policy implications and recommendations.

  17. Nationwide rural well water survey, the quality of household water and factors influencing it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkka-Niemi, K.; Sipilae, A.; Hatva, T.; Hiisvirta, L.; Lahti, K.; Alfthan, G.

    1993-01-01

    The quality of water in 1 421 drinking—water wells was monitored in a nationwide well water study. Samples were taken once from all wells, and during three seasons from 421 wells. The wells were selected in such a way that the sample would be as representative as possible of the quality of the drinking—water in households’ own wells in ru— ral areas. The study comprised general water quality parameters, influence of sampling season, and factors related to the type, the condition and the pollution of the wells. In part of the well waters selenium, radioactivity and pesticides were determined. The effect of plumbing materials on the quality of water was also examined. The health—based criteria of the quality of drinking—water were not met in 50 — 70 % of the well waters monitored, depending upon the sampling time. The most common defects were the occurrence of bacteria indicating faecal pollution (2— 25 %) and a high concentration of nitrate (11 — 13 %) and fluoride (7 — 16 %). The tar— get values set for the other properties affecting the usableness of water were not met in 80 % of the well waters examined. The most common defects in this respect were the turbidity and the colour of water (40 — 50 %), the occurrence of iron (20 — 25 %) and manganese (20 %), and a low ph value. Depending upon the area, only 11 — 15 % of the wells met all the criteria related to the corrosive effect of the water. About 17 % of the households in the study suffered from periodical or continuous insufficiency of water. The types of well were dug wells with concrete sink rings in 72 %, and drilled bedrock wells in 20 % of te cases. The rest were spring wells or dug wells with stone walls. The condition of a well was, according 10 the judgement of the sampler, good in 58 %, satisfactory in 36 % and poor in 6 % of the households. Seasonal variation could be seen mainly in the occurrence of faecal bacteria. Distinct differences in the quality of water appeared

  18. [A survey of fertility in specialized households in Tianjin city with one child in the countryside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, B; Kao, E

    1985-07-29

    This report addresses the trend among specialized households which has evolved from the assumption that more children meant a happier life to the opinion that a smaller number of children will have a better upbringing. It addresses problems in family planning and ways to improve these problems as well. Since the economic reform which drastically changed the economic system in China (especially in rural areas), the ideas of the people regarding family planning began to change just as their lifestyles were changing. When production had been controlled by communes, everybody received the same income and thus, low incentive resulted in low production. Life was difficult and people still retained the traditional notion that a larger family guaranteed happiness as well as security for their old age. Moreover, women were tied to the home and were economically dependent upon their husbands. The new economic reforms have brought about changes in these attitudes. Women now want less children and a higher quality of life. They have bettered their status in society and now have higher incomes. They are encouraged to work more and children are less of a concern. In one case, a woman was kicked out of her own house by her mother-in-law for giving birth to a girl. Later, the woman purchased the house after raising a protest in the village. She has now gained the respect of her mother-in-law who lives in the house and takes care of the child. Old notions, such as those maintaining that low productivity requires more labor and that a larger income will permit a larger family, are now less accepted. Today's trend focuses more on improvements in family planning through better promotional campaigns and aims to enhance productivity through government assistance.

  19. Driving pattern analysis of Nordic region based on the national travel surveys for electric vehicle integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Christensen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    to the power system. This paper presents a methodology to transform driving behavior of persons into the one of cars in order to analyze the driving pattern of electric vehicles (EVs) based on the National Travel Surveys. In the proposed methodology, a statistical process is used to obtain the driving behavior......EVs show great potential to cope with the intermittency of renewable energy sources (RES) and provide demand side flexibility required by the smart grid.On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. Large scale integration of EVs will probably have substantial impacts...... of cars by grouping the survey respondents according to the driving license number and car number and mapping the households with similar characteristics. The proposed methodology was used to carry out the driving pattern analysis in the Nordic region. The detailed driving requirements and the charging...

  20. [Gender-related achievements and challenges in the 2006 National Health Survey: analysis of adults and households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2011-01-01

    To examine the ability of the 2006 Spanish Health Survey (SHS-2006) to analyze the population's health from a gender perspective and identify gender-related inequalities in health, and to compare the 2006 version with that of 2003. A contents analysis of the adults and households questionnaires was performed from the gender perspective, taking gender as (a) the basis of social norms and values, (b) the organizer of social structure: gender division of labor, double workload, vertical/horizontal segregation, and access to resources and power, and (c) a component of individual identity. The 2006 SHS uses neutral language. The referent is the interviewee, substituting the head of the family/breadwinner of past surveys. A new section focuses on reproductive labor (caregiving and domestic tasks) and the time distribution for these tasks. However, some limitations in the questions about time distribution were identified, hampering accurate estimations. The time devoted to paid labor is not recorded. The 2006 version includes new information about family commitments as an obstacle to accessing healthcare and on the delay between seeking and receiving healthcare appointments. The SHS 2006 introduces sufficient variations to confirm its improvement from a gender perspective. Future surveys should reformulate the questions about the time devoted to paid and reproductive labor, which is essential to characterize gender division of labor and double workload. Updating future versions of the SHS will also involve gathering information on maternity/paternity and parental leave. The 2006 survey allows delays in receiving healthcare to be measured, but does not completely allow other delays, such as diagnostic and treatment delays, to be quantified. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrating Household Risk Mitigation Behavior in Flood Risk Analysis: An Agent-Based Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, W J Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen C J H

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies showed that climate change and socioeconomic trends are expected to increase flood risks in many regions. However, in these studies, human behavior is commonly assumed to be constant, which neglects interaction and feedback loops between human and environmental systems. This neglect of human adaptation leads to a misrepresentation of flood risk. This article presents an agent-based model that incorporates human decision making in flood risk analysis. In particular, household investments in loss-reducing measures are examined under three economic decision models: (1) expected utility theory, which is the traditional economic model of rational agents; (2) prospect theory, which takes account of bounded rationality; and (3) a prospect theory model, which accounts for changing risk perceptions and social interactions through a process of Bayesian updating. We show that neglecting human behavior in flood risk assessment studies can result in a considerable misestimation of future flood risk, which is in our case study an overestimation of a factor two. Furthermore, we show how behavior models can support flood risk analysis under different behavioral assumptions, illustrating the need to include the dynamic adaptive human behavior of, for instance, households, insurers, and governments. The method presented here provides a solid basis for exploring human behavior and the resulting flood risk with respect to low-probability/high-impact risks. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Tobacco use in 3 billion individuals from 16 countries: an analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A; Mirza, Sara A; Samet, Jonathan M; Gupta, Prakash C; Jarvis, Martin J; Bhala, Neeraj; Peto, Richard; Zatonski, Witold; Hsia, Jason; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna M; Asma, Samira

    2012-08-18

    Despite the high global burden of diseases caused by tobacco, valid and comparable prevalence data for patterns of adult tobacco use and factors influencing use are absent for many low-income and middle-income countries. We assess these patterns through analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Between Oct 1, 2008, and March 15, 2010, GATS used nationally representative household surveys with comparable methods to obtain relevant information from individuals aged 15 years or older in 14 low-income and middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam). We compared weighted point estimates and 95% CIs of tobacco use between these 14 countries and with data from the 2008 UK General Lifestyle Survey and the 2006-07 US Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. All these surveys had cross-sectional study designs. In countries participating in GATS, 48·6% (95% CI 47·6-49·6) of men and 11·3% (10·7-12·0) of women were tobacco users. 40·7% of men (ranging from 21·6% in Brazil to 60·2% in Russia) and 5·0% of women (0·5% in Egypt to 24·4% in Poland) in GATS countries smoked a tobacco product. Manufactured cigarettes were favoured by most smokers (82%) overall, but smokeless tobacco and bidis were commonly used in India and Bangladesh. For individuals who had ever smoked daily, women aged 55-64 years at the time of the survey began smoking at an older age than did equivalently aged men in most GATS countries. However, those individuals who had ever smoked daily and were aged 25-34-years when surveyed started to do so at much the same age in both sexes. Quit ratios were very low (<20% overall) in China, India, Russia, Egypt, and Bangladesh. The first wave of GATS showed high rates of smoking in men, early initiation of smoking in women, and low quit ratios, reinforcing the view that efforts to prevent initiation and promote

  3. A household survey to assess community knowledge, attitude and practices on malaria in a rural population of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An extensive search on PubMed reveals very little in terms of evidence regarding the current knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP of the population in general and rural population, in particular, in this part of the country. Therefore, a study was conducted with the aim to assess the communities′ knowledge of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, treatment seeking. Materials and Methods: A stratified two-stage design was used to conduct a house-to-house survey using a semi-structured questionnaire in RS Pura block of Jammu District of Jammu and Kashmir State in North India. Results: A total of 300 households were included in the study. However, data on 4 households was found to be incomplete at the time of analysis and, therefore, were excluded. Out of 296 study participants interviewed 65.5% were males, while 34.5% females. All of the study participants (100% had heard of malaria, and the main source of their information was television/newspaper. 92.5% of the study population considered malaria to be a serious health problem, thus reflecting their attitude to the disease. Regarding practices, 71.6% of the study participants preferred going to doctors at government hospitals for malaria treatment, and 56% were willing to seek medical help in <24 h in case of a child has a febrile episode. Conclusions: Results revealed that KAP among respondents were reasonably good and key sociocultural, and related indicators need to be identified as a part of malaria elimination strategy.

  4. Human rights abuse and other criminal violations in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: a random survey of households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Athena R; Hutson, Royce A

    2006-09-02

    Reliable evidence of the frequency and severity of human rights abuses in Haiti after the departure of the elected president in 2004 was scarce. We assessed data from a random survey of households in the greater Port-au-Prince area. Using random Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinate sampling, 1260 households (5720 individuals) were sampled. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire by trained interviewers about their experiences after the departure of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. The response rate was 90.7%. Information on demographic characteristics, crime, and human rights violations was obtained. Our findings suggested that 8000 individuals were murdered in the greater Port-au-Prince area during the 22-month period assessed. Almost half of the identified perpetrators were government forces or outside political actors. Sexual assault of women and girls was common, with findings suggesting that 35,000 women were victimised in the area; more than half of all female victims were younger than 18 years. Criminals were the most identified perpetrators, but officers from the Haitian National Police accounted for 13.8% and armed anti-Lavalas groups accounted for 10.6% of identified perpetrators of sexual assault. Kidnappings and extrajudicial detentions, physical assaults, death threats, physical threats, and threats of sexual violence were also common. Our results indicate that crime and systematic abuse of human rights were common in Port-au-Prince. Although criminals were the most identified perpetrators of violations, political actors and UN soldiers were also frequently identified. These findings suggest the need for a systematic response from the newly elected Haitian government, the UN, and social service organisations to address the legal, medical, psychological, and economic consequences of widespread human rights abuses and crime.

  5. What determines urban households' willingness to pay for CO2 emission reductions in Turkey: A contingent valuation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaman, Fikret; Karali, Nihan; Kumbaroglu, Guerkan; Or, Ilhan; Ozkaynak, Beguem; Zenginobuz, Unal

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores Turkish urban households' willingness to pay (WTP) for CO 2 emission reductions expected to result from improvements in power production. A face-to-face questionnaire, with a Contingent valuation (CV) module prepared using the double-bounded dichotomous choice elicitation framework, was administered to 2422 respondents representative of urban Turkey-a developing country with low but rapidly increasing greenhouse gas emissions. The determinants of WTP were identified by considering not only the impact of standard socio-economic factors but also the effects of environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviour, the relevance of the identity of the collection agent (national versus international institutions) in terms of trust people have towards them, and the degree of perceived participation of others in the realization of the project. Our study confirms the existing literature in demonstrating that WTP figures reported by young and educated people that are active on environmental issues, and who also possess material security and environmental knowledge, are more likely to be high. However, their willingness to make contributions is hampered significantly by their belief that their fellow citizens will not contribute and the general lack of trust in institutions. Overall, this study may be taken as a call to eliminate governance-related uncertainties in climate change deals. - Research Highlights: → We explored the determinants of households' willingness to pay for CO 2 reductions. → We administered a contingent valuation survey to 2422 respondents in urban Turkey. → Young, educated, environmentally-knowledgeable and activist people contribute more. → Income is also found to be significant in increasing willingness to contribute. → Lack of trust in institutions and in other's participation hampers the contributions.

  6. Rabies awareness and dog ownership among rural northern and southern Chadian communities-Analysis of a community-based, cross-sectional household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbilo, Céline; Léchenne, Monique; Hattendorf, Jan; Madjadinan, Séraphin; Anyiam, Franziska; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-11-01

    Canine rabies represents a major - but preventable - public health threat in Chad. In preparation for a nation-wide canine parenteral mass vaccination campaign we conducted a community-based, cross-sectional multi-stage cluster survey in 40 villages in two southern and two northern regions of Chad. Our objective was to investigate rabies awareness and dog-ownership among the rural population. Almost half of the households (45%) owned dogs, with an overall dog:human ratio of 1:7.8. Southern households owned almost two thirds (701/918) of all dogs and the number of dogs per household was twice as high compared to the north (2.7 vs. 1.3, respectively). This translates into a dog:human ratio of 1:5.2 in the south and 1:16.4 in the north. Only 76% of the respondents had heard of rabies. Respondents who (1) were male, (2)>19 years, (3) had primary education or higher and (4) were of Muslim faith were more likely to have heard of rabies (prabies knowledge was positively associated with (1) southern residence, (2) any kind of education and (3) Christian or "other" religions. In contrast to rabies awareness, high level of knowledge was negatively associated with increasing age. 11% of respondents reported that at least one family member had been bitten by a dog in the past year and half of these bite victims were children. 31% of respondents knew someone who had died of rabies and twice as many (58%) reported having encountered a rabid animal. Most of the respondents could identify classical rabies symptoms (58-94%), however they lacked knowledge about rabies prevention and appropriate wound management. Only 2 out of 963 (0.5%) reported to have vaccinated their dog. A major proportion of our study population is at great risk of rabies (likely higher than 7 rabies death per million per year) due to lack of awareness of the disease, inappropriate post-bite treatment and insufficient knowledge about preventive measures. This reflects the urgent need for advocacy programs to

  7. Rural Non-Farm Economy in Bangladesh: A View from Household Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Mahabub Hossain

    2004-01-01

    This paper was presented at the dialogue on Promoting Rural Non-farm Economy: Is Bangladesh Doing Enough? The paper presents the findings of the surveys, conducted in 1987 and 2000, on the importance of the rural non-farm activities as a source of rural development and factors affecting participation in it. It estimates the duration of employment and the level of productivity, to examine whether the expansion of the rural non-farm economy (RFNE) is caused by "push" or "pull" factors. It also ...

  8. What's being used at home: a household pesticide survey Encuesta sobre el uso de pesticidas en el hogar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith K. Bass

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Since very little is known about the health effects that household pesticides have on children, we conducted this survey to identify what pesticides are being used in the home, where they are being used and stored, and what methods are used for their disposal. Methods. In the spring of 1999 we conducted a survey in a community in the state of Arizona, in the United States of America, on the border with Mexico. To be eligible to participate in the survey, households had to have used a pesticide in the 6 mo prior to the survey and to have at least one child under the age of 10 years. We gathered general information on pesticide usage, storage, and disposal, in addition to specific information about each of the pesticides currently being used and/or stored in the home. Results. In the 107 households surveyed, we found 148 pesticide products, for a mean of 1.4 per household. Half of the pesticides were stored less than 4 feet (1.22 m from the ground, at a level a child could reach. Seventy percent of all the pesticides were stored inside the home, with the kitchen being the storage room most often mentioned. The kitchen was also the room where most of the pesticides were used, with 69% of the respondents saying they had used at least one pesticide there. Conclusions. From our research we conclude that it will be important to continue to investigate all avenues of pesticide exposure in order to fully evaluate childhood exposures. Understanding household pesticide use and developing a model of exposure will help in this process. Profiles of the use, storage, and disposal of products will also guide the development of effective education and poison prevention programs in the community.Objetivos. Dado que se sabe muy poco acerca de los efectos del uso doméstico de pesticidas sobre la salud de los niños, los autores realizaron una encuesta con el fin de identificar los pesticidas usados en los hogares y averiguar dónde se usan y almacenan

  9. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  10. Case management of malaria fever in Cambodia: results from national anti-malarial outlet and household surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littrell Megan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continued progress towards global reduction in morbidity and mortality due to malaria requires scale-up of effective case management with artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT. The first case of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum was documented in western Cambodia. Spread of artemisinin resistance would threaten recent gains in global malaria control. As such, the anti-malarial market and malaria case management practices in Cambodia have global significance. Methods Nationally-representative household and outlet surveys were conducted in 2009 among areas in Cambodia with malaria risk. An anti-malarial audit was conducted among all public and private outlets with the potential to sell anti-malarials. Indicators on availability, price and relative volumes sold/distributed were calculated across types of anti-malarials and outlets. The household survey collected information about management of recent "malaria fevers." Case management in the public versus private sector, and anti-malarial treatment based on malaria diagnostic testing were examined. Results Most public outlets (85% and nearly half of private pharmacies, clinics and drug stores stock ACT. Oral artemisinin monotherapy was found in pharmacies/clinics (9%, drug stores (14%, mobile providers (4% and grocery stores (2%. Among total anti-malarial volumes sold/distributed nationally, 6% are artemisinin monotherapies and 72% are ACT. Only 45% of people with recent "malaria fever" reportedly receive a diagnostic test, and the most common treatment acquired is a drug cocktail containing no identifiable anti-malarial. A self-reported positive diagnostic test, particularly when received in the public sector, improves likelihood of receiving anti-malarial treatment. Nonetheless, anti-malarial treatment of reportedly positive cases is low among people who seek treatment exclusively in the public (61% and private (42% sectors. Conclusions While data on the anti

  11. Using Health Extension Workers for Monitoring Child Mortality in Real-Time: Validation against Household Survey Data in Rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbessi Amouzou

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has scaled up its community-based programs over the past decade by training and deploying health extension workers (HEWs in rural communities throughout the country. Consequently, child mortality has declined substantially, placing Ethiopia among the few countries that have achieved the United Nations' fourth Millennium Development Goal. As Ethiopia continues its efforts, results must be assessed regularly to provide timely feedback for improvement and to generate further support for programs. More specifically the expansion of HEWs at the community level provides a unique opportunity to build a system for real-time monitoring of births and deaths, linked to a civil registration and vital statistics system that Ethiopia is also developing. We tested the accuracy and completeness of births and deaths reported by trained HEWs for monitoring child mortality over 15 -month periods.HEWs were trained in 93 randomly selected rural kebeles in Jimma and West Hararghe zones of the Oromia region to report births and deaths over a 15-month period from January, 2012 to March, 2013. Completeness of number of births and deaths, age distribution of deaths, and accuracy of resulting under-five, infant, and neonatal mortality rates were assessed against data from a large household survey with full birth history from women aged 15-49. Although, in general HEWs, were able to accurately report events that they identified, the completeness of number of births and deaths reported over twelve-month periods was very low and variable across the two zones. Compared to household survey estimates, HEWs reported only about 30% of births and 21% of under-five deaths occurring in their communities over a twelve-month period. The under-five mortality rate was under-estimated by around 30%, infant mortality rate by 23% and neonatal mortality by 17%. HEWs reported disproportionately higher number of deaths among the very young infants than among the older children

  12. A Study on the Impact of Household Occupants’ Behavior on Energy Consumption Using an Integrated Computer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaolin eLin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, several models are integrated into a thermal model to study the impact of occupants’ behaviors on the building energy consumption. An air flow model is developed to simulate ventilation related to the occupant’s patterns of window opening and closing. An electric consumption model is developed to simulate the usage pattern and the electricity input to household electric appliances. The thermostat setpoint temperature and window shading schemes are varied with different occupants’ behavior norms and are included in the model. The simulation was applied to a typical household located in the city of Oshawa in Ontario, Canada. The results show that the window opening has the greatest impact on the energy consumption during the heating season, and the shading scheme has the greatest impact on the A/C energy consumption during the cooling season. The electricity consumption of the A/C can be significantly reduced by appropriately applying the shading and opening schemes and resetting the thermostat setpoint temperature to a slightly higher degree. Keeping the windows closed and allowing the solar radiation to be transmitted through the window in winter help reduce the energy usage to heat the house.

  13. Inequalities in health status among rural residents: EQ-5D findings from household survey China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Wei, Xiaolin; Ma, Aixia; Chung, Roger Y

    2014-05-19

    This study analyzed inequalities in health status among different socioeconomic and demographic rural residents covered by the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lian Yungang City, China. A total of 337 respondents, who were selected by using a multistage stratified systematic random sampling method, completed the surveys. A questionnaire consisting of EQ-5D and demographic and socioeconomic information was adopted for data collection, and was administered by face-to-face interviews. Multiple regression models were employed to examine the differences in the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and the EQ-5D dimensions. Compared with those with lower education attainment, the respondents with higher education levels tended to report a higher VAS score (β = 2.666, 95% CI: 0.978 to 6.310), and were less likely to suffer from pain/discomfort (OR = 3.968; 95% CI: 1.447 to 10.880). The singles were more likely than the married to report moderate or extreme problems in usual activities (OR = 4.583; 95% CI: 1.188 to 17.676) and mobility (OR = 10.666; 95% CI: 2.464 to 6.171). However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the respondents with different income levels in the VAS score and EQ-5D dimensions. This study suggests that the singles and the people with lower education levels are high-risk groups for poorer health status in the Chinese rural population. The findings from this study warrant further investigation.

  14. Investigation on Indoor Air Pollution and Childhood Allergies in Households in Six Chinese Cities by Subjective Survey and Field Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinhua; Li, Nianping; Lv, Yang; Liu, Jing; Xie, Jingchao; Zhang, Huibo

    2017-08-29

    Greater attention is currently being paid to the relationship between indoor environment and childhood allergies, however, the lack of reliable data and the disparity among different areas hinders reliable assessment of the relationship. This study focuses on the effect of indoor pollution on Chinese schoolchildren and the relationship between specific household and health problems suffered. The epidemiological questionnaire survey and the field measurement of the indoor thermal environment and primary air pollutants including CO₂, fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), chemical pollutants and fungi were performed in six Chinese cities. A total of 912 questionnaires were eligible for statistical analyses and sixty houses with schoolchildren aged 9-12 were selected for field investigation. Compared with Chinese national standards, inappropriate indoor relative humidity (70%), CO₂ concentration exceeding 1000 ppm and high PM 2.5 levels were found in some monitored houses. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most frequently detected semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in house dust. Cladosporium , Aspergillus and Penicillium were detected in both indoor air and house dust. This study indicates that a thermal environment with CO₂ exceeding 1000 ppm, DEHP and DBP exceeding 1000 μg/g, and high level of PM 2.5 , Cladosporium , Aspergillus and Penicillium increases the risk of children's allergies.

  15. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijzen, Moniek; Schuurman, Joris; Bomhof, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations were examined using multiple hierarchical regression analysis, while controlling for various child (i.e., age, sex, television viewing time) and family variables (i.e., family income and consumption-related communication styles). Results showed that children's exposure to food advertising was significantly related to their consumption of advertised brands (beta=.21) and energy-dense product categories (beta=.19). The relation between advertising exposure and overall food consumption only held in lower-income families (beta=.19). In addition, consumption-related family communication was an important moderator of the relations between advertising and the food consumption variables. Socio-oriented family communication (i.e., striving for harmony and conformity) was particularly successful in reducing these relations. In conclusion, consistent with communication theories predicting spill-over effects of advertising, the impact of television food advertising exceeded the advertised brand and generalized to more generic unhealthy consumption patterns. Theoretical and societal consequences, as well as the important role of the family are discussed.

  16. Study protocol of the German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA): a national household survey of smoking behaviour and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastaun, Sabrina; Brown, Jamie; Brose, Leonie S; Ratschen, Elena; Raupach, Tobias; Nowak, Dennis; Cholmakow-Bodechtel, Constanze; Shahab, Lion; West, Robert; Kotz, Daniel

    2017-05-02

    The prevalence of tobacco smoking in Germany is high (~27%). Monitoring of national patterns of smoking behaviour and data on the "real-world" effectiveness of cessation methods are needed to inform policies and develop campaigns aimed at reducing tobacco-related harm. In England, the Smoking Toolkit Study (STS) has been tracking such indicators since 2006, resulting in the adaptation of tobacco control policies. However, findings cannot be directly transferred into the German health policy context. The German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA: "Deutsche Befragung zum Rauchverhalten") aims to provide such nationally representative data. In June 2016, the study started collecting data from computer-assisted, face-to-face household interviews in people aged 14 years and older. Over a period of 3 years, a total of ~36,000 respondents will complete the survey with a new sample of ~2000 respondents every 2 months (=18 waves). This sample will report data on demographics and the use of tobacco and electronic (e-)cigarettes. Per wave, about 500-600 people are expected to be current or recent ex-smokers (German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00011322 ) on 25th November 2016.

  17. Maternal work conditions, socioeconomic and educational status, and vaccination of children: a community-based household survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Michiko; Kondo, Naoki; Takada, Misato; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    This study examined how maternal work-related factors, including the availability of paid maternal leave, affect childhood vaccination status. Relatively little is known about the association between the employment status of mothers and the vaccination status of their children. We examined data from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE), an ongoing epidemiologic household panel study in Japan. We used surveys taken in 2010-2011 in this study. We found that mothers who returned to work after giving birth were much less likely to follow recommended vaccine schedules for their children compared with mothers who stayed at home and those who had left the workforce by the time of childbirth. However, taking parental leave significantly reduced the risk of not being up-to-date with the vaccination schedule at 36 months of age. We also found that children whose mother was younger and less educated, and those from an economically deprived family were at a high risk of not being up-to-date with the vaccination status at 36 months of age. Because vaccination is free and widely available in Japan, our findings indicate that provision of free vaccinations is not sufficient to achieve high vaccination rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  19. Pattern and Trend of Substance Abuse in Eastern Rural Iran: A Household Survey in a Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ziaaddini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Substance abuse imposes hazards on human health in all biopsychosocial aspects. Limited studies exist on epidemiology of substance abuse and its trend in rural areas. The present study aimed to compare substance abuse in one of the rural areas of southeast Iran, in a 12-year period (2000 and 2012. Design and Methods. In a household survey conducted in 2012, in Dashtkhak/Kerman, 1200 individuals above 12 years of age completed a questionnaire to determine their frequency of substance abuse. The questionnaire included the following three areas: demographic characteristics, frequency of substance abuse and ease of access to various drugs. Results. Among 900 completed questionnaires, majority of the participants (61.8% were below 30 years of age and among them 54.4% were male. Cigarette (17.0%, opium (15.7% and opium residue (9.0% were the most frequent substances abused on a daily basis. Based on the participant’s opinion, we conclude that the ease of access to cigarette, waterpipe and opium contributed to their increase in consumption compared with earlier years. Discussion and Conclusion. The steady rise in substance abuse in rural communities demands immediate attention and emergency preventive measures from policy makers.

  20. Knowledge and perceptions of couples' voluntary counseling and testing in urban Rwanda and Zambia: a cross-sectional household survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April L Kelley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Most incident HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur between cohabiting, discordant, heterosexual couples. Though couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT is an effective, well-studied intervention in Africa, <1% of couples have been jointly tested.We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in Kigali, Rwanda (n = 600 and Lusaka, Zambia (n = 603 to ascertain knowledge, perceptions, and barriers to use of CVCT.Compared to Lusaka, Kigali respondents were significantly more aware of HIV testing sites (79% vs. 56%; had greater knowledge of HIV serodiscordance between couples (83% vs. 43%; believed CVCT is good (96% vs. 72%; and were willing to test jointly (91% vs. 47%. Stigma, fear of partner reaction, and distance/cost/logistics were CVCT barriers.Though most respondents had positive attitudes toward CVCT, the majority were unaware that serodiscordance between cohabiting couples is possible. Future messages should target gaps in knowledge about serodiscordance, provide logistical information about CVCT services, and aim to reduce stigma and fear.

  1. PREVALENCE AND PREDICTORS OF TOBACCO USE; A CROSS- SECTIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY IN ALIGARH DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dixit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. WHO estimates one billion deaths in 21st century because of tobacco, if current trends of use continue. Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted over a period of one year among 848 individuals (>15 years from urban and rural field practicing areas of the department of community medicine, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh. Door to door survey was done. Households were the primary sampling unit. Data analysis has been done using SPSS version 14.0. To test significance chi square test have been used as applicable. Results: 249 (29.4% ever used smoked tobacco. Out of which, 224 (26.4% respondents were current smokers and rest 25 (3% were ever smokers. A total of 311 (36.7% study subjects were found user for non smoked substances and out of these, 204 (24 % were current users and rest 107 (12.7% were ever users. A total of 422 (49.8% subjects were found user (including current and ever user both for any form of the tobacco products (either smoked, non smoked or both. Tobacco use was found significantly associated with socio-economic status, literacy level, parental tobacco use, parental education and male gender. Conclusions: The study documented prevalence and predictors of tobacco use. The study population is at risk of tobacco related morbidity and mortality and needs action targeting the most vulnerable population. Health promotion, health education and behavior change communication as tools, can prove valuable for effective control of tobacco risk behavior.

  2. A Multi-country Study of the Household Willingness-to-Pay for Dengue Vaccines: Household Surveys in Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Seok Lee

    Full Text Available The rise in dengue fever cases and the absence of dengue vaccines will likely cause governments to consider various types of effective means for controlling the disease. Given strong public interests in potential dengue vaccines, it is essential to understand the private economic benefits of dengue vaccines for accelerated introduction of vaccines into the public sector program and private markets of high-risk countries.A contingent valuation study for a hypothetical dengue vaccine was administered to 400 households in a multi-country setting: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia. All respondents received a description of the hypothetical dengue vaccine scenarios of 70% or 95% effectiveness for 10 or 30 years with a three dose series. Five price points were determined after pilot tests in order to reflect different local situations such as household income levels and general perceptions towards dengue fever. We adopted either Poisson or negative binomial regression models to calculate average willingness-to-pay (WTP, as well as median WTP. We found that there is a significant demand for dengue vaccines. The parametric median WTP is $26.4 ($8.8 per dose in Vietnam, $70.3 ($23.4 per dose in Thailand, and $23 ($7.7 per dose in Colombia. Our study also suggests that respondents place more value on vaccinating young children than school age children and adults.Knowing that dengue vaccines are not yet available, our study provides critical information to both public and private sectors. The study results can be used to ensure broad coverage with an affordable price and incorporated into cost benefit analyses, which can inform prioritization of alternative health interventions at the national level.

  3. Lessons for integrated household energy conservation policy from Singapore’s southwest Eco-living Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.Z.; Kua, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a district-level energy intervention and conservation program designed and implemented with the help of community stakeholders, which include students and staff of an educational institution, the National University of Singapore, a local non-governmental environmental group in Singapore and the district government. The program – known formally as the Eco-living Program – was funded by the district government and implemented in the Hong Kah North Residential Council in the south western part of Singapore. The research objectives are three-fold: (1) compare the effectiveness of different intervention methods, based on self-reported behavior scores and actual electricity reduction; (2) investigate how behavior and electricity consumption are influenced by values, situational and psychological factors; (3) assess the effectiveness of different methods of intervention and provide recommendations for improvement. It was found that a combined use of leaflets and stickers resulted in highest (that is, 15.8%) reduction in average consumption. Ease of practicing the recommended energy conservation actions is a strong motivators to change energy consumption behavior. This program exemplifies the important role that community-initiated bottom-up programs can play in promoting sustainable consumption with the financial support from the local (district) government. - Highlights: ► Energy intervention was implemented on 151 households. ► Outreach methods included stickers, leaflets and counseling. ► Self-reported behavioral and actual reductions were recorded. ► Actual reduction was correlated to large housing apartments not in control group. ► Intervention program found to be cost effective and promote stakeholder engagement

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice about malaria in south-western Saudi Arabia: A household-based cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khairy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP concerning malaria and malaria prevention among rural populations residing in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This was a household-based cross-sectional survey, using structured questionnaire that was developed and distributed among households selected randomly from 19 villages (clusters located in a southwestern region of Saudi Arabia, north of the border with Yemen. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 20. A majority of respondents (98.4% reported that they had heard about malaria, but only 21.7% reported that they had sufficient information about the disease. Surprisingly, the most popular source of information was the internet and social media (proportion responding positively in parenthesis (25.5%, followed by family (21.7%, while information from health facilities contributed only 12.4%. A majority of respondents were aware that malaria is a communicable (89.1% and deadly (70% disease; however, only 30.2% of the respondents responded that malaria is a treatable disease. Almost all of the aware respondents (97.5% were inclined to seek treatment from health facilities, and 63.2% preferred to seek treatment within 24 h of presenting with symptoms. Regarding personal precautions, the most common practice adopted by respondents was indoor residual spraying IRS (47.3%, followed by anti-mosquito spraying (29.8%, mosquito bed nets (13.2% and combined anti-mosquito sprays and nets on windows (4.7%. This KAP study did not show any statistically significant differences in KAP due to age; however the practices of preventive measures against malaria differed significantly by nationality (Saudi versus non-Saudi. We conclude that most populations living in the villages have an acceptable level of knowledge and awareness about malaria and seek timely treatment. However, the positive attitudes and practices in relation to personal protection and

  5. Knowledge, attitude and practice about malaria in south-western Saudi Arabia: A household-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Sami; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Ali, Anna; Shubily, Hussam M; Al Walaan, Nisreen; Househ, Mowafa; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) concerning malaria and malaria prevention among rural populations residing in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This was a household-based cross-sectional survey, using structured questionnaire that was developed and distributed among households selected randomly from 19 villages (clusters) located in a southwestern region of Saudi Arabia, north of the border with Yemen. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 20. A majority of respondents (98.4%) reported that they had heard about malaria, but only 21.7% reported that they had sufficient information about the disease. Surprisingly, the most popular source of information was the internet and social media (proportion responding positively in parenthesis) (25.5%), followed by family (21.7%), while information from health facilities contributed only 12.4%. A majority of respondents were aware that malaria is a communicable (89.1%) and deadly (70%) disease; however, only 30.2% of the respondents responded that malaria is a treatable disease. Almost all of the aware respondents (97.5%) were inclined to seek treatment from health facilities, and 63.2% preferred to seek treatment within 24h of presenting with symptoms. Regarding personal precautions, the most common practice adopted by respondents was indoor residual spraying IRS (47.3%), followed by anti-mosquito spraying (29.8%), mosquito bed nets (13.2%) and combined anti-mosquito sprays and nets on windows (4.7%). This KAP study did not show any statistically significant differences in KAP due to age; however the practices of preventive measures against malaria differed significantly by nationality (Saudi versus non-Saudi). We conclude that most populations living in the villages have an acceptable level of knowledge and awareness about malaria and seek timely treatment. However, the positive attitudes and practices in relation to personal protection and prevention

  6. Age- and sex-specific relationships between household income, education, and diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.

  7. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  8. [Estimating child mortality using the previous child technique, with data from health centers and household surveys: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A; Hill, A G

    1988-01-01

    2 trials of the previous child or preceding birth technique in Bamako, Mali, and Lima, Peru, gave very promising results for measurement of infant and early child mortality using data on survivorship of the 2 most recent births. In the Peruvian study, another technique was tested in which each woman was asked about her last 3 births. The preceding birth technique described by Brass and Macrae has rapidly been adopted as a simple means of estimating recent trends in early childhood mortality. The questions formulated and the analysis of results are direct when the mothers are visited at the time of birth or soon after. Several technical aspects of the method believed to introduce unforeseen biases have now been studied and found to be relatively unimportant. But the problems arising when the data come from a nonrepresentative fraction of the total fertile-aged population have not been resolved. The analysis based on data from 5 maternity centers including 1 hospital in Bamako, Mali, indicated some practical problems and the information obtained showed the kinds of subtle biases that can result from the effects of selection. The study in Lima tested 2 abbreviated methods for obtaining recent early childhood mortality estimates in countries with deficient vital registration. The basic idea was that a few simple questions added to household surveys on immunization or diarrheal disease control for example could produce improved child mortality estimates. The mortality estimates in Peru were based on 2 distinct sources of information in the questionnaire. All women were asked their total number of live born children and the number still alive at the time of the interview. The proportion of deaths was converted into a measure of child survival using a life table. Then each woman was asked for a brief history of the 3 most recent live births. Dates of birth and death were noted in month and year of occurrence. The interviews took only slightly longer than the basic survey

  9. CALIFA, the Calar alto legacy integral field area survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 < z < 0.03) galaxies, obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on th...... the available interfaces and tools that allow easy access to this first publicCALIFA data at http://califa.caha.es/DR1....

  10. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-18

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8-7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1-0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren's homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities.

  11. Nationwide survey of US integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebastchi, Amir H; Yuh, David D

    2014-08-01

    Integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgical residency programs have recently been implemented in the United States. We report the results of the first published nationwide survey assessing the motivations, satisfaction, and ambitions of integrated 6-year residents. A 63-question web-based survey was distributed to 83 residents enrolled in 21 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited integrated 6-year programs in November 2013. There was an outstanding 69% response rate. The median age of integrated 6-year residents was 29 years with women comprising 24%. A clear majority had faculty mentorship (95%) and significant clinical exposure in medical school. Focused (100%) and abbreviated (74%) training curricula were identified as the top advantages of integrated 6-year programs; the format itself was a significant factor (46%) in career choice. Most integrated 6-year residents (95%) were satisfied with their program; 80.7% were satisfied with their operative experience thus far. Career plans skewed toward adult cardiac surgery (67%), followed by pediatric cardiac (24%) and general thoracic (9%) surgery; 49% were not particularly concerned about future employment, with 65% foreseeing an increase in opportunities. Specialized training (eg, aortic, heart failure, minimally invasive, congenital) was anticipated by 77%. Most integrated 6-year residents envision an academic career (94.7%). This survey takes an important snapshot of the nascent integrated 6-year format. Mentorship and intense clinical exposure are critical in attracting applicants. Purported advantages of the format are holding true among integrated 6-year residents, with the majority satisfied with their programs. These early data indicate that this format holds significant promise in attracting and retaining highly qualified trainees to academic cardiothoracic surgery. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The health and economic impact of fireworks-related injuries in Iran: a household survey following the New Year's Festival in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Soheil; Naseripour, Masood; Smith, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    Fireworks are used worldwide as a part of national and cultural celebrations. Personal use of fireworks is associated with serious injuries. The "Last Wednesday Eve Festival" is celebrated on the evening before the last wednesday of the Persian calendar year. In recent years, fireworks have been widely used during the festival, which has resulted in injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of fireworks-related injuries associated with the Last Wednesday Eve Festival, in Tehran, Iran. A household survey of residents of greater Tehran, using a random cluster sampling design was performed. Number of fireworks-related injuries, expenditures for fireworks and medical treatment of fireworks-related injuries, length of hospital stay for treatment of these injuries and the personal property damage was gathered. Interviews were conducted of 2475 households in greater Tehran. At least one member of 19.8% of these households had used fireworks during the 2007 Last Wednesday Eve Festival. Fireworks-related injuries were more common among households whose members had used homemade fireworks than among households whose members had used only commercially made fireworks (OR=16.5, 95% CI: 5.7-47.5). Forty-five households reported that they had sustained personal property damage caused by fireworks during the festival, costing a mean of US$ 36.60. Households with at least one injured member spent a mean of US$ 441.90 for medical care and a mean of US$ 70.80 for other expenses related to seeking medical care. The overall incidence of fireworks-related injury among household members was 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.3%). Fireworks-related injury incidence was highest in the 10-19 age group. The total estimated number of fireworks-related injuries in Tehran during the 2007 Last Wednesday Eve Festival was approximately 17,000. Among the 20 injured individuals, 4 persons (20.0%) were hospitalised for a mean of 2.8 days. The personal use of fireworks in Iran

  13. Differentiation by integration using orthogonal polynomials, a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekema, E.; Koornwinder, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    This survey paper discusses the history of approximation formulas for n-th order derivatives by integrals involving orthogonal polynomials. There is a large but rather disconnected corpus of literature on such formulas. We give some results in greater generality than in the literature. Notably we

  14. Should all attrition households in rural panel datasets be tracked? Lessons from a panel survey in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2016-01-01

    (and household head) characteristics, and livelihood activities in the initial year of investigation, but the three groups behave differently in the last year of investigation. Different household socio-economic factors determine households' probability of being a mover or non-mover. These disparities...... and the heterogeneity within the attritors sample in the data. The additional cost of tracking non-movers was very low and this sample is important for rural livelihood studies. Hence, the non-movers sample should always be tracked. The cost of tracking movers was also low, though much larger than the one for non...

  15. Study protocol of the German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA: a national household survey of smoking behaviour and cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kastaun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of tobacco smoking in Germany is high (~27%. Monitoring of national patterns of smoking behaviour and data on the “real-world” effectiveness of cessation methods are needed to inform policies and develop campaigns aimed at reducing tobacco-related harm. In England, the Smoking Toolkit Study (STS has been tracking such indicators since 2006, resulting in the adaptation of tobacco control policies. However, findings cannot be directly transferred into the German health policy context. The German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA: “Deutsche Befragung zum Rauchverhalten” aims to provide such nationally representative data. Methods/Design In June 2016, the study started collecting data from computer-assisted, face-to-face household interviews in people aged 14 years and older. Over a period of 3 years, a total of ~36,000 respondents will complete the survey with a new sample of ~2000 respondents every 2 months (=18 waves. This sample will report data on demographics and the use of tobacco and electronic (e-cigarettes. Per wave, about 500–600 people are expected to be current or recent ex-smokers (<12 months since quitting. This sample will answer detailed questions about smoking behaviour, quit attempts, exposure to health professionals’ advice on quitting, and use of cessation aids. Six-month follow-up data will be collected by telephone. Discussion The DEBRA study will be an important source of data for tobacco control policies, health strategies, and future research. The methodology is closely aligned to the STS, which will allow comparisons with data from England, a country with one of the lowest smoking prevalence rates in Europe (18%. Trial registration This study has been registered at the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00011322 on 25th November 2016.

  16. Livestock ownership and microbial contamination of drinking-water: Evidence from nationally representative household surveys in Ghana, Nepal and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A; Hill, Allan G; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Wright, Jim A

    2018-01-01

    Current priorities for diarrhoeal disease prevention include use of sanitation and safe water. There have been few attempts to quantify the importance of animal faeces in drinking-water contamination, despite the presence of potentially water-borne zoonotic pathogens in animal faeces. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between livestock ownership and point-of-consumption drinking-water contamination. Data from nationally representative household surveys in Nepal, Bangladesh, and Ghana, each with associated water quality assessments, were used. Multinomial regression adjusting for confounders was applied to assess the relationship between livestock ownership and the level of drinking-water contamination with E. coli. Ownership of five or more large livestock (e.g. cattle) was significantly associated with drinking-water contamination in Ghana (RRR=7.9, 95% CI=1.6 to 38.9 for medium levels of contamination with 1-31cfu/100ml; RRR=5.2, 95% CI=1.1-24.5 for high levels of contamination with >31cfu/100ml) and Bangladesh (RRR=2.4, 95% CI=1.3-4.5 for medium levels of contamination; non-significant for high levels of contamination). Ownership of eight or more poultry (chickens, guinea fowl, ducks or turkeys) was associated with drinking-water contamination in Bangladesh (RRR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.0 for medium levels of contamination, non-significant for high levels of contamination). These results suggest that livestock ownership is a significant risk factor for the contamination of drinking-water at the point of consumption. This indicates that addressing human sanitation without consideration of faecal contamination from livestock sources will not be sufficient to prevent drinking-water contamination. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano J; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women's overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Demographic Health Surveys data (2006-2007) from 20 to 49 year old women in Namibia (n = 6,305), Swaziland (n = 2,786), and Zambia (n = 4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women's caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers' overweight status in Namibia.

  18. Age- and sex-specific relationships between household income, education, and diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Ra Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM in Korean adults.Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels.The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34 and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02 for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39 for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected.We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.

  19. A survey of open problems in symplectic integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, R.I. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Scovel, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-10-15

    In the past few years there has been a substantial amount of research on symplectic integration. The subject is only part of a program concerned with numerically preserving a system`s inherent geometrical structures. Volume preservation, reversibility, local conservation laws for elliptic equations, and systems with integral invariants are but a few examples of such invariant structures. In many cases one requires a numerical method to stay in the smallest possible appropriate group of phase space maps. It is not the authors` opinion that symplecticity, for example, automatically makes a numerical method superior to all others, but it is their opinion that it should be taken seriously and that a conscious, informed decision be made in that regard. The authors present here a survey of open problems in symplectic integration, including other problems from the larger program. This is not intended as a review of symplectic integration and is naturally derived from the authors` own research interests. At present, this survey is incomplete, but the authors hope the help of the colleagues to be able to include in the proceedings of this conference a more comprehensive survey. Many of the problems mentioned here call for numerical experimentation, some for application of suggested but untested methods, some for new methods, and some for theorems, Some envisage large research programs.

  20. Walk, Bicycle, and Transit Trips of Transit-Dependent and Choice Riders in the 2009 United States National Household Travel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Ugo

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that public transit use may be associated with active transportation. Access to a car may influence active transportation of transit riders. Using the 2009 United States National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), transit users ≥ 16 years old (n = 25,550) were categorized according to driver status and number of cars and drivers in the household. This typology ranged from choice transit riders (ie, "fully motorized drivers") to transit-dependent riders (ie, "unmotorized nondriver"). Transit trips, walking trips, and bicycling trips of transit users are estimated in negative binomial models against the car availability typology. Sixteen percent of participants took transit in the past month; most (86%) lived in car-owning households. As income increased, car availability also increased. Transit user groups with lower car availability were generally more likely than fully motorized drivers to take more public transit, walking, and bicycle trips. Transit riders have varying levels of vehicle access; their use of combinations of alternative modes of transportation fluctuates accordingly. Transit-dependent individuals without cars or sharing cars used active transportation more frequently than car owners. Policies to reduce vehicle ownership in households may enable increases in the use of alternative modes of transportation for transit users, even when cars are still owned.

  1. [The behavioral determinants for health centers in health districts of urban Africa: results of a survey of households in Kinshasa, Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzambi, J K; Tellier, V; Bertrand, F; Albert, A; Reginster, J Y; Van Balen, E H

    2000-08-01

    This study analyses the choice determinants of the population for health centres through a survey of the behaviour of families in a representative sample of 1,000 households in the health districts of Kinshasa, Congo in 1997. For the most recent episode of illness, the respondents turned to seven types of care: the health centre (37%), private dispensaries (26.5%), self-medication through a pharmacy (23.9%), traditional practitioner (21%), traditional self-medication (16.9%), private outpatients' clinic (16.7%) and a reference hospital (10.4%). Past logistics have shown that patients resort to a health centre rather than another type of care structure (P = 0.05) when looking for quality care, reasonable prices and the availability of varied services. On the other hand, concern about the geographical proximity in relation to the family's residence calls for using the private dispensary. When looking for a doctor or the existence of a 'convention', families are more inclined to choose a private officially recognized outpatients' clinic. Those who had been looking for a solution to a special type of illness opted primarily for a traditional practitioner. In conclusion, the results of this study show that if people choose the care offered by health centres, it is because they judge it to be of good quality. The integrated care offered by the same technician, with a required training, is a major asset in the acceptability of the first line of primary health care in Kinshasa. This study suggests that it would no doubt be beneficial to integrate non-official private care structures into the primary health care system, as far as it is possible for them to achieve a level of quality comparable to that of the health centres. In order that the traditional practitioner might play an important complementary role in the realization of primary health care, even in urban areas, the possibility of promoting sites of communication should be studied. Moreover, considering the weak

  2. A passive integrating charcoal detector for indoor radon survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lianqing; Ren Tianshan; Li Guiyun

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the principle, design, calibration and characteristics of a passive integrating charcoal detector for measuring average radon concentration indoors. The uncertainties of the detector are also evaluated. Under conditions of room temperature at 17 deg C and relative humidity at 30%, the minimum limit of detection is 0.16 pCi/1 for 72 hours exposure. Besides higher sensitivity, the other advantages of this detector are passive, simple and less expensive. It requires no power and makes no noise and gives no interference to daily activities of the residents of dwellings being surveyed. Therefore the detector is suitable for a large-scale survey of radon levels indoors

  3. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Philip J.; Sognikin, Edmond; Akosa, Amanda; Mathieu, Els M.; Deming, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA) is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD). To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys. Methodology/Principal Findings Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel) were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications) within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey. Significance In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose

  4. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Philip J; Sognikin, Edmond; Akosa, Amanda; Mathieu, Els M; Deming, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA) is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD). To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys. Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel) were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications) within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey. In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose, periodic surveys, thereby conserving resources.

  5. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Budge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD. To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys.Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey.In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose, periodic surveys, thereby conserving

  6. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  7. Health Seeking Behaviour and Treatment Intentions of Dengue and Fever: A Household Survey of Children and Adults in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsinga, Jelte; Lizarazo, Erley F.; Vincenti, Maria F.; Schmidt, Masja; Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Arias, Luzlexis; Bailey, Ajay; Tami, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue in Venezuela is a major public health problem with an increasing incidence of severe cases. Early diagnosis and timely treatment influences the outcome of dengue illness, as delay in care-seeking is significantly associated with complications leading to severe dengue. We aimed to understand patterns of health seeking behaviour (HSB) in individuals exposed to high dengue incidence in order to improve early attendance to health centres. Methods Between September 2013 and February 2014 a cross-sectional household survey was performed in Maracay, Venezuela. Intended HSB of adults and children’s parents/guardians was assessed with respect to fever or suspected dengue. Data was collected through structured questionnaires from 105 individuals. Results Most individuals felt at risk of dengue and believed it could be a deadly disease. In the case of suspected dengue, the majority (60%) would choose to first seek medical help versus first treating at home, in contrast to 11% in the case of fever. Amongst those who decided to visit a doctor, a suspected dengue infection would prompt them to search medical help earlier than if having only fever (ptreating at home in the case of dengue were feeling at risk (OR = 3.29; p = 0.042) and being an adult (as opposed to caring for a child as a parent/guardian; OR = 3.33, p = 0.021), while having had a previous dengue infection (OR = 0.29; p = 0.031) and living in the neighbourhood Caña de Azúcar (OR = 0.28, p = 0.038) were negatively associated with seeking medical care as their first action. Conclusion Knowledge of HSB related to dengue is scarce in the Americas, our study attempts to contribute to a better understanding of HSB in this region. Improving early dengue disease recognition and awareness may enhance prompt attendance to medical care in affected populations and thereby reduce mortality and severity of dengue. Especially for those with a previous dengue infection, efforts have to be made to promote

  8. Health Seeking Behaviour and Treatment Intentions of Dengue and Fever: A Household Survey of Children and Adults in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsinga, Jelte; Lizarazo, Erley F; Vincenti, Maria F; Schmidt, Masja; Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I; Arias, Luzlexis; Bailey, Ajay; Tami, Adriana

    2015-12-01

    Dengue in Venezuela is a major public health problem with an increasing incidence of severe cases. Early diagnosis and timely treatment influences the outcome of dengue illness, as delay in care-seeking is significantly associated with complications leading to severe dengue. We aimed to understand patterns of health seeking behaviour (HSB) in individuals exposed to high dengue incidence in order to improve early attendance to health centres. Between September 2013 and February 2014 a cross-sectional household survey was performed in Maracay, Venezuela. Intended HSB of adults and children's parents/guardians was assessed with respect to fever or suspected dengue. Data was collected through structured questionnaires from 105 individuals. Most individuals felt at risk of dengue and believed it could be a deadly disease. In the case of suspected dengue, the majority (60%) would choose to first seek medical help versus first treating at home, in contrast to 11% in the case of fever. Amongst those who decided to visit a doctor, a suspected dengue infection would prompt them to search medical help earlier than if having only fever (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis modelling showed that the independent factors associated with the intention to firstly visit a doctor versus treating at home in the case of dengue were feeling at risk (OR = 3.29; p = 0.042) and being an adult (as opposed to caring for a child as a parent/guardian; OR = 3.33, p = 0.021), while having had a previous dengue infection (OR = 0.29; p = 0.031) and living in the neighbourhood Caña de Azúcar (OR = 0.28, p = 0.038) were negatively associated with seeking medical care as their first action. Knowledge of HSB related to dengue is scarce in the Americas, our study attempts to contribute to a better understanding of HSB in this region. Improving early dengue disease recognition and awareness may enhance prompt attendance to medical care in affected populations and thereby reduce mortality and severity of

  9. Gender differences in the mental health of single parents: New Zealand evidence from a household panel survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Sunny; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Carter, Kristie; Signal, Louise

    2014-05-01

    In many countries single parents report poorer mental health than partnered parents. This study investigates whether there are gender differences in the mental health of single parents in New Zealand (and whether any gender difference varies with that among partnered parents), and examines key social and demographic mediators that may account for this difference. We used data on 905 single parents and 4,860 partnered parents from a New Zealand household panel survey that included the Kessler-10 measure of psychological distress. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate both interactions of gender and parental status, and confounding or mediation by other covariates. High/very high levels of psychological distress were reported by 15.7 % of single mothers and 9.1 % of single fathers, and 6.1 % of partnered mothers and 4.1 % of partnered fathers. In an Ordinary Least Squares regression of continuous K10 scores on gender, parental status and the interaction of both (plus adjustment for ethnicity, number of children and age), female single parents had a 1.46 higher K10 score than male single parents (95 % CI 0.48-2.44; 1.46). This difference was 0.98 (95 % CI -0.04 to 1.99) points greater than the gender difference among partnered parents. After controlling for further confounding or mediating covariates (educational level, labour force status and socioeconomic deprivation) both the gender difference among single parents (0.38, -0.56 to 1.31) and the interaction of gender and parental status (0.28 greater gender difference among single parents, -0.69 to 1.65) greatly reduced in magnitude and became non-significant, mainly due to adjustment for individual socioeconomic deprivation. The poorer mental health of single parents remains an important epidemiological phenomenon. Although research has produced mixed findings of the nature of gender differences in the mental health of single parents, our research adds to the increasing evidence that it is single

  10. The association between graduated driver licensing laws and travel behaviors among adolescents: an analysis of US National Household Travel Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motao Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young novice drivers have crash rates higher than any other age group. To address this problem, graduated driver licensing (GDL laws have been implemented in the United States to require an extended learner permit phase, and create night time driving or passenger restrictions for adolescent drivers. GDL allows adolescents to gain experience driving under low-risk conditions with the aim of reducing crashes. The restricted driving might increase riding with parents or on buses, which might be safer, or walking or biking, which might be more dangerous. We examined whether GDL increases non-driver travels, and whether it reduces total travels combining drivers and non-drivers. Methods We used data from the US National Household Travel Survey for the years 1995–1996, 2001–2002, and 2008–2009 to estimate the adjusted ratio for the number of trips and trip kilometers made by persons exposed to a GDL law, compared with those not exposed. Results Adolescents aged 16 years had fewer trips and kilometers as drivers when exposed to a GDL law: ratio 0.84 (95 % confidence interval (CI 0.71, 1.00 for trips; 0.79 (0.63, 0.98 for kilometers. For adolescents aged 17 years, the trip ratio was 0.94 (0.83, 1.07 and the kilometers ratio 0.80 (0.63, 1.03. There was little association between GDL laws and trips or kilometers traveled by other methods: ratio 1.03 for trips and 1.00 for kilometers for age 16 years, 0.94 for trips and 1.07 for kilometers for age 17. Conclusions If these associations are causal, GDL laws reduced driving kilometers by about 20 % for 16 and 17 year olds, and reduced the number of driving trips by 16 % among 16 year olds. GDL laws showed little relationship with trips by other methods.

  11. Integrated geophysical surveys for searching of podiform chromite in Albania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kospiri, Aleksander; Zajmi, Asim [Geophysical and Geochemical Center, Tirana (Albania)

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of geophysical methods to the search for chromite in Albania. Albania is well known for its chromite resources and ranks third amongst world producers of high-quality chromite. The ultramafic massif of Bulqiza, is the most important chromite bearing one. Surveying a surface of about 120 square kilometers (30% of massifs area) in that massif with integrated geophysical methods a considerable number of targets has been discovered, from which some are already objects under mine activity. In the integrated methods for chromite exploration in Bulqiza ultramafic massif are included: geological, gravity, magnetic and electrical mapping of the scale 1:2000 with survey grids 40x20m, 20x5m. Based on the interpretations of geophysical exploration were projected drilling which led to the discovery of some big ore deposits. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs

  12. Integrative teaching in Radiology. A survey; Integrative Lehre in der Radiologie. Eine Bestandsaufnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmer, S.; Weidemann, J.; Wacker, F. [Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Fischer, V. [Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany). Office for Medical Education

    2015-04-15

    To survey integrative teaching in radiology at German universities. A questionnaire about radiological education was sent electronically to all 37 chairpersons of university radiology departments in Germany. The questions included the course type, teaching methods, concept, perception, and advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching. Statistical analysis was performed with nonparametric statistics and chi-square test. The survey was considered representative with a return rate of 68%. Integrative teaching is established at 4/5 of all departments. Integrative teaching is well accepted with an acceptance rate that is significantly higher in so-called 'Modellstudiengaengen' (model courses of study) (100%) compared to conventional courses of study (72%). The advantages of integrative teaching include linking of content (92%) and preparation for interdisciplinary work (76%). The disadvantages include high effort (75%) and time (67%) for organization. Furthermore, there is a risk that basic radiological facts and knowledge cannot be conveyed and that the visibility of radiology as an independent discipline is lost. Conventional radiological teaching has a similarly high acceptance (84%) compared to integrative courses (76%). Integrative teaching has a high acceptance among chairpersons in radiology in Germany despite the greater effort. A good interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for integrative teaching and at the same time this can be conveyed to the students. However, the visibility of radiology as a discipline and the possibility to cover basic radiological content must be ensured. Therefore, both conventional courses and integrative teaching seems reasonable, especially in cross-disciplinary subjects such as radiology.

  13. Household Wealth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  14. Mortality and kidnapping estimates for the Yazidi population in the area of Mount Sinjar, Iraq, in August 2014: A retrospective household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetorelli, Valeria; Sasson, Isaac; Shabila, Nazar; Burnham, Gilbert

    2017-05-01

    In August 2014, the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) attacked the Yazidi religious minority living in the area of Mount Sinjar in Nineveh governorate, Iraq. We conducted a retrospective household survey to estimate the number and demographic profile of Yazidis killed and kidnapped. The survey covered the displaced Yazidi population from Sinjar residing in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Fieldwork took place between 4 November and 25 December, 2015. A systematic random sample of 1,300 in-camp households were interviewed about the current household composition and any killings and kidnappings of household members by ISIS. Of the 1,300 interviewed households, 988 were Yazidi from Sinjar. Yazidi households contained 6,572 living residents at the time of the survey; 43 killings and 83 kidnappings of household members were reported. We calculated the probability of being killed and kidnapped by dividing the number of reported killings and kidnappings by the number of sampled Yazidis at risk, adjusting for sampling design. To obtain the overall toll of killings and kidnappings, those probabilities were multiplied by the total Yazidi population living in Sinjar at the time of the ISIS attack, estimated at roughly 400,000 by the United Nations and Kurdish officials. The demographic profile of those killed and kidnapped was examined, distinguishing between children and adults and females and males. We estimated that 2.5% of the Yazidi population was either killed or kidnapped over the course of a few days in August 2014, amounting to 9,900 (95% CI 7,000-13,900) people in total. An estimated 3,100 (95% CI 2,100-4,400) Yazidis were killed, with nearly half of them executed-either shot, beheaded, or burned alive-while the rest died on Mount Sinjar from starvation, dehydration, or injuries during the ISIS siege. The estimated number kidnapped is 6,800 (95% CI 4,200-10,800). Escapees recounted the abuses they had suffered, including forced religious

  15. Mortality and kidnapping estimates for the Yazidi population in the area of Mount Sinjar, Iraq, in August 2014: A retrospective household survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Cetorelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 2014, the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS attacked the Yazidi religious minority living in the area of Mount Sinjar in Nineveh governorate, Iraq. We conducted a retrospective household survey to estimate the number and demographic profile of Yazidis killed and kidnapped.The survey covered the displaced Yazidi population from Sinjar residing in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Fieldwork took place between 4 November and 25 December, 2015. A systematic random sample of 1,300 in-camp households were interviewed about the current household composition and any killings and kidnappings of household members by ISIS. Of the 1,300 interviewed households, 988 were Yazidi from Sinjar. Yazidi households contained 6,572 living residents at the time of the survey; 43 killings and 83 kidnappings of household members were reported. We calculated the probability of being killed and kidnapped by dividing the number of reported killings and kidnappings by the number of sampled Yazidis at risk, adjusting for sampling design. To obtain the overall toll of killings and kidnappings, those probabilities were multiplied by the total Yazidi population living in Sinjar at the time of the ISIS attack, estimated at roughly 400,000 by the United Nations and Kurdish officials. The demographic profile of those killed and kidnapped was examined, distinguishing between children and adults and females and males. We estimated that 2.5% of the Yazidi population was either killed or kidnapped over the course of a few days in August 2014, amounting to 9,900 (95% CI 7,000-13,900 people in total. An estimated 3,100 (95% CI 2,100-4,400 Yazidis were killed, with nearly half of them executed-either shot, beheaded, or burned alive-while the rest died on Mount Sinjar from starvation, dehydration, or injuries during the ISIS siege. The estimated number kidnapped is 6,800 (95% CI 4,200-10,800. Escapees recounted the abuses they had suffered, including forced

  16. Assessing comorbidity and correlates of wasting and stunting among children in Somalia using cross-sectional household surveys: 2007 to 2010.

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    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Manda, Samuel O; Krainski, Elias T; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne; Moloney, Grainne M; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2016-03-09

    Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6-59 months in Somalia. Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged 6-59 months from households across three livelihood zones (pastoral, agropastoral and riverine). Using these data and environmental covariates, we implemented a multivariate spatial technique to estimate the codistribution and divergence of the risks and correlates of wasting and stunting at the 1 × 1 km spatial resolution. 73,778 children aged 6-59 months from 1066 survey clusters in Somalia. Observed pairwise child level empirical correlations were 0.30, 0.70 and 0.73 between weight-for-height and height-for-age; height-for-age and weight-for-age, and weight-for-height and weight-for-age, respectively. Access to foods with high protein content and vegetation cover, a proxy of rainfall or drought, were associated with lower risk of wasting and stunting. Age, gender, illness, access to carbohydrates and temperature were correlates of all three indicators. The spatial codistribution was highest between stunting and underweight with relative risk values ranging between 0.15 and 6.20, followed by wasting and underweight (range: 0.18-5.18) and lowest between wasting and stunting (range: 0.26-4.32). The determinants of wasting and stunting are largely shared, but their correlation is relatively variable in space. Significant hotspots of different forms of malnutrition occurred in the South Central regions of the country. Although nutrition response in Somalia has

  17. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

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    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60.0). Conclusions More

  18. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

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    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective: This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design: Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011 describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results: There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5 to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60

  19. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8-60.0). More efforts are required to increase household access to

  20. Disentangling determinants of insecticide use to manage production, food security, and health risks in Cambodia and Vietnam: evidence from household surveys and risk-assessment experiments

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    Wei Zhang, PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insect pest problems are among the main causes of crop yield losses in global agriculture. Insecticides protect households from food-security and income shocks, but can induce human health and environmental risks. Semi-subsistence farm households (SSFHs, which farm for both consumption and market, make decisions about crop management and output allocation to maximise food consumption, income, and health outcomes, depending on their risk preferences and other household and community characteristics. In this study, we aimed to disentangle the determinants of insecticide use by SSFHs and identify whether health consideration has had any effect on insecticide use. Methods: In this econometric analysis, we used field data collected from household surveys and risk-assessment experiments in 2014 in Cambodia and Vietnam to analyse insecticide use among more than 1000 SSFHs. Findings: We found that crops (except for rice whose outputs were used to a greater degree for consumption were less likely to be sprayed with insecticides or were sprayed fewer times. Health-conscious households (as indicated by the use of modern-fuel cooking stoves and reported concern over food safety as a main reason for maintaining home gardens consistently refrained from spraying, but this tendency diminished as output allocation shifted toward commercial use, suggesting a possible moral-hazard phenomenon. Farmers were more likely to apply insecticides to crops of high food security or dietary importance, such as rice, although the difference between fresh produce and grain produce in risk of insecticide residue exposure might also have contributed to the difference in insecticide use between rice and non-rice crops. The two samples from Cambodia and Vietnam had similarities regarding the deterring effect of health consideration and differences in other factors affecting insecticide use, such as risk preference, landholding size, household head's education level

  1. Individually Linked Household and Health Facility Vaccination Survey in 12 At-risk Districts in Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: Methods and Metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Eleanor; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Ngoie Mwamba, Guillaume; Yolande, Masembe; Guylain, Kaya; Muriel, Nzazi Nsambu; Cathy, Nzuzi; Patrice, Tshekoya; Wilkins, Karen; Yoloyolo, Norbert

    2017-07-01

    Health facility (HF) and household (HH) data can complement each other to provide a better understanding of the factors that contribute to vaccination status. In 12 zones with low vaccination coverage within Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, we conducted 2 surveys: (1) a linked HH and HF survey among 6-11-month-old infants, and (2) a HH survey among 12-23-month-old children. Linked survey objectives were to identify factors associated with vaccination status and to explore methodological considerations for linked survey implementation. To provide linked HH and HF data, we enrolled 6-11-month-old infants in HH clusters in each zone and then surveyed HFs located within the 12 zones and cited by caregivers of the enrolled infants as the most recent HF visited for vaccination or curative care. To provide vaccination coverage estimates for the 12-zone area, we enrolled 12-23-month-old children in every fourth HH. Of the HHs with a child aged 6-23 months, 16% were ineligible because they had resided in the neighborhood for one of the 182 surveyed HFs. For the coverage survey, 710 children aged 12-23 months participated. Home-based vaccination cards were available for 1210 of 1934 children (63%) surveyed. The surveys were successful in assessing HH information for 2 age groups, documenting written vaccination history for a large proportion of 6-23-month-old children, linking the majority of infants with their most recently visited HF, and surveying identified HFs. The implementation of the individually linked survey also highlighted the need for a comprehensive list of HFs and an analysis plan that addresses cross-classified clusters with only 1 child. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Women's household decision-making autonomy and safer sex negotiation in Nigeria: An analysis of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Vercillo, Siera; Antabe, Roger; Luginaah, Isaac

    2018-02-01

    Although married women's safer sex negotiation with their husbands is critical in reducing new HIV infections in Nigeria, its linkage to women's household decision-making autonomy is less explored in Nigeria. Drawing data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey and using the logistic regression technique, we examined the associations between women's household decision-making autonomy and two indicators of the ability to engage in safer sex including whether married women 1) can refuse sex and 2) ask for condom use during sexual intercourse with husbands. Findings indicate that 64% and 41% of married women can refuse sex and ask for condom use, respectively. While the impact of women's household decision-making autonomy on the ability to refuse sex remained statistically significant after controlling for theoretically relevant variables (OR = 1.15; p < 0.001), its impact on the ability to ask for condom use became weakly significant once socioeconomic variables were controlled (OR = 1.03; p < 0.1). Based on these results, we have two suggestions. First, it may be important that marital-based policies and counselling promote environments in which married women can establish equal power relations with their husbands. Second, it is also important to eliminate structural barriers that hinder married women's economic opportunities in Nigeria.

  3. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013.

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    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So Young; Cho, Yoonsu; Lee, Kyong Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2016-12-16

    Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans ( n = 5862, 20-64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012-2013). Household food security status was categorized as "food-secure household", "food-insecure household without hunger", and "food-insecure household with hunger". Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both "food-insecure household" groups. Both "food-insecure household" groups, particularly the "food-insecure household with hunger" group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52-3.83) and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49-3.92) than did the "food-secure household" group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans.

  4. Socioeconomic Differences in Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Pollution (TSP in Bangladeshi Households with Children: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey

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    Geoffrey T. Fong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children’s exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children’s health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children’s health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94 or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07 and being a smoker (OR = 0.24. The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64, attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94, being a smoker (OR = 0.40 and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25. The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children’s health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children’s health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home.

  5. Impact of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme on the trend of catastrophic health expenditure in Chinese rural households: results from nationally representative surveys from 2003 to 2013.

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    Xie, Biao; Huo, Minghe; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yongjie; Fu, Rong; Liu, Meina; Meng, Qun

    2018-02-08

    To evaluate the trend of catastrophic health expenses (CHE) for inpatient care in relation to the commencement of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in rural China from 2003 to 2013, and the roles of NCMS in protecting affected households from CHE. We assessed the 10-year trend of the incidence and severity of CHE in rural households with hospitalised members using data from the Chinese National Health Services Survey. Generalised estimating equations were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI of the association between incidence rates of CHE ([Formula: see text]) and NCMS reimbursement. The incidence and severity of CHE after NCMS reimbursement both decreased and their changes increased rapidly from 2003 to 2013. After adjustment of the covariates, [Formula: see text] before reimbursement was significantly higher than that after reimbursement, and the OR (95% CI) was 1.50 (1.24 to 1.81), 1.79 (1.69 to 1.90) and 2.94 (2.77 to 3.11) in 2003, 2008 and 2013, respectively. The incidence and severity of CHE both reduced after NCMS reimbursements in each year. Excluding some confounding factors, [Formula: see text] was significantly associated with NCMS reimbursement. NCMS partly protected the rural households with hospitalised members from CHE. However, the inequalities between different income groups still existed. [Formula: see text] in rural households with hospitalised members was still rather high in 2003, 2008 and 2013 even though they were covered by NCMS. This study will provide suggestions for further reforms in China and guidance for other low-income/middle-income countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. The beneficial effect of family meals on obesity differs by race, sex, and household education: the national survey of children's health, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brandi Y; Belue, Rhonda Z; Francis, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    Studies have indicated that family meals may be a protective factor for childhood obesity; however, limited evidence is available in children with different racial, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine family meal frequency as a protective factor for obesity in a US-based sample of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic children age 6 to 11 years, and to identify individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors that moderate this association. Data were from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health (n=16,770). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between family meal frequency and weight status, and the moderating effects of household structure, education, poverty level, and sex, by racial group. Non-Hispanic white children who consumed family meals every day were less likely to be obese than those eating family meals zero or a few days per week. A moderating effect for sex was observed in non-Hispanic black children such that family meal frequency was marginally protective in boys but not in girls. Higher family meal frequency was a marginal risk factor for obesity in Hispanic boys from low-education households, but not in girls from similar households. In conclusion, family meals seem to be protective of obesity in non-Hispanic white children and non-Hispanic black boys, whereas they may put Hispanic boys living in low-education households at risk. Greater emphasis is needed in future research on assessing why this association differs among different race/ethnic groups, and evaluating the influence of the quality and quantity of family meals on child obesity. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Relationship between Household Sanitation and Women’s Experience of Menstrual Hygiene: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Kaduna State, Nigeria

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    Julie Hennegan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Global efforts to improve sanitation have emphasized the needs of women and girls. Managing menstruation is one such need, yet there is scarce research capturing current practices. This study investigated the relationships between household sanitation and women’s experience of menstrual management. Secondary analyses were undertaken on data from 1994 women and girls collected through the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 survey in Kaduna, Nigeria. In multivariable models, women had higher odds of using the main household sanitation facility for menstrual management when they had access to a basic (OR = 1.76 95%CI 1.26–2.46 or limited (OR = 1.63 95%CI 1.08–2.48 sanitation facility, compared to an unimproved facility. Women with no household sanitation facility had higher odds of using their sleeping area (OR = 3.56 95%CI 2.50–5.06 or having no facility for menstrual management (OR = 9.86 95%CI 5.76–16.87 than women with an unimproved sanitation facility. Menstrual management locations were associated with ratings of their characteristics. Safely managed or basic sanitation facilities were not rated more favorably than unimproved facilities in privacy (OR = 1.02 95%CI 0.70–1.48, safety (OR = 1.45 95%CI 0.98–2.15, access to a lock (OR = 0.93 95%CI 0.62–1.37, or soap and water (OR = 1.04 95%CI 0.70–1.56. Women using their sleeping area had more favorable perceptions of their environment. Findings suggest household sanitation influences women’s choices for menstrual management, but that existing indicators for improvement are not sensitive to menstrual needs.

  8. Information integration for a sky survey by data warehousing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    The virtualization service of data system for a sky survey LAMOST is very important for astronomers The service needs to integrate information from data collections catalogs and references and support simple federation of a set of distributed files and associated metadata Data warehousing has been in existence for several years and demonstrated superiority over traditional relational database management systems by providing novel indexing schemes that supported efficient on-line analytical processing OLAP of large databases Now relational database systems such as Oracle etc support the warehouse capability which including extensions to the SQL language to support OLAP operations and a number of metadata management tools have been created The information integration of LAMOST by applying data warehousing is to effectively provide data and knowledge on-line

  9. Social networks and health-related quality of life among Chinese old adults in urban areas: results from 4th National Household Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P; Xu, L; Nwaru, B I; Long, Q; Wu, Z

    2016-02-01

    To examine the associations between components of social networks and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in community-dwelling old adults in urban areas in China. Data from the 4th National Household Health Survey (NHHS) in China, conducted in 2008, were used. HRQoL of respondents aged ≥15 years was assessed using EQ-5D in the NHHS. The sample for the current analysis included 9833 old adults aged ≥60 years. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between indicators of social network and HRQoL. Approximately 6% of the respondents saw their children once a year or less, and approximately 1% reported that they had no children. Thirteen percent of the sample seldom contacted their neighbours and seldom met with relatives or friends; approximately 62% seldom attended social gatherings. The five dimensions of HRQoL (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression) were reported to be moderate or severe in 14.5%, 9.4%, 12.6%, 18.3% and 9.3% of the sample, respectively. The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) score and EQ-5D index using the time trade-off method was 70.96 [standard deviation (SD) 14.79] and 0.869 (SD 0.163), respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, old adults with weaker social networks were more likely to report problems on EQ-5D dimensions, lower VAS scores and lower EQ-5D indexes. For old adults living in urban communities in China, increased social participation has a positive effect on various dimensions of HRQoL. There is a need for policy considerations that will improve integration of community-level public resources in order to encourage frequent social interaction among old adults, and promote health and social care as a whole. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0–23 months in rural India. Setting India. Participants A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005–2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. Primary outcome measures The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16–39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0–23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal

  11. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-02-12

    Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0-23 months in rural India. India. A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16-39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0-23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal association. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  12. Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of geographic location and prolonged conflict from a national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Mandungu, Tumwaka P; Mbela, Kisumbula; Nzita, Kikhela P D; Kalambayi, Banza B; Kayembe, Kalambayi P; Emina, Jacques B O

    2014-03-20

    The child mortality rate is a good indicator of development. High levels of infectious diseases and high child mortality make the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) one of the most challenging environments for health development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent conflicts in the eastern part of the country and bad governance have compounded the problem. This study aimed to examine province-level geographic variation in under-five mortality (U5M), accounting for individual- and household-level risk factors including environmental factors such as conflict. Our analysis used the nationally representative cross-sectional household sample of 8,992 children under five in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey. In the survey year, 1,005 deaths among this group were observed. Information on U5M was aggregated to the 11 provinces, and a Bayesian geo-additive discrete-time survival mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) at the province level, accounting for observable and unobservable risk factors. The overall U5MR was 159 per 1,000 live births. Significant associations with risk of U5M were found for conflict area of the DRC, and the lowest in the conflict area of North Kivu. This study reveals clear geographic patterns in rates of U5M in the DRC and shows the potential role of individual child, household and environmental factors, which are unexplained by the ongoing conflict. The displacement of mothers to safer areas may explain the lower U5MR observed at the epicentre of the conflict in North Kivu, compared with rates in conflict-free areas. Overall, the U5M maps point to a lack of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal of reducing U5M by half by 2015.

  13. The dog and cat population on Maio Island, Cape Verde: characterisation and prediction based on household survey and remotely sensed imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Ducheyne, Els; Bryssinckx, Ward; Vieira, Sara; Malta, Manuel; Vaz, Yolanda; Nunes, Telmo; Mintiens, Koen

    2015-11-04

    The objective was to estimate and characterise the dog and cat population on Maio Island, Cape Verde. Remotely sensed imagery was used to document the number of houses across the island and a household survey was carried out in six administrative areas recording the location of each animal using a global positioning system instrument. Linear statistical models were applied to predict the dog and cat populations based on the number of houses found and according to various levels of data aggregation. In the surveyed localities, a total of 457 dogs and 306 cats were found. The majority of animals had owners and only a few had free access to outdoor activities. The estimated population size was 531 dogs [95% confidence interval (CI): 453-609] and 354 cats (95% CI: 275-431). Stray animals were not a concern on the island in contrast to the rest of the country.

  14. HIV testing service awareness and service uptake among female heads of household in rural Mozambique: results from a province-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Heather N; Blevins, Meridith; Koethe, John R; Hinton, Nicole; Vaz, Lara M E; Vergara, Alfredo E; Mukolo, Abraham; Ndatimana, Elisée; Moon, Troy D; Vermund, Sten H; Wester, C William

    2015-02-12

    HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) utilization remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries, particularly in remote rural settings. We sought to identify factors associated with service awareness and service uptake of VCT among female heads of household in rural Zambézia Province of north-central Mozambique which is characterized by high HIV prevalence (12.6%), poverty, and suboptimal health service access and utilization. Our population-based survey of female heads of household was administered to a representative two-stage cluster sample using a sampling frame created for use on all national surveys and based on census results. The data served as a baseline measure for the Ogumaniha project initiated in 2009. Survey domains included poverty, health, education, income, HIV stigma, health service access, and empowerment. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to describe service awareness and service uptake of VCT. Of 3708 women surveyed, 2546 (69%) were unaware of available VCT services. Among 1162 women who were aware of VCT, 673 (58%) reported no prior testing. In the VCT aware group, VCT awareness was associated with higher education (aOR = 2.88; 95% CI = 1.61, 5.16), higher income (aOR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.86), higher numeracy (aOR = 1.05, CI 1.03, 1.08), more children mobile phone ownership (aOR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.84) (all p-values marketing of VCT are needed in rural Mozambique with special attention to issues of community-level stigma reduction.

  15. Trends in HIV testing and associated factors among men in South Africa: evidence from 2005, 2008 and 2012 national population-based household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makusha, T; Mabaso, M; Richter, L; Desmond, C; Jooste, S; Simbayi, L

    2017-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan African countries, including South Africa, uptake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among men remains a major challenge. Few studies have explored HIV testing uptake among men and factors that influence their testing behaviours. This article explores trends in HIV testing uptake and associated factors among men aged 15 years and older in South Africa using national HIV population-based household surveys conducted in 2005, 2008 and 2012. A multistage cross-sectional design was used in the three nationally representative household-based surveys. P-trend Chi-squared statistic was used to analyze changes in HIV testing in relation to demographic factors, and HIV-related risk behaviours across the three surveys. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between ever testing for HIV, demographic factors and HIV-related risk behaviours. HIV testing uptake among men was 28% in 2005, 43% in 2008 and 59% in 2012. A trend was also observed in HIV testing by sociodemographic factors, but differences existed within variables. HIV testing uptake was mainly influenced by the effects of selected population characteristics. Reduced likelihood of HIV testing was significantly associated with males aged 15-24 years, Black African race group, being single and unemployed, those residing in urban informal and rural informal areas, and those men who ever had sex. The observed sociodemographic differentials suggest that an effective expansion strategy for HIV testing needs to prioritize those most unlikely to test as identified by the current findings. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An integral-field spectroscopic strong lens survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, Adam S; Burles, Scott

    2007-01-01

    We present the observational results of a survey for strong gravitational lens systems consisting of extended emission-line galaxies lensed by intervening early-type galaxies, conducted using integral field units (IFUs) of the Magellan IMACS and Gemini GMOS-N spectrographs. These data are highly valuable for corroborating the lensing interpretation of Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. We show that in many cases, ground-based IFU spectroscopy is in fact competitive with space-based imaging for the measurement of the mass model parameters of the lensing galaxy. We demonstrate a novel technique of three-dimensional gravitational lens modeling for a single lens system with a resolved lensed rotation curve. We also describe the details of our custom IFU data analysis software, which performs optimal multi-fiber extraction, relative and absolute wavelength calibration to a few hundredths of a pixel RMS and nearly Poisson-limited sky subtraction

  17. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  18. Is nutritional quality of food-at-home purchases improving? 1969-2010: 40 years of household consumption surveys in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillavet, France; Darmon, Nicole; Létoile, Flavie; Nichèle, Véronique

    2018-02-01

    The rise of nutrition-related diseases in developed countries prompts investigation into the role played by changing food patterns. Our aim was to observe changes in food-at-home purchases by French households and their impacts on nutritional quality over the past 40 years (1969-2010). Time-series of food-at-home purchases from representative samples of French households were built based on two sources of data: the INSEE National Food Survey (1969-1991) and the Kantar Food Consumption Panel (1989-2010). Food-at-home purchases were converted into energy and nutrients using the French CIQUAL food composition table. The nutritional quality of food-at-home purchases was estimated using the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for 15 key nutrients. MAR was expressed per 2000 kcal to assess the nutrient density of food-at-home purchases. Between 1969 and 2010, food-at-home purchases showed dramatic changes in many food groups, with increasing processed vs raw products. The purchase of calories increased (+6.7%) and nutrient density improved (MAR per 2000 kcal + 12.9 points). However, this overall trend harbors heterogeneous patterns: food-at-home calories decreased and nutrient density improved up to 2002, but then calories increased while nutrient density stabilized. The nutritional quality of French households' food-at-home purchases improved over the last 40 years, as shown by increasing nutrient density. However, during the last decade, nutrient density ceased to increase and the purchase of calories increased, advocating a need for public action to promote healthier food purchasing patterns.

  19. Health Behaviors of Cancer Survivors in Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey in Korea: Higher Alcohol Drinking, Lower Smoking, and Physical Inactivity Pattern in Survivors with Higher Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kong, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Yeol; Park, In Hae; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Eun Sook

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity in cancer survivors and examined the sociodemographic factors affecting these health-related behaviors.We used data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2007 and 2012, which identified 1153 cancer cases and 36,451 people without a history of cancer ≥20 years of age. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain information concerning cancer diagnosis, health-related behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics.The proportion of cancer survivors who were current drinkers, heavy drinkers, current smokers, or engaged in physical activity were 49.1, 9.0, 9.2, or 50.7%, respectively. Compared with people with no history of cancer, cancer survivors were less likely to be current drinkers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.56), heavy drinkers (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.36-0.78), current smokers (OR = 0.37; 95% CI 0.24-0.55), or physically inactive (OR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.63-0.95). Cancer survivors with higher household incomes had higher odds of current drinking and heavy drinking (P trend = 0.039 and 0.033, respectively) and were less likely to be current smokers or physically inactive (P trend = 0.016 and 0.046, respectively). Age, sex, sites of cancer, and the time since diagnosis affected the health behaviors in cancer survivors. Furthermore, we confirmed that these unhealthy behaviors are interrelated.We found that household income had a bidirectional effect on health behaviors and confirmed an aggregation of unhealthy lifestyles. Identification of survivors vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyles, focusing on household income level would allow intervention programs to be more effective.

  20. Livestock Ownership Among Rural Households and Child Morbidity and Mortality: An Analysis of Demographic Health Survey Data from 30 Sub-Saharan African Countries (2005-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maneet; Graham, Jay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2017-03-01

    AbstractChildren living in homes with livestock may have both an increased risk of enteric infections and improved access to food, and therefore improved nutritional status. Few studies, however, have characterized these relationships in tandem. This study investigated the association between child health and household ownership of livestock. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 sub-Saharan African countries with 215,971 rural children under 5 years of age from 2005 to 2015. Logistic regression was performed for each country to estimate the relationship between a log 2 increase in the number of livestock owned by the household and three child-health outcomes: 2-week prevalence of diarrhea, stunting, and all-cause mortality. Results for each country were combined using meta-analyses. Most countries (22 of 30) displayed an odds ratio (OR) less than 1 for child stunting associated with livestock (pooled OR = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95, 0.99). The results for diarrhea were more even with 14 countries displaying ORs greater than 1 and 10 displaying ORs less than 1. Most countries (22 of 30) displayed an OR greater than 1 for child mortality (pooled OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.06). All meta-analyses displayed significant heterogeneity by country. Our analysis is consistent with the theory that livestock may have a dual role as protective against stunting, an indicator of chronic malnutrition, and a risk factor for all-cause mortality in children, which may be linked to acute infections. The heterogeneity by country, however, indicates more data are needed on specific household livestock management practices.

  1. What is the level of household gun ownership in urban Mexico? An estimate from the first Mexican survey on gun ownership 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Esparza, David; Hemenway, David

    2017-12-20

    Gun violence has increased in Mexico since the mid-2000s, but little is known about patterns of gun ownership. We examine the size and composition of the privately held urban firearm stock in Mexico, motivations for ownership, and attitudes about gun laws. To this end, a household telephone survey of 1361 adults living in nine Mexican cities was conducted in the summer of 2017. We find that few urban Mexican households contain guns. Most of those who report ownership possess one gun, having purchased it recently for self-defense. Few urban Mexican citizens plan to purchase a gun in the future. Respondents are more likely to believe that crime in Mexico would increase if guns were allowed in more places (ie, workplaces and motor vehicles). Evidence suggests urban Mexico has relative low rates of firearm ownership. Few city dwellers plan on obtaining a firearm in the near future. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD: A consumer survey from five European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsø Karen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-cultural differences in the frequency of fish intake and in motivations for fish consumption between people from households with (CVD+ or without (CVD- medical history of cardiovascular disease, using data obtained in five European countries. Methods A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in November-December 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4,786 respondents, aged 18–84 and who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results Individuals from households in the CVD+ group consumed fish more frequently in Belgium and in Denmark as compared to those in the CVD- group. The consumption of fatty fish, which is the main sources of omega-3 PUFA associated with prevention of cardiovascular diseases, was on the same level for the two CVD groups in the majority of the countries, except in Belgium where CVD+ subjects reported to eat fatty fish significantly more frequently than CVD- subjects. All respondents perceived fish as a very healthy and nutritious food product. Only Danish consumers reported a higher subjective and objective knowledge related to nutrition issues about fish. In the other countries, objective knowledge about fish was on a low level, similar for CVD+ as for CVD- subjects, despite a higher claimed use of medical information sources about fish among CVD+ subjects. Conclusion Although a number of differences between CVD- and CVD+ subjects with respect to their frequency of fish intake are uncovered, the findings suggest that fish consumption traditions and habits – rather than a medical history of CVD – account for large differences between the countries, particularly in fatty fish consumption. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about fish, not only to the people facing chronic

  3. Linking household and health facility surveys to assess obstetric service availability, readiness and coverage: evidence from 17 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyangarara, Mufaro; Chou, Victoria B; Creanga, Andreea A; Walker, Neff

    2018-06-01

    Improving access and quality of obstetric service has the potential to avert preventable maternal, neonatal and stillborn deaths, yet little is known about the quality of care received. This study sought to assess obstetric service availability, readiness and coverage within and between 17 low- and middle-income countries. We linked health facility data from the Service Provision Assessments and Service Availability and Readiness Assessments, with corresponding household survey data obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Based on performance of obstetric signal functions, we defined four levels of facility emergency obstetric care (EmOC) functionality: comprehensive (CEmOC), basic (BEmOC), BEmOC-2, and low/substandard. Facility readiness was evaluated based on the direct observation of 23 essential items; facilities "ready to provide obstetric services" had ≥20 of 23 items available. Across countries, we used medians to characterize service availability and readiness, overall and by urban-rural location; analyses also adjusted for care-seeking patterns to estimate population-level coverage of obstetric services. Of the 111 500 health facilities surveyed, 7545 offered obstetric services and were included in the analysis. The median percentages of facilities offering EmOC and "ready to provide obstetric services" were 19% and 10%, respectively. There were considerable urban-rural differences, with absolute differences of 19% and 29% in the availability of facilities offering EmOC and "ready to provide obstetric services", respectively. Adjusting for care-seeking patterns, results from the linking approach indicated that among women delivering in a facility, a median of 40% delivered in facilities offering EmOC, and 28% delivered in facilities "ready to provide obstetric services". Relatively higher coverage of facility deliveries (≥65%) and coverage of deliveries in facilities "ready to provide obstetric

  4. Epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever at the Texas-Mexico border: results of a household-based seroepidemiologic survey, December 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M; Mohammed, Hamish; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Hayden, Mary H; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Fournier, Marta; Trujillo, Alfredo Rodríguez; Burton, Roy; Brunkard, Joan M; Anaya-Lopez, Luis; Banicki, Allison Abell; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Smith, Brian; Muñoz, Jorge L; Waterman, Stephen H

    2008-03-01

    A dengue-2 epidemic causing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred in the contiguous border cities of Matamoros, Tamaulipas (Mexico), and Brownsville, TX, in 2005. In December, we conducted a household-based epidemiologic survey to determine the incidence and seroprevalence of dengue infection among Matamoros and Brownsville residents and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Antibodies to dengue were measured in 273 individuals. The estimated incidence of recent dengue infection was 32% and 4% among Matamoros and Brownsville participants, respectively. The estimated prevalence of past dengue infection was 77% and 39% among Matamoros and Brownsville participants, respectively. The Breteau index was 28 in Matamoros and 16 in Brownsville, reflecting an abundant winter population of Aedes mosquitoes. Discarded waste tires and buckets were the two largest categories of infested containers found in both cities. Our results underscore the risk for epidemic dengue and DHF in the Texas-Mexico border region.

  5. The effect of mental ill health on absence from work in different occupational classifications: analysis of routine data in the British Household Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Will; Sutton, Matt; Macdonald, Sara; Maxwell, Margaret; Smith, Michael; Wilson, Philip; Morrison, Jill

    2012-12-01

    To investigate relationship of mental ill health to absence from work in different occupational classifications. Examined sickness absence, mental health (GHQ-12), physical health, job characteristics, and personal characteristics in 18 waves of the British Household Panel Survey. Overall sickness absence rate was 1.68%. Increased absence was associated with age greater than 45 years, female gender, lower occupational classification, and public-sector employers. Decreased absence was associated with part-time working. Scoring 4 or more on the General Health Questionnaire 12-item version (GHQ-12 caseness) was strongly associated with sickness absence. Public-sector employers had highest rates of sickness absence. GHQ-12 caseness had largest impact on absence in the public and nonprofit sectors, whereas physical health problems impacted more in the private sector. GHQ-12 caseness is strongly associated with increased absence in all classifications of occupations. Differences between sectors require further investigation.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of chlamydia infection in Hong Kong: A population-based geospatial household survey and testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Chi Wai Wong

    Full Text Available Chlamydia causes infertility and increases risk of HIV infection, and population-based studies provide essential information for effective infection control and prevention. This study examined Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and risk factors among a representative sample of 18-49-year-old residents in Hong Kong.Census boundary map of 412 constituency areas was used as primary sampling units to construct the sampling frame and, residential buildings and units were randomly selected using geospatial modelling. A questionnaire on sexual practice and health was conducted, and polymerase chain reaction was used to test the urine for genital chlamydial infection. Invitation letters were sent to the selected households and a team of interviewers were sent to recruit one subject per household. Prevalence data was weighted according to the 2011 census and risk factors identified through logistic regression.Among 881 participants (response rate of 24.5%, the overall Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was low at 1.4% (95%CI 0.8-2.5% but sexually active young (18-26 years women had relatively high prevalence (5.8%, 95%CI 1.7-18.2% in Hong Kong. A unique U-shape disease burden was observed with peaks in younger and older (40-49 years women. Amongst the sexually active women, the risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection were: younger age (aOR = 25.4, 95% CI 2.81-230; living alone (aOR = 8.99, 95% CI 1.46-55.40; and, among all the sexually active participants, males (including the male partners of the female participants who had travelled out of Hong Kong in the previous 12 months had higher risks of infection (aOR = 5.35; 95% CI 1.25-22.8. A core-peripheral geographical distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was also observed.Young and older sexually active women in Hong Kong have high prevalence of chlamydia. Routine screening for sexually active women and young men should be considered. Further research on testing feasibility and linkage

  7. The association between female genital fistula symptoms and gender-based violence: A multicountry secondary analysis of household survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Lindsay; Tripathi, Vandana

    2018-01-01

    The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), which include standardised questions on female genital fistula symptoms, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the epidemiology of fistula. This study sought to examine associations between self-reported fistula symptoms and experience of gender-based violence (GBV) among women interviewed in DHS surveys. This study used data from thirteen DHS surveys with standardised fistula and domestic violence modules. Data from the most recent survey in each country were pooled, weighting each survey equally. Multivariable logistic regressions controlled for maternal and demographic factors. Prevalence of fistula symptoms in this sample of 95 625 women ranges from 0.3% to 1.8% by country. The majority of women reporting fistula symptoms (56%) have ever experienced physical violence, and more than one-quarter have ever experienced sexual violence (27%), compared with 38% and 13% among women with no symptoms, respectively. Similarly, 16% of women with fistula symptoms report recently experiencing sexual violence-twice the percentage among women not reporting symptoms (8%). Women whose first experience of sexual violence was from a non-partner have almost four times the odds of reporting fistula symptoms compared with women who never experienced sexual violence. These associations indicate a need to investigate temporal and causal relationships between violence and fistula. The increased risk of physical and sexual violence among women with fistula symptoms suggests that fistula programmes should incorporate GBV into provider training and services. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Local distributions of wealth to describe health inequalities in India: a new approach for analyzing nationally representative household survey data, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Diego G; Corsi, Daniel J; Gaffey, Michelle F; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2014-01-01

    Worse health outcomes including higher morbidity and mortality are most often observed among the poorest fractions of a population. In this paper we present and validate national, regional and state-level distributions of national wealth index scores, for urban and rural populations, derived from household asset data collected in six survey rounds in India between 1992-3 and 2007-8. These new indices and their sub-national distributions allow for comparative analyses of a standardized measure of wealth across time and at various levels of population aggregation in India. Indices were derived through principal components analysis (PCA) performed using standardized variables from a correlation matrix to minimize differences in variance. Valid and simple indices were constructed with the minimum number of assets needed to produce scores with enough variability to allow definition of unique decile cut-off points in each urban and rural area of all states. For all indices, the first PCA components explained between 36% and 43% of the variance in household assets. Using sub-national distributions of national wealth index scores, mean height-for-age z-scores increased from the poorest to the richest wealth quintiles for all surveys, and stunting prevalence was higher among the poorest and lower among the wealthiest. Urban and rural decile cut-off values for India, for the six regions and for the 24 major states revealed large variability in wealth by geographical area and level, and rural wealth score gaps exceeded those observed in urban areas. The large variability in sub-national distributions of national wealth index scores indicates the importance of accounting for such variation when constructing wealth indices and deriving score distribution cut-off points. Such an approach allows for proper within-sample economic classification, resulting in scores that are valid indicators of wealth and correlate well with health outcomes, and enables wealth-related analyses at

  9. EPHECT I: European household survey on domestic use of consumer products and development of worst-case scenarios for daily use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulopoulou, C; Lucica, E; Johnson, A; Ashmore, M R; Sakellaris, I; Stranger, M; Goelen, E

    2015-12-01

    Consumer products are frequently and regularly used in the domestic environment. Realistic estimates for product use are required for exposure modelling and health risk assessment. This paper provides significant data that can be used as input for such modelling studies. A European survey was conducted, within the framework of the DG Sanco-funded EPHECT project, on the household use of 15 consumer products. These products are all-purpose cleaners, kitchen cleaners, floor cleaners, glass and window cleaners, bathroom cleaners, furniture and floor polish products, combustible air fresheners, spray air fresheners, electric air fresheners, passive air fresheners, coating products for leather and textiles, hair styling products, spray deodorants and perfumes. The analysis of the results from the household survey (1st phase) focused on identifying consumer behaviour patterns (selection criteria, frequency of use, quantities, period of use and ventilation conditions during product use). This can provide valuable input to modelling studies, as this information is not reported in the open literature. The above results were further analysed (2nd phase), to provide the basis for the development of 'most representative worst-case scenarios' regarding the use of the 15 products by home-based population groups (housekeepers and retired people), in four geographical regions in Europe. These scenarios will be used for the exposure and health risk assessment within the EPHECT project. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that daily worst-case scenarios are presented in the scientific published literature concerning the use of a wide range of 15 consumer products across Europe. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Food Waste Generation at Household Level: Results of a Survey among Employees of Two European Research Centers in Italy and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Jörissen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a broad consensus in literature that private households are significant contributors to the total amount of food waste in the EU. Thus, any strategy to meaningfully combat food wastage must put the end consumer in the center of prevention activities. This requires deeper insights into people’s motivations to discard still edible food and knowledge about potential barriers to reduce wasting. This paper reports on results of an online survey among two European research centers in Italy (JRC/Ispra and Germany (KIT/Karlsruhe. The focus of the survey was on households’ behaviors (shopping, eating, and food preparation habits and its influence on the generation of food waste. Furthermore, reasons for the disposal of food as well as measures and technologies most needed to prevent wastage were discussed. The results of the survey are analyzed, especially with regard to two questions: (1 Are there considerable differences between Ispra and Karlsruhe? (2 Are there considerable similarities or inconsistencies with the results of previous studies?

  11. A household survey on the extent of home medication storage. A cross-sectional study from rural Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; Delgatty, Candida; Alegakis, Athanasios; Lionis, Christos

    2012-03-01

    Patients often have multiple chronic diseases, use multiple prescriptions and over the counter medications resulting in polypharmacy. Many of them store these medications for future use in their homes, rather than take them as directed by their physician, resulting in a waste of health care resources, and potentially dangerous misuse. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of medication home hoarding, the exchange of medication with family/friends, families' beliefs about the medication use, source of medication, pharmaceutical class, cost of stored medicine and conditions of storage. A structured questionnaire was administered within the homes in two rural areas in Crete. Forty families participated in the study including 85 individual household members (36 men, and 49 women with an average age of 56.5 ± 24.3 mean ± SD). There were a total of 557 medications recorded, with 324 different medications representing a total value of €8954. The mean quantity of medication boxes stored in each home was 8.5 ± 5.8. Cardiovascular medications accounted for 56% of medications for current use; whereas analgesics (24%), and antibiotics (17%), were the most medications being stored for future use. Exchange of medicine was very common (95%). Beliefs that 'more expensive medication is more effective', and that 'over the counter medications are safe because they were easily available' were expressed. Medications are being stored in large quantities in these rural areas, with a large percentage of them being wasted or misused.

  12. Transitioning Towards Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit eAnand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The millennium development goals are now replaced by seventeen sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS -2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010, included in the study. It resulted in inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011, Congo Republic (2013-14, Cote d'Ivoire (2011-12, Ethiopia (2011, Gambia (2013, Mali (2012-13, Mozambique (2011, Namibia (2013, Nepal (2011, Niger (2012, Nigeria (2013, Pakistan (2012-13, Sierra Leone (2013, Uganda (2011 and Zambia (2013. The Scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio of child mortality and health outcomes using DHS surveys. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian Countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and Household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were not

  13. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    demands must satisfy a symmetry and rank condition on the Slutsky matrix. We also present some further results on the effects on demands of variables that do nor modify preferences but that do affect how decisions are made. We apply our theory to a series of surveys of household expendityres from Canada......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...... for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...

  14. Integrated synoptic surveys using an autonomous underwater vehicle and manned boats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional surface-water surveys are being combined with autonomous technology to produce integrated surveys of bathymetry, water quality, and velocity in inland lakes and reservoirs. This new technology provides valuable, high-resolution, integrated data that allow a systems-based approach to understanding common environmental problems. This fact sheet presents several example applications of integrated surveys within inland lakes and coastal Lake Michigan and Lake Erie.

  15. The Impact of Input and Output Prices on The Household Economic Behavior of Rice-Livestock Integrated Farming System (Rlifs) and Non Rlifs Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindawati, L.; Kusnadi, N.; Kuntjoro, S. U.; Swastika, D. K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Integrated farming system is a system that emphasized linkages and synergism of farming units waste utilization. The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of input and output prices on both Rice Livestock Integrated Farming System (RLIFS) and non RLIFS farmers. The study used econometric model in the form of a simultaneous equations system consisted of 36 equations (18 behavior and 18 identity equations). The impact of changes in some variables was obtained through simulation of input and output prices on simultaneous equations. The results showed that the price increasing of the seed, SP-36, urea, medication/vitamins, manure, bran, straw had negative impact on production of the rice, cow, manure, bran, straw and household income. The decrease in the rice and cow production, production input usage, allocation of family labor, rice and cow business income was greater in RLIFS than non RLIFS farmers. The impact of rising rice and cow cattle prices in the two groups of farmers was not too much different because (1) farming waste wasn’t used effectively (2) manure and straw had small proportion of production costs. The increase of input and output price didn’t have impact on production costs and household expenditures on RLIFS.

  16. Smart Grid. Implementation of households by means of cross-linking and energy community; Smart Grid. Integration von Haushalten mittels Vernetzung und Energie-Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trick, U.; Steinheimer, M.; Ruhrig, P.; Toenjes, R. [Fachhochschule Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hoelker, D. [Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The problems arising from the increasingly volatile and decentralized power generation as well as the today's ''black box'' distribution networks are solved here by the introduction of a new concept of a peer-to-peer networked energy community. Based on the experience with communication value-added services a service management framework is introduced which allows on the one side personalized services for the smart home, especially the energy management, and includes the integration of multimedia communications. On the other side the concept provides a convenient networking of households, energy suppliers, distribution network operators and others with the objectives cost savings, avoidance of network expansion, energy saving, CO{sub 2}-reduction, etc. Initial simulations confirm the effectiveness of this new and powerful approach, most notably the benefits of battery storage in homes, but also the potential contributions of demand side integration (load shift). (orig.)

  17. Household food production is positively associated with dietary diversity and intake of nutrient-dense foods for older preschool children in poorer families: Results from a nationally-representative survey in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulmi, Prajula; Masters, William A; Ghosh, Shibani; Namirembe, Grace; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Manohar, Swetha; Shrestha, Binod; West, Keith P; Webb, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition-sensitive interventions supporting enhanced household food production have potential to improve child dietary quality. However, heterogeneity in market access may cause systematic differences in program effectiveness depending on household wealth and child age. Identifying these effect modifiers can help development agencies specify and target their interventions. This study investigates mediating effects of household wealth and child age on links between farm production and child diets, as measured by production and intake of nutrient-dense food groups. Two rounds (2013 and 2014) of nationally representative survey data (n = 5,978 observations) were used to measure production and children's dietary intake, as well as a household wealth index and control variables, including breastfeeding. Novel steps used include measuring production diversity in terms of both species grown and food groups grown, as well as testing for mediating effects of family wealth and age of child. We find significant associations between child dietary diversity and agricultural diversity in terms of diversity of food groups and of species grown, especially for older children in poorer households, and particularly for fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs. With each additional food group produced, log-odds of meeting minimum dietary diversity score (≥4) increase by 0.25 (p = 0.01) for children aged 24-59 months. For younger children aged 18-23 months there is a similar effect size but only in the poorest two quintiles of household wealth, and for infants 6-18 months we find no correlation between production and intake in most models. Child dietary intake is associated with the composition of farm production, most evident among older preschool children and in poorer households. To improve the nutrition of infants, other interventions are needed; and for relatively wealthier households, own farm production may displace market purchases, which could attenuate the impact of household

  18. Household food production is positively associated with dietary diversity and intake of nutrient-dense foods for older preschool children in poorer families: Results from a nationally-representative survey in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajula Mulmi

    Full Text Available Nutrition-sensitive interventions supporting enhanced household food production have potential to improve child dietary quality. However, heterogeneity in market access may cause systematic differences in program effectiveness depending on household wealth and child age. Identifying these effect modifiers can help development agencies specify and target their interventions.This study investigates mediating effects of household wealth and child age on links between farm production and child diets, as measured by production and intake of nutrient-dense food groups.Two rounds (2013 and 2014 of nationally representative survey data (n = 5,978 observations were used to measure production and children's dietary intake, as well as a household wealth index and control variables, including breastfeeding. Novel steps used include measuring production diversity in terms of both species grown and food groups grown, as well as testing for mediating effects of family wealth and age of child.We find significant associations between child dietary diversity and agricultural diversity in terms of diversity of food groups and of species grown, especially for older children in poorer households, and particularly for fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs. With each additional food group produced, log-odds of meeting minimum dietary diversity score (≥4 increase by 0.25 (p = 0.01 for children aged 24-59 months. For younger children aged 18-23 months there is a similar effect size but only in the poorest two quintiles of household wealth, and for infants 6-18 months we find no correlation between production and intake in most models.Child dietary intake is associated with the composition of farm production, most evident among older preschool children and in poorer households. To improve the nutrition of infants, other interventions are needed; and for relatively wealthier households, own farm production may displace market purchases, which could attenuate the impact

  19. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  20. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  1. Evaluation of the Deki Reader™, an automated RDT reader and data management device, in a household survey setting in low malaria endemic southwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyet, Caesar; Roh, Michelle E; Kiwanuka, Gertrude N; Orikiriza, Patrick; Wade, Martina; Parikh, Sunil; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Boum, Yap

    2017-11-07

    Early diagnosis of suspected malaria cases with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) has been shown to be an effective malaria control tool used in many resource-constrained settings. However, poor quality control and quality assurance hinder the accurate reporting of malaria diagnoses. Recent use of a portable, battery operated RDT reader (Deki Reader™, Fio Corporation) has shown to have high agreement with visual inspection across diverse health centre settings, however evidence of its feasibility and usability during cross sectional surveys are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the Deki Reader™ in a cross-sectional survey of children from southwestern Uganda. A two-stage, stratified cluster sampling survey was conducted between July and October 2014 in three districts of southwestern Uganda, with varying malaria transmission intensities. A total of 566 children aged 6-59 months were included in the analysis. Blood samples were collected and tested for malaria using: the SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf/Pan RDT and microscopy. Results were compared between visual inspection of the RDT and by the Deki Reader™. Diagnostic performance of both methods were compared to gold-standard microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of the Deki Reader™ was 94.1% (95% CI 69.2-99.6%) and 95.6% (95% CI 93.4-97.1%), respectively. The overall percent agreement between the Deki Reader™ and visual RDT inspection was 98.9% (95% CI 93.2-99.8), with kappa statistic of 0.92 (95% CI 0.85-0.98). The findings from this study suggest that the Deki Reader™ is comparable to visual inspection and performs well in detecting microscopy-positive Plasmodium falciparum cases in a household survey setting. However, the reader's performance was highly dependent on ensuring adequate battery life and a work environment free of dirt particles.

  2. Enhancing benefits from polycultures including tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) within integrated pond-dike systems: A participatory trial with households of varying socio-economic level in rural and peri-urban areas of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, M.; Little, D.C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Telfer, T.; Wahab, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Linkages between the fish ponds and surrounding land for horticulture are a distinctive feature of farming households in Bangladesh. It was hypothesised that integration of fish ponds in integrated farming system enhances livelihoods and reduces poverty. The effects of introducing tilapia into

  3. Optimizing household survey methods to monitor the Sustainable Development Goals targets 6.1 and 6.2 on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: A mixed-methods field-test in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shane M; Bain, Robert E S; Lunze, Karsten; Unalan, Turgay; Beshanski-Pedersen, Bo; Slaymaker, Tom; Johnston, Richard; Hancioglu, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require household survey programmes such as the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) to enhance data collection to cover new indicators. This study aims to evaluated methods for assessing water quality, water availability, emptying of sanitation facilities, menstrual hygiene management and the acceptability of water quality testing in households which are key to monitoring SDG targets 6.1 and 6.2 on drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and emerging issues. As part of a MICS field test, we interviewed 429 households and 267 women age 15-49 in Stann Creek, Belize in a split-sample experiment. In a concurrent qualitative component, we conducted focus groups with interviewers and cognitive interviews with respondents during and immediately following questionnaire administration in the field to explore their question comprehension and response processes. About 88% of respondents agreed to water quality testing but also desired test results, given the potential implications for their own health. Escherichia coli was present in 36% of drinking water collected at the source, and in 47% of samples consumed in the household. Both questions on water availability necessitated probing by interviewers. About one quarter of households reported emptying of pit latrines and septic tanks, though one-quarter could not provide an answer to the question. Asking questions on menstrual hygiene was acceptable to respondents, but required some clarification and probing. In the context of Belize, this study confirmed the feasibility of collecting information on the availability and quality of drinking water, emptying of sanitation facilities and menstrual hygiene in a multi-purpose household survey, indicating specific areas to improve question formulation and field protocols. Improvements have been incorporated into the latest round of MICS surveys which will be a major source of national data for monitoring of SDG

  4. Patterns of chloroquine use and resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of household survey and molecular data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As a result of widespread chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance, 90% of sub-Saharan African countries had adopted policies of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria by 2007. In Malawi, cessation of chloroquine use was followed by the re-emergence of chloroquine-susceptible malaria. It was expected that introduction of ACT would lead to a return in chloroquine susceptibility throughout Africa, but this has not yet widely occurred. This observation suggests that there is continuing use of ineffective anti-malarials in Africa and that persistent chloroquine-resistant malaria is due to ongoing drug pressure despite national policy changes. Methods To estimate drug use on a national level, 2006-2007 Demographic Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data from 21 African countries were analysed. Resistance data were compiled by systematic review of the published literature on the prevalence of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter polymorphism at codon 76, which causes chloroquine resistance. Results Chloroquine was the most common anti-malarial used according to surveys from 14 of 21 countries analysed, predominantly in West Africa. SP was most commonly reported in two of 21 countries. Among eight countries with longitudinal molecular resistance data, the four countries where the highest proportion of children treated for fever received chloroquine (Uganda, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, and Mali) also showed no significant declines in the prevalence of chloroquine-resistant infections. The three countries with low or decreasing chloroquine use among children who reported fever treatment (Malawi, Kenya, and Tanzania) had statistically significant declines in the prevalence of chloroquine resistance. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in 2006-2007, chloroquine and SP continued to be used at high rates in many African countries. In countries reporting

  5. What determines urban households' willingness to pay for CO{sub 2} emission reductions in Turkey: A contingent valuation survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaman, Fikret [Department of Economics, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Karali, Nihan; Kumbaroglu, Guerkan; Or, Ilhan [Department of Industrial Engineering, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Ozkaynak, Beguem, E-mail: begum.ozkaynak@boun.edu.t [Department of Economics, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Zenginobuz, Unal [Department of Economics, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    This paper explores Turkish urban households' willingness to pay (WTP) for CO{sub 2} emission reductions expected to result from improvements in power production. A face-to-face questionnaire, with a Contingent valuation (CV) module prepared using the double-bounded dichotomous choice elicitation framework, was administered to 2422 respondents representative of urban Turkey-a developing country with low but rapidly increasing greenhouse gas emissions. The determinants of WTP were identified by considering not only the impact of standard socio-economic factors but also the effects of environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviour, the relevance of the identity of the collection agent (national versus international institutions) in terms of trust people have towards them, and the degree of perceived participation of others in the realization of the project. Our study confirms the existing literature in demonstrating that WTP figures reported by young and educated people that are active on environmental issues, and who also possess material security and environmental knowledge, are more likely to be high. However, their willingness to make contributions is hampered significantly by their belief that their fellow citizens will not contribute and the general lack of trust in institutions. Overall, this study may be taken as a call to eliminate governance-related uncertainties in climate change deals. - Research Highlights: {yields} We explored the determinants of households' willingness to pay for CO{sub 2} reductions. {yields} We administered a contingent valuation survey to 2422 respondents in urban Turkey. {yields} Young, educated, environmentally-knowledgeable and activist people contribute more. {yields} Income is also found to be significant in increasing willingness to contribute. {yields} Lack of trust in institutions and in other's participation hampers the contributions.

  6. People with dyslexia and heart, chest, skin, digestive, musculoskeletal, vision, learning, speech and mental disorders were more dissatisfied with neighbourhoods: Scottish Household Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-12-01

    Rarely do we know the perception toward neighbourhoods in people specifically with health conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to understand the perception toward neighbourhoods among adults with a series of the existing health conditions in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data were retrieved from and analysed in Scottish Household Survey, 2007-2008. Information on demographics, self-reported health conditions and perception toward neighbourhoods and the surrounding facilities was obtained by household interview. Analysis including chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modelling were performed. Of 19,150 Scottish adults (aged 16-80) included in the study cohort, 1079 (7.7 %) people were dissatisfied with their living areas; particularly for those who experienced harassment (15.4 %), did not recycle or with dyslexia, chest, digestive, mental and musculoskeletal problems. Twenty to forty per cent reported common neighbourhood problems including noise, rubbish, disputes, graffiti, harassment and drug misuse. People with heart or digestive problems were more dissatisfied with the existing parks and open space. People with arthritis, chest or hearing problems were more dissatisfied with the waste management condition. People with dyslexia were more dissatisfied with the existing public transportation. People with heart problems were more dissatisfied with the current street cleaning condition. People with hearing, vision, speech, learning problems or dyslexia were also more dissatisfied with sports and recreational facilities. People with heart, chest, skin, digestive, musculoskeletal, vision, learning, speech and mental disorders and dyslexia were more dissatisfied with their current neighbourhood environments. Upgrading neighbourhood planning to tackle social environment injustice and put pleasant life experience as priorty would be suggested. Graphical abstract interrelations of individual health and neighbourhood

  7. Household food insecurity as a determinant of overweight and obesity among low-income Hispanic subgroups: Data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P obesity, food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Facility-Based Delivery during the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Rural Liberia: Analysis from a Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic has threatened access to basic health services through facility closures, resource diversion, and decreased demand due to community fear and distrust. While modeling studies have attempted to estimate the impact of these disruptions, no studies have yet utilized population-based survey data.We conducted a two-stage, cluster-sample household survey in Rivercess County, Liberia, in March-April 2015, which included a maternal and reproductive health module. We constructed a retrospective cohort of births beginning 4 y before the first day of survey administration (beginning March 24, 2011. We then fit logistic regression models to estimate associations between our primary outcome, facility-based delivery (FBD, and time period, defined as the pre-EVD period (March 24, 2011-June 14, 2014 or EVD period (June 15, 2014-April 13, 2015. We fit both univariable and multivariable models, adjusted for known predictors of facility delivery, accounting for clustering using linearized standard errors. To strengthen causal inference, we also conducted stratified analyses to assess changes in FBD by whether respondents believed that health facility attendance was an EVD risk factor. A total of 1,298 women from 941 households completed the survey. Median age at the time of survey was 29 y, and over 80% had a primary education or less. There were 686 births reported in the pre-EVD period and 212 in the EVD period. The unadjusted odds ratio of facility-based delivery in the EVD period was 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.90, p-value = 0.010. Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the observed association, either in the principal model (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.70, 95%CI 0.50-0.98, p = 0.037 or a fully adjusted model (AOR = 0.69, 95%CI 0.50-0.97, p = 0.033. The association was robust in sensitivity analyses. The reduction in FBD during the EVD period was observed among those reporting a belief that

  9. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Household Survey Data to Assess Human Health and Nutrition Response to Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B.; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis.

  10. Under-reporting of alcohol consumption in household surveys: a comparison of quantity-frequency, graduated-frequency and recent recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Donath, Susan; Cooper-Stanbury, Mark; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Catalano, Paul; Mateo, Cid

    2004-08-01

    To compare alternative survey methods for estimating (a) levels of at risk alcohol consumption and (b) total volume of alcohol consumed per capita in comparison with estimates from sales data and to investigate reasons for under-reporting. The homes of respondents who were eligible and willing to participate. A total of 21,674 Australians aged 14 years and older. A 2001 national household survey of drug use, experiences and attitudes with weights applied for age, sex, geographic location and day of week of interview. Self-completion questionnaire using quantity-frequency (QF) and graduated-frequency (GF) methods plus two questions about consumption 'yesterday': one in standard drinks, another with empirically based estimates of drink size and strength. The highest estimate of age 14 + per capita consumption of 7.00 l of alcohol derived from recall of consumption 'yesterday' or 76.8% of the official estimate. The lowest was QF with 49.8%. When amount consumed 'yesterday' was recalled in standard drinks this estimate was 5.27 l. GF questions yielded higher estimates than did QF questions both for total volume (5.25 versus 4.54 l) and also for the proportion of the population at risk of long-term alcohol-related harm (10.6%versus 8.1%). With the detailed 'yesterday' method 61% of all consumption was on high risk drinking days. Questions about typical quantities of alcohol consumed can lead to underestimates, as do questions about drinking 'standard drinks' of alcohol. Recent recall methods encourage fuller reporting of volumes plus more accurate estimates of unrecorded consumption and the proportion of total alcohol consumption that places drinkers at risk of harm. However, they do not capture longer-term drinking patterns. It is recommended that both recent recall and measures of longer-term drinking patterns are included in national surveys.

  11. P06.01. Survey of Business and Care Models of Integrative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    MacElhern, Lauray; Carter, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Sustainable Business Models In 2012, the business sub-committee of the clinical working group for the Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine (CAHCIM) launched a pilot survey to collect information about the structure and business models of the member integrative centers. Although the survey provided useful insight into the business operations and financial resources needed to start up a center, the survey needed a better design and response rate. The 2013 ...

  12. Prevalence of self-reported tuberculosis, knowledge about tuberculosis transmission and its determinants among adults in India: results from a nation-wide cross-sectional household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about symptoms and transmission of tuberculosis determines health seeking behavior and helps in prevention of tuberculosis transmission in the community. Such data is useful for policy makers to formulate information, education and communication strategies for tuberculosis control. Methods A secondary data analysis of India demographic and health survey, 2005/6 was carried out. Questions about self-reported tuberculosis, transmission and curability of tuberculosis were analysed. Correct knowledge (without misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission was used as a dependant variable and the explanatory variables tested were: demographic data, education, wealth quintiles, frequency of exposure to media and the curability of tuberculosis. Determinants of correct knowledge without misconceptions were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses using national weighting factor to adjust for complex sampling design. Results A total of 109,070 households (response rate of 93.5% and 198,718 participants (response rate of 91.6% completed the survey. The samples of men and women interviewed were 74,360 and 124,358 respectively. Prevalence rate of self-reported tuberculosis was 445 per 100,000 usual household residents and 4.60 per 1,000 participants. The number of respondents who had “heard of an illness called tuberculosis” was 177,423 (89.3%. Of these 47,487 (26.8% participants did not know and 55.5% knew about the correct mode of tuberculosis transmission i.e. “Through the air when coughing or sneezing”. The common misconceptions about transmission were “Through food” (32.4%, “Sharing utensils” (18.2%, and “Touching a person with tuberculosis” (12.3%. Only 52,617 (29.7% participants had correct knowledge without misconceptions. Being male (aOR 1.17, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.21, being a Hindu (aOR 1.20, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.26 or Muslim (aOR 1.26, 95% CIs 1.18, 1.34, listening to radio (aOR 1.08, 95% CIs 1.04, 1

  13. Awareness of households to the development of wind energy sites - Reporting on a survey; Receptivite des menages au developpement des sites eoliens. Rapport d'enquete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisard, M.

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents in tables and diagrams the results of a survey involving 421 households in Switzerland, about their awareness to energy issues and, in particular, to all what regards wind energy and wind power plants. Globally, 80% of the persons asked for their opinion believe that electric power demand will continue to increase. 66% of them are in favour of increased use of renewable energy sources and would consequently agree with a 10% more expensive end-user energy price. 89% of the persons taking part to the survey approve the installation of wind energy farms in Switzerland. Moreover, statistics indicates that the households living in regions already equipped with wind farms are significantly more favorable to the creation of new wind energy sites than those not living in these regions. By the end of the day, it turns out that the main reasons for accepting wind energy are environmental concerns as well as the fear of being obliged to use nuclear power. [French] Ce rapport presente par des graphiques et des tableaux le resultat d'un sondage d'opinion aupres de 421 menages en Suisse, sur la sensibilite du public aux problemes de l'energie et plus particulierement sur sa perception de tout ce qui concerne l'energie du vent et son exploitation par l'implantation d'eoliennes. Globalement, 80% des menages pensent que la demande d'energie electrique va poursuivre sa croissance. 66% d'entre eux sont favorables au developpement des energies renouvelables et prets a accepter en consequence une augmentation du prix de l'energie allant jusqu'a 10%. 89% des personnes interrogees sont favorables au developpement des eoliennes en Suisse. De plus, la statistique montre de maniere significative que les menages des regions dans lesquelles sont deja implantes des sites eoliens sont plus favorables au developpement des eoliennes que les autres. Finalement, le respect de l

  14. Awareness of households to the development of wind energy sites - Reporting on a survey; Receptivite des menages au developpement des sites eoliens. Rapport d'enquete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisard, M

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents in tables and diagrams the results of a survey involving 421 households in Switzerland, about their awareness to energy issues and, in particular, to all what regards wind energy and wind power plants. Globally, 80% of the persons asked for their opinion believe that electric power demand will continue to increase. 66% of them are in favour of increased use of renewable energy sources and would consequently agree with a 10% more expensive end-user energy price. 89% of the persons taking part to the survey approve the installation of wind energy farms in Switzerland. Moreover, statistics indicates that the households living in regions already equipped with wind farms are significantly more favorable to the creation of new wind energy sites than those not living in these regions. By the end of the day, it turns out that the main reasons for accepting wind energy are environmental concerns as well as the fear of being obliged to use nuclear power. [French] Ce rapport presente par des graphiques et des tableaux le resultat d'un sondage d'opinion aupres de 421 menages en Suisse, sur la sensibilite du public aux problemes de l'energie et plus particulierement sur sa perception de tout ce qui concerne l'energie du vent et son exploitation par l'implantation d'eoliennes. Globalement, 80% des menages pensent que la demande d'energie electrique va poursuivre sa croissance. 66% d'entre eux sont favorables au developpement des energies renouvelables et prets a accepter en consequence une augmentation du prix de l'energie allant jusqu'a 10%. 89% des personnes interrogees sont favorables au developpement des eoliennes en Suisse. De plus, la statistique montre de maniere significative que les menages des regions dans lesquelles sont deja implantes des sites eoliens sont plus favorables au developpement des eoliennes que les autres. Finalement, le respect de l'environnement et la crainte d'avoir a recourir a l

  15. Battery recycling: possibilities to raise the returning rate. A questionnaire survey on 2000 households; Batterienrecycling: Moeglichkeiten zur Erhoehung der Ruecklaufquote. Eine schriftliche Befragung von 2000 Haushalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, U.; Hahn, F.; Noser, V.M.A.; Schweizer, A.; Stuessi, F.J. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Interfakultaere Koordinationsstelle fuer Allgemeine Oekologie (IKAOe)

    1998-06-01

    Separate collection and exploitation of used batteries facilates the recycling and eventual waste management of such heavy metals as mercury and cadmium. It is thereby possible to regain raw materials like zinc, manganese and iron for the raw material cycle. Although the collection and recycling of used batteries in Switzerland is financed by a prepaid disposal fee, their returning rate of almost 60% is too low for several reasons. A questionnaire survey carried out on 2000 households revealed the following: People collecting paper, glass, aluminium, compost and tinplate, more frequently separate used batteries from ordinary garbage. The number of collecting points is supposed to be sufficient, but not all of them are sufficiently marked. The prepaid disposal fee (VEG) should become obligatory so that it would be possible to compensate the collecting points. It is not obvious from the results of the survey if the introduction of a deposit of batteries would raise the returning rate. As far as advertising is concerned, only the `battery bag` sent to every household by the BESO seemed to influence the collecting behaviour in a positive way, poster advertising had only little effect. Appeals in newspapers, radio and television did not show any changement of the collecting behaviour. However, information and knowledge about batteries and their recycling do have a positive influence in the collecting behaviour of the consumers in this specific case. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch separates Sammeln und Verwerten von Batterien koennen Schwermetalle wie Quecksilber und Cadmium aufkonzentriert und wiederverwertet oder gegebenenfalls entsorgt werden. Gleichzeitig koennen die in Batterien enthaltenen Rohstoffe wie Zink, Mangan und Eisen wieder in den Rohstoffkreislauf zurueckgefuehrt werden. Die Ruecklaufquote von Altbatterien in der Schweiz ist aber mit knapp 60% aus verschiedenen Gruenden zu niedrig, obwohl die Verwertung der gebrauchten Batterien durch eine freiwillige

  16. Local Distributions of Wealth to Describe Health Inequalities in India: A New Approach for Analyzing Nationally Representative Household Survey Data, 1992–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Diego G.; Corsi, Daniel J.; Gaffey, Michelle F.; Barros, Aluisio J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Worse health outcomes including higher morbidity and mortality are most often observed among the poorest fractions of a population. In this paper we present and validate national, regional and state-level distributions of national wealth index scores, for urban and rural populations, derived from household asset data collected in six survey rounds in India between 1992–3 and 2007–8. These new indices and their sub-national distributions allow for comparative analyses of a standardized measure of wealth across time and at various levels of population aggregation in India. Methods Indices were derived through principal components analysis (PCA) performed using standardized variables from a correlation matrix to minimize differences in variance. Valid and simple indices were constructed with the minimum number of assets needed to produce scores with enough variability to allow definition of unique decile cut-off points in each urban and rural area of all states. Results For all indices, the first PCA components explained between 36% and 43% of the variance in household assets. Using sub-national distributions of national wealth index scores, mean height-for-age z-scores increased from the poorest to the richest wealth quintiles for all surveys, and stunting prevalence was higher among the poorest and lower among the wealthiest. Urban and rural decile cut-off values for India, for the six regions and for the 24 major states revealed large variability in wealth by geographical area and level, and rural wealth score gaps exceeded those observed in urban areas. Conclusions The large variability in sub-national distributions of national wealth index scores indicates the importance of accounting for such variation when constructing wealth indices and deriving score distribution cut-off points. Such an approach allows for proper within-sample economic classification, resulting in scores that are valid indicators of wealth and correlate well with health

  17. Local distributions of wealth to describe health inequalities in India: a new approach for analyzing nationally representative household survey data, 1992-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego G Bassani

    Full Text Available Worse health outcomes including higher morbidity and mortality are most often observed among the poorest fractions of a population. In this paper we present and validate national, regional and state-level distributions of national wealth index scores, for urban and rural populations, derived from household asset data collected in six survey rounds in India between 1992-3 and 2007-8. These new indices and their sub-national distributions allow for comparative analyses of a standardized measure of wealth across time and at various levels of population aggregation in India.Indices were derived through principal components analysis (PCA performed using standardized variables from a correlation matrix to minimize differences in variance. Valid and simple indices were constructed with the minimum number of assets needed to produce scores with enough variability to allow definition of unique decile cut-off points in each urban and rural area of all states.For all indices, the first PCA components explained between 36% and 43% of the variance in household assets. Using sub-national distributions of national wealth index scores, mean height-for-age z-scores increased from the poorest to the richest wealth quintiles for all surveys, and stunting prevalence was higher among the poorest and lower among the wealthiest. Urban and rural decile cut-off values for India, for the six regions and for the 24 major states revealed large variability in wealth by geographical area and level, and rural wealth score gaps exceeded those observed in urban areas.The large variability in sub-national distributions of national wealth index scores indicates the importance of accounting for such variation when constructing wealth indices and deriving score distribution cut-off points. Such an approach allows for proper within-sample economic classification, resulting in scores that are valid indicators of wealth and correlate well with health outcomes, and enables wealth

  18. Household survey on drug abuse in Brazil: study involving the 107 major cities of the country--2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galduróz, José Carlos F; Noto, Ana Regina; Nappo, Solange A; Carlini, E A

    2005-03-01

    The prevalence of the use in Brazil of illicit drugs, as well as of alcohol and tobacco, was determined. Further, illicit use of psychotropic medicines, and anabolic steroids were also surveyed. This study was carried out in 107 Brazilian cities with more than 200,000 inhabitants aged 12-65 years. The sampling design adopted was that of sampling per aggregates in three stages: first, the census sectors were selected; second, homes were selected among the sectors; finally, in each home, a respondent was selected in a manner independent of the interviewer. There were 8589 persons interviewed. The questionnaire utilized was that of the SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) which was translated and adapted for Brazilian conditions. The lifetime use of alcohol in the 107 major cities of the country was 68.7%, which was close to numbers observed for Chile at 70.8% and the USA at 81.0%. Yet, tobacco lifetime use was 41.1% of the total, which is lower than the prevalence observed in the USA (70.5%). The data on the lifetime use of marijuana in Brazil (6.9%) approximated the findings for Colombia (5.4%), however, being much lower than that observed in the USA (34.2%) and the United Kingdom (25.0%). The prevalence of lifetime use of cocaine was 2.3%, well below the levels for the USA with 11.2% of the total population. The abuse of inhalants was 5.8% of the total, greater than that found in Colombia (1.4%) and about four times less than that in the United Kingdom with 20.0%. Among the medicaments, stimulants had a 1.5% prevalence of lifetime use, and that of benzodiazepines had similar percentages in Brazil (3.3%) and in the USA (5.8%). In this survey, only four individuals reported lifetime use of heroin, which was equivalent to about 0.04% of the sample and much lower than that in the USA with 1.2% and in Colombia reaching 1.5%. These findings will allow the implementation of public policies fitted to the situation with psychotropic drugs in

  19. Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among Burundian children aged 6-23 months: evidence from a national cross-sectional household survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkurunziza, Sandra; Meessen, Bruno; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Korachais, Catherine

    2017-07-25

    Burundi is one of the poorest countries and is among the four countries with the highest prevalence of stunting (58%) among children aged less than 5 years. This situation undermines the economic growth of the country as undernutrition is strongly associated with less schooling and reduced economic productivity. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting may help policy-makers to direct the limited Burundian resources to the most vulnerable segments of the population, and thus make it more cost effective. This study aimed to identify predictors of stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than two years in Burundi. The sample is made up of 6199 children aged 6 to 23 months with complete anthropometric measurements from the baseline survey of an impact evaluation study of the Performance-Based financing (PBF) scheme applied to nutrition services in Burundi from 2015 to 2017. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine stunting and severe stunting against a set of child, parental and household variables such as child's age or breastfeeding pattern, mother's age or knowledge of malnutrition, household size or socio-economic status. The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 53% [95%CI: 51.8-54.3] and 20.9% [95%CI: 19.9-22.0] respectively. Compared to children from 6-11 months, children of 12-17 months and 18-23 months had a higher risk of stunting (AdjOR:2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.4 and 3.2; 95% CI: 2.8-3.7). Other predictors for stunting were small babies (AdjOR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7 for medium-size babies at birth and AdjOR=2.9; 95% CI: 2.4-3.6 for small-size babies at birth) and male children (AdjOR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.4-1.8). In addition, having no education for mothers (AdjOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), incorrect mothers' child nutrition status assessment (AdjOR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.8-4), delivering at home (AdjOR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6) were found to be predictors for stunting. More than to 2 under five children in the

  20. Northeast Integrated Pelagic Survey (PC1301, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the survey we will quantify the spatial distribution of the following parameters: water currents, water properties, phytoplankton, microzooplankton,...

  1. Northeast Integrated Pelagic Survey (PC1405, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the survey we will quantify the spatial distribution of the following parameters: water currents, water properties, phytoplankton, microzooplankton,...

  2. Northeast Integrated Pelagic Survey (GU1305, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the survey we will quantify the spatial distribution of the following parameters: water currents, water properties, phytoplankton, microzooplankton,...

  3. Farmers' willingness to convert traditional houses to solar houses in rural areas: A survey of 465 households in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xuesong; Li, Hao; Wang, Xingwu

    2013-01-01

    In rural China, reducing low-quality fuel consumption and adopting solar technologies can mitigate pollution problems and improve farmers' living conditions. Before advising farmers to convert traditional houses to solar houses, it is necessary to understand their willingness to do so. Based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this study examined nine factors related to farmers' willingness (FW). A survey was conducted in Chongqing with 465 participants. Nine hypotheses were proposed based on literature studies. A binary logistic regression model was constructed to test the data with the SPSS software package. Three of the nine factors had positive and significant impacts on FW, which were quality of life, government commitments and neighbours'/friends' assessments; two factors had negative and significant impacts, which were additional monthly out-of-pocket expenses and switching cost; and the remaining four factors had no significant impacts, which were durability, popularity, timing and local solar market maturity. Based on the findings, suggestions are made to properly introduce solar houses to Chinese farmers and to quickly stimulate market activities. - Highlights: • We study farmers' willingness to convert traditional houses to solar houses. • We have nine hypotheses and test nine associated factors. • Three factors positively and significantly impact farmers' willingness. • Other two factors negatively and significantly impact farmers' willingness. • Remaining four factors do not significantly impact farmers' willingness

  4. Innovative R.E.A. tools for integrated bathymetric survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarte, Maurizio; Ivaldi, Roberta; Sinapi, Luigi; Bruzzone, Gabriele; Caccia, Massimo; Odetti, Angelo; Fontanelli, Giacomo; Masini, Andrea; Simeone, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    The REA (Rapid Environmental Assessment) concept is a methodology finalized to acquire environmental information, process them and return in standard paper-chart or standard digital format. Acquired data become thus available for the ingestion or the valorization of the Civilian Protection Emergency Organization or the Rapid Response Forces. The use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) with the miniaturization of multispectral camera or Hyperspectral camera gives to the operator the capability to react in a short time jointly with the capacity to collect a big amount of different data and to deliver a very large number of products. The proposed methodology incorporates data collected from remote and autonomous sensors that acquire data over areas in a cost-effective manner. The hyperspectral sensors are able to map seafloor morphology, seabed structure, depth of bottom surface and an estimate of sediment development. The considerable spectral portions are selected using an appropriate configuration of hyperspectral cameras to maximize the spectral resolution. Data acquired by hyperspectral camera are geo-referenced synchronously to an Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS) sensor. The data can be subjected to a first step on-board processing of the unmanned vehicle before be transferred through the Ground Control Station (GCS) to a Processing Exploitation Dissemination (PED) system. The recent introduction of Data Distribution Systems (DDS) capabilities in PED allow a cooperative distributed approach to modern decision making. Two platforms are used in our project, a Remote Piloted Aircraft (RPAS) and an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). The two platforms mutually interact to cover a surveyed area wider than the ones that could be covered by the single vehicles. The USV, especially designed to work in very shallow water, has a modular structure and an open hardware and software architecture allowing for an easy installation and integration of various

  5. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  6. Integrating Art into Science Education: A Survey of Science Teachers' Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkka, Jaakko; Haatainen, Outi; Aksela, Maija

    2017-01-01

    Numerous case studies suggest that integrating art and science education could engage students with creative projects and encourage students to express science in multitude of ways. However, little is known about art integration practices in everyday science teaching. With a qualitative e-survey, this study explores the art integration of science…

  7. Price and expenditure elasticities of residential energy demand during urbanization: An empirical analysis based on the household-level survey data in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization, one of the most obvious characteristics of economic growth in China, has an apparent “lock-in effect” on residential energy consumption pattern. It is expected that residential sector would become a major force that drives China's energy consumption after urbanization process. We estimate price and expenditure elasticities of residential energy demand using data from China's Residential Energy Consumption Survey (CRECS) that covers households at different income levels and from different regional and social groups. Empirical results from the Almost Ideal Demand System model are in accordance with the basic expectations: the demands for electricity, natural gas and transport fuels are inelastic in the residential sector due to the unreasonable pricing mechanism. We further investigate the sensitivities of different income groups to prices of the three types of energy. Policy simulations indicate that rationalizing energy pricing mechanism is an important guarantee for energy sustainable development during urbanization. Finally, we put forward suggestions on energy pricing reform in the residential sector based on characteristics of China's undergoing urbanization process and the current energy consumption situations.

  8. Predictors of vaginal practices for sex and hygiene in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: findings of a household survey and qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorgie, Fiona; Smit, Jennifer A; Kunene, Busisiwe; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Beksinska, Mags; Chersich, Matthew F

    2011-04-01

    Vaginal practices in sub-Saharan Africa may increase HIV transmission and have important implications for development of microbicides and future HIV prevention technologies. It remains unclear which women undertake vaginal practices and what factors predict prevalence, practice type and choice of products. Using cross-sectional data from mixed research methods, we identify factors associated with vaginal practices among women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were gathered through focus group discussions, in-depth and key-informant interviews, followed by a province-wide, multi-stage cluster household survey, using structured questionnaires in face-to-face interviews with 867 women. This paper details six types of vaginal practices, which--despite their individual distinctiveness and diverse motivations--may be clustered into two broad groups: those undertaken for purposes of 'hygiene' (genital washing, douching and application) and those for 'sexual motivations' (application, insertion, ingestion and incisions). Multivariate analysis found significant associations between 'hygiene' practices and media access, religiosity and transactional sex. 'Sexual' practices were associated with partner concurrency, religiosity and use of injectable hormonal contraceptives. Future interventions relating to vaginal practices as well as microbicides need to reflect this characterisation of practices as sexual- and/or hygiene-related.

  9. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Sarah; Matthews, Zoë; Frost, Melanie; Fogstad, Helga; Camacho, Alma V; Laski, Laura

    2012-09-01

    There is strong evidence that the health risks associated with adolescent pregnancy are concentrated among the youngest girls (e.g. those under 16 years). Fertility rates in this age group have not previously been comprehensively estimated and published. By drawing data from 42 large, nationally representative household surveys in low resource countries carried out since 2003 this article presents estimates of age-specific birth rates for girls aged 12-15, and the percentage of girls who give birth at age 15 or younger. From these we estimate that approximately 2.5 million births occur to girls aged under 16 in low resource countries each year. The highest rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where in Chad, Guinea, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Sierra Leone more than 10% of girls become mothers before they are 16. Strategies to reduce these high levels are vital if we are to alleviate poor reproductive health. © 2012 The Authors  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  11. Use of Household Survey Data as a Tool to Assess the Carbon Footprint of Rural Tourist Accommodation and Related Services in China: A Case Study of Mount Qingcheng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The need to improve the accuracy of carbon emission measurements is a major issue which the tourism industry must resolve in order to reduce adverse impacts on climate change and the environment. This study established a detailed consumption list based on household survey data and calculated the carbon emissions of accommodation and services of the rural tourism industry of Mount Qingcheng using the input–output and lifecycle methods. Further, it analysed the key factors affecting carbon emissions. The results indicate that within the surveyed area, carbon emissions from accommodation and services amounted to 30.27 kg CO2/per person per day; these emissions were primarily from indirect sources, which accounted for 74.99% of the total emissions. Emissions from construction and production of durable goods accounted for 13.08% and 21.58% of the total emissions. The omission of these sources of carbon emissions was the primary reason for the carbon emission levels of the tourism industry being underestimated previously. For each additional 10,000 yuan in revenue, accommodation and related services of the rural tourism industry emit an additional 1412.08 kg of CO2. This is higher than the level of carbon emissions of the agriculture industry, but lower than those of the processing and manufacturing industries. Tourist consumption behaviours and types of tourism operations are important factors affecting carbon emissions. Effective emission reduction strategies include guiding tourist consumption behavioural changes, optimizing tourism operation portfolios, and extending the service life of constructions and durable goods.

  12. Quantifying the impact of rising food prices on child mortality in India: a cross-district statistical analysis of the District Level Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Khan, Zaky; Ebrahim, Shah; Stuckler, David

    2016-04-01

    Rates of child malnutrition and mortality in India remain high. We tested the hypothesis that rising food prices are contributing to India's slow progress in improving childhood survival. Using rounds 2 and 3 (2002-08) of the Indian District Level Household Survey, we calculated neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates in 364 districts, and merged these with district-level food price data from the National Sample Survey Office. Multivariate models were estimated, stratified into 27 less deprived states and territories and 8 deprived states ('Empowered Action Groups'). Between 2002 and 2008, the real price of food in India rose by 11.7%. A 1% increase in total food prices was associated with a 0.49% increase in neonatal (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13% to 0.85%), but not infant or under-five mortality rates. Disaggregating by type of food and level of deprivation, in the eight deprived states, we found an elevation in neonatal mortality rates of 0.33% for each 1% increase in the price of meat (95% CI: 0.06% to 0.60%) and 0.10% for a 1% increase in dairy (95% CI: 0.01% to 0.20%). We also detected an adverse association of the price of dairy with infant (b = 0.09%; 95% CI: 0.01% to 0.16%) and under-five mortality rates (b = 0.10%; 95% CI: 0.03% to 0.17%). These associations were not detected in less deprived states and territories. Rising food prices, particularly of high-protein meat and dairy products, were associated with worse child mortality outcomes. These adverse associations were concentrated in the most deprived states. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. Who and where are the uncounted children? Inequalities in birth certificate coverage among children under five years in 94 countries using nationally representative household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Amiya; Ferreira, Leonardo Zanini; Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2017-08-18

    Birth registration, and the possession of a birth certificate as proof of registration, has long been recognized as a fundamental human right. Data from a functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system allows governments to benefit from accurate and universal data on birth and death rates. However, access to birth certificates remains challenging and unequal in many low and middle-income countries. This paper examines wealth, urban/rural and gender inequalities in birth certificate coverage. We analyzed nationally representative household surveys from 94 countries between 2000 and 2014 using Demographic Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Birth certificate coverage among children under five was examined at the national and regional level. Absolute measures of inequality were used to measure inequalities in birth certificate coverage by wealth quintile, urban/rural residence and sex of the child. Over four million children were included in the analysis. Birth certificate coverage was over 90% in 29 countries and below 50% in 36 countries, indicating that more than half the children under five surveyed in these countries did not have a birth certificate. Eastern & Southern Africa had the lowest average birth certificate coverage (26.9%) with important variability among countries. Significant wealth inequalities in birth certificate coverage were observed in 74 countries and in most UNICEF regions, and urban/rural inequalities were present in 60 countries. Differences in birth certificate coverage between girls and boys tended to be small. We show that wealth and urban/rural inequalities in birth certificate coverage persist in most low and middle income countries, including countries where national birth certificate coverage is between 60 and 80%. Weak CRVS systems, particularly in South Asia and Africa lead rural and poor children to be systematically excluded from the benefits tied to a birth certificate, and prevent these

  14. Community mobilization and household level waste management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A baseline household survey was conducted and entomological and sociological surveys were carried out .... Research methods ... including the objectives and the methodology were .... tained both quantitative and qualitative assessments.

  15. Using Android and Open Data Kit Technology in Data Management for Research in Resource-Limited Settings in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Cross-Sectional Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleghemi, Sylvester

    2017-01-01

    Background Data collection in Sub-Saharan Africa has traditionally been paper-based. However, the popularization of Android mobile devices and data capture software has brought paperless data management within reach. We used Open Data Kit (ODK) technology on Android mobile devices during a household survey in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the pros and cons of deploying ODK for data management. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional household survey was carried out by 6 data collectors between April and May 2016. Data were obtained from 1706 persons in 601 households across 6 communities in 3 states in the Niger Delta. The use of Android mobile devices and ODK technology involved form building, testing, collection, aggregation, and download for data analysis. The median duration for data collection per household and per individual was 25.7 and 9.3 min, respectively. Results Data entries per device ranged from 33 (33/1706, 1.93%) to 482 (482/1706, 28.25%) individuals between 9 (9/601, 1.5%) and 122 (122/601, 20.3%) households. The most entries (470) were made by data collector 5. Only 2 respondents had data entry errors (2/1706, 0.12%). However, 73 (73/601, 12.1%) households had inaccurate date and time entries for when data collection started and ended. The cost of deploying ODK was estimated at US $206.7 in comparison with the estimated cost of US $466.7 for paper-based data management. Conclusions We found the use of mobile data capture technology to be efficient and cost-effective. As Internet services improve in Africa, we advocate their use as effective tools for health information management. PMID:29191798

  16. Using Android and Open Data Kit Technology in Data Management for Research in Resource-Limited Settings in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Cross-Sectional Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduka, Omosivie; Akpan, Godwin; Maleghemi, Sylvester

    2017-11-30

    Data collection in Sub-Saharan Africa has traditionally been paper-based. However, the popularization of Android mobile devices and data capture software has brought paperless data management within reach. We used Open Data Kit (ODK) technology on Android mobile devices during a household survey in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The aim of this study was to describe the pros and cons of deploying ODK for data management. A descriptive cross-sectional household survey was carried out by 6 data collectors between April and May 2016. Data were obtained from 1706 persons in 601 households across 6 communities in 3 states in the Niger Delta. The use of Android mobile devices and ODK technology involved form building, testing, collection, aggregation, and download for data analysis. The median duration for data collection per household and per individual was 25.7 and 9.3 min, respectively. Data entries per device ranged from 33 (33/1706, 1.93%) to 482 (482/1706, 28.25%) individuals between 9 (9/601, 1.5%) and 122 (122/601, 20.3%) households. The most entries (470) were made by data collector 5. Only 2 respondents had data entry errors (2/1706, 0.12%). However, 73 (73/601, 12.1%) households had inaccurate date and time entries for when data collection started and ended. The cost of deploying ODK was estimated at US $206.7 in comparison with the estimated cost of US $466.7 for paper-based data management. We found the use of mobile data capture technology to be efficient and cost-effective. As Internet services improve in Africa, we advocate their use as effective tools for health information management. ©Omosivie Maduka, Godwin Akpan, Sylvester Maleghemi. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 30.11.2017.

  17. Kona Integrated Ecosystem Assessment Survey (SE1606, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During this cruise, small-boat surveys were conducted of surface slicks in order to assess their ecological relevance and underlying physical derivers. To assess the...

  18. Multilevel analysis of hepatitis A infection in children and adolescents: a household survey in the Northeast and Central-west regions of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Braga, Maria Cynthia; de Lima, Maria Luíza Carvalho; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Turchi, Marília Dalva; Costa, Marcelo Abrahão; de Alencar, Luiz Cláudio Arraes; Moreira, Regina Célia; Figueiredo, Gerusa Maria; Pereira, Leila Maria Moreira Beltrão

    2008-01-01

    Background The objectives were to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis A among children and adolescents from the Northeast and Midwest regions and the Federal District of Brazil and to identify individual-, household- and area-levels factors associated with hepatitis A infection. Methods This population-based survey was conducted in 2004–2005 and covered individuals aged between 5 and 19 years. A stratified multistage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used to select 1937 individuals aged between 5 and 19 years living in the Federal capital and in the State capitals of 12 states in the study regions. The sample was stratified according to age (5–9 and 10- to 19-years-old) and capital within each region. Individual- and household-level data were collected by interview at the home of the individual. Variables related to the area were retrieved from census tract data. The outcome was total antibodies to hepatitis A virus detected using commercial EIA. The age distribution of the susceptible population was estimated using a simple catalytic model. The associations between HAV infection and independent variables were assessed using the odds ratio and corrected for the random design effect and sampling weight. Multilevel analysis was performed by GLLAMM using Stata 9.2. Results The prevalence of hepatitis A infection in the 5–9 and 10–19 age-group was 41.5 and 57.4%, respectively for the Northeast, 32.3 and 56.0%, respectively for the Midwest and 33.8 and 65.1% for the Federal District. A trend for the prevalence of HAV infection to increase according to age was detected in all sites. By the age of 5, 31.5% of the children had already been infected with HAV in the Northeast region compared with 20.0% in the other sites. By the age of 19 years, seropositivity was ∼70% in all areas. The curves of susceptible populations differed from one area to another. Multilevel modeling showed that variables relating to different levels of

  19. Discriminant validity, responsiveness and reliability of the arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey assessing workplace and household productivity in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The novel arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (WPS) was developed to estimate patient productivity limitations associated with arthritis within and outside the home, which is an unmet need in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The WPS has been validated in rheumatoid arthritis. This report assesses the discriminant validity, responsiveness and reliability of the WPS in adult-onset PsA. Methods Psychometric properties were assessed using data from the RAPID-PsA trial (NCT01087788) investigating certolizumab pegol (CZP) efficacy and safety in PsA. WPS was completed at baseline and every 4 weeks until Week 24. Validity was evaluated at baseline via known-groups defined using first and third quartiles of patients’ Disease Activity Score 28 based on C-reactive protein (DAS28(CRP)), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Short Form-36 (SF-36) items and PsA Quality of Life (PsAQoL) scores. Responsiveness and reliability were assessed by comparing WPS mean changes at Week 12 in American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR20) or HAQ-DI Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) 0.3 responders versus non-responders, as well as using standardized response means (SRM). All comparisons were conducted on the observed cases in the Randomized Set, regardless of the randomization group, using a non-parametric bootstrap-t method. Results Compared with patients with a better health state, patients with a worse health state had on average 2 to 6 times more household work days lost, more days with reduced household productivity, more days missed of family/social/leisure activities, more days with outside help hired and a significantly higher interference of arthritis per month. Among employed patients, those with a worse health state had 2 to 4 times more workplace days lost, more days with patient workplace productivity reduced, and a significantly higher interference of arthritis on patient workplace productivity versus

  20. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So Young; Cho, Yoonsu; Lee, Kyong Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013). Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83) and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92) than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans. PMID:27999277

  1. Does health facility service environment matter for the receipt of essential newborn care? Linking health facility and household survey data in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Aguirre, Liliana; Mehra, Vrinda; Amouzou, Agbessi; Khan, Shane M; Vaz, Lara; Guenther, Tanya; Kalino, Maggie; Zaka, Nabila

    2017-12-01

    Health facility service environment is an important factor for newborns survival and well-being in general and in particular in high mortality settings such as Malawi where despite high coverage of essential interventions, neonatal mortality remains high. The aim of this study is to assess whether the quality of the health service environment at birth is associated with quality of care received by the newborn. We used data from the Malawi Millennium Development Goals Endline household survey conducted as part of MICS survey program and Service Provision Assessment Survey carried out in 2014. The analysis is based on 6218 facility births that occurred during the past 2 years. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate random effect models are used to assess the association of health facility service readiness score for normal deliveries and newborn care with newborns receiving appropriate newborn care, defined for this analysis as receiving 5 out of 6 recommended interventions during the first 2 days after birth. Newborns in districts with top facility service readiness score have 1.5 higher odds of receiving appropriate newborn care (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.52, 95% confidence interval CI = 1.19-1.95, P  = 0.001), as compared to newborns in districts with a lower facility score after adjusting for potential confounders. Newborns in the Northern region were two times more likely to receive 5 newborn care interventions as compared to newborns in the Southern region (aOR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.50-2.83, P  < 0.001). Living in urban or rural areas did not have an impact on receiving appropriate newborn care. There is need to increase the level of service readiness across all facilities, so that all newborns irrespective of the health facility, district or region of delivery are able to receive all recommended essential interventions. Investments in health systems in Malawi should concentrate on increasing training and availability of

  2. PAVECHECK : integrating deflection and GPR for network condition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The PAVECHECK data integration and analysis system was developed to merge Falling Weight : Deflectometer (FWD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data together with digital video images of : surface conditions. In this study Global Positioning System...

  3. Integrated management systems: survey results from Portuguese companies and experts

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Pedro; Sampaio, Paulo; Arezes, P.

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of several certifiable sub-systems among different type of organizations lead companies to excessive departmentalization. This fact turned out to be, due to several reasons pointed out by numerous authors, disadvantageous. Hence, organizations optioned by integration of their management sub-systems. Academic awareness to this sociological event is mainly related with the fact of integration of management systems (IMS) had been performed empirically, that is, by each organiza...

  4. Free distribution of insecticidal bed nets improves possession and preferential use by households and is equitable: findings from two cross-sectional surveys in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRAC, an indigenous non-governmental development organization (NGO, has been implementing a programme to prevent and control malaria in the 13 malaria-endemic districts of Bangladesh since 2007. One of the critical preventive interventions is the distribution of insecticidal bed nets (long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, LLINs and insecticide-treated ordinary nets, ITNs to the community free of cost. This study aimed to assess progress in the possession, preferential use, and knowledge on use of the LLIN/ITNs including the programme's avowed pro-poor inclination one and three and half years after intervention began. Methods A convenient sampling strategy based on malaria endemicity in the districts was adopted. First, thirty upazila (sub-district, with a population around 250,000s were selected at random, with high prevalent districts contributing more upazilas; second, from each upazila, one (2008 to two (2011 villages (covered by insecticidal bed net distribution programme were selected. From each village, households that had either one under-five child and/or a pregnant woman were included in the survey, one household being included only once. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results In all, 3,760 households in 2008 and 7,895 households in 2011 were surveyed for collecting relevant information. Proportion of households with at least one LLIN, and at least one LLIN/ITN increased (22-59 to 62-67% and 22-64% to 74-76% respectively over time, including increase in the mean number of LLIN/ITNs per household (≤ 1 to 1 +. The programme achieved > 80% coverage in sleeping under an LLIN/ITN in the case of under-five children and pregnant women, especially in the high-endemic districts. Knowledge regarding critical time of hanging the net also increased over time (7-22 to 44-54%, but remained low. The pro-poor inclination of the programme is reflected in the status of relevant indicators according

  5. Oceanographic data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  6. Biological data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  7. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  8. Disability weights from a household survey in a low socio-economic setting: how does it compare to the global burden of disease 2010 study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Neethling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global burden of disease (GBD 2010 study used a universal set of disability weights to estimate disability adjusted life years (DALYs by country. However, it is not clear whether these weights can be applied universally in calculating DALYs to inform local decision-making. This study derived disability weights for a resource-constrained community in Cape Town, South Africa, and interrogated whether the GBD 2010 disability weights necessarily represent the preferences of economically disadvantaged communities. Design: A household survey was conducted in Lavender Hill, Cape Town, to assess the health state preferences of the general public. The responses from a paired comparison valuation method were assessed using a probit regression. The probit coefficients were anchored onto the 0 to 1 disability weight scale by running a lowess regression on the GBD 2010 disability weights and interpolating the coefficients between the upper and lower limit of the smoothed disability weights. Results: Heroin and opioid dependence had the highest disability weight of 0.630, whereas intellectual disability had the lowest (0.040. Untreated injuries ranked higher than severe mental disorders. There were some counterintuitive results, such as moderate (15th and severe vision impairment (16th ranking higher than blindness (20th. A moderate correlation between the disability weights of the local study and those of the GBD 2010 study was observed (R2=0.440, p<0.05. This indicates that there was a relationship, although some conditions, such as untreated fracture of the radius or ulna, showed large variability in disability weights (0.488 in local study and 0.043 in GBD 2010. Conclusions: Respondents seemed to value physical mobility higher than cognitive functioning, which is in contrast to the GBD 2010 study. This study shows that not all health state preferences are universal. Studies estimating DALYs need to derive local disability weights using

  9. Disability weights from a household survey in a low socio-economic setting: how does it compare to the global burden of disease 2010 study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, Ian; Jelsma, Jennifer; Ramma, Lebogang; Schneider, Helen; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of disease (GBD) 2010 study used a universal set of disability weights to estimate disability adjusted life years (DALYs) by country. However, it is not clear whether these weights can be applied universally in calculating DALYs to inform local decision-making. This study derived disability weights for a resource-constrained community in Cape Town, South Africa, and interrogated whether the GBD 2010 disability weights necessarily represent the preferences of economically disadvantaged communities. A household survey was conducted in Lavender Hill, Cape Town, to assess the health state preferences of the general public. The responses from a paired comparison valuation method were assessed using a probit regression. The probit coefficients were anchored onto the 0 to 1 disability weight scale by running a lowess regression on the GBD 2010 disability weights and interpolating the coefficients between the upper and lower limit of the smoothed disability weights. Heroin and opioid dependence had the highest disability weight of 0.630, whereas intellectual disability had the lowest (0.040). Untreated injuries ranked higher than severe mental disorders. There were some counterintuitive results, such as moderate (15th) and severe vision impairment (16th) ranking higher than blindness (20th). A moderate correlation between the disability weights of the local study and those of the GBD 2010 study was observed (R(2)=0.440, pdisability weights (0.488 in local study and 0.043 in GBD 2010). Respondents seemed to value physical mobility higher than cognitive functioning, which is in contrast to the GBD 2010 study. This study shows that not all health state preferences are universal. Studies estimating DALYs need to derive local disability weights using methods that are less cognitively demanding for respondents.

  10. Does tax-based health financing offer protection from financial catastrophe? Findings from a household economic impact survey of ischaemic heart disease in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeri, Surianti; Mirzaei, Masoud; Jan, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is an upper-middle income country with a tax-based health financing system. Health care is relatively affordable, and safety nets are provided for the needy. The objectives of this study were to determine the out-of-pocket health spending, proportion of catastrophic health spending (out-of-pocket spending >40% of non-food expenditure), economic hardship and financial coping strategies among patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in Malaysia under the present health financing system. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Heart Institute of Malaysia involving 503 patients who were hospitalized during the year prior to the survey. The mean annual out-of-pocket health spending for IHD was MYR3045 (at the time US$761). Almost 16% (79/503) suffered from catastrophic health spending (out-of-pocket health spending ≥40% of household non-food expenditures), 29.2% (147/503) were unable to pay for medical bills, 25.0% (126/503) withdrew savings to help meet living expenses, 16.5% (83/503) reduced their monthly food consumption, 12.5% (63/503) were unable to pay utility bills and 9.0% (45/503) borrowed money to help meet living expenses. Overall, the economic impact of IHD on patients in Malaysia was considerable and the prospect of economic hardship likely to persist over the years due to the long-standing nature of IHD. The findings highlight the need to evaluate the present health financing system in Malaysia and to expand its safety net coverage for vulnerable patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Wives' Relative Income Production and Household Male Dominance: Examining Violence among Asian American Enduring Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Grace H.; Tucker, M. Belinda; Takeuchi, David

    2008-01-01

    This study integrates relative resource theory and cultural perspectives on husband-to-wife authority to examine male-to-female physical violence reported by Asian American wives in the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Findings indicated that the association between marital violence and male household dominance is complicated by women's…

  12. A SURVEY ON INDIAN EXPERIENCE ON INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT STANDARDS (IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khanna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of management systems standards is a key issue in manufacturing industry in India. Following the global trend quality and environmental issues are gaining importance. However the number of ISO 14001 certified companies are much less in India as compared to ISO 9001. The integration of ISO 14001 with ISO 9001 may help companies to sustain competitive advantage and overcome disappointments with quality standards and in turn encourage companies to adopt good environmental practices. The aim of this research is to study the implementation of integrated management standards (IMS by the manufacturing organizations in India. The different aspects of integration and benefits of IMS implementation are analyzed. This r esearch is based on empirical study carried out in Indian manufacturing firms, involving the application of a questionnaire. This questionnaire was tested on 50 manufacturing companies in India. The study reveals that focus on stakeholders; top management commitment and training are critical success factors for implementation of IMS. The main benefits of integration are discussed. The small sample size is one of the major limitations of this study. The paper informs the managers in manufacturing organizations and practitioners of management system standards especially in developing countries about IMS and will enable them to adopt IMS in future so that those organizations may not implement multiple and overlapping MSS(Management System Standards.

  13. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Barrado, D.; Bekeraite, S.; Bomans, D.J.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Fernandes, R.C.; Jungwiert, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 549, January (2013), A87/1-A87/25 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100031201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : spectroscopic techniques * galaxy * surveys Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  14. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  15. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Wirth

    Full Text Available Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  16. Integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from green cut material from landscape conservation and private households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgen, F; Richter, F; Wachendorf, M

    2011-11-01

    Green cut material is a potential source of renewable energy which is not fully exploited through conventional energy recovery systems. A new energy conversion process, the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB), which includes mechanical separation after hydro-thermal conditioning, was investigated. Ash softening temperature and lower heating value of the solid fuel were increased through the IFFB process in comparison to the untreated raw material. The net energy yield of IFBB at 40 °C conditioning temperature ranged between 1.96 and 2.85 kWh kg(-1) dry matter (DM) and for the direct combustion between 1.75 and 2.65 kWh kg(-1) DM. Conversion efficiencies for the IFBB system were 0.42-0.68 and for direct combustion 0.42-0.63. The IFBB system produces storable energy from material which is nowadays not used for energy conversion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity data are essential to drawing valid conclusions in treatment outcome studies. Such data, however, are not always included in peer-reviewed research articles in school psychology or related fields. To gain a better understanding of why treatment integrity data are lacking in the school psychology research, we surveyed the…

  18. Genome-wide survey of recurrent HBV integration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sung, Wing-Kin; Zheng, Hancheng; Li, Shuyu

    2012-01-01

    To survey hepatitis B virus (HBV) integration in liver cancer genomes, we conducted massively parallel sequencing of 81 HBV-positive and 7 HBV-negative hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and adjacent normal tissues. We found that HBV integration is observed more frequently in the tumors (86.4%) than...

  19. A critical review of survey-based research in supply chain integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Taco; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    Supply chain (SC) integration is considered one of the major factors in improving performance. Based upon some concerns regarding the constructs, measurements and items used, this paper analyses survey-based research with respect to the relationship between SC integration and performance. The review

  20. Using multi-country household surveys to understand who provides reproductive and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries: a critical appraisal of the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, K; Benova, L; Goodman, C; Macleod, D; Lynch, C A; Penn-Kekana, L; Campbell, O M R

    2015-05-01

    The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are a vital data resource for cross-country comparative analyses. This study is part of a set of analyses assessing the types of providers being used for reproductive and maternal health care across 57 countries. Here, we examine some of the challenges encountered using DHS data for this purpose, present the provider classification we used, and provide recommendations to enable more detailed and accurate cross-country comparisons of healthcare provision. We used the most recent DHS surveys between 2000 and 2012; 57 countries had data on family planning and delivery care providers and 47 countries had data on antenatal care. Every possible response option across the 57 countries was listed and categorised. We then developed a classification to group provider response options according to two key dimensions: clinical nature and profit motive. We classified the different types of maternal and reproductive healthcare providers, and the individuals providing care. Documented challenges encountered during this process were limitations inherent in household survey data based on respondents' self-report; conflation of response options in the questionnaire or at the data processing stage; category errors of the place vs. professional for delivery; inability to determine whether care received at home is from the public or private sector; a large number of negligible response options; inconsistencies in coding and analysis of data sets; and the use of inconsistent headings. To improve clarity, we recommend addressing issues such as conflation of response options, data on public vs. private provider, inconsistent coding and obtaining metadata. More systematic and standardised collection of data would aid international comparisons of progress towards improved financial protection, and allow us to better characterise the incentives and commercial nature of different providers. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health

  1. Assessing healthcare professionals' experiences of integrated care: do surveys tell the full story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Matthew D; Campbell, Jared M; Lisy, Karolina; Aromataris, Edoardo C

    2017-09-01

    Integrated care is the combination of different healthcare services with the goal to provide comprehensive, seamless, effective and efficient patient care. Assessing the experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is an important aspect when evaluating integrated care strategies. The aim of this rapid review was to investigate if quantitative surveys used to assess HCPs' experiences with integrated care capture all the aspects highlighted as being important in qualitative research, with a view to informing future survey development. The review considered all types of health professionals in primary care, and hospital and specialist services, with a specific focus on the provision of integrated care aimed at improving the patient journey. PubMed, CINAHL and grey literature sources were searched for relevant surveys/program evaluations and qualitative research studies. Full text articles deemed to be of relevance to the review were appraised for methodological quality using abridged critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted from included studies using standardized data extraction templates. Findings from included studies were grouped into domains based on similarity of meaning. Similarities and differences in the domains covered in quantitative surveys and those identified as being important in qualitative research were explored. A total of 37 studies (19 quantitative surveys, 14 qualitative studies and four mixed-method studies) were included in the review. A range of healthcare professions participated in the included studies, the majority being primary care providers. Common domains identified from quantitative surveys and qualitative studies included Communication, Agreement on Clear Roles and Responsibilities, Facilities, Information Systems, and Coordination of Care and Access. Qualitative research highlighted domains identified by HCPs as being relevant to their experiences with integrated care that have not

  2. Integrating art into science education: a survey of science teachers' practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkka, Jaakko; Haatainen, Outi; Aksela, Maija

    2017-07-01

    Numerous case studies suggest that integrating art and science education could engage students with creative projects and encourage students to express science in multitude of ways. However, little is known about art integration practices in everyday science teaching. With a qualitative e-survey, this study explores the art integration of science teachers (n = 66). A pedagogical model for science teachers' art integration emerged from a qualitative content analysis conducted on examples of art integration. In the model, art integration is characterised as integration through content and activities. Whilst the links in the content were facilitated either directly between concepts and ideas or indirectly through themes or artefacts, the integration through activity often connected an activity in one domain and a concept, idea or artefact in the other domain with the exception of some activities that could belong to both domains. Moreover, the examples of art integration in everyday classroom did not include expression of emotions often associated with art. In addition, quantitative part of the survey confirmed that integration is infrequent in all mapped areas. The findings of this study have implications for science teacher education that should offer opportunities for more consistent art integration.

  3. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  4. Integrated geophysical interpretation of the Valhall 4C OBS survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Leon A.; Barkved, Olav I; Mueller, Michael C.; Haggard, Bill W.; Kommedal, Jan H.; Rosland, Boerge O.

    1998-12-31

    This presentation gives a brief classic example of a North Sea reservoir which cannot be imaged by conventional P-wave techniques. In two-dimensional P-wave sections, extending across the crest of the structure, the top of the chalk reservoir is depressed in time, and has low amplitude and coherency so that even its identification is uncertain. The classical interpretation of these effects is that, over geologic time, gas has leaked from the reservoir into the overburden, in the zone above the reservoir. This gas, while present in uneconomic concentrations, has the effect of lowering seismic velocities and increasing seismic attenuation. Efficient methods of seismic surveying were used for oil prediction in the reservoir. 6 refs.

  5. Measuring the Return on Household Enterprise: What Matters Most for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samphantharak, Krislert; Townsend, Robert M

    2012-05-01

    Return on assets (ROA) from household enterprise is crucial for understanding the well-being and productivity of households in developing economies. Yet the definition and measurement of household enterprise ROA remain inconsistent or unclear. We illustrate potential measurement problems with examples from various actual surveys. We then take advantage of a detailed integrated household survey to perform a robustness analysis, acting as if we had gathered less data than was actually the case, to see what matters and for whom. The three issues that matter most for accurate measurement of household enterprise ROA are the choice of accrual versus cash basis of income, the treatment of household's own labor in enterprise income, and the treatment of non-factor income. Also, this sensitivity matters most for a relatively poor region dominated by crop cultivation relative to a richer region with non-farm enterprises. Though the choice between accrued income and cash income matters less when the frequency of the data declines, there remains high sensitivity in longer-term and annualized data. We conclude the paper by providing recommendations on how to improve the survey questionnaires for more accurate measurement in field research.

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of smokers interested in internet-based smoking cessation interventions: cross-sectional findings from a national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; Michie, Susan; Raupach, Tobias; West, Robert

    2013-03-18

    An accurate and up-to-date estimate of the potential reach of Internet-based smoking cessation interventions (ISCIs) would improve calculations of impact while an understanding of the characteristics of potential users would facilitate the design of interventions. This study reports the prevalence and the sociodemographic, smoking, and Internet-use characteristics of smokers interested in using ISCIs in a nationally representative sample. Data were collected using cross-sectional household surveys of representative samples of adults in England. Interest in trying an Internet site or "app" that was proven to help with stopping smoking was assessed in 1128 adult smokers in addition to sociodemographic characteristics, dependence, motivation to quit, previous attempts to quit smoking, Internet and handheld computer access, and recent types of information searched online. Of a representative sample of current smokers, 46.6% (95% CI 43.5%-49.6%) were interested in using an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention. In contrast, only 0.3% (95% CI 0%-0.7%) of smokers reported having used such an intervention to support their most recent quit attempt within the past year. After adjusting for all other background characteristics, interested smokers were younger (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99), reported stronger urges (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51), were more motivated to quit within 3 months (OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.54-3.02), and were more likely to have made a quit attempt in the past year (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.30-2.37), access the Internet at least weekly (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.40-3.36), have handheld computer access (OR=1.65, 95% CI 1.22-2.24), and have used the Internet to search for online smoking cessation information or support in past 3 months (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.20-6.62). There was no association with social grade. Almost half of all smokers in England are interested in using online smoking cessation interventions, yet fewer than 1% have used them to support a quit attempt in the

  7. High prevalence of cesarean section births in private sector health facilities- analysis of district level household survey-4 (DLHS-4) of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Hashmi, Gulfam; Swain, Prafulla Kumar

    2018-05-10

    Worldwide rising cesarean section (CS) births is an issue of concern. In India, with increase in institutional deliveries there has also been an increase in cesarean section births. Aim of the study is to quantify the prevalence of cesarean section births in public and private health facility, and also to determine the factors associated with cesarean section births. We analyzed data from district level household survey data 4 (DLHS-4) combined individual level dataset for 19 states/UTs of India comprising 24,398 deliveries resulting in 22,111 live births for year 2011. The percentages and Chi-square has been computed for the select variables viz. Socio demographic, maternal, antenatal care and delivery related based on type of births (CS Vs normal births). The multiple logistic regression model has been used to identify the potential risk factors associated with CS births. Of 22,111 live birth analyzed 49.2% were delivered at public sector, 31.9% at private sector and 18.9% were home deliveries. Prevalence of CS births were 13.7% (95% CI; 13.0- 14.3%) and 37.9% (95% CI; 36.7- 39.0%) in the public and private sectors, respectively. Higher odds of CS births were observed with- delivery at private health facility (OR 3.79; 95% C.I 3.06-4.72), urban residence (OR 1.15; 95% C.I 1.00- 1.35), first delivery after 35 years of maternal age (OR 5.5; 95% C.I 1.85- 16.4), hypertension in pregnancy (OR 1.32; 95% C.I 1.06- 1.65) and breach presentation (OR 2.37; 95% C.I. 1.63- 3.43). Our findings shows that CS births are nearly three times more in private as compared to public sector health facilities.The higher rates of CS births, especially in private sector, not only increase the cost of care but may pose unnecessary risks to women (when there is no indications for CS). The government of India need to take measures to strengthen existing public health facilities as well as ensure that cesarean sections are performed based upon medical indications in both public and private

  8. What did you drink yesterday? Public health relevance of a recent recall method used in the 2004 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Greenfield, Tom K

    2008-06-01

    To (i) compare the Yesterday method with other methods of assessing alcohol use applied in the 2004 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) in terms of extent of under-reporting of actual consumption assessed from sales data; and (ii) illustrate applications of the Yesterday method as a means of variously measuring the size of an Australian 'standard drink', the extent of risky/high-risk alcohol use, unrecorded alcohol consumption and beverage-specific patterns of risk in the general population. The homes of respondents who were eligible and willing to participate. A total of 24 109 Australians aged 12 years and over. The 2004 NDSHS assessed drug use, experiences and attitudes using a 'drop and collect' self-completion questionnaire with random sampling and geographic (State and Territory) and demographic (age and gender) stratification. Self-completion questionnaire using quantity-frequency (QF) and graduated-frequency (GF) methods plus two questions about consumption 'yesterday': one in standard drinks, another with empirically based estimates of drink size and strength. The Yesterday method yielded an estimate of 12.8 g as the amount of ethanol in a typical Australian standard drink (versus the official 10 g). Estimated coverage of the 2003-04 age 12+ years per-capita alcohol consumption in Australia (9.33 ml of ethanol) was 69.17% for GF and 64.63% for the QF when assuming a 12.8 g standard drink. Highest coverage of 80.71% was achieved by the detailed Yesterday method. The detailed Yesterday method found that 60.1% of Australian alcohol consumption was above low-risk guidelines; 81.5% for 12-17-year-olds, 84.8% for 18-24-year-olds and 88.8% for Indigenous respondents. Spirit-based drinks and regular strength beer were most likely to be drunk in this way, low- and mid-strength beer least likely. Compared to more widely used methods, the Yesterday method minimizes under-reporting of overall consumption and provides unique data of public health

  9. Estimating the disease burden of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 from surveillance and household surveys in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vana Sypsa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the disease burden of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 in Greece.Data on influenza-like illness (ILI, collected through cross-sectional nationwide telephone surveys of 1,000 households in Greece repeated for 25 consecutive weeks, were combined with data from H1N1 virologic surveillance to estimate the incidence and the clinical attack rate (CAR of influenza A(H1N1. Alternative definitions of ILI (cough or sore throat and fever>38°C [ILI-38] or fever 37.1-38°C [ILI-37] were used to estimate the number of symptomatic infections. The infection attack rate (IAR was approximated using estimates from published studies on the frequency of fever in infected individuals. Data on H1N1 morbidity and mortality were used to estimate ICU admission and case fatality (CFR rates. The epidemic peaked on week 48/2009 with approximately 750-1,500 new cases/100,000 population per week, depending on ILI-38 or ILI-37 case definition, respectively. By week 6/2010, 7.1%-15.6% of the population in Greece was estimated to be symptomatically infected with H1N1. Children 5-19 years represented the most affected population group (CAR:27%-54%, whereas individuals older than 64 years were the least affected (CAR:0.6%-2.2%. The IAR (95% CI of influenza A(H1N1 was estimated to be 19.7% (13.3%, 26.1%. Per 1,000 symptomatic cases, based on ILI-38 case definition, 416 attended health services, 108 visited hospital emergency departments and 15 were admitted to hospitals. ICU admission rate and CFR were 37 and 17.5 per 100,000 symptomatic cases or 13.4 and 6.3 per 100,000 infections, respectively.Influenza A(H1N1 infected one fifth and caused symptomatic infection in up to 15% of the Greek population. Although individuals older than 65 years were the least affected age group in terms of attack rate, they had 55 and 185 times higher risk of ICU admission and CFR, respectively.

  10. Surveying the quantum group symmetries of integrable open spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomechie, Rafael I.; Retore, Ana L.

    2018-05-01

    Using anisotropic R-matrices associated with affine Lie algebras g ˆ (specifically, A2n(2), A2n-1 (2) , Bn(1), Cn(1), Dn(1)) and suitable corresponding K-matrices, we construct families of integrable open quantum spin chains of finite length, whose transfer matrices are invariant under the quantum group corresponding to removing one node from the Dynkin diagram of g ˆ . We show that these transfer matrices also have a duality symmetry (for the cases Cn(1) and Dn(1)) and additional Z2 symmetries that map complex representations to their conjugates (for the cases A2n-1 (2) , Bn(1) and Dn(1)). A key simplification is achieved by working in a certain "unitary" gauge, in which only the unbroken symmetry generators appear. The proofs of these symmetries rely on some new properties of the R-matrices. We use these symmetries to explain the degeneracies of the transfer matrices.

  11. Urban household energy consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongsapich, Amara; Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana (Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Social Research Inst.)

    1994-05-01

    This study was aimed at developing a better understanding of urban household energy consumption in Thailand through a series of in-depth household energy surveys. Households in urban areas used electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood. Traditional biomass fuels such as husk and dung, as well as kerosene, were essentially not used in urban households. Nearly all households used electricity and most households used LPG. Some households used more than one fuel for cooking, particularly LPG and charcoal. There was a great difference in electricity used between the households in Bangkok and other urban areas. Most households in the study areas used LPG stove or burners for cooking. But charcoal stoves were also used by many households for specific culinary purposes. Electric rice-cookers are widely used for convenience. The study suggests that the number of households using charcoal stoves will decrease gradually and fuelwood use will disappear. Saturation rates for refrigerators and colour television sets were very high and air conditioners were common in Bangkok. Some users may be unaware of the benefits of LPG as a cooking fuel. To improve indoor air quality and cooking safety and reduce pressures on forests from commercial fuelwood use, measures to promote LPG should be undertaken. The government should also provide information about efficient appliances and electricity conservation. (Author)

  12. Household Portfolios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    We describe and analyse the portfolio structure of Dutch households using micro panel data from the CentER Savings Survey, 1993-1998.The data allows for a distinction between many types of assets.Moreover, we have information on mortgage debt, consumer debt, etc.We analyse the composition of

  13. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Kyung Chung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation and quality of life (QOL among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013. Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83 and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92 than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans.

  14. Religion, economic attitudes, and household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the differences in economic attitudes and financial decisions between religious and non-religious households. Using Dutch survey data, we find that religious households consider themselves more trusting, and have a stronger bequest motive and a longer planning horizon. Furthermore,

  15. State of inequality in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunisation coverage in low-income and middle-income countries: a multicountry study of household health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Hansen, Peter M; Senouci, Kamel; Boerma, Ties; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2016-09-01

    Immunisation programmes have made substantial contributions to lowering the burden of disease in children, but there is a growing need to ensure that programmes are equity-oriented. We aimed to provide a detailed update about the state of between-country inequality and within-country economic-related inequality in the delivery of three doses of the combined diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), with a special focus on inequalities in high-priority countries. We used data from the latest available Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys done in 51 low-income and middle-income countries. Data for DTP3 coverage were disaggregated by wealth quintile, and inequality was calculated as difference and ratio measures based on coverage in richest (quintile 5) and poorest (quintile 1) household wealth quintiles. Excess change was calculated for 21 countries with data available at two timepoints spanning a 10 year period. Further analyses were done for six high-priority countries-ie, those with low national immunisation coverage and/or high absolute numbers of unvaccinated children. Significance was determined using 95% CIs. National DTP3 immunisation coverage across the 51 study countries ranged from 32% in Central African Republic to 98% in Jordan. Within countries, the gap in DTP3 immunisation coverage suggested pro-rich inequality, with a difference of 20 percentage points or more between quintiles 1 and 5 for 20 of 51 countries. In Nigeria, Pakistan, Laos, Cameroon, and Central African Republic, the difference between quintiles 1 and 5 exceeded 40 percentage points. In 15 of 21 study countries, an increase over time in national coverage of DTP3 immunisation was realised alongside faster improvements in the poorest quintile than the richest. For example, in Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Gabon, Mali, and Nepal, the absolute increase in coverage was at least 2·0 percentage points per year, with faster improvement in the

  16. Incontinência urinária entre mulheres climatéricas brasileiras: inquérito domiciliar Urinary incontinence among climateric Brazilian women: household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Guarisi

    2001-10-01

    and its associated factors in perimenopause women using a population-based household survey. METHODS: A descriptive, exploratory cross-sectional population-based study with secondary analysis of a population-based household survey on perimenopause and menopause was conducted among women living in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Through a sampling process, 456 women between 45 and 60 years old were selected. Complaints of urinary incontinence and related risk factors, such as age, socioeconomic status, education level, race, parity, smoking habits, body mass index, previous gynecological surgeries, menopausal status, and hormonal replacement therapy were explored. Data were collected through home interviews using an adapted version of the structured pre-tested questionnaire elaborated by the International Health Foundation, International Menopause Society and the American Menopause Society. Statistical analysis were performed using prevalence rates (CI 95%. RESULTS: Thirty-five percent of the interviewees referred stress urinary incontinence. None of the sociodemographic factors studied was associated to the risk of urinary incontinence. In addition, parity did not significantly change the risk of urinary incontinence. Other factors, such as previous gynecological surgeries, body mass index, and smoking habits, were not associated with the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence. Also, menopausal status and hormonal replacement therapy did not change the risk of stress urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION: Though there was a high prevalence of stress urinary incontinence among perimenopause women, there was not found any associations with sociodemographic and reproductive factors.

  17. INTEGRATED SURVEY FOR ARCHITECTURAL RESTORATION: A METHODOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF TWO CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bianchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey campaign is essential in projects of restoration, urban renewal, rebuilding or promotion of architectural heritage. Today several survey techniques allow full 3D object restitution and modelling that provides a richer description than simple 2D representations. However, the amount of data to collect increases dramatically and a trade-off between efficiency and productivity from one side and assuring accuracy and completeness of the results on the other must be found. Depending on the extent and the complexity of the task, a single technique or a combination of several ones might be employed. Especially when documentation at different scales and with different levels of detail are foreseen, the latter will likely be necessary. The paper describes two architectural surveys in Italy: the old village of Navelli (AQ, affected by the earthquake in 2009, and the two most relevant remains in Codiponte (MS, damaged by the earthquake in 2013, both in the context of a project of restoration and conservation. In both sites, a 3D survey was necessary to represent effectively the objects. An integrated survey campaign was performed in both cases, which consists of a GPS network as support for georeferencing, an aerial survey and a field survey made by laser scanner and close range photogrammetry. The two case studies, thanks to their peculiarities, can be taken as exemplar to wonder if the integration of different surveying techniques is today still mandatory or, considering the technical advances of each technology, it is in fact just optional.

  18. Promoting food security and well-being among poor and HIV/AIDS affected households: Lessons from an interactive and integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaans, K.; Broerse, J.E.W.; Meincke, M.; Mudhara, M.; Bunders, J.

    2009-01-01

    Participatory and interdisciplinary approaches have been suggested to develop appropriate agricultural innovations as an alternative strategy to improve food security and well-being among HIV/AIDS affected households. However, sustainable implementation of such interactive approaches is far from

  19. Use of household ingredients as Complementary medicines for perceived hypoglycaemic benefit among Sri Lankan diabetic patients; a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjuna Bandara Medagama

    2015-06-01

    The practice of using household ingredients as complementary medicines is common in Sri Lanka. Few herbal remedies and their methods of preparation have limited evidence for efficacy. In view of the frequent use by diabetic patients each needs to be documented for reference and scientifically explored with regard to their hypoglycaemic potential. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 138-142

  20. Potential of integrated continuous surveys and quality management to support monitoring, evaluation, and the scale-up of health interventions in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Alexander K

    2009-06-01

    Well-funded initiatives are challenging developing countries to increase health intervention coverage and show impact. Despite substantial resources, however, major obstacles include weak health systems, a lack of reasonably accurate monitoring data, and inadequate use of data for managing programs. This report discusses how integrated continuous surveys and quality management (I-Q), which are well-recognized approaches in wealthy countries, could support intervention scale-up, monitoring and evaluation, quality control for commodities, capacity building, and implementation research in low-resource settings. Integrated continuous surveys are similar to existing national cross-sectional surveys of households and health facilities, except data are collected over several years by permanent teams, and most results are reported monthly at the national, province, and district levels. Quality management involves conceptualizing work as processes, involving all workers in quality improvement, monitoring quality, and teams that improve quality with "plan-do-study-act" cycles. Implementing and evaluating I-Q in a low-income country would provide critical information on the value of this approach.

  1. Recent trend in family households in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z; Guo, L

    1997-01-01

    This study examined trends in household size and age structure in Beijing, China, in 1995. Data were reliably obtained from the 1% sample survey of China. Findings indicate that the average size of a family household was 3.15 persons, that is, 0.050 persons fewer than the 3.20 from the 1990 Census. Children aged 0-14 years in each household averaged 0.04 fewer children during 1990-95. 80% of the decline in household size was due to decreases in the number of children. The percentage of single-family and single-person households declined. Three-person households were the only size group that increased (23.2-40.7%). The household headship (HH) rate for males increased dramatically between the ages of 20 and 30 years and stabilized after 35 years. The HH rate for women grew slowly and continuously until age 50 years and then stabilized. The gender gap in HH appeared at an early age and remained thereafter. The HH rate declined at older ages. The HH rate in Beijing, compared to the national rate, suggests relative gender equity in Beijing. As a child ages, the percentage of three-generation households declines and the percentage of two-generation households rises. As a child becomes an adult, the percentages of single-person households and single-couple households increase. Single-couple households decreased among the middle-aged. 67.4% of the elderly lived in two- or three-generation households. 31.4% of elderly lived in single-person/couple households. The percentage of elderly living with their children declined by 2 points during 1990-95.

  2. A community survey of the pattern and determinants of household sources of energy for cooking in rural and urban south western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalu, Olufemi Olumuyiwa; Ojo, Ololade Olusola; Ariyibi, Ebenezer Kayode; Kolawole, Tolutope Fasanmi; Ogunleye, Ayodele Idowu

    2012-01-01

    The use of solid fuels for cooking is associated with indoor pollution and lung diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the pattern and determinants of household sources of energy for cooking in rural and urban South Western, Nigeria. We conducted a cross sectional study of households in urban (Ado-Ekiti) and rural (Ido-Ekiti) local council areas from April to July 2010. Female respondents in the households were interviewed by trained interviewers using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 670 households participated in the study. Majority of rural dwellers used single source of energy for cooking (55.6%) and urban dwellers used multiple source of energy (57.8%). Solid fuel use (SFU) was higher in rural (29.6%) than in urban areas (21.7%). Kerosene was the most common primary source of energy for cooking in both urban and rural areas (59.0% vs.66.6%) followed by gas (17.8%) and charcoal (6.6%) in the urban areas, and firewood (21.6%) and charcoal (7.1%) in the rural areas. The use of solid fuel was strongly associated with lack of ownership of dwellings and larger household size in urban areas, and lower level of education and lower level of wealth in the rural areas. Kerosene was associated with higher level of husband education and modern housing in urban areas and younger age and indoor cooking in rural areas. Gas was associated with high income and modern housing in the urban areas and high level of wealth in rural areas. Electricity was associated with high level of education, availability of electricity and old age in urban and rural areas respectively. The use of solid fuel is high in rural areas, there is a need to reduce poverty and improve the use of cleaner source of cooking energy particularly in rural areas and improve lung health.

  3. Household energy transition in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Peter (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management)

    1994-05-01

    A household energy survey in Hong Kong confirmed that domestic energy consumption is dominated by modern fuels. Household spending on fuels typically amounts to less than 3% of monthly income. Delivered energy use per household per month averages 1.77 GJ and per capita use 0.37 GJ. Electricity accounts for more than half of fuel expenditure and energy use. Patterns of fuel choice and use are quite consistent across income levels, although electricity use rises with higher household incomes. Many households use a combination of kerosene, gas and electricity (rice cookers) for cooking, which appears to reflect culinary practices more than fuel prices, perceived safety or availability. Electrical appliance saturation is high already, and air conditioning use is growing rapidly. Household electricity consumption may increase substantially during the 1990s as higher comfort levels lead to increased heating and cooling demand and space standards in public housing units improve. (Author)

  4. Integration of early specialist palliative care in cancer care: Survey of oncologists, oncology nurses, and patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Salins

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Oncologists, oncology nurses, and patients felt that integration of early specialist palliative care in cancer improves symptom control, end-of-life care, health-related communication, and continuity of care. The perceptions of benefit of the palliative care intervention in the components surveyed, differed among the three groups.

  5. PPAK integral field spectroscopy survey of the Orion nebula. Data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Cardiel, N.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Martín-Gordón, D.; Vilchez, J. M.; Alves, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims:We present a low-resolution spectroscopic survey of the Orion nebula. The data are released for public use. We show the possible applications of this dataset analyzing some of the main properties of the nebula. Methods: We perform an integral field spectroscopy mosaic of an area of ~5 arcmin× 6

  6. National Board Certified School Librarians' Leadership in Technology Integration: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Nancy; Mardis, Marcia A.; Johnston, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to address the lack of empirical knowledge about the school librarians' role in technology, the Institute for Museum and Library Services funded Project Leadership-in-Action (LIA) to study leadership practices of school librarians. This current grant project includes a survey of the technology integration practices of school…

  7. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Patient Perception of Integrated Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietschert, Maike V; Angeli, Federica; van Raak, Arno J A; Ruwaard, Dirk; Singer, Sara J

    2017-07-20

    To test the cross-cultural validity of the U.S. Patient Perception of Integrated Care (PPIC) Survey in a Dutch sample using a standardized procedure. Primary data collected from patients of five primary care centers in the south of the Netherlands, through survey research from 2014 to 2015. Cross-sectional data collected from patients who saw multiple health care providers during 6 months preceding data collection. The PPIC survey includes 59 questions that measure patient perceived care integration across providers, settings, and time. Data analysis followed a standardized procedure guiding data preparation, psychometric analysis, and included invariance testing with the U.S. dataset. Latent scale structures of the Dutch and U.S. survey were highly comparable. Factor "Integration with specialist" had lower reliability scores and noninvariance. For the remaining factors, internal consistency and invariance estimates were strong. The standardized cross-cultural validation procedure produced strong support for comparable psychometric characteristics of the Dutch and U.S. surveys. Future research should examine the usability of the proposed procedure for contexts with greater cultural differences. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. [Did household parental smoking attitude change over the last 15 years? A survey among primary school children in the city of Agrigento, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Serena; de Gregorio, Cesare; Magro, Laura; Fernandez, Dalila; Sacchi, Gabriella; Sarullo, Filippo Maria; Magro, Francesco; Novo, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Exposure of children to passive tobacco smoking in the household setting has been demonstrated to cause respiratory diseases. Early atherosclerosis has also been demonstrated in young people previously exposed to passive tobacco smoking. Functional damage can initiate at the fetal age due to maternal smoking, with a tendency towards over-time progress. To date only scant data are available about indoor parental smoking attitudes and their changes after campaigns against smoke and risk factors in exposed youths. Questionnaires are useful tools in order to search for information on cigarette smoking and parental household lifestyle. In this study, we asked pupils of primary schools for providing information on their relatives' every 5 years throughout the period 1994-2009. A multiple-choice answer questionnaire about sharing household parental smoking was administered to all primary school children (mean age 10.5 ± 0.5 years) of the city of Agrigento (Sicily, Italy). A total of 2221 questionnaires were collected from 637 children in 1994, 687 in 1999, 516 in 2004, and 381 in 2009. Important findings show a significant reduction in both smoking parents and exposure to passive tobacco smoking (from 64% in 1994 to 45% in 2009, psmoking. These results likely reflect such a greater awareness about smoke-related risks in children, and the effectiveness of medical campaigns against cardiovascular risk factors as well.

  9. Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Management in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to determine factors that influence household solid waste management practices in urban Nyeri Municipality. Descriptive cross- sectional ... Results from the survey showed that 26.2% of households practiced correct methods of household solid waste management. The percentage of ...

  10. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  11. Microfinance Programs in Uganda: An Analysis of Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identifies a model of low-income household participation in microfinance credit programs and the effects on investment behavior from repeated access to these institutions using evidence from household survey data. The primary focus is on changes in household investment behavior, not the assessment of ...

  12. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys, 2006-2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.

    2007-10-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 11 sites during the summer 2006 survey period and at 15 sites during fall 2006 and winter 2007 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 39,898 fish from 14 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 19% of fish enumerated followed by mountain whitefish (18%) and rainbow trout (14%). Day and night surveys were conducted during the summer 2006 period (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2006 (October) and winter 2007 (February/March) surveys. This is second annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  13. Gynecologic oncologists' attitudes and practices relating to integrative medicine: results of a nationwide AGO survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Evelyn; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bader, Werner; Brucker, Cosima; Dobos, Gustav; Fischer, Dorothea; Hanf, Volker; Hasenburg, Annette; Jud, Sebastian M; Kalder, Matthias; Kiechle, Marion; Kümmel, Sherko; Müller, Andreas; Müller, Myrjam-Alice T; Paepke, Daniela; Rotmann, Andre-Robert; Schütz, Florian; Scharl, Anton; Voiss, Petra; Wallwiener, Markus; Witt, Claudia; Hack, Carolin C

    2017-08-01

    The growing popularity and acceptance of integrative medicine is evident both among patients and among the oncologists treating them. As little data are available regarding health-care professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to the topic, a nationwide online survey was designed. Over a period of 11 weeks (from July 15 to September 30, 2014) a self-administered, 17-item online survey was sent to all 676 members of the Research Group on Gynecological Oncology (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie) in the German Cancer Society. The questionnaire items addressed the use of integrative therapy methods, fields of indications for them, advice services provided, level of specific qualifications, and other topics. Of the 104 respondents (15.4%) using integrative medicine, 93% reported that integrative therapy was offered to breast cancer patients. The second most frequent type of tumor in connection with which integrative therapy methods were recommended was ovarian cancer, at 80% of the participants using integrative medicine. Exercise, nutritional therapy, dietary supplements, herbal medicines, and acupuncture were the methods the patients were most commonly advised to use. There is considerable interest in integrative medicine among gynecological oncologists, but integrative therapy approaches are at present poorly implemented in routine clinical work. Furthermore there is a lack of specific training. Whether future efforts should focus on extending counseling services on integrative medicine approaches in gynecologic oncology or not, have to be discussed. Evidence-based training on integrative medicine should be implemented in order to safely guide patients in their wish to do something by themselves.

  14. INTEGRATED DIGITAL SURVEY OF THE "FONTANA RUSTICA" IN THE GARDENS OF THE QUIRINALE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Paris

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper illustrates the results of a research on integrated digital survey of the "Fontana Rustica" in the gardens of the Quirinale, artifact somewhat atypical for its particular organical configuration, and whose history is still to be discovered. The activity is performed by Critevat, interdepartmental research center in Rieti, within of the scientific collaboration with the Office for the conservation of artistic heritage of the Quirinale Palace. The integrated digital survey in recent years has had a strong impulse thanks to the technological development of the shape acquisition instruments. The research has analyzed the problems of interaction and integration of digital data obtainable using the latest digital technologies such as 3D laser-scanner and digital photogrammetry. A further level of research has focused on the possibility of management of 3D models in relation to data obtained by instruments and methods of investigation of different scientific culture such as seismic transmission tomography and thermografy.

  15. Integrated Digital Survey of the "FONTANA RUSTICA" in the Gardens of the Quirinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, L.; Troiano, W.

    2013-07-01

    The paper illustrates the results of a research on integrated digital survey of the "Fontana Rustica" in the gardens of the Quirinale, artifact somewhat atypical for its particular organical configuration, and whose history is still to be discovered. The activity is performed by Critevat, interdepartmental research center in Rieti, within of the scientific collaboration with the Office for the conservation of artistic heritage of the Quirinale Palace. The integrated digital survey in recent years has had a strong impulse thanks to the technological development of the shape acquisition instruments. The research has analyzed the problems of interaction and integration of digital data obtainable using the latest digital technologies such as 3D laser-scanner and digital photogrammetry. A further level of research has focused on the possibility of management of 3D models in relation to data obtained by instruments and methods of investigation of different scientific culture such as seismic transmission tomography and thermografy.

  16. The Effect of China’s New Circular Collective Forest Tenure Reform on Household Non-Timber Forest Product Production in Natural Forest Protection Project Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of China’s natural forest protection project (Protection Project in 1998 changed households’ forestry production modes in project regions, and China’s new circular collective forest tenure reform (Tenure Reform has been implemented since 2003 with the goal of motivating household forestry production and increasing household income from forests. Policymakers expect that Tenure Reform could also stimulate households to engage in non-timber forest products (NTFPs production in Protection Project regions. However, only a few studies have investigated the effect of Tenure Reform on household NTFP production in Protection Project regions. To fill this gap, we built an integrative conceptual framework and estimated a corresponding structural equation model (SEM using survey data from 932 households in Protection Project regions in southwestern China. In our research framework, there are four factors, including household characteristics, labour and social capital, forestland characteristics, and the Tenure Reform, affecting household NTFP production. The results substantiate that Tenure Reform has had a significant positive effect on household NTFP production. Additionally, household and forestland characteristics have promoted household NTFP production, but quantitatively less than Tenure Reform. This report can be used to inform the government that future investment in Tenure Reform still needs to be enhanced, and policy enforcement still needs to be strengthened.

  17. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps,Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseiller, Tom; Cotter, Michael (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

    2009-02-17

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.

  18. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps, Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008-2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseillier, Tom; Cotter, Michael [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    2009-04-14

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.

  19. The existence and persistence of household financial hardship

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S.; Ghosh, P.; Taylor, K.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the existence and persistence of financial hardship at the household level using data from the British Household Panel Survey. Our modelling strategy makes three important contributions to the existing literature on household finances. Firstly, we model nine different types of household financial problems within a joint framework, allowing for correlation in the random effects across the nine equations. Secondly, we develop a dynamic framework in order to model the persistence ...

  20. Assessing patients’ experience of integrated care: a survey of patient views in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mastellos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the importance of continuity of care and patient engagement, few studies have captured patients’ views on integrated care. This study assesses patient experience in the Integrated Care Pilot in North West London with the aim to help clinicians and policy makers understand patients’ acceptability of integrated care and design future initiatives. Methods: A survey was developed, validated and distributed to 2029 randomly selected practice patients identified as having a care plan. Results: A total of 405 questionnaires were included for analysis. Respondents identified a number of benefits associated with the pilot, including increased patient involvement in decision-making, improved patient-provider relationship, better organisation and access to care, and enhanced inter-professional communication. However, only 22.4% were aware of having a care plan, and of these only 37.9% had a copy of the care plan. Knowledge of care plans was significantly associated with a more positive experience. Conclusions: This study reinforces the view that integrated care can improve quality of care and patient experience. However, care planning was a complex and technically challenging process that occurred more slowly than planned with wide variation in quality and time of recruitment to the pilot, making it difficult to assess the sustainability of benefits.

  1. Family and household demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Zeng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Households are groups of people that co-reside and share some resources. Families are households of related individuals. Household and family demography is the study of these primary social groups or social units, and in particular of group membership and the relationships between members of the

  2. Current integrated cardiothoracic surgery residents: a Thoracic Surgery Residents Association survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; LaPar, Damien J; Stephens, Elizabeth H; Berfield, Kathleen S; Odell, David D; DeNino, Walter F

    2015-03-01

    After approval by the Thoracic Surgery Residency Review Committee in 2007, 6-year integrated cardiothoracic surgery (I-6) residency programs have gained in popularity. We sought to assess and objectively quantify the level of satisfaction I-6 residents have with their training and to identify areas of improvement for future curriculum development. A completely anonymous, electronic survey was created by the Thoracic Surgery Residents Association that asked the responders to provide demographic information, specialty interest, and lifestyle priorities, and to rate their experience and satisfaction with I-6 residency. The survey was distributed nationwide to all residents in I-6 programs approved by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Of a total of 88 eligible I-6 residents, 49 completed the survey (55.7%). Career choice satisfaction was high (75.5%), as was overall satisfaction with integrated training (83.7%). The majority (77.6%) were interested in cardiac surgery. Overall, the responders reported sufficient time for life outside of the hospital (57.1%), but experienced conflicts between work obligations and personal life at least sometimes (75.5%). Early exposure to cardiothoracic surgery was reported as the dominant advantage of the I-6 model, whereas variable curriculum structure and unclear expectations along with poor integration with general surgery training ranked highest among perceived disadvantages. Current I-6 residents are largely satisfied with the integrated training model and report a reasonable work/life balance. The focused nature of training is the primary perceived advantage of the integrated pathway. Curriculum variability and poor integration with general surgery training are identified by residents as primary areas of concern. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys and Rotary Screw Trap, 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2006 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 37,938 fish from 15 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 15% of fish enumerated followed by rainbow trout (10%) and mountain whitefish (7%). Day surveys were conducted during the summer period 2007 (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2007 (October) surveys. The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) program from August through November of 2007. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 999 wild Oncorhynchus mykiss and 5,107 wild run O. tshawytscha were PIT tagged during the study period. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 22.3% for juvenile O. tshawytscha and 9.0% for juvenile O. mykiss. Rotary screw traps operated 7 days a week and remote capture operations were conducted when flow and temperature regimes permitted. This is third annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  4. The Passenger Satisfaction Survey in the Regional Integrated Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Valaskova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Quality criteria Method of the Servicesin the Integrated Public Transport System in Slovak Republic.The proposed method is based on the detailed list of theQuality criteria of the Services in Public Transport from theview of passengers. The criteria are determined based on theSlovak Technical Norm STN EN 138 16 which is related toquality of transport. The method has been applied in RegionalIntegrated Public Transport System of Zilina (ZRIDS in theform of Passenger Quality Satisfaction Survey.

  5. [Characterization of Mexican households with food insecurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics associated with food insecurity (FI) in Mexican households. The study included information about 40 809 households from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. The Latin American and Caribbean Scale Food Safety (ELCSA) was used to categorize households in terms of food insecurity. Classification and regression trees were used to identify the most significant characteristics in households with high prevalence of FI. The characteristics associated with higher prevalence of FI in homes were: lowest quintiles of welfare status, lack of education or walking or moving disability of household head, and not receiving money from social programmes, pension or remittances. Monitoring of the factors that favor the presence of FI is required to detect social groups being excluded from the right to food.

  6. An integrated system for conducting radiological surveys of contaminated sites - 16312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, Jay P.; Rogers, Donna M.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated detection system that has been developed to conduct radiological surveys of sites suspected of contamination of materials such as depleted uranium. This system utilizes cerium activated lanthanum bromide and thallium activated sodium iodide gamma detectors and can be easily adapted to include units for detecting neutrons. The detection system includes software controlling the collection of radiological spectra and GPS data. Two different platforms are described for conducting surveys, a modified zero turn radius (ZTR) mower and a three-wheeled cart that is manually pushed. The detection system software controlling data collection has components that facilitate completing a grid-less survey on user specified spacings. Another package confirms that all data quality activities (calibrations, etc.) are conducted prior to beginning the survey and also reviews data to identify areas that have been missed for which data quality falls below user designated parameters. Advanced digital signal processing algorithms are used to enhance the interpretation of spectra for conducting background subtractions and for mapping. Data from radiation detection instruments and GPS antennae are merged and made compatible with mapping using Geosoft Oasis montaj software. A summary of system performance during field-testing is included in the paper. This includes survey rate, detection limits, duty cycle, supporting ancillary equipment/material, and manpower requirements. The rate of false positives and false negatives is discussed with the benefits of surveys conducted using synergetic detection systems such as electromagnetic induction imaging. (authors)

  7. Extragalactic Hard X-ray Surveys: From INTEGRAL to Simbol-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltani, S.; Dwelly, T.; Walter, R.; McHardy, I. M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.

    2009-05-01

    We present some results of the deepest extragalactic survey performed by the INTEGRAL satellite. The fraction of very absorbed AGN is quite large. The sharp decrease in the absorption fraction with X-ray luminosity observed at lower-energy X-rays is not observed. The current lack of truly Compton-thick objects, with an upper limit of 14% to the size of this population, is just compatible with recent modeling of the cosmic X-ray background. We also study the prospects for a future hard X-ray serendipitous survey with Simbol-X. We show that Simbol-X will easily detect a large number of serendipitous AGN, allowing us to study the evolution of AGN up to redshifts about 2, opening the door to the cosmological study of hard X-ray selected AGN, which is barely possible with existing satellites like Swift and INTEGRAL.

  8. How do household characteristics affect appliance usage? Application of conditional demand analysis to Japanese household data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Although both appliance ownership and usage patterns determine residential electricity consumption, it is less known how households actually use their appliances. In this study, we conduct conditional demand analyses to break down total household electricity consumption into a set of demand functions for electricity usage, across 12 appliance categories. We then examine how the socioeconomic characteristics of the households explain their appliance usage. Analysis of micro-level data from the Nation Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan reveals that the family and income structure of households affect appliance usage. Specifically, we find that the presence of teenagers increases both air conditioner and dishwasher use, labor income and nonlabor income affect microwave usage in different ways, air conditioner usage decreases as the wife's income increases, and microwave usage decreases as the husband's income increases. Furthermore, we find that households use more electricity with new personal computers than old ones; this implies that the replacement of old personal computers increases electricity consumption. - Highlights: •We conduct conditional demand analyses to study household appliance usage. •Micro-level data from the National Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan are analyzed. •We show how household characteristics determine appliance usage. •High-income households use specific appliances less intensively than low-income households. •The replacement of old TVs and PCs lead to greater electricity consumption.

  9. Demand for integrative medicine among women in pregnancy and childbed: a German survey on patients' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürger, Nikolas; Klein, Evelyn; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Kiechle, Marion; Paepke, Daniela

    2018-06-15

    Although integrative medicine is gaining increasing attention and is claiming more and more its place in modern health care, it still plays a marginal role in conventional maternity care. The present study aims to examine the patterns of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use and the demand for integrative therapies, including CAM, relaxation therapies, nutritional counseling, and psychological assistance, among women in pregnancy and childbed. The survey was conducted from April 2017 to July 2017 by means of a pseudo-anonymous 38-item questionnaire at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich. Eligible participants were women hospitalized due to pregnancy related complications and women in childbed. Descriptive statistics were generated to determine patterns of CAM use and demand for integrative therapeutic approaches. Univariate analysis was used to detect associations between patients' characteristics and their interest in the different integrative therapies. Furthermore, binary logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio of demand for CAM. A total of 394 out of 503 patients participated in the survey (78%). 60% declared using CAM in general, 45% specifically in relation to their pregnancy or childbed. Most commonly used modalities were vitamins (31% of all patients), yoga (24%), and herbal supplements (23%). Most popular sources of recommendation of CAM use were midwives and gynecologists. Integrative therapy options patients would have wanted alongside conventional maternity care were CAM (64%), relaxation therapies (44%), dietary counseling (28%), and psychological counseling (15%). Furthermore, associations between patients' sociodemographic characteristics and their demand for integrative therapies were identified. The results of this study demonstrate that there is a considerable demand for integrative medicine and widespread use of CAM among women during pregnancy and

  10. Comparison of a Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey with Nationally Representative Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-hour Dietary Recall Data for Assessing Consumption of Fortifiable Foods by Women and Young Children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-06-01

    Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are potential sources of data on dietary patterns for planning fortification programs, but they rarely have been compared with individual-level dietary assessment methods. To compare apparent consumption of fortifiable foods estimated from the Third Cameroon Household Survey (ECAM3) with the results of a national dietary survey using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) methods among women aged 15 to 49 years and children aged 12 to 59 months. We estimated coverage and frequency of consumption in the previous week (ECAM3 and FFQ) and coverage and amount consumed on the previous day (ECAM3 and 24HR) of refined vegetable oil, wheat flour, sugar, and bouillon cubes. Coverage in the past week as measured by the ECAM3 and FFQ, respectively, was 64% vs. 54% for oil, 60% vs. 92% for flour, 69% vs. 78% for sugar, and 85% vs. 96% for bouillon cubes. The different methods identified similar patterns of coverage among subgroups for oil, but patterns for other foods were variable. Frequency of consumption and previous-day coverage were lower with the ECAM3 than with the FFQ and 24HR, likely reflecting infrequent acquisition relative to intake. For women, the mean amounts consumed on the previous day (among consumers) were 43 vs. 29 g of oil, 71 vs. 83 g of flour, 42 vs. 32 g of sugar, and 5.0 vs. 2.4 g of bouillon cubes (ECAM and 24HR, respectively). HCES provide useful information on patterns of food access but inadequate information on individual consumption amounts to estimate appropriate food fortification levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Before the Deluge: Ştefania Cristescu-Golopenţia's Pioneering Work on Women, Magic, and Peasant Household Integrity in the Inter-War Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID A. KIDECKEL

    Full Text Available This essay seeks to locate the person and scholarship of Ştefania Cristescu-Golopenţia in the tumultuous scientific and historical conditions of inter-war and immediate post-war Romanian society and social science. I suggest how Ştefania's promising career was cut short by political transformation and personal tragedy, represented by the imprisonment and death of her husband, sociologist Anton Golopenţia. Subsequently I evaluate the work of Şt.C.-G., focusing on her description and analysis of women's quotidian magical and ritual practices as critical for the strength of the Tara Oltului peasant household. This magic was directed to keep the household safe and ward off danger. I discuss the ideas of Şt.C.-G. in the context of my own fieldwork in the region in the 1970s and try to consider how and to what effects socialist state policies might have articulated with women's magico-religious household ritual.

  12. Promoting food security and well-being among poor and HIV/AIDS affected households: lessons from an interactive and integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaans, Kees; Broerse, Jacqueline; Meincke, Maylin; Mudhara, Maxwell; Bunders, Joske

    2009-02-01

    Participatory and interdisciplinary approaches have been suggested to develop appropriate agricultural innovations as an alternative strategy to improve food security and well-being among HIV/AIDS affected households. However, sustainable implementation of such interactive approaches is far from easy and straight forward. This study reports of the Interactive Learning and Action (ILA) approach, a methodology for agricultural innovation which has been adapted to the context of HIV/AIDS. Role players in agriculture and health were brought together to stimulate and sustain innovation among three support groups for poor and affected households in a rural high HIV/AIDS prevalence area in South Africa. The effectiveness of the approach was evaluated using both outcome and process criteria. The results indicate that an interactive approach in which service providers/researchers engage themselves as actors to explore the livelihood system and develop appropriate solutions in joint collaboration with resource users has potential. However, it also revealed that cooperation among participants and stakeholders at the interface of agriculture and HIV/AIDS is complicated and sensitive to erosion. Of particular concern was the difficulty of mobilizing members from poor and affected households to participate and to overcome stigma and discrimination. Lessons and potential applications for the further development of interactive approaches are discussed.

  13. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  14. Household chaos, sociodemographic risk, coparenting, and parent-infant relations during infants' first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Corey J; Teti, Douglas M; Crosby, Brian; Kim, Bo-Ram

    2015-04-01

    Household chaos is a construct often overlooked in studies of human development, despite its theoretical links with the integrity of individual well-being, family processes, and child development. The present longitudinal study examined relations between household chaos and well-established correlates of chaos (sociodemographic risk, major life events, and personal distress) and several constructs that, to date, are theoretically linked with chaos but never before assessed as correlates (quality of coparenting and emotional availability with infants at bedtime). In addressing this aim, we introduce a new measure of household chaos (the Descriptive In-home Survey of Chaos--Observer ReporteD, or DISCORD), wholly reliant on independent observer report, which draws from household chaos theory and prior empirical work but extends the measurement of chaos to include information about families' compliance with a home visiting protocol. Household chaos was significantly associated with socioeconomic risk, negative life events, less favorable coparenting, and less emotionally available bedtime parenting, but not with personal distress. These findings emphasize the need to examine household chaos as a direct and indirect influence on child and family outcomes, as a moderator of intervention attempts to improving parenting and child development, and as a target of intervention in its own right. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Equity, Emotion, and Household Division of Labor Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Kathryn J.; Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Building upon insights generated by social psychological scholarship on equity, emotions, and identity, we use the General Social Survey (1996) Modules on Emotion and Gender and the National Survey of Family and Households (1992-1994) to investigate the relationship between perceived inequity in the household division of labor and emotion. These…

  16. Integrating stations from the North America Gravity Database into a local GPS-based land gravity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoberg, Thomas G.; Stoddard, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to augment local gravity surveys with additional gravity stations from easily accessible national databases can greatly increase the areal coverage and spatial resolution of a survey. It is, however, necessary to integrate such data seamlessly with the local survey. One challenge to overcome in integrating data from national databases is that these data are typically of unknown quality. This study presents a procedure for the evaluation and seamless integration of gravity data of unknown quality from a national database with data from a local Global Positioning System (GPS)-based survey. The starting components include the latitude, longitude, elevation and observed gravity at each station location. Interpolated surfaces of the complete Bouguer anomaly are used as a means of quality control and comparison. The result is an integrated dataset of varying quality with many stations having GPS accuracy and other reliable stations of unknown origin, yielding a wider coverage and greater spatial resolution than either survey alone.

  17. Teachers' level of ICT integration in teaching and learning: A survey in Malaysian private preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Kamarulzaman; Abdullah, Che Anuar Che; Idris, Mohd Noor; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of ICT integration in teaching and learning in private preschool in Malaysia. A total 61 teachers from 10 private preschools in the district of Mualim in the state of Perak Malaysia were randomly chosen in this survey research. The findings revealed that most of the teachers were knowledgeable about the educational ICT application. However, the findings revealed that the teachers' level of ICT integration is still at the low level. This is based on the results of a study that most of the teachers are normal users and ICT application was used for their own work rather than using it in their teaching and learning in the classroom. In addition, the findings indicated that teachers' awareness towards the important of ICT in teaching and learning is not encouraging and this issue is related to the training provided, equipment and time constraints that hinder the integration of ICT.

  18. Description of the U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal data integration framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, David L.; Booth, Nathaniel L.; Kunicki, Thomas C.; Walker, Jordan I.; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed an open-standard data integration framework for working efficiently and effectively with large collections of climate and other geoscience data. A web interface accesses catalog datasets to find data services. Data resources can then be rendered for mapping and dataset metadata are derived directly from these web services. Algorithm configuration and information needed to retrieve data for processing are passed to a server where all large-volume data access and manipulation takes place. The data integration strategy described here was implemented by leveraging existing free and open source software. Details of the software used are omitted; rather, emphasis is placed on how open-standard web services and data encodings can be used in an architecture that integrates common geographic and atmospheric data.

  19. Same-sex and different-sex parent households and child health outcomes : Findings from the national survey of children's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Knox, J.R.; van Rijn-van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.K.

    Objective: Using the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children's Health data set, we compared spouse/partner relationships and parent-child relationships (family relationships), parenting stress, and children's general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior (child

  20. Responses to GM food content in context with food integrity issues: results from Australian population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Philip; Golley, Sinéad

    2016-01-25

    This study examined community responses to use of genetically modified (GM) content in food in the context of responses to familiar food additives by testing an empirically and theoretically derived model of the predictors of responses to both GM content and food integrity issues generally. A nationwide sample of 849 adults, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll, responded to a postal Food and Health Survey. Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed that ratings of general concern about food integrity (related to the presence of preservatives and other additives) strongly predicted negativity towards GM content. Concern about food integrity was, in turn, predicted by environmental concern and health engagement. In addition, both concern about food integrity generally and responses to GM content specifically were weakly predicted by attitudes to benefits of science and an intuitive (i.e., emotionally-based) reasoning style. Data from a follow-up survey conducted under the same conditions (N=1184) revealed that ratings of concern were significantly lower for use of genetic engineering in food than for four other common food integrity issues examined. Whereas the question of community responses to GM is often treated as a special issue, these findings support the conclusion that responses to the concept of GM content in food in Australia are substantially a specific instance of a general sensitivity towards the integrity of the food supply. They indicate that the origins of responses to GM content may be largely indistinguishable from those of general responses to preservatives and other common food additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. PHAT STELLAR CLUSTER SURVEY. I. YEAR 1 CATALOG AND INTEGRATED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Hodge, Paul W.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Beerman, Lori C.; Seth, Anil C.; Caldwell, Nelson; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Larsen, Søren S.; Olsen, Knut A. G.; San Roman, Izaskun; Sarajedini, Ata; Bianchi, Luciana; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Girardi, Léo; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason; Lang, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-cycle program to obtain high spatial resolution imaging of one-third of the M31 disk at ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, we present the first installment of the PHAT stellar cluster catalog. When completed, the PHAT cluster catalog will be among the largest and most comprehensive surveys of resolved star clusters in any galaxy. The exquisite spatial resolution achieved with HST has allowed us to identify hundreds of new clusters that were previously inaccessible with existing ground-based surveys. We identify 601 clusters in the Year 1 sample, representing more than a factor of four increase over previous catalogs within the current survey area (390 arcmin 2 ). This work presents results derived from the first ∼25% of the survey data; we estimate that the final sample will include ∼2500 clusters. For the Year 1 objects, we present a catalog with positions, radii, and six-band integrated photometry. Along with a general characterization of the cluster luminosities and colors, we discuss the cluster luminosity function, the cluster size distributions, and highlight a number of individually interesting clusters found in the Year 1 search.

  2. PHAT STELLAR CLUSTER SURVEY. I. YEAR 1 CATALOG AND INTEGRATED PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Hodge, Paul W.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Beerman, Lori C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gouliermis, Dimitrios A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Larsen, Soren S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Olsen, Knut A. G. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); San Roman, Izaskun; Sarajedini, Ata [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Guhathakurta, Puragra [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kalirai, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lang, Dustin, E-mail: lcjohnso@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2012-06-20

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-cycle program to obtain high spatial resolution imaging of one-third of the M31 disk at ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, we present the first installment of the PHAT stellar cluster catalog. When completed, the PHAT cluster catalog will be among the largest and most comprehensive surveys of resolved star clusters in any galaxy. The exquisite spatial resolution achieved with HST has allowed us to identify hundreds of new clusters that were previously inaccessible with existing ground-based surveys. We identify 601 clusters in the Year 1 sample, representing more than a factor of four increase over previous catalogs within the current survey area (390 arcmin{sup 2}). This work presents results derived from the first {approx}25% of the survey data; we estimate that the final sample will include {approx}2500 clusters. For the Year 1 objects, we present a catalog with positions, radii, and six-band integrated photometry. Along with a general characterization of the cluster luminosities and colors, we discuss the cluster luminosity function, the cluster size distributions, and highlight a number of individually interesting clusters found in the Year 1 search.

  3. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  4. Domestic energy use and householders' energy behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanis, Yigzaw Goshu

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses domestic energy use and energy behaviour. It shows some improvement in domestic energy consumption and adoption of good energy practice. The survey conducted indicated that 35% of homes could improve their energy efficiency by improved tank insulation. In the last 5 years condensing boilers have been installed only in 3% of homes, indicating that householders are unaware of their advantages. Although 88% of surveyed homes had purchased a major appliance in the last 2 years, only 16% had any idea of the energy rating of their new appliances. Use of energy saving light bulbs is predominant in kitchens compared to other rooms. 70–80% of householders undertook some kind of day-to-day energy efficiency measures. 20–35% of householders would like to invest in energy-saving measures but found cost to be a key barrier. Approximately 84% of those surveyed were unaware of the energy rating of their household appliances. Price and brand were the most important factors determining the purchase of a new appliance. Significant energy-saving could be achieved by providing appropriate information to the general public regarding temperature control, efficiency of appliances and energy-saving heating systems. - Highlights: ▶ Good practice in household energy use is being adopted but actual use is rising. ▶ Cost is dominant in energy related decisions purchasing of household appliances. ▶ Energy behaviour is improving but level of awareness needs more work.

  5. THE INTEGRATED SHORT-TERM STATISTICAL SURVEYS: EXPERIENCE OF NBS IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg CARA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The users’ rising need for relevant, reliable, coherent, timely data for the early diagnosis of the economic vulnerability and of the turning points in the business cycles, especially during a financial and economic crisis, asks for a prompt answer, coordinated by statistical institutions. High quality short term statistics are of special interest for the emerging market economies, such as the Moldavian one, being extremely vulnerable when facing economic recession. Answering to the challenges of producing a coherent and adequate image of the economic activity, by using the system of indicators and definitions efficiently applied at the level of the European Union, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS of the Republic of Moldova has launched the development process of an integrated system of short term statistics (STS based on the advanced international experience.Thus, in 2011, BNS implemented the integrated statistical survey on STS based on consistent concepts, harmonized with the EU standards. The integration of the production processes, which were previously separated, is based on a common technical infrastructure, standardized procedures and techniques for data production. The achievement of this complex survey with holistic approach has allowed the consolidation of the statistical data quality, comparable at European level and the signifi cant reduction of information burden on business units, especially of small size.The reformation of STS based on the integrated survey has been possible thanks to the consistent methodological and practical support given to NBS by the National Institute of Statistics (INS of Romania, for which we would like to thank to our Romanian colleagues.

  6. Education in Rural Peru: Exploring the Role of Household Electrification in School Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Veena S.; Barnes, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    This study employs Peru's National Survey of Rural Household Energy Use data to investigate the correlation between household access to electricity and enrollment of children age 6-18 after taking into account individual-child and household level characteristics. Results indicate that children residing in households with access to electricity…

  7. Proposta metodológica para o módulo de consumo alimentar pessoal na pesquisa brasileira de orçamentos familiares Methodological proposal for the individual food intake module of the Brazilian household budget survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Massae Yokoo

    2008-12-01

    Expenditure Study done from 1974 to 1975. Although useful, national food consumption studies are expensive and only a few countries can conduct them regularly. Nonetheless, household budget surveys are important sources of data on the availability of food at home determined by records of foods purchased. Recent changes in consumption habits, particularly eating out, limit the use of data from household budget surveys to estimate food intake. Thus, the Brazilian government suggested that the next household budget survey to be done in 2008-2009 include a module on individual food consumption. Information on individual food intake will be used to supplement the data regarding food purchases. The objective of this study is to report the development of the methodology to be used in the module of individual food consumption of the household budget survey of 2008-2009. Budget data will be combined with intake data to estimate the usual individual food consumption.

  8. Urban-rural differences in excess mortality among high-poverty populations: evidence from the Harlem Household Survey and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimus, Arline T; Colen, Cynthia G; Shochet, Tara; Ingber, Lori Barer; James, Sherman A

    2006-08-01

    Black youth residing in high-poverty areas have dramatically lower probabilities of surviving to age 65 if they are urban than if they are rural. Chronic disease deaths contribute heavily. We begin to probe the reasons using the Harlem Household Survey (HHS) and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health (PCS). We compare HHS and PCS respondents on chronic disease rates, health behaviors, social support, employment, indicators of health care access, and health insurance. Chronic disease profiles do not favor Pitt County. Smoking uptake is similar across samples, but PCS respondents are more likely to quit. Indicators of access to health care and private health insurance are more favorable in Pitt County. Findings suggest rural mortality is averted through secondary or tertiary prevention, not primary. Macroeconomic and health system changes of the past 20 years may have left poor urban Blacks as medically underserved as poor rural Blacks.

  9. Determinants of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years in South Africa: a 2012 population-based national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabaso, Musawenkosi; Sokhela, Zinhle; Mohlabane, Neo; Chibi, Buyisile; Zuma, Khangelani; Simbayi, Leickness

    2018-01-26

    South Africa is making tremendous progress in the fight against HIV, however, adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years (AGYW) remain at higher risk of new HIV infections. This paper investigates socio-demographic and behavioural determinants of HIV infection among AGYW in South Africa. A secondary data analysis was undertaken based on the 2012 population-based nationally representative multi-stage stratified cluster random household sample. Multivariate stepwise backward and forward regression modelling was used to determine factors independently associated with HIV prevalence. Out of 3092 interviewed and tested AGYW 11.4% were HIV positive. Overall HIV prevalence was significantly higher among young women (17.4%) compared to adolescent girls (5.6%). In the AGYW model increased risk of HIV infection was associated with being young women aged 20-24 years (OR = 2.30, p = 0.006), and condom use at last sex (OR = 1.91, p = 0.010), and decreased likelihood was associated with other race groups (OR = 0.06, p girls model decreased risk of HIV infection was associated with other race groups (OR = 0.01, p < 0.001), being married (OR = 0.07), p = 0.016], and living in less poor household (OR = 0.08, p = 0.002). In the young women's models increased risk of HIV infection was associated with condom use at last sex (OR = 2.09, p = 0.013), and decreased likelihood was associated with other race groups (OR = 0.17, p < 0.001), one sexual partner (OR = 0.6, p = 0.014), low risk alcohol use (OR = 0.17, p < 0.001), having a sexual partner within 5 years of age (OR = 0.29, p = 0.022), and having tertiary education (OR = 0.29, p = 0.022). These findings support the need to design combination prevention interventions which simultaneously address socio-economic drivers of the HIV epidemic, promote education, equity and access to schooling, and target age-disparate partnerships

  10. The household energy transition in India and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Jiang, Leiwen

    2008-01-01

    Both India and China are countries in energy transition. This paper compares the household energy transitions in these nations through the analysis of both aggregate statistics and nationally representative household surveys. The two countries differ sharply in several respects. Residential energy consumption in China is twice that in India, in aggregate terms. In addition, Chinese households have almost universal access to electricity, while in India almost half of rural households and 10% of urban households still lack access. On aggregate, urban households in China also derive a larger share of their total energy from liquid fuels and grids (77%) as compared to urban Indian households (65%). Yet, at every income level, Indians derive a slightly larger fraction of their total household energy needs from liquid and grid sources of energy than Chinese with comparable incomes. Despite these differences, trends in energy use and the factors influencing a transition to modern energy in both nations are similar. Compared with rural households, urban households in both nations consume a disproportionately large share of commercial energy and are much further along in the transition to modern energy. However, total energy consumption in rural households exceeds that in urban households, because of a continued dependence on inefficient solid fuels, which contribute to over 85% of rural household energy needs in both countries. In addition to urbanisation, key drivers of the transition in both nations include income, energy prices, energy access and local fuel availability. (author)

  11. Integrated geophysical surveys to assess the structural conditions of a karstic cave of archaeological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Leucci

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical survey using both the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT and ground-penetrating radar (GPR methods was undertaken over a cave of great archaeological interest in southern Italy. The survey was performed to assess the stability of the carbonate rock roof of the cave. A geophysical survey was preferred to boreholes and geotechnical tests, in order to avoid the risk of mass movements. The interpretation of integrated data from ERT and GPR resulted in an evaluation of some of the electromagnetic (EM characteristics (such as the EM wave velocity and the detection of discontinuities (fractures in the carbonate rock. It is well known that rock fractures constitute a serious problem in cave maintenance, and progressive cracking within the bed rock is considered to be one of the main causes of collapse. An analysis of the back-scattered energy was also required for the GPR data interpretation. Cracks within the bedrock were detected to a depth of about 2 m by using GPR, which allowed for the identification of the loosened zone around the cave.

  12. What determines urban households' willingness to pay for CO{sub 2} emission reductions in Turkey. A contingent valuation survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaman, Fikret; Oezkaynak, Beguem; Zenginobuz, Uenal [Department of Economics, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Karali, Nihan; Kumbaroglu, Guerkan; Or, Ilhan [Department of Industrial Engineering, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    This paper explores Turkish urban households' willingness to pay (WTP) for CO{sub 2} emission reductions expected to result from improvements in power production. A face-to-face questionnaire, with a Contingent valuation (CV) module prepared using the double-bounded dichotomous choice elicitation framework, was administered to 2422 respondents representative of urban Turkey - a developing country with low but rapidly increasing greenhouse gas emissions. The determinants of WTP were identified by considering not only the impact of standard socio-economic factors but also the effects of environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviour, the relevance of the identity of the collection agent (national versus international institutions) in terms of trust people have towards them, and the degree of perceived participation of others in the realization of the project. Our study confirms the existing literature in demonstrating that WTP figures reported by young and educated people that are active on environmental issues, and who also possess material security and environmental knowledge, are more likely to be high. However, their willingness to make contributions is hampered significantly by their belief that their fellow citizens will not contribute and the general lack of trust in institutions. Overall, this study may be taken as a call to eliminate governance-related uncertainties in climate change deals. (author)

  13. Use of household ingredients as complementary medicines for perceived hypoglycemic benefit among Sri Lankan diabetic patients; a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medagama, Arjuna Bandara; Senadhira, Danusha

    2015-01-01

    Biologic based therapies are frequently used as complementary medicines in diabetes. The aim of this study was to identify the commonly used herbal remedies and their preparations in Sri Lankan patients with Type 2 diabetes. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study on 220 diabetic patients using herbal remedies for perceived glycemic benefit. All the patients used their regular conventional medications together with herbal remedies. The most commonly used medication was metformin (91.4%). Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis) was the most commonly used herbal remedy (32%), followed by crepe ginger (Costus speciosus) (25%) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) (20%). Herbal remedies used less frequently were finger millet (Eleusine corocana) (5%), anguna leaves (Wattakaka volubilis) (5%), goat weed (Scoparia dulcis) (4%), Salacia reticulata (4%), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) (3%) and tree turmeric (Coscinium fenestratum) (0.5%). None of the patients used commercially available over-the-counter herbal products. The common preparations were salads (72.8%), curries (12.8%), herbal tea (6%), and herbal porridges (6%). The practice of using household ingredients as complementary medicines is common in Sri Lanka. Few herbal remedies and their methods of preparation have limited evidence for efficacy. In view of the frequent use by diabetic patients each needs to be documented for reference and scientifically explored about their hypoglycemic potential.

  14. Household appliance data collection and market survey in central and eastern european countries; Raccolta dati e analisi del mercato sugli apparecchi elettrodomestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale e orientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presutto, M. [ENEA, Funzione Centrali Studi, Centro Ricerche Ispra, Vercelli (Italy); Ricci, A. [Istituto di Studi per l' Integrazione dei Sistemi, Rome (Italy); Meli, L. [ANIE, Federazione delle Imprese Elettrotecniche ed Elettroniche, International Affaires Direction, Milan (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Since 1995 the European Commission, through the SAVE programme, and the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations, through the Energy Efficiency 2000 Project, jointly sponsored the so called SACHA projects in Central and Eastern European Countries regarding major household appliances. Consistently, the main objective of the projects was to analyse and interpret the situation of refrigerators, freezers and washing machines in seven CEEC, so as to increase the knowledge and understanding of the issues at stake in the area of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness, and therefore to identify possible scenarios of improvement. This paper describes the work accomplished and the results achieved in this context, focusing more on the data collection and market survey moments and illustrates, with an abundant series of exhibits, the quantitative picture resulting form the analyses carried out. Possibility exists for replication in Latin America, where ENEA and Italian experience could be fruitfully applied. Reliable and complete information is in fact one of the prerequisites to overcome potential barriers and facilitate a successful enforcement of any energy efficiency policy. Effective implementation and regional harmonisation are necessary, even if projects can facilitate the fulfilment of these goals as it provides a consolidated methodology and an integrated scheme for basic data collection and analysis. [Italian] A partire dal 1995 la Commissione Europea e la Commissione Economica per l'Europa delle Nazioni Unite hanno congiuntamente promosso lo studio dei piu' importanti apparecchi domestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale ed orientale. Principale obiettivo di questi progetti, piu' noti come progetti con SACHA, dall'acronimo del titolo, era analizzare e soprattutto interpretare la situazione dei frigoriferi, congelatori e lavatrici in sette PECO, per migliorare da un lato la conoscenza e la comprensione delle problematiche

  15. The dog and cat population on Maio Island, Cape Verde: characterisation and prediction based on household survey and remotely sensed imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Ducheyne, Els; Bryssinckx, Ward

    2015-01-01

    a global positioning system instrument. Linear statistical models were applied to predict the dog and cat populations based on the number of houses found and according to various levels of data aggregation. In the surveyed localities, a total of 457 dogs and 306 cats were found. The majority of animals had...

  16. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  17. A community-based survey for different abnormal glucose metabolism among pregnant women in a random household study (SAUDI-DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Manaa, Hamad A; Khoja, Tawfik A; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H; Siddiqui, Khalid; Ahmad, Najlaa A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population known to have a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods A household random population-based cross-sectional study of 13 627 women in the childbearing age, who were subjected to fasting plasma glucose if they were not known to have been diagnosed before with any type of diabetes. GDM cases were diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IAPSG) criteria. Results The overall GDM prevalence was 36.6%, categorised into 32.4% new cases and 4.2% known cases. Another 3.6% had preconception type 1 or 2 diabetes. GDM cases were older and had a significantly higher body mass index, in addition to a higher rate of macrocosmic baby and history of GDM. Monthly income, educational level, living in urban areas and smoking were not found to be significantly different between normal and GDM cases. The most important and significant risk factors for GDM were history of GDM, macrosomic baby, obesity and age >30 years. However, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein, family history of diabetes and increased triglycerides did not show any significant effect on GDM prevalence in this cohort. Conclusions This society is facing a real burden of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy, where almost half of the pregnant women are subjected to maternal and neonatal complications. Early screening of pregnant women, especially those at a high risk for GDM, is mandatory to identify and manage those cases. PMID:25138813

  18. A Survey of Symplectic and Collocation Integration Methods for Orbit Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brandon A.; Anderson, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    Demands on numerical integration algorithms for astrodynamics applications continue to increase. Common methods, like explicit Runge-Kutta, meet the orbit propagation needs of most scenarios, but more specialized scenarios require new techniques to meet both computational efficiency and accuracy needs. This paper provides an extensive survey on the application of symplectic and collocation methods to astrodynamics. Both of these methods benefit from relatively recent theoretical developments, which improve their applicability to artificial satellite orbit propagation. This paper also details their implementation, with several tests demonstrating their advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Attractiveness of people-centred and integrated Dutch Home Care: A nationwide survey among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurits, Erica E M; de Veer, Anke J E; Groenewegen, Peter P; Francke, Anneke L

    2018-03-05

    The World Health Organization is calling for a fundamental change in healthcare services delivery, towards people-centred and integrated health services. This includes providing integrated care around people's needs that is effectively co-ordinated across providers and co-produced by professionals, the patient, the family and the community. At the same time, healthcare policies aim to scale back hospital and residential care in favour of home care. This is one reason for the home-care nursing staff shortages in Europe. Therefore, this study aimed to examine whether people-centred, integrated home care appeals to nurses with different levels of education in home care and hospitals. A questionnaire survey was held among registered nurses in Dutch home-care organisations and hospitals in 2015. The questionnaire addressed the perceived attractiveness of different aspects of people-centred, integrated home care. In total 328 nurses filled in the questionnaire (54% response rate). The findings showed that most home-care nurses (70% to 97%) and 36% to 76% of the hospital nurses regard the different aspects of people-centred, integrated home care as attractive. Specific aspects that home-care nurses find attractive are promoting the patient's self-reliance and having a network in the community. Hospital nurses are mainly attracted to health-related prevention and taking control in complex situations. No clear differences between the educational levels were found. It is concluded that most home-care nurses and a minority of hospital nurses feel attracted to people-centred, integrated home care, irrespective of their educational level. The findings are relevant to policy makers and home-care organisations who aim to expand the home-care nursing workforce. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Adolescent Internet Use, Social Integration, and Depressive Symptoms: Analysis from a Longitudinal Cohort Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carol; Lee, Chih-Ting; Chao, Lo-Hsin; Lin, Chung-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Che

    2018-05-01

    To examine the association between adolescent leisure-time Internet use and social integration in the school context and how this association affects later depressive symptoms among adolescents in Taiwan, using a large nationwide cohort study and the latent growth model (LGM) method. Data of 3795 students followed from the year 2001 to 2006 in the Taiwan Education Panel Survey were analyzed. Leisure-time Internet use was defined by the hours per week spent on (1) online chatting and (2) online games. School social integration and depressive symptoms were self-reported. We first used an unconditional LGM to estimate the baseline (intercept) and growth (slope) of Internet use. Next, another LGM conditioned with school social integration and depression was conducted. Approximately 10% of the participants reported engaging in online chatting and/or gaming for more than 20 hours per week. Internet use for online chatting showed an increase over time. School social integration was associated with the baseline amount (coefficient = -0.62, p < 0.001) but not the growth of leisure-time Internet use. The trend of Internet use was positively related to depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.31, p < 0.05) at Wave 4. School social integration was initially associated with decreased leisure-time Internet use among adolescents. The growth of Internet use with time was not explainable by school social integration but had adverse impacts on depression. Reinforcing adolescents' bonding to school may prevent initial leisure-time Internet use. When advising on adolescent Internet use, health care providers should consider their patients' social networks and mental well-being.

  1. Practitioner survey of the state of health integration in environmental assessment: The case of northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Bram; Bronson, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    Based on a case study of health integration in Canadian northern EA, this paper further demonstrates the lack of consistent integration of health in EA practice. A survey was administered to northern EA and health practitioners, administrators and special interest groups to assess current northern health assessment practices, the scope of health in EA, EA performance with regard to health assessment and the perceived barriers to health integration. Results suggest that health is currently recognized as an important component of northern EA and is addressed in the majority of cases; however, health is addressed primarily during the pre-decision stages of EA and less often during post-decision follow-up and monitoring. Moreover, when health is addressed, attention is limited to the physical components of health and health impacts due to physical environmental change, with considerably less attention given to the social aspects of health. Results also suggest dissent between EA practitioners, health practitioners and other interests concerning the overall state of health in EA; however, there is consensus on the key challenges to improved integration, namely differences in understanding of the scope of health and expectations of EA to assess health impacts; limited coordination between EA and health practitioners; limited scope and requirements of current EA legislation for health assessment; and the lack of supporting EA methods and frameworks

  2. Energy consumption characteristics of Guatemalan households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Moscoso, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The sectoral consumption pattern in Guatemala has shown that the residential sector is the major energy consumer. It accounts for 68.9 per cent of total consumption, followed by the transportation sector with 16.6 per cent, and the industrial sector with 9.3 per cent. Because of the importance of the household sector in the national energy balance, the Energy Planning Project carried out a nationwide household survey in 1985 to estimate energy-use patterns. This paper focusses on the findings from the analysis of the 2,500 forms completed during that survey. 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  4. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  5. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  6. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  7. Productivity and household welfare impact of technology adoption: Micro-level evidence from rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen Melesse, Tigist

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential impact of improved agricultural technologies on smallholders’ crop productivity and welfare. We use household-level data from Ethiopian Rural Household Survey collected by IFPRI in 1989-2009. The survey covers around 1500 rural households drawn from four regions

  8. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  9. Household wealth and child health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  10. On a Modular Approach to the Design of Integrated Social Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannidis Evangelos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers a modular approach to the design of integrated social surveys. The approach consists of grouping variables into ‘modules’, each of which is then allocated to one or more ‘instruments’. Each instrument is then administered to a random sample of population units, and each sample unit responds to all modules of the instrument. This approach offers a way of designing a system of integrated social surveys that balances the need to limit the cost and the need to obtain sufficient information. The allocation of the modules to instruments draws on the methodology of split questionnaire designs. The composition of the instruments, that is, how the modules are allocated to instruments, and the corresponding sample sizes are obtained as a solution to an optimisation problem. This optimisation involves minimisation of respondent burden and data collection cost, while respecting certain design constraints usually encountered in practice. These constraints may include, for example, the level of precision required and dependencies between the variables. We propose using a random search algorithm to find approximate optimal solutions to this problem. The algorithm is proved to fulfil conditions that ensure convergence to the global optimum and can also produce an efficient design for a split questionnaire.

  11. Integrating Sensors into a Marine Drone for Bathymetric 3D Surveys in Shallow Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Parente, Claudio; Peluso, Francesco; Santamaria, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that accurate data concerning bathymetry as well as environmental conditions in shallow waters can be acquired using sensors that are integrated into the same marine vehicle. An open prototype of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) named MicroVeGA is described. The focus is on the main instruments installed on-board: a differential Global Position System (GPS) system and single beam echo sounder; inertial platform for attitude control; ultrasound obstacle-detection system with temperature control system; emerged and submerged video acquisition system. The results of two cases study are presented, both concerning areas (Sorrento Marina Grande and Marechiaro Harbour, both in the Gulf of Naples) characterized by a coastal physiography that impedes the execution of a bathymetric survey with traditional boats. In addition, those areas are critical because of the presence of submerged archaeological remains that produce rapid changes in depth values. The experiments confirm that the integration of the sensors improves the instruments’ performance and survey accuracy. PMID:26729117

  12. Integrating Sensors into a Marine Drone for Bathymetric 3D Surveys in Shallow Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Parente, Claudio; Peluso, Francesco; Santamaria, Raffaele

    2015-12-29

    This paper demonstrates that accurate data concerning bathymetry as well as environmental conditions in shallow waters can be acquired using sensors that are integrated into the same marine vehicle. An open prototype of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) named MicroVeGA is described. The focus is on the main instruments installed on-board: a differential Global Position System (GPS) system and single beam echo sounder; inertial platform for attitude control; ultrasound obstacle-detection system with temperature control system; emerged and submerged video acquisition system. The results of two cases study are presented, both concerning areas (Sorrento Marina Grande and Marechiaro Harbour, both in the Gulf of Naples) characterized by a coastal physiography that impedes the execution of a bathymetric survey with traditional boats. In addition, those areas are critical because of the presence of submerged archaeological remains that produce rapid changes in depth values. The experiments confirm that the integration of the sensors improves the instruments' performance and survey accuracy.

  13. Integrated working between residential care homes and primary care: a survey of care homes in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gage Heather

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people living in care homes in England have complex health needs due to a range of medical conditions, mental health needs and frailty. Despite an increasing policy expectation that professionals should operate in an integrated way across organisational boundaries, there is a lack of understanding between care homes and the National Health Service (NHS about how the two sectors should work together, meaning that residents can experience a poor "fit" between their needs, and services they can access. This paper describes a survey to establish the current extent of integrated working that exists between care homes and primary and community health and social services. Methods A self-completion, online questionnaire was designed by the research team. Items on the different dimensions of integration (funding, administrative, organisational, service delivery, clinical care were included. The survey was sent to a random sample of residential care homes with more than 25 beds (n = 621 in England in 2009. Responses were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results The survey achieved an overall response rate of 15.8%. Most care homes (78.7% worked with more than one general practice. Respondents indicated that a mean of 14.1 professionals/ services (other than GPs had visited the care homes in the last six months (SD 5.11, median 14; a mean of .39 (SD.163 professionals/services per bed. The most frequent services visiting were district nursing, chiropody and community psychiatric nurses. Many (60% managers considered that they worked with the NHS in an integrated way, including sharing documents, engaging in integrated care planning and joint learning and training. However, some care home managers cited working practices dictated by NHS methods of service delivery and priorities for care, rather than those of the care home or residents, a lack of willingness by NHS professionals to share information, and low

  14. HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have increased in their frequency, and the intensity of their destruction over the last ten years in Indonesia. Households usually respond to these difficulties by cutting their consump-tion, especially for non-essential goods. Arguably natural disasters are exogenous events, so this paper uses the exogenous variation from natural disasters as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of disasters on household expenditure. When a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as a disaster, and other groups are not, the Difference In Difference model (DID can be used for estimation. Using a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS which covers approximately 83 percent of the Indonesian population within the survey area, this paper examines the effects of natural disasters on household expenditure. This paper also examines whether there are any different impacts from different types of disasters. The finding is there are no significant effects of disasters on total household expenditure for households living in disaster regions, whether they are affected directly or not by the disaster.

  15. INS/GNSS Integration for Aerobatic Flight Applications and Aircraft Motion Surveying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Hinüber, Edgar L; Reimer, Christian; Schneider, Tim; Stock, Michael

    2017-04-26

    This paper presents field tests of challenging flight applications obtained with a new family of lightweight low-power INS/GNSS ( inertial navigation system/global satellite navigation system ) solutions based on MEMS ( micro-electro-mechanical- sensor ) machined sensors, being used for UAV ( unmanned aerial vehicle ) navigation and control as well as for aircraft motion dynamics analysis and trajectory surveying. One key is a 42+ state extended Kalman-filter-based powerful data fusion, which also allows the estimation and correction of parameters that are typically affected by sensor aging, especially when applying MEMS-based inertial sensors, and which is not yet deeply considered in the literature. The paper presents the general system architecture, which allows iMAR Navigation the integration of all classes of inertial sensors and GNSS ( global navigation satellite system ) receivers from very-low-cost MEMS and high performance MEMS over FOG ( fiber optical gyro ) and RLG ( ring laser gyro ) up to HRG ( hemispherical resonator gyro ) technology, and presents detailed flight test results obtained under extreme flight conditions. As a real-world example, the aerobatic maneuvers of the World Champion 2016 (Red Bull Air Race) are presented. Short consideration is also given to surveying applications, where the ultimate performance of the same data fusion, but applied on gravimetric surveying, is discussed.

  16. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-08-01

    Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results demonstrate a need for environmentalists to make household location decisions that reflect their environmental attitudes and future research to address how interactions between education level, environmental attitudes, population aging, and household location choices influence biodiversity

  17. The Impact of Green Water Management Strategies on Household-Level Agricultural Water Productivity in a Semi-Arid Region: A Survey-based Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afton Clarke-Sather

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of policies that encourage farmers to shift to crops with higher water productivity (CWP on the farm-level CWP of agricultural systems in a semi-arid region of western China. We combine survey results of farmers’ historical cropping decisions from a 2010 survey with estimates of CWP from agronomic experiments analogous to actual cultivation practices in the region to model CWP at the farm level and understand changes driven by shifting crops. Policies designed to replace subsistence agricultural systems with two cash crops; potatoes and maize; resulted in an increase in the CWP of semi-arid agricultural systems of approximately 30% between the years 1990–2010. This change was driven by shifting to crops that have a peak water demand that occurs in the portions of the growing season with the highest rainfall. The results of this article illustrate the potential of shifts in cropping patterns to increase the CWP of agricultural systems in semi-arid regions.

  18. Inequity of healthcare utilization on mammography examination and Pap smear screening in Thailand: Analysis of a population-based household survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Chongthawonsatid

    Full Text Available Healthcare in Thailand is not equally distributed, and not all people can equally access healthcare resources even if they are covered by health insurance. To examine factors associated with the utilization of mammography examination for breast cancer and Pap smear screening for cervical cancer, data from the national reproductive health survey conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand in 2009 was examined. The survey was carried out on 15,074,126 women aged 30-59 years. The results showed that the wealthier respondents had more mammograms than did the lower-income groups. The concentration index was 0.144. The data on Pap smears for cervical cancer also showed that the wealthier respondents were more likely to have had a Pap smear than their lower-income counterparts. The concentration index was 0.054. Determinants of mammography examination were education, followed by health welfare and wealth index, whereas the determinants of Pap smear screening were wealth index, followed by health welfare and education. The government should support greater education for women because education was associated with socioeconomic status and wealth. There should be an increase in the number of screening campaigns, mobile clinics, and low-cost mammograms and continued support for accessibility to mammograms, especially in rural areas and low-income communities.

  19. Integration of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection in an Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, L.; Comina, C.; Abdelfettah, Y.; Schill, E.; Mandrone, G.

    2013-11-01

    Thermal sources are common manifestations of geothermal energy resources in Alpine regions. The up-flow of the fluid is well-known to be often linked to cross-cutting fault zones providing a significant volume of fractures. Since conventional exploration methods are challenging in such areas of high topography and complicated logistics, 3D geological modeling based on structural investigation becomes a useful tool for assessing the overall geology of the investigated sites. Geological modeling alone is, however, less effective if not integrated with deep subsurface investigations that could provide a first order information on geological boundaries and an imaging of geological structures. With this aim, in the present paper the combined use of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection of a hydrothermal area in the western Alps was carried out on two sites located in the Argentera Massif (NW Italy). The geothermal activity of the area is revealed by thermal anomalies with surface evidences, such as hot springs, at temperatures up to 70 °C. Integration of gravity measurements and 3D modeling investigates the potential of this approach in the context of geothermal exploration in Alpine regions where a very complex geological and structural setting is expected. The approach used in the present work is based on the comparison between the observed gravity and the gravity effect of the 3D geological models, in order to enhance local effects related to the geothermal system. It is shown that a correct integration of 3D modeling and detailed geophysical survey could allow a better characterization of geological structures involved in geothermal fluids circulation. Particularly, gravity inversions have successfully delineated the continuity in depth of low density structures, such as faults and fractured bands observed at the surface, and have been of great help in improving the overall geological model.

  20. Who's cooking? Time spent preparing food by gender, income and household composition

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    We use the American Time Use Survey data and multivariate analysis to explore how time allocated to food preparation differs across income groups, household composition (number of adults and presence of children), and employment status of adults in the household.

  1. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  2. WOMEN'S BARGAINING POWER IN HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC DECISIONS: EVIDENCE FROM GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Cheryl R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the percentage of assets held by women within the household is used as a measure of women's bargaining power. The assets used in this paper include land, savings, and business assets. Using detailed household survey data from Ghana, I demonstrate that the share of assets owned by women has a significant impact on household expenditure decisions. This provides additional support for the notion that women's bargaining power can be measured, at least in some dimensions, and that w...

  3. Survey of Integration Cost-Adoption between Digital Library Systems in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alipour-Hafezi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article was identifying cost elements in syntactic integrating digital library systems in Iran. The levels of integration are content, technical, and organizational. It is obvious we could access some sub goals such as identifying current situation of information systems from the view points of data storage, needed standard outputs, and the current situation of interoperability in Iran, and suitable integration model in Iranian digital libraries. The analytical survey method was used in this research. Research population included 11 digital library systems that were used in Iranian digital libraries. In order to gather information, a researcher made questionnaire was used because of not existing standard collecting data tool. Findings demonstrated that we should search on three levels of interoperability: content, technical, and organizational level in order to identifying cost-adoption elements in syntactic interoperability. Also, findings showed that the elements of organizational level were too important level in cost-adoption elements. Also this research demonstrated that the high cost of adoption was related to libraries and their organizations.

  4. Deprivation is associated with worse physical and mental health beyond income poverty: a population-based household survey among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Roger Yat-Nork; Chung, Gary Ka-Ki; Gordon, David; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Chan, Dicken; Lau, Maggie Ka-Wai; Tang, Vera Mun-Yu; Wong, Hung

    2018-05-14

    In studying health inequality, poverty as measured by income is frequently used; however, this omits the aspects of non-monetary resources and social barriers to achieving improved living standard. Therefore, our study aimed to examine the associations of individual-level deprivation of material and social necessities with general physical and mental health beyond that of income poverty. A territory-wide two-stage stratified random sample of 2282 community-dwelling Hong Kong adults was surveyed between 2014 and 2015. Income poverty and a Deprivation Index were used as the main independent variables. General health was assessed using the validated 12-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2, from which physical component summary and mental component summary were derived. Our results in multivariable ordinal logistic regressions consistently showed that, after adjusting for income poverty, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, being deprived was significantly associated with worse physical (OR 1.66; CI 1.25-2.20) and mental health (OR 1.83; CI 1.43-2.35). Being income poor was also significantly associated with worse mental health (OR 1.63; CI 1.28-2.09) but only marginally with physical health (OR 1.34; CI 1.00-1.80) after adjustments. Income does not capture all aspects of poverty that are associated with adverse health outcomes. Deprivation of non-monetary resources has an independent effect on general health above and beyond the effect of income poverty. Policies should move beyond endowment and take into account the multidimensionality of poverty, in order to address the problem of health inequality.

  5. Household survey of container-breeding mosquitoes and climatic factors influencing the prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Al Thabiany; Dieng, Hamady; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Turkistani, Abdulhafis M; Mesed, Hatabbi; Koshike, Salah; Satho, Tomomitsu; Salmah, MR Che; Ahmad, Hamdan; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ramli, Ahmad Saad; Miake, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence. Methods Monthly visits were performed between April 2008 and March 2009 to randomly selected houses. During each visit, mosquito larvae were collected from indoors and outdoors containers by either dipping or pipetting. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified. Data on temperature, relative humidity, rain/precipitations during the survey period was retrieved from governmental sources and analyzed. Results The city was warmer in dry season (DS) than wet season (WS). No rain occurred at all during DS and even precipitations did fall, wetting events were much greater during WS. Larval survey revealed the co-breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles in a variety of artificial containers in and around homes. 32 109 larvae representing 1st , 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stages were collected from 22 618 container habitats. Culicines was far the commonest and Aedes genus was as numerous as the Culex population. Ae. aegypti larval abundance exhibited marked temporal variations, overall, being usually more abundant during WS. Ten types of artificial containers were found with developing larvae. 70% of these habitats were located indoors. 71.42% of indoor containers were permanent and 28.58% was semi-permanent during WS. Cement tanks was the only container type permanent during DS. Ae. aegypti larval indices (CI, HI, BI) recorded were greater during WS. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate a high risk of dengue transmission in the holy city. PMID:23569860

  6. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  7. Community trust and household health: A spatially-based approach with evidence from rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarychta, Alan

    2015-12-01

    What is the relationship between community trust and household health? Scholars working to understand the effects of trust and social capital on human health tend to focus on individual characteristics or social environments, frequently without integrating these two dimensions. In light of this, the present paper makes contributions in both conceptualization and measurement. First, I develop a spatially-based approach for operationalizing community trust as the product of individual orientation and social environment. This approach highlights the need for a household to trust its neighbors and for those neighbors to reciprocate trust in order to constitute the psychological and material mechanisms critical for linking social context to individual health. Second, I illustrate the utility of this measure by evaluating the relationship between community trust and self-rated health status using an original population census survey from 2009 to 2010 for two municipalities in western Honduras (approximately 2800 households with a response rate of 94.9%). I implement spatial regression analysis and show that there is a positive and substantively meaningful relationship between community trust and household health; households that are trusting and surrounded by similarly trusting neighbors report better health status, while those in uncertain or mutually distrusting environments report worse health. The theory and results presented here suggest an important link between trust and social capital at the community level, which is particularly salient for rural regions in developing countries where health resources are scarce and community-based interventions are common. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated surgical academic training in the UK: a cross-sectional