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Sample records for integrated hiv cdna

  1. LEDGF/p75 Deficiency Increases Deletions at the HIV-1 cDNA Ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Murilo T D; Reyes, Daniel; Llano, Manuel

    2017-09-15

    Processing of unintegrated linear HIV-1 cDNA by the host DNA repair system results in its degradation and/or circularization. As a consequence, deficient viral cDNA integration generally leads to an increase in the levels of HIV-1 cDNA circles containing one or two long terminal repeats (LTRs). Intriguingly, impaired HIV-1 integration in LEDGF/p75-deficient cells does not result in a correspondent increase in viral cDNA circles. We postulate that increased degradation of unintegrated linear viral cDNA in cells lacking the lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) account for this inconsistency. To evaluate this hypothesis, we characterized the nucleotide sequence spanning 2-LTR junctions isolated from LEDGF/p75-deficient and control cells. LEDGF/p75 deficiency resulted in a significant increase in the frequency of 2-LTRs harboring large deletions. Of note, these deletions were dependent on the 3' processing activity of integrase and were not originated by aberrant reverse transcription. Our findings suggest a novel role of LEDGF/p75 in protecting the unintegrated 3' processed linear HIV-1 cDNA from exonucleolytic degradation.

  2. c-DNA of HIV-1 detection on spot of Buffy-Coat of leukocytes (DBCS)

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Rossi de Gasperis; Maria Daniela Caione; Carlo Concato; Ersilia Fiscarelli; Nicola Di Pietro; Vittorio Salotti; Lorenza Putignani; Donato Menichella; Francesco Callea

    2010-01-01

    Introduction:The elective way for the diagnosis of HIV-1-infection in the window period and in children under the age of 16-18 months is to search virus integrated in leukocytes. Aim of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of extraction from Buffy-Dried Coat Spot (DBCS) in leukocyte to detect c-DNA with nested-PCR in HIV-1-infected individuals compared to Dried Blood Spot (DBS) both extracted by automated instrument EZ1 (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany). Both DBCS and both DBS were...

  3. Thalassiolins A-C: new marine-derived inhibitors of HIV cDNA integrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, David C; Hansen, Mark S T; Rhodes, Denise; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Ni, Haihong; McCammon, J Andrew; Bushman, Frederic D; Fenical, William

    2002-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication requires integration of viral cDNA into the host genome, a process mediated by the viral enzyme integrase. We describe a new series of HIV integrase inhibitors, thalassiolins A-C (1-3), isolated from the Caribbean sea grass Thalassia testudinum. The thalassiolins are distinguished from other flavones previously studied by the substitution of a sulfated beta-D-glucose at the 7-position, a substituent that imparts increased potency against integrase in biochemical assays. The most active of these molecules, thalassiolin A (1), displays in vitro inhibition of the integrase catalyzed strand transfer reaction (IC50=0.4 microM) and an antiviral IC50 of 30 microM. Molecular modeling studies indicate a favorable binding mode is probable at the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase.

  4. c-DNA of HIV-1 detection on spot of Buffy-Coat of leukocytes (DBCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rossi de Gasperis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The elective way for the diagnosis of HIV-1-infection in the window period and in children under the age of 16-18 months is to search virus integrated in leukocytes. Aim of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of extraction from Buffy-Dried Coat Spot (DBCS in leukocyte to detect c-DNA with nested-PCR in HIV-1-infected individuals compared to Dried Blood Spot (DBS both extracted by automated instrument EZ1 (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany. Both DBCS and both DBS were compared with those tests from whole blood by conventional DNA-extraction Methods: Five ml of whole blood from 50 HIV-infected individuals were collected. 40 μl of each sample were spotted on “FTA ELUTE Micro Card” (Whatman, Inc., Clifton, NJ, 200 μl were extracted according to the manual procedure (QIAGEN “QIAamp DNA minikit and the remaining sample was incubated at 37 °C for 120 minutes. Plasma was centrifuged at 1000 rcf/1g for 10 minutes at room temperature. Forty μl of the obtained buffy-coat was spotted. Both DBCS and both DBS were dried at room temperature for 24 hours.Two of 5 punch from each spot were extracted with TISSUE DNA kit (Biorobot EZ1 DSP “Qiagen” and eluted in 50 μl of buffer.The recovery of genomic DNA was measured amplifying the ß-globin gene by Real-Time “SybrGreen I”.The DNA was amplified for the “pol” gene of HIV-1 by nested PCR and revealed in “SYBR-green I”. Eight HIV-antibody-negative samples were used as internal control. Results:The experimental protocol adopted for the DBCS showed high sensitivity and specificity.The extracted DNA from DBS and DBCS was characterized by excellent quality and without any inhibitory agents. The amount of proviral DNA extracted from DBCS is similar to that obtained by conventional extraction, while the DBS test was significantly less sensitive. Conclusion:These preliminary data suggest that the amount of c-DNA obtained with DBS technique is often not enough for the

  5. Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on the ADAM10 intracellular domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endsley, Mark A.; Somasunderam, Anoma D.; Li, Guangyu; Oezguen, Numan; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Murray, James L.; Rubin, Donald H.; Hodge, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that ADAM10 is necessary for HIV-1 replication in primary human macrophages and immortalized cell lines. Silencing ADAM10 expression interrupted the HIV-1 life cycle prior to nuclear translocation of viral cDNA. Furthermore, our data indicated that HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase, which proteolytically processes ADAM10. Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits HIV-1 replication between reverse transcription and nuclear entry. Here, we show that ADAM10 expression also supports replication in CD4 + T lymphocytes. The intracellular domain (ICD) of ADAM10 associates with the HIV-1 pre-integration complex (PIC) in the cytoplasm and immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with HIV-1 integrase, a key component of PIC. Taken together, our data support a model whereby ADAM15/γ-secretase processing of ADAM10 releases the ICD, which then incorporates into HIV-1 PIC to facilitate nuclear trafficking. Thus, these studies suggest ADAM10 as a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting HIV-1 prior to nuclear entry. - Highlights: • Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on ADAM10. • ADAM10 associates with HIV-1 integrase in the pre-integration complex. • HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase. • Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits nuclear import of viral cDNA. • ADAM10 is important for HIV-1 replication in human macrophages and CD4 + T lymphocytes

  6. Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on the ADAM10 intracellular domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endsley, Mark A., E-mail: maendsle@utmb.edu [Department Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Somasunderam, Anoma D., E-mail: asomasun@utmb.edu [Department Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Li, Guangyu, E-mail: LIG001@mail.etsu.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Oezguen, Numan, E-mail: numan.oezguen@bcm.edu [Department of Pathology and Immunology, Microbiome Center, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa, E-mail: Varatharasa.Thiviyanathan@uth.tmc.edu [Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Murray, James L., E-mail: jmurray100@yahoo.com [GeneTAG Technology, Inc., 3155 Northwoods Place, Norcross, GA 30071 (United States); Rubin, Donald H., E-mail: don.h.rubin@vanderbilt.edu [Research Medicine, VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, 1310 24th Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37212 (United States); Departments of Medicine, Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 1161 21st Ave South, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Hodge, Thomas W., E-mail: twhodge3@gmail.com [Pre-clinical and Antiviral Research, Tamir Biotechnology, Inc., 12625 High Bluff Dr., Suite 113, San Diego, CA 92130 (United States); and others

    2014-04-15

    Previously, we showed that ADAM10 is necessary for HIV-1 replication in primary human macrophages and immortalized cell lines. Silencing ADAM10 expression interrupted the HIV-1 life cycle prior to nuclear translocation of viral cDNA. Furthermore, our data indicated that HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase, which proteolytically processes ADAM10. Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits HIV-1 replication between reverse transcription and nuclear entry. Here, we show that ADAM10 expression also supports replication in CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes. The intracellular domain (ICD) of ADAM10 associates with the HIV-1 pre-integration complex (PIC) in the cytoplasm and immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with HIV-1 integrase, a key component of PIC. Taken together, our data support a model whereby ADAM15/γ-secretase processing of ADAM10 releases the ICD, which then incorporates into HIV-1 PIC to facilitate nuclear trafficking. Thus, these studies suggest ADAM10 as a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting HIV-1 prior to nuclear entry. - Highlights: • Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on ADAM10. • ADAM10 associates with HIV-1 integrase in the pre-integration complex. • HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase. • Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits nuclear import of viral cDNA. • ADAM10 is important for HIV-1 replication in human macrophages and CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes.

  7. Retroviral DNA Integration Directed by HIV Integration Protein in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Frederic D.; Fujiwara, Tamio; Craigie, Robert

    1990-09-01

    Efficient retroviral growth requires integration of a DNA copy of the viral RNA genome into a chromosome of the host. As a first step in analyzing the mechanism of integration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA, a cell-free system was established that models the integration reaction. The in vitro system depends on the HIV integration (IN) protein, which was partially purified from insect cells engineered to express IN protein in large quantities. Integration was detected in a biological assay that scores the insertion of a linear DNA containing HIV terminal sequences into a λ DNA target. Some integration products generated in this assay contained five-base pair duplications of the target DNA at the recombination junctions, a characteristic of HIV integration in vivo; the remaining products contained aberrant junctional sequences that may have been produced in a variation of the normal reaction. These results indicate that HIV IN protein is the only viral protein required to insert model HIV DNA sequences into a target DNA in vitro.

  8. Changes in the topology of gene expression networks by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Girón, María Juliana; García-Vallejo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    One key step of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is the integration of its viral cDNA. This process is mediated through complex networks of host-virus interactions that alter several normal cell functions of the host. To study the complexity of disturbances in cell gene expression networks by HIV-1 integration, we constructed a network of human macrophage genes located close to chromatin regions rich in proviruses. To perform the network analysis, we selected 28 genes previously identified as the target of cDNA integration and their transcriptional profiles were obtained from GEO Profiles (NCBI). A total of 2770 interactions among the 28 genes located around the HIV-1 proviruses in human macrophages formed a highly dense main network connected to five sub-networks. The overall network was significantly enriched by genes associated with signal transduction, cellular communication and regulatory processes. To simulate the effects of HIV-1 integration in infected macrophages, five genes with the most number of interaction in the normal network were turned off by putting in zero the correspondent expression values. The HIV-1 infected network showed changes in its topology and alteration in the macrophage functions reflected in a re-programming of biosynthetic and general metabolic process. Understanding the complex virus-host interactions that occur during HIV-1 integration, may provided valuable genomic information to develop new antiviral treatments focusing on the management of some specific gene expression networks associated with viral integration. This is the first gene network which describes the human macrophages genes interactions related with HIV-1 integration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrative annotation of 21,037 human genes validated by full-length cDNA clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Imanishi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The human genome sequence defines our inherent biological potential; the realization of the biology encoded therein requires knowledge of the function of each gene. Currently, our knowledge in this area is still limited. Several lines of investigation have been used to elucidate the structure and function of the genes in the human genome. Even so, gene prediction remains a difficult task, as the varieties of transcripts of a gene may vary to a great extent. We thus performed an exhaustive integrative characterization of 41,118 full-length cDNAs that capture the gene transcripts as complete functional cassettes, providing an unequivocal report of structural and functional diversity at the gene level. Our international collaboration has validated 21,037 human gene candidates by analysis of high-quality full-length cDNA clones through curation using unified criteria. This led to the identification of 5,155 new gene candidates. It also manifested the most reliable way to control the quality of the cDNA clones. We have developed a human gene database, called the H-Invitational Database (H-InvDB; http://www.h-invitational.jp/. It provides the following: integrative annotation of human genes, description of gene structures, details of novel alternative splicing isoforms, non-protein-coding RNAs, functional domains, subcellular localizations, metabolic pathways, predictions of protein three-dimensional structure, mapping of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, identification of polymorphic microsatellite repeats within human genes, and comparative results with mouse full-length cDNAs. The H-InvDB analysis has shown that up to 4% of the human genome sequence (National Center for Biotechnology Information build 34 assembly may contain misassembled or missing regions. We found that 6.5% of the human gene candidates (1,377 loci did not have a good protein-coding open reading frame, of which 296 loci are strong candidates for non-protein-coding RNA

  10. An integrated PCR colony hybridization approach to screen cDNA libraries for full-length coding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollier, Jacob; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Ardiles-Diaz, Wilson; Geelen, Danny; Goossens, Alain

    2011-01-01

    cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) is a commonly used technique for genome-wide expression analysis that does not require prior sequence knowledge. Typically, quantitative expression data and sequence information are obtained for a large number of differentially expressed gene tags. However, most of the gene tags do not correspond to full-length (FL) coding sequences, which is a prerequisite for subsequent functional analysis. A medium-throughput screening strategy, based on integration of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colony hybridization, was developed that allows in parallel screening of a cDNA library for FL clones corresponding to incomplete cDNAs. The method was applied to screen for the FL open reading frames of a selection of 163 cDNA-AFLP tags from three different medicinal plants, leading to the identification of 109 (67%) FL clones. Furthermore, the protocol allows for the use of multiple probes in a single hybridization event, thus significantly increasing the throughput when screening for rare transcripts. The presented strategy offers an efficient method for the conversion of incomplete expressed sequence tags (ESTs), such as cDNA-AFLP tags, to FL-coding sequences.

  11. HIV integration sites and implications for maintenance of the reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Jori; Cameron, Paul U; Lewin, Sharon R

    2018-03-01

    To provide an overview of recent research of how HIV integration relates to productive and latent infection and implications for cure strategies. How and where HIV integrates provides new insights into how HIV persists on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Clonal expansion of infected cells with the same integration site demonstrates that T-cell proliferation is an important factor in HIV persistence, however, the driver of proliferation remains unclear. Clones with identical integration sites harbouring defective provirus can accumulate in HIV-infected individuals on ART and defective proviruses can express RNA and produce protein. HIV integration sites differ in clonally expanded and nonexpanded cells and in latently and productively infected cells and this influences basal and inducible transcription. There is a growing number of cellular proteins that can alter the pattern of integration to favour latency. Understanding these pathways may identify new interventions to eliminate latently infected cells. Using advances in analysing HIV integration sites, T-cell proliferation of latently infected cells is thought to play a major role in HIV persistence. Clonal expansion has been demonstrated with both defective and intact viruses. Production of viral RNA and protein from defective viruses may play a role in driving chronic immune activation. The site of integration may determine the likelihood of proliferation and the degree of basal and induced transcription. Finally, host factors and gene expression at the time of infection may determine the integration site. Together these new insights may lead to novel approaches to elimination of latently infected cells.

  12. Damaging the Integrated HIV Proviral DNA with TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy L Strong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 integrates its proviral DNA genome into the host genome, presenting barriers for virus eradication. Several new gene-editing technologies have emerged that could potentially be used to damage integrated proviral DNA. In this study, we use transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs to target a highly conserved sequence in the transactivation response element (TAR of the HIV-1 proviral DNA. We demonstrated that TALENs cleave a DNA template with the HIV-1 proviral target site in vitro. A GFP reporter, under control of HIV-1 TAR, was efficiently inactivated by mutations introduced by transfection of TALEN plasmids. When infected cells containing the full-length integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA were transfected with TALENs, the TAR region accumulated indels. When one of these mutants was tested, the mutated HIV-1 proviral DNA was incapable of producing detectable Gag expression. TALEN variants engineered for degenerate recognition of select nucleotide positions also cleaved proviral DNA in vitro and the full-length integrated proviral DNA genome in living cells. These results suggest a possible design strategy for the therapeutic considerations of incomplete target sequence conservation and acquired resistance mutations. We have established a new strategy for damaging integrated HIV proviral DNA that may have future potential for HIV-1 proviral DNA eradication.

  13. Integrating family planning into HIV care in western Kenya: HIV care providers' perspectives and experiences one year following integration.

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    Newmann, Sara J; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Tao, Amy R; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Steinfeld, Rachel; Grossman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    With high rates of unintended pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa, integration of family planning (FP) into HIV care is being explored as a strategy to reduce unmet need for contraception. Perspectives and experiences of healthcare providers are critical in order to create sustainable models of integrated care. This qualitative study offers insight into how HIV care providers view and experience the benefits and challenges of providing integrated FP/HIV services in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Sixteen individual interviews were conducted among healthcare workers at six public sector HIV care facilities one year after the implementation of integrated FP and HIV services. Data were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively using grounded theory methods and Atlas.ti. Providers reported a number of benefits of integrated services that they believed increased the uptake and continuation of contraceptive methods. They felt that integrated services enabled them to reach a larger number of female and male patients and in a more efficient way for patients compared to non-integrated services. Availability of FP services in the same place as HIV care also eliminated the need for most referrals, which many providers saw as a barrier for patients seeking FP. Providers reported many challenges to providing integrated services, including the lack of space, time, and sufficient staff, inadequate training, and commodity shortages. Despite these challenges, the vast majority of providers was supportive of FP/HIV integration and found integrated services to be beneficial to HIV-infected patients. Providers' concerns relating to staffing, infrastructure, and training need to be addressed in order to create sustainable, cost-effective FP/HIV integrated service models.

  14. Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in Tanzania: Implication to policy, systems and services. ... Experts around the world recognize the central role of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services in preventing HIV infection. Evidence suggests that improving access to contraception for women to ...

  15. Integrating Family Planning and HIV Services at the Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Little is known on integrating HIV and family planning (FP) services in community settings. Using a cluster randomized ..... process evaluation data from several studies on facility-based ... PEPFAR blueprint: Creating an AIDS-free generation.

  16. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 integration targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Alan N; Singh, Parmit K

    2018-07-01

    Integration is central to HIV-1 replication and helps mold the reservoir of cells that persists in AIDS patients. HIV-1 interacts with specific cellular factors to target integration to interior regions of transcriptionally active genes within gene-dense regions of chromatin. The viral capsid interacts with several proteins that are additionally implicated in virus nuclear import, including cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 6, to suppress integration into heterochromatin. The viral integrase protein interacts with transcriptional co-activator lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 to principally position integration within gene bodies. The integrase additionally senses target DNA distortion and nucleotide sequence to help fine-tune the specific phosphodiester bonds that are cleaved at integration sites. Research into virus-host interactions that underlie HIV-1 integration targeting has aided the development of a novel class of integrase inhibitors and may help to improve the safety of viral-based gene therapy vectors.

  17. RCT of an integrated CBT-HIV intervention on depressive symptoms and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Karin; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Nonyane, Bareng A S; Knowlton, Amy; Wissow, Lawrence; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-01-01

    Depression and depressive symptoms mediate the association between drug use and HIV risk. Yet, there are few interventions that target depressive symptoms and HIV risk for people who use drugs (PWUD). This study was a randomized controlled trial of an integrated cognitive behavioral therapy and HIV prevention intervention to reduce depressive symptoms, injection risk behaviors and increase condom use in a sample of urban people who used heroin or cocaine in the prior 6 months. A total of 315 individuals aged 18-55, who self-reported at least one HIV drug and sex risk behavior and scored ≥16 and symptoms, but weak impact on HIV risk. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under the title "Neighborhoods, Networks, Depression, and HIV Risk" number NCT01380613.

  18. The politics of tuberculosis and HIV service integration in Ghana.

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    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Fosuah Amo, Hannah; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi

    2014-09-01

    The need to integrate TB/HIV control programmes has become critical due to the comorbidity regarding these diseases and the need to optimise the use of resources. In developing countries such as Ghana, where public health interventions depend on donor funds, the integration of the two programmes has become more urgent. This paper explores stakeholders' views on the integration of TB/HIV control programmes in Ghana within the remits of contingency theory. With 31 purposively selected informants from four regions, semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted between March and May 2012, and the data collected were analysed using the inductive approach. The results showed both support for and opposition to integration, as well as some of the avoidable challenges inherent in combining TB/HIV control. While those who supported integration based their arguments on clinical synergies and the need to promote the efficient use of resources, those who opposed integration cited the potential increase in workload, the clinical complications associated with joint management, the potential for a leadership crisis, and the "smaller the better" propositions to support their stance. Although a policy on TB/HIV integration exists, inadequate 'political will' from the top management of both programmes has trickled down to lower levels, which has stifled progress towards the comprehensive management of TB/HIV and particularly leading to weak data collection and management structures and unsatisfactory administration of co-trimoxazole for co-infected patients. It is our view that the leadership of both programmes show an increased commitment to protocols involving the integration of TB/HIV, followed by a commitment to addressing the 'fears' of frontline service providers to encourage confidence in the process of service integration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-communicable diseases and HIV care and treatment: models of integrated service delivery.

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    Duffy, Malia; Ojikutu, Bisola; Andrian, Soa; Sohng, Elaine; Minior, Thomas; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2017-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a growing cause of morbidity in low-income countries including in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Integration of NCD and HIV services can build upon experience with chronic care models from HIV programmes. We describe models of NCD and HIV integration, challenges and lessons learned. A literature review of published articles on integrated NCD and HIV programs in low-income countries and key informant interviews were conducted with leaders of identified integrated NCD and HIV programs. Information was synthesised to identify models of NCD and HIV service delivery integration. Three models of integration were identified as follows: NCD services integrated into centres originally providing HIV care; HIV care integrated into primary health care (PHC) already offering NCD services; and simultaneous introduction of integrated HIV and NCD services. Major challenges identified included NCD supply chain, human resources, referral systems, patient education, stigma, patient records and monitoring and evaluation. The range of HIV and NCD services varied widely within and across models. Regardless of model of integration, leveraging experience from HIV care models and adapting existing systems and tools is a feasible method to provide efficient care and treatment for the growing numbers of patients with NCDs. Operational research should be conducted to further study how successful models of HIV and NCD integration can be expanded in scope and scaled-up by managers and policymakers seeking to address all the chronic care needs of their patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Integrated syphilis/HIV screening in China: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yue-Pin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last decade has seen enormous advances in HIV treatment and care, but how to implement scaled up HIV testing, prevention, and treatment in low-income areas still presents a formidable public health challenge. South China faces expanding syphilis and sexually transmitted HIV epidemics, but health systems characteristics important for scaling up syphilis and HIV testing have not been defined. Methods A purposive sample to ensure public, private, and public-private hybrid STI clinic inclusion was selected in a South China city. Eight key informant interviews were conducted with the STI clinic manager, followed by eight focus group discussions with physicians. Data collection relied on a semi-structured format that included questions in each of the following domains: 1 clinical facilities; 2 laboratory capacity with a focus on syphilis/HIV diagnosis; 3 clinic personnel; 4 physical space with a focus on locations to disclose confidential results; 5 financial support. Results Public STI clinics had free syphilis testing/treatment and laboratory facilities to perform essential syphilis and HIV tests. However, despite serving a large number of STI patients, private STI clinics lacked nontreponemal syphilis testing, HIV testing, and had fewer connections to the public health infrastructure. Formally trained assistant physicians were 2.5 times as common as physicians at STI clinics. Only one of the 8 sites had onsite voluntary counseling and testing (VCT services available. Conclusion These STI case studies reveal the potential for expanding integrated syphilis/HIV services at public STI clinics in China. More health services research is needed to guide scale-up of syphilis/HIV testing in China.

  1. Human Resource Challenges to Integrating HIV Pre-Exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    These challenges paralleled current challenges related to integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and ..... is not additional work but is rather another HIV ... should be added to performance contracts (terms of ... stress and burnout, difficulty adhering to time- ... Similarly, the role of ... (diploma level) nursing officers or clinical.

  2. Integrating tuberculosis/HIV treatment: an evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Seventy-four per cent of patients completed their treatment and 26% were cured, with no defaults or deaths, in the tubercuolosis/HIV integrated cohort. Thirty-eight per cent completed their treatment, 45% were cured, 9% died and another 9% defaulted in the cohort receiving their tuberculosis treatment at a local ...

  3. Integrating tuberculosis/HIV treatment: an evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-25

    Jan 25, 2013 ... Scientific Letter: Integrating tuberculosis/HIV treatment: 479. Vol 55 No 5. SA Fam Pract 2013 treatment outcomes were applied where “cured” refers to patients with sputum conversion and “completed” to patients who completed treatment but did not meet the criteria for cure or failure – this includes patient ...

  4. Program collaboration and service integration activities among HIV programs in 59 U.S. health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz Harris, Lauren F; Toledo, Lauren; Dunbar, Erica; Aquino, Gustavo A; Nesheim, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    We identified the level and type of program collaboration and service integration (PCSI) among HIV prevention programs in 59 CDC-funded health department jurisdictions. Annual progress reports (APRs) completed by all 59 health departments funded by CDC for HIV prevention activities were reviewed for collaborative and integrated activities reported by HIV programs for calendar year 2009. We identified associations between PCSI activities and funding, AIDS diagnosis rate, and organizational integration. HIV programs collaborated with other health department programs through data-related activities, provider training, and providing funding for sexually transmitted disease (STD) activities in 24 (41%), 31 (53%), and 16 (27%) jurisdictions, respectively. Of the 59 jurisdictions, 57 (97%) reported integrated HIV and STD testing at the same venue, 39 (66%) reported integrated HIV and tuberculosis testing, and 26 (44%) reported integrated HIV and viral hepatitis testing. Forty-five (76%) jurisdictions reported providing integrated education/outreach activities for HIV and at least one other disease. Twenty-six (44%) jurisdictions reported integrated partner services among HIV and STD programs. Overall, the level of PCSI activities was not associated with HIV funding, AIDS diagnoses, or organizational integration. HIV programs in health departments collaborate primarily with STD programs. Key PCSI activities include integrated testing, integrated education/outreach, and training. Future assessments are needed to evaluate PCSI activities and to identify the level of collaboration and integration among prevention programs.

  5. Using HIV&AIDS statistics in pre-service Mathematics Education to integrate HIV&AIDS education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laren, Linda

    2012-12-01

    In South Africa, the HIV&AIDS education policy documents indicate opportunities for integration across disciplines/subjects. There are different interpretations of integration/inclusion and mainstreaming HIV&AIDS education, and numerous levels of integration. Integration ensures that learners experience the disciplines/subjects as being linked and related, and integration is required to support and expand the learners' opportunities to attain skills, acquire knowledge and develop attitudes and values across the curriculum. This study makes use of self-study methodology where I, a teacher educator, aim to improve my practice through including HIV&AIDS statistics in Mathematics Education. This article focuses on how I used HIV&AIDS statistics to facilitate pre-service teacher reflection and introduce them to integration of HIV&AIDS education across the curriculum. After pre-service teachers were provided with HIV statistics, they drew a pie chart which graphically illustrated the situation and reflected on issues relating to HIV&AIDS. Three themes emerged from the analysis of their reflections. The themes relate to the need for further HIV&AIDS education, the changing pastoral role of teachers and the changing context of teaching. This information indicates that the use of statistics is an appropriate means of initiating the integration of HIV&AIDS education into the academic curriculum.

  6. Quantification of integrated HIV DNA by repetitive-sampling Alu-HIV PCR on the basis of poisson statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Spiegelaere, Ward; Malatinkova, Eva; Lynch, Lindsay; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Messiaen, Peter; O'Doherty, Una; Vandekerckhove, Linos

    2014-06-01

    Quantification of integrated proviral HIV DNA by repetitive-sampling Alu-HIV PCR is a candidate virological tool to monitor the HIV reservoir in patients. However, the experimental procedures and data analysis of the assay are complex and hinder its widespread use. Here, we provide an improved and simplified data analysis method by adopting binomial and Poisson statistics. A modified analysis method on the basis of Poisson statistics was used to analyze the binomial data of positive and negative reactions from a 42-replicate Alu-HIV PCR by use of dilutions of an integration standard and on samples of 57 HIV-infected patients. Results were compared with the quantitative output of the previously described Alu-HIV PCR method. Poisson-based quantification of the Alu-HIV PCR was linearly correlated with the standard dilution series, indicating that absolute quantification with the Poisson method is a valid alternative for data analysis of repetitive-sampling Alu-HIV PCR data. Quantitative outputs of patient samples assessed by the Poisson method correlated with the previously described Alu-HIV PCR analysis, indicating that this method is a valid alternative for quantifying integrated HIV DNA. Poisson-based analysis of the Alu-HIV PCR data enables absolute quantification without the need of a standard dilution curve. Implementation of the CI estimation permits improved qualitative analysis of the data and provides a statistical basis for the required minimal number of technical replicates. © 2014 The American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  7. Integration of HIV and TB Services Results in Improved TB Treatment Outcomes and Earlier Prioritized ART Initiation in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Sabine M.; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Katabira, Catherine; Mbidde, Peter; Lange, Joep M. A.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Coutinho, Alex; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization recommends that treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected patients should be integrated with HIV care. In December 2008, a separate outdoor-integrated TB/HIV clinic was instituted for attendees of a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. We sought to

  8. 5′ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and Illumina MiSeq Reveals B Cell Receptor Features in Healthy Adults, Adults With Chronic HIV-1 Infection, Cord Blood, and Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Waltari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends, Illumina MiSeq, and basic flow cytometry, we systematically analyzed the expressed B cell receptor (BCR repertoire in 14 healthy adult PBMCs, 5 HIV-1+ adult PBMCs, 5 cord blood samples, and 3 HIS-CD4/B mice, examining the full-length variable region of μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains for V-gene usage, somatic hypermutation (SHM, and CDR3 length. Adding to the known repertoire of healthy adults, Illumina MiSeq consistently detected small fractions of reads with high mutation frequencies including hypermutated μ reads, and reads with long CDR3s. Additionally, the less studied IgA repertoire displayed similar characteristics to that of IgG. Compared to healthy adults, the five HIV-1 chronically infected adults displayed elevated mutation frequencies for all μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains examined and slightly longer CDR3 lengths for γ, α, and λ. To evaluate the reconstituted human BCR sequences in a humanized mouse model, we analyzed cord blood and HIS-CD4/B mice, which all lacked the typical SHM seen in the adult reference. Furthermore, MiSeq revealed identical unmutated IgM sequences derived from separate cell aliquots, thus for the first time demonstrating rare clonal members of unmutated IgM B cells by sequencing.

  9. 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and Illumina MiSeq Reveals B Cell Receptor Features in Healthy Adults, Adults With Chronic HIV-1 Infection, Cord Blood, and Humanized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltari, Eric; Jia, Manxue; Jiang, Caroline S; Lu, Hong; Huang, Jing; Fernandez, Cristina; Finzi, Andrés; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Markowitz, Martin; Tsuji, Moriya; Wu, Xueling

    2018-01-01

    Using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, Illumina MiSeq, and basic flow cytometry, we systematically analyzed the expressed B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in 14 healthy adult PBMCs, 5 HIV-1+ adult PBMCs, 5 cord blood samples, and 3 HIS-CD4/B mice, examining the full-length variable region of μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains for V-gene usage, somatic hypermutation (SHM), and CDR3 length. Adding to the known repertoire of healthy adults, Illumina MiSeq consistently detected small fractions of reads with high mutation frequencies including hypermutated μ reads, and reads with long CDR3s. Additionally, the less studied IgA repertoire displayed similar characteristics to that of IgG. Compared to healthy adults, the five HIV-1 chronically infected adults displayed elevated mutation frequencies for all μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains examined and slightly longer CDR3 lengths for γ, α, and λ. To evaluate the reconstituted human BCR sequences in a humanized mouse model, we analyzed cord blood and HIS-CD4/B mice, which all lacked the typical SHM seen in the adult reference. Furthermore, MiSeq revealed identical unmutated IgM sequences derived from separate cell aliquots, thus for the first time demonstrating rare clonal members of unmutated IgM B cells by sequencing.

  10. Integrating mental health services into primary HIV care for women: the Whole Life project.

    OpenAIRE

    Dodds, Sally; Nuehring, Elane M.; Blaney, Nancy T.; Blakley, Theresa; Lizzotte, Jean-Marie; Lopez, Myriam; Potter, JoNell E.; O'Sullivan, Mary J.

    2004-01-01

    The high rate of mental health problems in HIV-infected women jeopardizes the health of this vulnerable population, and constitutes a mandate for integrating mental health services into HIV primary care. The Whole Life project-a collaboration of the departments of Psychiatry and Obstetrics/Gynecology at the University of Miami School of Medicine-successfully integrated mental health services into primary HIV care for women. This article describes the conceptual framework of the integration, i...

  11. Sequence-specific activation of the DNA sensor cGAS by Y-form DNA structures as found in primary HIV-1 cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzner, Anna-Maria; Hagmann, Cristina Amparo; Goldeck, Marion; Wolter, Steven; Kübler, Kirsten; Wittmann, Sabine; Gramberg, Thomas; Andreeva, Liudmila; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Mertens, Christina; Zillinger, Thomas; Jin, Tengchuan; Xiao, Tsan Sam; Bartok, Eva; Coch, Christoph; Ackermann, Damian; Hornung, Veit; Ludwig, Janos; Barchet, Winfried; Hartmann, Gunther; Schlee, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Cytosolic DNA that emerges during infection with a retrovirus or DNA virus triggers antiviral type I interferon responses. So far, only double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) over 40 base pairs (bp) in length has been considered immunostimulatory. Here we found that unpaired DNA nucleotides flanking short base-paired DNA stretches, as in stem-loop structures of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), activated the type I interferon-inducing DNA sensor cGAS in a sequence-dependent manner. DNA structures containing unpaired guanosines flanking short (12- to 20-bp) dsDNA (Y-form DNA) were highly stimulatory and specifically enhanced the enzymatic activity of cGAS. Furthermore, we found that primary HIV-1 reverse transcripts represented the predominant viral cytosolic DNA species during early infection of macrophages and that these ssDNAs were highly immunostimulatory. Collectively, our study identifies unpaired guanosines in Y-form DNA as a highly active, minimal cGAS recognition motif that enables detection of HIV-1 ssDNA.

  12. HIV/AIDS and Employment Research: A Need for an Integrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Liza Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a reflection on the three articles that compose the Major Contribution on HIV/AIDS and employment research. It highlights the merits of the contribution in the broader context of HIV/AIDS employment research and recommends future directions for this area of inquiry, including theory integration, an investigation of HIV health…

  13. Developing a Participatory Pedagogical and Multidisciplinary Approach for Integrating HIV/AIDS into University Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulwo, Abraham Kiprop; Chemai, Lemmy

    2015-01-01

    The current framework for integrating HIV/AIDS into university curriculum is mainly informed by the need to make HIV/AIDS education relevant to specific disciplines, and to equip graduates with necessary skills to respond to HIV/AIDS in their professional capacities. This strategy mainly emphasizes content and knowledge and largely ignores the…

  14. L-Chicoric acid inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration in vivo and is a noncompetitive but reversible inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, Ryan A.; Lee, Deborah J.; McDougall, Brenda R.; King, Peter J.; Victoria, Joseph; Mao Yingqun; Lei Xiangyang; Reinecke, Manfred G.; Robinson, W. Edward

    2004-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase (IN) must covalently join the viral cDNA into a host chromosome for productive HIV infection. L-Chicoric acid (L-CA) enters cells poorly but is a potent inhibitor of IN in vitro. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), L-CA inhibits integration at concentrations from 500 nM to 10 μM but also inhibits entry at concentrations above 1 μM. Using recombinant HIV IN, steady-state kinetic analyses with L-CA were consistent with a noncompetitive or irreversible mechanism of inhibition. IN, in the presence or absence of L-CA, was successively washed. Inhibition of IN diminished, demonstrating that L-CA was reversibly bound to the protein. These data demonstrate that L-CA is a noncompetitive but reversible inhibitor of IN in vitro and of HIV integration in vivo. Thus, L-CA likely interacts with amino acids other than those which bind substrate

  15. A Home Integral Telecare System for HIV/AIDS Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Cesar; Gomez, Enrique J; Garcia, Felipe; Chausa, Paloma; Guzman, Jorge; Del Pozo, Francisco; Gatell, Jose Maria

    2005-01-01

    VIHrtual Hospital is a telemedicine web system for improving home integral care of chronic HIV patients through the Internet. Using the videoconference, chat or messaging tools included in the system, patients can visit their healthcare providers (physician, psychologist, nurse, psychiatrist, pharmacist, and social worker), having these access to the Electronic Patient Record. The system also provides a telepharmacy service that controls treatment adherence and side effects, sending the medication to the patient's home by courier. A virtual community has been created, facilitating communication between patients and improving the collaboration between professionals, creating a care plan for each patient. As a complement, there is a virtual library where users can find validated HIV/AIDS information helping to enhance prevention. This system has been developed using low cost technologies in order to extend the number of patients involved in its trial. Thus, VIHrtual Hospital is now on trial in the Hospital Clinic (Barcelona, Spain) involving a hundred patients and twenty healthcare professionals during two years.Although we are still waiting for the final results of the trial, we can already say that the use of telemedicine systems developed ad hoc for a chronic disease, like HIV/AIDS, improve the quality of care of the patients and their care team. The system described is a good example of the possibilities that technologies are offering to create new chronic patient care models based on telemedicine.

  16. Bolstering the Evidence Base for Integrating Abortion and HIV Care: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Manski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-positive women have abortions at similar rates to their HIV-negative counterparts, yet little is known about clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women or the best practices for abortion provision. To fill that gap, we conducted a literature review of clinical outcomes of surgical and medication abortion among HIV-positive women. We identified three studies on clinical outcomes of surgical abortion among HIV-positive women; none showed significant differences in infectious complications by HIV status. A review of seven articles on similar gynecological procedures found no differences in complications by HIV status. No studies evaluated medication abortion among HIV-positive women. However, we did find that previously expressed concerns regarding blood loss and vomiting related to medication abortion for HIV-positive women are unwarranted based on our review of data showing that significant blood loss and vomiting are rare and short lived among women. We conclude that although there is limited research that addresses clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women, existing data suggest that medication and surgical abortion are safe and appropriate. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV integration efforts must include both options to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity and to ensure that HIV-positive women and women at risk of HIV can make informed reproductive decisions.

  17. Modulation of chromatin structure by the FACT histone chaperone complex regulates HIV-1 integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Julien; Lesbats, Paul; Mauro, Eric; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lopez, Angelica P; Benleulmi, Mohamed Salah; Calmels, Christina; Andreola, Marie-Line; Ruff, Marc; Llano, Manuel; Delelis, Olivier; Lavigne, Marc; Parissi, Vincent

    2017-07-28

    Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodeling has been reported to affect integration efficiency. LEDGF/p75-mediated targeting of the integration complex toward RNA polymerase II (polII) transcribed regions ensures optimal access to dynamic regions that are suitable for integration. Consequently, we have investigated the involvement of polII-associated factors in the regulation of HIV-1 integration. Using a pull down approach coupled with mass spectrometry, we have selected the FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) complex as a new potential cofactor of HIV-1 integration. FACT is a histone chaperone complex associated with the polII transcription machinery and recently shown to bind LEDGF/p75. We report here that a tripartite complex can be formed between HIV-1 integrase, LEDGF/p75 and FACT in vitro and in cells. Biochemical analyzes show that FACT-dependent nucleosome disassembly promotes HIV-1 integration into chromatinized templates, and generates highly favored nucleosomal structures in vitro. This effect was found to be amplified by LEDGF/p75. Promotion of this FACT-mediated chromatin remodeling in cells both increases chromatin accessibility and stimulates HIV-1 infectivity and integration. Altogether, our data indicate that FACT regulates HIV-1 integration by inducing local nucleosomes dissociation that modulates the functional association between the incoming intasome and the targeted nucleosome.

  18. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM ART INTERRUPTION ON LEVELS OF INTEGRATED HIV DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongin, Zachary; Sharaf, Radwa; VanBelzen, D Jake; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Connick, Elizabeth; Volberding, Paul; Skiest, Daniel J; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; O'Doherty, Una; Li, Jonathan Z

    2018-03-28

    Analytic treatment interruption (ATI) studies are required to evaluate strategies aimed at achieving ART-free HIV remission, but the impact of ATI on the viral reservoir remains unclear. We validated a DNA size selection-based assay for measuring levels of integrated HIV DNA and applied it to assess the effects of short-term ATI on the HIV reservoir. Samples from participants from four AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) ATI studies were assayed for integrated HIV DNA levels. Cryopreserved PBMCs were obtained for 12 participants with available samples pre-ATI and approximately 6 months after ART resumption. Four participants also had samples available during the ATI. The median duration of ATI was 12 weeks. Validation of the HIV Integrated DNA size-Exclusion (HIDE) assay was performed using samples spiked with unintegrated HIV DNA, HIV-infected cell lines, and participant PBMCs. The HIDE assay eliminated 99% of unintegrated HIV DNA species and strongly correlated with the established Alu- gag assay. For the majority of individuals, integrated DNA levels increased during ATI and subsequently declined upon ART resumption. There was no significant difference in levels of integrated HIV DNA between the pre- and post-ATI time points, with the median ratio of post:pre-ATI HIV DNA levels of 0.95. Using a new integrated HIV DNA assay, we found minimal change in the levels of integrated HIV DNA in participants who underwent an ATI followed by 6 months of ART. This suggests that short-term ATI can be conducted without a significant impact on levels of integrated proviral DNA in the peripheral blood. IMPORTANCE Interventions aimed at achieving sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free HIV remission require treatment interruption trials to assess their efficacy. However, these trials are accompanied by safety concerns related to the expansion of the viral reservoir. We validated an assay that uses an automated DNA size-selection platform for quantifying levels of integrated

  19. Integrating HIV & AIDS education in pre-service mathematics education for social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda van Laren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, many South African education policy documents have mandated integration of HIV & AIDS education in learning areas/disciplines. Policy document research has shown that although South African politicians and managers have produced volumes of eloquent and compelling legislation regarding provision for HIV & AIDS education, little of this is translated into action. The impact of HIV & AIDS permeates the social, economic and political arenas in South Africa. Integration of HIV & AIDS education across disciplines can serve as a strategy to further the ideals of social justice. This paper focuses on how integration in the teaching and learning of Mathematics Education provides opportunities to take action for social justice. The inquiry explores the following question: How can the myth that there is 'nothing we can do' about HIV & AIDS, which is linked to social justice issues, be addressed through integration of HIV & AIDS education in Mathematics pre-service teacher education? Drawing on self-study, the work of a Mathematics teacher educator who worked with pre-service teachers to integrate HIV & AIDS education at a higher education institution is described. By considering integration of HIV & AIDS education in Mathematics Education and taking action it is possible to develop strategies which directly relate to social justice.

  20. The HIV epidemic and sexual and reproductive health policy integration: views of South African policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Diane; Mantell, Joanne E; Moodley, Jennifer; Mall, Sumaya

    2015-03-04

    Integration of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV policies and services delivered by the same provider is prioritised worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is highest. South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme in the world, with an estimated 2.7 million people on ART, elevating South Africa's prominence as a global leader in HIV treatment. In 2011, the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society published safer conception guidelines for people living with HIV (PLWH) and in 2013, the South African government published contraceptive guidelines highlighting the importance of SRH and fertility planning services for people living with HIV. Addressing unintended pregnancies, safer conception and maternal health issues is crucial for improving PLWH's SRH and combatting the global HIV epidemic. This paper explores South African policymakers' perspectives on public sector SRH-HIV policy integration, with a special focus on the need for national and regional policies on safer conception for PLWH and contraceptive guidelines implementation. It draws on 42 in-depth interviews with national, provincial and civil society policymakers conducted between 2008-2009 and 2011-2012, as the number of people on ART escalated. Interviews focused on three key domains: opinions on PLWH's childbearing; the status of SRH-HIV integration policies and services; and thoughts and suggestions on SRH-HIV integration within the restructuring of South African primary care services. Data were coded and analysed according to themes. Participants supported SRH-HIV integrated policy and services. However, integration challenges identified included a lack of policy and guidelines, inadequately trained providers, vertical programming, provider work overload, and a weak health system. Participants acknowledged that SRH-HIV integration policies, particularly for safer conception, contraception and cervical cancer, had been neglected. Policymakers

  1. Innovation in Evaluating the Impact of Integrated Service-Delivery: The Integra Indexes of HIV and Reproductive Health Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Susannah H; Ploubidis, George B; Sloggett, Andy; Church, Kathryn; Obure, Carol D; Birdthistle, Isolde; Sweeney, Sedona; Warren, Charlotte E; Watts, Charlotte; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The body of knowledge on evaluating complex interventions for integrated healthcare lacks both common definitions of 'integrated service delivery' and standard measures of impact. Using multiple data sources in combination with statistical modelling the aim of this study is to develop a measure of HIV-reproductive health (HIV-RH) service integration that can be used to assess the degree of service integration, and the degree to which integration may have health benefits to clients, or reduce service costs. Data were drawn from the Integra Initiative's client flow (8,263 clients in Swaziland and 25,539 in Kenya) and costing tools implemented between 2008-2012 in 40 clinics providing RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. We used latent variable measurement models to derive dimensions of HIV-RH integration using these data, which quantified the extent and type of integration between HIV and RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. The modelling produced two clear and uncorrelated dimensions of integration at facility level leading to the development of two sub-indexes: a Structural Integration Index (integrated physical and human resource infrastructure) and a Functional Integration Index (integrated delivery of services to clients). The findings highlight the importance of multi-dimensional assessments of integration, suggesting that structural integration is not sufficient to achieve the integrated delivery of care to clients--i.e. "functional integration". These Indexes are an important methodological contribution for evaluating complex multi-service interventions. They help address the need to broaden traditional evaluations of integrated HIV-RH care through the incorporation of a functional integration measure, to avoid misleading conclusions on its 'impact' on health outcomes. This is particularly important for decision-makers seeking to promote integration in resource constrained environments.

  2. Innovation in Evaluating the Impact of Integrated Service-Delivery: The Integra Indexes of HIV and Reproductive Health Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah H Mayhew

    Full Text Available The body of knowledge on evaluating complex interventions for integrated healthcare lacks both common definitions of 'integrated service delivery' and standard measures of impact. Using multiple data sources in combination with statistical modelling the aim of this study is to develop a measure of HIV-reproductive health (HIV-RH service integration that can be used to assess the degree of service integration, and the degree to which integration may have health benefits to clients, or reduce service costs.Data were drawn from the Integra Initiative's client flow (8,263 clients in Swaziland and 25,539 in Kenya and costing tools implemented between 2008-2012 in 40 clinics providing RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. We used latent variable measurement models to derive dimensions of HIV-RH integration using these data, which quantified the extent and type of integration between HIV and RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. The modelling produced two clear and uncorrelated dimensions of integration at facility level leading to the development of two sub-indexes: a Structural Integration Index (integrated physical and human resource infrastructure and a Functional Integration Index (integrated delivery of services to clients. The findings highlight the importance of multi-dimensional assessments of integration, suggesting that structural integration is not sufficient to achieve the integrated delivery of care to clients--i.e. "functional integration".These Indexes are an important methodological contribution for evaluating complex multi-service interventions. They help address the need to broaden traditional evaluations of integrated HIV-RH care through the incorporation of a functional integration measure, to avoid misleading conclusions on its 'impact' on health outcomes. This is particularly important for decision-makers seeking to promote integration in resource constrained environments.

  3. Intestinal Integrity Biomarkers in Early Antiretroviral-Treated Perinatally HIV-1-Infected Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Wei Li A; Lindsey, Jane C; Uprety, Priyanka; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsa; Weinberg, Adriana; Levin, Myron J; Persaud, Deborah

    2018-05-12

    Biomarkers of intestinal integrity (intestinal fatty acid binding protein (iFABP) and zonulin), were compared in early antiretroviral-treated, HIV-1-infected (HIV+; n=56) African infants and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU; n=53) controls. Despite heightened inflammation and immune activation in HIV+ infants, iFABP and zonulin levels at three months of age were not different from those in HEU infants, and largely not correlated with inflammatory and immune activation biomarkers. However, zonulin levels increased, and became significantly higher in HIV+ compared to HEU infants by five months of age despite ART-suppression. These findings have implications for intestinal integrity biomarker profiling in perinatal HIV-1 infection.

  4. Integrating Buddhism and HIV prevention in U.S. southeast Asian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loue, S; Lane, S D; Lloyd, L S; Loh, L

    1999-02-01

    Asian Pacific Islander communities in the United States have experienced an alarming increase in HIV infection over the past few years, possibly due to a lack of knowledge and the relative absence of appropriate educational interventions. The authors propose a new approach to the development of HIV prevention programs in U.S. southeast Asian communities. This article reviews the cultural and economic factors that may facilitate HIV transmission within these communities. Relying on the basic precepts of Buddhism, the dominant religion of many southeast Asian populations in the United States, the health belief model is utilized to demonstrate how recognizable, acceptable religious constructs can be integrated into the content of HIV prevention messages. This integration of religious concepts with HIV prevention messages may increase the likelihood that the message audience will accept the prevention messages as relevant. This nuanced approach to HIV prevention must be validated and refined through field research.

  5. Integration of HIV in the Human Genome: Which Sites Are Preferential? A Genetic and Statistical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliana; Moreira, Elsa; Sequeira, Inês J.; Rodrigues, António S.; Rueff, José; Brás, Aldina

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal fragile sites (FSs) are loci where gaps and breaks may occur and are preferential integration targets for some viruses, for example, Hepatitis B, Epstein-Barr virus, HPV16, HPV18, and MLV vectors. However, the integration of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Giemsa bands and in FSs is not yet completely clear. This study aimed to assess the integration preferences of HIV in FSs and in Giemsa bands using an in silico study. HIV integration positions from Jurkat cells were used and two nonparametric tests were applied to compare HIV integration in dark versus light bands and in FS versus non-FS (NFSs). The results show that light bands are preferential targets for integration of HIV-1 in Jurkat cells and also that it integrates with equal intensity in FSs and in NFSs. The data indicates that HIV displays different preferences for FSs compared to other viruses. The aim was to develop and apply an approach to predict the conditions and constraints of HIV insertion in the human genome which seems to adequately complement empirical data. PMID:27294106

  6. Integrated response toward HIV: a health promotion case study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhen; Wang, Debin; Yang, Sen; Duan, Mingyue; Bu, Pengbin; Green, Andrew; Zhang, Xuejun

    2011-06-01

    Integrated HIV response refers to a formalized, collaborative process among organizations in communities with HIV at-risk populations. It is a both comprehensive and flexible scheme, which may include community-based environment promotion, skill coalition, fund linkage, human resource collaboration and service system jointly for both HIV prevention and control. It enables decisions and actions responds over time. In 1997, the Chinese government developed a 10-year HIV project supported by World Bank Loan (H9-HIV/AIDS/STIs). It was the first integrated STI/HIV intervention project in China and provides a unique opportunity to explore the long-term comprehensive STI/HIV intervention in a low-middle income country setting. Significant outcomes were identified as development and promotion of the national strategic plan and its ongoing implementation; positive knowledge, behavioral and STI/HIV prevalence rate change; and valuable experiences for managing integrated HIV/STI intervention projects. Essential factors for the success of the project and the key tasks for the next step were identified and included well-designed intervention in rural and low economic regions, unified program evaluation framework and real-time information collection and assessment.

  7. Cocaine modulates HIV-1 integration in primary CD4+ T cells: implications in HIV-1 pathogenesis in drug-abusing patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Amma B.; Pandhare, Jui; Paromov, Victor; Mantri, Chinmay K.; Pratap, Siddharth; Dash, Chandravanu

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that cocaine abuse worsens HIV-1 disease progression. Increased viral load has been suggested to play a key role for the accelerated HIV disease among cocaine-abusing patients. The goal of this study was to investigate whether cocaine enhances proviral DNA integration as a mechanism to increase viral load. We infected CD4+ T cells that are the primary targets of HIV-1 in vivo and treated the cells with physiologically relevant concentrations of cocaine (1 µM–100 µM). Proviral DNA integration in the host genome was measured by nested qPCR. Our results illustrated that cocaine from 1 µM through 50 µM increased HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner. As integration can be modulated by several early postentry steps of HIV-1 infection, we examined the direct effects of cocaine on viral integration by in vitro integration assays by use of HIV-1 PICs. Our data illustrated that cocaine directly increases viral DNA integration. Furthermore, our MS analysis showed that cocaine is able to enter CD4+ T cells and localize to the nucleus-. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that cocaine can increase HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that increased HIV-1 integration is a novel mechanism by which cocaine enhances viral load and worsens disease progression in drug-abusing HIV-1 patients. PMID:25691383

  8. Integrating HIV & AIDS Education in Pre-Service Mathematics Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laren, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, many South African education policy documents have mandated integration of HIV & AIDS education in learning areas/disciplines. Policy document research has shown that although South African politicians and managers have produced volumes of eloquent and compelling legislation regarding provision for HIV & AIDS education, little…

  9. Digoxin reveals a functional connection between HIV-1 integration preference and T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Melamed, Anat; Anderson, Ian; Planas, Delphine; Lee, Chen-Hsuin; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Ketteler, Robin; Merritt, Andy; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela; Bangham, Charles R M; Fassati, Ariberto

    2017-07-01

    HIV-1 integrates more frequently into transcribed genes, however the biological significance of HIV-1 integration targeting has remained elusive. Using a selective high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that the cardiac glycoside digoxin inhibits wild-type HIV-1 infection more potently than HIV-1 bearing a single point mutation (N74D) in the capsid protein. We confirmed that digoxin repressed viral gene expression by targeting the cellular Na+/K+ ATPase, but this did not explain its selectivity. Parallel RNAseq and integration mapping in infected cells demonstrated that digoxin inhibited expression of genes involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Analysis of >400,000 unique integration sites showed that WT virus integrated more frequently than N74D mutant within or near genes susceptible to repression by digoxin and involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Two main gene networks down-regulated by the drug were CD40L and CD38. Blocking CD40L by neutralizing antibodies selectively inhibited WT virus infection, phenocopying digoxin. Thus the selectivity of digoxin depends on a combination of integration targeting and repression of specific gene networks. The drug unmasked a functional connection between HIV-1 integration and T-cell activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 evolved integration site selection to couple its early gene expression with the status of target CD4+ T-cells, which may affect latency and viral reactivation.

  10. Digoxin reveals a functional connection between HIV-1 integration preference and T-cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zhyvoloup

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 integrates more frequently into transcribed genes, however the biological significance of HIV-1 integration targeting has remained elusive. Using a selective high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that the cardiac glycoside digoxin inhibits wild-type HIV-1 infection more potently than HIV-1 bearing a single point mutation (N74D in the capsid protein. We confirmed that digoxin repressed viral gene expression by targeting the cellular Na+/K+ ATPase, but this did not explain its selectivity. Parallel RNAseq and integration mapping in infected cells demonstrated that digoxin inhibited expression of genes involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Analysis of >400,000 unique integration sites showed that WT virus integrated more frequently than N74D mutant within or near genes susceptible to repression by digoxin and involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Two main gene networks down-regulated by the drug were CD40L and CD38. Blocking CD40L by neutralizing antibodies selectively inhibited WT virus infection, phenocopying digoxin. Thus the selectivity of digoxin depends on a combination of integration targeting and repression of specific gene networks. The drug unmasked a functional connection between HIV-1 integration and T-cell activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 evolved integration site selection to couple its early gene expression with the status of target CD4+ T-cells, which may affect latency and viral reactivation.

  11. HIV/TB co-infection:perspectives of TB patients and providers on the integrated HIV/TB pilot program in Tamilnadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayanan, Mahalakshmi

    2009-01-01

    The WHO recommends routine HIV testing among TB patients as a key strategy to combat the dual HIV/TB epidemic. India has integrated its HIV and TB control programs and is offering provider initiated HIV testing for all TB patients since 2007. Using a mixed methods approach, this study aims to understand the perspectives of TB patients and providers on the integrated HIV/TB pilot program in Tamilnadu, India. A survey conducted by the Tuberculosis Research Center, India on 300 TB patients is th...

  12. Conditional economic incentives for reducing HIV risk behaviors: integration of psychology and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Gálarraga, Omar

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories and behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Conditional Economic Incentives for Reducing HIV Risk Behaviors: Integration of Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243

  14. Integrated and Total HIV-1 DNA Predict Ex Vivo Viral Outgrowth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kiselinova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of a reservoir of latently infected CD4 T cells remains one of the major obstacles to cure HIV. Numerous strategies are being explored to eliminate this reservoir. To translate these efforts into clinical trials, there is a strong need for validated biomarkers that can monitor the reservoir over time in vivo. A comprehensive study was designed to evaluate and compare potential HIV-1 reservoir biomarkers. A cohort of 25 patients, treated with suppressive antiretroviral therapy was sampled at three time points, with median of 2.5 years (IQR: 2.4-2.6 between time point 1 and 2; and median of 31 days (IQR: 28-36 between time point 2 and 3. Patients were median of 6 years (IQR: 3-12 on ART, and plasma viral load (<50 copies/ml was suppressed for median of 4 years (IQR: 2-8. Total HIV-1 DNA, unspliced (us and multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA, and 2LTR circles were quantified by digital PCR in peripheral blood, at 3 time points. At the second time point, a viral outgrowth assay (VOA was performed, and integrated HIV-1 DNA and relative mRNA expression levels of HIV-1 restriction factors were quantified. No significant change was found for long- and short-term dynamics of all HIV-1 markers tested in peripheral blood. Integrated HIV-1 DNA was associated with total HIV-1 DNA (p<0.001, R² = 0.85, us HIV-1 RNA (p = 0.029, R² = 0.40, and VOA (p = 0.041, R2 = 0.44. Replication-competent virus was detected in 80% of patients by the VOA and it correlated with total HIV-1 DNA (p = 0.039, R² = 0.54. The mean quantification difference between Alu-PCR and VOA was 2.88 log10, and 2.23 log10 between total HIV-1 DNA and VOA. The levels of usHIV-1 RNA were inversely correlated with mRNA levels of several HIV-1 restriction factors (TRIM5α, SAMHD1, MX2, SLFN11, pSIP1. Our study reveals important correlations between the viral outgrowth and total and integrated HIV-1 DNA measures, suggesting that the total pool of HIV-1 DNA may predict the size of the

  15. Integration of HIV testing in tuberculosis drug resistance surveillance in Kazakhstan and Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E.; van den Hof, S.; Tursynbayeva, A.; Kipruto, H.; Wahogo, J.; Pak, S.; Kutwa, A.; L'Herminez, R.

    2012-01-01

    In Kenya and Kazakhstan, integration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing results into the routine surveillance of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) proved feasible and useful. The integration process improved overall data quality and data validation capacity, and integrated data

  16. Pilot Integration of HIV Screening and Healthcare Settings with Multi- Component Social Network and Partner Testing for HIV Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz, Michael F; Ruffner, Andrew H; Ancona, Rachel M; Hart, Kimberly W; Kues, John R; Barczak, Christopher M; Lindsell, Christopher J; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Lyons, Michael S

    2017-11-23

    Healthcare settings screen broadly for HIV. Public health settings use social network and partner testing ("Transmission Network Targeting (TNT)") to select high-risk individuals based on their contacts. HIV screening and TNT systems are not integrated, and healthcare settings have not implemented TNT. The study aimed to evaluate pilot implementation of multi-component, multi-venue TNT in conjunction with HIV screening by a healthcare setting. Our urban, academic health center implemented a TNT program in collaboration with the local health department for five months during 2011. High-risk or HIV positive patients of the infectious diseases clinic and emergency department HIV screening program were recruited to access social and partner networks via compensated peer-referral, testing of companions present with them, and partner notification services. Contacts became the next-generation index cases in a snowball recruitment strategy. The pilot TNT program yielded 485 HIV tests for 482 individuals through eight generations of recruitment with five (1.0%; 95% CI = 0.4%, 2.3%) new diagnoses. Of these, 246 (51.0%; 95% CI = 46.6%, 55.5%) reported that they had not been tested for HIV within the last 12 months and 383 (79.5%; 95% CI = 75.7%, 82.9%) had not been tested by the existing ED screening program within the last five years. TNT complements population screening by more directly targeting high-risk individuals and by expanding the population receiving testing. Information from existing healthcare services could be used to seed TNT programs, or TNT could be implemented within healthcare settings. Research evaluating multi-component, multi-venue HIV detection is necessary to maximize complementary approaches while minimizing redundancy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Inhibition of HIV Expression and Integration in Macrophages by Methylglyoxal-Bis-Guanylhydrazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; McGrath, Michael S; Xu, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are a target for infection with HIV and represent one of the viral reservoirs that are relatively resistant to current antiretroviral drugs. Here we demonstrate that methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a polyamine analog and potent S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase inhibitor, decreases HIV expression in monocytes and macrophages. MGBG is selectively concentrated by these cells through a mechanism consistent with active transport by the polyamine transporter. Using a macrophage-tropic reporter virus tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein, we demonstrate that MGBG decreases the frequency of HIV-infected cells. The effect is dose dependent and correlates with the production of HIV p24 in culture supernatants. This anti-HIV effect was further confirmed using three macrophage-tropic primary HIV isolates. Viral life cycle mapping studies show that MGBG inhibits HIV DNA integration into the cellular DNA in both monocytes and macrophages. Our work demonstrates for the first time the selective concentration of MGBG by monocytes/macrophages, leading to the inhibition of HIV-1 expression and a reduction in proviral load within macrophage cultures. These results suggest that MGBG may be useful in adjunctive macrophage-targeted therapy for HIV infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  19. Current integration of tuberculosis (TB and HIV services in South Africa, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Chehab

    Full Text Available SETTING: Public Health Facilities in South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess the current integration of TB and HIV services in South Africa, 2011. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 49 randomly selected health facilities in South Africa. Trained interviewers administered a standardized questionnaire to one staff member responsible for TB and HIV in each facility on aspects of TB/HIV policy, integration and recording and reporting. We calculated and compared descriptive statistics by province and facility type. RESULTS: Of the 49 health facilities 35 (71% provided isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT and 35 (71% offered antiretroviral therapy (ART. Among assessed sites in February 2011, 2,512 patients were newly diagnosed with HIV infection, of whom 1,913 (76% were screened for TB symptoms, and 616 of 1,332 (46% of those screened negative for TB were initiated on IPT. Of 1,072 patients newly registered with TB in February 2011, 144 (13% were already on ART prior to Tb clinical diagnosis, and 451 (42% were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. Of those, 84 (19% were initiated on ART. Primary health clinics were less likely to offer ART compared to district hospitals or community health centers (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: As of February 2011, integration of TB and HIV services is taking place in public medical facilities in South Africa. Among these services, IPT in people living with HIV and ART in TB patients are the least available.

  20. Integrating tuberculosis and HIV services for people living with HIV: Costs of the Zambian ProTEST Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayawe Ignatius

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of the dual TB/HIV epidemic, the ProTEST Initiative was one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of providing collaborative TB/HIV care for people living with HIV (PLWH in poor settings. The ProTEST Initiative facilitated collaboration between service providers. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT acted as the entry point for services including TB screening and preventive therapy, clinical treatment for HIV-related disease, and home-based care (HBC, and a hospice. This paper estimates the costs of the ProTEST Initiative in two sites in urban Zambia, prior to the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy. Methods Annual financial and economic providers costs and output measures were collected in 2000–2001. Estimates are made of total costs for each component and average costs per: person reached by ProTEST; VCT pre-test counselled, tested and completed; isoniazid preventive therapy started and completed; clinic visit; HBC patient; and hospice admission and bednight. Results Annual core ProTEST costs were (in 2007 US dollars $84,213 in Chawama and $31,053 in Matero. The cost of coordination was 4%–5% of total site costs ($1–$6 per person reached. The largest cost component in Chawama was voluntary counselling and testing (56% and the clinic in Matero (50%, where VCT clients had higher HIV-prevalences and more advanced HIV. Average costs were lower for all components in the larger site. The cost per HBC patient was $149, and per hospice bednight was $24. Conclusion This study shows that coordinating an integrated and comprehensive package of services for PLWH is relatively inexpensive. The lessons learnt in this study are still applicable today in the era of ART, as these services must still be provided as part of the continuum of care for people living with HIV.

  1. Cost, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integrated family planning and HIV services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Starley B; Kevany, Sebastian; Onono, Maricianah; Ochieng, George; Steinfeld, Rachel L; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J; Blat, Cinthia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate costs, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integration of family planning into HIV services. Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment clinics. A cluster-randomized trial. Twelve health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya were randomized to integrate family planning into HIV care and treatment; six health facilities were randomized to (nonintegrated) standard-of-care with separately delivered family planning and HIV services. We assessed costs, cost-efficiency (cost per additional use of more effective family planning), and cost-effectiveness (cost per pregnancy averted) associated with the first year of integration of family planning into HIV care. More effective family planning methods included oral and injectable contraceptives, subdermal implants, intrauterine device, and female and male sterilization. We collected cost data through interviews with study staff and review of financial records to determine costs of service integration. Integration of services was associated with an average marginal cost of $841 per site and $48 per female patient. Average overall and marginal costs of integration were associated with personnel costs [initial ($1003 vs. $872) and refresher ($498 vs. $330) training, mentoring ($1175 vs. $902) and supervision ($1694 vs. $1636)], with fewer resources required for other fixed ($18 vs. $0) and recurring expenses ($471 vs. $287). Integration was associated with a marginal cost of $65 for each additional use of more effective family planning and $1368 for each pregnancy averted. Integration of family planning and HIV services is feasible, inexpensive to implement, and cost-efficient in the Kenyan setting, and thus supports current Kenyan integration policy.

  2. Health Systems Integration of Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV Services in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Tamil; Langer, Ana; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa are typically delivered vertically, operating parallel to national health systems. The objective of this study was to map the evidence on national and international strategies for integration of SRH and HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa and to develop a research agenda for future health systems integration. Methods: We examined the literature on national and international strategies to integrate SRH and HIV services using a scoping study methodology. Current policy frameworks, national HIV strategies and research, and gray literature on integration were mapped. Five countries in sub-Saharan Africa with experience of integrating SRH and HIV services were purposively sampled for detailed thematic analysis, according to the health systems functions of governance, policy and planning, financing, health workforce organization, service organization, and monitoring and evaluation. Results: The major international health policies and donor guidance now support integration. Most integration research has focused on linkages of SRH and HIV front-line services. Yet, the common problems with implementation are related to delayed or incomplete integration of higher level health systems functions: lack of coordinated leadership and unified national integration policies; separate financing streams for SRH and HIV services and inadequate health worker training, supervision and retention. Conclusions: Rigorous health systems research on the integration of SRH and HIV services is urgently needed. Priority research areas include integration impact, performance, and economic evaluation to inform the planning, financing, and coordination of integrated service delivery. PMID:25436826

  3. Retroviral DNA integration: ASLV, HIV, and MLV show distinct target site preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick S Mitchell

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequence has made possible genome-wide studies of retroviral DNA integration. Here we report an analysis of 3,127 integration site sequences from human cells. We compared retroviral vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV, and murine leukemia virus (MLV. Effects of gene activity on integration targeting were assessed by transcriptional profiling of infected cells. Integration by HIV vectors, analyzed in two primary cell types and several cell lines, strongly favored active genes. An analysis of the effects of tissue-specific transcription showed that it resulted in tissue-specific integration targeting by HIV, though the effect was quantitatively modest. Chromosomal regions rich in expressed genes were favored for HIV integration, but these regions were found to be interleaved with unfavorable regions at CpG islands. MLV vectors showed a strong bias in favor of integration near transcription start sites, as reported previously. ASLV vectors showed only a weak preference for active genes and no preference for transcription start regions. Thus, each of the three retroviruses studied showed unique integration site preferences, suggesting that virus-specific binding of integration complexes to chromatin features likely guides site selection.

  4. How to integrate water, sanitation, and hygiene into HIV programmes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bery, Renuka; Rosenbaum, Julia

    2010-01-01

    "Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices are essential for maintaining health, yet most countries and donors have not included WASH in national policies and programmes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV...

  5. 1 Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: In Tanzania, reproductive health and HIV services are coordinated by the .... and skills that are effectively managed and are equitably distributed to ensure that ..... to access and use PMTCT services and in reducing stigma, denial and.

  6. Integrating Mental Health into General Health Care: Lessons From HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental illnesses, may be at risk of HIV infection.4 These inter- ... There is a growing body of literature linking poor adherence to mental .... approach is to identify individual(s) within clinics or systems .... JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune.

  7. Human nucleoporins promote HIV-1 docking at the nuclear pore, nuclear import and integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Nunzio

    Full Text Available The nuclear pore complex (NPC mediates nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of macromolecules and is an obligatory point of passage and functional bottleneck in the replication of some viruses. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV has evolved the required mechanisms for active nuclear import of its genome through the NPC. However the mechanisms by which the NPC allows or even assists HIV translocation are still unknown. We investigated the involvement of four key nucleoporins in HIV-1 docking, translocation, and integration: Nup358/RanBP2, Nup214/CAN, Nup98 and Nup153. Although all induce defects in infectivity when depleted, only Nup153 actually showed any evidence of participating in HIV-1 translocation through the nuclear pore. We show that Nup358/RanBP2 mediates docking of HIV-1 cores on NPC cytoplasmic filaments by interacting with the cores and that the C-terminus of Nup358/RanBP2 comprising a cyclophilin-homology domain contributes to binding. We also show that Nup214/CAN and Nup98 play no role in HIV-1 nuclear import per se: Nup214/CAN plays an indirect role in infectivity read-outs through its effect on mRNA export, while the reduction of expression of Nup98 shows a slight reduction in proviral integration. Our work shows the involvement of nucleoporins in diverse and functionally separable steps of HIV infection and nuclear import.

  8. Multiple proviral integration events after virological synapse-mediated HIV-1 spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Rebecca A.; Martin, Nicola; Mitar, Ivonne; Jones, Emma; Sattentau, Quentin J.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 can move directly between T cells via virological synapses (VS). Although aspects of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this mode of spread have been elucidated, the outcomes for infection of the target cell remain incompletely understood. We set out to determine whether HIV-1 transfer via VS results in productive, high-multiplicity HIV-1 infection. We found that HIV-1 cell-to-cell spread resulted in nuclear import of multiple proviruses into target cells as seen by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Proviral integration into the target cell genome was significantly higher than that seen in a cell-free infection system, and consequent de novo viral DNA and RNA production in the target cell detected by quantitative PCR increased over time. Our data show efficient proviral integration across VS, implying the probability of multiple integration events in target cells that drive productive T cell infection. - Highlights: • Cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection delivers multiple vRNA copies to the target cell. • Cell-to-cell infection results in productive infection of the target cell. • Cell-to-cell transmission is more efficient than cell-free HIV-1 infection. • Suggests a mechanism for recombination in cells infected with multiple viral genomes

  9. Repair of oxidative DNA base damage in the host genome influences the HIV integration site sequence preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey R Bennett

    Full Text Available Host base excision repair (BER proteins that repair oxidative damage enhance HIV infection. These proteins include the oxidative DNA damage glycosylases 8-oxo-guanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1 and mutY homolog (MYH as well as DNA polymerase beta (Polβ. While deletion of oxidative BER genes leads to decreased HIV infection and integration efficiency, the mechanism remains unknown. One hypothesis is that BER proteins repair the DNA gapped integration intermediate. An alternative hypothesis considers that the most common oxidative DNA base damages occur on guanines. The subtle consensus sequence preference at HIV integration sites includes multiple G:C base pairs surrounding the points of joining. These observations suggest a role for oxidative BER during integration targeting at the nucleotide level. We examined the hypothesis that BER repairs a gapped integration intermediate by measuring HIV infection efficiency in Polβ null cell lines complemented with active site point mutants of Polβ. A DNA synthesis defective mutant, but not a 5'dRP lyase mutant, rescued HIV infection efficiency to wild type levels; this suggested Polβ DNA synthesis activity is not necessary while 5'dRP lyase activity is required for efficient HIV infection. An alternate hypothesis that BER events in the host genome influence HIV integration site selection was examined by sequencing integration sites in OGG1 and MYH null cells. In the absence of these 8-oxo-guanine specific glycosylases the chromatin elements of HIV integration site selection remain the same as in wild type cells. However, the HIV integration site sequence preference at G:C base pairs is altered at several positions in OGG1 and MYH null cells. Inefficient HIV infection in the absence of oxidative BER proteins does not appear related to repair of the gapped integration intermediate; instead oxidative damage repair may participate in HIV integration site preference at the sequence level.

  10. Validation of the integration of HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the undergraduate nursing curriculum in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis R. Marie Modeste

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being in its fourth decade, HIV remains an epidemic that requires combined efforts for the global fight. The strategies planned and implemented in the fight against HIV include reversing and halting the spread of HIV, increasing health care access, and strengthening the health care system. South Africa has made the fight one of its top priorities, and has developed plans to increase the role of nurses in the management of HIV, demonstrating its willingness, commitment and progress in the fight against HIV. Objective: This article presents the validation process conducted to confirm the integration and mapping of the HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the four-year Bachelor of Nursing programme at a university in South Africa. Methods: This study adopted a constructivist paradigm, using a qualitative approach, applyingthe design step of the process model of curriculum development, to validate the inte gration of the mapped HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the undergraduate nursing curriculum. Results: For each competency, outcomes were developed for each year. Participants confirmed completeness of outcomes and appropriateness of the mapping of the HIV and AIDS related outcomes into the nursing curriculum, as well as the feasibility and practicability of the integration. Conclusion: Required resources for integration of HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies, such as human resources and nurse educators’ continued personal development were identified, as well as barriers to integration, and measures to eliminate them were discussed. The importance of integration of HIV and AIDS nursing competencies into the curriculum was reiterated.

  11. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of white matter integrity in HIV-positive patients with planning deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Diogo Goulart; Doring, Thomas M.; Wilner, Nina Ventura; Cabral, Rafael Ferracini; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Leite, Sarah C.B.; Bahia, Paulo R.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether normal controls and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with and without planning deficits differ on white matter integrity. A total of 34 HIV-positive patients with planning deficits were compared with 13 HIV-positive patients without planning deficits and 19 gender-, age-, and education-matched control subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed along 30 noncolinear directions in a 1.5-T scanner. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis, a white matter skeleton was created, and a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations with a threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The median, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and bilateral uncinate fasciculi. Compared to HIV-positive patients without planning deficits, patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and right uncinate fascicule. DTI can detect extensive white matter abnormalities in the normal-appearing white matter of HIV-positive patients with planning deficits compared with controls and HIV-positive patients without planning deficits. (orig.)

  12. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of white matter integrity in HIV-positive patients with planning deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Diogo Goulart; Doring, Thomas M.; Wilner, Nina Ventura; Cabral, Rafael Ferracini; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Psychology, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Leite, Sarah C.B.; Bahia, Paulo R.V. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether normal controls and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with and without planning deficits differ on white matter integrity. A total of 34 HIV-positive patients with planning deficits were compared with 13 HIV-positive patients without planning deficits and 19 gender-, age-, and education-matched control subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed along 30 noncolinear directions in a 1.5-T scanner. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis, a white matter skeleton was created, and a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations with a threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The median, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and bilateral uncinate fasciculi. Compared to HIV-positive patients without planning deficits, patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and right uncinate fascicule. DTI can detect extensive white matter abnormalities in the normal-appearing white matter of HIV-positive patients with planning deficits compared with controls and HIV-positive patients without planning deficits. (orig.)

  13. Integrating eHealth in HIV/AIDS intervention programmes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babasile D. Osunyomi

    2015-03-01

    Objective: The key aim of this article is to explore the status quo of the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs in selected intervention programmes in the South African HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain. The contribution of this article is the mapping of key intervention activities along an HIV care value chain and to suggest a roadmap towards the integration of ICTs in service delivery programmes. Method: 20 managers of HIV/AIDS intervention programmes were surveyed, followed by semi-structured in-depth interviews with these respondents. A further five in-depth interviews were conducted with experts in the ICT area for exploring the uses of and barriers to integrating ICTs in the HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain. Results: The researchers mapped the barriers to implementation and ICT tools utilised within the HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain, which proves to be a useful tool to explore the status quo of technology in such service delivery programmes. The researchers then considered the wider policy environment and provided a roadmap based on the analysis and the South Africa eHealth strategy for driving development in this sector. Conclusion: The authors found that South Africa’s eHealth environment is still nascent and that the South African eHealth strategy does not place enough emphasis on systems integration and stakeholder engagement or the planning and process of uptake of ICTs by target audiences.

  14. Counseling Framework for HIV-Serodiscordant Couples on the Integrated Use of Antiretroviral Therapy and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jennifer F; Celum, Connie; Njoroge, John; Nakyanzi, Agnes; Wakhungu, Imeldah; Tindimwebwa, Edna; Ongachi, Snaidah; Sedah, Eric; Okwero, Emmanuel; Ngure, Kenneth; Odoyo, Josephine; Bulya, Nulu; Haberer, Jessica E; Baeten, Jared M; Heffron, Renee

    2017-01-01

    For HIV-serodiscordant couples, integrated delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive partners and time-limited pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for negative partners virtually eliminates HIV transmission. Standardized messaging, sensitive to the barriers and motivators to HIV treatment and prevention, is needed for widespread scale-up of this approach. Within the Partners Demonstration Project, a prospective interventional project among 1013 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda, we offered ART to eligible HIV-positive partners and PrEP to HIV-negative partners before ART initiation and through the HIV-positive partner's first 6 months of ART use. We conducted individual and group discussions with counseling staff to elicit the health communication framework and key messages about ART and PrEP that were delivered to couples. Counseling sessions for serodiscordant couples about PrEP and ART included discussions of HIV serodiscordance, PrEP and ART initiation and integrated use, and PrEP discontinuation. ART messages emphasized daily, lifelong use for treatment and prevention, adherence, viral suppression, resistance, side effects, and safety of ART during pregnancy. PrEP messages emphasized daily dosing, time-limited PrEP use until the HIV-positive partner sustained 6 months of high adherence to ART, adherence, safety during conception, side effects, and other risks for HIV. Counseling messages for HIV-serodiscordant couples are integral to the delivery of time-limited PrEP as a "bridge" to ART-driven viral suppression. Their incorporation into programmatic scale-up will maximize intervention impact on the global epidemic.

  15. Progress on scaling up integrated services for sexual and reproductive health and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Clare; Attawell, Kathy; Druce, Nel

    2009-11-01

    This paper considers new developments to strengthen sexual and reproductive health and HIV linkages and discusses factors that continue to impede progress. It is based on a previous review undertaken for the United Kingdom Department for International Development in 2006 that examined the constraints and opportunities to scaling up these linkages. We argue that, despite growing evidence that linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV is feasible and beneficial, few countries have achieved significant scale-up of integrated service provision. A lack of common understanding of terminology and clear technical operational guidance, and separate policy, institutional and financing processes continue to represent significant constraints. We draw on experience with tuberculosis and HIV integration to highlight some lessons. The paper concludes that there is little evidence to determine whether funding for health systems is strengthening linkages and we make several recommendations to maximize opportunities represented by recent developments.

  16. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses’ Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses’ knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300 were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ2 = 86.34, p = 0.00, and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4% and post-test (66.6% (χ2 = 73.2, p = 0.00. When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly

  17. Assessment of Integration-defective HIV-1 and EIAV Vectors In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs stems from their potential advantage of large cloning capacity and broad cell tropism while avoiding the possibility of insertional mutagenesis. Here, we directly compared the transducing potential of IDLVs based on the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV to the more commonly described HIV-1 IDLVs. IDLVs were constructed by introducing equivalent single/triple mutations into the integrase catalytic triad. We show that both the single and the triple mutant HIV-1 IDLVs transduce the PC12 cells, but not the C2C12 cells, with similar efficiency to their parental HIV-1 vector. In contrast, the single and triple EIAV IDLVs did not efficiently transduce either differentiated cell line. Moreover, this HIV-1 IDLV-mediated expression was independent of any residual integration activity because reporter expression was lost when cell cycling was restored. Four weeks following stereotactic administration into adult rat brains, only the single HIV-1 IDLV mutant displayed a comparable transduction profile to the parental HIV-1 vector. In contrast, neither EIAV IDLV mutants showed significant reporter gene expression. This work indicates that the transducing potential of IDLVs appears to depend not only on the choice of integrase mutation and type of target cell, but also on the nature of the lentiviral vector.

  18. The 'third wave' of HIV prevention: filling gaps in integrated interventions, knowledge, and funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Jaime

    2012-07-01

    There is growing optimism in the global health community that the HIV epidemic can be halted. After decades of relying primarily on behavior change to prevent HIV transmission, a second generation of prevention efforts based on medical or biological interventions such as male circumcision and preexposure prophylaxis--the use of antiretroviral drugs to protect uninfected, at-risk individuals--has shown promising results. This article calls for a third generation of HIV prevention efforts that would integrate behavioral, biological, and structural interventions focused on the social, political, and environmental underpinnings of the epidemic, making use of local epidemiological evidence to target affected populations. In this third wave, global programs should deliver HIV prevention services together with cost-effective interventions for reproductive health and for tuberculosis, malaria, and other diseases. Additionally, new efforts are needed to address gaps in HIV prevention research, evaluation, and implementation. Increased and sustained funding, along with evidence-based allocation of funds, will be necessary to accelerate the decline in new HIV infections.

  19. Effects of integration and replication on transcription of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeang, K. T.; Berkhout, B.; Dropulic, B.

    1993-01-01

    The activity of a promoter is influenced by chromosomal and cell cycle/replication context. We analyzed the influences of integration and replication on transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 long terminal repeat (LTR). We found that one requirement for Tat trans-activated

  20. Unmet Need for Contraception among Clients of FP/HIV Integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    1 Department of Maternal and Child Health, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,. Chapel Hill ... Keywords: Partner opposition, contraceptive use, HIV/FP service integration, Nigeria ..... new programs/policies that consider gender and cultural influence on family planning service.

  1. Integration of HIV and TB services results in improved TB treatment outcomes and earlier prioritized ART initiation in a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Sabine M; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Katabira, Catherine; Mbidde, Peter; Lange, Joep M A; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Coutinho, Alex; Manabe, Yukari C

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected patients should be integrated with HIV care. In December 2008, a separate outdoor-integrated TB/HIV clinic was instituted for attendees of a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. We sought to evaluate associated TB and HIV treatment outcomes. Routinely collected clinical, pharmacy, and laboratory data were merged with TB clinic data for patients initiating TB treatment in 2009 and with TB register data for patients in 2007. TB treatment outcomes and (timing of) antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in ART-naive patients [overall and stratified by CD4+ T cell (CD4) count] in 2007 and 2009 were compared. Nosocomial transmission rates could not be assessed. Three hundred forty-six patients were initiated on TB treatment in 2007 and 366 in 2009. Median CD4 counts at TB diagnosis did not differ. TB treatment cure or completion increased from 62% to 68%, death or default decreased from 33% to 25% (P ART-naive TB patients were initiated on ART in 2009 versus 2007 (57% and 66%, P = 0.031), but this decrease was only in patients with CD4 counts >250 cells per cubic millimeter (19% vs. 48%, P = 0.003). More patients were started on ART during TB treatment (94% vs. 78%, P ART initiation. This supports rollout of a fully integrated TB/HIV service delivery model throughout high-prevalence TB and HIV settings.

  2. Integrating Pregnancy Prevention Into an HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Pediatric Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Noah J; Upadhya, Krishna K; Tawe, Marie-Sophie; Tomaszewski, Kathy; Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Marcell, Arik V

    2018-04-11

    Certified health educator (CHE)-based HIV counseling and testing typically focus on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention only. A quality improvement initiative examined integrating assessment of reproductive life plans, counseling about pregnancy prevention, and contraception referral into a CHE-based HIV testing program. Between February 2014 and January 2017, in one urban pediatric primary care clinic serving patients aged 0-25, CHEs assessed sexual history, HIV risk, short-term (i.e., the next 6-12 months) pregnancy desire, and current contraception method and satisfaction among patients aged 13-25 who had ever had vaginal sex, using a standardized questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a de-identified administrative dataset that also tracked referrals to initiate contraception and actual method initiation. Of 1,211 patients, most (96%) reported no short-term pregnancy or partner pregnancy desire. Use of less effective or no contraception, as well as method dissatisfaction, was common. A high proportion of female patients referred to new methods opted for more effective methods (62%) and initiated these methods (76%); a high proportion of male patients opted for receipt of condoms (67%). Patients reporting short-term pregnancy desire reported higher rates of previous pregnancy and STIs. Program findings highlight the potential benefit of integrating assessment for and counseling about pregnancy prevention in a CHE-based HIV testing program. This can more effectively address the needs of patients with concomitant risks of STI/HIV and unintended pregnancy, and link patients who do not desire pregnancy to more effective methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrating HIV care and treatment into primary healthcare: Are clinics equipped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Crowley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The demand for HIV care and treatment services is increasing rapidly and strategies to sustain long-term care should be employed. The decentralisation and integration of HIV care and treatment services into primary healthcare (PHC is vitally important in order to ensure optimal access to life-saving antiretroviral therapy and ongoing chronic care. Conversely, the PHC system is fraught with the current burden of disease. Setting: The study was conducted in PHC clinics in the uMgungundlovu district, Kwa-Zulu Natal.Aim: The objectives of the study were to assess whether PHC clinics were equipped to deliver integrated HIV services and to evaluate the availability of resources as well as support systems for HIV care and treatment in PHC clinics.Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken in 20 randomly-selected, eligible clinics in the uMgungundlovu district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. An evaluation instrument was completed through observations and review of the clinic data records. Criteria were based on the World Health Organization’s guide to indicators for antiretroviral programmes as well as South African HIV standards for PHC facilities.Results: None of the clinics were equipped adequately. Clinics with a higher patient load had poorer scores, whilst clinics providing antiretroviral therapy were better equipped in terms of human resources and infrastructure.Conclusion: HIV services are an essential part of primary healthcare and clinics need to be equipped adequately in order to render this service. It is unlikely that the over-burdened health system would be able to cope with an increased number of patients on antiretroviral therapy in the long term, whilst maintaining quality of services, without support being given to PHC clinics.

  4. Integrating HIV care and treatment into primary healthcare: Are clinics equipped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Crowley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The demand for HIV care and treatment services is increasing rapidly and strategies to sustain long-term care should be employed. The decentralisation and integration of HIV care and treatment services into primary healthcare (PHC is vitally important in order to ensure optimal access to life-saving antiretroviral therapy and ongoing chronic care. Conversely, the PHC system is fraught with the current burden of disease. Setting: The study was conducted in PHC clinics in the uMgungundlovu district, Kwa-Zulu Natal. Aim: The objectives of the study were to assess whether PHC clinics were equipped to deliver integrated HIV services and to evaluate the availability of resources as well as support systems for HIV care and treatment in PHC clinics. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken in 20 randomly-selected, eligible clinics in the uMgungundlovu district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. An evaluation instrument was completed through observations and review of the clinic data records. Criteria were based on the World Health Organization’s guide to indicators for antiretroviral programmes as well as South African HIV standards for PHC facilities. Results: None of the clinics were equipped adequately. Clinics with a higher patient load had poorer scores, whilst clinics providing antiretroviral therapy were better equipped in terms of human resources and infrastructure. Conclusion: HIV services are an essential part of primary healthcare and clinics need to be equipped adequately in order to render this service. It is unlikely that the over-burdened health system would be able to cope with an increased number of patients on antiretroviral therapy in the long term, whilst maintaining quality of services, without support being given to PHC clinics.

  5. Cross-cultural integration affects attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Dadich, Ann

    2016-04-01

    The stigma associated with HIV/AIDS represents a significant issue. It can hinder help-seeking behaviours, fracture relationships, conceal prevalence rates and curtail public health initiatives to reduce HIV/AIDS. Culture is known to shape this stigma - it influences how individuals and the communities they represent understand the causes of HIV/AIDS, how it can and should be treated, and how people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) should be regarded. Following recent increases in both HIV/AIDS and cross-cultural migration, this study determines the effect of cross-cultural integration on the tendency to stigmatise PLWHA. This was achieved by surveying adults who are at the nexus of two dissimilar cultures - adults from the Australian-Iranian community (n=236). While the Iranian culture is largely collectivistic, the Australian culture is largely individualistic. Survey results indicated the respondents represented a collectivistic (44.1%), transitional (33.5%) or an individualistic (22.4%) culture. Those within the collectivistic culture held the most stigmatising views about PLWHA, supporting coercive policies and reporting they would avoid PLWHA. Those within the individualistic culture held the most positive attitudes. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that movement from a collectivistic to an individualistic culture significantly reduced stigmatising attitudes towards PLWHA. This study is the first to demonstrate the benefits afforded by an individualist culture, particularly for PLWHA. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications associated with these findings, particularly for researchers and practitioners within the health promotion field.

  6. Integrating prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs to improve uptake: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorainne Tudor Car

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review to assess the effect of integrated perinatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV interventions compared to non- or partially integrated services on the uptake in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We searched for experimental, quasi-experimental and controlled observational studies in any language from 21 databases and grey literature sources. RESULTS: Out of 28 654 citations retrieved, five studies met our inclusion criteria. A cluster randomized controlled trial reported higher probability of nevirapine uptake at the labor wards implementing HIV testing and structured nevirapine adherence assessment (RRR 1.37, bootstrapped 95% CI, 1.04-1.77. A stepped wedge design study showed marked improvement in antiretroviral therapy (ART enrolment (44.4% versus 25.3%, p<0.001 and initiation (32.9% versus 14.4%, p<0.001 in integrated care, but the median gestational age of ART initiation (27.1 versus 27.7 weeks, p = 0.4, ART duration (10.8 versus 10.0 weeks, p = 0.3 or 90 days ART retention (87.8% versus 91.3%, p = 0.3 did not differ significantly. A cohort study reported no significant difference either in the ART coverage (55% versus 48% versus 47%, p = 0.29 or eight weeks of ART duration before the delivery (50% versus 42% versus 52%; p = 0.96 between integrated, proximal and distal partially integrated care. Two before and after studies assessed the impact of integration on HIV testing uptake in antenatal care. The first study reported that significantly more women received information on PMTCT (92% versus 77%, p<0.001, were tested (76% versus 62%, p<0.001 and learned their HIV status (66% versus 55%, p<0.001 after integration. The second study also reported significant increase in HIV testing uptake after integration (98.8% versus 52.6%, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Limited, non-generalizable evidence supports the effectiveness of integrated PMTCT programs. More research measuring coverage and

  7. Integration of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission into maternal health services in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, C

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the level of integration of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in facilities providing services for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and reproductive health (RH) in Senegal. The survey, conducted from August through November, 2014, comprised five parts : a literature review to assess the place of this integration in the health policies, standards, and protocols in effect in Senegal; an analysis by direct observation of attitudes and practices of 25 healthcare providers at 5 randomly-selected obstetrics and gynecology departments representative of different levels of the health pyramid; a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and attitudes of 10 providers about the integration of PMTCT services into MNCH/RH facilities; interviews to collect the opinions of 70 clients, including 16 HIV-positive, about the quality of PMTCT services they received; and a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and opinions of 14 policy-makers/managers of health programs focusing on mothers and children about this integration. The literature review revealed several constraints impeding this integration : the policy documents, standards, and protocols of each of the programs involved do not clearly indicate the modalities of this integration; the programs are housed in two different divisions while the national Program against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus reports directly to the Prime Minister; program operations remains generally vertical; the resources for the different programs are not sufficiently shared; there is no integrated training module covering integrated management of pregnancy and delivery; and supervision for each of the different programs is organized separately.The observation of the providers supporting women during pregnancy, during childbirth, and in the postpartum period, showed an effort to integrate PMTCT into the MNCH/RH services delivered daily to clients. But this desire is hampered by many

  8. Sexual and reproductive health and rights: integration as a holistic and rights-based response to HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Carmen; Sippel, Serra

    2011-11-01

    For decades, donors, governments, and civil society have recognized the importance of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in efforts to alleviate poverty and advance gender equality and women's rights. More recently, in the battle against HIV/AIDS--and given the unique challenges the pandemic presents for health and development--the global community has acknowledged the benefits of synergizing sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS interventions. However, the United States has been slow to incorporate lessons learned from the international experience when it comes to integrating HIV/AIDS, SRHR, and gender equality in the fight against HIV/AIDS. This article highlights the importance of SRHR and lessons learned from SRHR-HIV integration to inform U.S. domestic and global AIDS strategies and interventions. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples receiving integrated HIV counseling, testing, and family planning services in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Haddad, Lisa; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort. Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users were determined via multivariate Cox modeling. The highest rates of unintended pregnancy were observed among couples requesting condoms only (26.4/100CY) or OCPs (20.7/100CY); these rates were not significantly different. OCP users accounted for 37% of the couple-years (CY) observed and 87% of unintended pregnancies. Rates of unintended pregnancy for injectable (0.7/100CY) and intrauterine device (1.6/100CY) users were significantly lower relative to condom only users. No pregnancies occurred among contraceptive implant users or after tubal ligation. Factors associated (psex without a condom. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods were effective in the context of integrated couples HIV prevention and contraceptive services. Injectable methods were also effective in this context. Given the high user failure rate of OCPs, family planning efforts should promote longer-acting methods among OCP users wishing to avoid pregnancy. Where other methods are not available or acceptable, OCP adherence counseling is needed, especially among younger and new OCP users. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00067522.

  10. Exogenous HIV-1 Nef upsets the IFN-γ-induced impairment of human intestinal epithelial integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Quaranta

    Full Text Available The mucosal tissues play a central role in the transmission of HIV-1 infection as well as in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Despite several clinical studies reported intestinal dysfunction during HIV infection, the mechanisms underlying HIV-induced impairments of mucosal epithelial barrier are still unclear. It has been postulated that HIV-1 alters enterocytic function and HIV-1 proteins have been detected in several cell types of the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of the accessory HIV-1 Nef protein on human epithelial cell line.We used unstimulated or IFN-γ-stimulated Caco-2 cells, as a model for homeostatic and inflamed gastrointestinal tracts, respectively. We investigated the effect of exogenous recombinant Nef on monolayer integrity analyzing its uptake, transepithelial electrical resistance, permeability to FITC-dextran and the expression of tight junction proteins. Moreover, we measured the induction of proinflammatory mediators. Exogenous Nef was taken up by Caco-2 cells, increased intestinal epithelial permeability and upset the IFN-γ-induced reduction of transepithelial resistance, interfering with tight junction protein expression. Moreover, Nef inhibited IFN-γ-induced apoptosis and up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6 and MIP-3α production by Caco-2 cells while down-regulated IL-10 production. The simultaneous exposure of Caco-2 cells to Nef and IFN-γ did not affect cytokine secretion respect to untreated cells. Finally, we found that Nef counteracted the IFN-γ induced arachidonic acid cascade.Our findings suggest that exogenous Nef, perturbing the IFN-γ-induced impairment of intestinal epithelial cells, could prolong cell survival, thus allowing for accumulation of viral particles. Our results may improve the understanding of AIDS pathogenesis, supporting the discovery of new therapeutic interventions.

  11. Perceptions of Barriers and Facilitators to Cervical Cancer Screening among Low-Income, HIV-Infected Women from an Integrated HIV Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchberg, Meredith; Schover, Leslie; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Arduino, Roberto C.; Vidrine, Damon J.

    2014-01-01

    Significantly elevated rates of cervical cancer and low rates of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening have been documented among HIV-infected women. However, little is known about women’s perceptions of cervical cancer screening utilization. Hence, this study describes barriers and facilitators related to cervical cancer screening in a sample of HIV-infected women seeking care at an integrated HIV clinic in Houston, Texas. Using an inductive qualitative methodological approach, data were obtained from five focus group discussions with a total of 33, HIV-infected women. The majority of the study sample consisted of women who self-identified as Black (69.7%), and reported heterosexual contact as the mode of HIV acquisition (75.8%). Barriers to cervical cancer screening were described as pain and discomfort associated with receiving Pap smears and subsequent procedures; lack of awareness of cervical cancer as a preventable disease; limited transportation access; and systemic issues as it relates to scheduling gynecological appointments. Facilitators were described as awareness of HIV-infected women’s increased risk of cervical cancer and strong provider-patient relationships. To address disparities in cervical cancer screening among low-income HIV-infected women, programs should capitalize on the identified facilitators and alleviate modifiable barriers using multi-level strategies. PMID:24635664

  12. Integration opportunities for HIV and family planning services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: an organizational network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C; Reynolds, Heidi; Bevc, Christine; Tsegaye, Ademe

    2014-01-18

    Public health resources are often deployed in developing countries by foreign governments, national governments, civil society and the private health clinics, but seldom in ways that are coordinated within a particular community or population. The lack of coordination results in inefficiencies and suboptimal results. Organizational network analysis can reveal how organizations interact with each other and provide insights into means of realizing better public health results from the resources already deployed. Our objective in this study was to identify the missed opportunities for the integration of HIV care and family planning services and to inform future network strengthening. In two sub-cities of Addis Ababa, we identified each organization providing either HIV care or family planning services. We interviewed representatives of each of them about exchanges of clients with each of the others. With network analysis, we identified network characteristics in each sub-city network, such as referral density and centrality; and gaps in the referral patterns. The results were shared with representatives from the organizations. The two networks were of similar size (25 and 26 organizations) and had referral densities of 0.115 and 0.155 out of a possible range from 0 (none) to 1.0 (all possible connections). Two organizations in one sub-city did not refer HIV clients to a family planning organization. One organization in one sub-city and seven in the other offered few HIV services and did not refer clients to any other HIV service provider. Representatives from the networks confirmed the results reflected their experience and expressed an interest in establishing more links between organizations. Because of organizations not working together, women in the two sub-cities were at risk of not receiving needed family planning or HIV care services. Facilitating referrals among a few organizations that are most often working in isolation could remediate the problem, but the

  13. Contraceptive discontinuation and switching among couples receiving integrated HIV and family planning services in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2013-10-01

    To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviours among HIV-positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counselling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two-family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services and were assessed every 3 months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. We modelled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services.

  14. An integrative review of guidelines for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jessica S; Holstad, Marcia M; Thomas, Tami; Bruner, Deborah Watkins

    2014-07-01

    HIV-infected individuals are 28 times more likely than the general population to be diagnosed with anal cancer. An integrative review of recommendations and guidelines for anal cancer screening was performed to provide a succinct guide to inform healthcare clinicians. The review excluded studies that were of non-HIV populations, redundant articles or publications, non-English manuscripts, or nonclinical trials. The review found no formal national or international guidelines exist for routine screening of anal cancer for HIV-infected individuals. To date, no randomized control trial provides strong evidence supporting efficaciousness and effectiveness of an anal cancer screening program. The screening recommendations from seven international-, national-, and state-based reports were reviewed and synthesized in this review. These guidelines suggest anal cancer screening, albeit unproven, may be beneficial at decreasing the incidence of anal cancer. This review highlights the paucity of screening-related research and is an area of need to provide clear direction and to define standard of care for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

  15. Integration of TB-HIV services at an ANC facility in Frances Baard District, Northern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J A; Heunis, C; Kigozi, G; Osoba, T; van der Walt, M

    2015-03-21

    Integrated tuberculosis-human immunodeficiency virus (TB-HIV) service delivery as part of maternal health services, including antenatal care (ANC), is widely recommended. This study assessed the implementation of collaborative TB-HIV service delivery at a hospital-based ANC service unit. A record review of a random sample of 308 pregnant women attending the ANC service between April 2011 and February 2012 was conducted. Data were extracted from registers and patient case notes. Outcomes included the proportion of women who underwent HIV counselling and testing (HCT), CD4 count testing, antiretroviral treatment (ART), cotrimoxazole preventive treatment (CPT), TB screening and isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT). Analysis measured variations in patient characteristics associated with service delivery. All women underwent HCT; 80% of those who tested HIV-positive were screened for TB. Most (85.9%) of the HIV-positive women received a CD4 count. However, only 12.9% of eligible women received ART prophylaxis onsite, only 35.7% were referred for initiation of ART, only 42.3% commenced IPT and none received CPT or further investigations for TB. HIV-negative women had 2.6 higher odds (95%CI 1.3-5.3) of receiving TB screening than their HIV-positive counterparts. Although the identification of HIV-positive women and TB suspects was adequate, implementation of other TB-HIV collaborative activities was sub-optimal.

  16. Administrative integration of vertical HIV monitoring and evaluation into health systems: a case study from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawonga, Mary; Fonn, Sharon; Blaauw, Duane

    2013-01-24

    In light of an increasing global focus on health system strengthening and integration of vertical programmes within health systems, methods and tools are required to examine whether general health service managers exercise administrative authority over vertical programmes. To measure the extent to which general health service (horizontal) managers, exercise authority over the HIV programme's monitoring and evaluation (M&E) function, and to explore factors that may influence this exercise of authority. This cross-sectional survey involved interviews with 51 managers. We drew ideas from the concept of 'exercised decision-space' - traditionally used to measure local level managers' exercise of authority over health system functions following decentralisation. Our main outcome measure was the degree of exercised authority - classified as 'low', 'medium' or 'high' - over four M&E domains (HIV data collection, collation, analysis, and use). We applied ordinal logistic regression to assess whether actor type (horizontal or vertical) was predictive of a higher degree of exercised authority, independent of management capacity (training and experience), and M&E knowledge. Relative to vertical managers, horizontal managers had lower HIV M&E knowledge, were more likely to exercise a higher degree of authority over HIV data collation (OR 7.26; CI: 1.9, 27.4), and less likely to do so over HIV data use (OR 0.19; CI: 0.05, 0.84). A higher HIV M&E knowledge score was predictive of a higher exercised authority over HIV data use (OR 1.22; CI: 0.99, 1.49). There was no association between management capacity and degree of authority. This study demonstrates a HIV M&E model that is neither fully vertical nor integrated. The HIV M&E is characterised by horizontal managers producing HIV information while vertical managers use it. This may undermine policies to strengthen integrated health system planning and management under the leadership of horizontal managers.

  17. High rate of unplanned pregnancy in the context of integrated family planning and HIV care services in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Moyaki, Mayowa Gabriel; Goon, Daniel Ter; Avramovic, Gordana; Lambert, John

    2018-02-27

    Integration of family planning services into HIV care was implemented in South Africa as a core strategy aimed at reducing unintended pregnancies among childbearing women living with HIV. However, it is unclear whether this strategy has made any significant impact at the population level. This paper describes the prevalence and correlates of self-reported unplanned pregnancy among HIV-infected parturient women attending three large maternity centres in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. We also compare unplanned pregnancy rates between HIV-infected parturient women already in care (who have benefitted from services' integration) and newly diagnosed parturient women (who have not benefitted from services' integration). Drawing from the baseline data of the East London Prospective Cohort Study (ELPCS), data of 594 parturient women living with HIV in the Eastern Cape were included. Chi-square statistics and binary logistics regression were employed to determine the correlates of unplanned pregnancy among the cohort. The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy was 71% (n = 422) with a higher rate among parturient women newly diagnosed during the index pregnancy (87%). Unplanned pregnancy was significantly associated with younger age, single status, HIV diagnosis at booking, high parity and previous abortion. Women who reported unplanned pregnancy were more likely to book late and have lower CD4 counts. After adjusting for confounding variables, having one child and five to seven children (AOR = 2.2; CI = 1.3-3.1), age less than 21 years (AOR = 3.3; CI = 1.1-9.8), late booking after 27 weeks (AOR = 2.7; CI = 1.5-5.0), not married (AOR = 4.3; CI = 2.7-6.8) and HIV diagnosis at booking (AOR = 3.0; CI = 1.6-5.8) were the significant correlates of unplanned pregnancy in the cohort. Unplanned pregnancy remains high overall among parturient women living with HIV in the region, however, with significant reduction among those who were

  18. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV services: integrating HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Hedia; Rasanathan, Jennifer J K; Denny, Lynette; Broutet, Nathalie

    2013-05-01

    People living with HIV are at an increased risk of acquiring HPV and of developing evolutive cervical cancers (women) and penile and anal cancers (men). Low-cost screening-visual inspection with acetic acid, HPV DNA diagnostics and primary care level treatment, cryotherapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2), and primary prevention through HPV vaccination of girls aged 9-13 years-makes the goal of eliminating cervical cancer possible in the long term. Integration of cervical cancer screening and treatment into a sexual and reproductive health service package raises programmatic questions and calls for a continuum of care. The latter is only possible when adequate cytopathology skills and treatment for advanced cancer conditions are available. The present paper highlights the role of member societies of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) in developing the base for an integrated package that responds to women's sexual and reproductive health needs. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  19. A time-motion study of cardiovascular disease risk factor screening integrated into HIV clinic visits in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Anton M; Rabkin, Miriam; Simelane, Samkelo; Gachuhi, Averie B; McNairy, Margaret L; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Bongomin, Pido; Okello, Velephi N; Bitchong, Raymond A; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2018-03-01

    Screening of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is recommended but not routinely provided for HIV-infected patients, especially in low-resource settings. Potential concerns include limited staff time and low patient acceptability, but little empirical data exists. As part of a pilot study of screening in a large urban HIV clinic in Swaziland, we conducted a time-motion study to assess the impact of screening on patient flow and HIV service delivery and exit interviews to assess patient acceptability. A convenience sample of patients ≥40 years of age attending routine HIV clinic visits was screened for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and tobacco smoking. We observed HIV visits with and without screening and measured time spent on HIV and CVD risk factor screening activities. We compared screened and unscreened patients on total visit time and time spent receiving HIV services using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. A separate convenience sample of screened patients participated in exit interviews to assess their satisfaction with screening. We observed 172 patient visits (122 with CVD risk factor screening and 50 without). Screening increased total visit time from a median (range) of 4 minutes (2 to 11) to 15 minutes (9 to 30) (p < 0.01). Time spent on HIV care was not affected: 4 (2 to 10) versus 4 (2 to 11) (p = 0.57). We recruited 126 patients for exit interviews, all of whom indicated that they would recommend screening to others. Provision of CVD risk factor screening more than tripled the length of routine HIV clinic visits but did not reduce the time spent on HIV services. Programme managers need to take longer visit duration into account in order to effectively integrate CVD risk factor screening and counselling into HIV programmes. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  20. Integrating HIV Surveillance and Field Services: Data Quality and Care Continuum in King County, Washington, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Julia E; Katz, David A; Bennett, Amy B; Buskin, Susan E; Dombrowski, Julia C; Hawes, Stephen E; Golden, Matthew R

    2017-12-01

    To assess how integration of HIV surveillance and field services might influence surveillance data and linkage to care metrics. We used HIV surveillance and field services data from King County, Washington, to assess potential impact of misclassification of prior diagnoses on numbers of new diagnoses. The relationship between partner services and linkage to care was evaluated with multivariable log-binomial regression models. Of the 2842 people who entered the King County HIV Surveillance System in 2010 to 2015, 52% were newly diagnosed, 41% had a confirmed prior diagnosis in another state, and 7% had an unconfirmed prior diagnosis. Twelve percent of those classified as newly diagnosed for purposes of national HIV surveillance self-reported a prior HIV diagnosis that was unconfirmed. Partner services recipients were more likely than nonrecipients to link to care within 30 days (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.18) and 90 days (adjusted RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.14) of diagnosis. Integration of HIV surveillance, partner services, and care linkage efforts may improve the accuracy of HIV surveillance data and facilitate timely linkage to care.

  1. Addressing challenges in scaling up TB and HIV treatment integration in rural primary healthcare clinics in South Africa (SUTHI): a cluster randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kogieleum; Gengiah, Santhanalakshmi; Yende-Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Padayatchi, Nesri; Barker, Pierre; Nunn, Andrew; Subrayen, Priashni; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2017-11-13

    A large and compelling clinical evidence base has shown that integrated TB and HIV services leads to reduction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and tuberculosis (TB)-associated mortality and morbidity. Despite official policies and guidelines recommending TB and HIV care integration, its poor implementation has resulted in TB and HIV remaining the commonest causes of death in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. This study aims to reduce mortality due to TB-HIV co-infection through a quality improvement strategy for scaling up of TB and HIV treatment integration in rural primary healthcare clinics in South Africa. The study is designed as an open-label cluster randomized controlled trial. Sixteen clinic supervisors who oversee 40 primary health care (PHC) clinics in two rural districts of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa will be randomized to either the control group (provision of standard government guidance for TB-HIV integration) or the intervention group (provision of standard government guidance with active enhancement of TB-HIV care integration through a quality improvement approach). The primary outcome is all-cause mortality among TB-HIV patients. Secondary outcomes include time to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among TB-HIV co-infected patients, as well as TB and HIV treatment outcomes at 12 months. In addition, factors that may affect the intervention, such as conditions in the clinic and staff availability, will be closely monitored and documented. This study has the potential to address the gap between the establishment of TB-HIV care integration policies and guidelines and their implementation in the provision of integrated care in PHC clinics. If successful, an evidence-based intervention comprising change ideas, tools, and approaches for quality improvement could inform the future rapid scale up, implementation, and sustainability of improved TB-HIV integration across sub-Sahara Africa and other resource

  2. Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Steinfeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV clinics, and a lack of male focus in family planning methods and service delivery. The integration of family planning into HIV clinics including family planning counseling and education was cited as an important strategy to improve family planning receptivity among men. Integrating family planning into HIV services is a promising strategy to facilitate male involvement in family planning. Integration needs to be rigorously evaluated in order to measure its impact on unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women and their partners and assure that it is implemented in a manner that engages both men and women.

  3. Available clinical markers of treatment outcome integrated in mathematical models to guide therapy in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergu, Elisabeta; Mallet, Alain; Golmard, Jean-Louis

    2004-02-01

    Because treatment failure in many HIV-infected persons may be due to multiple causes, including resistance to antiretroviral agents, it is important to better tailor drug therapy to individual patients. This improvement requires the prediction of treatment outcome from baseline immunological or virological factors, and from results of resistance tests. Here, we review briefly the available clinical factors that have an impact on therapy outcome, and discuss the role of a predictive modelling approach integrating these factors proposed in a previous work. Mathematical and statistical models could become essential tools to address questions that are difficult to study clinically and experimentally, thereby guiding decisions in the choice of individualized drug regimens.

  4. N-terminally truncated POM121C inhibits HIV-1 replication.

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    Hideki Saito

    Full Text Available Recent studies have identified host cell factors that regulate early stages of HIV-1 infection including viral cDNA synthesis and orientation of the HIV-1 capsid (CA core toward the nuclear envelope, but it remains unclear how viral DNA is imported through the nuclear pore and guided to the host chromosomal DNA. Here, we demonstrate that N-terminally truncated POM121C, a component of the nuclear pore complex, blocks HIV-1 infection. This truncated protein is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, does not bind to CA, does not affect viral cDNA synthesis, reduces the formation of 2-LTR and diminished the amount of integrated proviral DNA. Studies with an HIV-1-murine leukemia virus (MLV chimeric virus carrying the MLV-derived Gag revealed that Gag is a determinant of this inhibition. Intriguingly, mutational studies have revealed that the blockade by N-terminally-truncated POM121C is closely linked to its binding to importin-β/karyopherin subunit beta 1 (KPNB1. These results indicate that N-terminally-truncated POM121C inhibits HIV-1 infection after completion of reverse transcription and before integration, and suggest an important role for KPNB1 in HIV-1 replication.

  5. Integrating family planning and HIV services in western Kenya: the impact on HIV-infected patients' knowledge of family planning and male attitudes toward family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onono, Maricianah; Guzé, Mary A; Grossman, Daniel; Steinfeld, Rachel; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Shade, Starley; Cohen, Craig R; Newmann, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Little information exists on the impact of integrating family planning (FP) services into HIV care and treatment on patients' familiarity with and attitudes toward FP. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in 18 public HIV clinics with 12 randomized to integrated FP and HIV services and 6 to the standard referral-based system where patients are referred to an FP clinic. Serial cross-sectional surveys were done before (n = 488 women, 486 men) and after (n = 479 women, 481 men) the intervention to compare changes in familiarity with FP methods and attitudes toward FP between integrated and nonintegrated (NI) sites. We created an FP familiarity score based on the number of more effective FP methods patients could identify (score range: 0-6). Generalized estimating equations were used to control for clustering within sites. An increase in mean familiarity score between baseline (mean = 5.16) and post-intervention (mean = 5.46) occurred with an overall mean change of 0.26 (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.09, 0.45; p = 0.003) across all sites. At end line, there was no difference in increase of mean FP familiarity scores at intervention versus control sites (mean = 5.41 vs. 5.49, p = 0.94). We observed a relative decrease in the proportion of males agreeing that FP was "women's business" at integrated sites (baseline 42% to end line 30%; reduction of 12%) compared to males at NI sites (baseline 35% to end line 42%; increase of 7%; adjusted odds ration [aOR] = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.85). Following FP-HIV integration, familiarity with FP methods increased but did not differ by study arm. Integration was associated with a decrease in negative attitudes toward FP among men.

  6. Integration of family planning services into HIV care clinics: Results one year after a cluster randomized controlled trial in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R Cohen

    Full Text Available To determine if integration of family planning (FP and HIV services led to increased use of more effective contraception (i.e. hormonal and permanent methods, and intrauterine devices and decreased pregnancy rates.Cohort analysis following cluster randomized trial, when the Kenya Ministry of Health led integration of the remaining control (delayed integration sites and oversaw integrated services at the original intervention (early integration sites.Eighteen health facilities in Kenya.Women aged 18-45 receiving care: 5682 encounters at baseline, and 11628 encounters during the fourth quarter of year 2."One-stop shop" approach to integrating FP and HIV services.Use of more effective contraceptive methods and incident pregnancy across two years of follow-up.Following integration of FP and HIV services at the six delayed integration clinics, use of more effective contraception increased from 31.7% to 44.2% of encounters (+12.5%; Prevalence ratio (PR = 1.39 (1.19-1.63. Among the twelve early integration sites, the proportion of encounters at which women used more effective contraceptive methods was sustained from the end of the first to the second year of follow-up (37.5% vs. 37.0%. Pregnancy incidence including all 18 integrated sites in year two declined in comparison to the control arm in year one (rate ratio: 0.72; 95% CI 0.60-0.87.Integration of FP services into HIV clinics led to a sustained increase in the use of more effective contraceptives and decrease in pregnancy incidence 24 months following implementation of the integrated service model.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01001507.

  7. Integration of outpatient infectious diseases clinic pharmacy services and specialty pharmacy services for patients with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Elise M; Gerzenshtein, Lana

    2016-06-01

    The integration of specialty pharmacy services and existing outpatient clinical pharmacy services within an infectious diseases (ID) clinic to optimize the care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is described. The management of HIV-infected patients is a highly specialized area of practice, often requiring use of complex medication regimens for reduction of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections, and prevention of HIV transmission. To maximize the effectiveness and safety of treatment with antiretroviral agents and associated pharmacotherapies, an interdisciplinary team is often involved in patient care. At Chicago-based Northwestern Medicine (NM), the outpatient ID clinic has long worked with an interdisciplinary care team including physicians, clinical pharmacists, nurses, and social workers to care for patients with HIV infection. In April 2014, specialty pharmacy services for patients with HIV infection were added to the NM ID clinic's care model to help maintain continuity of care and enhance patient follow-up. The care model includes well-defined roles for clinical pharmacists, pharmacy residents and students on rotation, and licensed pharmacy technicians. Specialty pharmacy services, including medication education, prescription fulfillment, assistance with medication access (e.g., navigation of financial assistance programs, completion of prior-authorization requests), and treatment monitoring, allow for closed-loop medication management of the HIV-infected patient population. Integration of specialty pharmacy services with the interdisciplinary care provided in the outpatient NM ID clinic has enhanced continuity of care for patients with HIV infection in terms of prescription filling, medication counseling, and adherence monitoring. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE): integrating C-POL and social media to train peer leaders in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Devan; Gill, Harkiran K; Cohen, Adam Carl; Young, Sean D

    2012-01-01

    Novel methods, such as Internet-based interventions, are needed to combat the spread of HIV. While past initiatives have used the Internet to promote HIV prevention, the growing popularity, decreasing digital divide, and multi-functionality of social networking sites, such as Facebook, make this an ideal time to develop innovative ways to use online social networking sites to scale HIV prevention interventions among high-risk groups. The UCLA Harnessing Online Peer Education study is a longitudinal experimental study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of using social media for peer-led HIV prevention, specifically among African American and Latino Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). No curriculum currently exists to train peer leaders in delivering culturally aware HIV prevention messages using social media. Training was created that adapted the Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) model, for use on social networking sites. Peer leaders are recruited who represent the target population and have experience with both social media and community outreach. The curriculum contains the following elements: discussion and role playing exercises to integrate basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, awareness of sociocultural HIV/AIDS issues in the age of technology, and communication methods for training peer leaders in effective, interactive social media-based HIV prevention. Ethical issues related to Facebook and health interventions are integrated throughout the sessions. Training outcomes have been developed for long-term assessment of retention and efficacy. This is the first C-POL curriculum that has been adapted for use on social networking websites. Although this curriculum has been used to target African-American and Latino MSM, it has been created to allow generalization to other high-risk groups.

  9. Collaboratively reframing mental health for integration of HIV care in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissow, Lawrence S; Tegegn, Teketel; Asheber, Kassahun; McNabb, Marion; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Jerene, Degu; Ruff, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Integrating mental health with general medical care can increase access to mental health services, but requires helping generalists acquire a range of unfamiliar knowledge and master potentially complex diagnostic and treatment processes. We describe a model for integrating complex specialty care with generalist/primary care, using as an illustration the integration of mental health into hospital-based HIV treatment services in Ethiopia. Generalists and specialists collaboratively developed mental health treatments to fit the knowledge, skills and resources of the generalists. The model recognizes commonalities between mental health and general medical care, focusing on practical interventions acceptable to patients. It was developed through a process of literature review, interviews, observing clinical practice, pilot trainings and expert consultation. Preliminary evaluation results were obtained by debriefing generalist trainees after their return to their clinical sites. In planning interviews, generalists reported discomfort making mental health diagnoses but recognition of symptom groups including low mood, anxiety, thought problems, poor child behaviour, seizures and substance use. Diagnostic and treatment algorithms were developed for these groups and tailored to the setting by including possible medical causes and burdens of living with HIV. First-line treatment included modalities familiar to generalists: empathetic patient-provider interactions, psychoeducation, cognitive reframing, referral to community supports and elements of symptom-specific evidence-informed counselling. Training introduced basic skills, with evolving expertise supported by job aides and ongoing support from mental health nurses cross-trained in HIV testing. Feedback from trainees suggested the programme fit well with generalists' settings and clinical goals. An integration model based on collaboratively developing processes that fit the generalist setting shows promise as a method

  10. How to Integrate HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Namibia, the Epako Clinic Case Study

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    Tomas Zapata

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the past two decades, HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health services in Namibia have been provided in silos, with high fragmentation. As a consequence of this, quality and efficiency of services in Primary Health Care has been compromised.  Methods: We conducted an operational research (observational pre-post study in a public health facility in Namibia. A health facility assessment was conducted before and after the integration of health services. A person-centred integrated model was implemented to integrate all health services provided at the health facility in addition to HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health services. Comprehensive services are provided by each health worker to the same patients over time (longitudinality, on a daily basis (accessibility and with a good external referral system (coordination. Prevalence rates of time flows and productivity were done.  Results: Integrated services improved accessibility, stigma and quality of antenatal care services by improving the provider-patient communication, reducing the time that patients stay in the clinic in 16% and reducing the waiting times in 14%. In addition, nurse productivity improved 85% and the expected time in the health facility was reduced 24% without compromising the uptake of TB, HIV, outpatient, antenatal care or first visit family planning services. Given the success on many indicators resulting from integration of services, the goal of this paper was to describe “how” health services have been integrated, the “process” followed and presenting some “results” from the integrated clinic.  Conclusions: Our study shows that HIV and SRH services can be effectively integrated by following the person-centred integrated model. Based on the Namibian experience on “how” to integrate health services and the “process” to achieve it, other African countries can replicate the model to move away from the silo approach and contribute to

  11. Administrative integration of vertical HIV monitoring and evaluation into health systems: a case study from South Africa

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    Mary Kawonga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In light of an increasing global focus on health system strengthening and integration of vertical programmes within health systems, methods and tools are required to examine whether general health service managers exercise administrative authority over vertical programmes. Objective: To measure the extent to which general health service (horizontal managers, exercise authority over the HIV programme's monitoring and evaluation (M&E function, and to explore factors that may influence this exercise of authority. Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved interviews with 51 managers. We drew ideas from the concept of ‘exercised decision-space’ – traditionally used to measure local level managers’ exercise of authority over health system functions following decentralisation. Our main outcome measure was the degree of exercised authority – classified as ‘low’, ‘medium’ or ‘high’ – over four M&E domains (HIV data collection, collation, analysis, and use. We applied ordinal logistic regression to assess whether actor type (horizontal or vertical was predictive of a higher degree of exercised authority, independent of management capacity (training and experience, and M&E knowledge. Results: Relative to vertical managers, horizontal managers had lower HIV M&E knowledge, were more likely to exercise a higher degree of authority over HIV data collation (OR 7.26; CI: 1.9, 27.4, and less likely to do so over HIV data use (OR 0.19; CI: 0.05, 0.84. A higher HIV M&E knowledge score was predictive of a higher exercised authority over HIV data use (OR 1.22; CI: 0.99, 1.49. There was no association between management capacity and degree of authority. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a HIV M&E model that is neither fully vertical nor integrated. The HIV M&E is characterised by horizontal managers producing HIV information while vertical managers use it. This may undermine policies to strengthen integrated health system

  12. Tracking Global Fund HIV/AIDS resources used for sexual and reproductive health service integration: case study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherji, Sangeeta; Ski, Samantha; Huntington, Dale

    2015-05-27

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria (GF) strives for high value for money, encouraging countries to integrate synergistic services and systems strengthening to maximize investments. The GF needs to show how, and how much, its grants support more than just HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) has been part of HIV/AIDS grants since 2007. Previous studies showed the GF PBF system does not allow resource tracking for SRH integration within HIV/AIDS grants. We present findings from a resource tracking case study using primary data collected at country level. Ethiopia was the study site. We reviewed data from four HIV/AIDS grants from January 2009-June 2011 and categorized SDAs and activities as directly, indirectly, or not related to SRH integration. Data included: GF PBF data; financial, performance, in-depth interview and facility observation data from Ethiopia. All HIV/AIDS grants in Ethiopia support SRH integration activities (12-100%). Using activities within SDAs, expenditures directly supporting SRH integration increased from 25% to 66% for the largest HIV/AIDS grant, and from 21% to 34% for the smaller PMTCT-focused grant. Using SDAs to categorize expenditures underestimated direct investments in SRH integration; activity-based categorization is more accurate. The important finding is that primary data collection could not resolve the limitations in using GF GPR data for resource tracking. The remedy is to require existing activity-based budgets and expenditure reports as part of PBF reporting requirements, and make them available in the grant portfolio database. The GF should do this quickly, as it is a serious shortfall in the GF guiding principle of transparency. Showing high value for money is important for maximizing impact and replenishments. The Global Fund should routinely track HIV/AIDs grant expenditures to disease control, service integration, and overall health systems strengthening. The current PBF system

  13. Expression of Human CD4 and chemokine receptors in cotton rat cells confers permissiveness for productive HIV infection

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    Broder Christopher C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current small animal models for studying HIV-1 infection are very limited, and this continues to be a major obstacle for studying HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis, as well as for the urgent development and evaluation of effective anti-HIV-1 therapies and vaccines. Previously, it was shown that HIV-1 can infect cotton rats as indicated by development of antibodies against all major proteins of the virus, the detection of viral cDNA in spleen and brain of challenged animals, the transmission of infectious virus, albeit with low efficiency, from animal to animal by blood, and an additional increase in the mortality in the infected groups. Results Using in vitro experiments, we now show that cotton rat cell lines engineered to express human receptor complexes for HIV-1 (hCD4 along with hCXCR4 or hCCR5 support virus entry, viral cDNA integration, and the production of infectious virus. Conclusion These results further suggest that the development of transgenic cotton rats expressing human HIV-1 receptors may prove to be useful small animal model for HIV infection.

  14. Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment in Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Daniel; Onono, Maricianah; Newmann, Sara J; Blat, Cinthia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Shade, Starley B; Steinfeld, Rachel L; Cohen, Craig R

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether integrating family planning services into HIV care is associated with increased use of more effective contraceptive methods (sterilization, intrauterine device, implant, injectable or oral contraceptives). Cluster-randomized trial. Eighteen public HIV clinics in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Women aged 18-45 years receiving care at participating HIV clinics; 5682 clinical encounters from baseline period (December 2009-February 2010) and 12,531 encounters from end-line period (July 2011-September 2011, 1 year after site training). Twelve sites were randomized to integrate family planning services into the HIV clinic, whereas six clinics were controls where clients desiring contraception were referred to family planning clinics at the same facility. Increase in use of more effective contraceptive methods between baseline and end-line periods. Pregnancy rates during the follow-up year (October 2010-September 2011) were also compared. Women seen at integrated sites were significantly more likely to use more effective contraceptive methods at the end of the study [increased from 16.7 to 36.6% at integrated sites, compared to increase from 21.1 to 29.8% at controls; odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-2.63]. Condom use decreased non-significantly at intervention sites compared to controls (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.35-1.19). No difference was observed in incident pregnancy in the first year after integration comparing intervention to control sites (incidence rate ratio 0.90; 95% CI 0.68-1.20). Integration of family planning services into HIV care clinics increased use of more effective contraceptive methods with a non-significant reduction in condom use. Although no significant reduction in pregnancy incidence was observed during the study, 1 year may be too short a period of observation for this outcome.

  15. Integration of health services improves multiple healthcare outcomes among HIV-infected people who inject drugs in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachireddy, Chethan; Soule, Michael C; Izenberg, Jacob M; Dvoryak, Sergey; Dumchev, Konstantin; Altice, Frederick L

    2014-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) experience poor outcomes and fuel HIV epidemics in middle-income countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. We assess integrated/co-located (ICL) healthcare for HIV-infected PWID, which despite international recommendations, is neither widely available nor empirically examined. A 2010 cross-sectional study randomly sampled 296 HIV-infected opioid-dependent PWID from two representative HIV-endemic regions in Ukraine where ICL, non-co-located (NCL) and harm reduction/outreach (HRO) settings are available. ICL settings provide onsite HIV, addiction, and tuberculosis services, NCLs only treat addiction, and HROs provide counseling, needles/syringes, and referrals, but no opioid substitution therapy (OST). The primary outcome was receipt of quality healthcare, measured using a quality healthcare indicator (QHI) composite score representing percentage of eight guidelines-based recommended indicators met for HIV, addiction and tuberculosis treatment. The secondary outcomes were individual QHIs and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). On average, ICL-participants had significantly higher QHI composite scores compared to NCL- and HRO-participants (71.9% versus 54.8% versus 37.0%, phealthcare quality indicators for PWID. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated HIV testing, malaria, and diarrhea prevention campaign in Kenya: modeled health impact and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, James G; Muraguri, Nicholas; Harris, Brian; Lugada, Eric; Clasen, Thomas; Grabowsky, Mark; Mermin, Jonathan; Shariff, Shahnaaz

    2012-01-01

    Efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV, malaria, and diarrhea are essential to accelerating global health efforts. A 2008 community integrated prevention campaign in Western Province, Kenya, reached 47,000 individuals over 7 days, providing HIV testing and counseling, water filters, insecticide-treated bed nets, condoms, and for HIV-infected individuals cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and referral for ongoing care. We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of a scaled-up integrated prevention campaign. We estimated averted deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on published data on baseline mortality and morbidity and on the protective effect of interventions, including antiretroviral therapy. We incorporate a previously estimated scaled-up campaign cost. We used published costs of medical care to estimate savings from averted illness (for all three diseases) and the added costs of initiating treatment earlier in the course of HIV disease. Per 1000 participants, projected reductions in cases of diarrhea, malaria, and HIV infection avert an estimated 16.3 deaths, 359 DALYs and $85,113 in medical care costs. Earlier care for HIV-infected persons adds an estimated 82 DALYs averted (to a total of 442), at a cost of $37,097 (reducing total averted costs to $48,015). Accounting for the estimated campaign cost of $32,000, the campaign saves an estimated $16,015 per 1000 participants. In multivariate sensitivity analyses, 83% of simulations result in net savings, and 93% in a cost per DALY averted of less than $20. A mass, rapidly implemented campaign for HIV testing, safe water, and malaria control appears economically attractive.

  17. Integrated HIV testing, malaria, and diarrhea prevention campaign in Kenya: modeled health impact and cost-effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Kahn

    Full Text Available Efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV, malaria, and diarrhea are essential to accelerating global health efforts. A 2008 community integrated prevention campaign in Western Province, Kenya, reached 47,000 individuals over 7 days, providing HIV testing and counseling, water filters, insecticide-treated bed nets, condoms, and for HIV-infected individuals cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and referral for ongoing care. We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of a scaled-up integrated prevention campaign.We estimated averted deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs based on published data on baseline mortality and morbidity and on the protective effect of interventions, including antiretroviral therapy. We incorporate a previously estimated scaled-up campaign cost. We used published costs of medical care to estimate savings from averted illness (for all three diseases and the added costs of initiating treatment earlier in the course of HIV disease.Per 1000 participants, projected reductions in cases of diarrhea, malaria, and HIV infection avert an estimated 16.3 deaths, 359 DALYs and $85,113 in medical care costs. Earlier care for HIV-infected persons adds an estimated 82 DALYs averted (to a total of 442, at a cost of $37,097 (reducing total averted costs to $48,015. Accounting for the estimated campaign cost of $32,000, the campaign saves an estimated $16,015 per 1000 participants. In multivariate sensitivity analyses, 83% of simulations result in net savings, and 93% in a cost per DALY averted of less than $20.A mass, rapidly implemented campaign for HIV testing, safe water, and malaria control appears economically attractive.

  18. Integration of HIV care into maternal health services: a crucial change required in improving quality of obstetric care in countries with high HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimbamuto, Farai D; Ray, Sunanda; Mogobe, Keitshokile D

    2013-06-10

    The failure to reduce preventable maternal deaths represents a violation of women's right to life, health, non-discrimination and equality. Maternal deaths result from weaknesses in health systems: inadequate financing of services, poor information systems, inefficient logistics management and most important, the lack of investment in the most valuable resource, the human resource of health workers. Inadequate senior leadership, poor communication and low staff morale are cited repeatedly in explaining low quality of healthcare. Vertical programmes undermine other service areas by creating competition for scarce skilled staff, separate reporting systems and duplication of training and tasks. Confidential enquiries and other quality-improvement activities have identified underlying causes of maternal deaths, but depend on the health system to respond with remedies. Instead of separate vertical programmes for management of HIV, tuberculosis, and reproductive health, integration of care and joint management of pregnancy and HIV would be more effective. Addressing health system failures that lead to each woman's death would have a wider impact on improving the quality of care provided in the health service as a whole. More could be achieved if existing resources were used more effectively. The challenge for African countries is how to get into practice interventions known from research to be effective in improving quality of care. Advocacy and commitment to saving women's lives are crucial elements for campaigns to influence governments and policy -makers to act on the findings of these enquiries. Health professional training curricula should be updated to include perspectives on patients' rights, communication skills, and integrated approaches, while using adult learning methods and problem-solving techniques. In countries with high rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), indirect causes of maternal deaths from HIV-associated infections now exceed direct causes

  19. Integrating cervical cancer screening and preventive treatment with family planning and HIV-related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Heather L; Meglioli, Alejandra; Chowdhury, Raveena; Nuccio, Olivia

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa-in large part because of inadequate coverage of screening and preventive treatment services. A number of programs have begun integrating cervical cancer prevention services into existing family planning or HIV/AIDS service delivery platforms, to rapidly expand "screen and treat" programs and mitigate cervical cancer burden. Drawing upon a review of literature and our experiences, we consider benefits and challenges associated with such programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We then outline steps that can optimize uptake and sustainability of integrated sexual and reproductive health services. These include increasing coordination among implementing organizations for efficient use of resources; task shifting for services that can be provided by nonphysicians; mobilizing communities via trusted frontline health workers; strengthening management information systems to allow for monitoring of multiple services; and prioritizing an operational research agenda to provide further evidence on the cost-effectiveness and benefits of integrated service delivery. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  20. Discovering perturbation of modular structure in HIV progression by integrating multiple data sources through non-negative matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sumanta; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2016-12-20

    Detecting perturbation in modular structure during HIV-1 disease progression is an important step to understand stage specific infection pattern of HIV-1 virus in human cell. In this article, we proposed a novel methodology on integration of multiple biological information to identify such disruption in human gene module during different stages of HIV-1 infection. We integrate three different biological information: gene expression information, protein-protein interaction information and gene ontology information in single gene meta-module, through non negative matrix factorization (NMF). As the identified metamodules inherit those information so, detecting perturbation of these, reflects the changes in expression pattern, in PPI structure and in functional similarity of genes during the infection progression. To integrate modules of different data sources into strong meta-modules, NMF based clustering is utilized here. Perturbation in meta-modular structure is identified by investigating the topological and intramodular properties and putting rank to those meta-modules using a rank aggregation algorithm. We have also analyzed the preservation structure of significant GO terms in which the human proteins of the meta-modules participate. Moreover, we have performed an analysis to show the change of coregulation pattern of identified transcription factors (TFs) over the HIV progression stages.

  1. PCR-based cDNA library construction: general cDNA libraries at the level of a few cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Belyavsky, A; Vinogradova, T; Rajewsky, K

    1989-01-01

    A procedure for the construction of general cDNA libraries is described which is based on the amplification of total cDNA in vitro. The first cDNA strand is synthesized from total RNA using an oligo(dT)-containing primer. After oligo(dG) tailing the total cDNA is amplified by PCR using two primers complementary to oligo(dA) and oligo(dG) ends of the cDNA. For insertion of the cDNA into a vector a controlled trimming of the 3' ends of the cDNA by Klenow enzyme was used. Starting from 10 J558L ...

  2. Study of HIV-1 subtypes in serodiscordant couples attending an integrated counselling and testing centre in Mumbai using heteroduplex mobility analysis and DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the prevalent subtypes of HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples. Setting: Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC, Department of Microbiology. Study Design: Prospective pilot study. Participants: Thirty HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Inclusion Criteria: a Documentation of HIV-1 infection in one partner and seronegative status in the other, current history of continued unprotected sexual activity within the partnership, demonstration that they have been in a partnership for at least 1 year and are not currently on highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART; b willingness of both partners to provide written informed consent including consent to continued couple counselling for 3 months. Materials and Methods: HIV-1 subtyping was carried out by heteroduplex mobility analysis (HMA by amplifying env region; and DNA sequencing by amplifying gag region. Results: HIV-1 env gene was amplified successfully in 10/30 samples; gag gene, in 25/30 samples; and both env and gag gene were amplified successfully in 5/30 samples. HIV-1 subtype C was detected from 21 samples; subtype B, from 7; and subtype A, from 2. Sample from 1 positive partner was detected as subtype C by env HMA and subtype B by gag sequencing. Conclusion: HIV-1 subtype C was found to be the predominant subtype of HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples attending our ICTC, followed by HIV-1 subtype B and HIV-1 subtype A, respectively. DNA sequencing was found to be the most reliable method for determining the subtypes of HIV-1.

  3. Scaling up integration: development and results of a participatory assessment of HIV/TB services, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldwell Judy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa the need to integrate HIV, TB and STI programmes has been recognised at a policy and organisation level; the challenge is now one of translating policies into relevant actions and monitoring implementation to ensure that the anticipated benefits of integration are achieved. In this research, set in public primary care services in Cape Town, South Africa, we set out to determine how middle level managers could be empowered to monitor the implementation of an effective, integrated HIV/TB/STI service. Methods A team of managers and researchers designed an evaluation tool to measure implementation of key components of an integrated HIV/TB/STI package with a focus on integration. They used a comprehensive health systems framework based on conditions for programme effectiveness and then identified and collected tracer indicators. The tool was extensively piloted in two rounds involving 49 clinics in 2003 and 2004 to identify data necessary for effective facility-level management. A subsequent evaluation of 16 clinics (2 per health sub district, 12% of all public primary care facilities was done in February 2006. Results 16 clinics were reviewed and 635 records sampled. Client access to HIV/TB/STI programmes was limited in that 50% of facilities routinely deferred clients. Whilst the physical infrastructure and staff were available, there was problem with capacity in that there was insufficient staff training (for example, only 40% of clinical staff trained in HIV care. Weaknesses were identified in quality of care (for example, only 57% of HIV clients were staged in accordance with protocols and continuity of care (for example, only 24% of VCT clients diagnosed with HIV were followed up for medical assessment. Facility and programme managers felt that the evaluation tool generated information that was useful to manage the programmes at facility and district level. On the basis of the results facility managers drew

  4. During Stably Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy Integrated HIV-1 DNA Load in Peripheral Blood is Associated with the Frequency of CD8 Cells Expressing HLA-DR/DP/DQ

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    Alessandra Ruggiero

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The observed positive association between integrated HIV-1 DNA load and frequency of CD8+DR/DP/DQ+ cells indicates that a close correlation between HIV persistence and immune activation continues during consistently suppressive therapy. The inducers of the distinct activation profile warrant further investigation.

  5. Towards Multidisciplinary HIV-Cure Research: Integrating Social Science with Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Cynthia I; Ross, Anna Laura; Auerbach, Judith D; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Dubé, Karine; Tucker, Joseph D; Noseda, Veronica; Possas, Cristina; Rausch, Dianne M

    2016-01-01

    The quest for a cure for HIV remains a timely and key challenge for the HIV research community. Despite significant scientific advances, current HIV therapy regimens do not completely eliminate the negative impact of HIV on the immune system; and the economic impact of treating all people infected with HIV globally, for the duration of their lifetimes, presents significant challenges. This article discusses, from a multidisciplinary approach, critical social, behavioral, ethical, and economic issues permeating the HIV-cure research agenda. As part of a search for an HIV cure, both the perspective of patients/participants and clinical researchers should be taken into account. In addition, continued efforts should be made to involve and educate the broader community. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Label-free detection of HIV-1 infected cells via integration of optical tweezers and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugongolo, Masixole Yvonne; Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin; Noto, Luyanda Lunga; Maaza, Malik; Mthunzi-Kufa, Patience

    2018-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is currently detected using conventional qualitative and quantitative tests to determine the presence or absence of HIV in blood samples. However, the approach of these tests detects the presence of either viral antibodies or viral RNA that require labelling which may be costly, sophisticated and time consuming. A label-free approach of detecting the presence of HIV is therefore desirable. Of note optical tweezers can be coupled with other technologies including spectroscopy, which also investigates light-matter interactions. For example, coupling of optical tweezers with luminescence spectroscopy techniques has emerged as a powerful tool in biology for micro-manipulation, detection and analysis of individual cells. Integration of optical techniques has enabled studying biological particles in a label-free manner, whilst detecting functional groups and other essential molecules within mixed populations of cells. In the current study, an optical trapping system coupled to luminescence spectroscopy was utilised to detect the presence of HIV infection in TZM-bl cells in vitro. This was performed by infecting TZM-bl cells with the ZM53 HIV-1 pseudovirus, and incubating them for 48 hours prior analysis. The differences between infected and uninfected cells were thereafter displayed as shown by the spectrographs obtained. Combination of these two techniques has a potential in the field of infectious disease diagnostics.

  7. Where and how does physical therapy fit? Integrating physical therapy into interprofessional HIV care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBoer, Heather; Andrews, Matthew; Cudd, Stephanie; Leung, Ellie; Petrie, Alana; Chan Carusone, Soo; O'Brien, Kelly K

    2018-03-13

    To investigate the role of physical therapy in HIV care from the perspective of people living with HIV and health care professionals with expertise in HIV care. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using semistructured interviews (with health care professionals) and focus groups (with people living with HIV). We purposively sampled health care professionals and recruited people living with HIV in collaboration with an HIV-specialty hospital. We asked participants about their knowledge of and experiences with physical therapy, and perceptions of the physical therapy role in interprofessional HIV care. We analyzed data using content analytical techniques. Thirteen people living with HIV and 12 health care professionals conceptualized physical therapy as positively influencing independence and social participation, and as a valuable ally in interprofessional collaboration. The Framework of Physical Therapy Role in HIV Care consists of two components: (1) multidimensional and client-centered roles of physical therapy addressing physical, psychological and social health domains; and (2) contextual factors important to consider for the role of physical therapy: aging, episodic nature of HIV, multimorbidity, competing priorities, continuity of care, stigma, resource security and social isolation. The interaction between contextual factors and health domains can influence the role of physical therapy. The role of physical therapy in HIV is multidimensional and client-centered. This Framework can be used by rehabilitation professionals working with people living with HIV. Implications for Rehabilitation Participants living with HIV in this study experienced physical therapy as a means of addressing rehabilitation goals that positively influenced physical health and social participation. The role of physical therapy in HIV care is multidimensional and client-centered and can address health challenges in physical, social and psychological health domains. The presence

  8. Integrating HIV Prevention and Relationship Education for Young Same-Sex Male Couples: A Pilot Trial of the 2GETHER Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Macapagal, Kathryn R; Feinstein, Brian A; Bettin, Emily; Swann, Gregory; Whitton, Sarah W

    2017-08-01

    Young men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV, and most new HIV infections occur in serious relationships. This pilot study assessed the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the 2GETHER couples-based HIV prevention and relationship education intervention for young same-sex male couples. We enrolled 57 young male couples (N = 114) into a four-session hybrid group and individual intervention. We assessed acceptability via post-session surveys and exit interviews, and we examined preliminary efficacy at a two week posttest. The vast majority of participants (93%) reported exclusively positive impressions of 2GETHER, and all components received high mean ratings. We observed decreases in HIV risk behavior, increases in information, motivation and behavioral skills related to HIV prevention, and improvement in relationship investment between pretest and posttest. Integrating relationship education and sexual health programming may be an effective way to reduce HIV transmissions in young male couples.

  9. The 'third wave' of HIV prevention: Filling gaps in integrated interventions, knowledge, and funding

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda, J

    2012-01-01

    There is growing optimism in the global health community that the HIV epidemic can be halted. After decades of relying primarily on behavior change to prevent HIV transmission, a second generation of prevention efforts based on medical or biological interventions such as male circumcision and preexposure prophylaxis-the use of antiretroviral drugs to protect uninfected, at-risk individuals-has shown promising results. This article calls for a third generation of HIV prevention efforts that wo...

  10. [Integrated screening for HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in the Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, E P; Nambei, W S; Kamandji, L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis and toxoplasmosis infection in pregnant women in the Central African Republic who were and were not HIV-infected, in the framework of HIV surveillance. This case-control study included 270 HIV(+) and 217 HIV(-) pregnant women among 4 750 women who attended prenatal-care clinics throughout the Central African Republic from November 2011 through January 2012. Blood specimens were collected and serological evidence of HIV1/2 was analyzed by ELISA1 and ELISA2. The Toxoplasma gondii antibody was detected with the Toxo-Hai Fumouze(®) diagnostic kit. A VDRL test was performed to screen for syphilis in all study participants. Of the 434 samples tested, 33 (7.60%) were positive for syphilis: 21 (9.7%) among HIV(+) and 12 (5.5%) among HIV(-) women (p = 0.1031); 221 (50.90%) were positive for toxoplasmosis: 117 (53.9%) among HIV(+) and 104 (47.9%) among HIV(-) women (p = 0, 2119). Coinfection with HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis was found in 6.00%. No association was found between coinfection and age, parity, and residence area. The rate of syphilis infection was very high in pregnant women living in rural areas (ORcrude = 4.37; 95% CI = 2,11, 9.05). This study showed a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis and syphilis in pregnant women in the Central African Republic, regardless of their HIV infection status. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in pregnant women living in rural areas. It may be appropriate to include routine serological screening tests to determine of toxoplasmosis, syphilis and HIV in pregnant women in this country.

  11. Administrative integration of vertical HIV monitoring and evaluation into health systems: a case study from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kawonga, Mary; Fonn, Sharon; Blaauw, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Background: In light of an increasing global focus on health system strengthening and integration of vertical programmes within health systems, methods and tools are required to examine whether general health service managers exercise administrative authority over vertical programmes. Objective: To measure the extent to which general health service (horizontal) managers, exercise authority over the HIV programme’s monitoring and evaluation (M&E) function, and to explore factors that may i...

  12. A Standard, Knowledge Integrated Consultation Document for Pediatric HIV Information Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debkumar Patra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is one of life-threatening diseases over which human currently does not have enough control. Study and research on HIV and its prevention are being carried out by different organizations. However, they are mostly area specific, thereby, failing to provide a nation-wide or region-wide overview of HIV infection. One of the major bottlenecks in having a wider study is the lack of interoperability among systems managing HIV patient information. Besides, such lack of interoperability also hinders forming larger HIV care network where telemedicine could be accomplished more effectively. We have addressed this interoperability issue through HL7 clinical document architecture (CDA, a document-based messaging standard for clinical interaction. This article introduces a document architecture that conforms to HL7 CDA standard and contains all relevant information of a pediatric HIV patient. We extended the existing architecture of CDA consultation note in three dimensions: (1 HIV specific content, (2 HIV specific knowledgebase and (3 HIV specific presentation of content and knowledge. An example CDA consultation note is demonstrated following the proposed extension.

  13. The Study of HIV and Antenatal Care Integration in Pregnancy in Kenya: Design, Methods, and Baseline Results of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Janet M.; Steinfeld, Rachel L.; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Woods, Meghan; Shade, Starley B.; Washington, Sierra; Marima, Reson; Penner, Jeremy; Ackers, Marta L.; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Cohen, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite strong evidence for the effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy for improving the health of women living with HIV and for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), HIV persists as a major maternal and child health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In most settings antenatal care (ANC) services and HIV treatment services are offered in separate clinics. Integrating these services may result in better uptake of services, reduction of the time to treatment initiation, better adherence, and reduction of stigma. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial design was used to evaluate the effects of integrating HIV treatment into ANC clinics at government health facilities in rural Kenya. Twelve facilities were randomized to provide either fully integrated services (ANC, PMTCT, and HIV treatment services all delivered in the ANC clinic) or non-integrated services (ANC clinics provided ANC and basic PMTCT services and referred clients to a separate HIV clinic for HIV treatment). During June 2009– March 2011, 1,172 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The main study outcomes are rates of maternal enrollment in HIV care and treatment, infant HIV testing uptake, and HIV-free infant survival. Baseline results revealed that the intervention and control cohorts were similar with respect to socio-demographics, male partner HIV testing, sero-discordance of the couple, obstetric history, baseline CD4 count, and WHO Stage. Challenges faced while conducting this trial at low-resource rural health facilities included frequent staff turnover, stock-outs of essential supplies, transportation challenges, and changes in national guidelines. Conclusions/Significance This is the first randomized trial of ANC and HIV service integration to be conducted in rural Africa. It is expected that the study will provide critical evidence regarding the implementation and effectiveness of this service delivery

  14. The study of HIV and antenatal care integration in pregnancy in Kenya: design, methods, and baseline results of a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Turan

    Full Text Available Despite strong evidence for the effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy for improving the health of women living with HIV and for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT, HIV persists as a major maternal and child health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In most settings antenatal care (ANC services and HIV treatment services are offered in separate clinics. Integrating these services may result in better uptake of services, reduction of the time to treatment initiation, better adherence, and reduction of stigma.A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial design was used to evaluate the effects of integrating HIV treatment into ANC clinics at government health facilities in rural Kenya. Twelve facilities were randomized to provide either fully integrated services (ANC, PMTCT, and HIV treatment services all delivered in the ANC clinic or non-integrated services (ANC clinics provided ANC and basic PMTCT services and referred clients to a separate HIV clinic for HIV treatment. During June 2009- March 2011, 1,172 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The main study outcomes are rates of maternal enrollment in HIV care and treatment, infant HIV testing uptake, and HIV-free infant survival. Baseline results revealed that the intervention and control cohorts were similar with respect to socio-demographics, male partner HIV testing, sero-discordance of the couple, obstetric history, baseline CD4 count, and WHO Stage. Challenges faced while conducting this trial at low-resource rural health facilities included frequent staff turnover, stock-outs of essential supplies, transportation challenges, and changes in national guidelines.This is the first randomized trial of ANC and HIV service integration to be conducted in rural Africa. It is expected that the study will provide critical evidence regarding the implementation and effectiveness of this service delivery strategy, with important implications for programs striving

  15. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  16. The burden of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular risk factors among adult Malawians in HIV care: consequences for integrated services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divala, Oscar H; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Ismail, Zahra; Beyene, Teferi; Garone, Daniela; Pfaff, Colin; Singano, Victor; Akello, Harriet; Joshua, Martias; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Matengeni, Alfred; Berman, Josh; Mallewa, Jane; Chinomba, Gift S; Kayange, Noel; Allain, Theresa J; Chan, Adrienne K; Sodhi, Sumeet K; van Oosterhout, Joep J

    2016-12-12

    Hypertension and diabetes prevalence is high in Africans. Data from HIV infected populations are limited, especially from Malawi. Integrating care for chronic non-communicable co-morbidities in well-established HIV services may provide benefit for patients by preventing multiple hospital visits but will increase the burden of care for busy HIV clinics. Cross-sectional study of adults (≥18 years) at an urban and a rural HIV clinic in Zomba district, Malawi, during 2014. Hypertension and diabetes were diagnosed according to stringent criteria. Proteinuria, non-fasting lipids and cardio/cerebro-vascular disease (CVD) risk scores (Framingham and World Health Organization/International Society for Hypertension) were determined. The association of patient characteristics with diagnoses of hypertension and diabetes was studied using multivariable analyses. We explored the additional burden of care for integrated drug treatment of hypertension and diabetes in HIV clinics. We defined that burden as patients with diabetes and/or stage II and III hypertension, but not with stage I hypertension unless they had proteinuria, previous stroke or high Framingham CVD risk. Nine hundred fifty-two patients were enrolled, 71.7% female, median age 43.0 years, 95.9% on antiretroviral therapy (ART), median duration 47.7 months. Rural and urban patients' characteristics differed substantially. Hypertension prevalence was 23.7% (95%-confidence interval 21.1-26.6; rural 21.0% vs. urban 26.5%; p = 0.047), of whom 59.9% had stage I (mild) hypertension. Diabetes prevalence was 4.1% (95%-confidence interval 3.0-5.6) without significant difference between rural and urban settings. Prevalence of proteinuria, elevated total/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio and high CVD risk score was low. Hypertension diagnosis was associated with increasing age, higher body mass index, presence of proteinuria, being on regimen zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine and inversely with World Health

  17. Vulnerability of wives of Nepalese labor migrants to HIV infection: Integrating quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Subash; Bista, Nirmala; Hannes, Karin; Buve, Anne; Vermandere, Mieke; Mathei, Catharina

    2016-10-01

    HIV risk is determined by the interaction between social and individual risk factors, but information about such factors among Nepalese women is not yet understood. Therefore, to assess the risk factors and vulnerability of the wives of Nepalese labor migrants to HIV infection, the authors conducted a mixed-methods study in which a descriptive qualitative study was embedded within a case-control study. Two hundred twenty-four wives of labor migrants were interviewed in the case-control study, and two focus group discussions (n = 8 and 9) were conducted in the qualitative study. The authors found that illiteracy, low socio-economic status, and gender inequality contributed to poor knowledge and poor sexual negotiation among the wives of labor migrants and increased their risk of HIV through unprotected sex. Among male labor migrants, illiteracy, low socio-economic status, migration to India before marriage, and alcohol consumption contributed to liaisons with female sex workers, increasing the risk of HIV to the men and their wives through unprotected sex. Both labor migrants and their wives feared disclosure of positive HIV status due to HIV stigma and thus were less likely to be tested for HIV. HIV prevention programs should consider the interaction among these risk factors when targeting labor migrants and their wives.

  18. An Integrated, Multidimensional Treatment Model for Individuals Living with HIV, Mental Illness, and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouis, Stephanie; Reif, Susan; Whetten, Kathryn; Scovil, Janet; Murray, Andrea; Swartz, Marvin

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of providing effective treatment services for the growing population of HIV-positive individuals who are also dually diagnosed with substance use and mental disorders has only recently been recognized as an important public health concern affecting both HIV treatment and prevention. This article describes a treatment model that was…

  19. The uptake of integrated perinatal prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorainne Tudor Car

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this review was to assess the uptake of WHO recommended integrated perinatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV interventions in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched 21 databases for observational studies presenting uptake of integrated PMTCT programs in low- and middle-income countries. Forty-one studies on programs implemented between 1997 and 2006, met inclusion criteria. The proportion of women attending antenatal care who were counseled and who were tested was high; 96% (range 30-100% and 81% (range 26-100%, respectively. However, the overall median proportion of HIV positive women provided with antiretroviral prophylaxis in antenatal care and attending labor ward was 55% (range 22-99% and 60% (range 19-100%, respectively. The proportion of women with unknown HIV status, tested for HIV at labor ward was 70%. Overall, 79% (range 44-100% of infants were tested for HIV and 11% (range 3-18% of them were HIV positive. We designed two PMTCT cascades using studies with outcomes for all perinatal PMTCT interventions which showed that an estimated 22% of all HIV positive women attending antenatal care and 11% of all HIV positive women delivering at labor ward were not notified about their HIV status and did not participate in PMTCT program. Only 17% of HIV positive antenatal care attendees and their infants are known to have taken antiretroviral prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: The existing evidence provides information only about the initial PMTCT programs which were based on the old WHO PMTCT guidelines. The uptake of counseling and HIV testing among pregnant women attending antenatal care was high, but their retention in PMTCT programs was low. The majority of women in the included studies did not receive ARV prophylaxis in antenatal care; nor did they attend labor ward. More studies evaluating the uptake in current PMTCT programs are urgently needed.

  20. The uptake of integrated perinatal prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor Car, Lorainne; Brusamento, Serena; Elmoniry, Hoda; van Velthoven, Michelle H M M T; Pape, Utz J; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter; Majeed, Azeem; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip; Atun, Rifat

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to assess the uptake of WHO recommended integrated perinatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV interventions in low- and middle-income countries. We searched 21 databases for observational studies presenting uptake of integrated PMTCT programs in low- and middle-income countries. Forty-one studies on programs implemented between 1997 and 2006, met inclusion criteria. The proportion of women attending antenatal care who were counseled and who were tested was high; 96% (range 30-100%) and 81% (range 26-100%), respectively. However, the overall median proportion of HIV positive women provided with antiretroviral prophylaxis in antenatal care and attending labor ward was 55% (range 22-99%) and 60% (range 19-100%), respectively. The proportion of women with unknown HIV status, tested for HIV at labor ward was 70%. Overall, 79% (range 44-100%) of infants were tested for HIV and 11% (range 3-18%) of them were HIV positive. We designed two PMTCT cascades using studies with outcomes for all perinatal PMTCT interventions which showed that an estimated 22% of all HIV positive women attending antenatal care and 11% of all HIV positive women delivering at labor ward were not notified about their HIV status and did not participate in PMTCT program. Only 17% of HIV positive antenatal care attendees and their infants are known to have taken antiretroviral prophylaxis. The existing evidence provides information only about the initial PMTCT programs which were based on the old WHO PMTCT guidelines. The uptake of counseling and HIV testing among pregnant women attending antenatal care was high, but their retention in PMTCT programs was low. The majority of women in the included studies did not receive ARV prophylaxis in antenatal care; nor did they attend labor ward. More studies evaluating the uptake in current PMTCT programs are urgently needed.

  1. Epigenetic Metabolite Acetate Inhibits Class I/II Histone Deacetylases, Promotes Histone Acetylation, and Increases HIV-1 Integration in CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Jean-François; Hany, Laurent; Barat, Corinne; Ouellet, Michel; Tremblay, Michel J

    2017-08-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of acetate, the most concentrated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the gut and bloodstream, on the susceptibility of primary human CD4 + T cells to HIV-1 infection. We report that HIV-1 replication is increased in CD3/CD28-costimulated CD4 + T cells upon acetate treatment. This enhancing effect correlates with increased expression of the early activation marker CD69 and impaired class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, acetate enhances acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and augments HIV-1 integration into the genome of CD4 + T cells. Thus, we propose that upon antigen presentation, acetate influences class I/II HDAC activity that transforms condensed chromatin into a more relaxed structure. This event leads to a higher level of viral integration and enhanced HIV-1 production. In line with previous studies showing reactivation of latent HIV-1 by SCFAs, we provide evidence that acetate can also increase the susceptibility of primary human CD4 + T cells to productive HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE Alterations in the fecal microbiota and intestinal epithelial damage involved in the gastrointestinal disorder associated with HIV-1 infection result in microbial translocation that leads to disease progression and virus-related comorbidities. Indeed, notably via production of short-chain fatty acids, bacteria migrating from the lumen to the intestinal mucosa could influence HIV-1 replication by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, such as histone acetylation. We demonstrate that acetate enhances virus production in primary human CD4 + T cells. Moreover, we report that acetate impairs class I/II histone deacetylase activity and increases integration of HIV-1 DNA into the host genome. Therefore, it can be postulated that bacterial metabolites such as acetate modulate HIV-1-mediated disease progression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. cDNA sequence quality data - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project cDNA sequence quality data Data detail Data name cDNA sequence quality... data DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00838-003 Description of data contents Phred's quality score. P...tion Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us cDNA sequence quality

  3. Study protocol for the Integra Initiative to assess the benefits and costs of integrating sexual and reproductive health and HIV services in Kenya and Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charlotte E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA there are strong arguments for the provision of integrated sexual and reproductive health (SRH and HIV services. Most HIV transmissions are sexually transmitted or associated with pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. Many of the behaviours that prevent HIV transmission also prevent sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. There is potential for integration to increase the coverage of HIV services, as individuals who use SRH services can benefit from HIV services and vice-versa, as well as increase cost-savings. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence on effective models for integrating HIV/SRH services. The need for robust evidence led a consortium of three organizations – International Planned Parenthood Federation, Population Council and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine – to design/implement the Integra Initiative. Integra seeks to generate rigorous evidence on the feasibility, effectiveness, cost and impact of different models for delivering integrated HIV/SRH services in high and medium HIV prevalence settings in SSA. Methods/design A quasi-experimental study will be conducted in government clinics in Kenya and Swaziland – assigned into intervention/comparison groups. Two models of service delivery are investigated: integrating HIV care/treatment into 1 family planning and 2 postnatal care. A full economic-costing will be used to assess the costs of different components of service provision, and the determinants of variations in unit costs across facilities/service models. Health facility assessments will be conducted at four time-periods to track changes in quality of care and utilization over time. A two-year cohort study of family planning/postnatal clients will assess the effect of integration on individual outcomes, including use of SRH services, HIV status (known/unknown and pregnancy (planned/unintended. Household surveys within some

  4. Achieving development goals for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa through integrated antenatal care: barriers and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, Freya J I; Draper, Bridget L; Hellard, Margaret; Stoové, Mark

    2016-12-12

    The global health community is currently transitioning from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Unfortunately, progress towards maternal, newborn and infant health MDGs has lagged significantly behind other key health goals, demanding a renewed global effort in this key health area. The World Health Organization and other institutions heralded integrated antenatal care (ANC) as the best way to address the inter-related health issues of HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria in the high risk groups of pregnant women and infants; integrated ANC services also offer a mechanism to address slow progress towards improved maternal health. There is remarkably limited evidence on best practice approaches of program implementation, acceptability and effectiveness for integrated ANC models targeting multiple diseases. Here, we discuss current integrated ANC global guidelines and the limited literature describing integrated ANC implementation and evidence for their role in addressing HIV, malaria and TB during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. We highlight the paucity of data on the effectiveness of integrated ANC models and identify significant structural barriers in the health system (funding, infrastructure, distribution, human resources), the adoption system (limited buy-in from implementers, leadership, governance) and, in the broader context, patient-centred barriers (fear, stigma, personal burdens) and barriers in funding structures. We highlight recommendations for action and discuss avenues for the global health community to develop systems to integrate multiple disease programs into ANC models of care that better address these three priority infectious diseases. With the current transition to the SDGs and concerns regarding the failure to meet maternal health MDGs, the global health community, researchers, implementers and funding bodies must work together to ensure the establishment of quality operational and

  5. Comparison Between Several Integrase-defective Lentiviral Vectors Reveals Increased Integration of an HIV Vector Bearing a D167H Mutant

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    Muhammad Qamar Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 derived vectors are among the most efficient for gene transduction in mammalian tissues. As the parent virus, they carry out vector genome insertion into the host cell chromatin. Consequently, their preferential integration in transcribed genes raises several conceptual and safety issues. To address part of these questions, HIV-derived vectors have been engineered to be nonintegrating. This was mainly achieved by mutating HIV-1 integrase at functional hotspots of the enzyme enabling the development of streamlined nuclear DNA circles functional for transgene expression. Few integrase mutant vectors have been successfully tested so far for gene transfer. They are cleared with time in mitotic cells, but stable within nondividing retina cells or neurons. Here, we compared six HIV vectors carrying different integrases, either wild type or with different mutations (D64V, D167H, Q168A, K186Q+Q214L+Q216L, and RRK262-264AAH shown to modify integrase enzymatic activity, oligomerization, or interaction with key cellular cofactor of HIV DNA integration as LEDGF/p75 or TNPO3. We show that these mutations differently affect the transduction efficiency as well as rates and patterns of integration of HIV-derived vectors suggesting their different processing in the nucleus. Surprisingly and most interestingly, we report that an integrase carrying the D167H substitution improves vector transduction efficiency and integration in both HEK-293T and primary CD34+ cells.

  6. Integration of Health Services Improves Multiple Healthcare Outcomes Among HIV-infected People Who Inject Drugs in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachireddy, Chethan; Soule, Michael C.; Izenberg, Jacob M.; Dvoryak, Sergey; Dumchev, Konstantin; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Background People who inject drugs (PWID) experience poor outcomes and fuel HIV epidemics in middle-income countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. We assess integrated/co-located (ICL) healthcare for HIV-infected PWID, which despite international recommendations, is neither widely available nor empirically examined. Methods A 2010 cross-sectional study randomly sampled 296 HIV-infected opioid-dependent PWID from two representative HIV-endemic regions in Ukraine where ICL, non-co-located (NCL) and harm reduction/outreach (HRO) settings are available. ICL settings provide onsite HIV, addiction, and tuberculosis services, NCLs only treat addiction, and HROs provide counseling, needles/syringes, and referrals, but no opioid substitution therapy (OST). The primary outcome was receipt of quality healthcare, measured using a quality healthcare indicator (QHI) composite score representing percentage of eight guidelines-based recommended indicators met for HIV, addiction and tuberculosis treatment. The secondary outcomes were individual QHIs and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). Results On average, ICL-participants had significantly higher QHI composite scores compared to NCL- and HRO-participants (71.9% versus 54.8% versus 37.0%, p<0.001) even after controlling for potential confounders. Compared to NCL-participants, ICL-participants were significantly more likely to receive antiretroviral therapy (49.5% versus 19.2%, p<0.001), especially if CD4≤200 (93.8% versus 62.5% p<0.05); guideline-recommended OST dosage (57.3% versus 41.4%, p<0.05); and isoniazid preventive therapy (42.3% versus 11.2%, p<0.001). Subjects receiving OST had significantly higher HRQoL than those not receiving it (p<0.001); however, HRQoL did not differ significantly between ICL- and NCL-participants. Conclusions These findings suggest that OST alone improves quality-of-life, while receiving care in integrated settings collectively and individually improves healthcare quality for PWID

  7. Evaluation of the integrated clinic model for HIV/AIDS services in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, 2013-2014.

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    Hung, V; Nguyen, S T; Tieu, V T T; Nguyen, T T T; Duong, T H; Lyss, S; Oeltmann, J E

    2016-12-21

    Setting: Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Viet Nam. Objective: To evaluate a new integrated service model for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) care. Design: In HCMC, co-located services, including voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), HIV treatment at out-patient clinics (OPC), and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for persons who inject drugs, have operated under different administrative structures. In the context of decreasing international financial support, integration of these services into one administrative structure with reduced staff occurred in seven districts in HCMC between October 2013 and June 2014. We used a pre-post study design to compare service-related outcomes from routinely collected data at health facilities 6 months before and 6 months after integration. Results: The proportion of HIV-infected persons linked from VCT to OPCs was unchanged or increased following integration. A higher percentage of patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) were started on ART. The proportion of ART patients lost to follow-up remained unchanged. The proportions of MMT patients who tested positive for heroin or other substances decreased or were unchanged. Conclusions: VCT, OPC and MMT service delivery quality remained the same or improved during the 6 months following the integration. Expansion of the integrated model should be considered for HIV-related services.

  8. Progress on scaling up integrated services for sexual and reproductive health and HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Clare; Attawell, Kathy; Druce, Nel

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers new developments to strengthen sexual and reproductive health and HIV linkages and discusses factors that continue to impede progress. It is based on a previous review undertaken for the United Kingdom Department for International Development in 2006 that examined the constraints and opportunities to scaling up these linkages. We argue that, despite growing evidence that linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV is feasible and beneficial, few countries have achieved...

  9. Your blues ain't like mine: considering integrative antiracism in HIV prevention research with black men who have sex with men in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Walker, Ja'Nina J; DuBois, Steve N; Giwa, Sulaimon

    2014-12-01

    Evidence-based interventions have been developed and used to prevent HIV infections among black men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada and the United States; however, the degree to which interventions address racism and other interlocking oppressions that influence HIV vulnerability is not well known. We utilize integrative antiracism to guide a review of HIV prevention intervention studies with black MSM and to determine how racism and religious oppression are addressed in the current intervention evidence base. We searched CINAHL, PsychInfo, MEDLINE and the CDC compendium of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions and identified seventeen interventions. Three interventions targeted black MSM, yet only one intervention addressed racism, religious oppression, cultural assets and religious assets. Most interventions' samples included low numbers of black MSM. More research is needed on interventions that address racism and religious oppression on HIV vulnerability among black MSM. Future research should focus on explicating mechanisms by which multiple oppressions impact HIV vulnerability. We recommend the development and integration of social justice tools for nursing practice that aid in addressing the impacts of racism and other oppressions on HIV vulnerability of black MSM. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Radioactive cDNA microarray in neurospsychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Jae Gol; Shin, Kyung Ho; Lee, Min Soo; Kim, Meyoung Kon

    2003-01-01

    Microarray technology allows the simultaneous analysis of gene expression patterns of thousands of genes, in a systematic fashion, under a similar set of experimental conditions, thus making the data highly comparable. In some cases arrays are used simply as a primary screen leading to downstream molecular characterization of individual gene candidates. In other cases, the goal of expression profiling is to begin to identify complex regulatory networks underlying developmental processes and disease states. Microarrays were originally used with cell lines or other simple model systems. More recently, microarrays have been used in the analysis of more complex biological tissues including neural systems and the brain. The application of cDNA arrays in neuropsychiatry has lagged behind other fields for a number of reasons. These include a requirement for a large amount of input probe RNA in fluorescent-glass based array systems and the cellular complexity introduced by multicellular brain and neural tissues. An additional factor that impacts the general use of microarrays in neuropsychiatry is the lack of availability of sequenced clone sets from model systems. While human cDNA clones have been widely available, high quality rat, mouse, and drosophilae, among others are just becoming widely available. A final factor in the application of cDNA microarrays in neuropsychiatry is cost of commercial arrays. As academic microarray facilitates become more commonplace custom made arrays will become more widely available at a lower cost allowing more widespread applications. In summary, microarray technology is rapidly having an impact on many areas of biomedical research. Radioisotope-nylon based microarrays offer alternatives that may in some cases be more sensitive, flexible, inexpensive, and universal as compared to other array formats, such as fluorescent-glass arrays. In some situations of limited RNA or exotic species, radioactive membrane microarrays may be the most

  11. Radioactive cDNA microarray in neurospsychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jae Gol; Shin, Kyung Ho; Lee, Min Soo; Kim, Meyoung Kon [Korea University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    Microarray technology allows the simultaneous analysis of gene expression patterns of thousands of genes, in a systematic fashion, under a similar set of experimental conditions, thus making the data highly comparable. In some cases arrays are used simply as a primary screen leading to downstream molecular characterization of individual gene candidates. In other cases, the goal of expression profiling is to begin to identify complex regulatory networks underlying developmental processes and disease states. Microarrays were originally used with cell lines or other simple model systems. More recently, microarrays have been used in the analysis of more complex biological tissues including neural systems and the brain. The application of cDNA arrays in neuropsychiatry has lagged behind other fields for a number of reasons. These include a requirement for a large amount of input probe RNA in fluorescent-glass based array systems and the cellular complexity introduced by multicellular brain and neural tissues. An additional factor that impacts the general use of microarrays in neuropsychiatry is the lack of availability of sequenced clone sets from model systems. While human cDNA clones have been widely available, high quality rat, mouse, and drosophilae, among others are just becoming widely available. A final factor in the application of cDNA microarrays in neuropsychiatry is cost of commercial arrays. As academic microarray facilitates become more commonplace custom made arrays will become more widely available at a lower cost allowing more widespread applications. In summary, microarray technology is rapidly having an impact on many areas of biomedical research. Radioisotope-nylon based microarrays offer alternatives that may in some cases be more sensitive, flexible, inexpensive, and universal as compared to other array formats, such as fluorescent-glass arrays. In some situations of limited RNA or exotic species, radioactive membrane microarrays may be the most

  12. An integrated approach to care attracts people living with HIV who use illicit drugs in an urban centre with a concentrated HIV epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living with HIV (PLHIV who are also marginalized by social and structural inequities often face barriers to accessing and adhering to HIV treatment and care. The Dr. Peter Centre (DPC is a non-profit integrated care facility with a supervised injection room that serves PLHIV experiencing multiple barriers to social and health services in Vancouver, Canada. This study examines whether the DPC is successful in drawing in PLHIV with complex health issues, including addiction. Methods Using data collected by the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary health services (LISA study from July 2007 to January 2010, linked with clinical variables available through the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS Drug Treatment Program, we identified DPC and non-DPC clients with a history of injection drug use. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses compared socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of DPC clients (n = 76 and non-DPC clients (n = 482 with a history of injection drug use. Results Of the 917 LISA participants included within this analysis, 100 (10.9% reported being a DPC client, of which 76 reported a history of injection drug use. Adjusted results found that compared to non-DPC clients with a history of injection drug use, DPC-clients were more likely to be male (AOR: 4.18, 95% CI = 2.09–8.37; use supportive services daily vs. less than daily (AOR: 3.16, 95% CI = 1.79–5.61; to have been diagnosed with a mental health disorder (AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.12–3.99; to have a history of interpersonal violence (AOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.23–6.19; and to have ever experienced ART interruption longer than 1 year (AOR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.38–4.15. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that the DPC operating care model engages PLHIV with complex care needs, highlighting that integrated care facilities are needed to support the multiple intersecting vulnerabilities faced

  13. Improving sexual health for HIV patients by providing a combination of integrated public health and hospital care services; a one-group pre- and post test intervention comparison

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    Dukers-Muijrers Nicole HTM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital HIV care and public sexual health care (a Sexual Health Care Centre services were integrated to provide sexual health counselling and sexually transmitted infections (STIs testing and treatment (sexual health care to larger numbers of HIV patients. Services, need and usage were assessed using a patient perspective, which is a key factor for the success of service integration. Methods The study design was a one-group pre-test and post-test comparison of 447 HIV-infected heterosexual individuals and men who have sex with men (MSM attending a hospital-based HIV centre serving the southern region of the Netherlands. The intervention offered comprehensive sexual health care using an integrated care approach. The main outcomes were intervention uptake, patients’ pre-test care needs (n=254, and quality rating. Results Pre intervention, 43% of the patients wanted to discuss sexual health (51% MSM; 30% heterosexuals. Of these patients, 12% to 35% reported regular coverage, and up to 25% never discussed sexual health topics at their HIV care visits. Of the patients, 24% used our intervention. Usage was higher among patients who previously expressed a need to discuss sexual health. Most patients who used the integrated services were new users of public health services. STIs were detected in 13% of MSM and in none of the heterosexuals. The quality of care was rated good. Conclusions The HIV patients in our study generally considered sexual health important, but the regular counselling and testing at the HIV care visit was insufficient. The integration of public health and hospital services benefited both care sectors and their patients by addressing sexual health questions, detecting STIs, and conducting partner notification. Successful sexual health care uptake requires increased awareness among patients about their care options as well as a cultural shift among care providers.

  14. The effect of complete integration of HIV and TB services on time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a before-after study.

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    Bernhard Kerschberger

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that early ART initiation in TB/HIV co-infected patients lowers mortality. One way to implement earlier ART commencement could be through integration of TB and HIV services, a more efficient model of care than separate, vertical programs. We present a model of full TB/HIV integration and estimate its effect on time to initiation of ART.We retrospectively reviewed TB registers and clinical notes of 209 TB/HIV co-infected adults with a CD4 count <250 cells/µl and registered for TB treatment at one primary care clinic in a South African township between June 2008 and May 2009. Using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analysis, we compared time between initiation of TB treatment and ART for the periods before and after full, "one-stop shop" integration of TB and HIV services (in December 2009. Potential confounders were determined a priori through directed acyclic graphs. Robustness of assumptions was investigated by sensitivity analyses. The analysis included 188 patients (100 pre- and 88 post-integration, yielding 56 person-years of observation. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. Median time to ART initiation decreased from 147 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 85-188 before integration of services to 75 days (95% CI 52-119 post-integration. In adjusted analyses, patients attending the clinic post-integration were 1.60 times (95% CI 1.11-2.29 more likely to have started ART relative to the pre-integration period. Sensitivity analyses supported these findings.Full TB/HIV care integration is feasible and led to a 60% increased chance of co-infected patients starting ART, while reducing time to ART initiation by an average of 72 days. Although these estimates should be confirmed through larger studies, they suggest that scale-up of full TB/HIV service integration in high TB/HIV prevalence settings may shorten time to ART initiation, which might reduce excess mortality and morbidity.

  15. Peer-based education and the integration of HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health services for young people in Vietnam: evidence from a project evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Anh D; Ha, Toan H; Rule, John; Dang, Chinh V

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports changes in behavioral outcomes related to the use of HIV testing service of a project that employed peer-based education strategies and integration of HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services targeting young people aged 15-24 across 5 provinces in Vietnam. A pre-test/post-test, non-experimental evaluation design was used. Data were collected from cross-sectional surveys of youth and client exit interviews at project supported SRH clinics conducted at baseline and again at 24 months following implementation. The baseline samples consisted of 813 youth and 399 exit clients. The end line samples included 501 youths and 399 exit clients. Z test was used to assess changes in behavioral outcomes. Results show that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the percentage of youth who wanted to obtain a HIV test (from 33% to 51%), who had ever had a test (from 7.5% to 15%), and who had a repeat test in the last 12 months (from 54.5% to 67.5%). Exit client interviews found a nearly five-fold increase in the percentage of clients seeking HIV VCT in their current visit (5.0% vs. 24.5%) and almost two-fold increase in the percentage of those having their last test at a project supported clinic (9.3% vs. 17.8%). There were also positive changes in some aspects of youth HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and risk perceptions. This study provides preliminary evidence regarding the benefits of the integration of HIV VCT-SRH services in terms of increased access to HIV services and testing in Vietnam. Benefits of peer-based education regarding increased HIV knowledge were also identified. Further investigations, including experimental studies with assessment of health outcomes and the uptake of HIV testing services, are required to better elucidate the effectiveness and challenges of this intervention model in Vietnam.

  16. Numbers, systems, people: how interactions influence integration. Insights from case studies of HIV and reproductive health services delivery in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Susannah H; Sweeney, Sedona; Warren, Charlotte E; Collumbien, Martine; Ndwiga, Charity; Mutemwa, Richard; Lut, Irina; Colombini, Manuela; Vassall, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Drawing on rich data from the Integra evaluation of integrated HIV and reproductive-health services, we explored the interaction of systems hardware and software factors to explain why some facilities were able to implement and sustain integrated service delivery while others were not. This article draws on detailed mixed-methods data for four case-study facilities offering reproductive-health and HIV services between 2009 and 2013 in Kenya: (i) time-series client flow, tracking service uptake for 8841 clients; (ii) structured questionnaires with 24 providers; (iii) in-depth interviews with 17 providers; (iv) workload and facility data using a periodic activity review and cost-instruments; and (v) contextual data on external activities related to integration in study sites. Overall, our findings suggested that although structural factors like stock-outs, distribution of staffing and workload, rotation of staff can affect how integrated care is provided, all these factors can be influenced by staff themselves: both frontline and management. Facilities where staff displayed agency of decision making, worked as a team to share workload and had management that supported this, showed better integration delivery and staff were able to overcome some structural deficiencies to enable integrated care. Poor-performing facilities had good structural integration, but staff were unable to utilize this because they were poorly organized, unsupported or teams were dysfunctional. Conscientious objection and moralistic attitudes were also barriers.Integra has demonstrated that structural integration is not sufficient for integrated service delivery. Rather, our case studies show that in some cases excellent leadership and peer-teamwork enabled facilities to perform well despite resource shortages. The ability to provide support for staff to work flexibly to deliver integrated services and build resilient health systems to meet changing needs is particularly relevant as health

  17. Determinants of facility readiness for integration of family planning with HIV testing and counseling services: evidence from the Tanzania service provision assessment survey, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintabara, Deogratius; Nakamura, Keiko; Seino, Kaoruko

    2017-12-22

    Global policy reports, national frameworks, and programmatic tools and guidance emphasize the integration of family planning and HIV testing and counseling services to ensure universal access to reproductive health care and HIV prevention. However, the status of integration between these two services in Tanzanian health facilities is unclear. This study examined determinants of facility readiness for integration of family planning with HIV testing and counseling services in Tanzania. Data from the 2014-2015 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment Survey were analyzed. Facilities were considered ready for integration of family planning with HIV testing and counseling services if they scored ≥ 50% on both family planning and HIV testing and counseling service readiness indices as identified by the World Health Organization. All analyses were adjusted for clustering effects, and estimates were weighted to correct for non-responses and disproportionate sampling. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. A total of 1188 health facilities were included in the study. Of all of the health facilities, 915 (77%) reported offering both family planning and HIV testing and counseling services, while only 536 (45%) were considered ready to integrate these two services. Significant determinants of facility readiness for integrating these two services were being government owned [AOR = 3.2; 95%CI, 1.9-5.6], having routine management meetings [AOR = 1.9; 95%CI, 1.1-3.3], availability of guidelines [AOR = 3.8; 95%CI, 2.4-5.8], in-service training of staff [AOR = 2.6; 95%CI, 1.3-5.2], and availability of laboratories for HIV testing [AOR = 17.1; 95%CI, 8.2-35.6]. The proportion of facility readiness for the integration of family planning with HIV testing and counseling in Tanzania is unsatisfactory. The Ministry of Health should distribute and ensure constant availability of guidelines, availability of rapid diagnostic

  18. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Integrating HIV Prevention and Treatment with Cross-Sex Hormone Therapy for Transgender Women in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; McLean, Sarah A; Lama, Javier R; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Huerta, Leyla; Sanchez, Jorge; Clark, Jesse L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-12-01

    Transgender women (TW) represent a vulnerable population at increased risk for HIV infection in Peru. A mixed-methods study with 48 TW and 19 healthcare professionals was conducted between January and February 2015 to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing a model of care that integrates HIV services with gender-affirmative medical care (i.e., hormone therapy) in Lima, Peru. Perceived acceptability of the integrated care model was high among TW and healthcare professionals alike. Barriers included stigma, lack of provider training or Peruvian guidelines regarding optimal TW care, and service delivery obstacles (e.g., legal documents, spatial placement of clinics, hours of operation). The hiring of TW staff was identified as a key facilitator for engagement in health care. Working in partnership with local TW and healthcare provider organizations is critical to overcoming existing barriers to successful implementation of an integrated HIV services and gender-affirmative medical care model for this key population in Peru.

  19. Integration of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT postpartum services with other HIV care and treatment services within the maternal and child health setting in Zimbabwe, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Wiegert

    Full Text Available We assessed the integration of PMTCT services during the postpartum period including early infant diagnosis of HIV (EID and adult and pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART in maternal and child health (MCH facilities in Zimbabwe.From August to December 2012 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 151 MCH facilities. A questionnaire was used to survey each site about staff training, dried blood spot sample (DBS collection, turnaround time (TAT for test results, PMTCT services, and HIV care and treatment linkages for HIV-infected mothers and children and HIV-exposed infants. Descriptive analyses were used. Of the facilities surveyed, all facilities were trained on DBS collection and 92% responded. Approximately, 99% of responding facilities reported providing DBS collection and a basic HIV-exposed infant service package including EID, extended nevirapine prophylaxis, and use of cotrimoxazole. DBS collection was integrated with immunisations at 83% of facilities, CD4 testing with point-of-care machines was available at 37% of facilities, and ART for both mothers and children was provided at 27% of facilities. More than 80% of facilities reported that DBS test results take >4 weeks to return; TAT did not have a direct association with any specific type of transport, distance to the lab, or intermediate stops for data to travel.Zimbabwe has successfully scaled up and integrated the national EID and PMTCT programs into the existing MCH setting. The long TAT of infant DBS test results and the lack of integrated ART programs in the MCH setting could reduce effectiveness of the national PMTCT and ART programs. Addressing these important gaps will support successful implementation of the 2014 Zimbabwe's PMTCT guidelines under which all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women will be offered life-long ART and decentralized ART care.

  20. HIV prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among transgender women in Cambodia: results from a national Integrated Biological and Behavioral Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhim, Srean; Ngin, Chanrith; Chhoun, Pheak; Tuot, Sovannary; Ly, Cheaty; Mun, Phalkun; Pal, Khondyla; Macom, John; Dousset, Jean-Philippe; Mburu, Gitau; Yi, Siyan

    2017-08-11

    To examine factors associated with HIV infection among transgender women in Cambodia. Cross-sectional study. HIV high-burden sites including the capital city and 12 provinces. This study included 1375 sexually active transgender women with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD 7.1), recruited by using respondent-driven sampling for structured questionnaire interviews and rapid finger-prick HIV testing. HIV infection detected by using Determine antibody test. HIV prevalence among this population was 5.9%. After adjustment for other covariates, participants living in urban areas were twice as likely to be HIV infected as those living in rural areas. Participants with primary education were 1.7 times as likely to be infected compared with those with high school education. HIV infection increased with age; compared with those aged 18-24 years, the odds of being HIV infected were twice as high among transgender women aged 25-34 years and 2.8 times higher among those aged ≥35 years. Self-injection of gender affirming hormones was associated with a fourfold increase in the odds of HIV infection. A history of genital sores over the previous 12 months increased the odds of HIV infection by threefold. Transgender women with stronger feminine identity, dressing as a woman all the time, were twice as likely to be HIV infected compared with those who did not dress as a woman all the time. Having never used online services developed for transgender women in the past six months was also associated with higher odds of being HIV infected. Transgender women in Cambodia are at high risk of HIV. To achieve the goal of eliminating HIV in Cambodia, effective combination prevention strategies addressing the above risk factors among transgender women should be strengthened. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Does integration of HIV and SRH services achieve economies of scale and scope in practice? A cost function analysis of the Integra Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Guinness, Lorna; Sweeney, Sedona; Initiative, Integra; Vassall, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Policy-makers have long argued about the potential efficiency gains and cost savings from integrating HIV and sexual reproductive health (SRH) services, particularly in resource-constrained settings with generalised HIV epidemics. However, until now, little empirical evidence exists on whether the hypothesised efficiency gains associated with such integration can be achieved in practice. We estimated a quadratic cost function using data obtained from 40 health facilities, over a 2-year-period, in Kenya and Swaziland. The quadratic specification enables us to determine the existence of economies of scale and scope. The empirical results reveal that at the current output levels, only HIV counselling and testing services are characterised by service-specific economies of scale. However, no overall economies of scale exist as all outputs are increased. The results also indicate cost complementarities between cervical cancer screening and HIV care; post-natal care and HIV care and family planning and sexually transmitted infection treatment combinations only. The results from this analysis reveal that contrary to expectation, efficiency gains from the integration of HIV and SRH services, if any, are likely to be modest. Efficiency gains are likely to be most achievable in settings that are currently delivering HIV and SRH services at a low scale with high levels of fixed costs. The presence of cost complementarities for only three service combinations implies that careful consideration of setting-specific clinical practices and the extent to which they can be combined should be made when deciding which services to integrate. NCT01694862. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Fertility Intentions and Interest in Integrated Family Planning Services among Women Living with HIV in Nyanza Province, Kenya: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing efforts to address the reproductive health needs of people living with HIV, a high unmet need for contraception exists among HIV+ women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study explores the fertility intentions and family planning (FP preferences of Kenyan women accessing HIV treatment. We conducted 30 semistructured interviews and qualitatively analyzed the data with a grounded theory approach. Fears of premature death, financial hardship, and perinatal HIV transmission emerged as reasons for participants’ desire to delay/cease childbearing. Participants strongly identified FP needs, yet two-thirds were using male condoms alone or no modern method of contraception. Women preferred the HIV clinic as the site of FP access for reasons of convenience, provider expertise, and a sense of belonging, though some had privacy concerns. Our findings support the acceptability of integrated FP and HIV services. Efforts to empower women living with HIV to prevent unintended pregnancies must expand access to contraceptive methods, provide confidential services, and take into account women's varied reproductive intentions.

  3. HIV Testing and Cross Border Migrant Vulnerability: Social Integration and Legal/Economic Status Among Cross Border Migrant Workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Holumyong, Charamporn

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify factors related to the use of HIV testing among cross border migrants in Thailand. Two measures of vulnerability (social integration and legal/economic status) as well as HIV knowledge, risk behaviour, and demographic factors were tested for association with HIV testing. Data were drawn from a survey of 2600 sexually active migrants age 15-59 in multiple provinces of Thailand. The measures of social integration (AOR = 1.14(95 % CI 1.09, 1.20) female; AOR = 1.12 (95 %CI 1.05, 1.19) male) and legal-income status (AOR = 1.12 (95 % CI 1.07, 1.18) female; AOR = 1.31 (95 %CI 1.20, 1.42) male) were positively related to the odds of reporting an HIV test for both male and female migrants. Exposure to AIDS programming including attending an AIDS meeting and possessing AIDS knowledge was also related to an increase in HIV testing. In addition, reproductive health factors including sexual risk behavior and childbirth increased the rate of HIV testing.

  4. Does service integration improve technical quality of care in low-resource settings? An evaluation of a model integrating HIV care into family planning services in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutemwa, Richard; Mayhew, Susannah H; Warren, Charlotte E; Abuya, Timothy; Ndwiga, Charity; Kivunaga, Jackline

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate association between HIV and family planning integration and technical quality of care. The study focused on technical quality of client-provider consultation sessions. The cross-sectional study observed 366 client-provider consultation sessions and interviewed 37 health care providers in 12 public health facilities in Kenya. Multilevel random intercept and linear regression models were fitted to the matched data to investigate relationships between service integration and technical quality of care as well as associations between facility-level structural and provider factors and technical quality of care. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test for hidden bias. After adjusting for facility-level structural factors, HIV/family planning integration was found to have significant positive effect on technical quality of the consultation session, with average treatment effect 0.44 (95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Three of the 12 structural factors were significantly positively associated with technical quality of consultation session including: availability of family planning commodities (9.64; 95% CI: 5.07-14.21), adequate infrastructure (5.29; 95% CI: 2.89-7.69) and reagents (1.48; 95% CI: 1.02-1.93). Three of the nine provider factors were significantly positively associated with technical quality of consultation session: appropriate provider clinical knowledge (3.14; 95% CI: 1.92-4.36), job satisfaction (2.02; 95% CI: 1.21-2.83) and supervision (1.01; 95% CI: 0.35-1.68), while workload (-0.88; 95% CI: -1.75 to - 0.01) was negatively associated. Technical quality of the client-provider consultation session was also determined by duration of the consultation and type of clinic visit and appeared to depend on whether the clinic visit occurred early or later in the week. Integration of HIV care into family planning services can improve the technical quality of client-provider consultation sessions as measured by both health facility

  5. An integrated chemical biology approach reveals the mechanism of action of HIV replication inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Nicholas; Teriete, Peter; Mattmann, Margrith E; Yang, Li; Snyder, Beth A; Cai, Zhaohui; Heil, Marintha L; Cosford, Nicholas D P

    2017-12-01

    Continuous flow (microfluidic) chemistry was employed to prepare a small focused library of dihydropyrimidinone (DHPM) derivatives. Compounds in this class have been reported to exhibit activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but their molecular target had not been identified. We tested the initial set of DHPMs in phenotypic assays providing a hit (1i) that inhibited the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus HIV in cells. Flow chemistry-driven optimization of 1i led to the identification of HIV replication inhibitors such as 1l with cellular potency comparable with the clinical drug nevirapine (NVP). Mechanism of action (MOA) studies using cellular and biochemical assays coupled with 3D fingerprinting and in silico modeling demonstrated that these drug-like probe compounds exert their effects by inhibiting the viral reverse transcriptase polymerase (RT). This led to the design and synthesis of the novel DHPM 1at that inhibits the replication of drug resistant strains of HIV. Our work demonstrates that combining flow chemistry-driven analogue refinement with phenotypic assays, in silico modeling and MOA studies is a highly effective strategy for hit-to-lead optimization applicable to the discovery of future therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Integrated intervention for mental health co-morbidity in HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Targeted, affordable and evidence-based strategies to reach these populations are essential. Against this backdrop, a pilot project and situational assessment aimed at determining the context of psychological care and HIV treatment services in South Africa was undertaken. The situational analysis consisted of individual ...

  7. Private pharmacies in an integrated approach to HIV/AIDS services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African National AIDS Council emphasises that success in tackling HIV/AIDS depends on leadership at every level of society, as well as mobilisation and co-operation in all sectors including government, health care workers and civil society (SANAC, 2006). This may be an acknowledgement that South Africa's ...

  8. Discovering novel plant-derived drug leads for the treatment of HIV through an integrated approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nthambeleni, R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is now the leading cause of death in Sub-Saharan Africa and has moved up to fourth place among all causes of death worldwide. According to estimates from the UNAIDS 2009 report (UNAIDS 2009) on the global AIDS epidemic, around 33.4 million...

  9. TB/HIV integration at primary care level: A quantitative assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-02

    Sep 2, 2012 ... Public Health Leadership Program, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. L Evarts, MPH. WitkoppenHealth ..... for TB symptoms. • 10% of TB suspects assessed by smear microscopy. Percentage of new HIV-positive patients starting. IPT (indicator B.2.1). 100%. 124 059 (12%). • 0% at 2 clinics.

  10. Modeling the impact of integrating HIV and outpatient health services on patient waiting times in an urban health clinic in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Deo

    Full Text Available Rapid scale up of HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa has refueled the long-standing health policy debate regarding the merits and drawbacks of vertical and integrated system. Recent pilots of integrating outpatient and HIV services have shown an improvement in some patient outcomes but deterioration in waiting times, which can lead to worse health outcomes in the long run.A pilot intervention involving integration of outpatient and HIV services in an urban primary care facility in Lusaka, Zambia was studied. Data on waiting time of patients during two seven-day periods before and six months after the integration were collected using a time and motion study. Statistical tests were conducted to investigate whether the two observation periods differed in operational details such as staffing, patient arrival rates, mix of patients etc. A discrete event simulation model was constructed to facilitate a fair comparison of waiting times before and after integration. The simulation model was also used to develop alternative configurations of integration and to estimate the resulting waiting times.Comparison of raw data showed that waiting times increased by 32% and 36% after integration for OPD and ART patients respectively (p<0.01. Using simulation modeling, we found that a large portion of this increase could be explained by changes in operational conditions before and after integration such as reduced staff availability (p<0.01 and longer breaks between consecutive patients (p<0.05. Controlling for these differences, integration of services, per se, would have resulted in a significant decrease in waiting times for OPD and a moderate decrease for HIV services.Integrating health services has the potential of reducing waiting times due to more efficient use of resources. However, one needs to ensure that other operational factors such as staff availability are not adversely affected due to integration.

  11. Supply-side dimensions and dynamics of integrating HIV testing and counselling into routine antenatal care: a facility assessment from Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Selena J; George, Asha S; LeFevre, Amnesty E; Mpembeni, Rose; Mosha, Idda; Mohan, Diwakar; Yang, Ann; Chebet, Joy; Lipingu, Chrisostom; Baqui, Abdullah H; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter J; Kilewo, Charles

    2015-10-04

    Integration of HIV into RMNCH (reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health) services is an important process addressing the disproportionate burden of HIV among mothers and children in sub-Saharan Africa. We assess the structural inputs and processes of care that support HIV testing and counselling in routine antenatal care to understand supply-side dynamics critical to scaling up further integration of HIV into RMNCH services prior to recent changes in HIV policy in Tanzania. This study, as a part of a maternal and newborn health program evaluation in Morogoro Region, Tanzania, drew from an assessment of health centers with 18 facility checklists, 65 quantitative and 57 qualitative provider interviews, and 203 antenatal care observations. Descriptive analyses were performed with quantitative data using Stata 12.0, and qualitative data were analyzed thematically with data managed by Atlas.ti. Limitations in structural inputs, such as infrastructure, supplies, and staffing, constrain the potential for integration of HIV testing and counselling into routine antenatal care services. While assessment of infrastructure, including waiting areas, appeared adequate, long queues and small rooms made private and confidential HIV testing and counselling difficult for individual women. Unreliable stocks of HIV test kits, essential medicines, and infection prevention equipment also had implications for provider-patient relationships, with reported decreases in women's care seeking at health centers. In addition, low staffing levels were reported to increase workloads and lower motivation for health workers. Despite adequate knowledge of counselling messages, antenatal counselling sessions were brief with incomplete messages conveyed to pregnant women. In addition, coping mechanisms, such as scheduling of clinical activities on different days, limited service availability. Antenatal care is a strategic entry point for the delivery of critical tests and counselling messages

  12. Potential Impact of Integrated Stigma Mitigation Interventions in Improving HIV/AIDS Service Delivery and Uptake for Key Populations in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Carrie E; Ketende, Sosthenes; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou M; Liestman, Benjamin; Coly, Karleen; Ndour, Cheikh; Turpin, Gnilane; Mboup, Souleymane; Diop, Karim; Toure-Kane, Coumba; Castor, Delivette; Leye-Diouf, Nafissatou; Baral, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW) are consistently shown to have a higher burden of HIV compared with other adults in Senegal. This study, HIV Prevention 2.0, evaluates the impact of the 3-tiered integrated stigma mitigation interventions (ISMIs) approach to optimizing HIV service delivery for key populations in Senegal. Baseline assessment includes a questionnaire and biological testing for HIV. A proportion of participants enrolled into a 24-month longitudinal cohort with questionnaires and biological testing every 3 months. In these preliminary analyses, ISMIs are evaluated from participants in the cohort through uptake of HIV services and implementation outcomes. Overall, 724 MSM and 758 FSW participated in the baseline assessment. HIV prevalence is 30.2% (n = 219/724) among MSM and 5.3% (n = 40/758) among FSW. Fear of seeking health services among MSM is 17.7% (n = 128/724) at baseline, 10.5% (n = 18/172) at month 3, and 9.8% (n = 10/102) at month 6 (P intervention is effective in addressing stigma; however, loss to follow-up was 41.1% among MSM and 10% among FSW. Baseline data reinforce the need for stigma mitigation interventions, combined with enhanced linkage and retention to optimize HIV treatment. Preliminary results show high levels of HIV-related risk determinants and suggest the potential utility of the ISMI to decrease perceived stigma relating to engagement in HIV prevention, treatment, and care services among key populations in Senegal.

  13. The influence of health system organizational structure and culture on integration of health services: the example of HIV service monitoring in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawonga, Mary; Blaauw, Duane; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    Administrative integration of disease control programmes (DCPs) within the district health system has been a health sector reform priority in South Africa for two decades. The reforms entail district managers assuming authority for the planning and monitoring of DCPs in districts, with DCP managers providing specialist support. There has been little progress in achieving this, and a dearth of research exploring why. Using a case study of HIV programme monitoring and evaluation (M&E), this article explores whether South Africa's health system is configured to support administrative integration. The article draws on data from document reviews and interviews with 54 programme and district managers in two of nine provinces, exploring their respective roles in decision-making regarding HIV M&E system design and in using HIV data for monitoring uptake of HIV interventions in districts. Using Mintzberg's configurations framework, we describe three organizational parameters: (a) extent of centralization (whether district managers play a role in decisions regarding the design of the HIV M&E system); (b) key part of the organization (extent to which sub-national programme managers vs district managers play the central role in HIV monitoring in districts); and (c) coordination mechanisms used (whether highly formalized and rules-based or more output-based to promote agency). We find that the health system can be characterized as Mintzberg's machine bureaucracy. It is centralized and highly formalized with structures, management styles and practices that promote programme managers as lead role players in the monitoring of HIV interventions within districts. This undermines policy objectives of district managers assuming this leadership role. Our study enhances the understanding of organizational factors that may limit the success of administrative integration reforms and suggests interventions that may mitigate this. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in

  14. The impact of HIV-related stigma on the lives of HIV-positive women: an integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Szu-Szu; Holloway, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    To critically explore how Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma impacts on the lives of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women through an integrative review of the literature. Throughout history Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection has been associated with sex trade, injecting drug use and other deviant behaviours within society. These historical associations can lead to the generation of negative perceptions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women. As such, women who contract Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection can be susceptible to societal stigma. An integrative literature review. To identify the publications on the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma among women, a search was performed using the following databases: CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstract covering the period from 2000-2014. The following key words were included in the search: 'women', 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus', and 'stigma'. Twenty-six articles were retrieved and reviewed. From the results, four key themes merged in relation to the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women's lives: the individual, relationships, work and the community. Despite great advances in the management and treatment of those who are Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive, it appears the lives of many women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus remain greatly affected by their Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection with gender-specific stigma and stereotypes. Having a holistic understanding of this impact offers the potential for those responsible for the funding and draws the attention of researchers and policy makers on promoting medical services specifically for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women, minimising social stigmatisation towards this client group, and optimising their health outcomes. In an attempt to amplify Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women

  15. Impact of telemonitoring approaches on integrated HIV and TB diagnosis and treatment interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence S Yah

    2017-03-01

    Results: We found telemonitoring approaches as a convenient and sustained proxy-method of HIV and TB risk reduction strategies including early diagnosis and prompt quality clinical outcomes. This has shown to significantly contribute in decreasing health systems/patients cost, long waiting time in clinics, hospital visits, travels and time off/on from work. Conclusion: Telemonitoring/mhealth (electronic phone text/video/materials messaging adoption, integration, acceptability, access and uptake are crucial in monitoring and improving HIV and TB uptake, retention, adherence and coverage in both local and national interventions programs. Improved integrated HIV and TB telemonitoring sustainability hold great promises in health systems strengthening including patient early centered diagnosis and care delivery, uptake and retention in medications/ services and improvement of patients’ quality of life.

  16. Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting integration of programme activities within a strengthened health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Dermot

    2010-07-05

    The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens), drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens), research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy development and scaling up interventions, and identify ways

  17. Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting integration of programme activities within a strengthened health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Dermot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. Discussion HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens, drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens, research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy

  18. APOBEC3G inhibits HIV-1 RNA elongation by inactivating the viral trans-activation response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowarski, Roni; Prabhu, Ponnandy; Kenig, Edan; Smith, Yoav; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Kotler, Moshe

    2014-07-29

    Deamination of cytidine residues in viral DNA is a major mechanism by which APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. dC-to-dU transition following RNase-H activity leads to viral cDNA degradation, production of non-functional proteins, formation of undesired stop codons and decreased viral protein synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that A3G provides an additional layer of defense against HIV-1 infection dependent on inhibition of proviral transcription. HIV-1 transcription elongation is regulated by the trans-activation response (TAR) element, a short stem-loop RNA structure required for elongation factors binding. Vif-deficient HIV-1-infected cells accumulate short viral transcripts and produce lower amounts of full-length HIV-1 transcripts due to A3G deamination of the TAR apical loop cytidine, highlighting the requirement for TAR loop integrity in HIV-1 transcription. We further show that free single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) termini are not essential for A3G activity and a gap of CCC motif blocked with juxtaposed DNA or RNA on either or 3'+5' ends is sufficient for A3G deamination. These results identify A3G as an efficient mutator and that deamination of (-)SSDNA results in an early block of HIV-1 transcription. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. cDNA structure, genomic organization and expression patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visfatin was a newly identified adipocytokine, which was involved in various physiologic and pathologic processes of organisms. The cDNA structure, genomic organization and expression patterns of silver Prussian carp visfatin were described in this report. The silver Prussian carp visfatin cDNA cloned from the liver was ...

  20. Characterization of the porcine carboxypeptidase E cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hreidarsdôttir, G.E.; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2007-01-01

    the sequence of the cDNA for the porcine CPE gene including all the coding region and the 3'-UTR region was generated. Comparisons with bovine, human, mouse, and rat CPE cDNA sequences showed that the coding regions of the gene are highly conserved both at the nucleotide and at the amino acid level. A very low...

  1. Infectious Maize rayado fino virus from cloned cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is the type member of the marafiviruses within the family Tymoviridae. A cDNA clone from which infectious RNA can be transcribed was produced from a US isolate of MRFV (MRFV-US). Infectivity of transcripts derived from cDNA clones was demonstrated by infection of mai...

  2. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

  3. Integrating linear optimization with structural modeling to increase HIV neutralization breadth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Sevy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational protein design has been successful in modeling fixed backbone proteins in a single conformation. However, when modeling large ensembles of flexible proteins, current methods in protein design have been insufficient. Large barriers in the energy landscape are difficult to traverse while redesigning a protein sequence, and as a result current design methods only sample a fraction of available sequence space. We propose a new computational approach that combines traditional structure-based modeling using the Rosetta software suite with machine learning and integer linear programming to overcome limitations in the Rosetta sampling methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, which we call BROAD, by benchmarking the performance on increasing predicted breadth of anti-HIV antibodies. We use this novel method to increase predicted breadth of naturally-occurring antibody VRC23 against a panel of 180 divergent HIV viral strains and achieve 100% predicted binding against the panel. In addition, we compare the performance of this method to state-of-the-art multistate design in Rosetta and show that we can outperform the existing method significantly. We further demonstrate that sequences recovered by this method recover known binding motifs of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies. Finally, our approach is general and can be extended easily to other protein systems. Although our modeled antibodies were not tested in vitro, we predict that these variants would have greatly increased breadth compared to the wild-type antibody.

  4. Integrating linear optimization with structural modeling to increase HIV neutralization breadth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevy, Alexander M; Panda, Swetasudha; Crowe, James E; Meiler, Jens; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2018-02-01

    Computational protein design has been successful in modeling fixed backbone proteins in a single conformation. However, when modeling large ensembles of flexible proteins, current methods in protein design have been insufficient. Large barriers in the energy landscape are difficult to traverse while redesigning a protein sequence, and as a result current design methods only sample a fraction of available sequence space. We propose a new computational approach that combines traditional structure-based modeling using the Rosetta software suite with machine learning and integer linear programming to overcome limitations in the Rosetta sampling methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, which we call BROAD, by benchmarking the performance on increasing predicted breadth of anti-HIV antibodies. We use this novel method to increase predicted breadth of naturally-occurring antibody VRC23 against a panel of 180 divergent HIV viral strains and achieve 100% predicted binding against the panel. In addition, we compare the performance of this method to state-of-the-art multistate design in Rosetta and show that we can outperform the existing method significantly. We further demonstrate that sequences recovered by this method recover known binding motifs of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies. Finally, our approach is general and can be extended easily to other protein systems. Although our modeled antibodies were not tested in vitro, we predict that these variants would have greatly increased breadth compared to the wild-type antibody.

  5. Molecular cloning of lupin leghemoglobin cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konieczny, A; Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A)+ RNA isolated from root nodules of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus, var. Ventus) has been used as a template for the construction of a cDNA library. The ds cDNA was synthesized and inserted into the Hind III site of plasmid pBR 322 using synthetic Hind III linkers. Clones containing sequences...... specific for nodules were selected by differential colony hybridization using 32P-labeled cDNA synthesized either from nodule poly(A)+ RNA or from poly(A)+ RNA of uninfected root as probes. Among the recombinant plasmids, the cDNA gene for leghemoglobin was identified. The protein structure derived from...... its nucleotide sequence was consistent with known amino acid sequence of lupin Lb II. The cloned lupin Lb cDNA hybridized to poly(A)+ RNA from nodules only, which is in accordance with the general concept, that leghemoglobin is expressed exclusively in nodules. Udgivelsesdato: 1987-null...

  6. cDNA library Table - KAIKOcDNA | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available c00951-005 Description of data contents List of Bombyx mori cDNA libraries. Data file File name: kaiko_cdna_...library.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kaiko-cdna/LATEST/kaiko_cdna_library.zip File size:... 4.8 KB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/kaiko_cdna_l

  7. Integrating HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis screening and treatment through the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health platform to reach global elimination targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Woodring

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every year, an estimated 180 000 babies in the Western Pacific Region are infected by hepatitis B, 13 000 by syphilis and 1400 by HIV through mother-to-child transmission.1 These infections can be largely prevented by antenatal screening, treatment and timely vaccination for newborns. Despite challenges in controlling each disease, major achievements have been made. National immunization programmes have reduced the regional hepatitis B prevalence from over 8% in 1990 to 0.93% among children born in 2012. In addition, HIV testing and treatment have helped keep the regional prevalence of HIV infections at 0.1%. In contrast, the number of maternal syphilis cases is still high in the Western Pacific Region, with an estimated 45 million cases in 2012. Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of these infections cannot be achieved through vertically applied programming and require using and augmenting to the shared Maternal, Newborn and Child Health platform to coordinate, integrate and enable cost efficiencies for these elimination efforts. The Regional Framework for Triple Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV, Hepatitis B and Syphilis in Asia and the Pacific 2018–2030 offers such a coordinated approach towards achieving the triple elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis and provides guidance for decision-makers, managers and health professionals working in programmes addressing maternal, newborn and child health, HIV, hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections and immunization.

  8. Four-tiered π interaction at the dimeric interface of HIV-1 integrase critical for DNA integration and viral infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mawsawi, Laith Q.; Hombrouck, Anneleen; Dayam, Raveendra; Debyser, Zeger; Neamati, Nouri

    2008-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential enzyme for viral infection. Here, we report an extensive π electron orbital interaction between four amino acids, W132, M178, F181 and F185, located at the dimeric interface of IN that is critical for the strand transfer activity alone. Catalysis of nine different mutant IN proteins at these positions were evaluated. Whereas the 3'-processing activity is predominantly strong, the strand transfer activity of each enzyme was completely dependent on an intact π electron orbital interaction at the dimeric interface. Four representative IN mutants were constructed in the context of the infectious NL4.3 HIV-1 viral clone. Whereas viruses with an intact π electron orbital interaction at the IN dimeric interface replicated comparable to wild type, viruses containing an abolished π interaction were non-infectious. Q-PCR analysis of viral DNA forms during viral replication revealed pleiotropic effects of most mutations. We hypothesize that the π interaction is a critical contact point for the assembly of functional IN multimeric complexes, and that IN multimerization is required for a functional pre-integration complex. The rational design of small molecule inhibitors targeting the disruption of this π-π interaction should lead to powerful anti-retroviral drugs

  9. A clinical decision support system for integrating tuberculosis and HIV care in Kenya: a human-centered design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalani, Caricia; Green, Eric; Owiti, Philip; Keny, Aggrey; Diero, Lameck; Yeung, Ada; Israelski, Dennis; Biondich, Paul

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of integrating HIV and tuberculosis care in rural Kenya, a team of researchers, clinicians, and technologists used the human-centered design approach to facilitate design, development, and deployment processes of new patient-specific TB clinical decision support system for medical providers. In Kenya, approximately 1.6 million people are living with HIV and have a 20-times higher risk of dying of tuberculosis. Although tuberculosis prevention and treatment medication is widely available, proven to save lives, and prioritized by the World Health Organization, ensuring that it reaches the most vulnerable communities remains challenging. Human-centered design, used in the fields of industrial design and information technology for decades, is an approach to improving the effectiveness and impact of innovations that has been scarcely used in the health field. Using this approach, our team followed a 3-step process, involving mixed methods assessment to (1) understand the situation through the collection and analysis of site observation sessions and key informant interviews; (2) develop a new clinical decision support system through iterative prototyping, end-user engagement, and usability testing; and, (3) implement and evaluate the system across 24 clinics in rural West Kenya. Through the application of this approach, we found that human-centered design facilitated the process of digital innovation in a complex and resource-constrained context.

  10. A clinical decision support system for integrating tuberculosis and HIV care in Kenya: a human-centered design approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caricia Catalani

    Full Text Available With the aim of integrating HIV and tuberculosis care in rural Kenya, a team of researchers, clinicians, and technologists used the human-centered design approach to facilitate design, development, and deployment processes of new patient-specific TB clinical decision support system for medical providers. In Kenya, approximately 1.6 million people are living with HIV and have a 20-times higher risk of dying of tuberculosis. Although tuberculosis prevention and treatment medication is widely available, proven to save lives, and prioritized by the World Health Organization, ensuring that it reaches the most vulnerable communities remains challenging. Human-centered design, used in the fields of industrial design and information technology for decades, is an approach to improving the effectiveness and impact of innovations that has been scarcely used in the health field. Using this approach, our team followed a 3-step process, involving mixed methods assessment to (1 understand the situation through the collection and analysis of site observation sessions and key informant interviews; (2 develop a new clinical decision support system through iterative prototyping, end-user engagement, and usability testing; and, (3 implement and evaluate the system across 24 clinics in rural West Kenya. Through the application of this approach, we found that human-centered design facilitated the process of digital innovation in a complex and resource-constrained context.

  11. Integration of Gender-sensitive Approach to Safe Motherhood Program for the Prevention of STD/ HIV in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rahmanian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs present a serious public health burden, which are considered as the factors contributing to acute illnesses, infertility, long-term disability, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to provide an in-depth understanding of the participants' perceptions about the integration of gender-sensitive approach to safe motherhood program for the prevention of STIs/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in Iran. Methods: This qualitative exploratory study was conducted on 32 male and female key informants, including health managers, health policy makers, and reproductive health providers. The participants were selected through the purposive sampling method, followed by the snowball sampling technique. The data collection was performed using the semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed through the content analysis. Results: Based on the results, the participants’ perceptions were categorized into two categories, namely the STIs/HIV prevention among males in safe motherhood and gender-sensitivity in primary maternal STIs/HIV prevention. Each of the patients was further divided into codes. The first category includes accountability to men's own sexual health needs’ and prevention of ill-health effects of men on women’s STIs/HIV status and the second category includes (1 condom negotiation skills in women (2 mandatory pre-marital HIV test policy, (3 partner notification guidelines, (4 STI/HIV risk assessment in safe motherhood services, and (5 women’s right-based instruction for prenatal HIV screening in private services. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, the health policy makers were not adequately sensitive to gender sensitivity, which is particularly crucial for STIs/HIV prevention in the safe motherhood programs.

  12. Health systems facilitators and barriers to the integration of HIV and chronic disease services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Nicola; Sigfrid, Louise; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Hogarth, Sue; Maimaris, Will; Otero-García, Laura; Perel, Pablo; Buse, Kent; McKee, Martin; Piot, Peter; Balabanova, Dina

    2017-11-01

    Integration of services for patients with more than one diagnosed condition has intuitive appeal but it has been argued that the empirical evidence to support it is limited. We report the findings of a systematic review that sought to identify health system factors, extrinsic to the integration process, which either facilitated or hindered the integration of services for two common disorders, HIV and chronic non-communicable diseases. Findings were initially extracted and organized around a health system framework, followed by a thematic cross-cutting analysis and validation steps. Of the 150 articles included, 67% (n = 102) were from high-income countries. The articles explored integration with services for one or several chronic disorders, the most studied being alcohol or substance use disorders (47.7%), and mental health issues (29.5%). Four cross-cutting themes related to the health system were identified. The first and most common theme was the requirement for effective collaboration and coordination: formal and informal productive relationships throughout the system between providers and within teams, and between staff and patients. The second was the need for adequate and appropriately skilled and incentivized health workers-with the right expertise, training and operational support for the programme. The third was the need for supportive institutional structures and dedicated resources. The fourth was leadership in terms of political will, effective managerial oversight and organizational culture, indicating that actual implementation is as important as programme design. A fifth theme, outside the health system, but underpinning all aspects of the system operation, was that placing the patient at the centre of service delivery and responding holistically to their diverse needs. This was an important facilitator of integration. These findings confirm that integration processes in service delivery depend substantially for their success on characteristics of

  13. An integrated genetic data environment (GDE)-based LINUX interface for analysis of HIV-1 and other microbial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, T; Miller, R; Tarin, M; Cassol, S

    2003-01-01

    Sequence databases encode a wealth of information needed to develop improved vaccination and treatment strategies for the control of HIV and other important pathogens. To facilitate effective utilization of these datasets, we developed a user-friendly GDE-based LINUX interface that reduces input/output file formatting. GDE was adapted to the Linux operating system, bioinformatics tools were integrated with microbe-specific databases, and up-to-date GDE menus were developed for several clinically important viral, bacterial and parasitic genomes. Each microbial interface was designed for local access and contains Genbank, BLAST-formatted and phylogenetic databases. GDE-Linux is available for research purposes by direct application to the corresponding author. Application-specific menus and support files can be downloaded from (http://www.bioafrica.net).

  14. Exploring experiences in peer mentoring as a strategy for capacity building in sexual reproductive health and HIV service integration in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndwiga, Charity; Abuya, Timothy; Mutemwa, Richard; Kimani, James Kelly; Colombini, Manuela; Mayhew, Susannah; Baird, Averie; Muia, Ruth Wayua; Kivunaga, Jackline; Warren, Charlotte E

    2014-03-01

    The Integra Initiative designed, tested, and adapted protocols for peer mentorship in order to improve service providers' skills, knowledge, and capacity to provide quality integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. This paper describes providers' experiences in mentoring as a method of capacity building. Service providers who were skilled in the provision of FP or PNC services were selected to undergo a mentorship training program and to subsequently build the capacity of their peers in SRH-HIV integration. A qualitative assessment was conducted to assess provider experiences and perceptions about peer mentoring. In-depth interviews were conducted with twelve mentors and twenty-three mentees who were trained in SRH and HIV integration. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and imported to NVivo 9 for analysis. Thematic analysis methods were used to develop a coding framework from the research questions and other emerging themes. Mentorship was perceived as a feasible and acceptable method of training among mentors and mentees. Both mentors and mentees agreed that the success of peer mentoring largely depended on cordial relationship and consensus to work together to achieve a specific set of skills. Mentees reported improved knowledge, skills, self-confidence, and team work in delivering integrated SRH and HIV services as benefits associated with mentoring. They also associated mentoring with an increase in the range of services available and the number of clients seeking those services. Successful mentorship was conditional upon facility management support, sufficient supplies and commodities, a positive work environment, and mentors selection. Mentoring was perceived by both mentors and mentees as a sustainable method for capacity building, which increased providers' ability to offer a wide range of and improved access to integrated SRH and HIV services.

  15. "They just come, pick and go." The Acceptability of Integrated Medication Adherence Clubs for HIV and Non Communicable Disease (NCD) Patients in Kibera, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Emilie; Edwards, Jeffrey K; Baert, Saar; Etienne, William; Khabala, Kelly; Bygrave, Helen

    2016-01-01

    have shown that it is possible to learn from ART provision and enable stable HIV and NCD patients to collect chronic medication together in a group. Extending models of care previously only offered to HIV-positive cohorts to NCD patients can help to de-stigmatise HIV, allow for the efficient clinical management of co-morbidities and enable patients to benefit from peer support. Through MACs, we have demonstrated that an integrated approach to providing medication for chronic diseases including HIV can be implemented in resource-poor settings and could thus be rolled out in other similar contexts.

  16. HIV prevalence, risky behaviors, and discrimination experiences among transgender women in Cambodia: descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Ngin, Chanrith; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Chhim, Srean; Pal, Khuondyla; Mun, Phalkun; Mburu, Gitau

    2017-05-23

    Transgender people are disproportionately affected by HIV. Despite their high vulnerability to HIV, lack of adequate epidemiological and surveillance data related to this population in many countries prevents provision of appropriate services. This paper summarizes descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey and discusses policy implications of the findings on HIV prevention among transgender women in Cambodia. This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2015 and February 2016. Participants were recruited from 20 sites in the capital city and 12 provinces of Cambodia using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) method. Behavioral data were collected through structured questionnaire interviews, and rapid finger-prick HIV testing was performed. Descriptive data analyses were conducted using STATA. This study included 1,375 transgender women with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD = 7.1). The overall prevalence of HIV was 5.9%. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among urban participants compared to their rural counterparts (6.5 vs. 2.6%, p = 0.02). Almost one in five (19.6%) had never been tested for HIV prior to the study. Overall, 45.0% reported ever using gender affirming hormones. More than one-third (39.1%) reported not using condoms in their last sex, 29.8% had engaged in sex in exchange for money/gifts, and 14.0% reported that they had experienced at least one symptom of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the past year. About one in ten (10.1%) reported having used some form of amphetamine-type stimulant drugs, while 6.5% reported having sex during or after using illicit drugs. A significant number of participants experienced sexual abuse (39.2%), losing a job (24.3%), or physical abuse (23.6%) because of their transgender identity. In addition, 82.9 and 88.9% would be willing to use the HIV self-test and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), respectively, if they become available. The high prevalence

  17. Integrated clinical and quality improvement coaching in Son La Province, Vietnam: a model of building public sector capacity for sustainable HIV care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosimi, Lisa A; Dam, Huong V; Nguyen, Thai Q; Ho, Huyen T; Do, Phuong T; Duc, Duat N; Nguyen, Huong T; Gardner, Bridget; Libman, Howard; Pollack, Todd; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2015-07-17

    The global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy included extensive training and onsite support to build the capacity of HIV health care workers. However, traditional efforts aimed at strengthening knowledge and skills often are not successful at improving gaps in the key health systems required for sustaining high quality care. We trained and mentored existing staff of the Son La provincial health department and provincial HIV clinic to work as a provincial coaching team (PCT) to provide integrated coaching in clinical HIV skills and quality improvement (QI) to the HIV clinics in the province. Nine core indicators were measured through chart extraction by clinic and provincial staff at baseline and at 6 month intervals thereafter. Coaching from the team to each of the clinics, in both QI and clinical skills, was guided by results of performance measurements, gap analyses, and resulting QI plans. After 18 months, the PCT had successfully spread QI activities, and was independently providing regular coaching to the provincial general hospital clinic and six of the eight district clinics in the province. The frequency and type of coaching was determined by performance measurement results. Clinics completed a mean of five QI projects. Quality of HIV care was improved throughout all clinics with significant increases in seven of the indicators. Overall both the PCT activities and clinic performance were sustained after integration of the model into the Vietnam National QI Program. We successfully built capacity of a team of public sector health care workers to provide integrated coaching in both clinical skills and QI across a province. The PCT is a feasible and effective model to spread and sustain quality activities and improve HIV care services in a decentralized rural setting.

  18. Cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindan, M.V.; Burelle, M.; Cantin, C.; Kabrie, C.; Labrie, F.; Lachance, Y.; Leblanc, G.; Lefebvre, C.; Patel, P.; Simard, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss how in order to define the functional domains of the human androgen receptor, complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the human androgen receptor (hAR) have been isolated from a human testis λgtll cDNA library using synthetic oligonnucleotide probes, homologous to segments of the human glucocorticoid, estradiol and progesterone receptors. The cDNA clones corresponding to the human glucocorticoid, estradiol and progesterone receptors were eliminated after cross-hybridization with their respective cDNA probes and/or after restriction mapping of the cDNA clones. The remaining cDNA clones were classified into different groups after analysis by restriction digestion and cross-hybridization. Two of the largest cDNA clones from each group were inserted into an expression vector in both orientations. The linearized plasmids were used as templates in in vitro transcription with T7 RNA polymerase. Subsequent in vitro translation of the purified transcripts in rabbit reticulocyte lysate followed by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) permitted the characterization of the encoded polyeptides. The expressed proteins larger than 30,000 Da were analyzed for their ability to bind tritium-labelled dihydrotestosterone ([ 3 H] DHT) with high affinity and specificity

  19. Sequence of human protamine 2 cDNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenjoud, L; Fronia, C; Uhde, F; Engel, W [Universitaet Goettingen (West Germany)

    1988-08-11

    The authors report the cloning and sequencing of a cDNA clone for human protamine 2 (hp2), isolated from a human testis cDNA library cloned in the vector {lambda}-gt11. A 66mer oligonucleotide, that corresponds to an amino acid sequence which is highly conserved between hp2 and mouse protamine 2 (mp2) served as hybridization probe. The homology between the amino acid sequence deduced from our cDNA and the published amino acid sequence for hp2 is 100%.

  20. Improving referrals and integrating family planning and HIV services through organizational network strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C; Reynolds, Heidi W; Alterescu, Xavier; Bevc, Christine; Tsegaye, Ademe

    2016-04-01

    The service needs of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in low-income settings are wide-ranging. Service provision in a community is often disjointed among a variety of providers. We sought to reduce unmet patient needs by increasing referral coordination for HIV and family planning, measured as network density, with an organizational network approach. We conducted organizational network analysis on two networks in sub-cities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. There were 25 organizations in one sub-city network and 26 in the other. In one of them we sought to increase referrals through three network strengthening meetings. We then conducted the network analysis again in both sub-cities to measure any changes since baseline. We also quantitatively measured reported client service needs in both sub-cities before and after the intervention with two cross-sectional samples of face-to-face interviews with clients (459 at baseline and 587 at follow-up). In the sub-city with the intervention, the number of referral connections between organizations, measured as network density, increased 55%. In the control community, the density decreased over the same period. Reported unmet client service needs declined more consistently across services in the intervention community. This quasi experiment demonstrated that (1) an organizational network analysis can inform an intervention, (2) a modest network strengthening intervention can enhance client referrals in the network, (3) improvement in client referrals was accompanied by a decrease in atient-reported unmet needs and (4) a series of network analyses can be a useful evaluation tool. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1998-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries.

  2. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of medicine, animal husbandry, fish farming and animal ..... northern pike (Esox lucius) growth hormone; Mol. Mar. Biol. ... prolactin 1-luciferase fusion gene in African catfish and ... 1988 Cloning and sequencing of cDNA that encodes goat.

  3. Constructing and detecting a cDNA library for mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhao, YaE; Cheng, Juan; Yang, YuanJun; Li, Chen; Lu, ZhaoHui

    2015-10-01

    RNA extraction and construction of complementary DNA (cDNA) library for mites have been quite challenging due to difficulties in acquiring tiny living mites and breaking their hard chitin. The present study is to explore a better method to construct cDNA library for mites that will lay the foundation on transcriptome and molecular pathogenesis research. We selected Psoroptes cuniculi as an experimental subject and took the following steps to construct and verify cDNA library. First, we combined liquid nitrogen grinding with TRIzol for total RNA extraction. Then, switching mechanism at 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART) technique was used to construct full-length cDNA library. To evaluate the quality of cDNA library, the library titer and recombination rate were calculated. The reliability of cDNA library was detected by sequencing and analyzing positive clones and genes amplified by specific primers. The results showed that the RNA concentration was 836 ng/μl and the absorbance ratio at 260/280 nm was 1.82. The library titer was 5.31 × 10(5) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/ml and the recombination rate was 98.21%, indicating that the library was of good quality. In the 33 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of P. cuniculi, two clones of 1656 and 1658 bp were almost identical with only three variable sites detected, which had an identity of 99.63% with that of Psoroptes ovis, indicating that the cDNA library was reliable. Further detection by specific primers demonstrated that the 553-bp Pso c II gene sequences of P. cuniculi had an identity of 98.56% with those of P. ovis, confirming that the cDNA library was not only reliable but also feasible.

  4. A novel educational strategy targeting health care workers in underserved communities in Central America to integrate HIV into primary medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flys, Tamara; González, Rosalba; Sued, Omar; Suarez Conejero, Juana; Kestler, Edgar; Sosa, Nestor; McKenzie-White, Jane; Monzón, Irma Irene; Torres, Carmen-Rosa; Page, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs). We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258=87.2%) successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200=85%) attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (pstructure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills acquired through the process, and could continue working within their underserved communities while participating in the online component and then implement interventions that successfully converted theoretical knowledge to action to improve integration of HIV care into primary care.

  5. Cloning of the cDNA for human 12-lipoxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, T.; Hoshiko, S.; Radmark, O.; Samuelsson, B.

    1990-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding 12-lipoxygenase was isolated from a human platelet cDNA library by using a cDNA for human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase as probe for the initial screening. The cDNA had an open reading frame encoding 662 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 75,590. Three independent clones revealed minor heterogeneities in their DNA sequences. Thus, in three positions of the deduced amino acid sequence, there is a choice between two different amino acids. The deduced sequence from the clone plT3 showed 65% identity with human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase and 42% identity with human leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase. The 12-lipoxygenase cDNA recognized a 3.0-kilobase mRNA species in platelets and human erythroleukemia cells (HEL cells). Phorbol 12-tetradecanoyl 13-acetate induced megakaryocytic differentiation of HEL cells and 12-lipoxygenase activity and increased mRNA for 12-lipoxygenase. The identity of the cloned 12-lipoxygenase was assured by expression in a mammalian cell line (COS cells). Human platelet 12-lipoxygenase has been difficult to purify to homogeneity. The cloning of this cDNA will increase the possibilities to elucidate the structure and function of this enzyme

  6. Acceptability and Feasibility of Integrating Point-of-Care Diagnostic Testing of Sexually Transmitted Infections into a South African Antenatal Care Program for HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Morikawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV infections may increase the risk of vertical transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. In resource-limited settings, symptomatic screening, and syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs during pregnancy continue to be the standard of care. In the absence of diagnostic testing, asymptomatic infections in pregnant women go untreated. Objective. To describe the acceptability and feasibility of integrating diagnostic STI screening into first antenatal care visits for HIV-infected pregnant women. Methods. HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited during their first antenatal care visit from three antenatal care clinics in Tshwane District, South Africa, between June 2016 and October 2017. Self-collected vaginal swabs were used to screen for CT, NG, and TV with a diagnostic point-of-care (POC nucleic acid amplification test. Those with STIs were provided treatment per South African national guidelines. Results. Of 442 eligible women, 430 (97.3% agreed to participate and were tested. Of those with a positive STI test result (n = 173; 40.2%, 159 (91.9% received same-day results and treatment; 100% of STI-infected women were treated within seven days. Conclusions. Integration of POC diagnostic STI screening into first-visit antenatal care services was feasible and highly acceptable for HIV-infected pregnant women.

  7. Viral load and genomic integration of HPV 16 in cervical samples from HIV-1-infected and uninfected women in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Marie-Noelle Didelot; Costes, Valérie; Konate, Issouf; Nagot, Nicolas; Foulongne, Vincent; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe; Segondy, Michel

    2007-06-01

    The relationships between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) viral load, HPV 16 integration status, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) status, and cervical cytology were studied among women enrolled in a cohort of female sex workers in Burkina Faso. The study focused on 24 HPV 16-infected women. The HPV 16 viral load in cervical samples was determined by real-time PCR. Integration ratio was estimated as the ratio between E2 and E6 genes DNA copy numbers. Integrated HPV16 viral load was defined as the product of HPV 16 viral load by the integration ratio. High HPV 16 viral load and high integration ratio were more frequent among women with squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with women with normal cytology (33% vs. 11%, and 33% vs. 0%, respectively), and among women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with women without high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (50% vs. 17%, and 50% vs. 11%, respectively). High HPV 16 DNA load, but not high integration ratio, was also more frequent among HIV-1-positive women (39% vs. 9%; and 23% vs. 18%, respectively). The absence of statistical significance of these differences might be explained by the small study sample size. High-integrated HPV 16 DNA load was significantly associated with the presence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (50% vs. 5%, P = 0.03) in univariate and multivariate analysis (adjusted odds-ratio: 19.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-328.3, P = 0.03), but not with HIV-1 or other high-risk HPV types (HR-HPV). Integrated HPV 16 DNA load may be considered as a useful marker of high-grade cervical lesions in HPV 16-infected women. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Integrated HIV-Care Into Primary Health Care Clinics and the Influence on Diabetes and Hypertension Care: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis in Free State, South Africa Over 4 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Angeli; Uebel, Kerry; Moore, David; Yassi, Annalee

    2018-04-15

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), specifically diabetes and hypertension, are rising in high HIV-burdened countries such as South Africa. How integrated HIV care into primary health care (PHC) influences NCD care is unknown. We aimed to understand whether differences existed in NCD care (pre- versus post-integration) and how changes may relate to HIV patient numbers. Public sector PHC clinics in Free State, South Africa. Using a quasiexperimental design, we analyzed monthly administrative data on 4 indicators for diabetes and hypertension (clinic and population levels) during 4 years as HIV integration was implemented in PHC. Data represented 131 PHC clinics with a catchment population of 1.5 million. We used interrupted time series analysis at ±18 and ±30 months from HIV integration in each clinic to identify changes in trends postintegration compared with those in preintegration. We used linear mixed-effect models to study relationships between HIV and NCD indicators. Patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in the 131 PHC clinics studied increased from 1614 (April 2009) to 57, 958 (April 2013). Trends in new diabetes patients on treatment remained unchanged. However, population-level new hypertensives on treatment decreased at ±30 months from integration by 6/100, 000 (SE = 3, P < 0.02) and was associated with the number of new patients with HIV on treatment at the clinics. Our findings suggest that during the implementation of integrated HIV care into PHC clinics, care for hypertensive patients could be compromised. Further research is needed to understand determinants of NCD care in South Africa and other high HIV-burdened settings to ensure patient-centered PHC.

  9. HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Lee, Janet; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two cities in El Salvador. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit MSM in the cities of San Salvador and San Miguel, El Salvador. Participants responded to questions about HIV risk behaviours; and blood, urine and anal swabs were collected. Blood samples were tested for herpes simplex type 2, syphilis and HIV infection. Urine and anal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. HIV-positive samples were tested with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to distinguish recent from longstanding HIV infection. We estimated population-adjusted prevalence of behavioural variables, STI and HIV, and identified risk factors for HIV. The final sample included 596 and 195 MSM in San Salvador and San Miguel, respectively. Consistent condom use was low across all partner types as was recent HIV testing. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 10.8% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.7%) in San Salvador, and 8.8% (95% CI 4.2% to 14.5%) in San Miguel. The proportion of recent testing among HIV-positive samples was 20%. Prevalence of any bacterial STI by PRC testing was 12.7% (95% CI 8.2% to 17.5%) in San Salvador, and 9.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 15.4%) in San Miguel. We found a high prevalence of HIV, high levels of recent infection, and low condom usage. In El Salvador, targeted interventions towards MSM are needed to promote condom use, as well as to diagnose, treat and prevent HIV and other STIs.

  10. Post-abortion care and voluntary HIV counselling and testing--an example of integrating HIV prevention into reproductive health services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Massawe, Siriel

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the acceptance and outcome of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) among women who had an unsafe abortion. METHOD: 706 women were provided with post-abortion contraceptive service and offered VCT. We collected data on socioeconomic characteristics and contraceptive use......-24 years and 25% among single women aged 25-45 years. CONCLUSION: HIV testing and condoms were accepted by most women who had an unsafe abortion. The poor reproductive health of these women could be improved by good post-abortion care that includes contraceptive counselling, VCT and condom promotion....

  11. cDNA table - RPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of data contents Results of homology search to cDNA clones in the KOME. Data file File name: rpd_cdna.zip F...ile URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpd/LATEST/rpd_cdna.zip File size: 15 KB Simple search URL http:...//togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/rpd_cdna#en Data acquisition method - Data

  12. A community-engaged randomized controlled trial of an integrative intervention with HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W. Carrico

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contingency management (CM is an evidence-based intervention providing tangible rewards as positive reinforcement for abstinence from stimulants such as methamphetamine. Integrative approaches targeting affect regulation could boost the effectiveness of CM in community-based settings and optimize HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial with HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM is examining the efficacy of a 5-session, individually delivered positive affect regulation intervention – Affect Regulation Treatment to Enhance Methamphetamine Intervention Success (ARTEMIS. ARTEMIS is designed to sensitize individuals to non-drug-related sources of reward as well as assist with managing depression and other symptoms of stimulant withdrawal during CM. HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using MSM who are enrolled in a community-based, 12-week CM program are randomized to receive ARTEMIS or an attention-matched control condition. Follow-up assessments are conducted at 3, 6, 12, and 15 months after enrollment in CM. Four peripheral venous blood samples are collected over the 15-month follow-up with specimen banking for planned biomarker sub-studies. The primary outcome is mean HIV viral load. Secondary outcomes include: sustained HIV viral suppression, T-helper cell count, psychological adjustment, stimulant use, and potentially amplified transmission risk behavior. Discussion Implementation of this randomized controlled trial highlights the importance of delineating boundaries between research activities and community-based service provision. It also provides insights into best practices for integrating the distinct agendas of academic and community partners in clinical research. This trial is currently enrolling and data collection is anticipated to be completed in September of 2018. Trial registration This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01926184 on

  13. The role of family planning in achieving safe pregnancy for serodiscordant couples: commentary from the United States government's interagency task force on family planning and HIV service integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jennifer; Medley, Amy; Yeiser, Sarah; Nightingale, Vienna R; Mani, Nithya; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Abutu, Andrew; Johnston, Beverly; Watts, D Heather

    2017-03-08

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have the right to exercise voluntary choices about their health, including their reproductive health. This commentary discusses the integral role that family planning (FP) plays in helping PLHIV, including those in serodiscordant relationships, achieve conception safely. The United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is committed to meeting the reproductive health needs of PLHIV by improving their access to voluntary FP counselling and services, including prevention of unintended pregnancy and counselling for safer conception. Inclusion of preconception care and counselling (PCC) as part of routine HIV services is critical to preventing unintended pregnancies and perinatal infections among PLHIV. PLHIV not desiring a current pregnancy should be provided with information and counselling on all available FP methods and then either given the method onsite or through a facilitated referral process. PLHIV, who desire children should be offered risk reduction counselling, support for HIV status disclosure and partner testing, information on safer conception options to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the partner and the importance of adhering to antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy and breastfeeding to reduce the risk of vertical transmission to the infant. Integration of PCC, HIV and FP services at the same location is recommended to improve access to these services for PLHIV. Other considerations to be addressed include the social and structural context, the health system capacity to offer these services, and stigma and discrimination of providers. Evaluation of innovative service delivery models for delivering PCC services is needed, including provision in community-based settings. The US Government will continue to partner with local organizations, Ministries of Health, the private sector, civil society, multilateral and bilateral donors, and other key stakeholders to strengthen both the policy and

  14. Integrating Prevention of Mother to Child HIV Transmission competencies into the nursing curriculum: Methodological lessons from a university-based undergraduate programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbombo, Nomafrench; Bimerew, Million

    2012-11-14

    South Africa (SA) has the highest number of women infected with HIV and AIDS during pregnancy, which results in more than 70 000 infected babies being born each year AIDS is the major contributor to maternal and child morbidities and mortalities in the country. To combat this, the SA government has developed a national policy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). However, for effective implementation of this policy, there is a dire need for a competent, skilled health worker to render the service. In response to this, the School of Nursing at the University of the Western Cape has integrated PMTCT competencies into the undergraduate Bachelor of Nursing Science curriculum. In this paper, we described teaching and learning approaches used to integrate PMTCT competencies, including the skills laboratory methodology and case-based learning, as well as a portfolio of evidence assessment tool. A quantitative descriptive design was used to analyse data collected from students in regard to assessment of PMTCT competencies achieved. The study used the conceptual framework of Lenburg's competency outcomes and performance assessment model, which focuses on competency development and assessment in a clinical environment. HIV competencies, including PMTCT, should be integrated both theoretically and at service delivery into other nursing and midwifery competencies, including assessment strategies. Provincial policies in provision of antiretrovirals by nurses and midwives become barriers to successful implementation of PMTCT, resulting in limited learning opportunities for students to practice PMTCT competencies. Further research is required to assess an attribute, affect, which is another prong for competencies.

  15. Second-strand cDNA synthesis: classical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, U.

    1987-01-01

    The classical scheme for the synthesis of double-stranded cDNA as it was reported in 1976 is described. Reverse transcription of mRNA with oligo(dT) as the primer generates first strands with a small loop at the 3' end of the cDNA (the end that corresponds to the 5' end of the mRNA). Subsequent removal of the mRNA by alkaline hydrolysis leaves single-stranded cDNA molecules again with a small 3' loop. This loop can be used by either reverse transcriptase or Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I as a primer for second-strand synthesis. The resulting products are double-stranded cDNA molecules that are covalently closed at the end corresponding to the 5' end of the original mRNA. Subsequent cleavage of the short piece of single-stranded cDNA within the loop with the single-strand-specific S 1 nuclease generate open double-stranded molecules that can be used for molecular cloning in plasmids or in phage. Useful variations of this scheme have been described

  16. cDNA library construction of two human Demodexspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, DongLing; Wang, RuiLing; Zhao, YaE; Yang, Rui; Hu, Li; Lei, YuYang; Dan, WeiChao

    2017-06-01

    The research of Demodex, a type of pathogen causing various dermatoses in animals and human beings, is lacking at RNA level. This study aims at extracting RNA and constructing cDNA library for Demodex. First, P. cuniculiand D. farinaewere mixed to establish homogenization method for RNA extraction. Second, D. folliculorumand D. breviswere collected and preserved in Trizol, which were mixed with D. farinaerespectively to extract RNA. Finally, cDNA library was constructed and its quality was assessed. The results indicated that for D. folliculorum& D. farinae, the recombination rate of cDNA library was 90.67% and the library titer was 7.50 × 104 pfu/ml. 17 of the 59 positive clones were predicted to be of D. folliculorum; For D. brevis& D. farinae, the recombination rate was 90.96% and the library titer was 7.85 x104 pfu/ml. 40 of the 59 positive clones were predicted to be of D. brevis. Further detection by specific primers demonstrated that mtDNA cox1, cox3and ATP6 detected from cDNA libraries had 96.52%-99.73% identities with the corresponding sequences in GenBank. In conclusion, the cDNA libraries constructed for Demodexmixed with D. farinaewere successful and could satisfy the requirements for functional genes detection.

  17. Cloning and characterization of the human colipase cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, M.E.; Rosenblum, J.L.; McEwen, P.; Strauss, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase hydrolyzes dietary triglycerides to monoglycerides and fatty acids. In the presence of bile salts, the activity of pancreatic lipase is markedly decreased. The activity can be restored by the addition of colipase, a low molecular weight protein secreted by the pancreas. The action of pancreatic lipase in the gut lumen is dependent upon its interaction with colipase. As a first step in elucidating the molecular events governing the interaction of lipase and colipase with each other and with fatty acids, a cDNA encoding human colipase was isolated from a λgt11 cDNA library with a rabbit polyclonal anti-human colipase antibody. The full-length 525 bp cDNA contained an open reading frame encoding 112 amino acids, including a 17 amino acid signal peptide. The predicted sequence contains 100% of the published protein sequence for human colipase determined by chemical methods, but predicts the presence of five additional NH 2 -terminal amino acids and four additional COOH-terminal amino acids. Comparison of the predicted protein sequence with the known sequences of colipase from other species reveals regions of extensive identity. The authors report, for the first time, a cDNA for colipase. The cDNA predicts a human procolipase an suggests that there may also be processing at the COOH-terminus. The regions of identity with colipase from other species will aid in defining the interaction with lipase and lipids through site-specific mutagenesis

  18. Abriendo Puertas: baseline findings from an integrated intervention to promote prevention, treatment and care among FSW living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeycy Donastorg

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSW are often the focus of primary HIV prevention efforts. However, little attention has been paid to the prevention, treatment, and care needs of FSW living with HIV. Based on formative research, we developed an integrated model to promote prevention and care for FSW living with HIV in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, including (1 individual counseling and education; (2 peer navigation; (3 clinical provider training; and (4 community mobilization. We enrolled 268 FSW living with HIV into the intervention and conducted socio-behavioral surveys, sexually transmitted infection (STI testing, and viral load (VL assessments. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify behavioral and socio-demographic factors associated with detectable VL (>50 copies/mL and STI prevalence. Over half of all participants (51.9% had a detectable VL, even though most received HIV-related care in the last 6 months (85.1% and were currently on anti-retroviral treatment (ART (72.4%. Factors positively associated with a detectable VL included being 18-35 years of age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.46, 95% CI 1.31-4.60, having ever used drugs (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14-4.79, and having ever interrupted ART (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 1.44-6.59. Factors protective against having a detectable VL included being single (AOR 0.45, 95% 0.20-0.98 and being currently on ART (AOR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.41. Nearly one-quarter (23.1% had an STI, which was associated with being single (AOR 3.21, 95% CI 1.27-8.11 and using drugs in the last 6 months (AOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.32-9.45. Being on ART was protective against STI (AOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26-1.00. Baseline findings indicate significant barriers to VL suppression and STI prevention among FSW living with HIV and highlight gaps in the continuum of HIV care and treatment. These findings have important implications for both the individual health of FSW and population-level HIV transmission dynamics.

  19. DBR1 siRNA inhibition of HIV-1 replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidu Yathi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 and all retroviruses are related to retroelements of simpler organisms such as the yeast Ty elements. Recent work has suggested that the yeast retroelement Ty1 replicates via an unexpected RNA lariat intermediate in cDNA synthesis. The putative genomic RNA lariat intermediate is formed by a 2'-5' phosphodiester bond, like that found in pre-mRNA intron lariats and it facilitates the minus-strand template switch during cDNA synthesis. We hypothesized that HIV-1 might also form a genomic RNA lariat and therefore that siRNA-mediated inhibition of expression of the human RNA lariat de-branching enzyme (DBR1 expression would specifically inhibit HIV-1 replication. Results We designed three short interfering RNA (siRNA molecules targeting DBR1, which were capable of reducing DBR1 mRNA expression by 80% and did not significantly affect cell viability. We assessed HIV-1 replication in the presence of DBR1 siRNA and found that DBR1 knockdown led to decreases in viral cDNA and protein production. These effects could be reversed by cotransfection of a DBR1 cDNA indicating that the inhibition of HIV-1 replication was a specific effect of DBR1 underexpression. Conclusion These data suggest that DBR1 function may be needed to debranch a putative HIV-1 genomic RNA lariat prior to completion of reverse transcription.

  20. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldo, Maria DeFatima; Soares, Marcelo Bento

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  1. cDNA microarray screening in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K.

    2006-01-01

    The cDNA microarray technology and related bioinformatics tools presents a wide range of novel application opportunities. The technology may be productively applied to address food safety. In this mini-review article, we present an update highlighting the late breaking discoveries that demonstrate the vitality of cDNA microarray technology as a tool to analyze food safety with reference to microbial pathogens and genetically modified foods. In order to bring the microarray technology to mainstream food safety, it is important to develop robust user-friendly tools that may be applied in a field setting. In addition, there needs to be a standardized process for regulatory agencies to interpret and act upon microarray-based data. The cDNA microarray approach is an emergent technology in diagnostics. Its values lie in being able to provide complimentary molecular insight when employed in addition to traditional tests for food safety, as part of a more comprehensive battery of tests

  2. Cloning and expression of cDNA coding for bouganin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Marcel T; Lubelli, Chiara; Boon, Louis; Heerkens, Sijmie; Ortiz Buijsse, Antonio P; de Boer, Mark; Stirpe, Fiorenzo

    2002-03-01

    Bouganin is a ribosome-inactivating protein that recently was isolated from Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. In this work, the cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding for bouganin is described. From the cDNA, the amino-acid sequence was deduced, which correlated with the primary sequence data obtained by amino-acid sequencing on the native protein. Bouganin is synthesized as a pro-peptide consisting of 305 amino acids, the first 26 of which act as a leader signal while the 29 C-terminal amino acids are cleaved during processing of the molecule. The mature protein consists of 250 amino acids. Using the cDNA sequence encoding the mature protein of 250 amino acids, a recombinant protein was expressed, purified and characterized. The recombinant molecule had similar activity in a cell-free protein synthesis assay and had comparable toxicity on living cells as compared to the isolated native bouganin.

  3. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  4. Challenges in integrating component level technology and system level information from Ayurveda: Insights from NMR phytometabolomics and anti-HIV potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundar, Rama; Ghatak, Somenath; Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Luthra, Kalpana; Singh, Aruna; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2018-01-03

    Information from Ayurveda meeting the analytical challenges of modern technology is an area of immense relevance. Apart from the cerebral task of bringing together two different viewpoints, the question at the pragmatic level remains 'who benefits whom'. The aim is to highlight the challenges in integration of information (Ayurvedic) and technology using test examples of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomics and anti-HIV-1 potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The other value added objective is implications and relevance of such work for Ayurveda. Six medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirata, Terminalia bellerica, Zingiber officinale and Symplocos racemosa) were studied using high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy based metabolomics and also evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity on three pseudoviruses (ZM53 M.PB12, ZM109F.PB4, RHPA 4259.7). Of the six plants, T.bellerica and Z.officinale showed minimum cell cytotoxicity and maximum anti-HIV-1 potential. T.bellerica was effective against all the three HIV-1 pseudoviruses. Untargeted NMR profiling and multivariate analyses demonstrated that the six plants, all of which had different Ayurvedic pharmacological properties, showed maximum differences in the aromatic region of the spectra. The work adds onto the list of potential plants for anti-HIV-1 drug molecules. At the same time, it has drawn attention to the different perspectives of Ayurveda and Western medicine underscoring the inherent limitations of conceptual bilinguism between the two systems, especially in the context of medicinal plants. The study has also highlighted the potential of NMR metabolomics in study of plant extracts as used in Ayurveda. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Results of an Integrative Analysis: A Call for Contextualizing HIV and AIDS Clinical Practice Guidelines to Support Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nancy; Kahwa, Eulalia; Hoogeveen, Katie

    2017-12-01

    Practice guidelines aim to improve the standard of care for people living with HIV/AIDS. Successfully implementing guidelines requires tailoring them to populations served and to social and organizational influences on care. To examine dimensions of context, which nurses and midwives described as having a significant impact on their care of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Kenya, Uganda, South Africa, and Jamaica and to determine whether HIV/AIDS guidelines include adaptations congruent with these dimensions of context. Two sets of data were used. The first came from a qualitative study. In-depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected nurses, midwives, and nurse managers from 21 districts in four study countries. A coding framework was iteratively developed and themes inductively identified. Context dimensions were derived from these themes. A second data set of published guidelines for HIV/AIDS care was then assembled. Guidelines were identified through Google and PubMed searches. Using a deductive integrative analysis approach, text related to context dimensions was extracted from guidelines and categorized into problem and strategy statements. Ninety-six individuals participated in qualitative interviews. Four discrete dimensions of context were identified: health workforce adequacy, workplace exposure risk, workplace consequences for nurses living with HIV/AIDS, and the intersection of work and family life. Guidelines most often acknowledged health human resource constraints and presented mitigation strategies to offset them, and least often discussed workplace consequences and the intersections of family and work life. Guidelines should more consistently acknowledge diverse implementation contexts, propose how recommendations can be adapted to these realities, and suggest what role frontline healthcare providers have in realizing the structural changes necessary for healthier work environments and better patient care. Guideline recommendations

  6. Results of an Integrative Analysis: A Call for Contextualizing HIV and AIDS Clinical Practice Guidelines to Support Evidence‐Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwa, Eulalia; Hoogeveen, Katie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Practice guidelines aim to improve the standard of care for people living with HIV/AIDS. Successfully implementing guidelines requires tailoring them to populations served and to social and organizational influences on care. Aims To examine dimensions of context, which nurses and midwives described as having a significant impact on their care of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Kenya, Uganda, South Africa, and Jamaica and to determine whether HIV/AIDS guidelines include adaptations congruent with these dimensions of context. Methods Two sets of data were used. The first came from a qualitative study. In‐depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected nurses, midwives, and nurse managers from 21 districts in four study countries. A coding framework was iteratively developed and themes inductively identified. Context dimensions were derived from these themes. A second data set of published guidelines for HIV/AIDS care was then assembled. Guidelines were identified through Google and PubMed searches. Using a deductive integrative analysis approach, text related to context dimensions was extracted from guidelines and categorized into problem and strategy statements. Results Ninety‐six individuals participated in qualitative interviews. Four discrete dimensions of context were identified: health workforce adequacy, workplace exposure risk, workplace consequences for nurses living with HIV/AIDS, and the intersection of work and family life. Guidelines most often acknowledged health human resource constraints and presented mitigation strategies to offset them, and least often discussed workplace consequences and the intersections of family and work life. Linking Evidence to Action Guidelines should more consistently acknowledge diverse implementation contexts, propose how recommendations can be adapted to these realities, and suggest what role frontline healthcare providers have in realizing the structural changes necessary for healthier

  7. Integration and task shifting for TB/HIV care and treatment in highly resource-scarce settings: one size may not fit all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rie, Annelies; Patel, Monita R; Nana, Mbonze; Vanden Driessche, Koen; Tabala, Martine; Yotebieng, Marcel; Behets, Frieda

    2014-03-01

    A crucial question in managing HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB) concerns when and how to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). The effectiveness of CD4-stratified ART initiation in a nurse-centered, integrated TB/HIV program at primary care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, was assessed. Prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the effect of CD4-stratified ART initiation by primary care nurses (513 TB patients, August 2007 to November 2009). ART was to be initiated at 1 month of TB treatment if CD4 count is 350 cells per cubic millimeter. ART uptake and mortality were compared with a historical prospective cohort of 373 HIV-infected TB patients referred for ART to a centralized facility and 3577 HIV-negative TB patients (January 2006 to May 2007). ART uptake increased (17%-69%, P vs 9.8%, P decentralized, nurse-initiated, CD4-stratified ART. Mortality among TB patients with CD4 count >100 cells per cubic millimeter was similar to that of HIV-negative TB patients (5.6% vs 6.3%, P = 0.65), but mortality among those with CD4 count <100 cells per cubic millimeter remained high (18.8%). Nurse-centered, CD4-stratified ART initiation at primary care level was effective in increasing timely ART uptake and reducing mortality among TB patients but may not be adequate to prevent mortality among those presenting with severe immunosuppression. Further research is needed to determine the optimal management at primary care level of TB patients with CD4 counts <100 cells per cubic millimeter.

  8. Contraceptive Choice and Use of Dual Protection Among Women Living with HIV in Canada: Priorities for Integrated Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Angela; Patterson, Sophie; Carter, Allison; Loutfy, Mona; Ding, Erin; Sereda, Paul; Webster, Kath; Pick, Neora; Kestler, Mary; de Pokomandy, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Preventing unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission is important for women with HIV, but little is known about their contraceptive use, particularly under current antiretroviral therapy (ART) recommendations for treatment and prevention. The prevalence of contraceptive use and of dual protection was examined among 453 sexually active women with HIV aged 16-49 and enrolled in the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study in 2013-2015; multivariable logistic regression was used to identify correlates of use. Two definitions of dual protection were assessed: the World Health Organization (WHO) definition (consistent condom use alongside another effective method) and an expanded definition (consistent condom use or a suppressed HIV viral load alongside an effective method). Overall, 73% of women used effective contraceptives, primarily male condoms (45%) or tubal ligation (19%). Eighteen percent practiced WHO-defined dual protection, and 40% practiced dual protection according to the expanded definition. Characteristics positively associated with contraceptive use were younger age, having been pregnant, being heterosexual, being unaware of ART's HIV prevention benefits and having had partners of unknown HIV status (odds ratios, 1.1-6.7). Younger age and perceived inability to become pregnant were positively associated with both definitions of dual protection (1.04-3.3); additionally, WHO-defined dual protection was associated with perceiving HIV care to be women-centered and having had partners of unknown HIV status (2.0-4.1), and dual protection under the expanded definition was related to having been pregnant (2.7). Future research should explore how sustained ART and broader contraceptive options can support women's sexual and reproductive health care needs. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  9. BARRIERS, FACILITATORS AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH CONDOM USAGE AMONGST MALE HIV INTEGRATED COUNSELLING AND TESTING CENTRE ATTENDEES AT THE GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL OF THORACIC MEDICINE, AN HIV TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mahajan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV is transmitted largely through sexual route which can be prevented by using condoms. The objectives of this study were to describe condom usage with various barriers, facilitators and to determine association between different socioeconomic characteristics among male Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC attendees. Methods: This is a hospital based cross sectional study (n=300. Clients (18-45years attending ICTC for first time, between June-October ‘2010, were interviewed with structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. Description of demographic characteristics of respondents; univariate, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for estimation of association. Results: Among respondents, awareness of HIV and condom were 80% and 85.3% respectively; Knowledge of prevention from STI/HIV (97.7% was most common facilitator while forgetfulness after drinking alcohol (64.1% was most common barrier to use condom; Respondents who had education up to secondary or above level were more associated with condom usage (AOR 2.9,95%CI1.34-6.24, after adjusting for income compared to non educated respondents; considering less than Indian rupee (INR 3000 per month as reference category, there were association of condom usage among relatively higher income groups between INR.3000 to 5000 per month (AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.38-5.0,adjusting education and income above INR5000 per month (AOR 2.85,95%CI1.37-5.9, adjusting education. Conclusions: Condom usage was independently associated with education and income level of respondents. Forgetfulness after drinking alcohol was main barrier; knowledge of prevention from HIV was main facilitator of condom usage. Dissemination of knowledge regarding facilitator of condom usage and implementation of Rapid Needs Assessment Tool for Condom Programming can encourage condom use.

  10. Implementation of an Integrated Approach to the National HIV/AIDS Strategy for Improving Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care for Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, J Dennis; Koenig, Linda J; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Jeffries, Carrie L; Ellen, Jonathan M; Wilson, Craig M

    2017-07-01

    Youths aged 13 to 24 years old living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are less likely than adults to receive the health and prevention benefits of HIV treatments, with only a small proportion having achieved sustained viral suppression. These age-related disparities in HIV continuum of care are owing in part to the unique developmental issues of adolescents and young adults as well as the complexity and fragmentation of HIV care and related services. This article summarizes a national, multiagency, and multilevel approach to HIV care for newly diagnosed youths designed to bridge some of these fragmentations by addressing National HIV/AIDS Strategy goals for people living with HIV. Three federal agencies developed memoranda of understanding to sequentially implement 3 protocols addressing key National HIV/AIDS Strategy goals. The goals were addressed in the Adolescent Trials Network, with protocols implemented in 12 to 15 sites across the United States. Outcome data were collected from recently diagnosed youth referred to the program. Cross-agency collaboration, youth-friendly linkage to care services, community mobilization to address structural barriers to care, cooperation among services, proportion of all men who have sex with men who tested, and rates of linkage to prevention services. The program addressed National HIV/AIDS Strategy goals 2 through 4 including steps within each goal. A total of 3986 HIV-positive youths were referred for care, with more than 75% linked to care within 6 weeks of referral, with almost 90% of those youths engaged in subsequent HIV care. Community mobilization efforts implemented and completed structural change objectives to address local barriers to care. Age and racial/ethnic group disparities were addressed through targeted training for culturally competent, youth-friendly care, and intensive motivational interviewing training. A national program to address the National HIV/AIDS Strategy specifically for youths can

  11. cDNA library information - Dicty_cDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Dicty_cDB cDNA library information Data detail Data name cDNA library information DOI 10.189...s Data item Description cDNA library name Names of cDNA libraries (AF, AH, CF, CH, FC, FC-IC, FCL, SF, SH, S...(C) 5) sexually fusion-competent KAX3 cells (Gamete phase) (F) cDNA library construction method How to construct cDNA library...dir) 2) Full-length cDNA libraries (oligocapped method)(fl) 3) Gamete-specific subtraction library (sub) cDNA library... construction protocol Link to the webpage describing the protocol for generating cDNA library Size

  12. Cloning and expression of human deoxycytidine kinase cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chottiner, E.G.; Shewach, D.S.; Datta, N.S.; Ashcraft, E.; Gribbin, D.; Ginsburg, D.; Fox, I.H.; Mitchell, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    Deoxycytidine (dCyd) kinase is required for the phosphorylation of several deoxyribonucleosides and certain nucleoside analogs widely employed as antiviral and chemotherapeutic agents. Detailed analysis of this enzyme has been limited, however, by its low abundance and instability. Using oligonucleotides based on primary amino acid sequence derived from purified dCyd kinase, the authors have screened T-lymphoblast cDNA libraries and identified a cDNA sequence that encodes a 30.5-kDa protein corresponding to the subunit molecular mass of the purified protein. Expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli results in a 40-fold increase in dCyd kinase activity over control levels. Northern blot analysis reveals a single 2.8-kilobase mRNA expressed in T lymphoblasts at 5- to 10-fold higher levels than in B lymphoblasts, and decreased dCyd kinase mRNA levels are present in T-lymphoblast cell lines resistant to arabinofuranosylcytosine and dideoxycytidine. These findings document that this cDNA encodes the T-lymphoblast dCyd kinase responsible for the phosphorylation of dAdo and dGuo as well as dCyd and arabinofuranosylcytosine

  13. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN FISH USING CDNA ARRAYS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing cDNA macroarrays to measure the induction of gene expression in sheepshead minnows and largemouth bass exposed to anthropogenic chemicals that can mimic the action of endogenous hormones. For sheepshead minnows exposed in aqua, we observed similar genetic profil...

  14. A BIOINFORMATIC STRATEGY TO RAPIDLY CHARACTERIZE CDNA LIBRARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Bioinformatic Strategy to Rapidly Characterize cDNA LibrariesG. Charles Ostermeier1, David J. Dix2 and Stephen A. Krawetz1.1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, & Institute for Scientific Computing, Wayne State Univer...

  15. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology. The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  16. Complete cDNA sequence coding for human docking protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hortsch, M; Labeit, S; Meyer, D I

    1988-01-11

    Docking protein (DP, or SRP receptor) is a rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein essential for the targeting and translocation of nascent polypeptides across this membrane. It specifically interacts with a cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complex, the signal recognition particle (SRP). The nucleotide sequence of cDNA encoding the entire human DP and its deduced amino acid sequence are given.

  17. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RPS16 of eukaryote is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS16 gene and is also a homolog of prokaryotic RPS9. The cDNA and genomic sequence of RPS16 was cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain ...

  18. A novel educational strategy targeting health care workers in underserved communities in Central America to integrate HIV into primary medical care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Flys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs. We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. METHODS: The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. RESULTS: Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258=87.2% successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200=85% attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (p<0.001. The mean pre- and post-test scores evaluating clinical knowledge were 70.9% and 90.3%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 19.4% (p<0.001. A survey of Likert scale and open-ended questions demonstrated overwhelming participant satisfaction with course content, structure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION: This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills

  19. Recruitment of a SAP18-HDAC1 complex into HIV-1 virions and its requirement for viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Sorin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 integrase (IN is a virally encoded protein required for integration of viral cDNA into host chromosomes. INI1/hSNF5 is a component of the SWI/SNF complex that interacts with HIV-1 IN, is selectively incorporated into HIV-1 (but not other retroviral virions, and modulates multiple steps, including particle production and infectivity. To gain further insight into the role of INI1 in HIV-1 replication, we screened for INI1-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. We found that SAP18 (Sin3a associated protein 18 kD, a component of the Sin3a-HDAC1 complex, directly binds to INI1 in yeast, in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, we found that IN also binds to SAP18 in vitro and in vivo. SAP18 and components of a Sin3A-HDAC1 complex were specifically incorporated into HIV-1 (but not SIV and HTLV-1 virions in an HIV-1 IN-dependent manner. Using a fluorescence-based assay, we found that HIV-1 (but not SIV virion preparations harbour significant deacetylase activity, indicating the specific recruitment of catalytically active HDAC into the virions. To determine the requirement of virion-associated HDAC1 to HIV-1 replication, an inactive, transdominant negative mutant of HDAC1 (HDAC1(H141A was utilized. Incorporation of HDAC1(H141A decreased the virion-associated histone deacetylase activity. Furthermore, incorporation of HDAC1(H141A decreased the infectivity of HIV-1 (but not SIV virions. The block in infectivity due to virion-associated HDAC1(H141A occurred specifically at the early reverse transcription stage, while entry of the virions was unaffected. RNA-interference mediated knock-down of HDAC1 in producer cells resulted in decreased virion-associated HDAC1 activity and a reduction in infectivity of these virions. These studies indicate that HIV-1 IN and INI1/hSNF5 bind SAP18 and selectively recruit components of Sin3a-HDAC1 complex into HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, HIV-1 virion-associated HDAC1 is required for efficient early post

  20. The function analysis of full-length cDNA sequence from IRM-2 mouse cDNA library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qin; Liu Xiaoqiu; Xu Chang; Du Liqing; Sun Zhijuan; Wang Yan; Liu Qiang; Song Li; Li Jin; Fan Feiyue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the function of full-length cDNA sequence from IRM-2 mouse cDNA library. Methods: Full-length cDNA products were amplified by PCR from IRM-2 mouse cDNA library according to twenty-one pieces of expressed sequence tag. The expression of full-length cDNAs were detected after mouse embryonic fibroblasts were exposed to 6.5 Gy γ-ray radiation. And the effect on the growth of radiosensitivity cells AT5B1VA transfected with full-length cDNAs was investigated. Results: The expression of No.4, 5 and 2 full-length cDNAs from IRM-2 mouse were higher than that of parental ICR and 615 mouse after mouse embryonic fibroblasts irradiated with γ-ray radiation. And the survival rate of AT5B1VA cells transfected with No.4, 5 and 2 full-length cDNAs was high. Conclusion: No.4, 5 and 2 full-length cDNAs of IRM-2 mouse are of high radioresistance. (authors)

  1. Where Public Health Meets Human Rights: Integrating Human Rights into the Validation of the Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismödi, Eszter; Kiragu, Karusa; Sawicki, Olga; Smith, Sally; Brion, Sophie; Sharma, Aditi; Mworeko, Lilian; Iovita, Alexandrina

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a process for validation of the elimination of mother-to-child transmission (EMTCT) of HIV and syphilis by countries. For the first time in such a process for the validation of disease elimination, WHO introduced norms and approaches that are grounded in human rights, gender equality, and community engagement. This human rights-based validation process can serve as a key opportunity to enhance accountability for human rights protection by evaluating EMTCT programs against human rights norms and standards, including in relation to gender equality and by ensuring the provision of discrimination-free quality services. The rights-based validation process also involves the assessment of participation of affected communities in EMTCT program development, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. It brings awareness to the types of human rights abuses and inequalities faced by women living with, at risk of, or affected by HIV and syphilis, and commits governments to eliminate those barriers. This process demonstrates the importance and feasibility of integrating human rights, gender, and community into key public health interventions in a manner that improves health outcomes, legitimizes the participation of affected communities, and advances the human rights of women living with HIV.

  2. Health Technology-Enabled Interventions for Adherence Support and Retention in Care Among US HIV-Infected Adolescents and Young Adults: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarra, Ann-Margaret Dunn; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Whittemore, Robin; Bakken, Suzanne R; Cleland, Charles M; Burleson, Winslow; Jacobs, Susan Kaplan; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this integrative review was to describe current US trends for health technology-enabled adherence interventions among behaviorally HIV-infected youth (ages 13-29 years), and present the feasibility and efficacy of identified interventions. A comprehensive search was executed across five electronic databases (January 2005-March 2016). Of the 1911 identified studies, nine met the inclusion criteria of quantitative or mixed methods design, technology-enabled adherence and or retention intervention for US HIV-infected youth. The majority were small pilots. Intervention dose varied between studies applying similar technology platforms with more than half not informed by a theoretical framework. Retention in care was not a reported outcome, and operationalization of adherence was heterogeneous across studies. Despite these limitations, synthesized findings from this review demonstrate feasibility of computer-based interventions, and initial efficacy of SMS texting for adherence support among HIV-infected youth. Moving forward, there is a pressing need for the expansion of this evidence base.

  3. Effects of Inner Nuclear Membrane Proteins SUN1/UNC-84A and SUN2/UNC-84B on the Early Steps of HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Torsten; Bulli, Lorenzo; Pollpeter, Darja; Betancor, Gilberto; Kutzner, Juliane; Apolonia, Luis; Herold, Nikolas; Burk, Robin; Malim, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of dividing and nondividing cells involves regulatory interactions with the nuclear pore complex (NPC), followed by translocation to the nucleus and preferential integration into genomic areas in proximity to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). To identify host proteins that may contribute to these processes, we performed an overexpression screen of known membrane-associated NE proteins. We found that the integral transmembrane proteins SUN1/UNC84A and SUN2/UNC84B are potent or modest inhibitors of HIV-1 infection, respectively, and that suppression corresponds to defects in the accumulation of viral cDNA in the nucleus. While laboratory strains (HIV-1 NL4.3 and HIV-1 IIIB ) are sensitive to SUN1-mediated inhibition, the transmitted founder viruses RHPA and ZM247 are largely resistant. Using chimeric viruses, we identified the HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein as a major determinant of sensitivity to SUN1, and in vitro -assembled capsid-nucleocapsid (CANC) nanotubes captured SUN1 and SUN2 from cell lysates. Finally, we generated SUN1 -/- and SUN2 -/- cells by using CRISPR/Cas9 and found that the loss of SUN1 had no effect on HIV-1 infectivity, whereas the loss of SUN2 had a modest suppressive effect. Taken together, these observations suggest that SUN1 and SUN2 may function redundantly to modulate postentry, nuclear-associated steps of HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 causes more than 1 million deaths per year. The life cycle of HIV-1 has been studied extensively, yet important steps that occur between viral capsid release into the cytoplasm and the expression of viral genes remain elusive. We propose here that the INM components SUN1 and SUN2, two members of the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, may interact with incoming HIV-1 replication complexes and affect key steps of infection. While overexpression of these proteins reduces HIV-1 infection, disruption of the individual SUN2 and SUN1 genes

  4. [Preparation of the cDNA microarray on the differential expressed cDNA of senescence-accelerated mouse's hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Rui; Zhou, Wen-Xia; Zhang, Yong-Xiang

    2006-05-01

    Alzheimer' s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. AD is an invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorder with no effective treatment. Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) is a model for studying age-related cognitive impairments and also is a good model to study brain aging and one of mouse model of AD. The technique of cDNA microarray can monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously and can be used to study AD with the character of multi-mechanism, multi-targets and multi-pathway. In order to disclose the mechanism of AD and find the drug targets of AD, cDNA microarray containing 3136 cDNAs amplified from the suppression subtracted cDNA library of hippocampus of SAMP8 and SAMR1 was prepared with 16 blocks and 14 x 14 pins, the housekeeping gene beta-actin and G3PDH as inner conference. The background of this microarray was low and unanimous, and dots divided evenly. The conditions of hybridization and washing were optimized during the hybridization of probe and target molecule. After the data of hybridization analysis, the differential expressed cDNAs were sequenced and analyzed by the bioinformatics, and some of genes were quantified by the real time RT-PCR and the reliability of this cDNA microarray were validated. This cDNA microarray may be the good means to select the differential expressed genes and disclose the molecular mechanism of SAMP8's brain aging and AD.

  5. High-throughput screening of suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries using DNA microarray analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Berg, N

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficient construction of cDNA libraries enriched for differentially expressed transcripts is an important first step in many biological investigations. We present a quantitative procedure for screening cDNA libraries constructed by suppression...

  6. Development and Open Pilot Trial of an HIV-Prevention Intervention Integrating Mobile-Phone Technology for Male Sex Workers in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Beena; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie; Menon, Sunil; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-05-01

    In India men who have sex with men and engage in sex work (i.e., male sex workers; MSW) have a high risk of transmitting HIV. Globally, sex workers have become more spatially mobile due to advances in mobile-phone technology. In 2012 in-depth qualitative feedback was garnered from 40 interviews with MSW and four focus groups with 35 key informants (KIs) who had expert knowledge of the local MSW community to inform the design of an HIV-prevention intervention among MSW in Chennai, India. All MSW were recruited during outreach by employees of a Chennai-based organization for MSM (men who have sex with men). The data were analyzed using a descriptive qualitative approach. MSW and KIs discussed the need for intervention content that went beyond basic HIV psychoeducation. They emphasized the importance of addressing psychological distress, alcohol-related risk, and sexual communication skills. Concerns were raised about confidentiality, privacy, and scheduling. Participants endorsed a combination of in-person and mobile-phone-delivered sessions as well as the integration of mobile-phone messaging. These findings served as the basis for the development of a theoretically driven, manual-based intervention incorporating mobile phones. An open pilot assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention with eight MSW. Assessments and HIV testing were administered at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Exit interviews were conducted at the conclusion of the intervention. Retention for session attendance and assessment follow-up was 100 %. There was a high level of acceptability for the format, structure, and content. These data show initial promise, feasibility, and acceptability of the intervention.

  7. cDNA - ASTRA | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ontents List of cDNA in locus Data file File name: astra_cdna.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/astra/LATEST/astra_cdn...a.zip File size: 3.3 MB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/astra_cdna...n, Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (Kikuchi et al., 2003; ftp://cdna

  8. Molecular cloning of growth hormone encoding cDNA of Indian

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy has been developed for cloning highly conserved cDNA sequences. Using this modified method, the growth hormone (GH) encoding cDNA sequences of Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla have been cloned, characterized and overexpressed in ...

  9. The cDNA sequence of a neutral horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek-Roxå, E; Eriksson, H; Mattiasson, B

    1991-02-16

    A cDNA clone encoding a horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase has been isolated and characterized. The cDNA contains 1378 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and the deduced protein contains 327 amino acids which includes a 28 amino acid leader sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence is nine amino acids shorter than the major isoenzyme belonging to the horseradish peroxidase C group (HRP-C) and the sequence shows 53.7% identity with this isoenzyme. The described clone encodes nine cysteines of which eight correspond well with the cysteines found in HRP-C. Five potential N-glycosylation sites with the general sequence Asn-X-Thr/Ser are present in the deduced sequence. Compared to the earlier described HRP-C this is three glycosylation sites less. The shorter sequence and fewer N-glycosylation sites give the native isoenzyme a molecular weight of several thousands less than the horseradish peroxidase C isoenzymes. Comparison with the net charge value of HRP-C indicates that the described cDNA clone encodes a peroxidase which has either the same or a slightly less basic pI value, depending on whether the encoded protein is N-terminally blocked or not. This excludes the possibility that HRP-n could belong to either the HRP-A, -D or -E groups. The low sequence identity (53.7%) with HRP-C indicates that the described clone does not belong to the HRP-C isoenzyme group and comparison of the total amino acid composition with the HRP-B group does not place the described clone within this isoenzyme group. Our conclusion is that the described cDNA clone encodes a neutral horseradish peroxidase which belongs to a new, not earlier described, horseradish peroxidase group.

  10. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  11. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  12. Brain cDNA clone for human cholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, C.; Adkins, S.; Chatonnet, A.; Vaughan, T.A.; Bartels, C.F.; Kott, M.; Rosenberry, T.L.; La Du, B.N.; Lockridge, O.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA library from human basal ganglia was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to portions of the amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase. Five overlapping clones, representing 2.4 kilobases, were isolated. The sequenced cDNA contained 207 base pairs of coding sequence 5' to the amino terminus of the mature protein in which there were four ATG translation start sites in the same reading frame as the protein. Only the ATG coding for Met-(-28) lay within a favorable consensus sequence for functional initiators. There were 1722 base pairs of coding sequence corresponding to the protein found circulating in human serum. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA exactly matched the 574 amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase, as previously determined by Edman degradation. Therefore, our clones represented cholinesterase rather than acetylcholinesterase. It was concluded that the amino acid sequences of cholinesterase from two different tissues, human brain and human serum, were identical. Hybridization of genomic DNA blots suggested that a single gene, or very few genes coded for cholinesterase

  13. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 12 figs.

  14. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  15. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 11 figures.

  16. Nutrition and HIV-Positive Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    When an HIV-positive woman becomes pregnant, additional nutritional considerations are warranted. Compared to routine prenatal nutritional assessment and intervention, pregnant HIV-positive women have increased needs to promote a healthy outcome. This column contains information on HIV and pregnancy, nutrition and infection, and nutrition for HIV-positive pregnancy. This content can be integrated into childbirth education settings to improve care to women who are HIV-positive. PMID:17273329

  17. Nutrition and HIV-Positive Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    When an HIV-positive woman becomes pregnant, additional nutritional considerations are warranted. Compared to routine prenatal nutritional assessment and intervention, pregnant HIV-positive women have increased needs to promote a healthy outcome. This column contains information on HIV and pregnancy, nutrition and infection, and nutrition for HIV-positive pregnancy. This content can be integrated into childbirth education settings to improve care to women who are HIV-positive.

  18. Child-rearing practices of primary caregivers of HIV-infected children: An integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunklin, Pimpaporn; Harrigan, Rosanne C

    2002-08-01

    The number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children has increased because of the HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. Yet little is known about the child-rearing practices of these children's primary caregivers. The purpose of this article is to describe what is known about the child-rearing practices of primary caregivers of HIV-infected children. The review covers a 10-year period from 1990 to 2000. Three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and AIDSLINE) were explored. Key words used were HIV-positive children, caregivers, and child-rearing. A total of 50 papers were examined. Using the Matrix Method, each paper was evaluated according to five frames of reference: journal, purpose, sample, method, and findings. Content analysis was used to identity salient themes. Themes that emerged were: caregiver, child, and interactions or child-rearing practices. These findings affirm the parent-child interaction model generated by Kathryn E. Barnard and support this framework as a tool for investigating the relationships between these children and their caregivers. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  19. APOBEC3G inhibits elongation of HIV-1 reverse transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate N Bishop

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available APOBEC3G (A3G is a host cytidine deaminase that, in the absence of Vif, restricts HIV-1 replication and reduces the amount of viral DNA that accumulates in cells. Initial studies determined that A3G induces extensive mutation of nascent HIV-1 cDNA during reverse transcription. It has been proposed that this triggers the degradation of the viral DNA, but there is now mounting evidence that this mechanism may not be correct. Here, we use a natural endogenous reverse transcriptase assay to show that, in cell-free virus particles, A3G is able to inhibit HIV-1 cDNA accumulation not only in the absence of hypermutation but also without the apparent need for any target cell factors. We find that although reverse transcription initiates in the presence of A3G, elongation of the cDNA product is impeded. These data support the model that A3G reduces HIV-1 cDNA levels by inhibiting synthesis rather than by inducing degradation.

  20. Implementation and Operational Research: Integration of PMTCT and Antenatal Services Improves Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Uptake for HIV-Positive Pregnant Women in Southern Zambia: A Prototype for Option B+?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Julie M; Hamomba, Leoda; Bonawitz, Rachael; Goggin, Caitlin E; Sambambi, Kennedy; Mwale, Jonas; Musonda, Victor; Musokatwane, Kebby; Hopkins, Kathryn L; Semrau, Katherine; Hammond, Emily E; Duncan, Julie; Knapp, Anna B; Thea, Donald M

    2015-12-01

    Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV-positive pregnant women can decrease vertical transmission to less than 5%. Programmatic barriers to early cART include decentralized care, disease-stage assessment delays, and loss to follow-up. Our intervention had 3 components: integrated HIV and antenatal services in 1 location with 1 provider, laboratory courier to expedite CD4 counts, and community-based follow-up of women-infant pairs to improve prevention of mother-to-child transmission attendance. Preintervention HIV-positive pregnant women were referred to HIV clinics for disease-stage assessment and cART initiation for advanced disease (CD4 count 2). We used a quasi-experimental design with preintervention/postintervention evaluations at 6 government antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Southern Province, Zambia. Retrospective clinical data were collected from clinic registers during a 7-month baseline period. Postintervention data were collected from all antiretroviral therapy-naive, HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants presenting to ANC from December 2011 to June 2013. Data from 510 baseline women-infant pairs were analyzed and 624 pregnant women were enrolled during the intervention period. The proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving CD4 counts increased from 50.6% to 77.2% [relative risk (RR) = 1.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57 to 2.08; P pregnant women initiated on cART increased from 27.5% to 71.5% (RR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.78 to 2.83; P HIV-exposed infants with documented 6-week HIV PCR test increased from 41.9% to 55.8% (RR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.51; P HIV care into ANC and community-based support improved uptake of CD4 counts, proportion of cART-eligible women initiated on cART, and infants tested.

  1. [cDNA library construction from panicle meristem of finger millet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, V; Pirko, Ia V; Isaenkov, S V; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2014-01-01

    The protocol for production of full-size cDNA using SuperScript Full-Length cDNA Library Construction Kit II (Invitrogen) was tested and high quality cDNA library from meristematic tissue of finger millet panicle (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) was created. The titer of obtained cDNA library comprised 3.01 x 10(5) CFU/ml in avarage. In average the length of cDNA insertion consisted about 1070 base pairs, the effectivity of cDNA fragment insertions--99.5%. The selective sequencing of cDNA clones from created library was performed. The sequences of cDNA clones were identified with usage of BLAST-search. The results of cDNA library analysis and selective sequencing represents prove good functionality and full length character of inserted cDNA clones. Obtained cDNA library from meristematic tissue of finger millet panicle represents good and valuable source for isolation and identification of key genes regulating metabolism and meristematic development and for mining of new molecular markers to conduct out high quality genetic investigations and molecular breeding as well.

  2. Preparation of fluorescent-dye-labeled cDNA from RNA for microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes how to prepare fluorescently labeled cDNA for hybridization to microarrays. It consists of two steps: first, a mixture of anchored oligo(dT) and random hexamers is used to prime amine-modified cDNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase using a modified deoxynucleotide with a reactive amine group (aminoallyl-dUTP) and an RNA sample as a template. Second, the cDNA is purified and exchanged into bicarbonate buffer so that the amine groups in the cDNA react with the dye N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters, covalently joining the dye to the cDNA. The dye-coupled cDNA is purified again, and the amount of dye incorporated per microgram of cDNA is determined.

  3. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  4. Perspectives on Integrated HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Testing Among Persons Entering a Northern California Jail: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Wilson; Cocohoba, Jennifer; Chyorny, Alexander; Halpern, Jodi; Auerswald, Colette; Myers, Janet

    2018-06-01

    Providing HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing on an "opt-out" basis is often considered the "gold standard" because it contributes to higher testing rates when compared with "opt-in" strategies. Although rates are crucial, an individual's testing preferences are also important, especially in correctional settings where legal and social factors influence a person's capacity to freely decide whether or not to test. Our study explored factors influencing HIV and HCV testing decisions and individuals' preferences and concerns regarding opt-in vs. opt-out testing at the time of jail entry. We conducted semistructured interviews to explore individuals' previous testing experiences, reasons to test, understanding of their health care rights, HIV and HCV knowledge, and preferences for an opt-out vs. an opt-in testing script. We interviewed 30 individuals detained in the Santa Clara County Jail at intake. Participants reported that their testing decisions were influenced by their level of HIV and HCV knowledge, self-perceived risk of infection and stigma associated with infection and testing, the degree to which they felt coerced, and understanding of testing rights in a correctional setting. Most preferred the opt-in script because they valued the choice of whether or not to be tested. Participants who did prefer the opt-out script did so because they felt that the script was less likely to make people feel "singled out" for testing. Our findings demonstrate that people care about how testing is offered and suggest a need for further research to see how much this influences their decision about whether to test.

  5. Cloning and analysis of the mouse Fanconi anemia group a cDNA and an overlapping penta zinc finger cDNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, JCY; Alon, N; Norga, K; Kruyt, FAE; Youssoufian, H; Buchwald, M

    2000-01-01

    Despite the cloning of four disease-associated genes for Fanconi anemia (FA), the molecular pathogenesis of FA remains largely unknown. To study FA complementation group A using the mouse as a mode I system, we cloned and characterized the mouse homolog of the human FANCA cDNA, The mouse cDNA

  6. A Novel Integrated Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety and Medication Adherence Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Charles P; Paulus, Daniel J; Garza, Monica; Lemaire, Chad; Norton, Peter J; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) are able to live full lifespans after infection, however, rates of anxiety disorders among this population are elevated compared to national samples. Importantly, these anxiety symptoms and disorders have a negative effect on medication adherence, quality of life and other psychological disorders, such as depression. In order to reduce the impact of anxiety among PLHIV, a six-session transdiagnostic CBT-based treatment manual for anxiety among PLHIV named the HIV/Anxiety Management-Reduction Treatment (HAMRT) was developed and implemented. The current manuscript discusses the content of this manual as well as results from three cases examining the impact of HAMRT. Results indicated that HAMRT was effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, depression, and negative affect among our sample. Additionally, results indicated that HAMRT was effective in increasing HIV medication adherence as well as quality of life. Results are discussed in terms of the potential utility of an anxiety-reduction therapy program aimed at increasing medication adherence among PLHIV.

  7. Does integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health services improve technical efficiency in Kenya and Swaziland? An application of a two-stage semi parametric approach incorporating quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Jacobs, Rowena; Guinness, Lorna; Mayhew, Susannah; Vassall, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Theoretically, integration of vertically organized services is seen as an important approach to improving the efficiency of health service delivery. However, there is a dearth of evidence on the effect of integration on the technical efficiency of health service delivery. Furthermore, where technical efficiency has been assessed, there have been few attempts to incorporate quality measures within efficiency measurement models particularly in sub-Saharan African settings. This paper investigates the technical efficiency and the determinants of technical efficiency of integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services using data collected from 40 health facilities in Kenya and Swaziland for 2008/2009 and 2010/2011. Incorporating a measure of quality, we estimate the technical efficiency of health facilities and explore the effect of integration and other environmental factors on technical efficiency using a two-stage semi-parametric double bootstrap approach. The empirical results reveal a high degree of inefficiency in the health facilities studied. The mean bias corrected technical efficiency scores taking quality into consideration varied between 22% and 65% depending on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model specification. The number of additional HIV services in the maternal and child health unit, public ownership and facility type, have a positive and significant effect on technical efficiency. However, number of additional HIV and STI services provided in the same clinical room, proportion of clinical staff to overall staff, proportion of HIV services provided, and rural location had a negative and significant effect on technical efficiency. The low estimates of technical efficiency and mixed effects of the measures of integration on efficiency challenge the notion that integration of HIV and SRH services may substantially improve the technical efficiency of health facilities. The analysis of quality and efficiency as separate dimensions of

  8. Preparation of a differentially expressed, full-length cDNA expression library by RecA-mediated triple-strand formation with subtractively enriched cDNA fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, T. B.; Spijkers, J. A.; Vermeulen, J. L.; Lamers, W. H.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a fast and general method to obtain an enriched, full-length cDNA expression library with subtractively enriched cDNA fragments. The procedure relies on RecA-mediated triple-helix formation of single-stranded cDNA fragments with a double-stranded cDNA plasmid library. The complexes

  9. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-04-27

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as 'nation-building'. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. cDNA sequences of two apolipoproteins from lamprey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, M.; Xu, X.; Graham, D.; Riley, M.; Doolittle, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The messages for two small but abundant apolipoproteins found in lamprey blood plasma were cloned with the aid of oligonucleotide probes based on amino-terminal sequences. In both cases, numerous clones were identified in a lamprey liver cDNA library, consistent with the great abundance of these proteins in lamprey blood. One of the cDNAs (LAL1) has a coding region of 105 amino acids that corresponds to a 21-residue signal peptide, a putative 8-residue propeptide, and the 76-residue mature protein found in blood. The other cDNA (LAL2) codes for a total of 191 residues, the first 23 of which constitute a signal peptide. The two proteins, which occur in the high-density lipoprotein fraction of ultracentrifuged plasma, have amino acid compositions similar to those of apolipoproteins found in mammalian blood; computer analysis indicates that the sequences are largely helix-permissive. When the sequences were searched against an amino acid sequence data base, rat apolipoprotein IV was the best matching candidate in both cases. Although a reasonable alignment can be made with that sequence and LAL1, definitive assignment of the two lamprey proteins to typical mammalian classes cannot be made at this point

  11. Infectious Maize rayado fino virus from Cloned cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C; Weiland, John J; Todd, Jane; Stewart, Lucy R

    2015-06-01

    A full-length cDNA clone was produced from a U.S. isolate of Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), the type member of the genus Marafivirus within the family Tymoviridae. Infectivity of transcripts derived from cDNA clones was demonstrated by infection of maize plants and protoplasts, as well as by transmission via the known leafhopper vectors Dalbulus maidis and Graminella nigrifrons that transmit the virus in a persistent-propagative manner. Infection of maize plants through vascular puncture inoculation of seed with transcript RNA resulted in the induction of fine stipple stripe symptoms typical of those produced by wild-type MRFV and a frequency of infection comparable with that of the wild type. Northern and Western blotting confirmed the production of MRFV-specific RNAs and proteins in infected plants and protoplasts. An unanticipated increase in subgenomic RNA synthesis over levels in infected plants was observed in protoplasts infected with either wild-type or cloned virus. A conserved cleavage site motif previously demonstrated to function in both Oat blue dwarf virus capsid protein and tymoviral nonstructural protein processing was identified near the amino terminus of the MRFV replicase polyprotein, suggesting that cleavage at this site also may occur.

  12. Automation of cDNA Synthesis and Labelling Improves Reproducibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Klevebring

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several technologies, such as in-depth sequencing and microarrays, enable large-scale interrogation of genomes and transcriptomes. In this study, we asses reproducibility and throughput by moving all laboratory procedures to a robotic workstation, capable of handling superparamagnetic beads. Here, we describe a fully automated procedure for cDNA synthesis and labelling for microarrays, where the purification steps prior to and after labelling are based on precipitation of DNA on carboxylic acid-coated paramagnetic beads. Results. The fully automated procedure allows for samples arrayed on a microtiter plate to be processed in parallel without manual intervention and ensuring high reproducibility. We compare our results to a manual sample preparation procedure and, in addition, use a comprehensive reference dataset to show that the protocol described performs better than similar manual procedures. Conclusions. We demonstrate, in an automated gene expression microarray experiment, a reduced variance between replicates, resulting in an increase in the statistical power to detect differentially expressed genes, thus allowing smaller differences between samples to be identified. This protocol can with minor modifications be used to create cDNA libraries for other applications such as in-depth analysis using next-generation sequencing technologies.

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging study of early white matter integrity in HIV-infected patients: A tract-based spatial statistics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruili Li

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Multiple cerebral white matter fiber tracts are damaged in HIV-infected patients without cognitive impairment. Quantitative analysis of DTI using TBSS is valuable in evaluating changes of HIV-associated white matter microstructures.

  14. Acute HIV Discovered During Routine HIV Screening With HIV Antigen-Antibody Combination Tests in 9 US Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas A E; Giordano, Thomas P; Pasalar, Siavash; Jacobson, Kathleen R; Glick, Nancy R; Sha, Beverly E; Mammen, Priya E; Hunt, Bijou R; Todorovic, Tamara; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Adomolga, Vincent; Feaster, Daniel J; Branson, Bernard M

    2018-01-05

    Newer combination HIV antigen-antibody tests allow detection of HIV sooner after infection than previous antibody-only immunoassays because, in addition to HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, they detect the HIV-1 p24 antigen, which appears before antibodies develop. We determine the yield of screening with HIV antigen-antibody tests and clinical presentations for new diagnoses of acute and established HIV infection across US emergency departments (EDs). This was a retrospective study of 9 EDs in 6 cities with HIV screening programs that integrated laboratory-based antigen-antibody tests between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015. Unique patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were identified and classified as having either acute HIV infection or established HIV infection. Acute HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result, a negative HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay, or Western blot result, but detectable HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA); established HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result and a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay or Western blot result. The primary outcomes were the number of new HIV diagnoses and proportion of patients with laboratory-defined acute HIV infection. Secondary outcomes compared reason for visit and the clinical presentation of acute HIV infection. In total, 214,524 patients were screened for HIV and 839 (0.4%) received a new diagnosis, of which 122 (14.5%) were acute HIV infection and 717 (85.5%) were established HIV infection. Compared with patients with established HIV infection, those with acute HIV infection were younger, had higher RNA and CD4 counts, and were more likely to have viral syndrome (41.8% versus 6.5%) or fever (14.3% versus 3.4%) as their reason for visit. Most patients with acute HIV infection displayed symptoms attributable to acute infection (median symptom count 5 [interquartile range 3 to 6]), with fever often

  15. A rapid method for screening arrayed plasmid cDNA library by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yingchun; Zhang Kaitai; Wu Dechang; Li Gang; Xiang Xiaoqiong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a PCR-based method for rapid and effective screening of arrayed plasmid cDNA library. Methods: The plasmid cDNA library was arrayed and screened by PCR with a particular set of primers. Results: Four positive clones were obtained through about one week. Conclusion: This method can be applied to screening not only normal cDNA clones, but also cDNA clones-containing small size fragments. This method offers significant advantages over traditional screening method in terms of sensitivity, specificity and efficiency

  16. Functional cloning using pFB retroviral cDNA expression libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Katherine A; Chen, Keith; Zaharee, Kim; Sundar, Latha; Limjoco, Jamie; Miller, Anna; Vaillancourt, Peter

    2002-09-01

    Retroviral cDNA expression libraries allow the efficient introduction of complex cDNA libraries into virtually any mitotic cell type for screening based on gene function. The cDNA copy number per cell can be easily controlled by adjusting the multiplicity of infection, thus cell populations may be generated in which >90% of infected cells contain one to three cDNAs. We describe the isolation of two known oncogenes and one cell-surface receptor from a human Burkitt's lymphoma (Daudi) cDNA library inserted into the high-titer retroviral vector pFB.

  17. Referral Systems to Integrate Health and Economic Strengthening Services for People with HIV: A Qualitative Assessment in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Clinton; Andersson, Zach; Cann, Meredith

    2016-12-23

    Supporting the diverse needs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can help reduce the individual and structural barriers they face in adhering to antiretroviral treatment (ART). The Livelihoods and Food Security Technical Assistance II (LIFT) project sought to improve adherence in Malawi by establishing 2 referral systems linking community-based economic strengthening and livelihoods services to clinical health facilities. One referral system in Balaka district, started in October 2013, connected clients to more than 20 types of services while the other simplified approach in Kasungu and Lilongwe districts, started in July 2014, connected PLHIV attending HIV and nutrition support facilities directly to community savings groups. From June to July 2015, LIFT visited referral sites in Balaka, Kasungu, and Lilongwe districts to collect qualitative data on referral utility, the perceived association of referrals with client and household health and vulnerability, and the added value of the referral system as perceived by network member providers. We interviewed a random sample of 152 adult clients (60 from Balaka, 57 from Kasungu, and 35 from Lilongwe) who had completed their referral. We also conducted 2 focus group discussions per district with network providers. Clients in all 3 districts indicated their ability to save money had improved after receiving a referral, although the percentage was higher among clients in the simplified Kasungu and Lilongwe model than the more complex Balaka model (85.6% vs. 56.0%, respectively). Nearly 70% of all clients interviewed had HIV infection; 72.7% of PLHIV in Balaka and 95.7% of PLHIV in Kasungu and Lilongwe credited referrals for helping them stay on their ART. After the referral, 76.0% of clients in Balaka and 92.3% of clients in Kasungu and Lilongwe indicated they would be willing to spend their savings on health costs. The more diverse referral network and use of an mHealth app to manage data in Balaka hindered provider uptake

  18. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  19. Expression analysis of a ''Cucurbita'' cDNA encoding endonuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, J.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear matrices of plant cell nuclei display intrinsic nuclease activity which consists in nicking supercoiled DNA. A cDNA encoding a 32 kDa endonuclease has been cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and deduced amino-acid sequences show high homology to known 14-3-3-protein sequences from other sources. The amino-acid sequence shows agreement with consensus sequences for potential phosphorylation by protein kinase A and C and for calcium, lipid and membrane-binding sites. The nucleotide-binding site is also present within the conserved part of the sequence. By Northern blot analysis, the differential expression of the corresponding mRNA was detected; it was the strongest in sink tissues. The endonuclease activity found on DNA-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coincided with mRNA content and was the highest in tuber. (author). 22 refs, 6 figs

  20. HIV and tuberculosis in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    persons is 5% to 10%, but in HIV positive individuals, there is a 5% ... Abbreviations used: DMC, designated microscopy centre; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; ICTC, integrated counseling and testing ..... mortality and morbidity in this group of patients. Table 2 compares the advantages of early versus deferred ART in.

  1. Isolation of full-length putative rat lysophospholipase cDNA using improved methods for mRNA isolation and cDNA cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.H.; Stratowa, C.; Rutter, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have cloned a full-length putative rat pancreatic lysophospholipase cDNA by an improved mRNA isolation method and cDNA cloning strategy using [ 32 P]-labelled nucleotides. These new methods allow the construction of a cDNA library from the adult rat pancreas in which the majority of recombinant clones contained complete sequences for the corresponding mRNAs. A previously recognized but unidentified long and relatively rare cDNA clone containing the entire sequence from the cap site at the 5' end to the poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the mRNA was isolated by single-step screening of the library. The size, amino acid composition, and the activity of the protein expressed in heterologous cells strongly suggest this mRNA codes for lysophospholipase

  2. Review of antenatal-linked voluntary counseling and HIV testing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of antenatal-linked voluntary counseling and HIV testing in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons and options for Ghana. ... Voluntary counselling and HIV testing has become an integral part of HIV prevention ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Major groove binding track residues of the connection subdomain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase enhance cDNA synthesis at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Tania; Barrioluengo, Verónica; Abia, David; Menéndez-Arias, Luis

    2013-12-23

    At high temperatures, RNA denaturation can improve the efficiency and specificity of reverse transcription. Refined structures and molecular models of HIV-1 reverse transcriptases (RTs) from phylogenetically distant clades (i.e., group M subtype B and group O) revealed a major interaction between the template-primer and the Arg³⁵⁸-Gly³⁵⁹-Ala³⁶⁰ triad in the large subunit of HIV-1M/B RT. However, fewer contacts were predicted for the equivalent Lys³⁵⁸-Ala³⁵⁹-Ser³⁶⁰ triad of HIV-1O RT and the nucleic acid. An engineered HIV-1O K358R/A359G/S360A RT showed increased cDNA synthesis efficiency above 68 °C, as determined by qualitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions. In comparison with wild-type HIV-1O RT, the mutant enzyme showed higher thermal stability but retained wild-type RNase H activity. Mutations that increased the accuracy of HIV-1M/B RTs were tested in combination with the K358R/A359G/S360A triple mutation. Some of them (e.g., F61A, K65R, K65R/V75I, and V148I) had a negative effect on reverse transcription efficiency above 65 °C. RTs with improved DNA binding affinities also showed higher cDNA synthesis efficiencies at elevated temperatures. Two of the most thermostable RTs (i.e., mutants T69SSG/K358R/A359G/S360A and K358R/A359G/S360A/E478Q) showed moderately increased fidelity in forward mutation assays. Our results demonstrate that the triad of Arg³⁵⁸, Gly³⁵⁹, and Ala³⁶⁰ in the major groove binding track of HIV-1 RT is a major target for RT stabilization, and most relevant for improving reverse transcription efficiency at high temperatures.

  4. Women and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV: Get the Facts on HIV Testing, Prevention, and Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... How can you lower your chance of HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  5. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  6. Cloning and functional expression of a human pancreatic islet glucose-transporter cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permutt, M.A.; Koranyi, L.; Keller, K.; Lacy, P.E.; Scharp, D.W.; Mueckler, M.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic islet glucose transport is mediated by a high-K m , low-affinity facilitated transporter similar to that expressed in liver. To determine the relationship between islet and liver glucose transporters, liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clones were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clone hybridized to mRNA transcripts of the same size in human liver and pancreatic islet RNA. A cDNA library was prepared from purified human pancreatic islet tissue and screened with human liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA. The authors isolated two overlapping cDNA clones encompassing 2600 base pairs, which encode a pancreatic islet protein identical in sequence to that of the putative liver-type glucose-transporter protein. Xenopus oocytes injected with synthetic mRNA transcribed from a full-length cDNA construct exhibited increased uptake of 2-deoxyglucose, confirming the functional identity of the clone. These cDNA clones can now be used to study regulation of expression of the gene and to assess the role of inherited defects in this gene as a candidate for inherited susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

  7. Peptidomics combined with cDNA library unravel the diversity of centipede venom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Mingqiang; Yang, Shilong; Wen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    of centipede venom. In the present study, we use peptidomics combined with cDNA library to uncover the diversity of centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch. 192 peptides were identified by LC-MS/MS and 79 precursors were deduced by cDNA library. Surprisingly, the signal peptides of centipede toxins...

  8. Construction of full-length cDNA library of white flower Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to screen and isolate secondary metabolite biosynthesis related gene, we construct a cDNA library of white flower Salvia miltiorrhiza bge. f.alba. High quality of total RNA was successfully isolated from roots of white flower S. miltiorrhiza using modified CTAB method. Double strand cDNA was cloned into pDNR-LIB ...

  9. Molecular cloning and mammalian expression of human beta 2-glycoprotein I cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Schousboe, Inger; Boel, Espen

    1991-01-01

    Human β2-glycoprotein (β2gpI) cDNA was isolated from a liver cDNA library and sequenced. The cDNA encoded a 19-residue hydrophobic signal peptide followed by the mature β2gpI of 326 amino acid residues. In liver and in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 there are two mRNA species of about 1.4 and 4.3 kb......, respectively, hybridizing specifically with the β2gpI cDNA. Upon isoelectric focusing, recombinant β2gpI obtained from expression of β2gpI cDNA in baby hamster kidney cells showed the same pattern of bands as β2gpI isolated from plasma, and at least 5 polypeptides were visible...

  10. The role of family planning in achieving safe pregnancy for serodiscordant couples: commentary from the United States government’s interagency task force on family planning and HIV service integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jennifer; Medley, Amy; Yeiser, Sarah; Nightingale, Vienna R.; Mani, Nithya; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Abutu, Andrew; Johnston, Beverly; Watts, D. Heather

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: People living with HIV (PLHIV) have the right to exercise voluntary choices about their health, including their reproductive health. This commentary discusses the integral role that family planning (FP) plays in helping PLHIV, including those in serodiscordant relationships, achieve conception safely. The United States (US) President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is committed to meeting the reproductive health needs of PLHIV by improving their access to voluntary FP counselling and services, including prevention of unintended pregnancy and counselling for safer conception. Discussion: Inclusion of preconception care and counselling (PCC) as part of routine HIV services is critical to preventing unintended pregnancies and perinatal infections among PLHIV. PLHIV not desiring a current pregnancy should be provided with information and counselling on all available FP methods and then either given the method onsite or through a facilitated referral process. PLHIV, who desire children should be offered risk reduction counselling, support for HIV status disclosure and partner testing, information on safer conception options to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the partner and the importance of adhering to antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy and breastfeeding to reduce the risk of vertical transmission to the infant. Integration of PCC, HIV and FP services at the same location is recommended to improve access to these services for PLHIV. Other considerations to be addressed include the social and structural context, the health system capacity to offer these services, and stigma and discrimination of providers. Conclusion: Evaluation of innovative service delivery models for delivering PCC services is needed, including provision in community-based settings. The US Government will continue to partner with local organizations, Ministries of Health, the private sector, civil society, multilateral and bilateral donors, and other

  11. The Integration of HIV and AIDS as a Socio-Scientific Issue in the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Eugenie; Mnguni, Lindelani

    2015-01-01

    The potential of science to transform lives has been highlighted by a number of scholars. This means that critical socio-scientific issues (SSIs) must be integrated into science curricula. Development of context-specific scientific knowledge and twenty-first-century learning skills in science education could be used to address SSIs such as…

  12. Scale-up of networked HIV treatment in Nigeria: creation of an integrated electronic medical records system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Beth; Meloni, Seema; Eisen, Geoffrey; Jolayemi, Toyin; Banigbe, Bolanle; Adeola, Juliette; Wen, Craig; Reyes Nieva, Harry; Chang, Charlotte; Okonkwo, Prosper; Kanki, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of PEPFAR programs in resource-limited settings was accompanied by the need to document patient care on a scale unprecedented in environments where paper-based records were the norm. We describe the development of an electronic medical records system (EMRS) put in place at the beginning of a large HIV/AIDS care and treatment program in Nigeria. Databases were created to record laboratory results, medications prescribed and dispensed, and clinical assessments, using a relational database program. A collection of stand-alone files recorded different elements of patient care, linked together by utilities that aggregated data on national standard indicators and assessed patient care for quality improvement, tracked patients requiring follow-up, generated counts of ART regimens dispensed, and provided 'snapshots' of a patient's response to treatment. A secure server was used to store patient files for backup and transfer. By February 2012, when the program transitioned to local in-country management by APIN, the EMRS was used in 33 hospitals across the country, with 4,947,433 adult, pediatric and PMTCT records that had been created and continued to be available for use in patient care. Ongoing trainings for data managers, along with an iterative process of implementing changes to the databases and forms based on user feedback, were needed. As the program scaled up and the volume of laboratory tests increased, results were produced in a digital format, wherever possible, that could be automatically transferred to the EMRS. Many larger clinics began to link some or all of the databases to local area networks, making them available to a larger group of staff members, or providing the ability to enter information simultaneously where needed. The EMRS improved patient care, enabled efficient reporting to the Government of Nigeria and to U.S. funding agencies, and allowed program managers and staff to conduct quality control audits. Copyright © 2014

  13. CDNA library from the Latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains 30-50% (w/w of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene, the important rawmaterial for many rubber industries. We have constructed a cDNA library from the latex of H. brasiliensis to investigate theexpressed genes and molecular events in the latex. We analyzed 412 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. More than 90% of theEST clones showed homology to previously described sequences in public databases. Functional classification of the ESTsshowed that the largest category were proteins of unknown function (30.1%, 11.4% of ESTs encoded for rubber synthesisrelatedproteins (RS and 8.5% for defense or stress related proteins (DS. Those with no significant homology to knownsequences (NSH accounted for 8.7%, primary metabolism (PM and gene expression and RNA metabolism were 7.8% and6.6%, respectively. Other categories included, protein synthesis-related proteins (6.6%, chromatin and DNA metabolism(CDM 3.9%, energy metabolism (EM 3.4%, cellular transport (CT 3.2%, cell structure (CS 3.2%, signal transduction (ST2.2%, secondary metabolism (SM 1.7%, protein fate (PF 2.2%, and reproductive proteins (RP 0.7%.

  14. Nup153 and Nup98 bind the HIV-1 core and contribute to the early steps of HIV-1 replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nunzio, Francesca; Fricke, Thomas; Miccio, Annarita; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Perez, Patricio; Souque, Philippe; Rizzi, Ermanno; Severgnini, Marco; Mavilio, Fulvio; Charneau, Pierre; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The early steps of HIV-1 replication involve the entry of HIV-1 into the nucleus, which is characterized by viral interactions with nuclear pore components. HIV-1 developed an evolutionary strategy to usurp the nuclear pore machinery and chromatin in order to integrate and efficiently express viral genes. In the current work, we studied the role of nucleoporins 153 and 98 (Nup153 and Nup98) in infection of human Jurkat lymphocytes by HIV-1. We showed that Nup153-depleted cells exhibited a defect in nuclear import, while depletion of Nup 98 caused a slight defect in HIV integration. To explore the biochemical viral determinants for the requirement of Nup153 and Nup98 during HIV-1 infection, we tested the ability of these nucleoporins to interact with HIV-1 cores. Our findings showed that both nucleoporins bind HIV-1 cores suggesting that this interaction is important for HIV-1 nuclear import and/or integration. Distribution analysis of integration sites in Nup153-depleted cells revealed a reduced tendency of HIV-1 to integrate in intragenic sites, which in part could account for the large infectivity defect observed in Nup153-depleted cells. Our work strongly supports a role for Nup153 in HIV-1 nuclear import and integration. - Highlights: ► We studied the role of Nup98 and Nup153 in HIV-1 infection. ► Nup98 binds the HIV-1 core and is involved in HIV-1 integration. ► Nup153 binds the HIV-1 core and is involved in HIV-1 nuclear import. ► Depletion of Nup153 decreased the integration of HIV-1 in transcriptionally active sites

  15. Nup153 and Nup98 bind the HIV-1 core and contribute to the early steps of HIV-1 replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nunzio, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.di-nunzio@pasteur.fr [Molecular Virology and Vaccinology unit, CNRS URA 3015, Department of Virology, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75015 Paris (France); Fricke, Thomas [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Miccio, Annarita [University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Centro di Medicina Rigenerativa, Modena (Italy); Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Perez, Patricio [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Souque, Philippe [Molecular Virology and Vaccinology unit, CNRS URA 3015, Department of Virology, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75015 Paris (France); Rizzi, Ermanno; Severgnini, Marco [Institute of Biomedical Technologies, CNR, Milano (Italy); Mavilio, Fulvio [University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Centro di Medicina Rigenerativa, Modena (Italy); Genethon, Evry (France); Charneau, Pierre [Molecular Virology and Vaccinology unit, CNRS URA 3015, Department of Virology, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75015 Paris (France); Diaz-Griffero, Felipe, E-mail: felipe.diaz-griffero@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2013-05-25

    The early steps of HIV-1 replication involve the entry of HIV-1 into the nucleus, which is characterized by viral interactions with nuclear pore components. HIV-1 developed an evolutionary strategy to usurp the nuclear pore machinery and chromatin in order to integrate and efficiently express viral genes. In the current work, we studied the role of nucleoporins 153 and 98 (Nup153 and Nup98) in infection of human Jurkat lymphocytes by HIV-1. We showed that Nup153-depleted cells exhibited a defect in nuclear import, while depletion of Nup 98 caused a slight defect in HIV integration. To explore the biochemical viral determinants for the requirement of Nup153 and Nup98 during HIV-1 infection, we tested the ability of these nucleoporins to interact with HIV-1 cores. Our findings showed that both nucleoporins bind HIV-1 cores suggesting that this interaction is important for HIV-1 nuclear import and/or integration. Distribution analysis of integration sites in Nup153-depleted cells revealed a reduced tendency of HIV-1 to integrate in intragenic sites, which in part could account for the large infectivity defect observed in Nup153-depleted cells. Our work strongly supports a role for Nup153 in HIV-1 nuclear import and integration. - Highlights: ► We studied the role of Nup98 and Nup153 in HIV-1 infection. ► Nup98 binds the HIV-1 core and is involved in HIV-1 integration. ► Nup153 binds the HIV-1 core and is involved in HIV-1 nuclear import. ► Depletion of Nup153 decreased the integration of HIV-1 in transcriptionally active sites.

  16. Effect of provider-initiated testing and counselling and integration of ART services on access to HIV diagnosis and treatment for children in Lilongwe, Malawi: a pre- post comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiri Sam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV prevalence in Malawi is 12% and Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH, in the capital Lilongwe, is the main provider of adult and paediatric HIV services in the central region. The Lighthouse at KCH offers opt-in HIV testing and counselling (HTC for adults and children. In June 2004, Lighthouse was the first clinic to provide free antiretroviral treatment (ART in the public sector, but few children accessed the services. In response, provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC and an ART clinic were introduced at the paediatric department at KCH in Quarter 4 (Q4 2004. Methods We analysed prospectively collected, aggregated data of quarterly reports from Q1 2003 to Q4 2006 from HTC centre registers, ART registers and clinic registrations at the ART clinics of both Lighthouse and the paediatric department. By comparing data of both facilities before (Q1 2003 to Q3 2004, and after the introduction of the services at the paediatric department (Q4 2004 to Q4 2006, we assessed the effect of this intervention on the uptake of HIV services for children at KCH. Results Overall, 3971 children were tested for HIV, 2428 HIV-infected children were registered for care and 1218 started ART. Between the two periods, the median (IQR number of children being tested, registered and starting ART per quarter rose from 101 (53-109 to 358 (318-440, 56 (50-82 to 226 (192-234 and 18 (8-23 to 139 (115-150, respectively. The median proportion of tested clients per quarter that were children rose from 3.8% (2.7-4.3 to 9.6% (8.8 to 10.0 (p = 0.0009 and the proportion of ART starters that were children rose from 6.9% (4.9-9.3 to 21.1% (19.2-24.2 (p = 0.0036. The proportion of registered children and adults starting ART each quarter increased similarly, from 26% to 53%, and 20% to 52%, respectively. Conclusions Implementation of PITC and integration of ART services within the paediatric ward are likely to be the main reasons for improved access to

  17. Fiscal 2000 report on result of the full-length cDNA structure analysis; 2000 nendo kanzen cho cDNA kozo kaiseki seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper explains the results of research on full-length cDNA structure analysis for the period from April, 2000 to March, 2001. The outline of human genome sequence was published in June, 2000. In Japan, human gene analysis was such that, as the basic technology of the bio industry, a millennium project was decided in the budget of fiscal 2000. The full-length cDNA structure analysis is the core of the project. The libraries of cDNA were prepared using full-length and more than 4-5kbp-long cDNAs by oligo-capping method. It began from determining partial sequence data at end cDNA, and then, with new clones selected therefrom, full-length human cDNA sequence data were determined. The partial sequence data determined by fiscal 2000 were 1,035,000 clones while the full-length sequence data were 12,144 clones. The sequence data obtained were analyzed by homology search and translated into amino acid coding sequences, with predictions conducted on protein functions. A clustering method was examined that selects new clones from partial sequences. Database was constructed on gene expression profiles and disease-related gene sequence data. (NEDO)

  18. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qifa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website http://www.ncgr.ac.cn/ricd.

  19. Construction and characterization of cDNA library for IRM-2 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qin; Li Jin; Song Li; Liu Qiang; Yue Jingyin; Mu Chuanjie; Tang Weisheng; Fan Feiyue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen and isolate the radioresistance related genes of IRM-2 mice. Methods: cDNA library of IRM-2 mice was constructed by SMART technique. Total RNA was isolated from spleens of IRM-2 male mice. The first-strand cDNA was synthesized by using PowerScript reverse transcriptase, and double-strand cDNA was synthesized and amplified by long PCR. The PCR products were purified, digested with restriction enzyme Sfi I. The ds-cDNA fragment less than 500 bp was fractionated and ligated to the Sfi I-digested pDNR-LIB vector. The ligation mixture was transformed into E. coil DH5 α by electroporation transformation to generate the unamplified cDNA library. The quality of cDNA library was identified by PCR technique. 130 clones from cDNA library were sequenced and compared with GenBank database. Results: The cDNA library contained 2.25 x 10 6 independent clones with an average insert size of 1.2 kb. The ratio of recombination and full-length was 95% and 55%, respectively. 21 pieces of EST sequences from cDNA library were not the same as the known mice genes and registered into GenBank EST database, with registered number DW474856-DW474876. Conclusions: cDNA library of IRM-2 mice has been constructed successfully. 21 pieces of EST implies that radioresistance correlative genes may be in IRM-2 mice, which will lay a foundation for isolating and identifying radioresistance related genes in further study. (authors)

  20. Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

    2010-01-01

    The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (p Motivators for women included the ability to conceive a child without worrying about contracting HIV (p Motivators for men included feeling safer with sex partners (p motivator for both men and women (p <0.10). Gender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears and misconceptions about adverse effects of HIV vaccination on health and the importance of vaccination as one component of integrated HIV prevention may increase vaccine acceptability. PMID:18484322

  1. Isolation of cDNA clones coding for human tissue factor: primary structure of the protein and cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, E.K.; Horton, R.; Bloem, L.

    1987-01-01

    Tissue factor is a membrane-bound procoagulant protein that activates the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation in the presence of factor VII and calcium. λ Phage containing the tissue factor gene were isolated from a human placental cDNA library. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs indicates that tissue factor is synthesized as a higher molecular weight precursor with a leader sequence of 32 amino acids, while the mature protein is a single polypeptide chain composed of 263 residues. The derived primary structure of tissue factor has been confirmed by comparison to protein and peptide sequence data. The sequence of the mature protein suggests that there are three distinct domains: extracellular, residues 1-219; hydrophobic, residues 220-242; and cytoplasmic, residues 243-263. Three potential N-linked carbohydrate attachment sites occur in the extracellular domain. The amino acid sequence of tissue factor shows no significant homology with the vitamin K-dependent serine proteases, coagulation cofactors, or any other protein in the National Biomedical Research Foundation sequence data bank (Washington, DC)

  2. HIV-1 Reservoir Association with Immune Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vallejo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of EBioMedicine, Ruggiero and colleagues describe immune activation biomarkers associated with the size of the HIV reservoir in a carefully designed cross-sectional study. The cohort consists of a homogeneous sample of HIV-1-infected patients with long-term plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression under antiretroviral treatment (ART. It is crucial to explore the potential utility of biomarkers that are easier (less labor intensive, less expensive to measure than integrated HIV DNA load, in order to quickly and accurately quantify cellular reservoirs of HIV.

  3. Cost of Care for HIV-Infected Patients with Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorder or Psychiatric Disease: Report from a Large, Integrated Health Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald N. DeLorenze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The costs of providing care to HIV-infected (HIV+ patients with co-occurring diagnoses of substance use (SU disorder or psychiatric disease (PD are not well documented. It is our objective to evaluate costs in these HIV+ patients receiving care in a large health plan. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 1995 to 2010 to compare costs of healthcare in HIV+ patients with and without co-occurring SU disorder and/or PD diagnoses. Estimates of proportional differences in costs (rate ratios were obtained from repeated measures generalized linear regression. Models were stratified by cost category (e.g., inpatient, outpatient. Results. Mean total healthcare costs per patient per year were higher in HIV+ patients diagnosed with SU disorder or PD compared to HIV+ patients without these comorbid conditions. After controlling for confounders, total mean costs remained significantly higher in patients diagnosed with SU disorder (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.18–1.31 or PD (RR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.15–1.24. Mean outpatient care costs were significantly greater in patients with both SU disorder and PD (RR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.41–1.64. Conclusions. Given these higher expenditures in the care of HIV+ patients with comorbid SU disorder and/or PD, greater efforts to facilitate SU disorder or PD treatment initiation and persistence could provide substantial savings.

  4. Sequence of a cloned cDNA encoding human ribosomal protein S11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, J B; Mackie, G A

    1988-02-11

    The authors have isolated a cloned cDNA that encodes human ribosomal protein (rp) S11 by screening a human fibroblast cDNA library with a labelled 204 bp DNA fragment encompassing residues 212-416 of pRS11, a rat rp Sll cDNA clone. The human rp S11 cloned cDNA consists of 15 residues of the 5' leader, the entire coding sequence and all 51 residues of the 3' untranslated region. The predicted amino acid sequence of 158 residues is identical to rat rpS11. The nucleotide sequence in the coding region differs, however, from that in rat in the first position in two codons and in the third position in 44 codons.

  5. Mouse tetranectin: cDNA sequence, tissue-specific expression, and chromosomal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibaraki, K; Kozak, C A; Wewer, U M

    1995-01-01

    regulation, mouse tetranectin cDNA was cloned from a 16-day-old mouse embryo library. Sequence analysis revealed a 992-bp cDNA with an open reading frame of 606 bp, which is identical in length to the human tetranectin cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high homology to the human cDNA with 76......(s) of tetranectin. The sequence analysis revealed a difference in both sequence and size of the noncoding regions between mouse and human cDNAs. Northern analysis of the various tissues from mouse, rat, and cow showed the major transcript(s) to be approximately 1 kb, which is similar in size to that observed...

  6. Reverse transcription using random pentadecamer primers increases yield and quality of resulting cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Dufva, I.H.; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2006-01-01

    oligonucleotides (pentadecamers) consistently, yielded at least 2 fold as much cDNA as did random hexamers using either-poly(A) RNA or an amplified version of messenger RNA (aRNA) as a template. The cDNA generated using pentadecamers did not differ in size distribution or the amount of incorporated label compared...... with cDNA generated with random hexamers. The increased efficiency of priming using random pentadecamers resulted in reverse transcription of > 80% of the template aRNA, while random hexamers induced reverse transcription of only 40% of the template aRNA. This suggests a better coverage...... that random pentadecamers can replace random hexamers in reverse transcription reactions on both poly(A) RNA and amplified RNA, resulting in higher cDNA yields and quality....

  7. Development of Gene Expression Fingerprints for Identification of Environmental Contaminants Using cDNA Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inouye, L

    2004-01-01

    ...) to develop cDNA array-based assays that map gene expression from contaminant exposures. Results substantiate that distinct gene expression profiles exist for major contaminant classes such as PARs, PCBs, and PCDD/Fs...

  8. 3G vector-primer plasmid for constructing full-length-enriched cDNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhou, Yanna; Zhang, Zidong; Li, Zaiyu; Liu, Xuedong

    2008-09-01

    We designed a 3G vector-primer plasmid for the generation of full-length-enriched complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries. By employing the terminal transferase activity of reverse transcriptase and the modified strand replacement method, this plasmid (assembled with a polydT end and a deoxyguanosine [dG] end) combines priming full-length cDNA strand synthesis and directional cDNA cloning. As a result, the number of steps involved in cDNA library preparation is decreased while simplifying downstream gene manipulation, sequencing, and subcloning. The 3G vector-primer plasmid method yields fully represented plasmid primed libraries that are equivalent to those made by the SMART (switching mechanism at 5' end of RNA transcript) approach.

  9. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnani, Vandana; Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Mohan, H L; Maddur, Srinath; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2011-10-02

    Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs) in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media) and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves). The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination) contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Stigma, discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are

  10. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Shajy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves. The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma

  11. Radioactive cDNA microarray (II): Gene expression profiling of antidepressant treatment by human cDNA microarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Kang, Rhee Hun; Ham, Byung Joo; Lee, Min Su; Shin, Kyung Ho; Choe, Jae Gol; Kim, Meyoung Kon [College of Medicine, Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Major depressive disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in primary care, associated with impaired patient functioning and well-being. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and is a commonly prescribed antidepressant compound. Its action is primarily attributed to selective inhibition of the reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the central nervous system. Objectives ; the aims of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine the usefulness for investigation of the transcription profiles in depression patients, and (2) to assess the differences in gene expression profiles between positive response group and negative response groups by fluoxetine treatment. This study included 53 patients with major depression (26 in positive response group with antidepressant treatment, 27 in negative response group with antidepressant treatment), and 53 healthy controls. To examine the difference of gene expression profile in depression patients, radioactive complementary DNA microarrays were used to evaluate changes in the expression of 1,152 genes in total. Using 33p-labeled probes, this method provided highly sensitive gene expression profiles including brain receptors, drug metabolism, and cellular signaling. Gene transcription profiles were classified into several categories in accordance with the antidepressant gene-regulation. The gene profiles were significantly up-(22 genes) and down-(16 genes) regulated in the positive response group when compared to the control group. Also, in the negative response group, 35 genes were up-regulated and 8 genes were down-regulated when compared to the control group. Consequently, we demonstrated that radioactive human cDNA microarray is highly likely to be an efficient technology for evaluating the gene regulation of antidepressants, such as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), by using high-throughput biotechnology.

  12. Radioactive cDNA microarray (II): Gene expression profiling of antidepressant treatment by human cDNA microarray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Kang, Rhee Hun; Ham, Byung Joo; Lee, Min Su; Shin, Kyung Ho; Choe, Jae Gol; Kim, Meyoung Kon

    2003-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in primary care, associated with impaired patient functioning and well-being. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and is a commonly prescribed antidepressant compound. Its action is primarily attributed to selective inhibition of the reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the central nervous system. Objectives ; the aims of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine the usefulness for investigation of the transcription profiles in depression patients, and (2) to assess the differences in gene expression profiles between positive response group and negative response groups by fluoxetine treatment. This study included 53 patients with major depression (26 in positive response group with antidepressant treatment, 27 in negative response group with antidepressant treatment), and 53 healthy controls. To examine the difference of gene expression profile in depression patients, radioactive complementary DNA microarrays were used to evaluate changes in the expression of 1,152 genes in total. Using 33p-labeled probes, this method provided highly sensitive gene expression profiles including brain receptors, drug metabolism, and cellular signaling. Gene transcription profiles were classified into several categories in accordance with the antidepressant gene-regulation. The gene profiles were significantly up-(22 genes) and down-(16 genes) regulated in the positive response group when compared to the control group. Also, in the negative response group, 35 genes were up-regulated and 8 genes were down-regulated when compared to the control group. Consequently, we demonstrated that radioactive human cDNA microarray is highly likely to be an efficient technology for evaluating the gene regulation of antidepressants, such as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), by using high-throughput biotechnology

  13. Cloning of cDNA encoding steroid 11β-hydroxylase (P450c11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, S.C.; Szabo, P.; Vitek, A.; Grzeschik, K.H.; John, M.; White, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated bovine and human adrenal cDNA clones encoding the adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for 11β-hydroxylation (P450c11). A bovine adrenal cDNA library constructed in the bacteriophage λ vector gt10 was probed with a previously isolated cDNA clone corresponding to part of the 3' untranslated region of the 4.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA encoding P450c11. Several clones with 3.2-kb cDNA inserts were isolated. Sequence analysis showed that they overlapped the original probe by 300 base pairs (bp). Combined cDNA and RNA sequence data demonstrated a continuous open reading frame of 1509 bases. P450c11 is predicted to contain 479 amino acid residues in the mature protein in addition to a 24-residue amino-terminal mitochondrial signal sequence. A bovine clone was used to isolate a homologous clone with a 3.5-kb insert from a human adrenal cDNA library. A region of 1100 bp was 81% homologous to 769 bp of the coding sequence of the bovine cDNA except for a 400-bp segment presumed to be an unprocessed intron. Hybridization of the human cDNA to DNA from a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid lines and in situ hybridization to metaphase spreads of human chromosomes localized the gene to the middle of the long arm of chromosome 8. These data should be useful in developing reagents for heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, the second most frequent cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

  14. CDNA cloning, characterization and expression of an endosperm-specific barley peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Welinder, K.G.; Hejgaard, J.

    1991-01-01

    A barley peroxidase (BP 1) of pI ca. 8.5 and M(r) 37000 has been purified from mature barley grains. Using antibodies towards peroxidase BP 1, a cDNA clone (pcR7) was isolated from cDNA expression library. The nucleotide sequence of pcR7 gave a derived amino acid sequence identical to the 158 C...

  15. cDNA fingerprinting of osteoprogenitor cells to isolate differentiation stage-specific genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Candeliere, G A; Rao, Y; Floh, A; Sandler, S D; Aubin, J E

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA fingerprinting strategy was developed to identify genes based on their differential expression pattern during osteoblast development. Preliminary biological and molecular staging of cDNA pools prepared by global amplification PCR allowed discrim-inating choices to be made in selection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to be isolated. Sequencing of selected ESTs confirmed that both known and novel genes can be isolated from any developmental stage of interest, e.g. from primitive progen...

  16. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the full-length heat shock protein 70 of Tegillarca granosa was cloned from cDNA library by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). The open reading frame (ORF) of heat shock protein 70 was 1968 bp, and it encoded a protein of 655 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 71.48 kDa and an ...

  17. [Primary culture of cat intestinal epithelial cell and construction of its cDNA library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, L; Gui-Hua, Z; Kun, Y; Hong-Fa, W; Ting, X; Gong-Zhen, L; Wei-Xia, Z; Yong, C

    2017-04-12

    Objective To establish the primary cat intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) culture methods and construct the cDNA library for the following yeast two-hybrid experiment, so as to screen the virulence interaction factors among the final host. Methods The primary cat IECs were cultured by the tissue cultivation and combined digestion with collagenase XI and dispase I separately. Then the cat IECs cultured was identified with the morphological observation and cyto-keratin detection, by using goat anti-cyto-keratin monoclonal antibodies. The mRNA of cat IECs was isolated and used as the template to synthesize the first strand cDNA by SMART™ technology, and then the double-strand cDNAs were acquired by LD-PCR, which were subsequently cloned into the plasmid PGADT7-Rec to construct yeast two-hybrid cDNA library in the yeast strain Y187 by homologous recombination. Matchmaker™ Insert Check PCR was used to detect the size distribution of cDNA fragments after the capacity calculation of the cDNA library. Results The comparison of the two cultivation methods indicated that the combined digestion of collagenase XI and dispase I was more effective than the tissue cultivation. The cat IECs system of continuous culture was established and the cat IECs with high purity were harvested for constructing the yeast two-hybrid cDNA library. The library contained 1.1×10 6 independent clones. The titer was 2.8×10 9 cfu/ml. The size of inserted fragments was among 0.5-2.0 kb. Conclusion The yeast two-hybrid cDNA library of cat IECs meets the requirements of further screen research, and this study lays the foundation of screening the Toxoplasma gondii virulence interaction factors among the cDNA libraries of its final hosts.

  18. Purification of Single-Stranded cDNA Based on RNA Degradation Treatment and Adsorption Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Esquivel, Elías; Franco, Bernardo; Flores-Martínez, Alberto; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-08-02

    Analysis of gene expression is a common research tool to study networks controlling gene expression, the role of genes with unknown function, and environmentally induced responses of organisms. Most of the analytical tools used to analyze gene expression rely on accurate cDNA synthesis and quantification to obtain reproducible and quantifiable results. Thus far, most commercial kits for isolation and purification of cDNA target double-stranded molecules, which do not accurately represent the abundance of transcripts. In the present report, we provide a simple and fast method to purify single-stranded cDNA, exhibiting high purity and yield. This method is based on the treatment with RNase H and RNase A after cDNA synthesis, followed by separation in silica spin-columns and ethanol precipitation. In addition, our method avoids the use of DNase I to eliminate genomic DNA from RNA preparations, which improves cDNA yield. As a case report, our method proved to be useful in the purification of single-stranded cDNA from the pathogenic fungus Sporothrix schenckii.

  19. Construction of a T7 Human Lung Cancer cDNA Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao YUE

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Currently, only a limited numbers of tumor markers for non small lung cancer (NSCLC diagnosis, new biomarker, such as serum autoantibody may improve the early detection of lung cancer. Our objective is construction human lung squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma T7 phage display cDNA library from the tissues of NSCLC patients. Methods mRNA was isolated from a pool of total RNA extract from NSCLC tissues obtained from 5 adenocarcinomas and 5 squamous carcinomas, and then mRNA was reverse transcribed into double stranded cDNA. After digestion, the cDNA was inserted into T7Select 10-3 vector. The phage display cDNA library was constructed by package reaction in vitro and plate proliferation. Plaque assay and PCR were used to evaluate the library.Results Two T7 phage display cDNA library were established. Plaque assay show the titer of lung squamas carcinoma library was 1.8×106 pfu, and the adenocarcinoma library was 5×106 pfu. The phage titer of the amplified library were 3.2×1010 pfu/mL and 2.5×1010 pfu/mL. PCR amplification of random plaque show insert ratio were 100% (24/24 in adenocarcinoma library and 95.8% in human lung squamas carcinoma library (23/24. Insert range from 300 bp to 1 500 bp. Conclusion Two phage display cDNA library from NSCLC were constructed.

  20. Construction of Infectious cDNA Clone of a Chrysanthemum stunt viroid Korean Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd, a noncoding infectious RNA molecule, causes seriously economic losses of chrysanthemum for 3 or 4 years after its first infection. Monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd isolate SK1 (CSVd-SK1 were constructed in the plasmids pGEM-T easy vector and pUC19 vector. Linear positive-sense transcripts synthesized in vitro from the full-length monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd-SK1 could infect systemically tomato seedlings and chrysanthemum plants, suggesting that the linear CSVd RNA transcribed from the cDNA clones could be replicated as efficiently as circular CSVd in host species. However, direct inoculation of plasmid cDNA clones containing full-length monomeric cDNA of CSVd-SK1 failed to infect tomato and chrysanthemum and linear negative-sense transcripts from the plasmid DNAs were not infectious in the two plant species. The cDNA sequences of progeny viroid in systemically infected tomato and chrysanthemum showed a few substitutions at a specific nucleotide position, but there were no deletions and insertions in the sequences of the CSVd progeny from tomato and chrysanthemum plants.

  1. Promoting food security and well-being among poor and HIV/AIDS affected households: Lessons from an interactive and integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaans, K.; Broerse, J.E.W.; Meincke, M.; Mudhara, M.; Bunders, J.

    2009-01-01

    Participatory and interdisciplinary approaches have been suggested to develop appropriate agricultural innovations as an alternative strategy to improve food security and well-being among HIV/AIDS affected households. However, sustainable implementation of such interactive approaches is far from

  2. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of an Integrated In-person and Mobile Phone Delivered Counseling and Text Messaging Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk among Male Sex Workers in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Thomas, Beena; Biello, Katie; Johnson, Blake E; Swaminathan, Soumya; Navakodi, Pandiyaraja; Balaguru, S; Dhanalakshmi, A; Closson, Elizabeth F; Menon, Sunil; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2017-11-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HIV infection in India, particularly those who engage in transactional sex with other men (i.e., male sex workers; MSW). Despite the need, HIV prevention efforts for Indian MSW are lacking. As in other settings, MSW in India increasingly rely on the use of mobile phones for sex work solicitation. Integrating mobile phone technology into an HIV prevention intervention for Indian MSW may mitigate some of the challenges associated with face-to face approaches, such as implementation, lack of anonymity, and time consumption, while at the same time proving to be both feasible and useful. This is a pilot randomized controlled trial to examine participant acceptability, feasibility of study procedures, and preliminary efficacy for reducing sexual risk for HIV. MSW (N = 100) were equally randomized to: (1) a behavioral HIV prevention intervention integrating in-person and mobile phone delivered HIV risk reduction counseling, and daily, personalized text or voice messages as motivating "cognitive restructuring" cues for reducing condomless anal sex (CAS); or (2) a standard of care (SOC) comparison condition. Both groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline and 6-months, and completed ACASI-based, behavioral and psychosocial assessments at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Mixed-effects regression procedures specifying a Poisson distribution and log link with a random intercept and slope for month of follow-up was estimated to assess the intervention effect on the primary outcomes: (1) CAS acts with male clients who paid them for sex, and (2) CAS acts with male non-paying sexual partners-both outcomes assessed over the past month. The intervention was both feasible (98% retention at 6-months) and acceptable (>96% of all intervention sessions attended); all intervention participants rated the intervention as "acceptable" or "very acceptable." A reduction in the reported number of CAS acts with male clients who

  3. Cloning and analysis of the mouse Fanconi anemia group A cDNA and an overlapping penta zinc finger cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J C; Alon, N; Norga, K; Kruyt, F A; Youssoufian, H; Buchwald, M

    2000-08-01

    Despite the cloning of four disease-associated genes for Fanconi anemia (FA), the molecular pathogenesis of FA remains largely unknown. To study FA complementation group A using the mouse as a model system, we cloned and characterized the mouse homolog of the human FANCA cDNA. The mouse cDNA (Fanca) encodes a 161-kDa protein that shares 65% amino acid sequence identity with human FANCA. Fanca is located at the distal region of mouse chromosome 8 and has a ubiquitous pattern of expression in embryonic and adult tissues. Expression of the mouse cDNA in human FA-A cells restores the cellular drug sensitivity to normal levels. Thus, the expression pattern, protein structure, chromosomal location, and function of FANCA are conserved in the mouse. We also isolated a novel zinc finger protein, Zfp276, which has five C(2)H(2) domains. Interestingly, Zfp276 is situated in the Fanca locus, and the 3'UTR of its cDNA overlaps with the last four exons of Fanca in a tail-to-tail manner. Zfp276 is expressed in the same tissues as Fanca, but does not complement the mitomycin C (MMC)-sensitive phenotype of FA-A cells. The overlapping genomic organization between Zfp276 and Fanca may have relevance to the disease phenotype of FA. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  5. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  6. Efficacy Testing of H56 cDNA Tattoo Immunization against Tuberculosis in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Domaszewska, Teresa; Schürer, Stefanie; Zedler, Ulrike; Brinkmann, Volker; Sijts, Alice J A M; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), remains a global threat. The only approved vaccine against TB, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), provides insufficient protection and, being a live vaccine, can cause disseminated disease in immunocompromised individuals. Previously, we found that intradermal cDNA tattoo immunization with cDNA of tetanus toxoid fragment C domain 1 fused to cDNA of the fusion protein H56, comprising the Mtb antigens Ag85B, ESAT-6, and Rv2660c, induced antigen-specific CD8 + T cell responses in vivo . As cDNA tattoo immunization would be safer than a live vaccine in immunocompromised patients, we tested the protective efficacy of intradermal tattoo immunization against TB with H56 cDNA, as well as with H56_E, a construct optimized for epitope processing in a mouse model. As Mtb antigens can be used in combination with BCG to boost immune responses, we also tested the protective efficacy of heterologous prime-boost, using dermal tattoo immunization with H56_E cDNA to boost BCG immunization in mice. Dermal H56 and H56_E cDNA immunization induced H56-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses and Ag85B-specific IgG antibodies, but did not reduce bacterial loads, although immunization with H56_E ameliorated lung pathology. Both subcutaneous and intradermal immunization with BCG resulted in broad cellular immune responses, with increased frequencies of CD4 + T effector memory cells, T follicular helper cells, and germinal center B cells, and resulted in reduced bacterial loads and lung pathology. Heterologous vaccination with BCG/H56_E cDNA induced increased H56-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cell cytokine responses compared to vaccination with BCG alone, and lung pathology was significantly decreased in BCG/H56_E cDNA immunized mice compared to unvaccinated controls. However, bacterial loads were not decreased after heterologous vaccination compared to BCG alone. CD4 + T cells responding to Ag85B- and ESAT-6

  7. Missed opportunities for HIV control: Gaps in HIV testing for partners of people living with HIV in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Vasquez

    Full Text Available Based on the hypothesis that HIV programs struggle to deliver health services that harmonize necessities of treatment and prevention, we described the outcomes of routinely provided HIV testing to partners of people living with HIV (PLWH through a secondary analysis of routine data collected at a public hospital in Lima, Peru.Among PLWH enrolled in the study center's HIV program between 2005 and 2014, we identified index cases (IC: PLWH who reported a unique partner not previously enrolled. We grouped partners according to their HIV status as reported by IC and collected data on HIV testing, clinical characteristics and admissions. The main outcome was the frequency of HIV testing among partners with reported unknown/seronegative HIV status.Out of 1586 PLWH who reported a unique partner at enrollment, 171 had a previously enrolled partner, leaving 1415 (89% IC. HIV status of the partner was reported as unknown in 571 (40%, seronegative in 325 (23% and seropositive in 519 (37%. Out of 896 partners in the unknown/seronegative group, 72 (8% had HIV testing, 42/72 (58% tested within three months of IC enrollment. Among the 49/72 (68% who tested positive for HIV, 33 (67% were enrolled in the HIV program. The proportion in WHO clinical stage IV was lower in enrolled partners compared to IC (37% vs 9%, p = 0.04. Non-tested partners (824 were likely reachable by the hospital, as 297/824 (36% of their IC were admitted in the study center at least once, 51/243 (21% female IC had received pregnancy care at the study center, and 401/692 (64% of IC on antiretroviral therapy had achieved viral suppression, implying frequent visits to the hospital for pill pick-up.In this setting, HIV testing of partners of PLWH was suboptimal, illustrating missed opportunities for HIV control. Integration of HIV strategies in primarily clinical-oriented services is a challenging need.

  8. cDNA sequencing improves the detection of P53 missense mutations in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szybka, Malgorzata; Kordek, Radzislaw; Zakrzewska, Magdalena; Rieske, Piotr; Pasz-Walczak, Grazyna; Kulczycka-Wojdala, Dominika; Zawlik, Izabela; Stawski, Robert; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Liberski, Pawel P

    2009-01-01

    Recently published data showed discrepancies beteween P53 cDNA and DNA sequencing in glioblastomas. We hypothesised that similar discrepancies may be observed in other human cancers. To this end, we analyzed 23 colorectal cancers for P53 mutations and gene expression using both DNA and cDNA sequencing, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. We found P53 gene mutations in 16 cases (15 missense and 1 nonsense). Two of the 15 cases with missense mutations showed alterations based only on cDNA, and not DNA sequencing. Moreover, in 6 of the 15 cases with a cDNA mutation those mutations were difficult to detect in the DNA sequencing, so the results of DNA analysis alone could be misinterpreted if the cDNA sequencing results had not also been available. In all those 15 cases, we observed a higher ratio of the mutated to the wild type template by cDNA analysis, but not by the DNA analysis. Interestingly, a similar overexpression of P53 mRNA was present in samples with and without P53 mutations. In terms of colorectal cancer, those discrepancies might be explained under three conditions: 1, overexpression of mutated P53 mRNA in cancer cells as compared with normal cells; 2, a higher content of cells without P53 mutation (normal cells and cells showing K-RAS and/or APC but not P53 mutation) in samples presenting P53 mutation; 3, heterozygous or hemizygous mutations of P53 gene. Additionally, for heterozygous mutations unknown mechanism(s) causing selective overproduction of mutated allele should also be considered. Our data offer new clues for studying discrepancy in P53 cDNA and DNA sequencing analysis

  9. Production of glycosylated physiologically normal human α1-antitrypsin by mouse fibroblasts modified by insertion of a human α1-antitrypsin cDNA using a retroviral vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garver, R.I. Jr.; Chytil, A.; Karlsson, S.

    1987-01-01

    α 2 -Antitrypsin (α 1 AT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder characterized by reduced serum levels of α 1 AT, resulting in destruction of the lower respiratory tract by neutrophil elastase. As an approach to augment α 1 AT levels in this disorder with physiologically normal human α 1 AT, the authors have integrated a full-length normal human α 1 AT cDNA into the genome of mouse fibroblasts. To accomplish this, the retroviral vector N2 was modified by inserting the simian virus 40 early promoter followed by the α 1 AT cDNA. Southern analysis demonstrated that the intact cDNA was present in the genome of selected clones of the transfected murine fibroblasts psi2 and infected NIH 3T3. The clones produced three mRNA transcripts containing human α 1 AT sequences, secreted an α 1 AT molecule recognized by an anti-human α 1 AT antibody, with the same molecular mass as normal human α 1 AT and that complexed with and inhibited human neutrophil elastase. The psi2 produced α 1 AT was glycosylated, and when infused intravenously into mice, it had a serum half-life similar to normal α 1 AT purified from human plasma and markedly longer than that of nonglycosylated human α 1 AT cDNA-directed yeast-produced α 1 AT. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using a retroviral vector to insert the normal human α 1 AT cDNA into non-α 1 AT-producing cells, resulting in the synthesis and secretion of physiologically normal α 1 AT

  10. Treating 'AIDS blindness': A critical pedagogical approach to HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV and AIDS affect all South Africans, irrespective of gender, race, age and economic status. Teachers should therefore be able to meaningfully integrate HIV content into the school curriculum. However, pre-service teacher education programmes still do not pay adequate attention to HIV education, particularly in ...

  11. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives ...

  12. Prospects for Foamy Viral Vector Anti-HIV Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Nalla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell gene therapy approaches for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection have been explored in clinical trials and several anti-HIV genes delivered by retroviral vectors were shown to block HIV replication. However, gammaretroviral and lentiviral based retroviral vectors have limitations for delivery of anti-HIV genes into hematopoietic stem cells (HSC. Foamy virus vectors have several advantages including efficient delivery of transgenes into HSC in large animal models, and a potentially safer integration profile. This review focuses on novel anti-HIV transgenes and the potential of foamy virus vectors for HSC gene therapy of HIV.

  13. Effectiveness of an Integrated Community- and Clinic-Based Intervention on HIV Testing, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk Behavior of Young Men Who Have Sex With Men in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Poe Poe; Ryan, Claire; Bajracharya, Ashish; Pasricha, Naanki; Thein, Zaw Win; Agius, Paul A; Sein, Than Tun; Willenberg, Lisa; Soe, Ei Mon; Zaw, Ne Tun; Tun, Waimar; Yam, Eileen; Luchters, Stanley

    2017-02-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in Myanmar are disproportionately affected by HIV, with prevalence five times that of the general population. The Link Up project implemented an intervention using peer education and outreach providing education and counseling on health seeking around sexually transmitted infections and reproductive health, combined with focused clinic capacity building to improve the sexual and reproductive health of YMSM. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the intervention. Using a mixed-methods approach, and employing a quasi-experimental design, we conducted two quantitative repeat cross-sectional surveys in purposively selected control (no intervention) and intervention townships, before and after implementation of the Link Up intervention. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit YMSM aged 15-24 years, and study participants were administered a structured questionnaire assessing intervention exposure, health service access, knowledge of HIV, and sexual risk behavior. Focus group discussions were held to elicit perspectives on the use and acceptability of the health services and peer outreach. At baseline, 314 YMSM were recruited in the intervention townships and 309 YMSM in the control townships. At end line, 267 (intervention) and 318 (control) YMSM were recruited. Coverage of the program was relatively low, with one-third of participants in the intervention townships having heard of the Link Up program by the end line. Comparing changes between baseline and end line, a greater proportion of HIV-negative or unknown status YMSM accessed HIV testing in the past 3 months in intervention townships (from 45.0% to 57.1%) compared with those in control townships (remained at 29.0%); however, this difference in the effect over time was not statistically significant in multivariate modeling (adjusted odds ratio: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: .66-3.17). Qualitative findings showed that the intervention

  14. cDNA cloning, sequence analysis, and chromosomal localization of the gene for human carnitine palmitoyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finocchiaro, G.; Taroni, F.; Martin, A.L.; Colombo, I.; Tarelli, G.T.; DiDonato, S.; Rocchi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding human liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase an inner mitochondrial membrane enzyme that plays a major role in the fatty acid oxidation pathway. Mixed oligonucleotide primers whose sequences were deduced from one tryptic peptide obtained from purified CPTase were used in a polymerase chain reaction, allowing the amplification of a 0.12-kilobase fragment of human genomic DNA encoding such a peptide. A 60-base-pair (bp) oligonucleotide synthesized on the basis of the sequence from this fragment was used for the screening of a cDNA library from human liver and hybridized to a cDNA insert of 2255 bp. This cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1974 bp that encodes a protein of 658 amino acid residues including 25 residues of an NH 2 -terminal leader peptide. The assignment of this open reading frame to human liver CPTase is confirmed by matches to seven different amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides derived from pure human CPTase and by the 82.2% homology with the amino acid sequence of rat CPTase. The NH 2 -terminal region of CPTase contains a leucine-proline motif that is shared by carnitine acetyl- and octanoyltransferases and by choline acetyltransferase. The gene encoding CPTase was assigned to human chromosome 1, region 1q12-1pter, by hybridization of CPTase cDNA with a DNA panel of 19 human-hanster somatic cell hybrids

  15. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human liver arginase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haraguchi, Y.; Takiguchi, M.; Amaya, Y.; Kawamoto, S.; Matsuda, I.; Mori, M.

    1987-01-01

    Arginase (EC3.5.3.1) catalyzes the last step of the urea cycle in the liver of ureotelic animals. Inherited deficiency of the enzyme results in argininemia, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hyperammonemia. To facilitate investigation of the enzyme and gene structures and to elucidate the nature of the mutation in argininemia, the authors isolated cDNA clones for human liver arginase. Oligo(dT)-primed and random primer human liver cDNA libraries in λ gt11 were screened using isolated rat arginase cDNA as a probe. Two of the positive clones, designated λ hARG6 and λ hARG109, contained an overlapping cDNA sequence with an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 322 amino acid residues (predicted M/sub r/, 34,732), a 5'-untranslated sequence of 56 base pairs, a 3'-untranslated sequence of 423 base pairs, and a poly(A) segment. Arginase activity was detected in Escherichia coli cells transformed with the plasmid carrying λ hARG6 cDNA insert. RNA gel blot analysis of human liver RNA showed a single mRNA of 1.6 kilobases. The predicted amino acid sequence of human liver arginase is 87% and 41% identical with those of the rat liver and yeast enzymes, respectively. There are several highly conserved segments among the human, rat, and yeast enzymes

  16. Sequence of a cDNA encoding turtle high mobility group 1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jifang; Hu, Bi; Wu, Duansheng

    2005-07-01

    In order to understand sequence information about turtle HMG1 gene, a cDNA encoding HMG1 protein of the Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) was amplified by RT-PCR from kidney total RNA, and was cloned, sequenced and analyzed. The results revealed that the open reading frame (ORF) of turtle HMG1 cDNA is 606 bp long. The ORF codifies 202 amino acid residues, from which two DNA-binding domains and one polyacidic region are derived. The DNA-binding domains share higher amino acid identity with homologues sequences of chicken (96.5%) and mammalian (74%) than homologues sequence of rainbow trout (67%). The polyacidic region shows 84.6% amino acid homology with the equivalent region of chicken HMG1 cDNA. Turtle HMG1 protein contains 3 Cys residues located at completely conserved positions. Conservation in sequence and structure suggests that the functions of turtle HMG1 cDNA may be highly conserved during evolution. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HMG1 cDNA sequence in any reptilian.

  17. Contribution of the C-terminal region within the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase to yeast lethality, chromatin binding and viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhumeur Pierre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 integrase (IN is a key viral enzymatic molecule required for the integration of the viral cDNA into the genome. Additionally, HIV-1 IN has been shown to play important roles in several other steps during the viral life cycle, including reverse transcription, nuclear import and chromatin targeting. Interestingly, previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of HIV-1 IN induces the lethal phenotype in some strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses of the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN in order to delineate the critical amino acid(s and/or motif(s required for the induction of the lethal phenotype in the yeast strain HP16, and to further elucidate the molecular mechanism which causes this phenotype. Results Our study identified three HIV-1 IN mutants, V165A, A179P and KR186,7AA, located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of IN that do not induce the lethal phenotype in yeast. Chromatin binding assays in yeast and mammalian cells demonstrated that these IN mutants were impaired for the ability to bind chromatin. Additionally, we determined that while these IN mutants failed to interact with LEDGF/p75, they retained the ability to bind Integrase interactor 1. Furthermore, we observed that VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 containing these IN mutants was unable to replicate in the C8166 T cell line and this defect was partially rescued by complementation with the catalytically inactive D64E IN mutant. Conclusion Overall, this study demonstrates that three mutations located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN inhibit the IN-induced lethal phenotype in yeast by inhibiting the binding of IN to the host chromatin. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN is important for binding to host chromatin and is crucial for both viral replication and the promotion of

  18. A police education programme to integrate occupational safety and HIV prevention: protocol for a modified stepped-wedge study design with parallel prospective cohorts to assess behavioural outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Arredondo, Jaime; Rocha, Teresita; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Patiño Mandujano, Efrain; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Olivarria, Horcasitas Omar; Gaines, Tommi; Patterson, Thomas L; Beletsky, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Policing practices are key drivers of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). This paper describes the protocol for the first study to prospectively examine the impact of a police education programme (PEP) to align law enforcement and HIV prevention. PEPs incorporating HIV prevention (including harm reduction programmes like syringe exchange) have been successfully piloted in several countries but were limited to brief pre–post assessments; the impact of PEPs on policing behaviours and occupational safety is unknown. Objectives Proyecto ESCUDO (SHIELD) aims to evaluate the efficacy of the PEP on uptake of occupational safety procedures, as assessed through the incidence of needle stick injuries (NSIs) (primary outcome) and changes in knowledge of transmission, prevention and treatment of HIV and viral hepatitis; attitudes towards PWID, adverse behaviours that interfere with HIV prevention and protective behaviours (secondary outcomes). Methods/analysis ESCUDO is a hybrid type I design that simultaneously tests an intervention and an implementation strategy. Using a modified stepped-wedge design involving all active duty street-level police officers in Tijuana (N=∼1200), we will administer one 3 h PEP course to groups of 20–50 officers until the entire force is trained. NSI incidence and geocoded arrest data will be assessed from department-wide de-identified data. Of the consenting police officers, a subcohort (N=500) will be randomly sampled from each class to undergo pre-PEP and post-PEP surveys with a semiannual follow-up for 2 years to assess self-reported NSIs, attitudes and behaviour changes. The impact on PWIDs will be externally validated through a parallel cohort of Tijuana PWIDs. Ethics/dissemination Research ethics approval was obtained from the USA and Mexico. Findings will be disseminated through open access to protocol materials through the Law Enforcement and HIV Network. Trial registration number NCT02444403. PMID:26260350

  19. Performance, costs and cost-effectiveness analysis of the Tay Ho HIV integrative prevention and care & treatment outpatient clinic, Vietnam. : is the model worth scale up?

    OpenAIRE

    Guérard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, Vietnam has been experiencing an HIV/AIDS epidemic with a general prevalence rate of 0.42 % in 2008 and a projected prevalence rate in 2012 of 0.47%. Although the general HIV prevalence rate is considered low, the virus heavily affects some at-risk population groups in Vietnam, including commercial sex workers, injectable drug users and the men who have sex with men. According to studies, prevalence among these groups is considerable, up to 65%. Risky sexual behaviours ...

  20. Ensuring HIV Data Availability, Transparency and Integrity in the MENA Region Comment on "Improving the Quality and Quantity of HIV Data in the Middle East and North Africa: Key Challenges and Ways Forward".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Vermund, Sten H

    2017-05-22

    In this commentary, we elaborate on the main points that Karamouzian and colleagues have made about HIVdata scarcity in Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries. Without accessible and reliable data, no epidemic can be managed effectively or efficiently. Clearly, increased investments are needed to bolster capabilities to capture and interpret HIV surveillance data. We believe that this enhanced capacity can be achieved, in part, by leveraging and repurposing existing data platforms, technologies and patient cohorts. An immediate modest investment that capitalizes on available infrastructure can generate data on the HIV burden and spread that can be persuasive for MENA policy-makers to intensify efforts to track and contain the growing HIV epidemic in this region. A focus on key populations will yield the most valuable data, including among men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women and men, persons who inject drugs (PWIDs), female partners of high risk men and female sex workers. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  1. Styl RFLP recognized by a human IRBP cDNA localized to chromosome 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, K S; Mathew, C G.P.; Fong, S L; Bridges, C D; Ponder, B A.J.

    1988-02-25

    A 2184 bp cDNA (H.4 IRBP) encoding human interstitial retinol-biding protein isolated from a human retina cDNA library in lambdagt10 by screening with a bovine IRBP cDNA probe. Styl identifies a 2-allele polymorphism with bands at 2.3 kb (Cl) and 1.95 kb (C2) and invariant bands at 1.1, 1.0 and 0.8kb. Codominant segregation was observed in two informative families. The RFLP was mapped to chromosome 10 using somatic cell hybrids. In situ hybridization suggests regional assignments near p11.2 -q11.2 with a secondary site of hybridization at q24-25.

  2. Construction of a cDNA microarray derived from the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azumi, Kaoru; Takahashi, Hiroki; Miki, Yasufumi; Fujie, Manabu; Usami, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Hisayoshi; Kitayama, Atsusi; Satou, Yutaka; Ueno, Naoto; Satoh, Nori

    2003-10-01

    A cDNA microarray was constructed from a basal chordate, the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. The draft genome of Ciona has been read and inferred to contain approximately 16,000 protein-coding genes, and cDNAs for transcripts of 13,464 genes have been characterized and compiled as the "Ciona intestinalis Gene Collection Release I". In the present study, we constructed a cDNA microarray of these 13,464 Ciona genes. A preliminary experiment with Cy3- and Cy5-labeled probes showed extensive differential gene expression between fertilized eggs and larvae. In addition, there was a good correlation between results obtained by the present microarray analysis and those from previous EST analyses. This first microarray of a large collection of Ciona intestinalis cDNA clones should facilitate the analysis of global gene expression and gene networks during the embryogenesis of basal chordates.

  3. ESTs, cDNA microarrays, and gene expression profiling: tools for dissecting plant physiology and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Rob; Fei, Zhangjun; Payton, Paxton; Liu, Yang; Moore, Shanna L; Debbie, Paul; Cohn, Jonathan; D'Ascenzo, Mark; Gordon, Jeffrey S; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Martin, Gregory; Tanksley, Steven D; Bouzayen, Mondher; Jahn, Molly M; Giovannoni, Jim

    2004-09-01

    Gene expression profiling holds tremendous promise for dissecting the regulatory mechanisms and transcriptional networks that underlie biological processes. Here we provide details of approaches used by others and ourselves for gene expression profiling in plants with emphasis on cDNA microarrays and discussion of both experimental design and downstream analysis. We focus on methods and techniques emphasizing fabrication of cDNA microarrays, fluorescent labeling, cDNA hybridization, experimental design, and data processing. We include specific examples that demonstrate how this technology can be used to further our understanding of plant physiology and development (specifically fruit development and ripening) and for comparative genomics by comparing transcriptome activity in tomato and pepper fruit.

  4. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  5. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  6. HIV and Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Immunizations Last Reviewed: February 6, 2018 Key ...

  7. HIV Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medication Adherence Last Reviewed: January 17, 2018 Key ...

  8. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  9. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  10. HIV and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, July 2017 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  11. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  12. cDNA cloning of rat and human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Y.; Kraus, J.P.; Rosenberg, L.E.; Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    MCAD is one of three mitochondrial flavoenzymes which catalyze the first step in the β-oxidation of straight chain fatty acids. It is a tetramer with a subunit Mr of 45 kDa. MCAD is synthesized in the cytosol as a 49 kDa precursor polypeptide (pMCAD), imported into mitochondria, and cleaved to the mature form. Genetic deficiency of MCAD causes recurrent episodes of hypoglycemic coma accompanied by medium chain dicarboxylic aciduria. Employing a novel approach, the authors now report isolation of partial rat and human cDNA clones encoding pMCAD. mRNA encoding pMCAD was purified to near homogeneity by polysome immunoadsorption using polyclonal monospecific antibody. Single-stranded [ 32 P]labeled cDNA probe was synthesized using the enriched mRNA as template, and was used to screen directly 16,000 colonies from a total rat liver cDNA library constructed in pBR322. One clone (600 bp) was detected by in situ hybridization. Hybrid-selected translation with this cDNA yielded a 49 kDa polypeptide indistinguishable in size from rat pMCAD and immunoprecipitable with anti-MCAD antibody. Using the rat cDNA as probe, 43,000 colonies from a human liver cDNA library were screened. Four identical positive clones (400 bp) were isolated and positively identified by hybrid-selected translation and immunoprecipitation. The sizes of rat and human mRNAs encoding pMCAD were 2.2 kb and 2.4 kb, respectively, as determined by Northern blotting

  13. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cDNA for human β-glucuronidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, A.; Kyle, J.W.; Miller, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report here the cDNA sequence for human placental β-glucuronidase (β-D-glucuronoside glucuronosohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.31) and demonstrate expression of the human enzyme in transfected COS cells. They also sequenced a partial cDNA clone from human fibroblasts that contained a 153-base-pair deletion within the coding sequence and found a second type of cDNA clone from placenta that contained the same deletion. Nuclease S1 mapping studies demonstrated two types of mRNAs in human placenta that corresponded to the two types of cDNA clones isolated. The NH 2 -terminal amino acid sequence determined for human spleen β-glucuronidase agreed with that inferred from the DNA sequence of the two placental clones, beginning at amino acid 23, suggesting a cleaved signal sequence of 22 amino acids. When transfected into COS cells, plasmids containing either placental clone expressed an immunoprecipitable protein that contained N-linked oligosaccharides as evidenced by sensitivity to endoglycosidase F. However, only transfection with the clone containing the 153-base-pair segment led to expression of human β-glucuronidase activity. These studies provide the sequence for the full-length cDNA for human β-glucuronidase, demonstrate the existence of two populations of mRNA for β-glucuronidase in human placenta, only one of which specifies a catalytically active enzyme, and illustrate the importance of expression studies in verifying that a cDNA is functionally full-length

  14. Display of a Maize cDNA library on baculovirus infected insect cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maize is a good model system for cereal crop genetics and development because of its rich genetic heritage and well-characterized morphology. The sequencing of its genome is well advanced, and new technologies for efficient proteomic analysis are needed. Baculovirus expression systems have been used for the last twenty years to express in insect cells a wide variety of eukaryotic proteins that require complex folding or extensive posttranslational modification. More recently, baculovirus display technologies based on the expression of foreign sequences on the surface of Autographa californica (AcMNPV have been developed. We investigated the potential of a display methodology for a cDNA library of maize young seedlings. Results We constructed a full-length cDNA library of young maize etiolated seedlings in the transfer vector pAcTMVSVG. The library contained a total of 2.5 × 105 independent clones. Expression of two known maize proteins, calreticulin and auxin binding protein (ABP1, was shown by western blot analysis of protein extracts from insect cells infected with the cDNA library. Display of the two proteins in infected insect cells was shown by selective biopanning using magnetic cell sorting and demonstrated proof of concept that the baculovirus maize cDNA display library could be used to identify and isolate proteins. Conclusion The maize cDNA library constructed in this study relies on the novel technology of baculovirus display and is unique in currently published cDNA libraries. Produced to demonstrate proof of principle, it opens the way for the development of a eukaryotic in vivo display tool which would be ideally suited for rapid screening of the maize proteome for binding partners, such as proteins involved in hormone regulation or defence.

  15. HIV/AIDS - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - English MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part ...

  16. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir HIV and ... HIV. Interested in learning more about CDC's HIV statistics? Terms, Definitions, and Calculations Used in CDC HIV ...

  17. Detection of reverse transcriptase termination sites using cDNA ligation and massive parallel sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielpinski, Lukasz J; Boyd, Mette; Sandelin, Albin

    2013-01-01

    Detection of reverse transcriptase termination sites is important in many different applications, such as structural probing of RNAs, rapid amplification of cDNA 5' ends (5' RACE), cap analysis of gene expression, and detection of RNA modifications and protein-RNA cross-links. The throughput...... of these methods can be increased by applying massive parallel sequencing technologies.Here, we describe a versatile method for detection of reverse transcriptase termination sites based on ligation of an adapter to the 3' end of cDNA with bacteriophage TS2126 RNA ligase (CircLigase™). In the following PCR...

  18. The nucleotide sequence of human transition protein 1 cDNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luerssen, H; Hoyer-Fender, S; Engel, W [Universitaet Goettingen (West Germany)

    1988-08-11

    The authors have screened a human testis cDNA library with an oligonucleotide of 81 mer prepared according to a part of the published nucleotide sequence of the rat transition protein TP 1. They have isolated a cDNA clone with the length of 441 bp containing the coding region of 162 bp for human transition protein 1. There is about 84% homology in the coding region of the sequence compared to rat. The human cDNA-clone encodes a polypeptide of 54 amino acids of which 7 are different to that of rat.

  19. Avoiding cross hybridization by choosing nonredundant targets on cDNA arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Knudsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    PROBEWIZ designs PCR primers for amplifying probes for cDNA arrays. The probes are designed to have minimal homology to other expressed sequences from a given organism. The primer selection is based on user-defined penalties for homology, primer quality, and proximity to the 3' end.......PROBEWIZ designs PCR primers for amplifying probes for cDNA arrays. The probes are designed to have minimal homology to other expressed sequences from a given organism. The primer selection is based on user-defined penalties for homology, primer quality, and proximity to the 3' end....

  20. Isolation and expression of a pea vicilin cDNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, M D; Lambert, N; Delauney, A; Yarwood, J N; Croy, R R; Gatehouse, J A; Wright, D J; Boulter, D

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone containing the complete coding sequence for vicilin from pea (Pisum sativum L.) was isolated. It specifies a 50,000-Mr protein that in pea is neither post-translationally processed nor glycosylated. The cDNA clone was expressed in yeast from a 2 micron plasmid by using the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase promoter and initiator codon. The resultant fusion protein, which contains the first 16 amino acid residues of phosphoglycerate kinase in addition to the vicilin sequence, was puri...

  1. Family Wellness, Not HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane

    2010-01-01

    HIV exceptionalism (and disease-specific programs generally) garner both unbalanced funding and the most talented personnel, distorting local health priorities. In support of HIV exceptionalism, the successful mobilization of significant global health sector resources was not possible prior to HIV. Both sides of the debate have merits; rather than perpetuating polarization, we suggest that sustained improvements in global health require creating a prevention infrastructure to meet multiple health challenges experienced by local communities. We propose four fundamental shifts in HIV and disease prevention: (1) horizontally integrating prevention at one site locally, with priorities tailored to local health challenges and managed by local community leaders; (2) using a family wellness metaphor for services, not disease prevention; (3) implementing evidence-based prevention programs (EBPP) based on common principles, factors, and processes, rather than replication of specific programs; and (4) utilizing the expertise of private enterprise to re-design EBPP into highly attractive, engaging, and accessible experiences. PMID:19148744

  2. Integration of HIV Care into Community Management of Acute Childhood Malnutrition Permits Good Outcomes: Retrospective Analysis of Three Years of a Programme in Lusaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, Beatrice; Imikendu, Mercy; Sakala, Milika; Banda, Rosemary; Kelly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    While HIV has had a major impact on health care in southern Africa, there are few data on its impact on acute malnutrition in children in the community. We report an analysis of outcomes in a large programme of community management of acute malnutrition in the south of Lusaka. Over 3 years, 68,707 assessments for undernutrition were conducted house-to-house, and children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) or moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) were enrolled into either Outpatient Therapeutic Programme (OTP) or Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) respectively. Case records were analysed using tabulation and unconditional logistic regression. 1,859 children (889 boys, 970 girls; median age 16 months) with MAM (n = 664) or SAM (n = 1,195) were identified. Of 1,796 children whose parents consented to testing, 185 (10.3%) were HIV positive. Altogether 1,163 (62.6%) were discharged as recovered from acute malnutrition. Case fatality while in the programme was 4.2% in children with SAM and 0.5% in those with MAM (RR of SAM 10.9; 95%CI 3.4,34.8; Pmalnutrition programme, incorporating HIV care, can achieve low mortality even in a population heavily affected by HIV.

  3. Promoting food security and well-being among poor and HIV/AIDS affected households: lessons from an interactive and integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaans, Kees; Broerse, Jacqueline; Meincke, Maylin; Mudhara, Maxwell; Bunders, Joske

    2009-02-01

    Participatory and interdisciplinary approaches have been suggested to develop appropriate agricultural innovations as an alternative strategy to improve food security and well-being among HIV/AIDS affected households. However, sustainable implementation of such interactive approaches is far from easy and straight forward. This study reports of the Interactive Learning and Action (ILA) approach, a methodology for agricultural innovation which has been adapted to the context of HIV/AIDS. Role players in agriculture and health were brought together to stimulate and sustain innovation among three support groups for poor and affected households in a rural high HIV/AIDS prevalence area in South Africa. The effectiveness of the approach was evaluated using both outcome and process criteria. The results indicate that an interactive approach in which service providers/researchers engage themselves as actors to explore the livelihood system and develop appropriate solutions in joint collaboration with resource users has potential. However, it also revealed that cooperation among participants and stakeholders at the interface of agriculture and HIV/AIDS is complicated and sensitive to erosion. Of particular concern was the difficulty of mobilizing members from poor and affected households to participate and to overcome stigma and discrimination. Lessons and potential applications for the further development of interactive approaches are discussed.

  4. Re-establishing safer medical-circumcision-integrated initiation ceremonies for HIV prevention in a rural setting in Papua New Guinea. A multi-method acceptability study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Morris Manineng

    Full Text Available Efforts to stem the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV in Papua New Guinea (PNG are hampered by multiple interrelated factors including limited health services, extreme diversities in culture and language and highly prevalent gender inequity, domestic violence and poverty. In the rural district of Yangoru-Saussia, a revival of previously ceased male initiation ceremonies (MICs is being considered for a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. In this study, we explore the local acceptability of this undertaking including replacing traditional penile cutting practices with medical male circumcision (MMC.A multi-method study comprising three phases. Phase one, focus group discussions with male elders to explore locally appropriate approaches to HIV prevention; Phase two, interviews and a cross-sectional survey with community men and women to assess views on MICs that include MMC for HIV prevention; Phase three, interviews with cultural leaders and a cross sectional survey to assess the acceptability of replacing traditional penile bleeding with MMC.Cultural leaders expressed that re-establishing MICs was locally appropriate for HIV prevention given the focus on character building and cultural preservation. Most surveyed participants (81.5% supported re-establishing MICs and 92.2% supported adapting MICs with MMC. Changes to penile bleeding emerged as a contentious and contested issue given its cultural significance in symbolizing initiates' transition from childhood to adulthood. Participants were concerned about potential clash with modern education, introduced religious beliefs and limited government support in leadership and funding.Most people in this study in Yangoru-Saussia support re-establishing MICs and replacing traditional penile bleeding with MMC. This culturally-sensitive alignment of MMC (and HIV prevention with revived MICs responds to a national health priority in PNG and acts as an example of providing culturally

  5. Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  6. HIV Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Risk and Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  7. An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimalanathan Kokulapalan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats, also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective of this study was to integrate a large set of SSR markers from a variety of sources and published cDNA markers into a composite P. taeda genetic map constructed from two reference mapping pedigrees. A dense genetic map that incorporates SSR loci will benefit complete pine genome sequencing, pine population genetics studies, and pine breeding programs. Careful marker annotation using a variety of references further enhances the utility of the integrated SSR map. Results The updated P. taeda genetic map, with an estimated genome coverage of 1,515 cM(Kosambi across 12 linkage groups, incorporated 170 new SSR markers and 290 previously reported SSR, RFLP, and ESTP markers. The average marker interval was 3.1 cM. Of 233 mapped SSR loci, 84 were from cDNA-derived sequences (EST-SSRs and 149 were from non-transcribed genomic sequences (genomic-SSRs. Of all 311 mapped cDNA-derived markers, 77% were associated with NCBI Pta UniGene clusters, 67% with RefSeq proteins, and 62% with functional Gene Ontology (GO terms. Duplicate (i.e., redundant accessory and paralogous markers were tentatively identified by evaluating marker sequences by their UniGene cluster IDs, clone IDs, and relative map positions. The average gene diversity, He, among polymorphic SSR loci, including those that were not mapped, was 0.43 for 94 EST-SSRs and 0.72 for 83 genomic-SSRs. The genetic map can be viewed and queried at http://www.conifergdb.org/pinemap. Conclusions Many polymorphic and genetically mapped SSR markers are now available for use in P. taeda population genetics, studies of adaptive traits, and various germplasm management applications. Annotating mapped

  8. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High-Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya eGwadz

    2016-04-01

    gender-specific facilitators of HIV testing. Findings suggest a number of avenues for increasing HIV testing rates including increasing the number and types of settings offering high-quality HIV testing; promoting STI as well as HIV testing; better integrating STI and HIV testing systems; implementing peer-driven social/behavioral intervention approaches to harness the positive influence of social networks and reduce unfavorable shared peer norms; and specialized approaches for women who use drugs.

  9. A new set of ESTs and cDNA clones from full-length and normalized libraries for gene discovery and functional characterization in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamar Santiago

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpretation of ever-increasing raw sequence information generated by modern genome sequencing technologies faces multiple challenges, such as gene function analysis and genome annotation. Indeed, nearly 40% of genes in plants encode proteins of unknown function. Functional characterization of these genes is one of the main challenges in modern biology. In this regard, the availability of full-length cDNA clones may fill in the gap created between sequence information and biological knowledge. Full-length cDNA clones facilitate functional analysis of the corresponding genes enabling manipulation of their expression in heterologous systems and the generation of a variety of tagged versions of the native protein. In addition, the development of full-length cDNA sequences has the power to improve the quality of genome annotation. Results We developed an integrated method to generate a new normalized EST collection enriched in full-length and rare transcripts of different citrus species from multiple tissues and developmental stages. We constructed a total of 15 cDNA libraries, from which we isolated 10,898 high-quality ESTs representing 6142 different genes. Percentages of redundancy and proportion of full-length clones range from 8 to 33, and 67 to 85, respectively, indicating good efficiency of the approach employed. The new EST collection adds 2113 new citrus ESTs, representing 1831 unigenes, to the collection of citrus genes available in the public databases. To facilitate functional analysis, cDNAs were introduced in a Gateway-based cloning vector for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta. Herein, we describe the technical methods used in the library construction, sequence analysis of clones and the overexpression of CitrSEP, a citrus homolog to the Arabidopsis SEP3 gene, in Arabidopsis as an example of a practical application of the engineered Gateway vector for functional analysis. Conclusion The new

  10. A new set of ESTs and cDNA clones from full-length and normalized libraries for gene discovery and functional characterization in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M Carmen; Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; Forment, Javier; Arribas, Raquel; Alamar, Santiago; Conejero, Vicente; Perez-Amador, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    Background Interpretation of ever-increasing raw sequence information generated by modern genome sequencing technologies faces multiple challenges, such as gene function analysis and genome annotation. Indeed, nearly 40% of genes in plants encode proteins of unknown function. Functional characterization of these genes is one of the main challenges in modern biology. In this regard, the availability of full-length cDNA clones may fill in the gap created between sequence information and biological knowledge. Full-length cDNA clones facilitate functional analysis of the corresponding genes enabling manipulation of their expression in heterologous systems and the generation of a variety of tagged versions of the native protein. In addition, the development of full-length cDNA sequences has the power to improve the quality of genome annotation. Results We developed an integrated method to generate a new normalized EST collection enriched in full-length and rare transcripts of different citrus species from multiple tissues and developmental stages. We constructed a total of 15 cDNA libraries, from which we isolated 10,898 high-quality ESTs representing 6142 different genes. Percentages of redundancy and proportion of full-length clones range from 8 to 33, and 67 to 85, respectively, indicating good efficiency of the approach employed. The new EST collection adds 2113 new citrus ESTs, representing 1831 unigenes, to the collection of citrus genes available in the public databases. To facilitate functional analysis, cDNAs were introduced in a Gateway-based cloning vector for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta. Herein, we describe the technical methods used in the library construction, sequence analysis of clones and the overexpression of CitrSEP, a citrus homolog to the Arabidopsis SEP3 gene, in Arabidopsis as an example of a practical application of the engineered Gateway vector for functional analysis. Conclusion The new EST collection denotes an

  11. 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality scores - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available east_seq_qual.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/yeast_cdna/LATEST/...yeast_seq_qual.zip File size: 59.9MB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/budding_yeast_cdna

  12. Envisioning Women-Centered HIV Care: Perspectives from Women Living with HIV in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nadia; Greene, Saara; Carter, Allison; Lewis, Johanna; Nicholson, Valerie; Kwaramba, Gladys; Ménard, Brigitte; Kaufman, Elaina; Ennabil, Nourane; Andersson, Neil; Loutfy, Mona; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Kaida, Angela

    Women comprise nearly one-quarter of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Canada. Compared with men, women living with HIV experience inequities in HIV care and health outcomes, prompting a need for gendered and tailored approaches to HIV care. Peer and academic researchers from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study conducted focus groups to understand women's experience of seeking care, with the purpose of identifying key characteristics that define a women-centered approach to HIV care. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77 women living with HIV across Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia, Canada. Women envisioned three central characteristics of women-centered HIV care, including i) coordinated and integrated services that address both HIV and women's health care priorities, and protect against exclusion from care due to HIV-related stigma, ii) care that recognizes and responds to structural barriers that limit women's access to care, such as violence, poverty, motherhood, HIV-related stigma, and challenges to safe disclosure, and iii) care that fosters peer support and peer leadership in its design and delivery to honor the diversity of women's experiences, overcome women's isolation, and prioritize women's ownership over the decisions that affect their lives. Despite advances in HIV treatment and care, the current care landscape is inadequate to meet women's comprehensive care needs. A women-centered approach to HIV care, as envisioned by women living with HIV, is central to guiding policy and practice to improve care and outcomes for women living with HIV in Canada. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of a methylated oligoribonucleotide as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcription complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Boyan; Bocquin, Anne; Gabus, Caroline; Avilov, Sergey; Mély, Yves; Agopian, Audrey; Divita, Gilles; Gottikh, Marina; Witvrouw, Myriam; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2011-07-01

    Upon HIV-1 infection of a target cell, the viral reverse transcriptase (RT) copies the genomic RNA to synthesize the viral DNA. The genomic RNA is within the incoming HIV-1 core where it is coated by molecules of nucleocapsid (NC) protein that chaperones the reverse transcription process. Indeed, the RT chaperoning properties of NC extend from the initiation of cDNA synthesis to completion of the viral DNA. New and effective drugs against HIV-1 continue to be required, which prompted us to search for compounds aimed at inhibiting NC protein. Here, we report that the NC chaperoning activity is extensively inhibited in vitro by small methylated oligoribonucleotides (mODN). These mODNs were delivered intracellularly using a cell-penetrating-peptide and found to impede HIV-1 replication in primary human cells at nanomolar concentrations. Extensive analysis showed that viral cDNA synthesis was severely impaired by mODNs. Partially resistant viruses with mutations in NC and RT emerged after months of passaging in cell culture. A HIV-1 molecular clone (NL4.3) bearing these mutations was found to replicate at high concentrations of mODN, albeit with a reduced fitness. Small, methylated ODNs such as mODN-11 appear to be a new type of highly potent inhibitor of HIV-1.

  14. Cloning and sequencing of Indian Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) interleukin-3 cDNA

    KAUST Repository

    Sugumar, Thennarasu; Harishankar, M.; Dhinakar Raj, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full-length cDNA (435 bp) of the interleukin-3(IL-3) gene of the Indian water buffalo was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. This sequence had 96% nucleotide identity and 92% amino acid identity with bovine

  15. FIELD VALIDATION OF A SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE CDNA MACROARRAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Michael J., Iris Knoebl, Becky L. Hemmer, Patrick Larkin, Peggy S. Harris and Nancy D. Denslow. In press. Field Validation of a Sheepshead Minnow Estrogen-Responsive cDNA Macroarray (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portl...

  16. Characterization and immunological identification of cDNA clones encoding two human DNA topoisomerase II isozymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.D.Y.; Drake, F.H.; Tan, K.B.; Per, S.R.; Crooke, S.T.; Mirabelli, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    Several DNA topoisomerase II partial cDNA clones obtained from a human Raji-HN2 cDNA library were sequenced and two classes of nucleotide sequences were found. One member of the first class, SP1, was identical to an internal fragment of human HeLa cell Topo II cDNA described earlier. A member of the second class, SP11, shared extensive nucleotide (75%) and predicted peptide (92%) sequence similarities with the first two-thirds of HeLa Topo II. Each class of cDNAs hybridized to unique, nonoverlapping restriction enzyme fragments of genomic DNA from several human cell lines. Synthetic 24-mer oligonucleotide probes specific for each cDNA class hybridized to 6.5-kilobase mRNAs; furthermore, hybridization of probe specific for one class was not blocked by probe specific for the other. Antibodies raised against a synthetic SP1-encoded dodecapeptide specifically recognized the 170-kDa form of Topo II, while antibodies raised against the corresponding SP11-encoded dodecapeptide, or a second unique SP11-encoded tridecapeptide, selectively recognized the 180-kDa form of Topo II. These data provide genetic and immunochemical evidence for two Topo II isozymes

  17. Observation of intermittency in gene expression on cDNA microarrays

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, L E

    2002-01-01

    We used scaled factorial moments to search for intermittency in the log expression ratios (LERs) for thousands of genes spotted on cDNA microarrays (gene chips). Results indicate varying levels of intermittency in gene expression. The observation of intermittency in the data analyzed provides a complimentary handle on moderately expressed genes, generally not tackled by conventional techniques.

  18. Cloning a cDNA for the lysosomal alpha-glucosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KONINGS, A.; HUPKES, P.; Versteeg, R.; Grosveld, G.; Reuser, A.; Galjaard, H.

    1984-01-01

    Messenger RNA was isolated from monkey testes and size-fractionated on sucrose gradients. In vitro translation of these mRNA fractions resulted in nascent, labeled alpha-glucosidase that could be precipitated with anti human alpha-glucosidase antiserum. A cDNA library was constructed from the most

  19. EXPRESSION PROFILING OF ESTROGENIC COMPOUNDS USING A SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW CDNA MACROARRAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Patrick, Leroy C. Folmar, Michael J. Hemmer, Arianna J. Poston and Nancy D. Denslow. 2003. Expression Profiling of Estrogenic Compounds Using a Sheepshead Minnow cDNA Macroarray. Environ. Health Perspect. 111(6):839-846. (ERL,GB 1171). A variety of anthropogenic c...

  20. Heterogeneity of rat tropoelastin mRNA revealed by cDNA cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Deak, S.B.; Stolle, C.A.; Boyd, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    A λgt11 library constructed from poly(A+) RNA isolated from aortic tissue of neonatal rats was screened for rat tropoelastin cDNAs. The first, screen, utilizing a human tropoelastin cDNA clone, provided rat tropoelastin cDNAs spanning 2.3 kb of carboxy-terminal coding sequence and extended into the 3'-untranslated region. A subsequent screen using a 5' rat tropoelastin cDNA clone yielded clones extending into the amino-terminal signal sequence coding region. Sequence analysis of these clones has provided the complete derived amino acid sequence of rat tropoelastin and allowed alignment and comparison with published bovine cDNA sequence. While the overall structure of rat tropoelastin is similar to bovine sequence, numerous substitutions, deletions, and insertions demonstrated considerable heterogeneity between species. In particular, the pentapeptide repeat VPGVG, characteristic of all tropoelastins analyzed to date, is replaced in rat tropoelastin by a repeating pentapeptide, IPGVG. The hexapeptide repeat VGVAPG, the bovine elastin receptor binding peptide, is not encoded by rat tropoelastin cDNAs. Variations in coding sequence between rat tropoelastin CDNA clones were also found which may represent mRNA heterogeneity produced by alternative splicing of the rat tropoelastin pre-mRNA

  1. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250...

  2. APPLICATION OF CDNA MICROARRAY TO THE STUDY OF ARSENIC TOXICOLOGY AND CARCINOGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic (As) is a common environmental toxicant and known human carcinogen. Epidemiological studies link As exposure to various disorders and cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms for As toxicity and carcinogenicity are not completely known. The cDNA microarray, a high-th...

  3. Strategies to enhance immunogenicity of cDNA vaccine encoded antigens by modulation of antigen processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Marit de Groot, A; Andersen, Peter; Ovaa, Huib; Kloetzel, Peter M; Mishto, Michele; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2016-01-01

    Most vaccines are based on protective humoral responses while for intracellular pathogens CD8(+) T cells are regularly needed to provide protection. However, poor processing efficiency of antigens is often a limiting factor in CD8(+) T cell priming, hampering vaccine efficacy. The multistage cDNA

  4. cDNA, genomic cloning and sequence analysis of ribosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS4X were cloned successfully from ... S4 genes plays a role in Turner syndrome; however, this ..... Project of Educational Committee of Sichuan Province ... Molecular biology of the cell.

  5. A putative peroxidase cDNA from turnip and analysis of the encoded protein sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gómez, S; Duarte-Vázquez, M A; García-Almendárez, B E; Mayorga-Martínez, L; Cervantes-Avilés, O; Regalado, C

    2008-12-01

    A putative peroxidase cDNA was isolated from turnip roots (Brassica napus L. var. purple top white globe) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Total RNA extracted from mature turnip roots was used as a template for RT-PCR, using a degenerated primer designed to amplify the highly conserved distal motif of plant peroxidases. The resulting partial sequence was used to design the rest of the specific primers for 5' and 3' RACE. Two cDNA fragments were purified, sequenced, and aligned with the partial sequence from RT-PCR, and a complete overlapping sequence was obtained and labeled as BbPA (Genbank Accession No. AY423440, named as podC). The full length cDNA is 1167bp long and contains a 1077bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 358 deduced amino acid peroxidase polypeptide. The putative peroxidase (BnPA) showed a calculated Mr of 34kDa, and isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5, with no significant identity with other reported turnip peroxidases. Sequence alignment showed that only three peroxidases have a significant identity with BnPA namely AtP29a (84%), and AtPA2 (81%) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and HRPA2 (82%) from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana). Work is in progress to clone this gene into an adequate host to study the specific role and possible biotechnological applications of this alternative peroxidase source.

  6. Construction and characterization of a cDNA library from human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tumor-suppressor gene p53 and its downstream genes consist of a complicated gene network, and the challenge to understand the network is to identify p53 downstream genes. In order to isolate and identify new p53 regulated genes, we constructed and characterized a normalized cDNA library from human brain ...

  7. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and analysis of the ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ribosomal protein L37A (RPL37A) is a component of 60S large ribosomal subunit encoded by the RPL37A gene, which belongs to the family of ribosomal L37AE proteins, located in the cytoplasm. The complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and the genomic sequence of RPL37A were cloned successfully from giant ...

  8. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA coding for rat nucleolar protein C23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffari, S.H.; Olson, M.O.J.

    1986-01-01

    Using synthetic oligonucleotides as primers and probes, the authors have isolated and sequenced cDNA clones encoding protein C23, a putative nucleolus organizer protein. Poly(A + ) RNA was isolated from rat Novikoff hepatoma cells and enriched in C23 mRNA by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. Two deoxyoligonuleotides, a 48- and a 27-mer, were synthesized on the basis of amino acid sequence from the C-terminal half of protein C23 and cDNA sequence data from CHO cell protein. The 48-mer was used a primer for synthesis of cDNA which was then inserted into plasmid pUC9. Transformed bacterial colonies were screened by hybridization with 32 P labeled 27-mer. Two clones among 5000 gave a strong positive signal. Plasmid DNAs from these clones were purified and characterized by blotting and nucleotide sequence analysis. The length of C23 mRNA was estimated to be 3200 bases in a northern blot analysis. The sequence of a 267 b.p. insert shows high homology with the CHO cDNA with only 9 nucleotide differences and an identical amino acid sequence. These studies indicate that this region of the protein is highly conserved

  9. GENE EXPRESSION IN THE TESTES OF NORMOSPERMIC VERSUS TERATOSPERMIC DOMESTIC CATS USING HUMAN CDNA MICROARRAY ANALYSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENE EXPRESSION IN THE TESTES OF NORMOSPERMIC VERSUS TERATOSPERMIC DOMESTIC CATS USING HUMAN cDNA MICROARRAY ANALYSESB.S. Pukazhenthi1, J. C. Rockett2, M. Ouyang3, D.J. Dix2, J.G. Howard1, P. Georgopoulos4, W.J. J. Welsh3 and D. E. Wildt11Department of Reproductiv...

  10. Isolation and characterization of two cDNA clones encoding for glutamate dehydrogenase in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficarelli, A; Tassi, F; Restivo, F M

    1999-03-01

    We have isolated two full length cDNA clones encoding Nicotiana plumbaginifolia NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase. Both clones share amino acid boxes of homology corresponding to conserved GDH catalytic domains and putative mitochondrial targeting sequence. One clone shows a putative EF-hand loop. The level of the two transcripts is affected differently by carbon source.

  11. cDNA sequence and tissue expression analysis of glucokinase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... distribution of GK mRNA in brain, mesenteric adipose tissue, spleen, white muscle and liver of grass ... expression profile of GK mRNA in liver normalized with β-actin level was 31, 454 and 649-fold compared .... Primers and expected products used for GK gene cDNA RT-PCR, RACE and real-time PCR.

  12. Cloning of oleosin, a putative new hazelnut allergen, using a hazelnut cDNA library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Schocker, Frauke; Vieths, Stefan; Versteeg, Serge; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Hefle, Sue L.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Richter, Klaus; Ferreira, Fatima; van Ree, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The clinical presentation of non-pollen related allergy to hazelnut can be severe and systemic. So far, only a limited number of non-pollen related hazelnut allergens have been identified and characterized. The aim of this study was to identify and clone new hazelnut allergens. A lambda ZAP cDNA

  13. Transcription analysis of apple fruit development using cDNA microarrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soglio, V.; Costa, F.; Molthoff, J.W.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Schouten, H.J.; Gianfranceschi, L.

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying fruit quality traits is fundamental to devise efficient marker-assisted selection strategies and to improve apple breeding. In this study, cDNA microarray technology was used to identify genes whose expression changes during fruit development and

  14. cDNA cloning and primary structure analysis of invariant chain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cDNA cloning and primary structure analysis of invariant chain in Chinese Pengze crucian carp. X Liu, W Yu, J Li, F Chen, S Liu, C Wu, J Xu. Abstract. Invariant chain (Ii) plays an important role in MHC class II molecules assembly and exogenous peptide presentation in vertebrates. Although mammalian Ii has been ...

  15. Molecular dynamics and MM/GBSA-integrated protocol probing the correlation between biological activities and binding free energies of HIV-1 TAR RNA inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddi, Saikiran Reddy; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2018-02-01

    The interaction of HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat with its cognate transactivation response (TAR) RNA has emerged as a promising target for developing antiviral compounds and treating HIV infection, since it is a crucial step for efficient transcription and replication. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and MM/GBSA calculations have been performed on a series of neamine derivatives in order to estimate appropriate MD simulation time for acceptable correlation between ΔG bind and experimental pIC 50 values. Initially, all inhibitors were docked into the active site of HIV-1 TAR RNA. Later to explore various conformations and examine the docking results, MD simulations were carried out. Finally, binding free energies were calculated using MM/GBSA method and were correlated with experimental pIC 50 values at different time scales (0-1 to 0-10 ns). From this study, it is clear that in case of neamine derivatives as simulation time increased the correlation between binding free energy and experimental pIC 50 values increased correspondingly. Therefore, the binding energies which can be interpreted at longer simulation times can be used to predict the bioactivity of new neamine derivatives. Moreover, in this work, we have identified some plausible critical nucleotide interactions with neamine derivatives that are responsible for potent inhibitory activity. Furthermore, we also provide some insights into a new class of oxadiazole-based back bone cyclic peptides designed by incorporating the structural features of neamine derivatives. On the whole, this approach can provide a valuable guidance for designing new potent inhibitors and modify the existing compounds targeting HIV-1 TAR RNA.

  16. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding human sterol carrier protein 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ritsu; Kallen, C.B.; Babalola, G.O.; Rennert, H.; Strauss, J.F. III; Billheimer, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding human sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP 2 ). The 1.3-kilobase (kb) cDNA contains an open reading frame which encompasses a 143-amino acid sequence which is 89% identical to the rat SCP 2 amino acid sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence of the polypeptide reveals a 20-residue amino-terminal leader sequence in front of the mature polypeptide, which contains a carboxyl-terminal tripeptide (Ala-Lys-Leu) related to the peroxisome targeting sequence. The expressed cDNA in COS-7 cells yields a 15.3-kDa polypeptide and increased amounts of a 13.2-kDa polypeptide, both reacting with a specific rabbit antiserum to rat liver SCP 2 . The cDNA insert hybridizes with 3.2- and 1.8-kb mRNA species in human liver poly(A) + RNA. In human fibroblasts and placenta the 1.8-kb mRNA was most abundant. Southern blot analysis suggests either that there are multiple copies of the SCP 2 gene in the human genome or that the SCP 2 gene is very large. Coexpression of the SCP 2 cDNA with expression vectors for cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme and adrenodoxin resulted in a 2.5-fold enhancement of progestin synthesis over that obtained with expression of the steroidogenic enzyme system alone. These findings are concordant with the notion that SCP 2 plays a role in regulating steroidogenesis, among other possible functions

  17. Primary culture of cat intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and the cDNA library construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui Hua; Liu, Ye; Cheng, Yun Tang; Zhao, Qing Song; Qiu, Xiao; Xu, Chao; Xiao, Ting; Zhu, Song; Liu, Gong Zhen; Yin, Kun

    2018-06-26

    Felids are the only definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii. To lay a foundation for screening the T. gondii-felids interaction factors, we have developed a reproducible primary culture method for cat intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The primary IECs were isolated from a new born cat's small intestine jejunum region without food ingress, and respectively in vitro cultured by tissue cultivation and combined digestion method with collagenase XI and dispase I, then purified by trypsinization. After identification, the ds cDNA of cat IECs was synthesized for constructing pGADT7 homogenization three-frame plasmid, and transformed into the yeast Y187 for generating the cDNA library. Our results indicated that cultivation of primary cat IECs relays on combined digestion to form polarized and confluent monolayers within 3 days with typical features of normal epithelial cells. The purified cells cultured by digestion method were identified to be nature intestinal epithelial cells using immunohistochemical analysis and were able to maintain viability for at least 15 passages. The homogenizable ds cDNA, which is synthesized from the total RNA extracted from our cultured IECs, distributed among 0.5-2.0 kb, and generated satisfying three-frame cDNA library with the capacity of 1.2 × 106 and the titer of 5.2 × 107 pfu/mL. Our results established an optimal method for the culturing and passage of cat IECs model in vitro, and laid a cDNA library foundation for the subsequent interaction factors screening by yeast two-hybrid.

  18. Anxiety symptoms and disorders among adults living with HIV and AIDS: A critical review and integrative synthesis of the empirical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Charles; Zvolensky, Michael J; Woods, Steven P; Gonzalez, Adam; Safren, Steven A; O'Cleirigh, Conall M

    2017-02-01

    There are over 35 million people worldwide infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and its progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS; WHO, 2014). With the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (i.e., cART) in 1996, persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) now have much longer life expectancies. However, living with HIV remains challenging, as it is associated with a number of significant and recurrent (chronic) stressors including physical pain, side effects of cART, social stigma, and discrimination, among other social stressors. Presumably, as a result of these types of stressors, a disproportionately high number of PLWHA struggle with clinically-significant psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Although much scientific and clinical attention has focused on depressed mood and psychopathology among PLWHA, there has been comparably less focus on anxiety and its disorders. The paucity of work in this area is concerning from a public health perspective, as anxiety symptoms and disorders are the most common class of psychiatric disorders and often maintain a large negative impact on life functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anxiety symptoms and disorders among adults living with HIV and AIDS: A critical review and integrative synthesis of the empirical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Charles; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Woods, Steven P.; Gonzalez, Adam; Safren, Steven A.; O’Cleirigh, Conall M.

    2016-01-01

    There are over 35 million people worldwide infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and its progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS; WHO, 2014). With the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (i.e., cART) in 1996, persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) now have much longer life expectancies. However, living with HIV remains challenging, as it is associated with a number of significant and recurrent (chronic) stressors including physical pain, side effects of cART, social stigma, and discrimination, among other social stressors. Presumably, as a result of these types of stressors, a disproportionately high number of PLWHA struggle with clinically-significant psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Although much scientific and clinical attention has focused on depressed mood and psychopathology among PLWHA, there has been comparably less focus on anxiety and its disorders. The paucity of work in this area is concerning from a public health perspective, as anxiety symptoms and disorders are the most common class of psychiatric disorders and often maintain a large negative impact on life functioning. PMID:27939443

  20. Commonization of HIV/AIDS services in Nigeria: the need, the processes and the prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Oladipo, Olabisi; Osita-Oleribe, Princess; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka; Nkwopara, Frank; Ekom, Ekei; Nwabuzor, Solomon; Iyalla, Grace; Onyewuchi, Kenneth; Olutola, Ayodotun; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    With the first case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) identified in 1986, the management of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria has evolved through the years. The emergency phase of the HIV/AIDS program, aimed at containing the HIV/AIDS epidemic within a short time frame, was carried out by international agencies that built structures separate from hospitals' programs. It is imperative that Nigeria shifts from the previous paradigm to the concept of Commonization of HIV to achieve sustainability. Commonization ensures that HIV/AIDS is seen as a health condition like others. It involves making HIV services available at all levels of healthcare. Excellence & Friends Management Consult (EFMC) undertook this process by conducting HIV tests in people's homes and work places, referring infected persons for treatment and follow up, establishing multiple HIV testing points and HIV services in private and public primary healthcare facilities. EFMC integrated HIV services within existing hospital care structures and trained all healthcare workers at all supported sites on HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment modalities. Commonization has improved the uptake of HIV testing and counseling and enrolment into HIV care as more people are aware that HIV services are available. It has integrated HIV services into general hospital services and minimized the cost of HIV programming as the existing structures and personnel in healthcare facilities are utilized for HIV services. Commonization of HIV services i.e. integrating HIV care into the existing fabric of the healthcare system, is highly recommended for a sustainable and efficient healthcare system as it makes HIV services acceptable by all.

  1. Extracellular histones identified in crocodile blood inhibit in-vitro HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Hannah N; Lai, Eric T L; Havugimana, Pierre C; White, Carl; Emili, Andrew; Sakac, Darinka; Binnington, Beth; Neschadim, Anton; McCarthy, Stephen D S; Branch, Donald R

    2016-08-24

    It has been reported that crocodile blood contains potent antibacterial and antiviral properties. However, its effects on HIV-1 infection remain unknown. We obtained blood from saltwater crocodiles to examine whether serum or plasma could inhibit HIV-1 infection. We purified plasma fractions then used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the inhibitory protein factor(s). We then analyzed the ability of recombinant proteins to recapitulate HIV-1 inhibition and determine their mechanism of action. Crocodylus porosus plasma was tested for inhibition of Jurkat T-cell HIV-1 infection. Inhibitor(s) were purified by reverse-phase chromatography then identified by protein liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-HIV-1 activity of purified plasma or recombinant proteins were measured by p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and luciferase readouts, and mechanism of action was determined by measuring HIV-1 RNA, cDNA and transcription (using 1G5 cells). Crocodile plasma contains potent inhibitors of HIV-1IIIB infection, which were identified as histones. Recombinant human histones H1 and H2A significantly reduced HIV-1JR-FL infection (IC50 of 0.79 and 0.45 μmol/l, respectively), whereas H4 enhanced JR-FL luciferase activity. The inhibitory effects of crocodile plasma, recombinant H1 or recombinant H2A on HIV-1 infection were during or post-viral transcription. Circulating histones in crocodile blood, possibly released by neutrophil extracellular traps, are significant inhibitors of HIV-1 infection in-vitro. Extracellular recombinant histones have different effects on HIV-1 transcription and protein expression and are downregulated in HIV-1 patients. Circulating histones may be a novel resistance factor during HIV-1 infection, and peptide versions should be explored as future HIV-1 therapeutics that modulate viral transcription.

  2. 2012 HIV Diagnostics Conference: the molecular diagnostics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Bernard M; Pandori, Mark

    2013-04-01

    2012 HIV Diagnostic Conference Atlanta, GA, USA, 12-14 December 2012. This report highlights the presentations and discussions from the 2012 National HIV Diagnostic Conference held in Atlanta (GA, USA), on 12-14 December 2012. Reflecting changes in the evolving field of HIV diagnostics, the conference provided a forum for evaluating developments in molecular diagnostics and their role in HIV diagnosis. In 2010, the HIV Diagnostics Conference concluded with the proposal of a new diagnostic algorithm which included nucleic acid testing to resolve discordant screening and supplemental antibody test results. The 2012 meeting, picking up where the 2010 meeting left off, focused on scientific presentations that assessed this new algorithm and the role played by RNA testing and new developments in molecular diagnostics, including detection of total and integrated HIV-1 DNA, detection and quantification of HIV-2 RNA, and rapid formats for detection of HIV-1 RNA.

  3. Rational development of radiopharmaceuticals for HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Maldarelli, Frank; Eckelman, William C.; Neumann, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    The global battle against HIV-1 would benefit from a sensitive and specific radiopharmaceutical to localize HIV-infected cells. Ideally, this probe would be able to identify latently infected host cells containing replication competent HIV sequences. Clinical and research applications would include assessment of reservoirs, informing clinical management by facilitating assessment of burden of infection in different compartments, monitoring disease progression and monitoring response to therapy. A “rational” development approach could facilitate efficient identification of an appropriate targeted radiopharmaceutical. Rational development starts with understanding characteristics of the disease that can be effectively targeted and then engineering radiopharmaceuticals to hone in on an appropriate target, which in the case of HIV-1 (HIV) might be an HIV-specific product on or in the host cell, a differentially expressed gene product, an integrated DNA sequence specific enzymatic activity, part of the inflammatory response, or a combination of these. This is different from the current approach that starts with a radiopharmaceutical for a target associated with a disease, mostly from autopsy studies, without a strong rationale for the potential to impact patient care. At present, no targeted therapies are available for HIV latency, although a number of approaches are under study. Here we discuss requirements for a radiopharmaceutical useful in strategies targeting persistently infected cells. The radiopharmaceutical for HIV should be developed based on HIV biology, studied in an animal model and then in humans, and ultimately used in clinical and research settings

  4. Human tissue factor: cDNA sequence and chromosome localization of the gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpati, E.M.; Wen, D.; Broze, G.J. Jr.; Miletich, J.P.; Flandermeyer, R.R.; Siegel, N.R.; Sadler, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A human placenta cDNA library in λgt11 was screened for the expression of tissue factor antigens with rabbit polyclonal anti-human tissue factor immunoglobulin G. Among 4 million recombinant clones screened, one positive, λHTF8, expressed a protein that shared epitopes with authentic human brain tissue factor. The 1.1-kilobase cDNA insert of λHTF8 encoded a peptide that contained the amino-terminal protein sequence of human brain tissue factor. Northern blotting identified a major mRNA species of 2.2 kilobases and a minor species of ∼ 3.2 kilobases in poly(A) + RNA of placenta. Only 2.2-kilobase mRNA was detected in human brain and in the human monocytic U937 cell line. In U937 cells, the quantity of tissue factor mRNA was increased several fold by exposure of the cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Additional cDNA clones were selected by hybridization with the cDNA insert of λHTF8. These overlapping isolates span 2177 base pairs of the tissue factor cDNA sequence that includes a 5'-noncoding region of 75 base pairs, an open reading frame of 885 base pairs, a stop codon, a 3'-noncoding region of 1141 base pairs, and a poly(a) tail. The open reading frame encodes a 33-kilodalton protein of 295 amino acids. The predicted sequence includes a signal peptide of 32 or 34 amino acids, a probable extracellular factor VII binding domain of 217 or 219 amino acids, a transmembrane segment of 23 acids, and a cytoplasmic tail of 21 amino acids. There are three potential glycosylation sites with the sequence Asn-X-Thr/Ser. The 3'-noncoding region contains an inverted Alu family repetitive sequence. The tissue factor gene was localized to chromosome 1 by hybridization of the cDNA insert of λHTF8 to flow-sorted human chromosomes

  5. Construction of C35 gene bait recombinants and T47D cell cDNA library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kun; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Liu, Ye; Xiao, Ting; Zhu, Song; Yan, Ge

    2017-11-20

    C35 is a novel tumor biomarker associated with metastasis progression. To investigate the interaction factors of C35 in its high expressed breast cancer cell lines, we constructed bait recombinant plasmids of C35 gene and T47D cell cDNA library for yeast two-hybrid screening. Full length C35 sequences were subcloned using RT-PCR from cDNA template extracted from T47D cells. Based on functional domain analysis, the full-length C35 1-348bp was also truncated into two fragments C351-153bp and C35154-348bp to avoid auto-activation. The three kinds of C35 genes were successfully amplified and inserted into pGBKT7 to construct bait recombinant plasmids pGBKT7-C351-348bp, pGBKT7-C351-153bp and pGBKT7-C35154-348bp, then transformed into Y187 yeast cells by the lithium acetate method. Auto-activation and toxicity of C35 baits were detected using nutritional deficient medium and X-α-Gal assays. The T47D cell ds cDNA was generated by SMART TM technology and the library was constructed using in vivo recombination-mediated cloning in the AH109 yeast strain using a pGADT7-Rec plasmid. The transformed Y187/pGBKT7-C351-348bp line was intensively inhibited while the truncated Y187/pGBKT7-C35 lines had no auto-activation and toxicity in yeast cells. The titer of established cDNA library was 2 × 10 7 pfu/mL with high transformation efficiency of 1.4 × 10 6 , and the insert size of ds cDNA was distributed homogeneously between 0.5-2.0 kb. Our research generated a T47D cell cDNA library with high titer, and the constructed two C35 "baits" contained a respective functional immunoreceptor tyrosine based activation motif (ITAM) and the conserved last four amino acids Cys-Ile-Leu-Val (CILV) motif, and therefore laid a foundation for screening the C35 interaction factors in a BC cell line.

  6. Get Tested for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS: What is HIV/AIDS? Women and HIV/AIDS Next section ... Tested? Why do I need to get tested for HIV? The only way to know if you have HIV is to get tested. Many people with HIV don’t have any symptoms. In the United States, about 1 in 7 ...

  7. Optimization of in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with heat-resistant cDNA in Brassica oleracea subsp. italica cv. Green Marvel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanfar, Seyed Ali; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Abdullah, Janna Ong

    2015-11-01

    An efficient system for shoot regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Brassica oleracea cv. Green Marvel cultivar is described. This study focuses on developing shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of broccoli cv. Green Marvel using thidiazuron (TDZ), zeatin, and kinetin, the optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the hypocotyl explants with heat-resistant cDNA, followed by the confirmation of transgenicity of the regenerants. High shoot regeneration was observed in 0.05-0.1 mg dm(-3) TDZ. TDZ at 0.1 mg dm(-3) produced among the highest percentage of shoot regeneration (96.67 %) and mean number of shoot formation (6.17). The highest percentage (13.33 %) and mean number (0.17) of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants subjected to preculture on shoot regeneration medium (SRM) with 200 µM acetosyringone. On optimization of bacterial density and inoculation time, the highest percentage and mean number of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants inoculated with a bacterial dilution of 1:5 for 30 min. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay indicated a transformation efficiency of 8.33 %. The luciferase assay showed stable integration of the Arabidopsis thaliana HSP101 (AtHSP101) cDNA in the transgenic broccoli regenerants. Three out of five transgenic lines confirmed through PCR showed positive hybridization bands of the AtHSP101 cDNA through Southern blot analysis. The presence of AtHSP101 transcripts in the three transgenic broccoli lines indicated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed the expression of the gene. In conclusion, an improved regeneration system has been established from hypocotyl explants of broccoli followed by successful transformation with AtHSP101 for resistance to high temperature.

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids- ... HIV, STD, and TB Prevention. About HIV/AIDS. ( https://www.cdc.gov/actagainstaids/basics/whatishiv.html ). Atlanta, ...

  9. RFLP for Duchenne muscular dystrophy cDNA clone 44-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laing, N G; Siddique, T; Bartlett, R J; Yamaoka, L H; Chen, J C; Walker, A P; Hung, W Y; Roses, A D [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA)

    1988-07-25

    Clone 44-1 is one of six cDNA clones which comprise the cDNA for the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene. It is a 0.9kb fragment in the EcoR1 site of Bluescript. Taq1 (TlCGA) identifies two alleles with bands at 6.8 and 5.7kb, as well as four constant bands at 4.8, 3.9, 3.5 and 2.5kb. Its frequency was studied in 62 unrelated individuals. Mendelian inheritance was demonstrated in one three generation and three two generation informative families, 26 individuals. There were no problems on RFLP analysis under normal stringency conditions.

  10. RFLP for Duchenne muscular dystrophy cDNA clone 30-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A P; Bartlett, R J; Laing, N G; Siddique, T; Yamaoka, L H; Chen, J C; Hung, W Y; Roses, A D [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA)

    1988-09-26

    30-2 is one of 6 cDNA clones which comprise the cDNA for the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene. It is a 1.15 kb fragment in the EcoRI site of Bluescribe. TaqI (T{down arrow}CGA) identifies two bands with alleles at 3.7 and 3.5 kb, as well as eight constant bands at 9.0, 7.5, 4.6, 3.6, 3.4, 2.5, 1.7 and 1.4 kb. The allele frequency was studied in 47 unrelated DMD males: 3.7 kb allele 0.45; and 3.5 kb allele 0.55. Co-dominant X-linked segregation was demonstrated in two 2-generation families. 1.1% agarose gels required to resolve the bands. The polymorphism is also recognized by PERT 87-15.

  11. Consistent errors in first strand cDNA due to random hexamer mispriming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P van Gurp

    Full Text Available Priming of random hexamers in cDNA synthesis is known to show sequence bias, but in addition it has been suggested recently that mismatches in random hexamer priming could be a cause of mismatches between the original RNA fragment and observed sequence reads. To explore random hexamer mispriming as a potential source of these errors, we analyzed two independently generated RNA-seq datasets of synthetic ERCC spikes for which the reference is known. First strand cDNA synthesized by random hexamer priming on RNA showed consistent position and nucleotide-specific mismatch errors in the first seven nucleotides. The mismatch errors found in both datasets are consistent in distribution and thermodynamically stable mismatches are more common. This strongly indicates that RNA-DNA mispriming of specific random hexamers causes these errors. Due to their consistency and specificity, mispriming errors can have profound implications for downstream applications if not dealt with properly.

  12. Molecular characterization of MHC-DRB cDNA in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Naskar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, water buffalo MHC (Bubu-DRB cDNA was cloned and characterized. The 1022 base long-amplified cDNA product encompassed a single open reading frame of 801 bases that coded for 266 amino acids. The Bubu-DRB sequence showed maximum homology with the BoLA-DRB3*0101 allele of cattle. A total of seven amino acid residues were found to be unique for the Bubu-DRB sequence. The majority of amino acid substitutions was observed in the β1 domain. Residues associated with important functions were mostly conserved. Water buffalo DRB was phylogenetically closer to goat DRB*A.

  13. cDNA cloning and immunological characterization of the rye grass allergen Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Ishioka, G Y; Walker, L E; Chesnut, R W

    1990-09-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of two "isoallergenic" forms of Lol p I, the major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was deduced from cDNA sequence analysis. cDNA clones isolated from a Lolium perenne pollen library contained an open reading frame coding for a 240-amino acid protein. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of two of these clones revealed four changes at the amino acid level and numerous nucleotide differences. Both clones contained one possible asparagine-linked glycosylation site. Northern blot analysis shows one RNA species of 1.2 kilobases. Based on the complete amino acid sequence of Lol p I, overlapping peptides covering the entire molecule were synthesized. Utilizing these peptides we have identified a determinant within the Lol p I molecule that is recognized by human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted T cells obtained from persons allergic to rye grass pollen.

  14. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for a human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor.

    OpenAIRE

    Antalis, T M; Clark, M A; Barnes, T; Lehrbach, P R; Devine, P L; Schevzov, G; Goss, N H; Stephens, R W; Tolstoshev, P

    1988-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor (mPAI-2) was purified to homogeneity from the U937 cell line and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotide probes derived from this sequence were used to screen a cDNA library prepared from U937 cells. One positive clone was sequenced and contained most of the coding sequence as well as a long incomplete 3' untranslated region (1112 base pairs). This cDNA sequence was shown to encode mPAI-2 by hybrid-select translation. A cDNA clone encoding t...

  15. Three human alcohol dehydrogenase subunits: cDNA structure and molecular and evolutionary divergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, T.; Szeto, S.; Yoshida, A.

    1986-01-01

    Class I human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol:NAD + oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) consists of several homo- and heterodimers of α, β, and γ subunits that are governed by the ADH1, ADH2, and ADH3 loci. The authors previously cloned a full length of cDNA for the β subunit, and the complete sequence of 374 amino acid residues was established. cDNAs for the α and γ subunits were cloned and characterized. A human liver cDNA library, constructed in phage λgt11, was screened by using a synthetic oligonucleotide probe that was matched to the γ but not to the β sequence. Clone pUCADHγ21 and clone pUCADHα15L differed from β cDNA with respect to restriction sites and hybridization with the nucleotide probe. Clone pUCADHγ21 contained an insertion of 1.5 kilobase pairs (kbp) and encodes 374 amino acid residues compatible with the reported amino acid sequence of the γ subunit. Clone pUCADHα15L contained an insertion of 2.4 kbp and included nucleotide sequences that encode 374 amino acid residues for another subunit, the γ subunit. In addition, this clone contained the sequences that encode the COOH-terminal part of the β subunit at its extended 5' region. The amino acid sequences and coding regions of the cDNAs of the three subunits are very similar. A high degree of resemblance is observed also in their 3' noncoding regions. However, distinctive differences exist in the vicinity of the Zn-binding cysteine residue at position 46. Based on the cDNA sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences of the three subunits, their structural and evolutionary relationships are discussed

  16. Cdna cloning and expression analyses of the isoflavone reductase-like gene of dendrobium officinale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, X.; Xu, S.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The full length of the isoflavone reductase-like gene (IRL) cDNA of Dendrobium officinale was cloned by using reverse transcription (RT) PCR combined with cDNA library, the IRL function was identified by Bioinformatics and prokaryotic expression analyses, and the IRL expression levels in the organs and tissues of D. officinale plants with different ages were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The results indicated that the full length of the cDNA of D. officinale IRL, DoIRL, was 1238 bp (accession no. KJ661023). Its open reading frame (ORF) was 930 bp which encoded 309 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 34 kDa, the 5 untranslated region (UTR) was 61 bp and the 3 UTR containing a poly (A) tail was 247 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of DoIRL, DoIRL, was forecast to contain a NAD(P)H-binding motif (GGTGYIG) in the N-terminal region, two conserved N-glycosylation sites, a conserved nitrogen metabolite repression regulator (NmrA) domain and a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER) domain, to hold the nearest phylogenetic relationship with the PCBER of Striga asiatica, and to share both 73% identity with the isoflavone reductases-like (IRLs) of Cucumis sativus and Striga asiatica. In Escherichia coli 'BL21' cells, the DoIRL cDNA expression produced a protein band holding the predicted molecular mass of 34 kDa. DoIRL expressed in all organs and tissues of D. officinale plants with different ages at comparatively low levels, and the expression level in the leaves of the two-year-old plants was the highest. (author)

  17. Human pro. cap alpha. 1(III) collagen: cDNA sequence for the 3' end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankoo, B S; Dalgleish, R

    1988-03-25

    The authors have previously isolated two overlapping cDNA clones, pIII-21 and pIII-33, which encode the C-terminal end of human type III procollagen. They now present the sequence of 2520 bases encoded in these cDNAs which overlaps other previously published sequences for the same gene. The sequence presented differs from previously published sequences at five positions.

  18. Cloning, sequencing and expression of a novel xylanase cDNA from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... First strand cDNA was synthesized by RT-PCR with Oligo(dT)15 using mRNA isolated ... 4°C. Single colonies were picked into 5 mL BMGY medium for preculture, and incubated ... to fold properly into a native conformation. Without the .... polymorphism is often used in taxonomy, but now, it is being well ...

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of an acetylcholinesterase cDNA in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifan; Chen, Jun; Chen, Yongqin; Jiang, Sijing

    2010-01-01

    A full cDNA encoding an acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) was cloned and characterized from the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). The complete cDNA (2467 bp) contains a 1938-bp open reading frame encoding 646 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of the AChE deduced from the cDNA consists of 30 residues for a putative signal peptide and 616 residues for the mature protein with a predicted molecular weight of 69,418. The three residues (Ser242, Glu371, and His485) that putatively form the catalytic triad and the six Cys that form intra-subunit disulfide bonds are completely conserved, and 10 out of the 14 aromatic residues lining the active site gorge of the AChE are also conserved. Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA showed an approximately 2.6-kb transcript, and Southern blot analysis revealed there likely was just a single copy of this gene in N. lugens. The deduced protein sequence is most similar to AChE of Nephotettix cincticeps with 83% amino acid identity. Phylogenetic analysis constructed with 45 AChEs from 30 species showed that the deduced N. lugens AChE formed a cluster with the other 8 insect AChE2s. Additionally, the hypervariable region and amino acids specific to insect AChE2 also existed in the AChE of N. lugens. The results revealed that the AChE cDNA cloned in this work belongs to insect AChE2 subgroup, which is orthologous to Drosophila AChE. Comparison of the AChEs between the susceptible and resistant strains revealed a point mutation, Gly185Ser, is likely responsible for the insensitivity of the AChE to methamidopho in the resistant strain.

  20. HIV-Related Cognitive Impairment of Orphans in Myanmar With Vertically Transmitted HIV Taking Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Kyaw; Fay, Alexander; Meddles, Katherine; Isbell, Sara; Lin, Phyo Nay; Thair, Cho; Heaps, Jodi; Paul, Robert; Mar, Soe Soe

    2015-12-01

    We determined the effect of perinatally acquired HIV on neurocognition in Myanmar children treated with antiretroviral therapy by comparison to demographically matched seronegative children. Myanmar has one of the highest HIV-1 prevalence rates in Southeast Asia. Studies from other resource-poor countries have shown that HIV-infected children differ in socioeconomic, nutritional and caregiver status compared to normal controls. Some vertically infected orphans in Myanmar reside separately from HIV-uninfected children in separate orphanages, thus the demographic variables of interest are naturally controlled. This study provides a unique evaluation of the neurocognitive effects of HIV in children, with control over key demographic variables. We hypothesized that HIV-infected orphans would perform significantly worse on cognitive indices compared with HIV-negative orphans. A battery of cognitive tests sensitive to HIV-associated impairments in children was administered to 28 perinatally acquired HIV-positive children and 31 HIV-negative children from two orphanages in Myanmar; 21 children from each cohort underwent testing at baseline and again after 12 months. Baseline comparison of the two groups indicated that the HIV-infected children performed poorly across all tests, with significant group differences in executive function, visuospatial reasoning, fine motor dexterity, and visual motor integration. On subsequent testing, both cohorts of children showed improvements across multiple domains, with no significant effect of age at treatment initiation. Our results demonstrate a strong effect of HIV infection on specific neurocognitive deficits in vertically infected children. Understanding viral and host determinants and timing and choice of antiretroviral therapy on cognition will be critical to preventing cognitive impairment of children with HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. During this phase, the immune system in someone with HIV slowly weakens, but the person has no symptoms. How long this phase lasts depends on how ...

  2. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I need to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and ... Should an HIV patient be tested for pulmonary hypertension? HIV patients know that medical supervision is critical ...

  3. Dynamic characteristic analysis of mother to child transmission of HIV in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a mathematical model of HIV/AIDS mother to child transmission to analyze the effectiveness of prevention of HIV mother to child transmission programmes has been presented. The result reveals that prevention of HIV mother to child transmission programmes focusing only on biological transmission cannot control the increase of the HIV mother to child transmission in India. Hence, to control the HIV MTCT epidemic in India, in spite of strengthening the PMTCT programmes to reduce transmission rates, effective measures should be taken to prevent HIV infection in women of reproductive ages. Since the overall HIV MTCT epidemic is dependent on the HIV incidence in women of reproductive age group, the integration of pediatric HIV model with a detailed model of adult HIV would be investigated in future studies in order to model these dynamics more accurately.

  4. Construction of cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags from Siberian tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Qing; Lu, Tao-Feng; Feng, Bao-Gang; Liu, Dan; Guan, Wei-Jun; Ma, Yue-Hui

    2010-01-01

    In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, the most well-known wild Animal. Total RNA was extracted from cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.30×106 pfu/ml and 1.62×109 pfu/ml respectively. The proportion of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.5% and average length of exogenous inserts was 1.13 kb. A total of 282 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 328 to 1,142bps were then analyzed the BLASTX score revealed that 53.9% of the sequences were classified as strong match, 38.6% as nominal and 7.4% as weak match. 28.0% of them were found to be related to enzyme/catalytic protein, 20.9% ESTs to metabolism, 13.1% ESTs to transport, 12.1% ESTs to signal transducer/cell communication, 9.9% ESTs to structure protein, 3.9% ESTs to immunity protein/defense metabolism, 3.2% ESTs to cell cycle, and 8.9 ESTs classified as novel genes. These results demonstrated that the reliability and representativeness of the cDNA library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful platform for the functional genomic research of Siberian tigers. PMID:20941376

  5. Enhanced specificity in immunoscreening of expression cDNA clones using radiolabeled antigen overlay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, S.; Chao, L.; Chao, J.

    1989-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific method has been developed for immunoscreening clones from an expression cDNA library. The procedures utilize a radiolabeled antigen detection method described originally for the immunoblotting of plasma proteins. Screening of rat alpha 1-antitrypsin clones was used. Comparison between Western blots of alpha 1-antitrypsin using both labeled antigen and protein A detection methods showed that the former yielded lower background and greater sensitivity than the latter. Further, this technique was shown to have a lower detection limit of less than 20 ng through Western blot analysis of varying concentrations of alpha 1-antitrypsin. The procedures are based on the expression of the protein by cDNA clones containing the DNA inserts in the correct reading frame. Following the transfer of phage proteins to nitrocellulose membranes, the bivalent antibodies bind monovalently to both nitrocellulose-bound-antigen in the phage lysates and radiolabeled antigen. The radiolabeled antigen overlay method is superior to the protein A detection method in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. This improved method can be applied in general for screening expression cDNA libraries, provided that the specific antiserum and radiolabeled antigen are available

  6. Multiplex cDNA quantification method that facilitates the standardization of gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Osamu; Murakami, Yasufumi; Suyama, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Microarray-based gene expression measurement is one of the major methods for transcriptome analysis. However, current microarray data are substantially affected by microarray platforms and RNA references because of the microarray method can provide merely the relative amounts of gene expression levels. Therefore, valid comparisons of the microarray data require standardized platforms, internal and/or external controls and complicated normalizations. These requirements impose limitations on the extensive comparison of gene expression data. Here, we report an effective approach to removing the unfavorable limitations by measuring the absolute amounts of gene expression levels on common DNA microarrays. We have developed a multiplex cDNA quantification method called GEP-DEAN (Gene expression profiling by DCN-encoding-based analysis). The method was validated by using chemically synthesized DNA strands of known quantities and cDNA samples prepared from mouse liver, demonstrating that the absolute amounts of cDNA strands were successfully measured with a sensitivity of 18 zmol in a highly multiplexed manner in 7 h. PMID:21415008

  7. Paramyosin from the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei: cDNA cloning and heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, J G; Ljunggren, E L; Bergström, K

    2001-05-01

    The burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei is the causative agent of the highly contagious disease sarcoptic mange or scabies. So far, there is no in vitro propagation system for S. scabiei available, and mites used for various purposes must be isolated from infected hosts. Lack of parasite-derived material has limited the possibilities to study several aspects of scabies, including pathogenesis and immunity. It has also hampered the development of high performance serological assays. We have now constructed an S. scabiei cDNA expression library with mRNA purified from mites isolated from red foxes. Immunoscreening of the library enabled us to clone a full-length cDNA coding for a 102.5 kDa protein. Sequence similarity searches identified the protein as a paramyosin. Recombinant S. scabiei paramyosin expressed in Escherichia coli was recognized by sera from dogs and swine infected with S. scabiei. We also designed a small paramyosin construct of about 17 kDa that included the N-terminal part, an evolutionary variable part of the helical core, and the C-terminal part of the molecule. The miniaturized protein was efficiently expressed in E. coli and was recognized by sera from immunized rabbits. These data demonstrate that the cDNA library can assist in the isolation of important S. scabiei antigens and that recombinant proteins can be useful for the study of scabies.

  8. Growth hormone and prolactin in Andrias davidianus: cDNA cloning, tissue distribution and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Meng, Zining; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaochun; Lu, Danqi; Huang, Junhai; Lin, Haoran

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) is one of the largest and 'living fossil' species of amphibian. To obtain genetic information for this species, the cDNAs encoding growth hormone (adGH) and prolactin (adPRL) were cloned from a pituitary cDNA library. The isolated adGH cDNA consisted of 864 bp and encoded a propeptide of 215 amino acids, while the cDNA of adPRL was 1106 bp in length and encoded a putative peptide of 229 amino acids. Expression of the GH and PRL mRNA was only detected in the pituitary. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the isolated pituitary hormone sequences using maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining algorithms. The clustering results are similar to that based on the morphological characteristics or the rRNA genes, which indicate that the two orders (Anura and Caudata) of amphibian were monophyletic, and that A. davidianus was diverged early in the Caudate clade. These results indicated that both the GH and PRL sequence might be useful to study the phylogenies of relatively moderate evolved groups.

  9. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte β-spectrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prchal, J.T.; Morley, B.J.; Yoon, S.H.; Coetzer, T.L.; Palek, J.; Conboy, J.G.; Kan, Y.W.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrin is an important structural component of the membrane skeleton that underlies and supports the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It is composed of nonidentical α (M/sub r/ 240,000) and β (M/sub r/ 220,000) subunits, each of which contains multiple homologous 106-amino acid segments. The authors report here the isolation and characterization of a human erythroid-specific β-spectrin cDNA clone that encodes parts of the β-9 through β-12 repeat segments. This cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to assign the β-spectrin gene to human chromosome 14 and to begin molecular analysis of the gene and its mRNA transcripts. RNA transfer blot analysis showed that the reticulocyte β-spectrin mRNA is 7.8 kilobases in length. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) within the β-spectrin gene locus. The isolation of human spectrin cDNA probes and the identification of closely linked RFLPs will facilitate analysis of mutant spectrin genes causing congenital hemolytic anemias associated with quantitative and qualitative spectrin abnormalities

  10. Chromosomal Localization of DNA Amplifications in Neuroblastoma Tumors Using cDNA Microarray Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Beheshti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH profiling of neuroblastomas has identified many genomic aberrations, although the limited resolution has precluded a precise localization of sequences of interest within amplicons. To map high copy number genomic gains in clinically matched stage IV neuroblastomas, CGH analysis using a 19,200-feature cDNA microarray was used. A dedicated (freely available algorithm was developed for rapid in silico determination of chromosomal localizations of microarray cDNA targets, and for generation of an ideogram-type profile of copy number changes. Using these methodologies, novel gene amplifications undetectable by chromosome CGH were identified, and larger MYCN amplicon sizes (in one tumor up to 6 Mb than those previously reported in neuroblastoma were identified. The genes HPCAL1, LPIN1/KIAA0188, NAG, and NSE1/LOC151354 were found to be coamplified with MYCN. To determine whether stage IV primary tumors could be further subclassified based on their genomic copy number profiles, hierarchical clustering was performed. Cluster analysis of microarray CGH data identified three groups: 1 no amplifications evident, 2 a small MYCN amplicon as the only detectable imbalance, and 3 a large MYCN amplicon with additional gene amplifications. Application of CGH to cDNA microarray targets will help to determine both the variation of amplicon size and help better define amplification-dependent and independent pathways of progression in neuroblastoma.

  11. Coordinate regulation of stromelysin and collagenase genes determined with cDNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, S.M.; Clark, E.J.; Werb, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Secreted proteinases are required for tumor metastasis, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling during wound healing and embryonic growth. Thus, the regulation of the genes of secreted proteinases may serve as an interesting model for growth-controlled genes in general. The authors studied the genes of the secreted proteinases stromelysin and collagenase by using molecularly cloned cDNAs from each proteinase. Stromelysin cDNA was cloned by differential screening of a total cDNA library from rabbit synovial cells treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which yielded a clone of 1.2 kilobase pairs; collagenase cDNA was obtained by cloning reverse transcripts of anti-collagenase-immunoadsorbed polysomal mRNA, which yielded a clone of 0.8 kilobase pairs. Stromelysin and collagenase mRNA species of 2.2 and 2.4 kilobases, respectively, were detected on hybridization blots of RNA from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated but not untreated rabbit synovial cells. Expression of stromelysin mRNA was also induced in rabbit alveolar macrophages and rabbit brain capillary endothelial cells treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Stromelysin and collagenase mRNA were both induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and cytochalasin B at a constant ratio of the two gene products; this suggest coordinate regulation. The fact that induction was blocked after inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide implicates an indirect signal transduction pathway that requires new protein synthesis

  12. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hev ein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  13. [Construction of fetal mesenchymal stem cell cDNA subtractive library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wang, Dong-Mei; Li, Liang; Bai, Ci-Xian; Cao, Hua; Li, Ting-Yu; Pei, Xue-Tao

    2002-04-01

    To identify differentially expressed genes between fetal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and adult MSC, especially specified genes expressed in fetal MSC, a cDNA subtractive library of fetal MSC was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. At first, total RNA was isolated from fetal and adult MSC. Using SMART PCR synthesis method, single-strand and double-strand cDNAs were synthesized. After Rsa I digestion, fetal MSC cDNAs were divided into two groups and ligated to adaptor 1 and adaptor 2 respectively. Results showed that the amplified library contains 890 clones. Analysis of 890 clones with PCR demonstrated that 768 clones were positive. The positive rate is 86.3%. The size of inserted fragments in these positive clones was between 0.2 - 1 kb, with an average of 400 - 600 bp. SSH is a convenient and effective method for screening differentially expressed genes. The constructed cDNA subtractive library of fetal MSC cDNA lays solid foundation for screening and cloning new and specific function related genes of fetal MSC.

  14. Localization of the human fibromodulin gene (FMOD) to chromosome 1q32 and completion of the cDNA sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sztrolovics, R.; Grover, J.; Roughley, P.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the cloning of the 3{prime}-untranslated region of the human fibromodulin cDNA and its use to map the gene. For somatic cell hybrids, the generation of the PCR product was concordant with the presence of chromosome 1 and discordant with the presence of all other chromosomes, confirming that the fibromodulin gene is located within region q32 of chromosome 1. The physical mapping of genes is a critical step in the process of identifying which genes may be responsible for various inherited disorders. Specifically, the mapping of the fibromodulin gene now provides the information necessary to evaluate its potential role in genetic disorders of connective tissues. The analysis of previously reported diseases mapped to chromosome 1 reveals two genes located in the proximity of the fibromodulin locus. These are Usher syndrome type II, a recessive disorder characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, and Van der Woude syndrome, a dominant condition associated with abnormalities such as cleft lip and palate and hyperdontia. The genes for both of these disorders have been projected to be localized to 1q32 of a physical map that integrates available genetic linkage and physical data. However, it seems improbable that either of these disorders, exhibiting restricted tissue involvement, could be linked to the fibromodulin gene, given the wide tissue distribution of the encoded proteoglycan, although it remains possible that the relative importance of the quantity and function of the proteoglycan may avry between tissues. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Adolescents Living with HIV: An Indian Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravya Kurapati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although there have been studies on the presence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV among the adult and even pediatric population, the adolescent population has been neglected. The main objective of this study was to understand and describe the profile of adolescents accessing the Integrated Counseling and Testing Centre (ICTC at a tertiary healthcare centre in north India. This was a retrospective analysis of the data collected where, in addition to the analysis of the presence of HIV among the target population, a comparative analysis of HIV-positive and negative individuals was also carried out. Methods. Counselors at the ICTC of All India Institute of Medical Sciences recorded responses of the patients, and pre- and posttest counseling was performed appropriately. Also, HIV testing was performed using rapid tests (EIA and ELISA. Both pre- and posttest counseling was performed for most of the patients. Also, the data collected from 2005 to May, 2011 was then retrospectively analyzed using various statistical tests, such as, Chi-square test and odds ratios. Results. Out of 979, 84 tested HIV positive. Discrimination at multiple levels was observed.The 10–14 years age group was 0.56 times more likely to be HIV positive than 15–19 year old. HIV serostatus was strongly associated with risk behavior (P=0.003 with heterosexual transmission being the most common. Conclusion. These findings highlight the profile of adolescents in India and their equation with HIV on demographic and psychosocial levels.

  16. Human endogenous retrovirus K Gag coassembles with HIV-1 Gag and reduces the release efficiency and infectivity of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Kazuaki; Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Kaplan, Mark H; Markovitz, David M; Ono, Akira

    2012-10-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are remnants of ancestral retroviruses integrated into the human genome, are defective in viral replication. Because activation of HERV-K and coexpression of this virus with HIV-1 have been observed during HIV-1 infection, it is conceivable that HERV-K could affect HIV-1 replication, either by competition or by cooperation, in cells expressing both viruses. In this study, we found that the release efficiency of HIV-1 Gag was 3-fold reduced upon overexpression of HERV-K(CON) Gag. In addition, we observed that in cells expressing Gag proteins of both viruses, HERV-K(CON) Gag colocalized with HIV-1 Gag at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, HERV-K(CON) Gag was found to coassemble with HIV-1 Gag, as demonstrated by (i) processing of HERV-K(CON) Gag by HIV-1 protease in virions, (ii) coimmunoprecipitation of virion-associated HERV-K(CON) Gag with HIV-1 Gag, and (iii) rescue of a late-domain-defective HERV-K(CON) Gag by wild-type (WT) HIV-1 Gag. Myristylation-deficient HERV-K(CON) Gag localized to nuclei, suggesting cryptic nuclear trafficking of HERV-K Gag. Notably, unlike WT HERV-K(CON) Gag, HIV-1 Gag failed to rescue myristylation-deficient HERV-K(CON) Gag to the plasma membrane. Efficient colocalization and coassembly of HIV-1 Gag and HERV-K Gag also required nucleocapsid (NC). These results provide evidence that HIV-1 Gag heteromultimerizes with HERV-K Gag at the plasma membrane, presumably through NC-RNA interaction. Intriguingly, HERV-K Gag overexpression reduced not only HIV-1 release efficiency but also HIV-1 infectivity in a myristylation- and NC-dependent manner. Altogether, these results indicate that Gag proteins of endogenous retroviruses can coassemble with HIV-1 Gag and modulate the late phase of HIV-1 replication.

  17. CDNA Microarray Based Comparative Gene Expression Analysis of Primary Breast Tumors Versus In Vitro Transformed Neoplastic Breast Epithelium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szallasi, Zoltan

    2001-01-01

    .... The first group of clones is being sorted by their ability to form tumors. We are currently performing cDNA microarray analysis quantifying the expression level of about 15,000 genes in these cell lines...

  18. cDNA sequence of human transforming gene hst and identification of the coding sequence required for transforming activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, M.; Yoshida, T.; Miyagawa, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Terada, M.; Sugimura, T.

    1987-01-01

    The hst gene was originally identified as a transforming gene in DNAs from human stomach cancers and from a noncancerous portion of stomach mucosa by DNA-mediated transfection assay using NIH3T3 cells. cDNA clones of hst were isolated from the cDNA library constructed from poly(A) + RNA of a secondary transformant induced by the DNA from a stomach cancer. The sequence analysis of the hst cDNA revealed the presence of two open reading frames. When this cDNA was inserted into an expression vector containing the simian virus 40 promoter, it efficiently induced the transformation of NIH3T3 cells upon transfection. It was found that one of the reading frames, which coded for 206 amino acids, was responsible for the transforming activity

  19. Two human cDNA molecules coding for the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus are highly homologous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A.; Speer, A.; Billwitz, H. (Zentralinstitut fuer Molekularbiologie, Berlin-Buch (Germany Democratic Republic)); Cross, G.S.; Forrest, S.M.; Davies, K.E. (Univ. of Oxford (England))

    1989-07-11

    Recently the complete sequence of the human fetal cDNA coding for the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus was reported and a 3,685 amino acid long, rod-shaped cytoskeletal protein (dystrophin) was predicted as the protein product. Independently, the authors have isolated and sequenced different DMD cDNA molecules from human adult and fetal muscle. The complete 12.5 kb long sequence of all their cDNA clones has now been determined and they report here the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) differences between the sequences of both groups. The cDNA sequence comprises the whole coding region but lacks the first 110 nt from the 5{prime}-untranslated region and the last 1,417 nt of the 3{prime}-untranslated region. They have found 11 nt differences (approximately 99.9% homology) from which 7 occurred at the aa level.

  20. Identification of a cryptic prokaryotic promoter within the cDNA encoding the 5' end of dengue virus RNA genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Li

    Full Text Available Infectious cDNA clones of RNA viruses are important research tools, but flavivirus cDNA clones have proven difficult to assemble and propagate in bacteria. This has been attributed to genetic instability and/or host cell toxicity, however the mechanism leading to these difficulties has not been fully elucidated. Here we identify and characterize an efficient cryptic bacterial promoter in the cDNA encoding the dengue virus (DENV 5' UTR. Following cryptic transcription in E. coli, protein expression initiated at a conserved in-frame AUG that is downstream from the authentic DENV initiation codon, yielding a DENV polyprotein fragment that was truncated at the N-terminus. A more complete understanding of constitutive viral protein expression in E. coli might help explain the cloning and propagation difficulties generally observed with flavivirus cDNA.

  1. Molecular HIV screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlet, Thomas; Memmi, Meriam; Saoudin, Henia; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear acid testing is more and more used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. This paper focuses on the use of molecular tools for HIV screening. The term 'screening' will be used under the meaning of first-line HIV molecular techniques performed on a routine basis, which excludes HIV molecular tests designed to confirm or infirm a newly discovered HIV-seropositive patient or other molecular tests performed for the follow-up of HIV-infected patients. The following items are developed successively: i) presentation of the variety of molecular tools used for molecular HIV screening, ii) use of HIV molecular tools for the screening of blood products, iii) use of HIV molecular tools for the screening of organs and tissue from human origin, iv) use of HIV molecular tools in medically assisted procreation and v) use of HIV molecular tools in neonates from HIV-infected mothers.

  2. cDNA cloning, mRNA distribution and heterogeneity, chromosomal location, and RFLP analysis of human osteopontin (OPN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, M F; Kerr, J M; Termine, J D

    1990-01-01

    A human osteopontin (OP) cDNA was isolated from a library made from primary cultures of human bone cells. The distribution of osteopontin mRNA in human tissues was investigated by Northern analysis and showed that the human message was predominant in cultures of bone cells and in decidua cells...... osteopontin cDNA indicated that the gene is a single copy with an approximate length of 5.4-8.2 kb....

  3. Characterization of the cDNA encoding human nucleophosmin and studies of its role in normal and abnormal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Waiyee; Liu, Qingrong; Borjigin, J.; Busch, H.; Rennert, O.M.; Tease, L.A.; Chan, Puikwong

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA encoding human nucleophosmin (protein B23) was obtained by screening a human placental cDNA library in δgtll first with monoclonal antibody to rat nucleophosmin and then with confirmed partial cDNA of human nucleophosmin as probes. The cDNA had 1,311 bp with a coding sequence encoding a protein of 294 amino acids. The identity of the cDNA was confirmed by the presence of encoded amino acid sequences identical with those determined by sequencing pure rat nucleophosmin (a total of 138 amino acids). The most striking feature of the sequence is an acidic cluster located in the middle of the molecule. The cluster consists of 26 Asp/Glu and 1 Phe and Ala. Comparison of human nucleophosmin and Xenopus nucleolar protein NO38 shows 64.3% sequence identity. The N-terminal 130 amino acids of human nucleophosmin also bear 50% identity with that of Xenopus nucleoplasmin. Northern blot analysis of rat liver total RNA with a partial nucleophosmin cDNA as probe demonstrated a homogeneous mRNA band of about 1.6 kb. Similar observations were made in hypertrophic rat liver and Novikoff hepatoma. When the protein levels were compared with Western blot immunoassays, Navikoff hepatoma showed 20 times more nucleophosmin, while only about 5 times more nucleophosmin was observed in hypertrophic rat liver than in unstimulated normal liver

  4. Molecular cloning of a human glycophorin B cDNA: nucleotide sequence and genomic relationship to glycophorin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, P.D.; Fukuda, M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe the isolation and nucleotide sequence of a human glycophorin B cDNA. The cDNA was identified by differential hybridization of synthetic oligonucleotide probes to a human erythroleukemic cell line (K562) cDNA library constructed in phage vector λgt10. The nucleotide sequence of the glycophorin B cDNA was compared with that of a previously cloned glycophorin A cDNA. The nucleotide sequences encoding the NH 2 -terminal leader peptide and first 26 amino acids of the two proteins are nearly identical. This homologous region is followed by areas specific to either glycophorin A or B and a number of small regions of homology, which in turn are followed by a very homologous region encoding the presumed membrane-spanning portion of the proteins. They used RNA blot hybridization with both cDNA and synthetic oligonucleotide probes to prove our previous hypothesis that glycophorin B is encoded by a single 0.5- to 0.6-kb mRNA and to show that glycophorins A and B are negatively and coordinately regulated by a tumor-promoting phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. They established the intron/exon structure of the glycophorin A and B genes by oligonucleotide mapping; the results suggest a complex evolution of the glycophorin genes

  5. Construction and identification of subtracted cDNA library in bone marrow cells of radon-exposed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianxiang; Nie Jihua; Tong Jian; Fu Chunling; Zhou Jianwei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To construct and identify subtracted cDNA library in bone marrow cells of mice exposed to radon inhalation. Methods: Adult male BALB/c mice, weighing 18-22 g, were placed in a multi- functional radon chamber. One group of mice was exposed to radon up to the accumulative dose of 105 work level month (WLM). The control group of mice was housed in a room with an accumulative dose of 1 WLM. To construct a subtracted cDNA library enriched with differentially expressed genes, the SMART technique and the suppression subtractive hybridization were performed. The obtained forward and reverse cDNA fragments were directly inserted into pMD18-T vector and transformed into E. coli JM109. The inserting cDNA fragments were screened by the blue-and-white blot screening and nested PCR of bacterium liquid. Results: The 244 of 285 white bacteria clones obtained randomly were positive clones contained 100-1100 bp inserted cDNA fragments. Conclusions: The forward and reverse subtracted cDNA library in bone marrow cells of mice exposed to radon inhalation is successfully constructed. (authors)

  6. An alternative method for cDNA cloning from surrogate eukaryotic cells transfected with the corresponding genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin-Yong; Cui, Chen-Chen; Song, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xiang-Guo; Jin, Ya-Ping; Wang, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Yong

    2012-07-01

    cDNA is widely used in gene function elucidation and/or transgenics research but often suitable tissues or cells from which to isolate mRNA for reverse transcription are unavailable. Here, an alternative method for cDNA cloning is described and tested by cloning the cDNA of human LALBA (human alpha-lactalbumin) from genomic DNA. First, genomic DNA containing all of the coding exons was cloned from human peripheral blood and inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector. Next, by delivering the plasmids into either 293T or fibroblast cells, surrogate cells were constructed. Finally, the total RNA was extracted from the surrogate cells and cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR. The human LALBA cDNA that was obtained was compared with the corresponding mRNA published in GenBank. The comparison showed that the two sequences were identical. The novel method for cDNA cloning from surrogate eukaryotic cells described here uses well-established techniques that are feasible and simple to use. We anticipate that this alternative method will have widespread applications.

  7. [Construction of forward and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries between muscle tissue of Meishan and Landrace pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De-Quan; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Gui, Jian-Fang; Jiang, Si-Wen; Su, Yu-Hong

    2003-07-01

    Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique, forward and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed between Longissimus muscles from Meishan and Landrace pigs. A housekeeping gene, G3PDH, was used to estimate the efficiency of subtractive cDNA. In two cDNA libraries, G3PDH was subtracted very efficiently at appropriate 2(10) and 2(5) folds, respectively, indicating that some differentially expressed genes were also enriched at the same folds and the two subtractive cDNA libraries were very successful. A total of 709 and 673 positive clones were isolated from forward and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries, respectively. Analysis of PCR showed that most of all plasmids in the clones contained 150-750 bp inserts. The construction of subtractive cDNA libraries between muscle tissue from different pig breeds laid solid foundations for isolating and identifying the genes determining muscle growth and meat quality, which will be important to understand the mechanism of muscle growth, determination of meat quality and practice of molecular breeding.

  8. Mainstreaming gender in HIV programs: issues, challenges and way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Aprajita; Das, Madhumita

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. It is increasingly being recognized that gender inequality is a critical factor fuelling the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere in the world. To undertake a research and programmatic review to understand how gender has been integrated in existing HIV interventions in India and to highlight the challenges associated with gender mainstreaming to propose recommendations to fill the gaps. Review of literature both published and grey along with exploration of selected HIV program both H...

  9. Medication adherence among transgender women living with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Baguso, Glenda N.; Gay, Caryl L.; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    Medication adherence is linked to health outcomes among adults with HIV infection. Transgender women living with HIV (TWLWH) in the U.S. report suboptimal adherence to medications and are found to have difficulty integrating HIV medication into their daily routine, but few studies explore factors associated with medication adherence among transgender women. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine demographic and clinical factors related to self-reported medication adherence among transg...

  10. Development of oral CTL vaccine using a CTP-integrated Sabin 1 poliovirus-based vector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung-Soo; Lee, Jinjoo; Jung, Yideul; Kang, Myeong-Ho; Hong, Jung-Hyub; Cha, Min-Suk; Park, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ezra; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Bae, Yong-Soo

    2015-09-11

    We developed a CTL vaccine vector by modification of the RPS-Vax system, a mucosal vaccine vector derived from a poliovirus Sabin 1 strain, and generated an oral CTL vaccine against HIV-1. A DNA fragment encoding a cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP) was integrated into the RPS-Vax system to generate RPS-CTP, a CTL vaccine vector. An HIV-1 p24 cDNA fragment was introduced into the RPS-CTP vector system and a recombinant poliovirus (rec-PV) named vRPS-CTP/p24 was produced. vRPS-CTP/p24 was genetically stable and efficiently induced Th1 immunity and p24-specific CTLs in immunized poliovirus receptor-transgenic (PVR-Tg) mice. In challenge experiments, PVR-Tg mice that were pre-immunized orally with vRPS-CTP/p24 were resistant to challenge with a lethal dose of p24-expressing recombinant vaccinia virus (rMVA-p24). These results suggested that the RPS-CTP vector system had potential for developing oral CTL vaccines against infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural resistance to HIV infection: The Vif-APOBEC interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malim, Michael H

    2006-11-01

    Members of the APOBEC family of cellular polynucleotide cytidine deaminases (e.g., APOBEC3G) are potent inhibitors of HIV infection. Wild type viral infections are largely spared from APOBEC function through the action of the viral Vif protein. In Vif's absence, inhibitory APOBEC proteins are encapsidated by budding virus particles leading to excessive cytidine (C) to uridine (U) hypermutation of negative sense reverse transcripts in newly infected cells. This registers as guanosine (G) to adenosine (A) mutations in plus stranded cDNA. Because the functions of Vif and APOBEC proteins oppose each other, it is likely that fluctuations in the Vif/APOBEC balance can influence the natural history of HIV infection. Experimental support for this notion would further justify and stimulate drug discovery initiatives in this area.

  12. Cervical cancer screening in rural South Africa among HIV-infected migrant farm workers and sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omara Afzal

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate successful integration of cervical cancer screening using VIA for HIV+ farm workers and sex workers into an existing HIV treatment and prevention clinic in rural South Africa, addressing and treating abnormal results promptly.

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitors for purging HIV-1 from the latent reservoir.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matalon, S.; Rasmussen, T.A.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    A reservoir of latently infected memory CD4(+) T cells is believed to be the source of HIV-1 reemergence after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 eradication may depend on depletion of this reservoir. Integrated HIV-1 is inaccessible for expression, in part because of histone

  14. HIV Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  15. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  16. National HIV Testing Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.

  17. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.

  18. HIV serostatus disclosure: Experiences and perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS and their service providers in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita V Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disclosure offers important benefits to people living with HIV/AIDS. However, fear of discrimination, blame, and disruption of family relationships can make disclosure a difficult decision. Barriers to HIV disclosure are influenced by the particular culture within which the individuals live. Although many studies have assessed such barriers in the U.S., very few studies have explored the factors that facilitate or prevent HIV disclosure in India. Understanding these factors is critical to the refinement, development, and implementation of a counseling intervention to facilitate disclosure. Materials and Methods: To explore these factors, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews in the local language with HIV- positive individuals from the Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre in Gujarat, India, assessing the experiences, perceived barriers, and facilitators to disclosure. To triangulate the findings, we conducted two focus group discussions with HIV medical and non-medical service providers, respectively. Results: Perceived HIV-associated stigma, fear of discrimination, and fear of family breakdown acted as barriers to HIV disclosure. Most people living with HIV/AIDS came to know of their HIV status due to poor physical health, spousal HIV-positive status, or a positive HIV test during pregnancy. Some wives only learned of their husbands′ HIV positive status after their husbands died. The focus group participants confirmed similar findings. Disclosure had serious implications for individuals living with HIV, such as divorce, maltreatment, ostracism, and decisions regarding child bearing. Interpretation and Conclusion: The identified barriers and facilitators in the present study can be used to augment training of HIV service providers working in voluntary counseling and testing centers in India.

  19. Microarray and cDNA sequence analysis of transcription during nerve-dependent limb regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Susan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray analysis and 454 cDNA sequencing were used to investigate a centuries-old problem in regenerative biology: the basis of nerve-dependent limb regeneration in salamanders. Innervated (NR and denervated (DL forelimbs of Mexican axolotls were amputated and transcripts were sampled after 0, 5, and 14 days of regeneration. Results Considerable similarity was observed between NR and DL transcriptional programs at 5 and 14 days post amputation (dpa. Genes with extracellular functions that are critical to wound healing were upregulated while muscle-specific genes were downregulated. Thus, many processes that are regulated during early limb regeneration do not depend upon nerve-derived factors. The majority of the transcriptional differences between NR and DL limbs were correlated with blastema formation; cell numbers increased in NR limbs after 5 dpa and this yielded distinct transcriptional signatures of cell proliferation in NR limbs at 14 dpa. These transcriptional signatures were not observed in DL limbs. Instead, gene expression changes within DL limbs suggest more diverse and protracted wound-healing responses. 454 cDNA sequencing complemented the microarray analysis by providing deeper sampling of transcriptional programs and associated biological processes. Assembly of new 454 cDNA sequences with existing expressed sequence tag (EST contigs from the Ambystoma EST database more than doubled (3935 to 9411 the number of non-redundant human-A. mexicanum orthologous sequences. Conclusion Many new candidate gene sequences were discovered for the first time and these will greatly enable future studies of wound healing, epigenetics, genome stability, and nerve-dependent blastema formation and outgrowth using the axolotl model.

  20. A tobacco cDNA reveals two different transcription patterns in vegetative and reproductive organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. da Silva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify genes expressed in the pistil that may have a role in the reproduction process, we have established an expressed sequence tags project to randomly sequence clones from a Nicotiana tabacum stigma/style cDNA library. A cDNA clone (MTL-8 showing high sequence similarity to genes encoding glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins was chosen for further characterization. Based on the extensive identity of MTL-8 to the RGP-1a sequence of N. sylvestris, a primer was defined to extend the 5' sequence of MTL-8 by RT-PCR from stigma/style RNAs. The amplification product was sequenced and it was confirmed that MTL-8 corresponds to an mRNA encoding a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein. Two transcripts of different sizes and expression patterns were identified when the MTL-8 cDNA insert was used as a probe in RNA blots. The largest is 1,100 nucleotides (nt long and markedly predominant in ovaries. The smaller transcript, with 600 nt, is ubiquitous to the vegetative and reproductive organs analyzed (roots, stems, leaves, sepals, petals, stamens, stigmas/styles and ovaries. Plants submitted to stress (wounding, virus infection and ethylene treatment presented an increased level of the 600-nt transcript in leaves, especially after tobacco necrosis virus infection. In contrast, the level of the 1,100-nt transcript seems to be unaffected by the stress conditions tested. Results of Southern blot experiments have suggested that MTL-8 is present in one or two copies in the tobacco genome. Our results suggest that the shorter transcript is related to stress while the larger one is a flower predominant and nonstress-inducible messenger.

  1. Dissection of the inflammatory bowel disease transcriptome using genome-wide cDNA microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Costello

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The differential pathophysiologic mechanisms that trigger and maintain the two forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, Crohn disease (CD, and ulcerative colitis (UC are only partially understood. cDNA microarrays can be used to decipher gene regulation events at a genome-wide level and to identify novel unknown genes that might be involved in perpetuating inflammatory disease progression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: High-density cDNA microarrays representing 33,792 UniGene clusters were prepared. Biopsies were taken from the sigmoid colon of normal controls (n = 11, CD patients (n = 10 and UC patients (n = 10. 33P-radiolabeled cDNA from purified poly(A+ RNA extracted from biopsies (unpooled was hybridized to the arrays. We identified 500 and 272 transcripts differentially regulated in CD and UC, respectively. Interesting hits were independently verified by real-time PCR in a second sample of 100 individuals, and immunohistochemistry was used for exemplary localization. The main findings point to novel molecules important in abnormal immune regulation and the highly disturbed cell biology of colonic epithelial cells in IBD pathogenesis, e.g., CYLD (cylindromatosis, turban tumor syndrome and CDH11 (cadherin 11, type 2. By the nature of the array setup, many of the genes identified were to our knowledge previously uncharacterized, and prediction of the putative function of a subsection of these genes indicate that some could be involved in early events in disease pathophysiology. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive set of candidate genes not previously associated with IBD was revealed, which underlines the polygenic and complex nature of the disease. It points out substantial differences in pathophysiology between CD and UC. The multiple unknown genes identified may stimulate new research in the fields of barrier mechanisms and cell signalling in the context of IBD, and ultimately new therapeutic approaches.

  2. Identification of immune protective genes of Eimeria maxima through cDNA expression library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, XinChao; Li, MengHui; Liu, JianHua; Ji, YiHong; Li, XiangRui; Xu, LiXin; Yan, RuoFeng; Song, XiaoKai

    2017-02-16

    Eimeria maxima is one of the most prevalent Eimeria species causing avian coccidiosis, and results in huge economic loss to the global poultry industry. Current control strategies, such as anti-coccidial medication and live vaccines have been limited because of their drawbacks. The third generation anticoccidial vaccines including the recombinant vaccines as well as DNA vaccines have been suggested as a promising alternative strategy. To date, only a few protective antigens of E. maxima have been reported. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify novel protective antigens of E. maxima for the development of neotype anticoccidial vaccines. With the aim of identifying novel protective genes of E. maxima, a cDNA expression library of E. maxima sporozoites was constructed using Gateway technology. Subsequently, the cDNA expression library was divided into 15 sub-libraries for cDNA expression library immunization (cDELI) using parasite challenged model in chickens. Protective sub-libraries were selected for the next round of screening until individual protective clones were obtained, which were further sequenced and analyzed. Adopting the Gateway technology, a high-quality entry library was constructed, containing 9.2 × 10 6 clones with an average inserted fragments length of 1.63 kb. The expression library capacity was 2.32 × 10 7 colony-forming units (cfu) with an average inserted fragments length of 1.64 Kb. The expression library was screened using parasite challenged model in chickens. The screening yielded 6 immune protective genes including four novel protective genes of EmJS-1, EmRP, EmHP-1 and EmHP-2, and two known protective genes of EmSAG and EmCKRS. EmJS-1 is the selR domain-containing protein of E. maxima whose function is unknown. EmHP-1 and EmHP-2 are the hypothetical proteins of E. maxima. EmRP and EmSAG are rhomboid-like protein and surface antigen glycoproteins of E. maxima respectively, and involved in invasion of the parasite. Our

  3. Cloning and sequencing of Indian Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) interleukin-3 cDNA

    KAUST Repository

    Sugumar, Thennarasu

    2011-12-12

    Full-length cDNA (435 bp) of the interleukin-3(IL-3) gene of the Indian water buffalo was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. This sequence had 96% nucleotide identity and 92% amino acid identity with bovine IL-3. There are 10 amino acid substitutions in buffalo compared with that of bovine. The amino acid sequence of buffalo IL-3 also showed very high identity with that of other ruminants, indicating functional cross-reactivity. Structural homology modelling of buffalo IL-3 protein with human IL-3 showed the presence of five helical structures.

  4. Sharpening spots: correcting for bleedover in cDNA array images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therneau, Terry; Tschumper, Renee C; Jelinek, Diane

    2002-03-01

    For cDNA array methods that depend on imaging of a radiolabel, we show that bleedover of one spot onto another, due to the gap between the array and the imaging media, can be a major problem. The images can be sharpened, however, using a blind convolution method based on the EM algorithm. The sharpened images look like a set of donuts, which concurs with our knowledge of the spotting process. Oversharpened images are actually useful as well, in locating the centers of each spot.

  5. Complete cDNA sequence and amino acid analysis of a bovine ribonuclease K6 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowski, D; Förster, M

    2000-01-01

    The complete cDNA sequence of a ribonuclease k6 gene of Bos Taurus has been determined. It codes for a protein with 154 amino acids and contains the invariant cysteine, histidine and lysine residues as well as the characteristic motifs specific to ribonuclease active sites. The deduced protein sequence is 27 residues longer than other known ribonucleases k6 and shows amino acids exchanges which could reflect a strain specificity or polymorphism within the bovine genome. Based on sequence similarity we have termed the identified gene bovine ribonuclease k6 b (brk6b).

  6. Characterization of full-length sequenced cDNA inserts (FLIcs from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunner Sigbjørn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing of the Atlantic salmon genome is now being planned by an international research consortium. Full-length sequenced inserts from cDNAs (FLIcs are an important tool for correct annotation and clustering of the genomic sequence in any species. The large amount of highly similar duplicate sequences caused by the relatively recent genome duplication in the salmonid ancestor represents a particular challenge for the genome project. FLIcs will therefore be an extremely useful resource for the Atlantic salmon sequencing project. In addition to be helpful in order to distinguish between duplicate genome regions and in determining correct gene structures, FLIcs are an important resource for functional genomic studies and for investigation of regulatory elements controlling gene expression. In contrast to the large number of ESTs available, including the ESTs from 23 developmental and tissue specific cDNA libraries contributed by the Salmon Genome Project (SGP, the number of sequences where the full-length of the cDNA insert has been determined has been small. Results High quality full-length insert sequences from 560 pre-smolt white muscle tissue specific cDNAs were generated, accession numbers [GenBank: BT043497 - BT044056]. Five hundred and ten (91% of the transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms and 440 of the FLIcs are likely to contain a complete coding sequence (cCDS. The sequence information was used to identify putative paralogs, characterize salmon Kozak motifs, polyadenylation signal variation and to identify motifs likely to be involved in the regulation of particular genes. Finally, conserved 7-mers in the 3'UTRs were identified, of which some were identical to miRNA target sequences. Conclusion This paper describes the first Atlantic salmon FLIcs from a tissue and developmental stage specific cDNA library. We have demonstrated that many FLIcs contained a complete coding sequence (cCDS. This

  7. Characterization of full-length sequenced cDNA inserts (FLIcs) from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Rune; Lunner, Sigbjørn; Høyheim, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Background Sequencing of the Atlantic salmon genome is now being planned by an international research consortium. Full-length sequenced inserts from cDNAs (FLIcs) are an important tool for correct annotation and clustering of the genomic sequence in any species. The large amount of highly similar duplicate sequences caused by the relatively recent genome duplication in the salmonid ancestor represents a particular challenge for the genome project. FLIcs will therefore be an extremely useful resource for the Atlantic salmon sequencing project. In addition to be helpful in order to distinguish between duplicate genome regions and in determining correct gene structures, FLIcs are an important resource for functional genomic studies and for investigation of regulatory elements controlling gene expression. In contrast to the large number of ESTs available, including the ESTs from 23 developmental and tissue specific cDNA libraries contributed by the Salmon Genome Project (SGP), the number of sequences where the full-length of the cDNA insert has been determined has been small. Results High quality full-length insert sequences from 560 pre-smolt white muscle tissue specific cDNAs were generated, accession numbers [GenBank: BT043497 - BT044056]. Five hundred and ten (91%) of the transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 440 of the FLIcs are likely to contain a complete coding sequence (cCDS). The sequence information was used to identify putative paralogs, characterize salmon Kozak motifs, polyadenylation signal variation and to identify motifs likely to be involved in the regulation of particular genes. Finally, conserved 7-mers in the 3'UTRs were identified, of which some were identical to miRNA target sequences. Conclusion This paper describes the first Atlantic salmon FLIcs from a tissue and developmental stage specific cDNA library. We have demonstrated that many FLIcs contained a complete coding sequence (cCDS). This suggests that the remaining cDNA

  8. Generation and Analysis of Full-length cDNA Sequences from Elephant Shark (Callorhinchus milii)

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2009-03-17

    Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest living group of jawed vertebrates and therefore is an important group for understanding the evolution of vertebrate genomes including the human genome. Our laboratory has proposed elephant shark (C. milii) as a model cartilaginous fish genome because of its relatively small genome size (910 Mb). The whole genome of C. milii is being sequenced (first cartilaginous fish genome to be sequenced completely). To characterize the transcriptome of C. milii and to assist in annotating exon-intron boundaries, transcriptional start sites and alternatively spliced transcripts, we are generating full-length cDNA sequences from C. milii.

  9. License - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project License to Use This Database Last updated : 2010/02/15 You may use this databas...ional License described below. The Standard License specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database... and the requirements you must follow in using this database. The Additiona...n the Standard License. Standard License The Standard License for this database is the license specified in ...the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database

  10. Horse cDNA clones encoding two MHC class I genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbis, D.P.; Maher, J.K.; Stanek, J.; Klaunberg, B.A.; Antczak, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    Two full-length clones encoding MHC class I genes were isolated by screening a horse cDNA library, using a probe encoding in human HLA-A2.2Y allele. The library was made in the pcDNA1 vector (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA), using mRNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from a Thoroughbred stallion (No. 0834) homozygous for a common horse MHC haplotype (ELA-A2, -B2, -D2; Antczak et al. 1984; Donaldson et al. 1988). The clones were sequenced, using SP6 and T7 universal primers and horse-specific oligonucleotides designed to extend previously determined sequences.

  11. Monocyte activation in HIV/HCV coinfection correlates with cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Rempel

    Full Text Available Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV challenges the immune system with two viruses that elicit distinct immune responses. Chronic immune activation is a hallmark of HIV infection and an accurate indicator of disease progression. Suppressing HIV viremia by antiretroviral therapy (ART effectively prolongs life and significantly improves immune function. HIV/HCV coinfected individuals have peripheral immune activation despite effective ART control of HIV viral load. Here we examined freshly isolated CD14 monocytes for gene expression using high-density cDNA microarrays and analyzed T cell subsets, CD4 and CD8, by flow cytometry to characterize immune activation in monoinfected HCV and HIV, and HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects. To determine the impact of coinfection on cognition, subjects were evaluated in 7 domains for neuropsychological performance, which were summarized as a global deficit score (GDS. Monocyte gene expression analysis in HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects identified 43 genes that were elevated greater than 2.5 fold. Correlative analysis of subjects' GDS and gene expression found eight genes with significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Correlative expression of six genes was confirmed by qPCR, five of which were categorized as type 1 IFN response genes. Global deficit scores were not related to plasma lipopolysaccharide levels. In the T cell compartment, coinfection significantly increased expression of activation markers CD38 and HLADR on both CD4 and CD8 T cells but did not correlate with GDS. These findings indicate that coinfection is associated with a type 1 IFN monocyte activation profile which was further found to correlate with cognitive impairment, even in subjects with controlled HIV infection. HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects with controlled HIV viral load experiencing immune activation could benefit significantly from successful anti-HCV therapy and may be

  12. National HIV Testing Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  13. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  14. Reproductive decisions of couples living with HIV in Malawi: What ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    policies and guidelines on HIV, AIDS and sexual and reproductive health in Malawi for ... reflect the social cultural experiences of couples living with HIV. In addition, there is ... then, treatment is available free of charge in the public hospital facilities. ... started implementing an integrated antiretroviral / PMTCT programme ...

  15. Private healthcare sector doctors and HIV testing practices in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing has many logistic and ethical challenges. The UNAIDS/WHO policy statement states that the testing of individuals must be confidential, be accompanied by counselling, and be conducted with informed consent. HIV testing is integral to the management of the ...

  16. Antiretroviral treatment uptake in patients with HIV associated TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Delivery of integrated care for patients with HIV-associated TB is challenging. We assessed the uptake and timing of antiretroviral treatment (ART) among eligible patients attending a primary care service with co-located ART and TB clinics. Methods. In a retrospective cohort study, all HIV-associated TB patients ...

  17. Care of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, further reduction in MTCT may be possible if newborns at high risk of acquiring HIV ... infants of breastfeeding mothers with newly diagnosed HIV infection, dual NVP/ .... birth HIV DNA PCR testing for HIV-exposed low birth weight.

  18. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents HIV and Women HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men HIV and Older Adults HIV ... throughout the body. A hormone called insulin helps move the glucose into the cells. Once in the ...

  19. Clinical aspects of headache in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Huma U; Cho, Tracey A

    2014-05-01

    Headaches are commonly seen in those patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are the most common form of pain reported among HIV patients. There have been relatively few studies attempting to determine the rates and phenotypes of the headaches that occur in patients with HIV. Patients with HIV are susceptible to a much broader array of secondary headache causes, sometimes with atypical manifestations due to a dampened inflammatory response. The investigation of a headache in the HIV patient should be thorough and focused on making sure that secondary and HIV-specific causes are either ruled out or treated if present. An effective treatment plan should incorporate the use of appropriate pharmacological agents along with the integration of non-pharmacological therapies, such as relaxation and lifestyle regulation. When treating for headaches in patients with HIV, it is important to keep in mind comorbidities and other medications, especially combination antiretroviral therapy. For those with complicated headache histories, referral to a specialized headache center may be appropriate. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  20. A conceptual and analytical approach to comparative analysis of country case studies: HIV and TB control programmes and health systems integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coker, Richard; Balen, Julie; Mounier-Jack, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Attempts to comparatively analyse large-scale communicable disease control programmes have, for the most part, neglected the wider health system contexts within which the programmes lie. In addition, many evaluations of the integration of vertical disease control programmes into health systems ha...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  2. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic Published: Nov 29, 2017 Facebook Twitter ... 2001-FY 2018 Request The Global Response to HIV/AIDS International efforts to combat HIV began in ...

  3. HIV/AIDS in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV often ...

  4. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) ... hiv-aids-101/statistics/ . Reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National ...

  7. Possible roles of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein in the specificity of proviral DNA synthesis and in its variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapadat-Tapolsky, M; Gabus, C; Rau, M; Darlix, J L

    1997-05-02

    Retroviral nucleocapsid (NC) protein is an integral part of the virion nucleocapsid where it coats the dimeric RNA genome. Due to its nucleic acid binding and annealing activities, NC protein directs the annealing of the tRNA primer to the primer binding site and greatly facilitates minus strand DNA elongation and transfer while protecting the nucleic acids against nuclease degradation. To understand the role of NCp7 in viral DNA synthesis, we examined the influence of NCp7 on self-primed versus primer-specific reverse transcription. The results show that HIV-1 NCp7 can extensively inhibit self-primed reverse transcription of viral and cellular RNAs while promoting primer-specific synthesis of proviral DNA. The role of NCp7 vis-a-vis the presence of mutations in the viral DNA during minus strand elongation was examined. NCp7 maximized the annealing between a cDNA(-) primer containing one to five consecutive errors and an RNA representing the 3' end of the genome. The ability of reverse transcriptase (RT) in the presence of NCp7 to subsequently extend the mutated primers depended upon the position of the mismatch within the primer:template complex. When the mutations were at the polymerisation site, primer extension by RT in the presence of NCp7 was very high, about 40% for one mismatch and 3% for five consecutive mismatches. Mutations within the DNA primer or at its 5' end had little effect on the extension of viral DNA by RT. Taken together these results indicate that NCp7 plays major roles in proviral DNA synthesis within the virion core due to its ability to promote prime-specific proviral DNA synthesis while concurrently inhibiting non-specific reverse transcription of viral and cellular RNAs. Moreover, the observation that NCp7 enhances the incorporation of mutations during minus strand DNA elongation favours the notion that NCp7 is a factor contributing to the high mutation rate of HIV-1.

  8. Potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors target HIV-1 Gag-Pol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Figueiredo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs target HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT by binding to a pocket in RT that is close to, but distinct, from the DNA polymerase active site and prevent the synthesis of viral cDNA. NNRTIs, in particular, those that are potent inhibitors of RT polymerase activity, can also act as chemical enhancers of the enzyme's inter-subunit interactions. However, the consequences of this chemical enhancement effect on HIV-1 replication are not understood. Here, we show that the potent NNRTIs efavirenz, TMC120, and TMC125, but not nevirapine or delavirdine, inhibit the late stages of HIV-1 replication. These potent NNRTIs enhanced the intracellular processing of Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins, and this was associated with a decrease in viral particle production from HIV-1-transfected cells. The increased polyprotein processing is consistent with premature activation of the HIV-1 protease by NNRTI-enhanced Gag-Pol multimerization through the embedded RT sequence. These findings support the view that Gag-Pol multimerization is an important step in viral assembly and demonstrate that regulation of Gag-Pol/Gag-Pol interactions is a novel target for small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 production. Furthermore, these drugs can serve as useful probes to further understand processes involved in HIV-1 particle assembly and maturation.

  9. Serodiagnostic profiles of HIV and HIV pathogenesis in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Lange, J. M.; Smit, L.; Bakker, M.; Klaver, B.; Danner, S. A.; Coutinho, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Different stages of HIV infection are marked by expression of HIV genes, production of HIV antibodies, formation of antigen/antibody complexes and clearance of such complexes. Transient HIV antigenemia appearing generally 6-8 weeks prior to HIV antibody (HIV-Ab) seroconversion and lasting 3-4 months

  10. Anti-HIV Antibody Responses and the HIV Reservoir Size during Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulggi A Lee

    Full Text Available A major challenge to HIV eradication strategies is the lack of an accurate measurement of the total burden of replication-competent HIV (the "reservoir". We assessed the association of anti-HIV antibody responses and the estimated size of the reservoir during antiretroviral therapy (ART.We evaluated anti-HIV antibody profiles using luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS assay in relation to several blood-based HIV reservoir measures: total and 2-LTR DNA (rtPCR or droplet digital PCR; integrated DNA (Alu PCR; unspliced RNA (rtPCR, multiply-spliced RNA (TILDA, residual plasma HIV RNA (single copy PCR, and replication-competent virus (outgrowth assay. We also assessed total HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (rtPCR. Spearman correlations and linear regressions were performed using log-transformed blood- or tissue-based reservoir measurements as predictors and log-transformed antibody levels as outcome variables.Among 51 chronically HIV-infected ART-suppressed participants (median age = 57, nadir CD4+ count = 196 cells/mm3, ART duration = 9 years, the most statistically significant associations were between antibody responses to integrase and HIV RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (1.17 fold-increase per two-fold RNA increase, P = 0.004 and between antibody responses to matrix and integrated HIV DNA in resting CD4+ T cells (0.35 fold-decrease per two-fold DNA increase, P = 0.003. However, these associations were not statistically significant after a stringent Bonferroni-adjustment of P<0.00045. Multivariate models including age and duration of ART did not markedly alter results.Our findings suggest that anti-HIV antibody responses may reflect the size of the HIV reservoir during chronic treated HIV disease, possibly via antigen recognition in reservoir sites. Larger, prospective studies are needed to validate the utility of antibody levels as a measure of the total body burden of HIV during treatment.

  11. Monoterpene engineering in a woody plant Eucalyptus camaldulensis using a limonene synthase cDNA.