WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated fruit production

  1. Consumer motivation towards purchasing fruit from integrated production in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers.

  2. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =

  3. An inventory of recent innovations in fruit and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zajac, J.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to make an inventory of recent and ongoing fruit and fruit product innovations, to assess what novelty or improvement they offer, and whether consumers could identify and/or recognise them. Researchers from 11 European countries submitted 386 examples of fruit and fruit

  4. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  5. Managing Sustainability in Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, N.; Van Passel, S.; Zwiekhorst, W.

    2012-01-01

    As fruit growers are faced with a growing need for sustainable development, it is important to integrate sustainability into their management processes. This research applies and evaluates a self-analysis tool for entrepreneurs called the ‘sustainability scan’. The scan identifies 23 sustainability themes, divided according to the 3P-framework (People, Planet and Profit). In the scan, it is assumed that the management of these themes is at the core of sustainable entrepren...

  6. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros; Escudero Colomar, Lucía-Adriana; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains. PMID:26463407

  7. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros; Colomar, Lucía-Adriana Escudero; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-06-26

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains.

  8. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Damos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains.

  9. World temperate fruit production: characteristics and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years world population has increased 70% but per capita global fruit consumption is only 20% higher. Even though tropical and temperate fruit have similar contributions to the 50 kg/person/year of US consumption of fresh fruit, in the last 30 years this has been slightly greater for temperate fruit. Within fruit consumption, the largest expansion has been for organic fruit which increased more than 50% in the 2002-2006 period. The largest expansion of area planted in the 1996-2006 has been for kiwi (29% and blueberries (20%, while apples (-24% and sour cherries (-13% have had the largest reductions. Nearly 50% of the total global volume of fruit is produced by 5 countries: China, USA, Brazil, Italy and Spain. The main producer (China accounts for 23% of the total. While the main exporters are Spain, USA and Italy, the main importers are Germany, Russia and UK. Demands for the industry have evolved towards quality, food safety and traceability. The industry faces higher productions costs (labor, energy, agrichemicals. The retailers are moving towards consolidation while the customers are changing preferences (food for health. In this context there is greater pressure on growers, processors and retailers. Emerging issues are labor supply, climate change, water availability and sustainability. Recent developments in precision agriculture, molecular biology, phenomics, crop modelling and post harvest physiology should increase yields and quality, and reduce costs for temperate fruit production around the world.

  10. New advances in the integrated management of food processing by-products in Europe: sustainable exploitation of fruit and cereal processing by-products with the production of new food products (NAMASTE EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Fabio; Zanaroli, Giulio; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Bordoni, Alessandra; Viaggi, Davide; Robertson, Jim; Waldron, Keith; Bald, Carlos; Esturo, Aintzane; Talens, Clara; Tueros, Itziar; Cebrián, Marta; Sebők, András; Kuti, Tunde; Broeze, Jan; Macias, Marta; Brendle, Hans-Georg

    2013-09-25

    By-products generated every year by the European fruit and cereal processing industry currently exceed several million tons. They are disposed of mainly through landfills and thus are largely unexploited sources of several valuable biobased compounds potentially profitable in the formulation of novel food products. The opportunity to design novel strategies to turn them into added value products and food ingredients via novel and sustainable processes is the main target of recently EC-funded FP7 project NAMASTE-EU. NAMASTE-EU aims at developing new laboratory-scale protocols and processes for the exploitation of citrus processing by-products and wheat bran surpluses via the production of ingredients useful for the formulation of new beverage and food products. Among the main results achieved in the first two years of the project, there are the development and assessment of procedures for the selection, stabilization and the physical/biological treatment of citrus and wheat processing by-products, the obtainment and recovery of some bioactive molecules and ingredients and the development of procedures for assessing the quality of the obtained ingredients and for their exploitation in the preparation of new food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality determinants of fruit and vegetables productions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Mezzetti; Cherubino Leonardi

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. Furthermore, in consideration of the new consumer demand, always more attracted by a diet based on a larger consumption of fruit and vegetables without risks of pesticides residues and with increased nutritional value, new important features in addition to the traditional quality attributes are now requested. For a program of qualification and valorisation of modern horticultural productions, it is fundame...

  12. Modelling and optimization of integrated system to energy production for sustainable development of fruits agrobusiness; Modelagem e otimizacao do sistema integrado da producao de energia para desenvolvimento sustentavel do agronegocio de frutas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Daniely de Barros [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Andrade, Rodrigo Freitas; Ourique, Jorge Eduardo da Silva [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Selvam, P.V. Pannir [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental

    2004-07-01

    Great problems are found by who need to get a power plant capable to mostly make possible the deriving food production of the fruits. The use of the electric energy of the plants and micron-plant is one of the main factors for the rise in the cost of the production. The use of alternative sources of energy sells at a loss a little this cost. Of this form, this project of integrated system of production of energy for agroindustry, supported for the CNPq, becomes advantageous all the investments that come to be made in this direction. The objective of the research is to develop a new synthesis of processes for use of vegetal biomass (wood) for production of the applied electric energy in the process of manufacture of jelly of fruits with co-production of activated coal. Our project of residual biomass produces energy from the wood saw pyrolysis and gasification. And also uses the substitution of the glucose found in the sugar for the pectin, proceeding from the rinds of fruits. Comparative results indicate that this substantiates (pectin) is sufficiently efficient in the control of the cholesterol level of the blood and also is very rich in the energy supply for the people who consume them. After carried through bibliographical research on the current state of the technology of the production of energy based on the vegetal biomass of firewood, processes of term conversion, reactor of activation and equipment, to leave of this had been developed engineering projects, with the use of the tool Super ProDesigner 4.9. Some simulations of processes of fast pyrolysis, gasification, separation of bio oil, generation of energy including system of integration of energy production as innovation of the considered work had been made. To leave of this, two scenes had been developed: one, the current process of production and the other, our innovation, being studied at great length the project of investment and costs, analysis of viability and cash flux using software Orcamento

  13. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The study was conducted utilizing a 2 3 central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g -1 ), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L -1 . These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L -1 ), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L -1 and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  14. The availability of processed fruit products and their contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fruit, poverty and post-harvest losses due to lack of skills for processing and storage. The objectives of this research were to survey household consumption of foods especially processed fruit products in Nairobi, and analyze nutritional quality of processed fruit products. Three estates representing different income groups ...

  15. Production and characterization of wine from mango fruit ( Mangifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and characterization of wine from mango fruit ( Mangifera indica ) varieties in Kenya. ... Six mature and unripe mango fruits were harvested three times from a farm in Katheka Kai Division, Machakos County ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  16. Fruits and Seeds Production of Irvingia Gabonensis (O' Rorke) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits and Seeds Production of Irvingia Gabonensis (O' Rorke) and Its Economic Importance in Edo ... Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... Irvingia gabonensis is one of the most important indigenous fruit trees cultivated and ...

  17. INTEGRATING PHYSIOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE IN MODELS OF FRUIT EXPANSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolaj Cieslak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Architectural properties of a fruit, such as its shape, vascular patterns, and skin morphology, play a significant role in determining the distributions of water, carbohydrates, and nutrients inside the fruit. Understanding the impact of these properties on fruit quality is difficult because they develop over time and are highly dependent on both genetic and environmental controls. We present a 3D functional-structural fruit model that can be used to investigate effects of the principle architectural properties on fruit quality. We use a three step modeling pipeline in the OpenAlea platform: (1 creating a 3D volumetric mesh representation of the internal and external fruit structure, (2 generating a complex network of vasculature that is embedded within this mesh, and (3 integrating aspects of the fruit’s function, such as water and dry matter transport, with the fruit’s structure. We restrict our approach to the phase where fruit growth is mostly due to cell expansion and the fruit has already differentiated into different tissue types. We show how fruit shape affects vascular patterns and, as a consequence, the distribution of sugar/water in tomato fruit. Furthermore, we show that strong interaction between tomato fruit shape and vessel density induces, independently of size, an important and contrasted gradient of water supply from the pedicel to the blossom end of the fruit. We also demonstrate how skin morphology related to microcracking distribution affects the distribution of water and sugars inside nectarine fruit. Our results show that such a generic model permits detailed studies of various, unexplored architectural features affecting fruit quality development.

  18. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. EXERGY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION LINE CANDIED FRUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Dem'шanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The task of exergy analysis - evaluation based on the second law of thermodynamics, thermodynamic degree of technical perfection of the whole system, as well as to identify those stages of a technical process, which contains the bulk of the loss of exergy in order to improve its efficiency. Using exergy analysis allows to solve a wide range of technical problems on the basis of a unified thermodynamic methods. Exergy analysis was performed by the method whereby thermotechnological system candied fruit production, conventionally separated from the environment of the closed control surface. Exchange scheme under consideration thermotechnological candied fruit production material, thermal and energy flows to the environment, as well as between the control surfaces. Exergy in external input material streams: air and water and citric acid, as well as output streams without having increment Shih-exergy in the process of passing through the reference surface - of running air-water and after washing, are in thermodynamic equilibrium with the surroundings is zero. In the total number of internal exergy losses include losses from the final result of the temperature difference in the heat exchange between the raw material to be dried and heated air electromechanical arising from irreversible alteration of structural and mechanical properties of the product, and the hydraulic loss due to the sudden increase of the specific volume of air as it enters the working chamber dryer. The resulting exergy efficiency is 8.87 %, which is 3.7 % higher than when using the technology of the prototype based on solar air-dried product. This indicates an increase in the degree of perfection of the thermodynamic system by using microwave heating of the product in combination with the removal of moisture in the atmosphere low temperature coolant, which precludes significant outside exergy loss on drying step.

  20. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  1. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  2. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  3. Performance of mushroom fruiting for large scale commercial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rosol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom

    2012-01-01

    The paper described the determination of mushroom fruiting yield, which is vital to economics of mushroom production. Consistency in mushroom yields enabling an estimation to be made for revenues and hence profitability could be predicted. It has been reported by many growers, there are a large variation in mushroom yields over different times of production. To assess such claims we have run four batches of mushroom fruiting and the performance fruiting body productions are presented. (author)

  4. Quality determinants of fruit and vegetables productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mezzetti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. Furthermore, in consideration of the new consumer demand, always more attracted by a diet based on a larger consumption of fruit and vegetables without risks of pesticides residues and with increased nutritional value, new important features in addition to the traditional quality attributes are now requested. For a program of qualification and valorisation of modern horticultural productions, it is fundamental a study of the major quality determinants organized by following a heuristic approache useful to identify the contribution of each factor in defining the quality of the product. The genetic knowledge applied to all available techniques useful for the creation of new genetic variability surely represent the most important starting point for the release of new varieties with increased nutritional quality without limitation in plant productivity. About agronomic practices, new opportunities are offered by the sustainable management of the production factors able to improve the plant-environment interaction, to well address the reduction of inputs needed for the production, and finally to induce specific stress conditions able to promote higher quality at reduced inputs. Much more attention is also addressed to the post-harvest technologies, this because of the increased needs to guarantee the preservation of the high quality obtained in the field until the consumer use. Taking in account such complexity of the horticultural production systems and examples of some major model crops, an outlook of the main determinants and potential valorisation of high quality horticultural products are attempted.

  5. Quality determinants of fruit and vegetables productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mezzetti

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. Furthermore, in consideration of the new consumer demand, always more attracted by a diet based on a larger consumption of fruit and vegetables without risks of pesticides residues and with increased nutritional value, new important features in addition to the traditional quality attributes are now requested. For a program of qualification and valorisation of modern horticultural productions, it is fundamental a study of the major quality determinants organized by following a heuristic approache useful to identify the contribution of each factor in defining the quality of the product. The genetic knowledge applied to all available techniques useful for the creation of new genetic variability surely represent the most important starting point for the release of new varieties with increased nutritional quality without limitation in plant productivity. About agronomic practices, new opportunities are offered by the sustainable management of the production factors able to improve the plant-environment interaction, to well address the reduction of inputs needed for the production, and finally to induce specific stress conditions able to promote higher quality at reduced inputs. Much more attention is also addressed to the post-harvest technologies, this because of the increased needs to guarantee the preservation of the high quality obtained in the field until the consumer use. Taking in account such complexity of the horticultural production systems and examples of some major model crops, an outlook of the main determinants and potential valorisation of high quality horticultural products are attempted.

  6. Technology for production of shelf stable fruit cubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, B.B.; Jain, M.P.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    A technology has been developed for the production of intermediate moisture fruit cubes using a combination of osmotic dehydration and infrared drying. Fruits like pineapple, papaya, mango, banana and apple can be successfully converted into intermediate moisture products in the form of fruit cubes using this technology. The fruit cubes can blend very well as natural nutritious supplements with breakfast cereals and in certain food preparations like ice creams, milk shakes, jellies and custards. The product is microbiologically safe for consumption and can be stored at ambient storage condition for more than six months. This technology is an effective alternative for post harvest processing and preservation of ripened fruits. Fruit jam is an additional by-product generated by the process. This technology has been transferred to TT and CD, BARC

  7. Qualidade de cajus-de-mesa obtidos nos sistemas de produção integrada e convencional Post-harvest quality of the cashew apples gotten in the integrated fruit production and the conventional cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva de Andrade

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L. é uma planta de grande importância econômica para o Nordeste brasileiro, pela diversidade de produtos proporcionados pelo fruto e pedúnculo e pela quantidade de empregos gerados. Apesar disso, inexiste uma padronização nos sistemas de produção empregados, com reflexos negativos na produção e qualidade da matéria-prima destinada ao consumo in natura e à indústria. A conversão dos sistemas de produção vigentes para o sistema de produção integrada poderá contribuir para atenuar esse quadro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os sistemas de produção integrada e convencional para cajueiro-anão precoce quanto à qualidade do pedúnculo. O experimento foi instalado em um pomar comercial, localizado no município de Beberibe (CE, numa área de aproximadamente 1,0 ha, onde foram desenvolvidos os sistemas de Produção Integrada (PI e Convencional (PC. Cada um ocupou uma área de 0,5 ha, separados entre si por uma bordadura composta de cinco fileiras de plantas. No sistema PI, foram aplicadas as práticas recomendadas nas Normas Técnicas de Produção Integrada de Caju. No PC, foram aplicadas as práticas comumente utilizadas pelo produtor. Foram avaliados cor da película, firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (AT, teor de vitamina C e pH. Para essas variáveis, foram estimadas médias a partir das 12 amostras obtidas nos dois tratamentos, que foram comparadas, utilizando-se do teste t (PThe cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L. is a plant of great importance for the Brazilian Northeast Region, due to the diversity of products generated for the fruit and peduncle and the amount of generated jobs. Despite this, there is no standardization in the cropping systems presently used, with negative consequences in the yield and quality of the raw material for consumption and for industry. The conversion of traditional orchards to the integrated fruit production

  8. Assessment of the strategies of organic fruit production and fruit drying in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Pillot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture in Uganda is developing at a fast pace and despite this trend Uganda is still unable to produce enough fresh and dry organic fruits mainly pineapple to meet the exporters demand. This current research investigated the strategies of farmers at production level by assessing the pros and cons of fruit growing, organic agriculture and fruit drying in order to understand the underlying causal factor for the low production of organic dry fruits in a major fruit producing district of Uganda.The study was carried out in two separate and distinctive areas; one which only produces and export fresh organic pineapple and the other which exports dried fruits (mainly pineapple and papaya. About 10% of the farmers in the two study areas were surveyed using questionnaires which were further followed by semi-structured interviews and participatory rural appraisals activities with various types of farmers in order to understand the different decisions and strategies of farmers.82% and 74% of farmers in the two study areas grew fruits as it gave better economic returns and for 77% and 90% respectively in the two study areas, the reasons for growing fruit was the ease of selling compared to other crops. All the farmers were relying on coffee husk for growing organic pineapples. However, 50% of the farmers want to grow pineapples (either organic or conventional but couldn't afford to buy coffee husk. Fruit drying was mainly a strategy to utilize cheap fruits during harvesting seasons for value addition. 71% and 42% of farmers in the two study areas wanted to dry fruits but it was beyond their economic capacity to buy the driers.Decision of the farmers whether to grow fruits or cereals, organic or conventional agriculture and selling the fruits as fresh or dry were dependent mainly on the economic, knowledge and resource availability of each type of practices. It is concluded that the main barrier for an increase in the production of organic dried

  9. Farming Systems Involving Fruit Crops Production And Research In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research interventions to expand the scope of the farmers have shown that greater efficiency of land utilization is exhibited. New areas of research for the evaluation, as well as suggests consideration for intercropping with fruit trees are suggested. The current challenges to fruit production were also identified, while the ...

  10. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  11. Farm and product carbon footprints of China's fruit production--life cycle inventory of representative orchards of five major fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Cheng, Kun; Yue, Qian; Yan, Yu; Rees, Robert M; Pan, Genxing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the environmental impacts of fruit production will provide fundamental information for policy making of fruit consumption and marketing. This study aims to characterize the carbon footprints of China's fruit production and to figure out the key greenhouse gas emissions to cut with improved orchard management. Yearly input data of materials and energy in a full life cycle from material production to fruit harvest were obtained via field visits to orchards of five typical fruit types from selected areas of China. Carbon footprint (CF) was assessed with quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the individual inputs. Farm and product CFs were respectively predicted in terms of land use and of fresh fruit yield. Additionally, product CFs scaled by fruit nutrition value (vitamin C (Vc) content) and by the economic benefit from fruit production were also evaluated. The estimated farm CF ranged from 2.9 to 12.8 t CO2-eq ha(-1) across the surveyed orchards, whereas the product CF ranged from 0.07 to 0.7 kg CO2-eq kg(-1) fruit. While the mean product CFs of orange and pear were significantly lower than those of apple, banana, and peach, the nutrition-scaled CF of orange (0.5 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc on average) was significantly lower than others (3.0-5.9 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc). The income-scaled CF of orange and pear (1.20 and 1.01 kg CO2-eq USD(-1), respectively) was higher than apple, banana, and peach (0.87~0.39 kg CO2-eq USD(-1)). Among the inputs, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer contributed by over 50 % to the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, varying among the fruit types. There were some tradeoffs in product CFs between fruit nutrition value and fruit growers' income. Low carbon production and consumption policy and marketing mechanism should be developed to cut down carbon emissions from fruit production sector, with balancing the nutrition value, producer's income, and climate change mitigation.

  12. studies on biogas production from fruits and vegetable waste 115

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    results of the study on biogas production from fruits and vegetables waste materials and their effect on plants when used as fertilizer (Using digested and undigested sludge). It has been ... as fuel or fertilizer, offers several benefits such as, the.

  13. Fruits and Seeds Production of Irvingia Gabonensis (O' Rorke) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits and Seeds Production of Irvingia Gabonensis (O' Rorke) and Its Economic Importance in Edo Central, Nigeria. ... Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ...

  14. Changeability of consumer preferences concerning the methods of fruit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Czernyszewicz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to establish and compare consumer preferences concerning the methods of fruit production (traditional or organic ones in the years 2001, 2003 and 2006 and the relations between the preferences and the socio-economic and demographic features of the consumers. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the data from surveys carried out among the inhabitants of Lublin. Results of those surveys point out that certain features of the consumers such as the sex, incomes and the family type significantly differentiated preferences concerning the method of fruit production. Increased incomes were connected with greater acceptance of the organic method, and their decrease was related to greater frequency of indicating the conventional method. Interest in the method of production, while buying the fruit was significantly higher among men than among women. Declaring the willingness to pay more for organic fruit was also correlated with the consumers’ sex. Besides, in 2006 it was not too strongly related to the incomes of the respondents. In the years 2001 and 2006 changeability of preferences con-cerning the willingness to pay a higher price for organic fruit and no change in the interest in the technology of fruit production while purchasing the fruit were shown.

  15. The market chain of fruit production in Serbia: A case study of raspberry and sour cherry cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Katica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The trade in fresh and frozen fruit is complex and fragmentary. Currently producers are forced to use a variety of marketing channels - farmers' markets, processing industries, trade companies and brokers. To increase quality, production, profitability and exports, it is essential to maximize cooperation between producers, processors, wholesalers and retailers. Vertically and laterally integrated fruit marketing channels demand the smallest number of intermediaries and direct relations with consumers. In past decades, fruit production in Serbia was characterized by irrational resource allocation. Neglect of the agribusiness marketing concept led to supply shortages. As a result, prices increased while quality decreased. Only integrated marketing concepts can boost quality, yields, profitability and competitiveness.

  16. Area-wide integrated pest management of fruit flies in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwood, Allan; Vueti, Ema Tora

    2003-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are recognised as one of the most important pests of fruits and vegetables. The importance of an Integrated Pest Management approach to fruit fly suppression or eradication has been emphasized over the past 30 years. Integrated Pest Management has, in some instance, a narrow focus on the crop or the orchard or farm, but not adopting an area-wide approach, where much of the activity may be outside the crop or production unit. All of the techniques used to manage fruit flies at the on-farm level may be used on an area-wide basis, preferably in combination to maximise the impact of each technique. There are some techniques, which are better suited to the area-wide approach, but can be used on-farm as well. Techniques include physical control (e.g., bagging), cultural control (e.g., production when fly numbers are low, resistant varieties, crop hygiene, early harvesting, growing refuge crops), biological control, behavioral control (e.g., protein bait spray application technique and male annihilation technique), sterile insect technique, and chemical control. In adopting an area-wide approach, very effective collaboration between many stakeholders is essential. (author)

  17. Marketing novel fruit products: Evidence for diverging marketing effects across different products and different countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, J.; Lans, I.A. van der; Kraszewska, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n = 423),

  18. INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION ON STRAWBERRY FRUIT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Florea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional control of strawberry is very difficult, because a large number of factors influence the absorption and availability of nutrients through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Aim is to establish concrete measures for improving crop technology by applying optimum dose of fertilizers, leading to increased productivity and fruit quality of strawberry culture. The research was conducted during 2009-2011, in a two-way experience. It was located at the Institute of Research - Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti. Experimental factors were: A - cultivars: a1 - Onebor, a2 – Real, a3 - Elsanta a3, a4 - Magic, a5 - Alba, a6 – Premial; a7-Queen Elisa; B – Fertilizer with 6 graduations: b1 - unfertilized, and five graduations b2 - b6 were applied mixtures of the below fertilizers, thus: b2 - 6.4 kg/ha/week, b3 - 14.3 kg/ha/week, b4 - 21.4 kg/ha/week, b5 - 28.5 kg/ha/week and b6 - 35.8 kg/ha/week. The fertilizers applied were: Polyfeed (N19: P19: K19, potassium nitrate (N12: P0: K43: Mg2 and Magnisal (N11: P0: K0: Mg15. Mixtures were applied at 2 weeks intervals, as follows: 1 April to 15 May (flowering time, 2 applications, containing macroelements N: P: K: Mg - 14:6,3:20,7:5,7 g/100 g mixed fertilizers; May 15 - June 15 (in the picking period, 2 applications of N: P: K: Mg 10,2:6,3:13,5:2,83 g/100 g blend fertilizer and August 1 to September 15 (2 applications with N: P: K: Mg 12,2:6,3:20,7:31,6 g/100 g mixed fertilizers. Following determinations were made: number of fruit per plant, average weight of fruit (g by weighing a sample of 250 fruits and production in tons/hectare. Experimental treatments have led to differences in fruit production. Thus, the analysis of fertilizer doses on the chemical components of the fruits of the seven studied cultivars, we concluded that V5 and V6 treatments had a positive influence on number of fruit per plant and on yielding capacity. Treatments induced also, highest average fruit weight in

  19. 7 CFR 318.13-14 - Movement of processed fruits, vegetables, and other products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of processed fruits, vegetables, and other... fruits, vegetables, and other products. (a) Fruits, vegetables, and other products that are processed.../plants/manuals/ports/downloads/puerto_rico.pdf. (b) Consignments of processed fruits, vegetables, or...

  20. Fruit quality of seedless watermelon grafted onto squash rootstocks under different production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianru; Zhao, Xin; Brecht, Jeffrey K; Sims, Charles A; Sanchez, Tatiana; Dufault, Nicholas S

    2017-11-01

    The market demand for seedless watermelon has been continuously increasing because of consumer preference. Grafting is a useful tool to manage soilborne diseases in watermelon production, but the use of squash rootstocks may negatively affect watermelon fruit quality. Currently, most research has focused on seeded cultivars, while grafting effects on seedless watermelons remain largely unknown. This multi-season study was conducted to assess the effects of squash rootstocks, including both Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata and C. moschata cultivars, with intact or excised and regenerated roots, on fruit quality of seedless watermelon 'Melody' using both instrumental and sensory measurements under different production scenarios. The grafted watermelon plants were also challenged by field inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum. A combination of instrumental measurements and consumer sensory analyses suggested that fruit quality of the seedless watermelon 'Melody' was not impacted by the use of the squash rootstocks used in this study, which included soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and most fruit sensory properties. Watermelon flesh firmness was increased by grafting but the grafting effect on lycopene content was inconclusive. Root excision and regeneration did not influence the grafting effect, whereas the grafting effect on flesh firmness varied among the rootstocks under Fusarium inoculation. Overall, grafting with squash rootstocks did not reduce fruit quality attributes of 'Melody' but improved texture. Our results support incorporating grafting into integrated management programs for seedless watermelon production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Influence of silicon on production and fruit quality of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Souza Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the culture of strawberries is an important activity for small and medium farmers. Among the important factors for culture is fertilization, which can interfere in production and fruit quality. Silicon (Si is one of the little studied in fertilization, which demonstrated some beneficial to several different cultures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Si on production and concentration of anthocyanin and titratable acid in the fruit and reading SPAD (chlorophyll in the leaves of the strawberry. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using pots containing 14.5 kg of limed soil, fertilized and three plants (cultivar Milsei Tudla were transplanted to pots. Treatments consisted of application of Si at 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 rates, via soil or foliar. During this experiment the reading of SPAD (chlorophyll and the end of the experiment, the shoots was collected, dried, weighed, ground and analyzed by content and accumulation Si. The fruits were weighed and analyzed the concentration of anthocyanin, titratable acidity and Si concentration. The fertilization with Si, via soil or foliar applied, contributed to the increase in fruit production, especially with the application via soil. Applying foliar or soil promoted an increase in the values of titratable acidity and anthocyanins. Rates of Si via soil or foliar applied influenced the reading SPAD (chlorophyll, in the leaves. The Si independent of the form of application promoted improvements in strawberry crop.

  2. Effects of fruit thinning, covering of the fruit truss and CO2 enrichment on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] production under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Nomura, Y.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2009-01-01

    Radial fruit cracking (RFC) can contribute to serious economic losses in tomato production under rain shelter in cool uplands. In order to investigate the effects of translocation and distribution of photosynthate to the fruits during the occurrence of RFC, tomato plants were grown under treatments with fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, which regulate the strength of sink and source, and treatments with covering of the fruit truss, which decreases solar radiation incident on the fruit surface. The occurrence of RFC was increased by fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, and decreased by covering of fruit truss. Time course of the percentage of RFC to total harvest showed a remarkable rise toward the end of August and toward the end of October in 2004, when harvested fruit weight was increasing. These finding suggest that RFC is attributed to excessive enlargement of the fruit by promotion of translocation and distribution of photosynthate from leaves (source) to fruits (sink) and the solar radiation incident on the fruits. In addition, the relation between RFC and the generation of a cork layer is considered

  3. Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diverticulitis "Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products." Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... or the diverticulitis. I once again eat fresh vegetables and fruit and whole grain products. My two episodes of ...

  4. Consumer preferences in respect of processed fruit and berry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribova N. А.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays fruits, berries and processed products are an indispensable component of the human diet throughout the year. Frozen fruits and berries are widely distributed on the Russian market and are part of the food industry worldwide. Frozen products become popular among consumers for home use due to the minimal cooking time. Consumer evaluation is the most relevant and significant for identifying preferences and evaluating quality products in Russian markets. In this regard, a qualitative analysis of marketing research has been carried out and preferences have been identified according to which criteria consumers buy quick-frozen products. Some methods of sensory analysis have been used (consumer evaluation, the profile method, and pairwise comparison method. The dominant factor in choosing a brand of quick-frozen products is the combination of an acceptable price and quality, and to a lesser extent, the recommendation of acquaintances, the type of packaging and advertising of products. The research is aimed at identifying organoleptic properties that affect the consumer evaluation of the quality of frozen, thawed grapes in comparison with the reference product. Fruits and berries freeze for hours and even minutes, but are stored for a long time. The problem arises in rehydration – the return of the product to its original state, close to fresh natural raw material. The main goal of the research is aimed at identifying some rational method of defrosting, corresponding to organoleptic and consumer properties. With the help of organoleptic evaluation the best ways of defrosting have been identified – the microwave oven and the freezer. These methods allow obtaining thawed foods with the finest quality and identical to natural raw materials. The storage time after defrosting has been revealed: in the microwave oven – 60 min; at the room temperature – 80 min; in the coldstore – 100 min. The obtained information can be useful for consumers

  5. FRUITFUL: Integrated supply-chain information system for fruit produce between South Africa and the Netherlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Polderijk, JJ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available and improved quality performance, which would strengthen the market position of South-African fruit and that of related fruit supply 130 J.J. POLDERDIJK ET AL. chains on the world market. As a result of this, stakeholders in the fruit export supply chain... choice between an overarching system that would replace existing systems and a decentralized system focusing on interfaces between existing facilities. SOUTH-AFRICAN FRUIT EXPORT INDUSTRY South Africa’s climate and soil condition provide ideal...

  6. HONEY BEE CONTRIBUTION TO ‘BORDÔ’ GRAPEVINE FRUIT PRODUCTION IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    MARTIGNAGO, MIRELI; MARTINS, RAFAEL; HARTER-MARQUES, BIRGIT

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The production of fruits and seeds of many crops is increased when bees visit their flowers pollinating them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different pollination treatments on ‘Bordô’ grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) fruit quantity and quality. Quantitative and qualitative fruit production parameters of plants visited by Apis mellifera L., manually self- and cross-pollinated plants and plants without pollination were analyzed and compared. Fruit production was hig...

  7. The power of product integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K B; Fujimoto, T

    1990-01-01

    In the dictionary, integrity means wholeness, completeness, soundness. In products, integrity is the source of sustainable competitive advantage. Products with integrity perform superbly, provide good value, and satisfy customers' expectations in every respect, including such intangibles as their look and feel. Consider this example from the auto industry. In 1987, Mazda put a racy four-wheel steering system in a five-door family hatchback. Honda introduced a comparable system in the Prelude, a sporty, two-door coupe. Most of Honda's customers installed the new technology; Mazda's system sold poorly. Potential customers felt the fit--or misfit--between the car and the new component, and they responded accordingly. Companies that consistently develop products with integrity are coherent, integrated organizations. This internal integrity is visible at the level of strategy and structure, in management and organization, and in the skills, attitudes, and behavior of individual designers, engineers, and operators. Moreover, these companies are integrated externally: customers become part of the development organization. Integrity starts with a product concept that describes the new product from the potential customer's perspective--"pocket rocket" for a sporty, subcompact car, for example. Whether the final product has integrity will depend on two things: how well the concept satisfies potential customers' wants and needs and how completely the concept has been embodied in the product's details. In the most successful development organizations, "heavyweight" product managers are responsible for leading both tasks, as well as for guiding the creation of a strong product concept.

  8. Barriers towards integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    The basis for product development in many large industrial companies is a traditional project management method positing non-overlapping phases, independent activities, and a dedicated project team. Research findings indicate that integrated product development methods increase performance compared...

  9. Fruit production and quality of guava 'Paluma' as a function of humic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... Guava fruit production increases from the first to the second harvest. Fruit quality for ... tenance is one of the essential factors for a sustainable production .... titratable acidity (SS/TA ratio) was calculated; and vii) the fruit yield.

  10. ProfitFruit: Decision Support System for Evaluation of Investments in Fruit Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Groot, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative techniques were developed in the Isafruit project in order to create a more ecological sustainable way of fruit growing. Before fruit growers will consider implementation of these innovations they need information concerning their economic sustainability. The economic model ProfitFruit is

  11. Pollen source and resource limitation to fruit production in the rare species Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass. is a rare, central Asian desert species which shows lower fruit set and seed set (<16%) than most hermaphroditic species. We hypothesized that fruit production was limited by pollen and resources. To evaluate potential fruit abortion due to pollen limitation, su...

  12. Tropical Fruit Pulps: Processing, Product Standardization and Main Control Parameters for Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fruit pulp is the most basic food product obtained from fresh fruit processing. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for long periods of time, but they also can be used to fabricate juices, ice creams, sweets, jellies and yogurts. The exploitation of tropical fruits has leveraged the entire Brazilian fruit pulp sector due mainly to the high acceptance of their organoleptic properties and remarkable nutritional facts. However, several works published in the last decades have pointed out unfavorable conditions regarding the consumption of tropical fruit pulps. This negative scenario has been associated with unsatisfactory physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of fruits pulps as outcomes of little knowledge and improper management within the fruit pulp industry. There are protocols for delineating specific identity and quality standards (IQSs and standardized good manufacturing practices (GMP for fruit pulps, which also embrace standard operating procedures (SOPs and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP, although this latter is not considered mandatory by the Brazilian legislation. Unfortunately, the lack of skilled labor, along with failures in complying established protocols have impaired quality of fruit pulps. It has been necessary to collect all information available with the aim to identify the most important hazards within fruit pulp processing lines. Standardizing methods and practices within the Brazilian fruit pulp industry would assurance high quality status to tropical fruit pulps and the commercial growth of this vegetal product towards international markets.

  13. Developmentally regulated sesquiterpene production confers resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in ripe pepper fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkyu Park

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR and squalene synthase (SS genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS, belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA, resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits.

  14. Indigenous weaver ants and fruit fly control in Tanzanian smallholder mango production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Msogoya, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of weaver ant colonies can reduce fruit fly oviposition in mango production and can be effective as a fruit fly control strategy. Patrolling ants may disturb landing flies and may also deposit repellent compounds on to the fruits. This control strategy is being applied to export...... temperatures to lethal levels for fruit fly eggs and larvae. Direct observations showed a small, but significant reduction in fly landings on fruits previously patrolled by ants, supporting the proposed role for persistent repellents. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy did not identify any compounds uniquely...

  15. Management of asaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) for fruit production in southern Colombian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Isaza Aranguren; Gloria Galeano Garcés; Rodrigo Bernal González

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of asaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) are a traditional food for Amazonian inhabitants who harvest it from wild populations, employing management practices that affect palm populations and productivity. Here we present management data on fruit harvesting in a Tikuna community in the Colombian Amazon. We identified the market structure in Leticia and evaluated the population structure and fruit productivity in a scarcely harvested forest and a heavily harvested one. We performed interv...

  16. Bio ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Muhammad Asyraf Kasim; Nasrin Abu Bakar

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The oil palm industry has an abundance of oil palm biomass. The type of biomass generated includes empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm trunk (OPT), kernel, shell and fronds. Generally, ligno celluloses biomass derived from oil palm has great potential to be converted into various forms of renewable energy. In this study, EFB in pulverized form was used as a feedstock for bio ethanol production. EFB contains lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose which can be converted into fermentable sugar and bio ethanol. The EFB was initially pre-treated with 1% NaOH followed by acid hydrolysis with 0.7% sulfuric acid and enzyme prior to fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisea. The various process parameters for bio ethanol production was optimized i.e. pH, temperature, rate of agitation and initial feedstock concentration. The fermentation of EFB hydrolysate was at pH 4, 30 degree Celsius and 100 rpm within 72 hours of incubation yielded 10.48 g/L of bio ethanol from 50 g/L of EFB. The bio ethanol production in a 6-L bioreactor showed 36% conversion of fermentable sugar from EFB into bio ethanol. (author)

  17. Integrating Product and Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Ellen Brilhuis; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2016-01-01

    .g. managing dependencies) and opportunities (e.g. streamlining development). This paper presents five existing reference models for technology development (TD), which were identified via a systematic literature review, where their possible integration with product development (PD) reference models......Although dual innovation projects, defined in this article as the concurrent development of products and technologies, often occur in industry, these are only scarcely supported methodologically. Limited research has been done about dual innovation projects and their inherent challenges (e...... was investigated. Based on the specific characteristics desired for dual innovation projects, such as integrated product development and coverage of multiple development stages, a set of selection criteria was employed to select suitable PD and TD reference models. The integration and adaptation of the selected...

  18. Study the nature of changes in the dynamic viscosity of milk and fruit products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The variation of the dynamic viscosity of dairy products and fruit puree with the free run-off on the vertical wall of the vacuum chamber with a two-stage vacuum evaporation was studied. The effect of evaporation temperature and product moisture on the rheological properties of milk and fruit blends was investigated.

  19. Mold-Ripened Soft Cheeses Fortified with Date Palm Fruit Product as Functional Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Mutlag M; Haddadin, Jamal S; Haddadin, Malik S Y

    2016-01-01

    Date fruit based products are gaining popularity among the consumers in almost all date growing countries due to its added nutritional value. Therefore, novel products were developed by combining two types of foods i.e., soft ripened cheeses and date fruit syrups or date powder. This study is the first to report the surface mold-ripened cheese production with date syrup and date powder. Model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus, Penicillium camemberti and Geotrichum candidum. Date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture were added at the stage of curdling. Based on the kinetic growth of the microbial groups in all the treatments, there was no change in the growth of these in various date palm product. On the contrary It may be said that addition of the date fruit product supports their growth. After 35 days, the amounts of total poly phenols were 128.3 ± 1.01, 81.8 ± 1.11, 33.5 ± 2.19, 156.23 ± 1.27 mg GAE/100 g in the cheeses support with date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture, respectively. Antioxidant activity of date fruits ranged from 80.13 IC50 (date syrup-2) to 82.23 IC50 (date syrup-1). Based on the chemical characteristics and sensory analysis, the study results showed the potential for innovative application of date products for developing new functional dairy products as an ideal medium for the delivery of biological active compounds with beneficial health effects over.

  20. Status report on 'The integrated fruit fly management based on the Sterile Insect Technique in Guimaras Island, Philippines'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covacha, S.A.; Bignayan, H.G.; Gaitan, E.G.; Zamora, N.F.; Maranon, R.P.; Manoto, E.C.; Obra, G.B.; Resilva, S.S.; Reyes, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    implementation of these new techniques. In addition, the body of water that surrounds the island discourages easy invasion of fruit flies from neighbouring places and facilitates the imposition of quarantine in the area. Prior to the implementation of MAT and SIT, there was felt a need to study the basic ecology of the subject species (identification of the host, fruit infestation record, population dynamics and fly movement). This information was gathered earlier in a cooperative experiment between the National Mango Research and Development Center, the Department of Agriculture (NMRDC-DA), the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute and the Department of Science and Technology (PNRI-DOST), in a project entitled 'A Feasibility Study of Integrated Control of the Oriental Fruit Flies' (Manoto et al. 1996). Furthermore, this study was conducted to establish Guimaras as an Island free of B. philippinensis through the introduction of an integrated pest management based on SIT and increase production and exportation of tropical fruits particularly mangoes

  1. Cultivation and fruit body production of Lentinus squarrosulus Mont ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mycelia growth of Lentinus squarrosulus culture on the leaves and bark of common fruit trees were investigated. The effect of supplementing these fruit trees with 25% each of rice bran, horse dung, poultry droppings, cow dung, fresh cassava flour and oil palm waste fiber on the mycelia growth of this fungus was also ...

  2. Optical properties, ethylene production and softening in mango fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Grassi, M.; Meirelles de Azevedo Pementel, A.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Firmness decay, chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation, controlled by ethylene, are major ripening events in mango fruit. Pigment content and tissue structure affect the optical properties of the mesocarp, which can be measured nondestructively in the intact fruit by time-resolved

  3. MILK PRODUCTION IN INTEGRATED SYSTEMS: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Z. Biavatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pasture degradation and thermic stress are in economic trouble for milk producers. The use of silvopastoral system (SSP is an important tool to minimize this loss, since it combines the production and conservation of natural resources, furthermore, provides the producer the potential to diversify the source of income of rural property, it is possible sale or own use of the products generated by the trees as timber, firewood and fruit. With the implementation of the SSP is possible to attenuate the effects of high temperatures caused by direct solar incidence on the animals, providing an ideal thermal comfort zone, resulting in increased production, it will expend less energy so that the animals are able to be as close as possible the necessary thermal comfort. Besides, with the adoption of this system, occurs a minor pasture degradation by promoting the formation of a microclimate favoring their establishment and maintenance, in addition to stabilizing soils, unpacked action of roots and preventing erosion. The purpose of this work was study the main aspects that affect the production of milk, proposing the use of integrated systems to minimize losses from thermal stress and degradation of pastures.

  4. Genotypic interactions with potassium nutrition on fruit production in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) under irrigated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhdum, M.I.; Pervez, H.; Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted using four (Gossypium hirsutum l.) cultivars (OM-448, OM-I00, NIAB-Karishma, 5-12) at four rates of potassium (0, 62, 5, 125, 250 kg K ha-1) and with two sources of potassium (K/sub 2/S0/sub 4/, KCI) to determine the effects of potassium (K) fertilizer on fruit production under irrigated conditions. Cultivars differed significantly amongst themselves in production and retention of fruits per unit land area. The cultivars were categorized as OM-448>OM-1100>Karishma>5-12 in order of fruit production. The number of total fruiting positions increased with concurrent levels of K-fertilizer. The shedding of fruit was significantly reduced by application of 250 kg K ha-1 compared to zero K-rate treatment. The addition of K-fertilizer in the form of K/sub 2/S0/sub 4/ showed an edge over KCI in fruit production. A high degree of correlation (r 0.89**,0.91**, -0.8**) was measured between seed cotton yield and number of total fruiting positions, number of intact fruit and fruit shedding percentage respectively. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Fermentative Hydrogen Production from Single and Mixed Fruit Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Akinbomi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic viability of employing dark fermentative hydrogen from whole fruit wastes as a green alternative to fossil fuels is limited by low hydrogen yield due to the inhibitory effect of some metabolites in the fermentation medium. In exploring means of increasing hydrogen production from fruit wastes, including orange, apple, banana, grape and melon, the present study assessed the hydrogen production potential of singly-fermented fruits as compared to the fermentation of mixed fruits. The fruit feedstock was subjected to varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs in a continuous fermentation process at 55 °C for 47 days. The weight distributions of the first, second and third fruit mixtures were 70%, 50% and 20% orange share, respectively, while the residual weight was shared equally by the other fruits. The results indicated that there was an improvement in cumulative hydrogen yield from all of the feedstock when the HRT was five days. Based on the results obtained, apple as a single fruit and a fruit mixture with 20% orange share have the most improved cumulative hydrogen yields of 504 (29.5% of theoretical yield and 513 mL/g volatile solid (VS (30% of theoretical yield , respectively, when compared to other fruits.

  6. Fruit production in Chile: bright past, uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 (the last agricultural census, Chile had 308, 445 ha of fruit orchards: an increase of almost 32% from the previous census (1997. The most important species were table grapes (20%, avocados (13% and apples (12%. Some 22% of the fruit crops growing area corresponded to juvenile orchards; within the species with higher proportion of juvenile orchards were prunes (42% and blueberries (56%. Most orchards are located between latitude 27º18` S (Copiapó and 40º36´S (Puerto Varas. The industry is driven by the export component which accounts for more than 50% of the fruits produced. In the crop season 2009-2010, approximately 254 million boxes (around 2.5 million tons were exported, representing over US$ 3.5 million. Processed and fresh fruits represented 8.2 and 26.7% of the total forest and agricultural Chilean exports in 2008, respectively. The main markets for this fruits were USA/Canada (42% and Europe (32%. The fruit grower receives, on average, 12-16% of the total price of the fruit in its final destination. Each year the fruit industry employs 450.000 people directly, of which 1/3 are permanent. Even though the fruit industry employs the highest proportion of the agricultural labor and the growing area has increased in the last 20 years, the proportion of agricultural employment has decreased from 19.5% in 1989 to 10.8% in 2008. It might also be noted that Chile invests only 0.7% of the GDP in research. In the last 40 years, the fruit industry has been a motor for the Chilean economic development, but the lower rates of currency exchange, the rising costs of energy (oil, electricity, and the increasing scarcity of hand labor have drastically reduced the profitability and are putting at risk the viability of a large proportion of the fruit orchards in Chile. It is estimated that this season around 65% of the orchards will have a negative economic balance in their operations. Higher investment in research, improvements in fruit quality

  7. REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND COST OF PRODUCTION FOR DRYING FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Erol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the production costs for heat used in drying fruit plants was studied using of local biomass from tree branch pruning. The average annual get 3 t / ha biomass whit energy potential of 37 GJ/ha at a cost of up to 60 €/t. biomass at 10 - 50 mm chopped and dried below 20% can be gasefied with TLUD process characterized by high energy conversion efficiency, stability and safety in operation, emissions of CO and PM very low. TLUD process produces on average and 15% biochar that can be used as fuel or as agricultural amendment to increase fertility and for atmospheric carbon sequestration. There have been experiments simulated by model of USCMER 30/60MGB dryer equipped with two thermal modules TLUD FORTE-40 for apple slices drying heat of the apple prinings. Biomass used and biochar resulting chemical and energy were defined as micro-gasification process TLUD. That can dry 205 kg of apple slices in 6 hours with 74 kg of dry biomass to 10% of that remains and 12.2 kg biochar, biochar with or without 52 kg biomass, which costs € 8.55 or € 5.97, ie 4.3 or 6.1 times cheaper than diesel. On dry ton of sliced apple it can produce 59.6 kg biochar with soil seize -174.8 kg. CO2.

  8. Integrated Management of Causal Agents of Postharvest Fruit Rot of Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Grahovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of poor quality and fruit loss (during storage and transportare diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Economic losses which are the consequenceof the phytopathogenic fungus activity after harvest exceed the losses in the field.Themost important postharvest fungal pathogens of apple fruits are: Botrytis cinerea Pers. exFr., Penicillium expansum (Lk. Thom., Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck. Grem., Colletotrichumgloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., Monilinia sp., Gloeosporium album Osterw, Alternaria alternata(Fr. Keissler, Cladosporium herbarium Link., Cylindrocarpon mali (Alles. Wollenw., Stemphyliumbotryosum Wallr. The use of available protection technologies can significantly reducelosses caused by pathogens in storage. The concept of integrated pest management (IPMin apple fruits i.e. sustainable approach in control of causal agents of postharvest fruit rot,using cultural, physical, biological and chemical measures, to minimize economic, healthand risks to consumers and environment, is presented in the paper.

  9. Integration of energy-efficient empty fruit bunch drying with gasification/combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Prawisudha, Pandji; Prabowo, Bayu; Budiman, Bentang Arief

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel integrated drying, gasification and combined cycle for empty fruit bunch. • Application of enhanced process integration to achieve high total energy efficiency. • The technology covers exergy recovery and process integration. • High overall energy efficiency can be achieved (about 44% including drying). - Abstract: A high-energy-efficient process for empty fruit bunch drying with integration to gasification and combined cycle processes is proposed. The enhancement is due to greater exergy recovery and more efficient process integration. Basically, the energy/heat involved in a single process is recovered as much as possible, leading to minimization of exergy destruction. In addition, the unrecoverable energy/heat is utilized for other processes through process integration. During drying, a fluidized bed dryer with superheated steam is used as the main evaporator. Exergy recovery is performed through exergy elevation via compression and effective heat coupling in a dryer and heat exchangers. The dried empty fruit bunches are gasified in a fluidized bed gasifier using air as the fluidizing gas. Furthermore, the produced syngas is utilized as fuel in the combined cycle module. From process analysis, the proposed integrated processes can achieve a relatively high energy efficiency. Compared to a standalone drying process employing exergy recovery, the proposed integrated drying can reduce consumed energy by about 1/3. In addition, the overall integrated processes can reach a total power generation efficiency of about 44%

  10. The demographic consequences of mutualism: ants increase host-plant fruit production but not population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; Ness, Joshua H; Bronstein, Judith L; Morris, William F

    2015-10-01

    The impact of mutualists on a partner's demography depends on how they affect the partner's multiple vital rates and how those vital rates, in turn, affect population growth. However, mutualism studies rarely measure effects on multiple vital rates or integrate them to assess the ultimate impact on population growth. We used vital rate data, population models and simulations of long-term population dynamics to quantify the demographic impact of a guild of ant species on the plant Ferocactus wislizeni. The ants feed at the plant's extrafloral nectaries and attack herbivores attempting to consume reproductive organs. Ant-guarded plants produced significantly more fruit, but ants had no significant effect on individual growth or survival. After integrating ant effects across these vital rates, we found that projected population growth was not significantly different between unguarded and ant-guarded plants because population growth was only weakly influenced by differences in fruit production (though strongly influenced by differences in individual growth and survival). However, simulations showed that ants could positively affect long-term plant population dynamics through services provided during rare but important events (herbivore outbreaks that reduce survival or years of high seedling recruitment associated with abundant precipitation). Thus, in this seemingly clear example of mutualism, the interaction may actually yield no clear benefit to plant population growth, or if it does, may only do so through the actions of the ants during rare events. These insights demonstrate the value of taking a demographic approach to studying the consequences of mutualism.

  11. The role of nutrients, productivity and climate in determining tree fruit production in European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Marcos; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan A; Espelta, Josep Maria; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Fruit production (NPP f ), the amount of photosynthates allocated to reproduction (%GPP f ) and their controls for spatial and species-specific variability (e.g. nutrient availability, climate) have been poorly studied in forest ecosystems. We characterized fruit production and its temporal behaviour for several tree species and resolved the effects of gross primary production (GPP), climate and foliar nutrient concentrations. We used data for litterfall and foliar nutrient concentration from 126 European forests and related them to climatic data. GPP was estimated for each forest using a regression model. Mean NPP f ranged from c. 10 to 40 g C m -2  yr -1 and accounted for 0.5-3% of GPP. Forests with higher GPPs produced larger fruit crops. Foliar zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were associated positively with NPP f , whereas foliar Zn and potassium (K) were negatively related to its temporal variability. Maximum NPP f and interannual variability of NPP f were higher in Fagaceae than in Pinaceae species. NPP f and %GPP f were similar amongst the studied species despite the different reproductive temporal behaviour of Fagaceae and Pinaceae species. We report that foliar concentrations of P and Zn are associated with %GPP f , NPP f and its temporal behaviour. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.: Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Grunder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU. Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  13. Evaluation gives productivity and quality gives fruit in Aguacate subjected has to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Cruz Torres, Eulogio; Garcia Andrade, Juan M.; Ibannez Palacios, Jorge; Mijares Oviedo, Pedro

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of productivity, post harvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Has avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the La Labor Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300%. In regard to post harvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This means that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and post harvest behavior of fruits

  14. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to 60Co gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz T, E. De la; Ibanez P, J.; Mijares O, P.; Garcia A, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO 2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

  15. Economic analysis of a combined production of hydrogen-energy from empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langè, Stefano; Pellegrini, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This work relates to an economic analysis and a comparison between different process solutions for the production of hydrogen and the co-production of hydrogen and energy by means of a zero emission biomass integrated supercritical water gasification (SCWG) and combined cycle power plant. The case study will be located in Malaysia. Energy will be produced in agreement with the Small Renewable Energy Power Plant (SREP) Program, promoted by the Government of Malaysia. Hydrogen is obtained by supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of empty fruit bunches (EFB), a technology of interest for the processing of biomass with high moisture content. The economic analysis has been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the process solutions and to compare their convenience. The feedstock is 35 Mg h −1 of empty fruit bunches (EFB), a biomass obtained in the Palm Oil Industry. The location of the site is Teluk Intak District in the State of Perak (Malaysia). The study is performed with Aspen Plus ® V7.2. The aim of this work is to investigate the economic convenience of supercritical water gasification technology applied to a potential industrial case study in order to state the possibilities and the trade-off for the production of hydrogen and the co-production of hydrogen and energy from biomass, using an innovative technology (SCWG) instead of a typical unit for syngas and energy production. The processes have been developed to reach zero emissions and zero wastes. CO 2 and solid residuals are recycled inside palm oil lifecycle. -- Highlights: • Supercritical water gasification of empty fruit bunches has been used for hydrogen production. • Malaysia Small Renewable Energy Power Plant Program is aiming to reduce by 40% its greenhouse gases emissions by 2020. • An economic analysis has been performed to assess the sustainability of hydrogen and energy production from palm oil biomass. • Carbon dioxide and solid residuals are recycled back into biomass

  16. A Comparison of Conventional, Integrated and Organic Management Systems on the Quality of Pomegranate Fruit cv. “Rabbab-e- Shiraz”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisam Ahmadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L., belonging to Punicaceae family, is a tropical and subtropical attractive deciduous or evergreen shrub and is one of the native fruits of Iran. With total production of 941804 tons in 2013, Iran is one of the most important pomegranate producers in the world. Pomegranate is an important source of bioactive compounds. Despite the high nutritional values of pomegranate fruits, the overuse of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in conventional systems reduces nutritional and functional quality of pomegranate fruits. On the other hand, world demand for organic products is growing rapidly in developed countries, especially in Europe, USA, Japan and Australia. Previous studies showed that organic fruits contain higher minerals, vitamins and oxidant activity than conventional crops. Therefore, the aim of the present paper was to compare organic, integrated and conventional management systems in pomegranate orchard on mineral contents and qualitative attributes of pomegranate fruit. Materials and methods: Pomegranate (cv. Rabbab-e-Shiraz grown under organic, conventional and integrated management systems in a commercial orchard, in Nourabad Mamsani, Fars province, was used for this study. Pomegranate fruits were harvested at commercial harvest stage and transported in an air-conditioned vehicle to the laboratory of Horticultural Science Department, University of Guilan, Rasht. Some factors like fruit, aril and peel weight, aril length, weight ratio of peel to aril, peel to fruit and aril to fruit, and seed firmness (Penetrometer, with the diameter of 11 mm were assessed. In addition, qualitative properties (Total Soluble Solids (TSS, TA (Titratable Acidity, TSS/TA and pH, antioxidant compounds (total phenol, flavonoids and anthocyanin content in pomegranate juice and mineral nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg in peel and arils were measured. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with

  17. A Comparison of Conventional, Integrated and Organic Management Systems on the Quality of Pomegranate Fruit cv. “Rabbab-e- Shiraz”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisam Ahmadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L., belonging to Punicaceae family, is a tropical and subtropical attractive deciduous or evergreen shrub and is one of the native fruits of Iran. With total production of 941804 tons in 2013, Iran is one of the most important pomegranate producers in the world. Pomegranate is an important source of bioactive compounds. Despite the high nutritional values of pomegranate fruits, the overuse of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in conventional systems reduces nutritional and functional quality of pomegranate fruits. On the other hand, world demand for organic products is growing rapidly in developed countries, especially in Europe, USA, Japan and Australia. Previous studies showed that organic fruits contain higher minerals, vitamins and oxidant activity than conventional crops. Therefore, the aim of the present paper was to compare organic, integrated and conventional management systems in pomegranate orchard on mineral contents and qualitative attributes of pomegranate fruit. Materials and methods: Pomegranate (cv. Rabbab-e-Shiraz grown under organic, conventional and integrated management systems in a commercial orchard, in Nourabad Mamsani, Fars province, was used for this study. Pomegranate fruits were harvested at commercial harvest stage and transported in an air-conditioned vehicle to the laboratory of Horticultural Science Department, University of Guilan, Rasht. Some factors like fruit, aril and peel weight, aril length, weight ratio of peel to aril, peel to fruit and aril to fruit, and seed firmness (Penetrometer, with the diameter of 11 mm were assessed. In addition, qualitative properties (Total Soluble Solids (TSS, TA (Titratable Acidity, TSS/TA and pH, antioxidant compounds (total phenol, flavonoids and anthocyanin content in pomegranate juice and mineral nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg in peel and arils were measured. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with

  18. Production and Quality Evaluation of Pineapple Fruit Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ningli; Ma, Lina; Li, Liuji; Gong, Xiao; Ye, Jianzhi

    2017-12-01

    The fermentation process of pineapple fruit wine was studied. The juice was inoculated with 5% (v/v) active yeast and held at 20 °C for 7 days. Total sugar and pH decreased while the alcoholic strength increased with increasing length of fermentation. The fermented fruit wine contains 2.29 g/L total acid, 10.2 % (v/v) alcohol, 5.4 °Brix soluble solids, pH 3.52. Pineapple wine detected 68 kinds of aroma components, including 34 esters, 13 alcohols. The ester material accounted for 52.25% of the main aroma components. The quality and sensory evaluation results indicated that pineapple fruit wine belongs to a kind of low alcohol wine, so it is easy to be accepted by the public.

  19. EUCLID: Leveraging IPM for sustainable production of fruit and vegetable crops in partnership with China

    OpenAIRE

    Nicot , Philippe C.; Bardin , Marc; Leyronas , Christel; Desneux , Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    EUCLID: Leveraging IPM for sustainable production of fruit and vegetable crops in partnership with China. 13. IOBC-WPRS Meeting of the working group "Biological control of fungal and bacterial plant pathogens. .

  20. Mycoflora and production of wine from fruits of soursop (Annona Muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael N Okigbo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Raphael N Okigbo1, Omokaro Obire21Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstract: An investigation was conducted on the mycoflora associated with the different parts of fresh and rotten fruits of soursop (Annona muricata L. and the potential of using both indigenous yeast flora and commercial yeast extract for wine production. Isolation of fungi and pathogenicity test were carried out with Sabouraud dextrose agar. Mycoflora were more in the rotten fruits than in the fresh fruits. Botryodiplodia theobromae was isolated only from the rotten fruits (skin while Trichoderma viride was isolated only from the fresh fruits. Penicillium sp., was the most dominant in all the fruit part of fresh soursop fruit with Rhizopus stolonifer having the highest percentage occurrence (36.39% in the rotten fruit. Most of the isolated fungi indicated occurrence of such common airborne fungi on soursop fruits and the potential to induce rot in fresh healthy fruits of soursop in storage. Soursop juice was fermented for 10 days and wine was obtained. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in the alcoholic content of the wines obtained from the indigenous and commercial yeasts. The wine obtained from the pasteurized, ameliorated soursop juice inoculated with propagated indigenous yeast yielded the highest alcoholic content. Based on the level of the nutritional composition of soursop juice, the ability to support yeast growth, the high alcoholic content and palatability of the wine, the Annona muricata is good source for wine production and single-cell protein.Keywords: fermentation, fruit yeast, fungi, incidence, rot

  1. ​Affordable natural product reduces fruit losses, increases incomes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing science, enhancing fruit life The project uses cutting-edge science to extend and optimize the use of hexanal for pre- and post-harvest applications to ... The Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in India, the Industrial Technology Institute in Sri Lanka, and the University of Guelph in Canada will work with research ...

  2. Bioethanol fuel production from rambutan fruit biomass as reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The depletion of fossil fuels impacts on the increase of petroleum price and has triggered the finding of alternative and renewable energy. Biofuel has attracted the attention of researchers all over the world due to reducing the environmental impacts of elevated carbon monoxide. Abundant of fruits waste can be reused in the ...

  3. Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy, or fruit development in the absence of fertilization, has been genetically engineered in eggplant and in other horticultural species by using the DefH9-iaaM gene. The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta. A previous greenhouse trial for winter production of genetically engineered (GM parthenocarpic eggplants demonstrated a significant increase (an average of 33% increase in fruit production concomitant with a reduction in cultivation costs. Results GM parthenocarpic eggplants have been evaluated in three field trials. Two greenhouse spring trials have shown that these plants outyielded the corresponding untransformed genotypes, while a summer trial has shown that improved fruit productivity in GM eggplants can also be achieved in open field cultivation. Since the fruits were always seedless, the quality of GM eggplant fruits was improved as well. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed during late stages of fruit development. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM parthenocarpic gene is a biotechnological tool that enhances the agronomic value of all eggplant genotypes tested. The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i improved fruit productivity (at least 30–35% under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii production of good quality (marketable fruits during different types of cultivation; iii seedless fruit with improved quality. Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.

  4. Sustainability as Sales Argument in the Fruit Juice Industry? An Analysis of On-Product Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Klink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Purpose/Value – The objective of this paper is to determine (1 the extent to which sustainability serves as a sales argument and (2 which areas of sustainability are communicated in the fruit juice industry. This seems promising against the background that there are several ethical challenges the fruit juice chain is increasingly confronted with and consumers demand for sustainable products is also rising. Design/Methodology – A market investigation at the Point-of Sale (POS was conducted in July 2013. On-product communication of all fruit juice products (‘not from concentrate (NFC’ fruit juices, ’reconstituted (RECON’ fruit juices, fruit nectars and smoothies from five retailers (two full-range retailers, two discounters, one organic supermarket was analyzed. The data was evaluated using content analysis. Results/Findings – Overall, 562 fruit juices were examined. Results reveal that nearly one quarter of the products has labels signaling sustainable aspects. However, most of those products were found in the organic food retailer and are organic juices. Only a small number of products consider other areas of sustainability, such as social concerns or regional production. Discussion/Conclusion – Communicating sustainability aspects of fruit juice production via on-package labels is scarce in conventional retail stores. In view of the ethical challenges present in the fruit juice chain and discussed in the paper, the increasing demand of consumers for sustainable products and the high competition in the sector, communicating different sustainability aspects can be an opportunity for fruit juice producers and retailers to differentiate their products on the highly saturated fruit juice market.  Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso

  5. [The acerola fruit: composition, productive characteristics and economic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezadri, Tatiana; Fernández-Pachón, Ma Soledad; Villaño, Débora; García-Parrilla, Ma Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2006-06-01

    The acerola (Malpighia emarginata Sessé y Mociño ex DC) is a wild plant grown in zones of tropical and subtropical climate. Acerola is origin from South of Mexico, Central America and Septentrional area of South America. Its scientific name was adopted in 1986 by the International Council of Vegetable Genetic Resources. Malpighia emarginata has a subglobulose drupa fruit with three seeds which account between the 19 - 25% of the total weight. The diameter and weight of the fruit varies between 1 - 4 cm and 2 - 15 g, respectively. The fruit shows green color when it is developing, which changes to yellow and red tones when it is mature. Each plant produces annually 20 - 30 kg of fruits. This fruit contents macro and micronutrients: proteins (0.21-0.80 g/100 g), fats (0.23-0.80 g/100 g), carbohydrates (3.6-7.80 g/100 g), mineral salts (iron 0.24, calcium 11.7, phosphorus 17.1 mg/100 g) and vitamins (thiamine 0.02, riboflavine 0.07, piridoxine 8.7 mg/100 g). Its high content in vitamin C (695 a 4827 mg/100 g) is remarkable, therefore acerola has an increasing economic value by its great consume during last years. Acerola also presents carotenoids and bioflavonoids which provide important nutritive value and its potential use as antioxidant. Brazil has a climate and soil appropriate for the culture of acerola, thus this country is the main mundial productor. Acerola is commercialised as juices, jams, ices, gelatins, sweets or liquors. Bibliographical data have been mainly supplied by Electronic Resources of the University of Seville and the University do Vale do Itajaí (Santa Catarina, Brazil).

  6. PRODUCTION AND POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF IRRIGATED PASSION FRUIT AFTER N-K FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL GONÇALVES DIAS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies with nitrogen and potassium in yellow passion fruit cultivars with high yield potential are scarce in semiarid regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence the N and K doses on productivity and fruit quality of different passion fruit cultivars in irrigated conditions in the northern of Minas Gerais state. The study was installed at experimental farm located in Janaúba-MG. This area was located at 15º 47’ S and 43º 18’ W, 516 m above sea level. The experiment was in completely randomized block with four replications, arranged in 4 x 6 factorial design consisting of four Passion Fruit cultivars (BRS Sol do Cerrado, BRS Ouro Vermelho, BRS Gigante Amarelo, IAC 275 and six N and K doses, which corresponded to 0-0, 50-125, 100-250, 150-375, 200 -500 and 250-625 kg ha-1 yr-1 of N and K2O, respectively. BRS Gigante Amarelo and BRS Sol do Cerrado cultivars showed higher productivity. Total fruit yield and average fruit weight were higher for BRS Sol do Cerrado and IAC 275, BRS Gigante Amarelo and BRS Ouro Vermelho cultivars, respectively. IAC 275 showed the highest pulp yield and along with BRS Sol do Cerrado, showed the higher soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio. BRS Sol do Cerrado, BRS Gigante Amarelo and IAC 275 cultivars showed higher pulp productivity, indicating that they are more promising for passion fruit juice industry.

  7. EVALUATION OF THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF APPLE CHIPS AND DRIED FRUITS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of thermodynamic perfection of separate technological processes is executed at heat-moisture of handling of fruit and a line of manufacture of fruit apple chips and dried fruits. The technological scheme of a line of processing of fruits and manufactures of fruit chips on the basis of convection and the microwave-dryings suggested resource-saving. The technique is made and results of calculation of thermal expenses for various schemes of manufacture of apple chips are resulted. For the offered scheme material, thermal and power streams on the basis of balance parities of technological processes are certain. The comparative thermal production efficiency of apple chips for a base foreign variant and the offered technological scheme with the closed cycle of use of the heat-carrier and the combined convection-microwave-drying is shown. In this paper we define the thermal and energy flows for the processes of convective drying, pre-microwave drying, hydrothermal treatment and final microwave drying plant material, which are one of the main stages of the production of all kinds of fruit and vegetable concentrates, including fruit apple chips. Resource-saving ways moisture-heat of handling (hydration, blanching, drying, etc. produce raw materials in the production of food concentrates suggested a reduced water flow with a high degree of use of its potential power and microwave sources. To assess the thermal efficiency of the various processes and production schemes used as indicators of thermal efficiency and proposed value of specific heat (kJ / kg given mass productivity per unit of feedstock and translational moisture. The values of the mass fraction of the heat of material flows for the base and the proposed resource-saving production scheme fruit chips, for example, apple, based on a combination of convection-microwave drying each control surface.

  8. Integrated Modeling of Solutions in the System of Distributing Logistics of a Fruit and Vegetable Cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Velychko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism of preparing rationalistic solutions in the system of distributing logistics of a fruit and vegetable cooperative has been studied considering possible alternatives and existing limitations. Belonging of separate operations of the fruit and vegetable cooperative to technological, logistical or marketing business processes has been identified. Expediency of the integrated use of logistical concept DRP, decision tree method and linear programming in management of the cooperative has been grounded. The model for preparing decisions on organizing sales of vegetables and fruit which is focused on minimization of costs of cooperative services and maximization of profits for members of the cooperation has been developed. The necessity to consider integrated model of differentiation on levels of post gathering processing and logistical service has been revealed. Methodology of representation in the economical-mathematical model of probabilities in the tree of decisions concerning the expected amount of sales and margin for members of the cooperative using different channels has been processed. A formula which enables scientists to describe limitations in linear programming concerning critical duration of providing harvest of vegetables and fruit after gathering towards a customer has been suggested.

  9. Drip Irrigation for Commercial Vegetable and Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughn, Tiffany; Allen, Niel; Drost, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a highly efficient irrigation method well suited to many fruit and vegetable row crops. Drip tubing or tape discharges water to the soil through emitters positioned close to the plant. The drip tubing can be placed uncovered on the soil surface, under plastic mulch, buried in the soil, or suspended above the ground (e.g., on a trellis system). Water application rate is relatively low and irrigations are usually frequent. Properly designed and maintained drip-irrigation syst...

  10. Preliminary analysis of productivity of fruiting fungi on Strzeleckie meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sadowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis demonstrated that the fresh ahd dry weight as well as the ash content of fungal fruit bodies collected on a forest-surrounded unmown meadow (Stellario-Deschampsietum Freitag 1957 and Caricetum elatae W.Koch 1926 were lower than the same values for a plot of exploited mown meadow and higher than on an exploited unmown meadow (Arrhenatheretum medioeuropaeum (Br.-Bl. Oberd. 1952.

  11. Nitrogen Nutrition of Fruit Trees to Reconcile Productivity and Environmental Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranca, Corina; Brunetto, Gustavo; Tagliavini, Massimo

    2018-01-10

    Although perennial fruit crops represent 1% of global agricultural land, they are of a great economic importance in world trade and in the economy of many regions. The perennial woody nature of fruit trees, their physiological stages of growth, the root distribution pattern, and the presence of herbaceous vegetation in alleys make orchard systems efficient in the use and recycling of nitrogen (N). The present paper intends to review the existing literature on N nutrition of young and mature deciduous and evergreen fruit trees with special emphasis to temperate and Mediterranean climates. There are two major sources of N contributing to vegetative tree growth and reproduction: root N uptake and internal N cycling. Optimisation of the use of external and internal N sources is important for a sustainable fruit production, as N use efficiency by young and mature fruit trees is generally lower than 55% and losses of fertilizer N may occur with the consequent economic and environmental concern. Organic alternatives to mineral N fertilizer like the application of manure, compost, mulching, and cover crops are scarcely used in perennial fruit trees, in spite of the fact that society's expectations call for more sustainable production techniques and the demand for organic fruits is increasing.

  12. STUDY ON THE VALORIFICATION OF LYCIUM BARBARUM FRUIT (GOJI IN PASTRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research refers to the development of new recipes of fabricating tow different muffins and spritz cookies, using Goji whole fruits rehydrated and Goji ground powder type fruits, in different proportions and after, by sensory analysis proving the consumer preferences in relation to Goji fruit intake in the products. Also has been studied the total carotenoid content by spectrophotometric measurements from finished products comparing with whole goji berry fruit. The products are obtained by baking dough made ​​from flour, sugar, eggs, vegetable fat, milk, goji berries, friable chemical. The raw material and auxiliary material (white flour and Goji berries and the pastry products obtain with addition of goji was submitted to the physio-chemical exam, following: moisture content, ash content, gluten content, acidity content, vitamin C content, carotenoids content in accordance with applicable standards. Therefore we obtained 3 types of muffins (simple muffins, muffins with addition of 10% whole goji fruit, muffins with addition of 10% fruit goji powder ground type and 4 types of spritz cookies (simple cookies, cookies with addition of 3 %, 5 %, 10 % of goji powder.

  13. Effect of CRC::etr1-1 transgene expression on ethylene production, sex expression, fruit set and fruit ripening in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzenberg, Jessica A; Beaudry, Randy M; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene is a key factor regulating sex expression in cucurbits. Commercial melons (Cucumis melo L.) are typically andromonoecious, producing male and bisexual flowers. Our prior greenhouse studies of transgenic melon plants expressing the dominant negative ethylene perception mutant gene, etr1-1, under control of the carpel- and nectary-primordia targeted CRAB'S CLAW (CRC) promoter showed increased number and earlier appearance of carpel-bearing flowers. To further investigate this phenomenon which could be potentially useful for earlier fruit production, we observed CRC::etr1-1 plants in the field for sex expression, fruit set, fruit development, and ripening. CRC::etr1-1 melon plants showed increased number of carpel-bearing open flowers on the main stem and earlier onset by 7-10 nodes. Additional phenotypes observed in the greenhouse and field were conversion of approximately 50% of bisexual buds to female, and elongated ovaries and fruits. Earlier and greater fruit set occurred on the transgenic plants. However, CRC::etr1-1 plants had greater abscission of young fruit, and smaller fruit, so that final yield (kg/plot) was equivalent to wild type. Earlier fruit set in line M5 was accompanied by earlier appearance of ripe fruit. Fruit from line M15 frequently did not exhibit external ripening processes of rind color change and abscission, but when cut open, the majority showed a ripe or overripe interior accompanied by elevated internal ethylene. The non-ripening external phenotype in M15 fruit corresponded with elevated etr1-1 transgene expression in the exocarp. These results provide insight into the role of ethylene perception in carpel-bearing flower production, fruit set, and ripening.

  14. Effects of processing treatment on pesticide residues in fruits and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xuefei; Jiao Bining; Fu Chenmei; Qian Yongzhong; Wang Jing

    2008-01-01

    The influence of processing treatments on pesticide residues in fruits and their products was reviewed. The effects on pesticide residues and relative control treatments for each processing step, including peeling, washing, sterilization, juicing, clarification, filtration, drying and fermentation, were discussed, respectively. Meanwhile we analyzed the future development prospectin of this field, in order to provide some suggestions for commercial fruit industry and consumers' health. (authors)

  15. Study of diffusion processes in pumpkin particles during candied fruits production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Atamanyuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of candied fruits is a priority development area of the food industry. The basic process in candied fruits production is diffusion of sugar syrup into vegetable raw material. Kinetics of the diffusion processes depends on sucrose concentration, medium temperature, particles size and internal structure of the fruits.The experiments to determine the factors influencing the diffusion processes were carried out using the installation designed by the authors; the experimental dependences of sucrose concentration change in pumpkin candied fruits on time have been determined at temperatures of 20, 40, 60 and 80°C. Cell sizes and diameter of pores between the cells in raw and blanched pumpkin have been determined. This makes it possible to determine the internal porosity of the pumpkin particle, the value of which determines the coefficient of mass transfer.On the basis of the experiments we derived the dependence, allowing to determine the mass transfer coefficients for sucrose molecules in blanched pumpkin fruits within the temperatures corresponding to the quality of the finished product. The experimental studies and the chosen mathematical model allow us to calculate the change in sucrose concentration in the pumpkin fruits in time at different temperatures and to determine the time required for the candied fruits to reach the equilibrium concentration. Also, the coefficients not depending on temperature, but depending only on the shape of the particles being saturated with sugar syrup, have been determined using the kinetic model of diffusion processes. The obtained theoretical dependences are in good agreement with the experimental data and substantiate the expediency of the chosen temperature and concentration ranges. The designed installation, the obtained experimental and theoretical dependences, and the calculated coefficients allow to create an intensive sucrose diffusion process in pumpkin particles during pumpkin candied

  16. Integration of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomekova, A.

    2004-01-01

    The project SustelNet also deals with the possibilities of future development of DG sources. Within the project frame a quite general concept of the so-called 'equal field' for centralized and decentralized production was chosen for the better integration of DG. Its aim was to the achieve demanded level on the market in the future term (by 2020). Looking at the problem in the wider context means, that both forms of the production should be admitted on the market on the same conditions. The result of this project is a regulatory map, which actually serves as a definite regulatory strategy for more effective employment of DG sources. On the basis of the national regulatory strategies a proposition of regulatory map for EU will be launched, including some recommendations for European Commission. A few expert papers (scenario of proceeding, benchmarking, economical tools and criteria) are also output of this project. Five member states of the EU and four entering countries have been involved in this project. The final results of this procedure will be presented from April 2004 on international and national conferences, seminaries, or by means of other ways of publicity

  17. Effects of total integrated solar radiation on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] cultivation under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yanase, S.; Enya, T.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the cause of radial fruit cracking in tomato cultivation under rain shelter in the cool uplands in Gifu Prefecture. The effect of total integrated radiation using two types of training methods was determined over a three-year period. The percentage of refused radial fruit cracking associated with increased total integrated solar radiation from the young fruit stage to the mature green stage. Fruit cracking occurred in the training method which foliage and fruits received a large amount of light-interception. Also, as for fruits that undergo vigorous enlargement, the frequency of the radial fruit cracking increased

  18. Carbohydrate production, balance and translocation in leaves, shoots and fruits of Montmorency sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Carbohydrate production, export and use were studied for different organs of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Montmorency). Gross carbohydrate ( 14 CO 2 ) export started between 27.2 and 77.6% of full leaf expansion. The 10th leaf developing started export later than the 7th leaf, suggesting that higher carbohydrate availability during leaf expansion delays export initiation. In support of this, gross export started earlier (44.4-52.4% full expansion) after source leaf removal, than in the control (77.6%). Translocation was primarily vertical (following orthostichies). Most leaves of fruiting shoots exported bidirectionally to the apex and fruits, only leaves closest to fruits exported exclusively to fruits during rapid cell division (Stage I) and rapid cell expansion (Stage III). Net export, determined from carbohydrate balance models started at 17 and 51% expansion for the 7th and terminal leaf, and at 26.5% of shoot elongation. Cumulative carbohydrate production of the 7th and terminal leaves during the first 9 and 11 days after emergence, exceeded carbohydrate accumulated at final size, 464.2 and 148.9 mg. A fruit carbohydrate balance was developed to determine contributions by fruit photosynthesis and fruit respiration, and to identify periods of greatest carbohydrate import. Fruit photosynthesis during development was characterized under different environmental conditions. Gross photosynthesis and chlorophyll content per fruit increased to a maximum during stage II and decreased thereafter. Gross photosynthesis approached a maximum at 40 0 C. Since dark respiration increased exponentially over the same temperature range, net photosynthesis reached a maximum at 18 0 C. Photorespiration was not detected

  19. Furfural production from fruit shells by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-01-21

    Pentosans are hydrolyzed to pentoses by dilute mineral acid hydrolysis. The main source of pentosans is hemicelluloses. Furfural can be produced by the acid hydrolysis of pentosan from fruit shells such as hazelnut, sunflower, walnut, and almond of agricultural wastes. Further dehydration reactions of the pentoses yield furfural. The hydrolysis of each shell sample was carried out in dilute sulfuric acid (0.05 to 0.200 mol/l), at high temperature (450-525 K), and short reaction times (from 30 to 600 s). (author)

  20. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan

    2017-04-13

    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  1. Effect of biological sprays on the incidence of grey mould, fruit yield and fruit quality in organic strawberry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PROKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant diseases, especially grey mould (Botrytis cinerea, may cause severe losses in organic strawberry production. In a two-year period, 2001–2002, the effects of different biological sprays on grey mould, the fruit yield and fruit quality of organically grown strawberry ‘Jonsok’ were studied in field trials at MTT Agrifood Research Finland in Ruukki and Mikkeli. In Experiment 1 the biological sprays were seaweed, garlic and compost extracts, silicon and Trichoderma spp. on both trial sites. In Experiment 2, compost extract, Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium catenulatum sprays were studied in Ruukki. The treatment time was chosen to control grey mould. The effect of different biological sprays on the incidence of grey mould and total and marketable yield was insignificant compared to the untreated control. In both years and in all trials the incidence of grey mould was low and rot occurred mainly in the latter part of the harvesting period, which may partly explain the small differences between treatments. Anyhow, despite of feasible biological control cultural control methods will be important to manage the fungus in organic strawberry production.;

  2. Integrated analysis of 454 and Illumina transcriptomic sequencing characterizes carbon flux and energy source for fatty acid synthesis in developing Lindera glauca fruits for woody biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zixin; An, Jiyong; Wang, Jia; Niu, Jun; Ma, Chao; Wang, Libing; Yuan, Guanshen; Shi, Lingling; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Zhixiang; Qi, Ji; Lin, Shanzhi

    2017-01-01

    . glauca fruits, which could help to reveal the molecular regulatory mechanism of the increased oil production in developing fruits. This study presents for the first time the application of an integrated two different sequencing analyses (Illumina and 454) and qRT-PCR detection to define a minimal reference transcriptome for developing L. glauca fruits, and to elucidate the molecular regulatory mechanism of carbon flux control and energy provision for oil synthesis. Our results will provide a valuable resource for future fundamental and applied research on the woody biodiesel plants.

  3. Economic indicators of the production of important fruit-specific species in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukač-Bulatović Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the basic economic and production results of important fruit species (apple, pear, peach, sour cherry and plum on agricultural farms of Vojvodina. The aim of the research is to evaluate the most important parameters of cost-effectiveness of these productions, and propose measures to improve the existing situation. Comparative analysis clearly shows that the most cost-effective is pears production, followed by apple, cherry, peach and plum. Pear production gives the largest coverage margin per unit capacity (1,261,786 din /ha, which is 16.5% better than in apple production (1,083,160 din /ha, or about 7.8 times better in relation to plums production (161,796 din /ha. The highest coefficient of economy (3.19 is, also, recorded in the production of pear (for apples 2.94, cherry 2.27, peach 2.17 and plum 1.44. Further development of fruit production in Vojvodina involves raising intensive farms with quality fruit varieties, firmer vertical linking of producers and processors, ensurement of economic safety of producers in the long run, making of fruit producing regions, etc.

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED PASTES OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Developed a new system for producing concentrated semi-finished products in the form of pastes for the food industry. Currently, an important task of the food industry is the creation of new products with the aim of improving the structure of the range, saving scarce raw materials, as well as reduce sugar intake; development of product functionality and products with extended shelf life. The use of local non-traditional types of plant materials can contribute to solving existing problems. Fruit and vegetable pastes are a valuable food products which can be used as a semifinished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry. Fruit and vegetable purees have a distinct structurally viscous or pseudo-plastic properties and concentration form a very viscous mass. Already in the beginning of the process of concentration, i.e. at a relatively low degree of evaporation that leads to a rapid increase in the viscosity of the concentrate mass and reduce evaporation. With increasing temperature is the burning mass, and also change its color and flavor. Therefore, for the concentration of fruit and vegetable purees, you must use equipment whose design takes into account the possible rheological and thermal problems. The analysis of literary data structures evaporators and studies, we developed a system for producing concentrated pastes of fruit and vegetable raw materials. Developed installation can increase the quality of the finished product due to the intensification of the process of concentration, to reduce material and energy resources, increase productivity.

  5. Comparative analysis and nutritional composition of mulberry fruit morus alba plus seabuckthorn (hippophae) and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizai, M.N.; Rehman, S.; Shah, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    The fruits of mulberry produced in Northern Pakistan were subjected to hot air dehydration to preserve without losing its natural flavour and nutrients. The dehydrated mulberry powder which is called mulberry beverage base (MBB) yielded good fruit tasty drink when mixed with suitable amount of water Shelf-life assessment was also conducted. The fresh fruit extract and the dehydrated mulberry beverage base (MBB) were analysed for juice/pulp, MBB, moisture, acidity as citric acid, total soluble solids, sugars, ascorbic acid and ash minerals like calcium, potassium, phosphorous, sodium and iron in fresh fruit extract was also determined. Mulberry pulp was mixed with seabuckthorn pulp prior to dehydration. Dehydrated product was found better in taste, colour and flavour. (author)

  6. Chloride stress triggers maturation and negatively affects the postharvest quality of persimmon fruit. Involvement of calyx ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Cristina; Gil, Rebeca; Bonet, Luis; Quiñones, Ana; Intrigliolo, Diego; Salvador, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In recent years many hectares planted with persimmon trees in E Spain have been diagnosed with chloride toxicity. An effect of this abiotic stress on fruit quality has been reported in different crops. However, the impact of chloride stress on persimmon fruit quality is unknown. The harvest and postharvest quality of persimmons harvested from trees that manifest different intensities of chloride toxicity foliar symptoms was evaluated herein. Our results revealed that fruits from trees under chloride stress conditions underwent chloride accumulation in the calyx, which was more marked the greater the salt stress intensity trees were exposed to. Increased chloride concentrations in the calyx stimulated ethylene production in this tissue. In the fruits affected by slight and moderate chloride stress, calyx ethylene production accelerated the maturity process, as reflected by increased fruit colour and diminished fruit firmness. In the fruits under severe chloride stress, the high ethylene levels in the calyx triggered autocatalytic ethylene production in other fruit tissues, which led fruit maturity to drastically advance. In these fruits effectiveness of CO2 deastringency treatment was not complete and fruit softening enhanced during the postharvest period. Moreover, chloride stress conditions had a marked effect on reducing fruit weight, even in slightly stressed trees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of the optimal production process and application of apple fruit (malus domestica (l.) borkh) fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Shao, W.; Ziang, R.

    2015-01-01

    In orchard production, fruit abscission is common due to insect damage, disease, crop thinning and natural dropping. However, the utilization of these discarded plant resources has received little research attention. In this study, we used apple fruit from such plant resources, mainly young and mature dropped fruit, as materials and mixed them with a fermentation agent, brown sugar and water. The effects of the proportion of fermentation agent and the fermentation conditions (O2, temperature, fermenting time and fruit crushing degree) were studied using an orthogonal experimental design. We discovered a novel fermented fertilizer, apple fruit fermentation nutrient solution (AFF), for which the optimal fermentation formula and conditions were comminuted young apples: fermentation agent: brown sugar: water weight ratio of 5:0.1:1:4 and 45 days of aerobic fermentation. Analysis of the fermentation solutions showed that the supernatant obtained using these optimized parameters had the highest mineral element content among the fermentation formulas and conditions studied. The results of a spraying experiment with 200-, 500- and 800-fold dilutions showed that AFF significantly promoted the net photosynthetic rate, leaf area and thickness, specific leaf weight, and chlorophyll and mineral element content in the leaves of young apple trees relative to the control treatment. The effects of 200-fold diluted AFF on the photosynthetic rate, the developmental quality and mineral element contents were greater than those of the 500- and 800-fold dilutions. The results of the spraying of adult trees with 200-fold diluted AFF compared to a water control demonstrated that AFF significantly enhanced the average weight of a single fruit, the shape index, hardness, content of soluble solids, titratable acid content, vitamin C content, and aroma compound content of the fruit of the adult trees. This evidence suggests that the AFF obtained using the optimal production process could

  8. Global Potential Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and the Risks for Fruit Production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, Cesar A

    2016-01-01

    The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is a tephritid native to Asia that has invaded South America through small-scale trade of fruits from Indonesia. The economic losses associated with biological invasions of other fruit flies around the world and the polyphagous behaviour of B. carambolae have prompted much concern among government agencies and farmers with the potential spread of this pest. Here, ecological niche models were employed to identify suitable environments available to B. carambolae in a global scale and assess the extent of the fruit acreage that may be at risk of attack in Brazil. Overall, 30 MaxEnt models built with different combinations of environmental predictors and settings were evaluated for predicting the potential distribution of the carambola fruit fly. The best model was selected based on threshold-independent and threshold-dependent metrics. Climatically suitable areas were identified in tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, west and east coast of India and northern Australia. The suitability map of B. carambola was intersected against maps of fruit acreage in Brazil. The acreage under potential risk of attack varied widely among fruit species, which is expected because the production areas are concentrated in different regions of the country. The production of cashew is the one that is at higher risk, with almost 90% of its acreage within the suitable range of B. carambolae, followed by papaya (78%), tangerine (51%), guava (38%), lemon (30%), orange (29%), mango (24%) and avocado (20%). This study provides an important contribution to the knowledge of the ecology of B. carambolae, and the information generated here can be used by government agencies as a decision-making tool to prevent the carambola fruit fly spread across the world.

  9. Global Potential Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and the Risks for Fruit Production in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Marchioro

    Full Text Available The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is a tephritid native to Asia that has invaded South America through small-scale trade of fruits from Indonesia. The economic losses associated with biological invasions of other fruit flies around the world and the polyphagous behaviour of B. carambolae have prompted much concern among government agencies and farmers with the potential spread of this pest. Here, ecological niche models were employed to identify suitable environments available to B. carambolae in a global scale and assess the extent of the fruit acreage that may be at risk of attack in Brazil. Overall, 30 MaxEnt models built with different combinations of environmental predictors and settings were evaluated for predicting the potential distribution of the carambola fruit fly. The best model was selected based on threshold-independent and threshold-dependent metrics. Climatically suitable areas were identified in tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, west and east coast of India and northern Australia. The suitability map of B. carambola was intersected against maps of fruit acreage in Brazil. The acreage under potential risk of attack varied widely among fruit species, which is expected because the production areas are concentrated in different regions of the country. The production of cashew is the one that is at higher risk, with almost 90% of its acreage within the suitable range of B. carambolae, followed by papaya (78%, tangerine (51%, guava (38%, lemon (30%, orange (29%, mango (24% and avocado (20%. This study provides an important contribution to the knowledge of the ecology of B. carambolae, and the information generated here can be used by government agencies as a decision-making tool to prevent the carambola fruit fly spread across the world.

  10. Endosulfan in water soils and fruits usage impact in a production intensive rural area of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, R.; Stapff, M.; Mandl, B.; Franchi, S.; Enrich, N.; Campelo, E.

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of a project aimed to detect agrochemical remainders in soil, fruits and groundwater was carried out in four rural properties located in the vegetable and fruit production region of Salto. The presence of endosulfan was tracked because the alert was given from Europe about the withdrawal of this chemical from the authorized product list, considering that it may be a potencial threat with long persistence for human health. From this first sampling phase was concluded that there is a high persistence in soil, in harvested fruit the remainings found stay below the Maximum Limits for Residuum of the Alimentarius Codex, and it is not detected at all in groundwater. The advantages of working with an interdisciplinary approach were highly valuable to perform this study of the impact of the remainings of one of the chemicals currently used for the agricultural production in our country

  11. Integrative production technology theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Özdemir, Denis

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the research results of the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”, funded by the German Research Society (DFG). The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields such as engineering, material sciences, economics and social sciences. The book contains coherent deterministic models for integrative product creation chains as well as harmonized cybernetic models of production systems. The content is structured into five sections: Integrative Production Technology, Individualized Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimizing Production Systems and Collaboration Productivity.The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field of production engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  12. Integration of tomato reproductive developmental landmarks and expression profiles, and the effect of SUN on fruit shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dongmei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universally accepted landmark stages are necessary to highlight key events in plant reproductive development and to facilitate comparisons among species. Domestication and selection of tomato resulted in many varieties that differ in fruit shape and size. This diversity is useful to unravel underlying molecular and developmental mechanisms that control organ morphology and patterning. The tomato fruit shape gene SUN controls fruit elongation. The most dramatic effect of SUN on fruit shape occurs after pollination and fertilization although a detailed investigation into the timing of the fruit shape change as well as gene expression profiles during critical developmental stages has not been conducted. Results We provide a description of floral and fruit development in a red-fruited closely related wild relative of tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium accession LA1589. We use established and propose new floral and fruit landmarks to present a framework for tomato developmental studies. In addition, gene expression profiles of three key stages in floral and fruit development are presented, namely floral buds 10 days before anthesis (floral landmark 7, anthesis-stage flowers (floral landmark 10 and fruit landmark 1, and 5 days post anthesis fruit (fruit landmark 3. To demonstrate the utility of the landmarks, we characterize the tomato shape gene SUN in fruit development. SUN controls fruit shape predominantly after fertilization and its effect reaches a maximum at 8 days post-anthesis coinciding with fruit landmark 4 representing the globular embryo stage of seed development. The expression profiles of the NILs that differ at sun show that only 34 genes were differentially expressed and most of them at a less than 2-fold difference. Conclusion The landmarks for flower and fruit development in tomato were outlined and integrated with the effect of SUN on fruit shape. Although we did not identify many genes differentially expressed in

  13. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  14. Deliverable 5.2 Study report on consumer motivations and behaviours for fruits and fruit products in the Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether fruit consumption in Western Balkan countries (WBC) meets recommended levels from a health perspective. A better understanding consumers' perception of health and motives and barriers of fruit is necessary to get insight in the fruit consumption. The aim of WP 5 is therefore to

  15. EFFECT OF THIDIAZURON CONCENTRATION AND APPLICATION PERIOD ON ‘ROYAL GALA’ APPLE FRUITING AND PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVERLAN FAGUNDES

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘Gala’ apple trees have low fruit set in restrictive pollination situations, being an obstacle to the achievement of high production rates in orchards in southern Brazil, which can be minimized by the use of growth regulators. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thidiazuron concentrations in ‘Royal Gala’ apple fruiting and production, grown in mild winter conditions. The experiment was conducted during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 crop years in Fraiburgo, SC, on ‘Royal Gala’ apple trees in Marubakaido rootstock M9 with filter. In all evaluation cycles, the experimental design was a randomized block with factorial arrangement (6x2 with six TDZ concentrations and two application forms, with six replicates, and the experimental unit consisting of one plant. The TDZ concentrations of each treatment were applied split into two seasons. The first application was performed on pink bud stage (E2 and the second application was in full bloom stage (F2. The variables evaluated were: fruit set (%, return bloom (%, number and weight of fruits per plant, mean fruit weight (g and average number of seeds per fruit. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, in which for significant variables by the F test, analysis of contrast and polynomial regression were performed in order to evaluate the response of variables with increasing TDZ concentration. TDZ is effective even at low concentrations, increasing the production and fruit set of ‘Gala’ apples in the climatic conditions of southern Brazil.

  16. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  17. Mineral composition of pulp and production of the yellow passion fruit with organic and conventional fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Anália Lúcia Vieira; Pagliarini, Mateus Francisco; de Freitas, Gilberto Bernardo; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-02-15

    The use of organic foods has been increased in the world. Organic fertilizers, like cattle manure, have emerged as an important component of the organic system production. The production, mass, size, and mineral composition of passion fruit pulp were evaluated when treated with a mineral fertilizer (control) (MIN) or cattle manure at a single dose equivalent to potassium fertilizer (ORG) or double dose (2×ORG). The production and the numbers of fruits of plants treated with MIN and 2×ORG was higher than with ORG. The level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) in the fruit pulp was similar with all three fertilizers, but the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) was higher with ORG and 2×ORG. The number and weight of the fruits of passion fruit treated with 2×ORG were similar to those with MIN fertilizer, but they contained more Ca and Mg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mineral composition of fruit by-products evaluated by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriela de Matuoka e Chiocchetti; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Macio Arruda Bacchi; Rogerio Augusto Pazim; Silvana Regina Vicino Sarries; Thais Melega Tome

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest producers of fruits cropping 40 million tons per year. In agro-food processing, approximately 50 % of raw material is discarded generating large amounts of by-products. The lack of information on the nutritional quality of agroindustrial by-products precludes their potential use in the manufacture of food products accessible to all. In this context, the objective of this work was to investigate the nutritional quality of by-products of the industrial processing of fruits. Samples of bagasse, peel and seeds of several fruits (banana, camu camu, coconut, cupuacu, guava, jackfruit, mango, orange, papaya, pineapple, and soursop) were analysed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. In general, higher levels of minerals were found in the by-products rather than in the pulps of fruits. This indicates that the use of the by-products should be encouraged, thereby reducing the economic and environmental impact of waste generated by agroindustrial processing. (author)

  19. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29

    about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose

  20. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly management programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries, Reduit (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    Fruit flies are major constraint to fruit production in Mauritius. The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), the natal fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), the medfly, C. capitata (Wiedmann) are the main pests of fleshy fruits. Fruit fly trapping trials were conducted in backyards to find the most effective combination of attractant and lures for females. There were two separate trapping trials, carried out in two different localities during the period November 2004 to March 2005. In the first trial, the attractants in different combinations were tested in International Pheromone McPhail Trap (IPMT). The attractants were as follows: three patches containing Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Trimethylamine (TMA) + Putrescine (PT); Two patches of AA ; two patches of AA + one patch of PT ; two patches of AA + one patch of TMA; one patch of solbait; torula tablets; protein hydrolysate and GF120. Water and Triton B were used as retention device in traps baited with the patches. In the first trial, all treatments were equally effective in the capture of either female B. zonata or female C. capitata with the exception of protein hydrolysate and GF120 which trapped fewer numbers of flies. In the second trapping trial, additional trap types and lure combinations were assessed. The three component lure (AA + PT + TMA with water/Triton as retention device in IPMT) and the trap baited with Waste Brewer's Yeast captured significantly more female flies followed by IPMT with AA + PT + TMA / Sticky insert and the Easy trap. In all trials, females accounted for more than 75% of the catches. (author)

  1. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit flies are major constraint to fruit production in Mauritius. The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), the natal fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), the medfly, C. capitata (Wiedmann) are the main pests of fleshy fruits. Fruit fly trapping trials were conducted in backyards to find the most effective combination of attractant and lures for females. There were two separate trapping trials, carried out in two different localities during the period November 2004 to March 2005. In the first trial, the attractants in different combinations were tested in International Pheromone McPhail Trap (IPMT). The attractants were as follows: three patches containing Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Trimethylamine (TMA) + Putrescine (PT); Two patches of AA ; two patches of AA + one patch of PT ; two patches of AA + one patch of TMA; one patch of solbait; torula tablets; protein hydrolysate and GF120. Water and Triton B were used as retention device in traps baited with the patches. In the first trial, all treatments were equally effective in the capture of either female B. zonata or female C. capitata with the exception of protein hydrolysate and GF120 which trapped fewer numbers of flies. In the second trapping trial, additional trap types and lure combinations were assessed. The three component lure (AA + PT + TMA with water/Triton as retention device in IPMT) and the trap baited with Waste Brewer's Yeast captured significantly more female flies followed by IPMT with AA + PT + TMA / Sticky insert and the Easy trap. In all trials, females accounted for more than 75% of the catches. (author)

  2. Micronutrient mineral and folate content of Australian and imported dried fruit products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Louise E; Singh, Davinder P; Clingeleffer, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    A selection of Australian and imported fresh and dried fruit products, including sultanas, Sunmuscats, Carina currants, Zante currants, apricots, and prunes, were analyzed for selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, S, B, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Se), folate and vitamin C, and the capacity of dried fruits for dietary provision of these micronutrients evaluated. Micro-nutrients were concentrated by a factor of 3-5 in dried fruits compared with their fresh fruit counterparts and were consequently present in nutritionally significant levels, in contrast to fresh fruit. Australian dried sultanas, Carina currant, Zante currant, apricots, and prunes contained Cu, Fe, K, and Mn at levels of >20% of daily Required Dietary Intake (RDI, taken as the average for adult men and women as nominated by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council) and Sunmuscats contained Cu, Fe, and K at >20% of RDI. All dried fruits studied contained boron in the range of 1.5 to 5.4 mg per 100 g; however, the RDI for boron has not been defined by the NHMRC at the present time. All sultanas and currants studied contained folate at levels of 10-20% of RDI per 100 g. Experimental drying methods significantly affected folate levels with higher folate content in non-ground versus ground-based drying methods. Of the micro-nutrients supplying >20% of RDI, folate represents a particular nutrient for which the mean daily intake of adult Australians is typically inadequate. This study shows that dried fruit consumption, in contrast with fresh fruit, can provide significant proportions of daily requirements of several micronutrients, particularly folate.

  3. Sustainable crop models for fruit, vegetable and flower quality productions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inglese Paolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a paradigm that has evolved over the time, since the ideas of socially acceptable and compatible development, on which it was originally based, are now supported by the more recent notions of ecological equilibria and production process economy, both of which need to be also preserved. Environmental and health safety, rational use of the natural resources and technological tools, upkeep of high social growth rates and respect of a social equity are the basis of the sustainability for any production process, including the agriculture. The new globalization framework has penalized small farms and, at the same time, has put serious constraints to the development of stronger economic systems (medium/large farms, as well. As consequence, the EU has outlined several strategic programs to support small agricultural systems in marginal areas by: 1 strengthening all the quality- related aspects of agricultural production, including nutritional and cultural traits associated to local, typical and in some cases to neglected crops; 2 improving traditional cultural practices by adapting the cropping cycles and fomenting new partnerships between the different parts of the production chain, as for example; promotion of small horticultural chains. Specific political actions for the horticultural production sector have also been developed. Some of these policies are specifically addressed to preserve the biodiversity and to create quality labels certifying typical and/or organic products. All of these are possible strategies that may counteract and cope with the globalization process and increase the competitiveness of many production systems especially those performed by local and small entrepreneurs. New sustainable development models are required by both the market and the implicit requirements of the production system, inside a context on which Europe must face with new emerging economies with lower production costs, by increasing

  4. Methodology of Integration for Competitive Technical Intelligence with Blue Ocean Strategy: Application to an exotic fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela Rodríguez Salvador

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new methodology that integrates Competitive Technical Intelligence with Blue Ocean Strategy. We explore new business niches taking advantage of the synergy that both areas offer, developing a model based on cyclic interactions through a process developed in two stages: Understanding opportunity that arise from idea formulation to decision making and strategic development. The validity of our approach (first stage was observed in the evaluation of an exotic fruit, Anacardium Occidentale, in the South of the State of Veracruz, Mexico with the support of the university ITESM, Campus Monterrey. We identified critical factors for success, opportunities and threats. Results confirm the attractiveness of this crop.

  5. Integrating product design into the supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera; Stolte, Terje; Creazza, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the research is to illustrate how companies can create competitive capabilities through integration of product design into the supply chain. In doing so the paper reveals the challenges and the opportunities that companies face when integrating product design and supply chain...... of opportunities and challenges when integrating product design and the supply chain and subsequently a step-by-step guide is developed to address these. Practical Implications: The research provides key recommendations to companies on how to create competitive capabilities by integrating product design...... into the supply chain. Originality/Value: This paper provides novel insights to both practitioners and researchers. For practitioners detailed recommendations are given on how they can maximise benefits through integrating product design into the supply chain. The RBV has been harnessed to highlight how...

  6. Integrating product design into the supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera; Stolte, Terje; Creazza, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    into the supply chain. Originality/Value: This paper provides novel insights to both practitioners and researchers. For practitioners detailed recommendations are given on how they can maximise benefits through integrating product design into the supply chain. The RBV has been harnessed to highlight how......Purpose: The aim of the research is to illustrate how companies can create competitive capabilities through integration of product design into the supply chain. In doing so the paper reveals the challenges and the opportunities that companies face when integrating product design and supply chain...... of opportunities and challenges when integrating product design and the supply chain and subsequently a step-by-step guide is developed to address these. Practical Implications: The research provides key recommendations to companies on how to create competitive capabilities by integrating product design...

  7. By-products of fruits processing as a source of phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Djilas

    Full Text Available The processing of fruits results in high amounts of waste materials such as peels, seeds, stones, and oilseed meals. A disposal of these materials usually represents a problem that is further aggravated by legal restrictions. Thus new aspects concerning the use of these wastes as by-products for further exploitation on the production of food additives or supplements with high nutritional value have gained increasing interest because these are high-value products and their recovery may be economically attractive. It is well known that by-products represent an important source of sugars, minerals, organic acid, dietary fibre and phenolics which have a wide range of action which includes antitumoral, antiviral, antibacterial, cardioprotective and antimutagenic activities. This review discusses the potential of the most important by-products of apple, grape and citrus fruits processing as a source of valuable compounds. The relevance of this topic is illustrated by a number of references.

  8. Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lenovo

    2016-07-27

    Jul 27, 2016 ... comparison to the theoretical ethanol directly produced from sugar by chemical synthesis .... with the solar water heater, in order to reduce the energy ..... Production of pectinase by Bacillus subtilis EFRL01 in a date syrup.

  9. Bioethanol fuel production from rambutan fruit biomass as reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... bioethanol from rotten rambutan was to manage rambutan wastes, cleaning the ... regarding rambutan, mango, banana and pineapple for the ethanol production ... small pieces together with their skin and blended in a Philips.

  10. Fruit production and quality of guava 'Paluma' as a function of humic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit production and quality of guava 'Paluma' as a function of humic substances and soil mulching. Leonardo Fonseca da Rocha, Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante, Járisson Cavalcante Nunes, Antônio Gustavo de Luna Souto, Alian Cássio Pereira Cavalcante, Ítalo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante, Walter Esfrain Pereira ...

  11. Consumer-Oriented New Product Development in Fruit Flavour Breeding - A Bayesian Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfaye, L.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Taking consumer quality perceptions into account is very important for new-fruit product development in todays competitive food market. To this end, consumer-oriented quality improvement models like the Quality Guidance Model (QGM) have been proposed. Implementing such mod- els in the agro industry

  12. Strategies to control tree vigour and optimise fruit production in 'Conference' pears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    The ban on the use of chlormequat (CCC) in pear orchards in 2001 forced Dutch pear growers to look for alternative methods to control tree vigour and stimulate flower bud development and fruit production. Root pruning and trunk notching have become the major growth retarding methods. In addition to

  13. Tree-Fruit Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Robert C.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    Designed as a guide for teachers in planning and conducting young and adult farmer classes, the unit covers the basic areas of tree-fruit production. The format of the 10-lesson unit allows for the utilization of the problem-solving and discussion methods of teaching. The major objective of the unit is to develop the ability to effectively…

  14. FRUPAT: A Tool to Quantify Inputs and Outputs of Patagonian Fruit Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Keulen, van H.; Peri, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    A software called FRUPAT was developed for calculating input and output coefficients (Technical Coefficients) of fruit production systems in South Patagonia. FRUPAT combined locations (Río Chubut valley; Sarmiento valley; Los Antiguos valley; Río Chico valley), edaphic environment (good quality soil

  15. Effects of dehydration methods on quality characteristics of yellow passion fruit co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neiton C; Duarte, Claudio R; Barrozo, Marcos As

    2017-11-01

    The production and processing of fruits generate a large amount of residues, which are usually disposed of or under-used, representing losses of raw material and energy. The present paper investigates the effect of four dehydration techniques (convective, infrared, microwave and freeze-drying) on yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) co-products and the influence of the main variables on moisture removal and bioactive compounds. The compounds analyzed were total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid and pectin. The content of phenolics and flavonoids increased after dehydration in all techniques investigated and the process temperatures directly affected the ascorbic acid content. Microwave dehydration showed the best results for most bioactive compounds analyzed, if performed in suitable process conditions. However, the highest levels of pectin content were obtained by freeze-drying and convective dehydration. This study reinforces the importance of the adequate use of passion fruit co-products due to the high levels of bioactive compounds in this material. Microwave dehydration presented the best results, which indicates the potential use of this technique for a better exploitation of fruit co-products. Larger quantities of pectin were extracted from samples dehydrated through methodologies with long-time process and low temperatures, such as convective drying and freeze-drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. BacHBerry:: BACterial Hosts for production of Bioactive phenolics from bERRY fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudnik, Alexey; Almeida, A. Filipa; Andrade, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    BACterial Hosts for production of Bioactive phenolics from bERRY fruits (BacHBerry) was a 3-year project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Union that ran between November 2013 and October 2016. The overall aim of the project was to establish a sustainable and economi...

  17. Game analysis of product-service integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims at defining the value creation mechanism and income distribution strategies of product-service integration in order to promote product-service integration of a firm.Design/methodology/approach: This paper conducts researches quantitatively on the coordination mechanism of product-service integration by using game theory, and uses the methods of Shapley value and Equal growth rate to further discuss income distribution strategies of product-service integration.Findings: Product-service integration increases the total income of a firm and the added value of the income decreases as the unit price demand variation coefficient of products and services increases, while decreases as the marginal cost of products increases, decreases as the marginal cost of services increases. Moreover, the findings suggest that both income distribution strategies of product-service integration based on Shapley value method and Equal growth rate method can make the product department and service department of a firm win-win and realize the pareto improvement. The choice of what kind of distribution strategy to coordinate the actions between departments depends on the department playing dominant role in the firm. Generally speaking, for a firm at the center of market, when the product department is the main contributor to firm income, the service department will choose the income distribution strategy of product-service integration based on Shapley value method; when the service department is the main contributor to firm income, the service department will choose the income distribution strategy of product-service integration based on Equal growth rate method.Research limitations/implications: This paper makes some strict assumptions such as complete information, risk neutral, linear cost function and so on and the discussion is limited to the simple relationship between product department and service department.Practical implications: Product

  18. Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Integrated Food and Bioenergy Production with Case Studies from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas

    technologies appear relatively more attractive. Fruit and cocoa residue‐based biogas production in a fruit processing facility, with return of compost to pineapple farmers also proved to be a viable technology. It is recommended that relevant stakeholders explore the implementation of biogas and nutrient......The use of agricultural residues for the production of bioenergy offers tantalising prospects of reduced pollution and greater food sovereignty. Integrated food and bioenergy systems seek to optimise the joint production of food and energy. Integrated food and bioenergy systems may be evaluated...... and compared with other food and energy systems using Environmental Sustainability Assessment (ESA). This thesis investigates a range of integrated food and residuebased bioenergy production systems and provide methodological developments that are relevant for the assessment of such systems. The methodological...

  19. Potassium as an index of fruit content in baby food products. Part I. Banana-containing and apricot-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R A; Theuer, R C

    1991-01-01

    Percentage ingredient labeling has been proposed for baby foods. We determined whether or not the potassium content of baby foods could be used to verify the quantity of fruit when the characterizing ingredients were apricots or bananas, fruits rich in potassium. Official values for potassium in fruit (USDA Handbook No. 8-9) did not agree well with actual analyses. The potassium levels of products of known composition were accurately predicted from analyses of the actual ingredients used to make the foods. For banana-containing monofruit products of variable or unknown composition, potassium analysis led to fruit level estimates consistent with either the known composition or the label declaration. For products of unknown composition made with apricot concentrate, however, potassium analysis led to fruit level estimates lower than the probable fruit content. The quantity of fruit in baby foods made with potassium-rich fruits can be estimated from the potassium content if the potassium value for the fruit is representative of the actual ingredients used to make the product. If potassium analysis is to be used to verify compliance with percentage ingredient labeling, there must be statutory specification of the single-strength fruit level for fruit reconstituted from concentrate.

  20. The use of fruit extracts for production of beverages with high antioxidative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tarko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can cause many diseases of the circulatory and nervous system as well as tumors. There are many ways of preventing and treating these diseases including the consumption of products that contain significant amounts of antioxidant compounds, such as polyphenols and antioxidative vitamins. However, currently food stores offer mainly convenient food, ready-to-eat foodstuffs or highly processed products. During numerous technological treatments they have been deprived of many valuable compounds occurring in fresh products. Therefore, an important element of the food production technology is to ensure a proper composition of valuable human health-promoting compounds, mostly vitamins, minerals and polyphenols in final food product. Consumers often and willingly drink beverages. They are also a good starting base for supplementation. Drinks can be enriched with polyphenols, which may reduce the risk of lifestyle diseases, owing to their antiradical potential. The aim of this study was to use the fruit extracts for beverages enrichment in order to increase their antioxidative potential and polyphenol content. For the experiment the fruits of Cornelian cherry, lingonberry, elderberry, hawthorn and Japanese quince were used. Fruit was extracted with 80% ethanol, and then thickened by distillation under reduced pressure. Extracts were used to enrich the apple, orange and grapefruit beverages. Antioxidative activity and total polyphenols content in final beverages were determined. Also, sensory analysis was carried out. The fortification of tested beverages resulted in an increased antioxidative activity and total polyphenol content in case of all applied fruit extracts. Among the beverages composed, the best antioxidative properties were found in a beverage of red grapefruit, whereas the best organoleptically evaluated was the orange beverage. The scores of on the sensory evaluation revealed that the addition of

  1. Management of asaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart. for fruit production in southern Colombian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Isaza Aranguren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of asaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart. are a traditional food for Amazonian inhabitants who harvest it from wild populations, employing management practices that affect palm populations and productivity. Here we present management data on fruit harvesting in a Tikuna community in the Colombian Amazon. We identified the market structure in Leticia and evaluated the population structure and fruit productivity in a scarcely harvested forest and a heavily harvested one. We performed interviews to determine management and market practices and we established plots to identify population structure and productivity. Harvesting is mostly for self-supply and palm felling is the main method. The fruits are mostly consumed and marketed as juice. The asaí market is small and seasonal but it represents an important source of income for many, mainly indigenous, families. The population density was 1 680 individuals and 248 adults/ha in San Martín de Amacayacu, where harvesting was from 2 % of all adult palms, and 916 individuals and 30 adults/ha in Leticia, where harvesting was from 23 % of all adult palms. The population structure in both sites followed an in-verted J-curve in which the majority of the individuals were seedlings. Productivity was 2.2 ton/ha/ year in San Martín de Amacayacu and 0.33 ton/ha/ year in Leticia. The population in Leticia is heavily harvested to supply the local market and the consequences of this use are a reduction in population density and fruit productivity and a low abundance of individuals in all size classes.

  2. Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger Cultivated on Parkia biglobosa Fruit Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Auta, Helen Shnada; Abidoye, Khadijat Toyin; Tahir, Hauwa; Ibrahim, Aliyu Dabai; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the potential of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp as substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Reducing sugar was estimated by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and citric acid was estimated spectrophotometrically using pyridine-acetic anhydride methods. The studies revealed that production parameters (pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration, incubation temperature, and fermentation period) had profound effect on the amount of citric acid produced...

  3. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones.

  4. Fruits Bioactive Compounds Characterization from a New Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Mariana RUS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (I to create a new product, smart bar type which can be consumed as protective food by adults and children (II to characterize the bioactive compounds from the designed food. The bioactive compounds were identified from nuts, raw seeds of almonds, dry cranberries, dry plums and flax seeds. Secoisolariciresinol (683 ppm has been identified as a major compound in flax seeds.  The vitamin C was quantified by HPLC in a concentration of 35.02 mg% in cranberries extract. The total phenolic content varied from 7.1 mg/g for walnut to 71.8 mg/g for cranberries. In addition, the antioxidative capability of phenolic compounds was monitored and evaluated using a colored free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Almond showed better results than walnut in the antioxidant capacity test. The results obtained in this study collect information that enables the use of nuts, raw seeds of almonds, dry cranberries, dry plums and flax seeds as raw material for the production of smart bar which may serve as a new product for food market.

  5. Long-term patterns of fruit production in five forest types of the South Carolina upper coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kwit, Charles; Mccarty, John P.; Pearson, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    Fleshy fruit is a key food resource for many vertebrates and may be particularly important energy source to birds during fall migration and winter. Hence, land managers should know how fruit availability varies among forest types, seasons, and years. We quantified fleshy fruit abundance monthly for 9 years (1995–2003) in 56 0.1-ha plots in 5 forest types of South Carolina's upper Coastal Plain, USA. Forest types were mature upland hardwood and bottomland hardwood forest, mature closed-canopy loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf pine (P. palustris) plantation, and recent clearcut regeneration harvests planted with longleaf pine seedlings. Mean annual number of fruits and dry fruit pulp mass were highest in regeneration harvests (264,592 ± 37,444 fruits; 12,009 ± 2,392 g/ha), upland hardwoods (60,769 ± 7,667 fruits; 5,079 ± 529 g/ha), and bottomland hardwoods (65,614 ± 8,351 fruits; 4,621 ± 677 g/ha), and lowest in longleaf pine (44,104 ± 8,301 fruits; 4,102 ± 877 g/ha) and loblolly (39,532 ± 5,034 fruits; 3,261 ± 492 g/ha) plantations. Fruit production was initially high in regeneration harvests and declined with stand development and canopy closure (1995–2003). Fruit availability was highest June–September and lowest in April. More species of fruit-producing plants occurred in upland hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, and regeneration harvests than in loblolly and longleaf pine plantations. Several species produced fruit only in 1 or 2 forest types. In sum, fruit availability varied temporally and spatially because of differences in species composition among forest types and age classes, patchy distributions of fruiting plants both within and among forest types, fruiting phenology, high inter-annual variation in fruit crop size by some dominant fruit-producing species, and the dynamic process of disturbance-adapted species colonization and decline, or recovery in recently harvested stands. As a result, land managers could enhance fruit

  6. Fruit quality of tomato ‘giuliana’ treated with products with physiological effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Ribeiro Pereira Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the effect of strobilurins, boscalid, plant growth regulators and vegetal extracts on the physico-chemical quality of tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L., hybrid Giuliana. The fruits from each treatment were selected and separated in 4 repetitions: control, pyraclostrobin, boscalid, pyraclostrobin + boscalid, IBA + GA3 + kinetin, GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine and vegetal extract. The first application was carried out at 30 days after transplant and the following at every 15 days. The evaluations were: weight loss, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS, SS/TA relation, pH, ascorbic acid content, texture, total soluble sugars (TSS, activity of pectin methyl esterase (PME and polygalacturonase (PG. The SS content, responsible for fruit flavor, varied accordingly to the treatment, being highest for GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine and lowest for the control. The same occurred regarding the SS/AT relation. The fruits were kept on the shelf for 9 days, at room temperature, being that at the end of this period several treatments still presented fruit in optimal consumption conditions, notably the boscalid treatment, which presented lowest weight loss, followed by pyraclostrobin. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of the treatments did not modify the values for pH, AT and AST of the fruits. The highest PME activity was observed for the treatments with boscalid and the mixture of boscalid and pyraclostrobin, while the lowest PG activity occurred in the control and the pyraclostrobin treatment, indicating that some products accelerated the process of demethylation of pectins by PME, facilitating the action of PG.

  7. Integrated Biorefinery for Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Gabriel [Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER), New York, NY (United States)

    2011-09-02

    This project has focused on very low grade fats, oil and greases found in municipal, commercial and industrial facilities around the country. These wastes are often disposed in landfills, wastewater treatment plants or farm fields or are blended illegally into animal feeds. Using any of these waste fatty materials that are unfit for human or animal nutrition as a clean alternative fuel makes good sense. This project defines the aforementioned wastes in terms of quality and prevalence in the US, then builds on specific promising pathways for utilizing these carbon neutral wastes. These pathways are discussed and researched at bench-scale, and in one instance, at pilot-scale. The three primary pathways are as follows: The production of Renewable Diesel Oil (RDO) as a stand-alone fuel or blended with standard distillate or residual hydrocarbons; The production of RDO as a platform for the further manufacture of Biodiesel utilizing acid esterification; The production of RDO as a platform for the manufacture of an ASTM Diesel Fuel using one or more catalysts to effect a decarboxylation of the carboxylics present in RDO This study shows that Biodiesel and ASTM Diesel produced at bench-scale (utilizing RDO made from grease trap waste as an input) could not meet industry specifications utilizing the technologies that were selected by the investigators. Details of these investigations are discussed in this report and will hopefully provide a starting point for other researchers interested in these pathways in future studies. Although results were inconclusive in finding ways to utilize RDO technology, in effect, as a pretreatment for commonly discussed technologies such as Biodiesel and ASTM Diesel, this study does shed light on the properties, performance and cost of utilizing waste greases directly as a retail liquid fuel (RDO). The utilization as a retail RDO as a boiler fuel, or for other such applications, is the most important finding of the study.

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION OF THE CANDIED FRUITS FROM NON-TRADITIONAL RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Belenkaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the candied fruit market in Ukraine and describes the main technological operations pertainingto processing of non-traditional candied products – celery and parsnip roots. Darkening of the roots surface caused bythe enzyme oxidation is one of the problems arising when processing white roots, which leads to worse marketable conditionof the product. To prevent darkening, the developed technology provides for soaking raw material in 1% citric acid solutionimmediately after peeling. To improve the diffusion and osmotic processes and to soften roots before boiling in sugar syrup,the steam blanching has been applied. The constructed Gantt diagram proves that the developed technology can shorten thecandied fruit cooking period. The biochemical indicators of the obtained new products have been studied. It was establishedthat the candied fruit possess the appropriate physical and chemical indicators and original organoleptic properties resulting ina demand by consumers. The results of the taste evaluation of the experimental specimen confirmed a high quality of the products.

  9. Improving non-communicable disease remediation outcomes in Tonga: the importance of domestic fruit production systems: an analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. R. Underhill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCD are the leading cause of mortality in the Pacific Island nation of Tonga. Current remedial strategies have focused on promoting healthy food choices based on increased intake of fruits and vegetables. While researchers seek to overcome complex social, gender and cultural practices that impede dietary transition, discontinuous domestic fruit supply chains undermine this effort. With the view to supporting a more holistic approach to NCD remediation in Tonga, this paper provides a preliminary assessment of domestic horticultural supply chains constraints, in support of diversification and expansion of local fruit production. Current impediments and constraints to enhanced local fruit production are presented and possible strategies to increased domestic fruit supply discussed. We present a case for a more consumer-centric approach to industry development, with an emphasis on production systems that are compatible with existing social structures, customary land ownership constraints, and local nutritional needs.

  10. Phenolic compounds and carotenoids in pumpkin fruit and related traditional products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdunić Gordana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin fruit is used in a diet since ancient times especially in rural communities. The major contributory factors of nutritional and medicinal value of pumpkins are carotenoids, polysaccharides, vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds. Due to a very large fruit that it is not easy to consume a whole as well as short shelf-life of fresh-cut pumpkin, different ways of conserving and processing are performed. In our study, total carotenoids, total phenolics and individual phenolics in fresh pumpkin and pumpkin traditional products such as sweet in wine, jam and juice, which are typical for northern parts of Serbia, were studied. Total carotenoids ranged from 27.6 μg/g of pumpkin sweet in wine to 86.3 μg/g of fresh fruit, while the amount of total phenolics varied between 93.0 μg GAE/g of pumpkin juice and 905.9 μg GAE/g of fresh fruit. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in the investigated samples and among them phenolic acids dominated. Among flavonoids, flavanon glycoside hesperidin was detected. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46013

  11. EFFECT OF PRE-TREATMENT ON THE DRYING KINETICS AND PRODUCT QUALITY OF STAR FRUIT SLICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHING LIK HII

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Start fruit (Avverhoa carambola is rich in nutrients and contains dietary antioxidants which are beneficial to human health. Currently, the commercial potential of this fruit has not been fully explored especially in its dried form. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of pre-treatment on the drying kinetics and product quality of star fruit slices. The various pre-treatment methods investigated were hot water blanching and dipping in sugar solution. The star fruit was cut into thin slices (5 mm for drying (60°C-80°C using a hot air ventilated oven. Mathematical modelling showed that the Page model was able to describe the moisture diffusion process during drying. Effective diffusivity values were found within the order reported for most food materials (10-8-10-12 m2/s. A decreasing trend in shrinkage ratios was observed with decreasing moisture ratios which corresponds to the greater rate of moisture removal especially at the falling rate period. Overall colour changes were more significant in the blanched samples which could be due to the non-enzymatic browning.

  12. Integrated Monitoring System of Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborski Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated monitoring system for discrete manufacturing processes is presented in the paper. The multilayer hardware and software reference model was developed. Original research are an answer for industry needs of the integration of information flow in production process. Reference model corresponds with proposed data model based on multilayer data tree allowing to describe orders, products, processes and save monitoring data. Elaborated models were implemented in the integrated monitoring system demonstrator developed in the project. It was built on the base of multiagent technology to assure high flexibility and openness on applying intelligent algorithms for data processing. Currently on the base of achieved experience an application integrated monitoring system for real production system is developed. In the article the main problems of monitoring integration are presented, including specificity of discrete production, data processing and future application of Cyber-Physical-Systems. Development of manufacturing systems is based more and more on taking an advantage of applying intelligent solutions into machine and production process control and monitoring. Connection of technical systems, machine tools and manufacturing processes monitoring with advanced information processing seems to be one of the most important areas of near future development. It will play important role in efficient operation and competitiveness of the whole production system. It is also important area of applying in the future Cyber-Physical-Systems that can radically improve functionally of monitoring systems and reduce the cost of its implementation.

  13. Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun Ho [Inzest Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun Sang [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.

  14. Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun Ho; Lee, Kun Sang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.

  15. Towards Integrated Product and Package Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bramklev, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    The global company operates from a number of locations worldwide, resulting in implications for the transport, handling and storage of product and parts transported within the company as well as between the company divisions and suppliers and/or consumers. In these companies, the package becomes a frequently used object to complement product features and achieve an effective and efficient means of logistics. In this context, it is interesting to integrate package development in the product...

  16. Asset management -- Integrated software optimizes production performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polczer, S.

    1998-01-01

    Developments in data collection and retrieval systems to allow timely cost analysis, financial reporting and production management are discussed. One of the most important new OLAP (on-line analytical processing) products is Energy Warehouse which gathers field information from various sources, allows advanced searches, and generates reports previously unavailable in other conventional financial accounting systems. Another OLAP-based system, the Canadian Upstream Energy System (CUES), was developed by the Oracle Corporation and the Calgary-based Applied Terravision Systems (ATS) Inc. CUES combines Oracle's universal data server software development tools with ATS's upstream financial, land, geotechnical and production applications. ATS also developed a product called IDPMARS (Integrated Daily Production Management Accounting Reporting System). It interfaces with CUES to link working interests, government royalties, administration, facility charges, lifting costs, transportation tooling, and customers by integrating field data collection systems with financial accounting

  17. Asset management -- Integrated software optimizes production performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polczer, S.

    1998-10-01

    Developments in data collection and retrieval systems to allow timely cost analysis, financial reporting and production management are discussed. One of the most important new OLAP (on-line analytical processing) products is Energy Warehouse which gathers field information from various sources, allows advanced searches, and generates reports previously unavailable in other conventional financial accounting systems. Another OLAP-based system, the Canadian Upstream Energy System (CUES), was developed by the Oracle Corporation and the Calgary-based Applied Terravision Systems (ATS) Inc. CUES combines Oracle`s universal data server software development tools with ATS`s upstream financial, land, geotechnical and production applications. ATS also developed a product called IDPMARS (Integrated Daily Production Management Accounting Reporting System). It interfaces with CUES to link working interests, government royalties, administration, facility charges, lifting costs, transportation tooling, and customers by integrating field data collection systems with financial accounting.

  18. Simple measurement of light-interception by individual leaves in fruit vegetables by using an integrated solarimeter film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.; Nakano, Y.; Okano, K.

    2001-01-01

    Applicability of the integrated solarimeter film (Taisei Chemical Co. Ltd., Optleaf R-2D) for the measurement of amount of light-interception by individual leaves in fruit vegetables was investigated The fading rate of the film was highly correlated with the values measured by an integrated solarimeter at an open field, though the rate was depended on the air temperature during the measurement. Integrated solar radiation in a glasshouse could be estimated by the film as well as at an open field. Amount of light-interception by individual leaves of vertically trained watermelon plants could be measured by the film and light-interception characteristics of the plants could be expressed numerically. The integrated solarimeter film would be useful for analyzing light-interception characteristics in fruit vegetables

  19. Furan levels in fruit and vegetables juices, nutrition drinks and bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Jan-Willem; López-Sánchez, Patricia

    2010-07-05

    Furan, an oxygen containing monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is considered possibly carcinogenic to humans. In the framework of the EU-project "Role of Genetic and Non-Genetic Mechanisms in Furan Risk", furan levels in food have been collected from the literature. Three food type categories have been selected on the basis of the collected data for sampling and analysis on furan with headspace GC-MS. This paper describes the results for the selected food categories, fruit and vegetables juices, nutrition drinks and bakery products. An attempt has been made to correlate the furan levels with the ingredients of the products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The suitability of different probiotic strains for the production of fruit-whey beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sady, Marek; Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Domagała, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    When designing new probiotic products, one of the most important aspects is the selection of bacterial strains with high survival rates in the matrix of the product concerned. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the potential of selected strains of probiotic bacteria for the production of fruit-whey beverages. Orange, apple and blackcurrant whey beverages were produced, and each was inoculated with one of the following probiotic strains: Bifidobacterium lactis HN019TM; Lactobacillus aci- dophilus NCFM®; Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37TM; Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001TM. The count of probiotic bacteria as well as pH and total acidity were evaluated at the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of storage. Beverages containing L. paracasei Lpc-37TM or L. rhamnosus HN001TM were characterized by a sig- nificantly higher average number of viable cells (7.02 or 7.05 log cfu/g, respectively) than products with lactis HN019TM or L. acidophilus NCFM® (6.43 or 6.37 log cfu/g, respectively). The use of L. paracasei Lpc-37 and L. rhamnosus HN001 strains in orange and apple drinks allows the recommended count for probiotic products, 106 cfu/g for 28 days of storage, to be exceeded. Survival of the B. lactis HN019 strain fulfills the above requirements only in the orange drink. The L. acidophilus NCFM® strain was found to be the least suitable for the production of beverages, as it did not reach 6 log cfu/g in any products after 28 days of stor- age. The highest average number of bacteria was found in the orange beverages (7.14 log cfu/g). In terms of bacteria viability, blackcurrant juice was the least suitable for the production of whey probiotic drinks, due to its high acidity. The results of the present study indicate that careful selection of the fruit juice component, especially in terms of its acidity, is key to designing successful probiotic fruit-whey beverages. Other factors which should be taken into account to ensure a sufficient number of live probiotic

  1. Product market integration, rents and wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    "protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until......Globalization in the form of product market integration affects labour markets and produces winners and losers. While there are aggregate gains, it is in general ambiguous how inequality is affected. We explore this issue in a Ricardian model and show that it depends on the balance between...

  2. Products and environment. Report on integrated product policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The National Commission for Sustainable Development established on 16 November 1999 a subgroup which had as one of its tasks to formulate a national strategy or a strategic view on how Finland should promote integrated product policy in accordance with the requirements of sustainable development. The aim of integrated product policy is to improve the environmental friendliness of products and product systems by taking into account the environmental effects during their entire lifecycles. Its leading principles are lifecycle thinking, market-basedness, integration of environmental aspects into economic activity, and that all actors within the product chain (consumers, trade, companies) decrease the environmental consequences of their activities according to the principle of shared responsibility and to their preconditions. Political decision-making and administration should provide firms and clients with the required preconditions and i.a. remove obstacles to knowledge and promote research. In product policy, emphasis is on especially those instruments that encourage actors to develop their activities. At national level, economic instruments should be directed to domestic demand and use of products. It is often most appropriate to develop economic instruments for production and legislation and other regulation within international co-operation. (orig.)

  3. Which perceived characteristics make product innovations appealing to the consumer? A study on the acceptance of fruit innovations using cross-cultural consumer segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, J.

    2011-01-01

    In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the first

  4. Integrated Micro Product and Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the issues of integrated micro product and technology development. The implications of the decisions in the design phase on the subsequent manufacturing processes are considered vital. A coherent process chain is a necessary prerequisite for the realisation of the industrial...... potential of micro technology....

  5. Gamma radiation protects fruit quality in tomato by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh Kumar; Sumedha Ahuja; Bhupinder Singh; Anil Dahuja; Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the individual and combined effect of two different electromagnetic energies, i.e., gamma ray viz 0.1, 0.5 and 1 kGy and static magnetic field (50 mT for 1 h) and their combination (0.5 kGy + 50 mT) on the shelf life of tomato and evaluates the biochemical attributes that influence the fruit ripening and fruit quality. Magnetic field application either alone or in combination with gamma irradiation was not effective in delaying the ripening process. Gamma ray exposed fruits at 0.5 and 1 kGy showed an extended shelf life due to delayed fruit ripening and reduced lycopene synthesis and ethylene production. Efficient ROS scavenging ability and consequent reduction in oxidative damage in the irradiated treatment may cause favorable biochemical changes to facilitate delayed ripening of the tomato fruits. (author)

  6. Potential of Tropical Fruit Waste Biomass for Production of Bio-Briquette Fuel: Using Indonesia as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brunerová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within developing countries, there is an appeal to use waste biomass for energy generation in the form of bio-briquettes. This study investigated the potential use of bio-briquettes that are produced from the waste biomass of the following tropical fruits: durian (Durio zibethinus, coconut (Cocos nucifera, coffee (Coffea arabica, cacao (Theobroma cacao, banana (Musa acuminata and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum. All fruit waste biomass samples exhibited an extremely high level of initial moisture content (78.22% in average. Fruit samples with the highest proportion of fruit waste biomass (of total unprocessed fruit mass were represented by cacao (83.82%, durian (62.56% and coconut (56.83%. Highest energy potentials (calorific value of fruit waste biomass were observed in case of coconut (18.22 MJ∙kg−1, banana (17.79 MJ∙kg−1 and durian (17.60 MJ∙kg−1 fruit samples, whereas fruit waste biomass with the lowest level of ash content originated from the rambutan (3.67%, coconut (4.52%, and durian (5.05% fruit samples. When investigating the energy demands to produce bio-briquettes from such feedstock materials, the best results (lowest amount of required deformation energy in combination with highest level of bio-briquette bulk density were achieved by the rambutan, durian and banana fruit waste biomass samples. Finally, all investigated bio-briquette samples presented satisfactory levels of bulk density (>1050 kg∙m−3. In conclusion, our results indicated the practicability and viability of such bio-briquette fuel production, as well as supporting the fact that bio-briquettes from tropical fruit waste biomass can offer a potentially attractive energy source with many benefits, especially in rural areas.

  7. Phenology, fruit production and seed dispersal of Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae in Amazonian black water floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Piedade Maria Teresa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Astrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae is one of the commonest palm species occurring in nutritionally poor Amazonian black water floodplains. It is an emergent or subcanopy tree that grows on river banks and slands, with a wide distribution along the entire flooding gradient, tolerating flood durations between 30 and 340 days. The species is important for fish nutrition in the floodplains, and is also used for hearts of palm. In the present study, the auto-ecology of A. jauari w,as analysed over a period of two years in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Rio Negro, Brazil, with a focus on phenology, fruit production, and seed dispersal. Fruit fall is annual and synchronized with high water levels, with a production of 1.6 ton of fruit ha-1. The fruits are eaten by at least 16 species of fish which either gnaw the pulp, fragment the seed, or ingest the entire fruit, thus acting as dispersal agents. Besides ichthyocory, barochory (with subsequent vegetative propagation is an important dispersal mode, enhancing the occurrence of large masses of individuals in the Anavilhanas islands and in the region of maximum palm heart extraction near BarcelosAstrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae es una de las especies más comunes de palma en las llanuras de inundación por las llamadas "aguas negras", aguas ricas en taninos que tienen pocos nutrientes para la fauna. Habita el subdosel que se desarrolla en riberas e islas, con una distribución amplia en toda la gradiente de inundación (resiste entre 30 y 340 días bajo el agua. La especie es importante para la nutrición de los peces y en la producción de palmito. La autoecología de A. jauari fue analizada por dos años en el Archipiélago Anavilhanas, río Negro, Brazil, con énfasis en fenología, producción de frutas, y dispersores de semillas. La caída de los frutos es anual y sincronizada con el aumento de los niveles de agua, con una producción de 1.6 ton de fruta ha-1. Las frutas son comidas por al menos de

  8. Planting spacing and NK fertilizing on physiological indexes and fruit production of papaya under semiarid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monteiro Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The nutritional requirements of papaya (Carica papaya L. increase continuously throughout the crop cycle, especially for potassium and nitrogen, which are the most required nutrients and act on plant vital functions such as photosynthetic activity, respiration, transpiration and stomatal regulation. An experiment was conducted from November 2010 to December 2012 to evaluate physiological indexes and fruit production of papaya cv. Caliman-01 as a function of planting spacing and NK fertilizing. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 4 × 4, using 2 planting spacing [simple rows (3.8 × 2.0 m and double rows (3.8 × 2.0 × 1.8 m], 4 nitrogen doses (320, 400, 480 and 560 g of N per plant-1 and 4 potassium doses (380, 475, 570 and 665 g of K2O per plant-1 with 4 replications of 3 plants each. The following variables were evaluated: leaf area index (LAI, leaf chlorophyll index (a, b and total index, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (Int.PAR, in µmol∙m-2∙s-1, efficiency use of photosynthetically active radiation (Ef.PAR and fruit yield. The fruit production and physiological characteristics of papaya cv. Caliman-01 depend on planting spacing. Under the soil, climate and plant conditions of this study, 665 g of K2O and 320 g of N per plant under double spacing could be recommended for the production of papaya cv. Caliman-01.

  9. Integrating ergonomics into the product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    and production engineers regarding information sources in problem solving, communication pattern, perception of ergonomics, motivation and requests to support tools and methods. These differences and the social and organizational contexts of the development process must be taken into account when considering......A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The purpose was to elucidate conditions and strategies for integrating ergonomics into the product development process thereby preventing ergonomic problems at the time...... of manufacture of new products. In reality the product development process is not a rational problem solving process and does not proceed in a sequential manner as decribed in engineering models. Instead it is a complex organizational process involving uncertainties, iterative elements and negotiation between...

  10. Integrated durability process in product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompetzki, M.; Saadetian, H.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation describes the integrated durability process in product development. Each of the major components of the integrated process are described along with a number of examples of how integrated durability assessment has been used in the ground vehicle industry. The durability process starts with the acquisition of loading information, either physically through loads measurement or virtually through multibody dynamics. The loading information is then processed and characterized for further analysis. Durability assessment was historically test based and completed through field or laboratory evaluation. Today, it is common that both the test and CAE environments are used together in durability assessment. Test based durability assessment is used for final design sign-off but is also critically important for correlating CAE models, in order to investigate design alternatives. There is also a major initiative today to integrate the individual components into a process, by linking applications and providing a framework to communicate information as well as manage all the data involved in the entire process. Although a single process is presented, the details of the process can vary significantly for different products and applications. Recent applications that highlight different parts of the durability process are given. As well as an example of how integration of software tools between different disciplines (MBD, FE and fatigue) not only simplifies the process, but also significantly improves it. (author)

  11. A low-energy, cost-effective approach to fruit and citrus peel waste processing for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Seong; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Khanal, Sarmir Kumar; Park, Bok Jae; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple bioprocess of bioethanol production from fruit wastes containing D-limonene. • Two in-house enzymatic bioconversion rates were approximately 90%. • Limonene recovery column (LRC) was designed for absorption of D-limonene. • Ethanol production by immobilized yeast fermentation and LRC was 12-fold greater. - Abstract: Large quantities of fruit waste are generated from agricultural processes worldwide. This waste is often simply dumped into landfills or the ocean. Fruit waste has high levels of sugars, including sucrose, glucose, and fructose, that can be fermented for bioethanol production. However, some fruit wastes, such as citrus peel waste (CPW), contain compounds that can inhibit fermentation and should be removed for efficient bioethanol production. We developed a novel approach for converting single-source CPW (i.e., orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, or lime) or CPW in combination with other fruit waste (i.e., banana peel, apple pomace, and pear waste) to produce bioethanol. Two in-house enzymes were produced from Avicel and CPW and were tested with fruit waste at 12–15% (w/v) solid loading. The rates of enzymatic conversion of fruit waste to fermentable sugars were approximately 90% for all feedstocks after 48 h. We also designed a D-limonene removal column (LRC) that successfully removed this inhibitor from the fruit waste. When the LRC was coupled with an immobilized cell reactor (ICR), yeast fermentation resulted in ethanol concentrations (14.4–29.5 g/L) and yields (90.2–93.1%) that were 12-fold greater than products from ICR fermentation alone

  12. Enhanced Butanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 Grown on Date Fruit as Carbon Source in P2 Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emran I. Khamaiseh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biobutanol was studied by the cultivation of Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13557 in P2 medium including date fruit as the sole substrate. The effect of P2 medium and the effect of different concentrations of date fruit ranging from 10 to 100 g/L on biobutanol production were investigated. Anaerobic batch culture was carried out at 35°C incubation temperature and pH 7.0 ± 0.2 for 72 h. Experimental results showed that the lowest yield of biobutanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE was 0.32 and 0.35 gram per gram of carbohydrate consumed (g/g, respectively, when an initial date fruit concentration of 10 g/L was utilized. At this fruit date concentration a biobutanol production value of 1.56 g/L was obtained. On the other hand, the maximum yield of biobutanol (0.48 g/g and ABE (0.63 g/g was produced at 50 g/L date fruit concentration with a biobutanol production value as high as 11 g/L. However, when a higher initial date fruit concentration was used, biobutanol and ABE production decreased to reach the yield of 0.22 g/g and 0.35 g/g, respectively, where 100 g/L date fruit was used. Similar results also revealed that 10.03 g/L biobutanol was produced using 100 g/L date fruit.

  13. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: Integrated process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerga, Ignacio R.; Zanuttini, María Soledad; Gross, Martín S.; Querini, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The oil obtained from Jatropha curcas fruits has high variability in its properties. • A process for biodiesel production has been developed for small scale projects. • Oil neutralization with the glycerine phase has important advantages. • The glycerine phase and the meal are adequate to produce biogas. - Abstract: Energy obtained from renewable sources has increased its participation in the energy matrix worldwide, and it is expected to maintain this tendency. Both in large and small scales, there have been numerous developments and research with the aim of generating fuels and energy using different raw materials such as alternative crops, algae and lignocellulosic residues. In this work, Jatropha curcas plantation from the North West of Argentina was studied, with the objective of developing integrated processes for low and medium sizes farms. In these cases, glycerine purification and meal detoxification processes represent a very high cost, and usually are not included in the project. Consequently, alternative uses for these products are proposed. This study includes the evaluation of the Jatropha curcas crop during two years, evaluating the yields and oil properties. The solids left after the oil extraction were evaluated as solid fuels, the glycerine and the meal were used to generate biogas, and the oil was used to produce biodiesel. The oil pretreatment was carried out with the glycerine obtained in the biodiesel production process, thus neutralizing the free fatty acid, and decreasing the phosphorous and water content

  14. An Integrated Membrane Process for Butenes Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Melone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Iso-butene is an important material for the production of chemicals and polymers. It can take part in various chemical reactions, such as hydrogenation, oxidation and other additions owing to the presence of a reactive double bond. It is usually obtained as a by-product of a petroleum refinery, by Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC of naphtha or gas-oil. However, an interesting alternative to iso-butene production is n-butane dehydroisomerization, which allows the direct conversion of n-butane via dehydrogenation and successive isomerization. In this work, a simulation analysis of an integrated membrane system is proposed for the production and recovery of butenes. The dehydroisomerization of n-butane to iso-butene takes place in a membrane reactor where the hydrogen is removed from the reaction side with a Pd/Ag alloys membrane. Afterwards, the retentate and permeate post-processing is performed in membrane separation units for butenes concentration and recovery. Four different process schemes are developed. The performance of each membrane unit is analyzed by appropriately developed performance maps, to identify the operating conditions windows and the membrane permeation properties required to maximize the recovery of the iso-butene produced. An analysis of integrated systems showed a yield of butenes higher than the other reaction products with high butenes recovery in the gas separation section, with values of molar concentration between 75% and 80%.

  15. Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: Energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Arredondo, H.I. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil); Ruiz-Colorado, A.A. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); De Oliveira, S. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using agricultural lands for growing biomass to produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. This study applies an energy analysis to the production process of anhydrous ethanol obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and cellulosic and hemicellulosic material present in the banana fruit and its residual biomass. Four different production routes were analyzed: acid hydrolysis of amylaceous material (banana pulp and banana fruit) and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (flower stalk and banana skin). The analysis considered banana plant cultivation, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, dehydration, residue treatment and utility plant. The best indexes were obtained for amylaceous material for which mass performance varied from 346.5 L/t to 388.7 L/t, Net Energy Value (NEV) ranged from 9.86 MJ/L to 9.94 MJ/L and the energy ratio was 1.9 MJ/MJ. For lignocellulosic materials, the figures were less favorable; mass performance varied from 86.1 to 123.5 L/t, NEV from 5.24 to 8.79 MJ/L and energy ratio from 1.3 to 1.6 MJ/MJ. The analysis showed, however, that both processes can be considered energetically feasible. (author)

  16. Vinegar Production from Jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) Fruit Using Immobilized Acetic Acid Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Silva, Monique Suela; Cristina de Souza, Angélica; Magalhăes-Guedes, Karina Teixeira; Ribeiro, Fernanda Severo de Rezende; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2016-09-01

    Cell immobilization comprises the retention of metabolically active cells inside a polymeric matrix. In this study, the production of jabuticaba ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) vinegar using immobilized Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans cells is proposed as a new method to prevent losses of jabuticaba fruit surplus. The pulp of jabuticaba was processed and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMA 0200 was used to ferment the must for jabuticaba wine production. Sugars, alcohols (ethanol and glycerol) and organic acids were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Volatile compounds were determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. The ethanol content of the produced jabuticaba wine was approx. 74.8 g/L (9.5% by volume) after 168 h of fermentation. Acetic acid fermentation for vinegar production was performed using a mixed culture of immobilized A. aceti CCT 0190 and G. oxydans CCMA 0350 cells. The acetic acid yield was 74.4% and productivity was 0.29 g/(L·h). The vinegar had particularly high concentrations of citric (6.67 g/L), malic (7.02 g/L) and succinic (5.60 g/L) acids. These organic acids give a suitable taste and flavour to the vinegar. Seventeen compounds (aldehydes, higher alcohols, terpene, acetate, diether, furans, acids, ketones and ethyl esters) were identified in the jabuticaba vinegar. In conclusion, vinegar was successfully produced from jabuticaba fruits using yeast and immobilized mixed cultures of A. aceti and G. oxydans . To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to use mixed culture of immobilized cells for the production of jabuticaba vinegar.

  17. Vinegar Production from Jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba Fruit Using Immobilized Acetic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell immobilization comprises the retention of metabolically active cells inside a polymeric matrix. In this study, the production of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba vinegar using immobilized Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans cells is proposed as a new method to prevent losses of jabuticaba fruit surplus. The pulp of jabuticaba was processed and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMA 0200 was used to ferment the must for jabuticaba wine production. Sugars, alcohols (ethanol and glycerol and organic acids were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Volatile compounds were determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. The ethanol content of the produced jabuticaba wine was approx. 74.8 g/L (9.5 % by volume after 168 h of fermentation. Acetic acid fermentation for vinegar production was performed using a mixed culture of immobilized A. aceti CCT 0190 and G. oxydans CCMA 0350 cells. The acetic acid yield was 74.4 % and productivity was 0.29 g/(L·h. The vinegar had particularly high concentrations of citric (6.67 g/L, malic (7.02 g/L and succinic (5.60 g/L acids. These organic acids give a suitable taste and flavour to the vinegar. Seventeen compounds (aldehydes, higher alcohols, terpene, acetate, diether, furans, acids, ketones and ethyl esters were identified in the jabuticaba vinegar. In conclusion, vinegar was successfully produced from jabuticaba fruits using yeast and immobilized mixed cultures of A. aceti and G. oxydans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to use mixed culture of immobilized cells for the production of jabuticaba vinegar.

  18. Techno-economic analysis of biooil production process from palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Truong Xuan; Lim, Young-il; Yeo, Heejung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive model of biooil production from empty fruit bunches was developed. • A minimum plant size having an economic benefit was 20 kton/yr of dry EFB. • Plant size and biooil yield had a major influence on reducing the product value. • Biooil from EFB can be produced at 0.27 $/kg in the most optimistic scenario examined. - Abstract: Empty fruit bunches (EFB), a main residue of the palm oil industry, are one of the most recent renewable energy resources and they promise a high yield of liquid with low gas and char. The objective of this study is to evaluate the economic feasibility of the biooil production process from EFB via fast pyrolysis using the fluidized-bed. A comprehensive model of a biooil production plant was developed utilizing a commercial process simulator. The total capital investment (TCI) was estimated for five different plant sizes. The EFB biooil plant was analyzed in terms of the specific capital cost (SCC), payback period (PBP), return on investment (ROI), and the product value (PV). The minimum profitable plant size was found to be 20 kton-dry EFB/yr at a PV of 0.47 $/kg of biooil including 39% of water. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the basis of the minimum plant size to identify key variables that have a strong impact on the PV. The plant size and the biooil yield showed a major influence on the PV. In the most optimistic scenario investigated in this study, biooil can be produced at a PV of 0.27 $/kg

  19. Metabolomic profiling and sensorial quality of 'Golden Delicious', 'Liberty', 'Santana', and 'Topaz' apples grown using organic and integrated production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Andreja; Jenko, Mojca; Vrhovsek, Urska; Stopar, Matej

    2013-07-03

    Apple quality was investigated in the scab-resistant 'Liberty', 'Santana', and 'Topaz' cultivars and the scab-susceptible 'Golden Delicious' cultivar. Trees subjected to the same crop load were cultivated using either an organic (ORG) or an integrated production (IP) system. Physicochemical properties, phenolic content, and sensorial quality of fruit from both systems were compared. There were no significant differences in fruit mass, starch, and total soluble solid content (the latter was higher in ORG 'Liberty') between ORG and IP fruit, whereas significantly higher flesh firmness was found in ORG fruit (except no difference in 'Golden Delicious'). Significantly higher total phenolic content in ORG fruit was found in 'Golden Delicious', whereas differences in other cultivars were not significant. Targeted metabolomic profiling of multiple classes of phenolics confirmed the impact of the production system on the 'Golden Delicious' phenolic profile as higher levels of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, neo- and chlorogenic acids, phloridzin, procyanidin B2+B4, -3-O-glucoside and -3-O-galactoside of quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and rutin being found in ORG fruit. The results obtained suggested that scab resistance influenced the phenolic biosynthesis in relation to the agricultural system. Sensorial evaluation indicated significantly better flavor (except for 'Topaz') and better appearance of IP fruit.

  20. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly SIT management programmes. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    Information provided by trapping systems is used to assess the presence, seasonal abundance, spatial distribution, host sequence and infestation levels of fruit fly pests. This information is key for implementation of effective fruit fly control programmes. Most trapping systems commercially available are based on para-pheromones which are male specific. These male specific trapping systems have been used as the main survey tool in area-wide fruit fly control programmes. Nevertheless, in recent years, scientists and programme managers have realized that, in order to improve the efficiency of fruit fly control, it is essential to have a female specific or at least a female biased trapping system. Until the late 1990s, the only fruit fly female biased attractants were based on natural protein baits such as Torula Yeast and hydrolysate proteins. Although these attractants tend to catch more females than males (in average 60% females against 40% males), the proportion in favor of females is insufficient and the attractants are considered to be weak and non-selective. In 1999, as a result of a previous Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Development of Female Medfly Attractant Systems for Trapping and Sterility Assessment' the first effective female biased synthetic food lure was developed for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Wied.) (IAEA-TECDOC-1099). This lure, with the commercial name of Biolure, is now being used in large-scale medfly control programmes worldwide. Given this background, and in order to further advance this field, the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme approved in 2000 a five year CRP entitled 'Development of Improved Attractants and their Integration into Fruit Fly SIT Management Programmes'. The research conducted under this CRP focused mainly on developing female biased trapping systems for other fruit fly species of quarantine and economic importance within the Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis and Dacus genera and on optimization

  1. Long-term monitoring of fleshy fruit and hard mast production and seasonal bird distribution at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Levey, Douglas J.

    2009-06-15

    A final report of Fruit and hard mast production in five habitat types at SRS with a comparison of fruit consumption by fledgling versus adult birds at SRS and Relative importance of fruit, seeds, and insects in the diets of overwintering birds at SRS.

  2. Effect of shading nets on the production and quality of blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marcelo Rodríguez Beraud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth, development and fruit quality blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. variety Brigitta under different shade nets were evaluated. Assays were performed in plants 7 years in a commercial orchard Collipulli, Araucanía Region, Chile. Treatments were a control without shading and four types of screens: a red 40% and 18% shade; aluminized mesh with 40% shade and a black mesh 35% shade. In fruits shade of red mesh 40% greater equatorial and polar diameter were observed and three weeks later harvested the fruits of treatment without mesh. In growing shade 40% aluminized mesh phenological stages extension lag and the maximum weekly production two weeks over control was observed. The highest yields were observed in plants of treatment and control shade of red mesh 40%, with 11008 kg ha-1 and 10461 kg ha-1, respectively, while the lowest was in red mesh 18% with 9668 kg ha-1. The fruits grown under shade of red mesh 18% showed the highest number of fruits per plant with 1806 berries per plant, fruit weight less than 1.69 g with the strongest with 3.76 N mm-1 module deformability. Therefore, the largest weight berry fruits observed in non-mesh screen and 40% red shading, together with the increased size and performance.

  3. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioethanol Production from Empty Fruit Bunch using Direct Fermentation by an Actinomycete Streptosporangium roseum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Him, N. R.; Huda, T.

    2018-05-01

    Study on the production of bioethanol using palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been performed using actinomycete Streptosporangium roseum. Positive result of bioethanol production was recorded using Iodoform test followed by confirmation with GC-FID using a polar capillary column (PEG-type, 10m x 0.53, with autosampler) and n-propanol as internal standard. The first and second round distillation has produced azeotrope (85-15% ethanol-water) and the third round has concentrated the ethanol to 96.1%. Therefore, the process was accomplished by using molecular sieves that selectively absorbed the final excess water. Direct fermentation using Streptosporangium roseum has shown to be a very potential way to catalyst for the synthesis of bioethanol from EFB.

  5. Lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-09-01

    This work focused on the lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes treatment. A long term completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) lasting for 50 days was operated at organic loading rate (OLR) of 11 gVS/(L d) and sludge retention time (SRT) of 3 days with pH controlled at 4.0 (1-24 day) and 5.0 (25-50 day). The results indicated that high amount of approximately 10-20 g/L lactic acid was produced at pH of 4.0 and the fermentation type converted from coexistence of homofermentation and heterofermentation into heterofermentation. At pH of 5.0, the hydrolysis reaction was improved and the total concentration of fermentation products increased up to 29.5 g COD/L. The heterofermentation was maintained, however, bifidus pathway by Bifidobacterium played an important role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Minilivestock in Argentina. Integration with Agricultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biasatti, NR.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative agricultural production can take different forms. In Argentina there is an important diversity of species available to be incorporated into production systems, giving support for the use of natural resources based on taking advantage of the regional fauna. Moreover the use of different animal species can be incorporated under the concept of the optimization of flows of energy and materials, tending to minimize the environmental impact of livestock production, and also to make more efficient use of the ingredients required for developing the activity. The integration of non-traditional species (minilivestock within the context of sustainable agricultural development was the motivation for the present study A module for raising Myocastor coypus (coypu or false nutha was developed, to which was linked a module for raising Eisenia foetida (the socalled red worm, in both cases with a dual purpose. Preliminary estimates were made of the productive aspects of both species, as well as an analysis of their integration, to understand the extent to which diversification linked with complementation tends to optimize the system.

  7. Integrated product development: Competencies meet and products arise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    and process competencies throughout the whole development process. Of course, this is easier said than done but integrating various competencies into the product development prepares the ground for a better balance and consequently more products. Databases, for instance are a good example of a tool that can...... the development process and diminish the risk of inventing sliced bread once again. Furthermore the databases may be used as a foundation for a more effective and frictionless communication across departments. The project has its starting point in case studies of three Danish food companies. A research group...

  8. Supplier integration for new product developments: antecedents for supplier integration in modular product designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, Justus Erich

    2016-01-01

    Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) increasingly integrate supplier resources in new product developments (NPD) to overcome bottlenecks of resource and to create competitive advantages. At the same time, OEMs react to the new market challenges by implementing modular product designs. Despite the

  9. Sweet cherries from the end of the world: options and constraints for fruit production systems in South Patagonia, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    In South Patagonia, development of the fruit production sector has been almost exclusively based on the production of sweet cherry, with an area increase from 176 ha in 1997 to 578 ha at the end of 2006. These orchards are designed as intensive systems and oriented to export markets. Even though

  10. Integrals of products of spherical functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, O.

    1975-01-01

    Various branches of mathematical physics use integral formulas of the products of spherical functions. In quantum mechanics and in transport theory the integrals ∫sub((4π))dΩ vectorYsub(s)sup(t)(Ω vector)Ysub(l)sup(k)(Ω vector)Ysub(n)sup(m)(Ω vector), ∫sub(-1)sup(1)dμPsub(s)sup(t)(μ)Psub(l)sup(k)(μ)Psub(n)sup(m)(μ), ∫sub(-1)sup(1)dμPsub(s)(μ)Psub(l)(μ)Psub(n)(μ) are generally applied, where Ysub(α)sup(β)(Ω vector) are spherical harmonics, Psub(α)sup(β)(μ) are associated Legendre functions, and Psub(α)(μ) are Legendre polynomials. In the paper, the general procedure of calculating the integrals of the products of any combination of spherical functions is given. The procedure is referred to in a report on the boundary conditions for the cylindrical geometry in neutron transport theory for both the outer and inner cylindrical boundaries. (author)

  11. Production of alcohol and edible yeast with extract of carob fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beundia, M; Arroyo, V; Inigo, B; Garrido, J M

    1961-01-01

    Media based on extraction from carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua) have been used successfully in laboratory production of edible yeast and of alcohol. The fruit is a pod, 25 to 40 g, with sweet meaty flesh containing 34% sugar (dry weight), half sucrose and half invert sugar. Because of butyric acid and tannin, no antimicrobial need be added to the pulp prepared by adding H/sub 2/O (3 times weight) and autoclaving 1 hour in flowing stream. Of 3 yeast spp., Candida pulcherrima, Hansenula anomala, and Rhodotorula rubra, the latter (notable for carotenoid content) produced the most dry material in 48 hours at 32/sup 0/ on a reciprocating shaker with medium containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 2.52 and extraction contributing 20 g reducing sugar/1. Alcohol fermentation, heretofore effected by natural microflora, was attempted with pure cultures of 4 yeast spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae (4 strains), S. oviformis (2 strains), S. beticus, and S. chevalieri. All were suitable except one strain of S. oviformis. The carob extraction had enough nitrogenous and growth substances so that no other medium ingredient was needed. With reducing sugar level t 23 g/100 mil, alcohol yield was close to the theoretical unitage (13.5) after 17-days growth. The range for the 7 isolates was 10.2 to 12.4. One strain of S. cereviseae reached its maximum, 11.8 in only 7 days.

  12. In Vitro Characterization of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Fruit Processing By-Products as Potential Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Thatyane Mariano Rodrigues; Garcia, Estefânia Fernandes; de Oliveira Araújo, Amanda; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-08-23

    Nine wild Lactobacillus strains, namely Lactobacillus plantarum 53, Lactobacillus fermentum 56, L. fermentum 60, Lactobacillus paracasei 106, L. fermentum 250, L. fermentum 263, L. fermentum 139, L. fermentum 141, and L. fermentum 296, isolated from fruit processing by-products were evaluated in vitro for a series of safety, physiological functionality, and technological properties that could enable their use as probiotics. Considering the safety aspects, the resistance to antibiotics varied among the examined strains, and none of the strains presented hemolytic and mucinolytic activity. Regarding the physiological functionality properties, none of the strains were able to deconjugate bile salts; all of them presented low to moderate cell hydrophobicity and were able to autoaggregate, coaggregate with Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and antagonize pathogenic bacteria. Exposure to pH 2 sharply decreased the survival of the examined strains after 1- or 2-h exposure; variable decreases were noted after 3-h exposure to pH 3. Overall, exposure to pH 5 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.3, and 1%) did not decrease the strains' survival. Examined strains presented better ability to survive from the exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions in laboratorial media and milk than in grape juice. Considering the technological properties, all the strains were positive for proteolytic activity and EPS and diacetyl production, and most of them had good tolerance to 1-4% NaCl. These results indicate that wild Lactobacillus strains isolated from fruit processing by-products could present performance compatible with probiotic properties and technological features that enable the development of probiotic foods with distinct characteristics.

  13. Production of furfural from palm oil empty fruit bunches: kinetic model comparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjaitan, J. R. H.; Monica, S.; Gozan, M.

    2017-05-01

    Furfural is a chemical compound that can be applied to pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, resins and cleaning compound which can be produced by acid hydrolysis of biomass. Indonesia’s demand for furfural in 2010 reached 790 tons that still imported mostly 72% from China. In this study, reaction kinetic models of furfural production from oil palm empty fruit bunches with submitting acid catalyst at the beginning of the experiment will be determine. Kinetic data will be obtained from hydrolysis of empty oil palm bunches using sulfuric acid catalyst 3% at temperature 170°C, 180°C and 190°C for 20 minutes. From this study, the kinetic model to describe the production of furfural is the kinetic model where generally hydrolysis reaction with an acid catalyst in hemicellulose and furfural will produce the same decomposition product which is formic acid with different reaction pathways. The activation energy obtained for the formation of furfural, the formation of decomposition products from furfural and the formation of decomposition products from hemicellulose is 8.240 kJ/mol, 19.912 kJ/mol and -39.267 kJ / mol.

  14. Fruit production and branching density affect shoot and whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Paoletti, Andrea; Al Hariri, Raeed; Famiani, Franco

    2018-02-14

    The amount of shoot stem (i.e., woody part of the shoot) dry matter per unit shoot leaf dry matter (i.e., the shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio) has been reported to be lower in short shoots than in long ones, and this is related to the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. This is important in fruit trees, since the greater and earlier carbon export ability of shoots with a lower wood to leaf biomass ratio improves fruit production. This ratio may vary with cultivars, training systems or plant age, but no study has previously investigated the possible effect of fruit production. In this study on two olive cultivars (i.e., Arbequina, with low growth rate, and Frantoio, with high growth rate) subject to different fruit production treatments, we found that at increasing fruit production, shoot length and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio were proportionally reduced in the new shoots growing at the same time as the fruit. Specifically, fruit production proportionally reduced total new-shoot biomass, length, leaf area and average shoot length. With decreasing shoot length, shoot diameter, stem mass, internode length, individual leaf area and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio also decreased. This may be viewed as a plant strategy to better support fruit growth in the current year, given the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. Moreover, at the whole-tree level, the percentage of total tree biomass production invested in leaves was closely correlated with branching density, which differed significantly across cultivars. By branching more, Arbequina concentrates more shoots (thus leaves) per unit of wood (trunk, branches and root) mass, decreasing wood to leaf biomass ratio at the whole-tree level. Therefore, while, at the shoot level, shoot length determines shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio, at the canopy level branching density is also an important determinant of whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio. Whole-tree wood to leaf

  15. Asset management: integrated software optimizes production performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polczer, S.

    1998-06-01

    Two new multi-dimensional databases, which expand the `row and column` concept of spreadsheets into multiple categories of data called dimensions, are described. These integrated software packages provide the foundation for industry players such as Poco Petroleum Ltd and Numac Energy Inc to gain a competitive advantage, by overhauling their respective data collection and retrieval systems to allow for timely cost analysis and financial reporting. Energy Warehouse, an on-line analytical processing product marketed by SysGold Ltd, is one of the software products described. It gathers various sources of information, allows advanced searches and generates reports previously unavailable in other conventional financial accounting systems. The second product discussed - the Canadian Upstream Energy System (CUES) - is an on-line analytical processing system developed by Oracle Corporation and Calgary-based Applied Terravision Systems (ATS) Inc. CUES combines Oracle`s universal data server and software development tools with ATS`s upstream financial, land, geotechnical and production applications. The software also allows for optimization of facilities, analysis of production efficiencies and comparison of performance against industry standards.

  16. Changes in the carotenoid metabolism of capsicum fruits during application of modelized slow drying process for paprika production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel

    2004-02-11

    A temperature profile simulating the traditional slow drying process of red pepper fruits, which is conducted in La Vera region (Spain) for paprika production, was developed. Carotenoid and ascorbic acid content, as well as moisture of fruits, were monitored during the slow drying process designed. Data obtained suggested that the evolution of carotenoid concentration, the main quality trait for paprika, directly depend on the physical conditions imposed. During the drying process, three different stages could be observed in relation to the carotenoids. The first stage corresponds to a physiological adaptation to the new imposed conditions that implied a decrease (ca. 20%) in the carotenoid content during the first 24 h. After that short period and during 5 days, a second stage was noticed, recovering the biosynthetic (carotenogenic) capability of the fruits, which denotes an accommodation of the fruits to the new environmental conditions. During the following 48 h (third stage) a sharp increase in the carotenoid content was observed. This last phenomenon seems to be related with an oxidative-thermal stress, which took place during the first stage, inducing a carotenogenesis similar to that occurring in over-ripening fruits. Results demonstrate that a fine control of the temperature and moisture content would help to positively modulate carotenogenesis and minimize catabolism, making it possible to adjust the drying process to the ripeness stage of fruits with the aim of improving carotenoid retention and therefore quality of the resulting product. In the case of ascorbic acid, data demonstrated that this compound is very sensitive to the drying process, with a decrease of about 76% during the first 24 h and remaining only at trace levels during the rest of the process. Therefore, no antioxidant role should be expected from ascorbic acid during the whole process and in the corresponding final product (paprika), despite that red pepper fruit is well-known to be rich

  17. Stereoscopic image production: live, CGI, and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Enrique

    2006-02-01

    This paper shortly describes part of the experience gathered in more than 10 years of stereoscopic movie production, some of the most common problems found and the solutions, with more or less fortune, we applied to solve those problems. Our work is mainly focused in the entertainment market, theme parks, museums, and other cultural related locations and events. In our movies, we have been forced to develop our own devices to permit correct stereo shooting (stereoscopic rigs) or stereo monitoring (real-time), and to solve problems found with conventional film editing, compositing and postproduction software. Here, we discuss stereo lighting, monitoring, special effects, image integration (using dummies and more), stereo-camera parameters, and other general 3-D movie production aspects.

  18. Female fruit production depends on female flower production and crown size rather than male density in a continuous population of a tropical dioecious tree (Virola surinamensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba-Hernández, Pablo; Segura, Jorge Lobo; Muñoz-Valverde, Jenny

    2016-11-01

    Factors related to pollen and resource limitation were evaluated to predict female fruit production in a tropical dioecious tree. Pollen limitation via variation in the male density at local scales is expected to limit female reproduction success in dioecious plants. We modeled the roles of local male density, female crown size, crown illumination, and female flower production on female fruit initiation and mature fruit production in a continuous population (62 ha plot) of a tropical dioecious tree (Virola surinamensis). In addition, we used microsatellites to describe the scale of effective pollen flow, the male effective population size, and the spatial genetic structure within/between progenies and males. The local male density was not related to female fruit initiation or mature fruit production. Female floral production had a positive effect on fruit initiation. The female crown size was positively related to fruit maturation. Seeds from the same female and seeds from different but spatially proximal females were generally half-siblings; however, proximal females showed greater variation. Proximal male-female adult pairs were not significantly more genetically related than distant pairs. The probability of paternity was negatively affected by the distance between seeds and males; most effective pollen dispersal events (∼85%) occurred from males located less than 150 m from females. The number of males siring progenies was greater than the number of males found at local scales. Female fecundity in this continuous population of Virola surinamensis is not limited by the availability of pollen from proximal males. Rather, resource allocation to floral production may ultimately determine female reproductive success. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

  20. The fruit extract of Berberis crataegina DC: exerts potent antioxidant activity and protects DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charehsaz, Mohammad; Sipahi, Hande; Celep, Engin; Üstündağ, Aylin; Cemiloğlu Ülker, Özge; Duydu, Yalçın; Aydın, Ahmet; Yesilada, Erdem

    2015-04-17

    Dried fruits of Berberis crataegina (Berberidaceae) have been frequently consumed as food garniture in Turkish cuisine, while its fruit paste has been used to increase stamina and in particular to prevent from cardiovascular dysfunctions in Northeastern Black Sea region of Turkey. This study investigated this folkloric information in order to explain the claimed healing effects as well as to evaluate possible risks. Total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic fruit extract were evaluated through several in vitro assays. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of B. crataegina fruit extract were also assessed in both cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The extract showed protective effects against ferric-induced oxidative stress and had a relatively good antioxidant activity. It also ameliorated the H2O2 mediated DNA damage in lymphocytes, suggesting the protective effect against oxidative DNA damage. The methanolic extract of B. crataegina fruits may be a potential antioxidant nutrient and also may exert a protective role against lipid peroxidation as well as oxidative DNA damage.

  1. Diagnosis and Integrated Management of Fruit Rot in Cucurbita argyrosperma, Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Díaz Nájera

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit rot is the principal phytopathological problem of pipiana pumpkin (Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber in the state of Guerrero. The aims of this research were to 1 identify the causal agent of southern blight on pumpkin fruits by morphological, pathogenic, and molecular analysis (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2; 2 evaluate in vitro Trichoderma spp. strains and chemical fungicides; and 3 evaluate under rainfed field conditions, the strains that obtained the best results in vitro, combined with fungicides during two crop cycles. Number of commercial and non-commercial fruits at harvest, and seed yield (kg ha-1 were registered. Morphological, pathogenic and molecular characterization identified Sclerotium rolfsii as the causal agent of rot in pipiana pumpkin fruits. Now, in vitro conditions, the highest inhibition of S. rolfsii were obtained by Trichoderma virens strain G-41 (70.72%, T. asperellum strain CSAEGro-1 (69%, and the fungicides metalaxyl (100%, pyraclostrobin (100%, quintozene (100%, cyprodinil + fludioxonil (100%, and prochloraz (100%. Thiophanate-methyl only delayed growth (4.17%. In field conditions, during the spring-summer 2015 cycle, T. asperellum strain CSAEGro-1 + metalaxyl, and T. asperellum + cyprodinil + fludioxonil, favored the highest number of fruits and seed yield in the crop.

  2. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  3. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  4. Effect of steam pretreatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch for the production of sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsudin, Saleha; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Zainudin, Huzairi; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Mustapa Kamal, Siti Mazlina; Shirai, Yoshihito; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-01-01

    Lignocellulose into fuel ethanol is the most feasible conversion route strategy in terms of sustainability. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) generated from palm oil production is a huge source of cellulosic material and represents a cheap renewable feedstock which awaits further commercial exploitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using steam at 0.28 MPa and 140 °C generated from the palm oil mill boiler as a pretreatment to enhance the digestibility of EFB for sugars production. The effects of steam pretreatment or autohydrolysis on chemical composition changes, polysaccharide conversion, sugar production and morphology alterations of four different types of EFB namely fresh EFB (EFB1), sterilized EFB (EFB2), shredded EFB (EFB3) and ground EFB (EFB4) were evaluated. In this study, the effects of steam pretreatment showed major alterations in the morphology of EFB as observed under the scanning electron microscope. Steam pretreated EFB2 was found to have the highest total conversion of 30% to sugars with 209 g kg −1 EFB. This production was 10.5 fold higher than for EFB1 and 1.6 fold and 1.7 fold higher than EFB3 and EFB4, respectively. The results suggested that pretreatment of EFB by autohydrolysis using steam from the mill boiler could be considered as being a suitable pretreatment process for the production of sugars. These sugars can be utilized as potential substrates for the production of various products such as fuel ethanol. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the feasibility of steam pretreatment to enhance digestibility of EFB. ► Steam pretreatment increased sugars to 3.4 fold and caused major alteration in EFB morphology under SEM. ► Autohydrolysis which does not require the addition of chemicals is an attractive pretreatment approach to EFB.

  5. Biotechnological process for obtaining new fermented products from cashew apple fruit by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Suzane Macêdo; Silva, Cristina Ferraz; Moreira, Jane Jesus Silveira; Narain, Narendra; Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    In Brazil, the use of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. This work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. The inoculation with two different strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. SCP and SCT, were standardized to a concentration of 10(7 )cells ml(-1). Each inoculum was added to 1,500 ml of cashew must. Fermentation was performed at 28 ± 3°C and aliquots were withdrawn every 24 h to monitor soluble sugar concentrations, pH, and dry matter contents. The volatile compounds in fermented products were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. After 6 days, the fermentation process was completed, cells removed by filtration and centrifugation, and the products were stabilized under refrigeration for a period of 20 days. The stabilized products were stored in glass bottles and pasteurized at 60 ± 5°C/30 min. Both fermented products contained ethanol concentration above 6% (v v(-1)) while methanol was not detected and total acidity was below 90 mEq l(-1), representing a pH of 3.8-3.9. The volatile compounds were characterized by the presence of aldehyde (butyl aldehyde diethyl acetal, 2,4-dimethyl-hepta-2,4-dienal, and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and ester (ethyl α-methylbutyrate) representing fruity aroma. The strain SCT was found to be better and efficient and this produced 10% more alcohol over that of strain SCP.

  6. Alignment of Product Models and Product State Models - Integration of the Product Lifecycle Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Kirkby, Lars Phillip; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the integration of the Product Model (PM) and the Product State Model (PCM). Focus is on information exchange from the PSM to the PM within the manufacturing of a single ship. The paper distinguishes between information and knowledge integration. The paper ...... provides some overall strategies for integrating PM and PSM. The context of this discussion is a development project at Odense Steel Shipyard....

  7. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rockwool (RC and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better. For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato.

  8. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jing; Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Jingguo; Liu, Wei; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Rockwool (RC) and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC) has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC) cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better). For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER) of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography for the analytical characterization of anthocyanins in Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) fruit and food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Stefania; Brighenti, Virginia; Pellati, Federica

    2018-06-01

    Anthocyanins represent the most abundant class of bioactive compounds present in Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) fruit, conferring it several health-promoting properties. The content of anthocyanins in food products produced from bilberries can be affected by many parameters, making the study of their composition a critical issue. In this ambit, this work was aimed at a comprehensive profiling of anthocyanins in bilberry fruit and derivatives from the Italian Northern Apennines, including jam, juice, and liqueur ("Mirtillino"). Anthocyanins were extracted from the jams by means of a dynamic maceration with acidified methanol, while juice and liqueurs were directly analyzed. The analysis of anthocyanins in the extracts was carried out by means of HPLC-UV/DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, and MS 2 , under gradient elution. As a comparison, authentic bilberry fruits were analyzed. The total anthocyanin content was in the range 582.4-795.2 mg/100 g (FW) for the fruit, 2.3-234.5 mg/100 g for the jams, 109.2-2252.2 mg/L for the juice, and 27.9-759.3 mg/L for the liqueurs. To deeper investigate the anthocyanin profile of the liqueurs that exhibited a remarkably different composition in comparison with the other products, an authentic bilberry liqueur was prepared in the lab, following a traditional recipe, and monitored weakly by HPLC. The percentage of degradation of 3-O-galactosides and 3-O-arabinosides of bilberry anthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of 3-O-glucosides. The results of this work demonstrated the importance of a suitable and reliable analysis of bilberry fruit and related food products to ensure their genuineness and quality. Graphical abstract Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) fruit and food products analyzed in this work.

  10. Fruit-body production and 137Cs-activity of Cantharellus cibarius after nitrogen and potassium fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    1994-01-01

    A study of the possible effect of fertilization with nitrogen and potassium on fruit-body production and 137 Cs-activity concentration of Cantharellus cibarius was carried out in a pine forest in the eastern part of central Sweden. Nitrogen, in the form of ammonium nitrate, was added twice, in 1984 and 1990, at a dose of 150 kg N ha -1 . Fruit-body production was measured during 1985-1991, and the 137 Cs-activity concentration during 1988-1991. Fruit-body production showed a pronounced variation between years. The ratio between the highest annual production and the lowest was about 20. No statistically significant effects of either the fertilization treatments on production were observed. However, nitrogen fertilization showed a tendency towards a decrease in production by about 30%. The field site is situated in an area substantially affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The fruit-bodies on the site had a clearly elevated activity concentration of 137 Cs, which averaged 15 Bq q -1 d.m. for all plots and years. On the 4.5 ha study site, the 137 Cs-activity concentration varied by a factor of 10 between individual plots. The year with the highest fruit-body production had the lowest 137 Cs-activity concentration. The fertilizations lacked statistically significant effect in 137 Cs-activity concentration, but a 50% reduction was indicated for potassium fertilization causing the concentration to fall below the Swedish health limit for human food. 31 refs, 3 figs

  11. Lack of pollinators limits fruit production in commercial blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Faye E; Winfree, Rachael

    2014-12-01

    Modern agriculture relies on domesticated pollinators such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), and to a lesser extent on native pollinators, for the production of animal-pollinated crops. There is growing concern that pollinator availability may not keep pace with increasing agricultural production. However, whether crop production is in fact pollen-limited at the field scale has rarely been studied. Here, we ask whether commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) production in New Jersey is limited by a lack of pollination even when growers provide honey bees at recommended densities. We studied two varieties of blueberry over 3 yr to determine whether blueberry crop production is pollen-limited and to measure the relative contributions of honey bees and native bees to blueberry pollination. We found two lines of evidence for pollen limitation. First, berries receiving supplemental hand-pollination were generally heavier than berries receiving ambient pollination. Second, mean berry mass increased significantly and nonasymptotically with honey bee flower visitation rate. While honey bees provided 86% of pollination and thus drove the findings reported above, native bees still contributed 14% of total pollination even in our conventionally managed, high-input agricultural system. Honey bees and native bees were also similarly efficient as pollinators on a per-visit basis. Overall, our study shows that pollination can be a limiting factor in commercial fruit production. Yields might increase with increased honey bee stocking rates and improved dispersal of hives within crop fields, and with habitat restoration to increase pollination provided by native bees.

  12. Optimization studies on acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber for production of xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S H A; Choudhury, J P; Ahmad, A L; Kamaruddin, A H

    2007-02-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber is a lignocellulosic waste from palm oil mills. It is a potential source of xylose which can be used as a raw material for production of xylitol, a high value product. The increasing interest on use of lignocellulosic waste for bioconversion to fuels and chemicals is justifiable as these materials are low cost, renewable and widespread sources of sugars. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of H(2)SO(4) concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time for production of xylose. Batch reactions were carried out under various reaction temperature, reaction time and acid concentrations and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was followed to optimize the hydrolysis process in order to obtain high xylose yield. The optimum reaction temperature, reaction time and acid concentration found were 119 degrees C, 60 min and 2%, respectively. Under these conditions xylose yield and selectivity were found to be 91.27% and 17.97 g/g, respectively.

  13. Optimization of pectinase enzyme production in Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from rotten fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pectinase is one of the most important industrial enzymes which was isolated from a wide variety of microorganisms such as bacteria and filamentous fungi. This enzyme has been usually used in the juice and textile industry. In this study, the isolation and optimization of pectinase-producing fungi on decaying rotten fruits were studied. Materials and methods: Isolation and screening of pectinase producing fungi have been done by plate culture on pectin medium and staining with Lugol's iodine solution. The best strain was identified by method of Pitt and Hocking as Aspergillus fumigates. The enzyme production was optimized by application of the factorial design which involves five factors, each at three levels. Five factors were carbon sources (whey, sugar, stevia and ammonium sulfate, manganese sulfate, temperature, and pH. Pectinase concentration was measured by the Miller method. Results: The results showed that the optimum condition for enzyme production was at 32 °C, PH = 6 , 3g / L manganese sulfate, 2.75g / L of ammonium sulfate, 10g / L of each carbon source (whey, stevia, and glucose. Optimum of enzyme production was observed in the presence of 1.328 mg / ml of glucose. Molecular weight of enzyme was obtained about 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Discussion and conclusion: The results demonstrated that this strain could grow in a wide range of carbon sources, PH and temperature. This study indicates that this strain is a good candidate for use in industrial application.

  14. Direct Bioconversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Bioethanol Production By Solid State Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production was conducted by utilizing agriculture waste, palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB with the aid of T. harzianum and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae using solid state bioconversion method. The compatibility of various fungal strains was done as to develop the direct bioconversion process of compatible mixed culture. Analyzes such ethanol estimation, reducing sugar and glucosamine as growth indicator were conducted in order to select the best experimented run for optimization. The optimization of process conditions, by using central composite design (CCD was carried out. Optimization of process condition was done with varied level of moisture content, pH, inoculum size, concentration of co-substrate (wheat flour and mineral solutions. Statistical analysis showed that the optimum process condition for moisture content was 50% (v/w, pH of 4, inoculum size of 10% (v/v, concentration of wheat flour of 1% (v/v and mineral solutions 1%(v/v. In this study, the application levels of the methods of environmental management in regards to the maximum production were determined. The final optimization with the developed process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 14.315 (v/v to 34.785(v/v.

  15. An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Siu Hua

    2014-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents an overview of EFB as a feedstock for bio-oil production. The fundamental characteristics of EFB in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and chemical composition, as well as the recent advances in EFB conversion processes for bio-oil production like pyrolysis and solvolysis are outlined and discussed. A comparison of properties in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and fuel properties between the bio-oil from EFB and petroleum fuel oil is included. The major challenges and future prospects towards the utilization of EFB as a useful resource for bio-oil production are also addressed. - Highlights: • Palm EFB has high heating value and low greenhouse gas emissions during combustion. • Conversion of EFB to bio-oil is mainly by fast pyrolysis without and with catalyst. • Bio-oil from EFB is lower in heating value, heavier and more acidic than fuel oil. • The viscosity of bio-oil from EFB is between those of light and heavy fuel oils. • The flash and pour points of bio-oil from EFB are close to those of light fuel oil

  16. Maintaining cold chain integrity: Temperature breaks within fruit reefer containers in the Cape Town Container Terminal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goedhals-Gerber, LL

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available credibility, and fi nancial losses. Seventy percent (70%) of South African fruit exports are shipped through the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT). This in-depth case study provides a better understanding of the signifi cant challenges within the CTCT...

  17. Ethanol production from non-detoxified whole slurry of sulfite-pretreated empty fruit bunches at a low cellulase loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlan Cheng; Shao-Yuan Leu; J.Y. Zhu; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2014-01-01

    Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to an empty fruit bunches (EFB) for ethanol production. SPORL facilitated delignification through lignin sulfonation and dissolution of xylan to result in a highly digestible substrate. The pretreated whole slurry was enzymatically saccharified at a solids loading of 18% using a...

  18. 21 CFR 101.77 - Health claims: fruits, vegetables, and grain products that contain fiber, particularly soluble...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., many studies have shown that diets high in plant foods are associated with reduced risk of coronary... increased consumption of fiber-rich foods to help lower blood LDL-cholesterol levels. Results of numerous studies have shown that fiber-containing fruits, vegetables, and grain products can help lower blood LDL...

  19. Integrated effect of gamma radiation and biocontrol agent on quality parameters of apple fruit: An innovative commercial preservation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahari Mostafavi, Hossein; Mahyar Mirmajlessi, Seyed; Fathollahi, Hadi; Shahbazi, Samira; Mohammad Mirjalili, Seyed

    2013-10-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation and biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on the physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Golden Delicious apples were investigated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then inoculated with P. fluorescens suspension. Samples were evaluated at 3 month intervals. The results demonstrated a clear link between antioxidant activity and phenolic content, so that dose range of 200-400 Gy significantly increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Effect of P. fluorescens was similar to irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy that could prevent lesion diameter in pathogen-treated apples. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased but, combination of P. fluorescens as well as irradiation (at 200-400 Gy) could decrease softening apple fruits during storage. In all parameters, P. fluorescens (as biocontrol agent) inhibited P. expansum similar to irradiation at 200-400 Gy. So, integrated treatment of irradiation and biocontrol agent explored the potential dual benefit of low doses (200 and 400 Gy) as a suitable method to sustain physico-chemical quality and conclusively reduce apple fruits losses during post-harvest preservation.

  20. WATER NETWORK INTEGRATION IN RAW SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main process industries in Cuba is that of the sugarcane. Among the characteristics of this industry is the high demand of water in its processes. In this work a study of water integration was carried out from the different operations of the production process of raw sugar, in order to reduce the fresh water consumption. The compound curves of sources and demands were built, which allowed the determination of the minimum water requirement of the network (1587,84 m3/d, as well as the amount of effluent generated (0,35 m3/tcane.The distribution scheme of fresh water and water reuse among different operations were obtained from the nearest neighbor algorithm. From considering new quality constrains was possible to eliminate the external water consumption, as well as to reduce the amount of effluent in a 37% in relation to the initial constrains.

  1. Technical Integration of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Young; Park, J. K.; Chang, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production systems, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production cost. For assessing the degree of attainments in comparison with the final goals of VHTR technologies in progress of researches, subdivided are the prerequisite items confirmed to the NHDD concepts. We developed and applied R and D quality management methodology to meet 'Development of Key Technologies for Nuclear Hydrogen' project. And we also distributed R and D QAM and R and D QAP to each teams and are in operation. The preconceptual flow diagrams of SI, HTSE, and HyS processes are introduced and their material and energy balances have been proposed. The hydrogen production thermal efficiencies of not only the SI process as a reference process but also the HTSE and HyS processes were also estimated. Technical feasibility assessments of SI, HTSE, and HyS processes have been carried out by using the pair-wise comparison and analytic hierarchy process, and it is revealed that the experts are considering the SI process as the most feasible process. The secondary helium pathway across the SI process is introduced. Dynamic simulation codes for the H2S04vaporizer, sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide decomposers, and HI decomposer on the secondary helium pathway and for the primary and secondary sulfuric acid distillation columns, HIx solution distillation column, and preheater for HI vapor have been developed and integrated

  2. Integrated effect of gamma radiation and biocontrol agent on quality parameters of apple fruit: An innovative commercial preservation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahari Mostafavi, Hossein; Mahyar Mirmajlessi, Seyed; Fathollahi, Hadi; Shahbazi, Samira; Mohammad Mirjalili, Seyed

    2013-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation and biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on the physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Golden Delicious apples were investigated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then inoculated with P. fluorescens suspension. Samples were evaluated at 3 month intervals. The results demonstrated a clear link between antioxidant activity and phenolic content, so that dose range of 200–400 Gy significantly increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Effect of P. fluorescens was similar to irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy that could prevent lesion diameter in pathogen-treated apples. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased but, combination of P. fluorescens as well as irradiation (at 200–400 Gy) could decrease softening apple fruits during storage. In all parameters, P. fluorescens (as biocontrol agent) inhibited P. expansum similar to irradiation at 200–400 Gy. So, integrated treatment of irradiation and biocontrol agent explored the potential dual benefit of low doses (200 and 400 Gy) as a suitable method to sustain physico-chemical quality and conclusively reduce apple fruits losses during post-harvest preservation. - Highlights: • A suitable method to reduce apple quality losses during 9 month storage period. • Effects of γ radiation in combination with biocontrol agent on physico-chemical parameters of the apple fruits during cold storage. • The potential dual benefit of low irradiation dose combined with biocontrol agent. • Radiation dose determination for Penicillium expansum (postharvest pathogen) control

  3. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integration Mutants as Biocontrol Agents Against Anthracnose Disease in Avocado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoby, N; Zhou, R; Kobiler, I; Dinoor, A; Prusky, D

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT Reduced-pathogenicity mutants of the avocado fruit pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate Cg-14 (teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata) were generated by insertional mutagenesis by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. Following seven transformations, 3,500 hygromycin-resistant isolates were subjected to a virulence assay by inoculation on mesocarp and pericarp of cv. Fuerte avocado fruits. Fourteen isolates showed a reduced degree of virulence relative compared with wild-type Cg-14. Two isolates, Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150, were further characterized. Cg-M-142 produced appressoria on avocado pericarp similar to Cg-14, but caused reduced symptom development on the fruit's pericarp and mesocarp. Isolate Cg-M-1150 did not produce appressoria; it caused much reduced maceration on the mesocarp and no symptoms on the pericarp. Southern blot analysis of Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150 showed REMI at different XbaI sites of the fungal genome. Pre-inoculation of avocado fruit with Cg-M-142 delayed symptom development by the wild-type isolate. Induced resistance was accompanied by an increase in the levels of preformed antifungal diene, from 760 to 1,200 mug/g fresh weight 9 days after inoculation, whereas pre-inoculation with Cg-M-1150 did not affect the level of antifungal diene, nor did it delay the appearance of decay symptoms. The results presented here show that reduced-pathogenicity isolates can be used for the biological control of anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides attack.

  4. Which perceived characteristics make product innovations appealing to the consumer? A study on the acceptance of fruit innovations using cross-cultural consumer segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwezen, Marleen C; Bartels, Jos

    2011-08-01

    In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the first two years, due to a lack of consumer acceptance. Consumer segmentation may be a useful research tool to increase the success rates of new fruit products. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on individual importance rankings of fruit choice motives. We conducted a cross-national, online panel survey on fresh fruit innovations in four European countries: the Netherlands (n=251), Greece (n=246), Poland (n=250), and Spain (n=250). Our cluster analysis revealed three homogeneous consumer segments: Average Joe, the Naturally conscious consumer, and the Health-oriented consumer. These consumer segments differed with respect to their importance ratings for fruit choice motives. Furthermore, the willingness to buy specific fruit innovations (i.e., genetically modified, functional food and convenience innovation) and the perceived product characteristics that influence this willingness differed across the segments. Our study could lead to more tailored marketing strategies aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of fruit product innovations based on consumer segmentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effect of products of thermophilous methane fermentation on the fermentation of fruit must by Saccharomyces vini].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhlin, E D; Kotomina, E N; Pisarnitsky

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of extracts from products of thermophilous methane fermentation at a dose of 0.7+2.0 ml/100 ml on the proliferation and fermentation activity of yeast Saccharomyces vini of the Yablochnaya-7 and Vishnevaya-33 race during their cultivation in the Hansen medium and in the apple and cranberry must with a normal and elevated content of sugar and acid. In some experiments the must was enriched in (NH4)2HPO4 at a dose of 0.3 g/l. Additions of small amounts of products of thermophilous methane fermentation accelerated fermentation of fruit musts with a normal sugar content and to a greater extent musts with an increased sugar content (27%). In the must enriched in (NH4)2HPO4 an almost complete (over 98%) fermentation of sugar developed for 27 days. In the must with an increased acidity (due to citric acid added to bring titrable acidity to 25 g/l) additions of the preparation also accerlerated the begining of the fermentation and increased its intensity.

  6. Continuous biohydrogen production from fruit wastewater at low pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, Vasileios; Khan, Abid; Ntougias, Spyridon; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Kapagiannidis, Anastasios G; Aivasidis, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Biohydrogen production from a simulated fruit wastewater (soluble COD = 3.17 ± 0.10 g L⁻¹) was carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) of 2 L operational volume without biomass inoculation, heat pre-treatment or pH adjustment, resulting in a low operational pH (3.75 ± 0.09). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied from 15 to 5 h. A strong negative correlation (p CSTR was operated under the same HRT. The biogas hydrogen content was estimated as high as 55.8 ± 2.3 % and 55.4 ± 2.5 % at 25 and 30 °C, respectively. The main fermentation end products were acetic and butyric acids, followed by ethanol. Significant differences (p CSTR at 25 or 30 °C were identified for butyric acid at almost all HRTs examined. Simulation of the acidogenesis process in the CSTR (based on COD and carbon balances) indicated the possible metabolic compounds produced at 25 and 30 °C reactions and provided an adequate fit of the experimental data.

  7. Indigenous and inoculated yeast fermentation of gabiroba (Campomanesia pubescens) pulp for fruit wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinicius; Gervásio, Ivani Maria; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of gabiroba Campomanesia pubescens (DC) O. Berg in the production of a beverage fermented using selected and wild yeasts from indigenous fermentation, analyze the volatile compounds profile present during the process of fermentation, and evaluate the sensory quality of the final beverage produced. Throughout the process of fermentation, when Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA 1162 was inoculated, there were stable viable populations around 9 log cells ml(-1). During indigenous fermentation, yeast population increased from 3.7 log CFU ml(-1) to 8.1 log CFU ml(-1) after 14 days. The diversity and dynamics of the yeast population during indigenous fermentation observed by PFGE analysis showed five different karyotyping profiles in the first days of fermentation. After the seventh day, there was a higher frequency of a similar S. cerevisiae profile. The yeast non-Saccharomyces were identified by sequencing of the ITS region as Candida quercitrusa and Issatchenkia terricola. Inoculated fermentations yielded a higher amount of alcohol than indigenous ones, indicating the efficiency of selected strains. There was also a greater concentration of higher alcohols, which are usually responsible for the flavor found in alcoholic beverages. Based on the characteristics of the pulp and acceptance in the sensory analysis, gabiroba fruits showed good potential for use in the production of fermented beverage.

  8. Environmentally friendly production of charcoal from empty fruit bunches using pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Mulop; Mohd Suffian Abdul Rahim

    2000-01-01

    Empty fruit bunches (EFB) from palm oil milling process are classified as palm oil waste. The EFB can be turned into valuable product such as charcoal, which can be processed further to activated carbon in order to solve some of the disposal problems. In this project, raw EFB was converted to charcoal by means of a pilot plant. A burner generating indirect heat controls the temperature of the process. The carbonization process was carried out in the absence of air at various temperatures and durations to find the optimum carbonization parameters. The study shows that the optimum operating, temperature for carbonization of EFB is 500 o C for the duration of 11/2 hours. The average fixed carbon content of the charcoal is 61.08. The high percentage of volatile matter is prevented from escaping into the air by trapping them in a series of cyclones. The double layered cyclones using water as the cooling medium, condense more volatile matter and reduces smoke exhaust. 50.7 % of ,gaseous product is condensed and 49.2 % is emitted to the atmosphere. The result is an environmental friendly pilot plant. (author)

  9. Anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable processing wastes for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanath, P.; Sumithra Devi, S.; Nand, K. (Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (IN))

    1992-01-01

    The effect of feeding different fruit and vegetable wastes, mango, pineapple, tomato, jackfruit, banana and orange, was studied in a 60-litre digester by cycling each waste every fifth day in order to operate the digester as and when there was supply of feed. The characteristics of the anaerobically digested fluid and digester performance in terms of biogas production were determined at different loading rates (LR) and at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) and the maximum biogas yield of 0.6 m{sup 3}/kg VS added was achieved at a 20-day HRT and 40 kg TS m{sup -3}day{sup -1} loading rate. The hourly gas production was observed in the digesters operated at 16 and 24 days HRT. The major yield (74.5%) of gas was produced within 12h of feeding at a 16-day HRT whereas at a 24-day HRT only 59.03% of the total gas could be obtained at this time. (author).

  10. Production and Energy Partition of Lactating Dairy Goats Fed Rations Containing Date Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yuniarti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dates fruit waste (DFW is a by-product of dates juice industry that contains high energy. So, it is suitable for an energy source in dairy goat ration. This study was conducted to observe the effect of DFW utilization in the ration on energy partition and productivity of lactating dairy goats. The experimental design was randomized block design using 9 primiparous lactating dairy goats. There were three types of ration as treatments used in this study, i.e. R0= 35% forage + 65% concentrate, R1= 35% forage + 55% concentrate + 10% DFW, and R2= 35% forage + 45% concentrate + 20% DFW. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and polynomial orthogonal test. The evaluated variables were dry matter intake (DMI, energy partition including energy intake, digestible and metabolizable energy, fecal and urine energy, energy in methane gas, and energy in milk, milk production and quality. The results showed that the linear decreased of DMI, energy intake, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and urine energy with the increased of DFW level in the rations. The use of 10% DFW (R1 showed the lowest energy loss through feces and methane gas of all treatments about 1089.57 kcal/head/d and 2.36 kcal/head/d, respectively. The use of DFW did not affect energy retention in milk. The utilization of DFW in ration did not significantly prevent the decline of milk production and milk quality. It can be concluded that DFW can be used as an alternative feed for the lactating dairy goat up to 10% in the ration.

  11. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figiel, Adam; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-30

    The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying.

  12. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Figiel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying.

  13. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medina-Puche, L.; Molina-Hidalgo, F.J.; Boersma, M.; Schuurink, R.C.; López-Vidriero, I.; Solano, R.; Franco-Zorrilla, J.M.; Caballero, J.L.; Blanco-Portales, R.; Muñoz-Blanco, J.

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and

  14. Mango fruit aroma volatile production following quarantine hot water treatment and subsequent ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangos are an important tropical fruit crop worldwide that are appreciated for their attractive peel and flesh colors, juicy texture, sweetness, and unique aroma. Mangos exported to the U.S. receive quarantine hot water treatment (QHWT) at 46.1 °C for 65 to 110 min (depending on fruit shape and size...

  15. Agricultural Capacity to Increase the Production of Select Fruits and Vegetables in the US: A Geospatial Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Zach; Peters, Christian J; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa; Griffin, Timothy S

    2017-09-23

    The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were parameterized to identify agricultural land areas meeting crop-specific growing requirements for monthly precipitation and temperature; soil depth and type; cropland availability; and proximity to existing production centers. The results of these analyses demonstrate that crop production can be expanded by nearly 144,000 ha within existing national production centers, generating an additional 0.05 cup-equivalents of fruits and vegetables per capita per day, representing a 1.7% increase above current total F&V availability. Expanding the size of national crop production centers can further increase the availability of all F&V by 2.5%-5.4%, which is still less than the recommended amount. Challenges to increasing F&V production in the US include lack of labor availability, barriers to adoption among producers, and threats to crop yields from environmental concerns.

  16. Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger Cultivated on Parkia biglobosa Fruit Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, Khadijat Toyin; Tahir, Hauwa; Ibrahim, Aliyu Dabai; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the potential of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp as substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Reducing sugar was estimated by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and citric acid was estimated spectrophotometrically using pyridine-acetic anhydride methods. The studies revealed that production parameters (pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration, incubation temperature, and fermentation period) had profound effect on the amount of citric acid produced. The maximum yield was obtained at the pH of 2 with citric acid of 1.15 g/L and reducing sugar content of 0.541 mMol−1, 3% vegetative inoculum size with citric acid yield of 0.53 g/L and reducing sugar content of 8.87 mMol−1, 2% of the substrate concentration with citric acid yield of 0.83 g/L and reducing sugar content of 9.36 mMol−1, incubation temperature of 55°C with citric acid yield of 0.62 g/L and reducing sugar content of 8.37 mMol−1, and fermentation period of 5 days with citric acid yield of 0.61 g/L and reducing sugar content of 3.70 mMol−1. The results of this study are encouraging and suggest that Parkia biglobosa pulp can be harnessed at low concentration for large scale citric acid production. PMID:27433535

  17. The Effect of MethyI Jasmonate on Ethylene Production, ACC Oxidase Activity and Carbon Dioxide Evolution in the Yellowish-Tangerine Tomato Fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellowish-tangerine tomato (cv. Bursztyn in the green, light yellow and yellow stages of ripening were treated with 0.1% and 1.0% of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me in lanolin paste and kept for several days and then they were evaluated for production of ethylene, ACC oxidase activity and CO2 evolution. Production of endogenous ethylene in mature green fruits was low and increased during ripening. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity in all investigated stages of fruit ripening. Slices excised from mature green fruits produced highest amount of carbon dioxide as compared to more advanced stages of ripening. JA-Me in O,1 % and 1,0% concentrations increased significantly CO2 evolution in green fruits, while in light yellow and yellow fruits only higher concentration of JA-Me stimulated carbon dioxide production.

  18. Agro-industrial fruit co-products in Colombia, their sources and potential uses in processed food industries: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Alarcón García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit agribusinesses generate large amounts of byproductswith diverse characteristics that are inherent to the fruitsfrom which they come, which are a source of great use potentialbecause their compositions include molecules that are currentlyof high interest (antioxidants and dietary fiber. It is clear that,without correct handling and disposal, theses fruits present aproblem due to the environmental pollution that large quantitiesof residues can generate. Although there are varied uses for agroindustrialco-products, this review focused on the potential usesthat co-products could have in different processed food matrices.In this sense, this paper led to the revelation that one of theprincipal objectives of the reviewed research was to conditionco-products for use in processed foods in an attempt to takeadvantage of the bio-active compounds they contain, principallythe natural antioxidant activity, which especially enjoys acceptanceby consumers of processed foods.

  19. Increasing Methane Production by Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Slaughterhouse with Fruit and Vegetable Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Samadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite fossil fuels, the energy supply from biogas process is of renewable energy resources; this kind of energy can be generated in all parts of the world. Thus, the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for production of methane from wastes of an industrial slaughterhouse and fruit and vegetable center in the Hamadan city, west of Iran, was investigated. The digester was operated under the mesophilic (35 - 37°C condition for a period of 40 days with 3 different C/N ratios (20/1, 30/1 and 40/1. Before operation of digester, the amounts of C and N in the wastes were measured and during the experiments pH and composition of the biogas were determined. The cumulative amounts of the generated total biogas and methane at the 3 examined C/N ratios 20/1, 30/1 and 40/1 were, respectively 181, 201.7 and 162.5 L and 129.8, 149.2 and 114 L. The results indicated that the highest contents of biogas and methane (201.68 and 149.29 L, respectively were obtained at C/N of 30 within 31 days.

  20. Transgene mobilization and regulatory uncertainty for non-GE fruit products of transgenic rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldsen, Victor M; Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Bennett, Alan B

    2012-10-31

    Genetically engineered (GE) rootstocks may offer some advantages for biotechnology applications especially in woody perennial crops such as grape or walnut. Transgrafting combines horticultural grafting practices with modern GE methods for crop improvement. Here, a non-GE conventional scion (upper stem portion) is grafted onto a transgenic GE rootstock. Thus, the scion does not contain the genetic modification present in the rootstock genome. We examined transgene presence in walnut and tomato GE rootstocks and non-GE fruit-bearing scions. Mobilization of transgene DNA, protein, and mRNA across the graft was not detected. Though transgenic siRNA mobilization was not observed in grafted tomatoes or walnut scions, transgenic siRNA signal was detected in walnut kernels. Prospective benefits from transgrafted plants include minimized risk of GE pollen flow (Lev-Yadun and Sederoff, 2001), possible use of more than one scion per approved GE rootstock which could help curb the estimated US$136 million (CropLife International, 2011) cost to bring a GE crop to international markets, as well as potential for improved consumer and market acceptance since the consumable product is not itself GE. Thus, transgrafting provides an alternative option for agricultural industries wishing to expand their biotechnology portfolio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Supply management and promotion of passion fruit production: the case of Alpha company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fátima Pereira Morais

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for improvement in the supply management has grown significantly due to the goal of strengthening ties with suppliers to generate mutual benefits. In this context and based on a program of development by Alpha Company, the aim of this study was to identify and analyze the main factors that led the company to design the promotional program, the results of which were obtained from the perception of employees and producers involved in the program as well as their perspectives for the future. Using a qualitative approach, a case study was performed with data collected through semi-structured interviews, in addition to documentary data provided by the company. It was observed that the agricultural development program was created to ensure the supply flow of passion fruit for the company studied, with the provision of technical assistance and minimum price to producers being examples of some of the strings attached. The results obtained so far have been positive both in the perception of the producers and employees, but some aspects can be improved. The program has been shown as an instrument of formalization of a partnership between producer and industry, but there is no expectation, at least for now, of this program expanding into other products.

  2. [Bee diversity in Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth (Bignoniaceae): importance for pollination and fruit production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cláudia I; Augusto, Solange C; Sofia, Silvia H; Moscheta, Ismar S

    2007-01-01

    Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth is an exotic plant in Brazil, commonly distributed in urban areas, which is considered an invasive species in crop and pasture areas. In this study, the floral biology and the behavior of bees in flowers of T. stans from three urban areas in southeastern Brazil were investigated. In all study sites, T. stans was an important food resource to the Apoidea to 48 species of bees. Centris tarsata Smith and Exomalopsis fulvofasciata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the effective pollinators more abundant, while Scaptotrigona depilis Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the more frequent robber species. The most part of T. stans visitors (87.5%) exploited exclusively nectar, which varied in sugar concentration depending on the day period and flower phase. In all flower stages, higher averages of nectar concentration (26.4% to 32.7%) occurred from 10 am to 2 pm. The presence of osmophore in the petals and protandry were detected. In two urban areas the number of visitors varied significantly during the day. The greatest abundance of pollinators occurred when pollen availability was higher and flowers showed receptive stigma, which could be contributing to the reproductive success of T. stans. The results indicate that the production of fruits increased in plants that received a higher number of effective pollinators.

  3. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  4. Conditions and strategies for integrating ergonomics into product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Ergonomics considerations at the stage of product development in industry is a major strategy for prevention of work-related injuries and illnesses among employees at the time of manufacture of new products. This study elucidates some important conditions and possibilities for integrating...... such considerations during the product development process. Special attention is paid to the role of design and production engineers. Based on different understandings of the product development process four approaches to integration of ergonomics are outlined....

  5. Sanitation and Microbiological Quality in Production Field and Fruit-Packing Shed of Persimmon and Satsuma Mandarin in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemi Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sanitation treatments including chlorination (ca 10 ppm available chlorine of agricultural water and ethyl alcohol (70% spraying on packing shed equipment on microbial contamination on fruits and the environment were determined and compared with those in conventionally managed field and packing shed in persimmon and satsuma mandarin orchards. Chlorinated water reduced the microbial counts to levels below the lower limit of detection (1.4 log CFU/ml for bacteria and 2.0 log CFU/ml for fungi in most agricultural water samples. Microbial counts of pesticide solution, which contained the agricultural water or chlorinated water for the mixture, were lower in sanitary field than in control field in both fruit orchards. The number of bacterial and mold species detected in agricultural water, chlorinated water, and pesticide solution were almost proportional to microbial counts in each sample throughout the year. The chlorination treatment of agricultural water tended to reduce the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit during production season. The ethyl alcohol spray treatment on packing shed equipment resulted in a substantial microbial reduction on plastic harvest basket and container in persimmon orchard and plastic harvest basket and container, gloves, scissors, and size sorter in satsuma mandarin orchard. The spray application on packing shed equipment reduced the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit by >1 log CFU/g. The number of satsuma mandarin packing shed equipment containing the species found on fruit peel was higher in control than in sanitary packing shed. No human pathogens such as verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella were detected in any of the fruit and environmental samples. These results indicate that uses of sanitizers such as chlorine for agricultural water and ethyl alcohol for packing shed equipment would be useful in a good agricultural practices

  6. Sanitation and Microbiological Quality in Production Field and Fruit-Packing Shed of Persimmon and Satsuma Mandarin in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemi Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sanitation treatments including chlorination (ca 10 ppm available chlorine of agricultural water and ethyl alcohol (70% spraying on packing shed equipment on microbial contamination on fruits and the environment were determined and compared with those in conventionally managed field and packing shed in persimmon and satsuma mandarin orchards. Chlorinated water reduced the microbial counts to levels below the lower limit of detection (1.4 log CFU/ml for bacteria and 2.0 log CFU/ml for fungi in most agricultural water samples. Microbial counts of pesticide solution, which contained the agricultural water or chlorinated water for the mixture, were lower in sanitary field than in control field in both fruit orchards. The number of bacterial and mold species detected in agricultural water, chlorinated water, and pesticide solution were almost proportional to microbial counts in each sample throughout the year. The chlorination treatment of agricultural water tended to reduce the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit during production season. The ethyl alcohol spray treatment on packing shed equipment resulted in a substantial microbial reduction on plastic harvest basket and container in persimmon orchard and plastic harvest basket and container, gloves, scissors, and size sorter in satsuma mandarin orchard. The spray application on packing shed equipment reduced the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit by 1 log CFU/g. The number of satsuma mandarin packing shed equipment containing the species found on fruit peel was higher in control than in sanitary packing shed. No human pathogens such as verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella were detected in any of the fruit and environmental samples. These results indicate that uses of sanitizers such as chlorine for agricultural water and ethyl alcohol for packing shed equipment would be useful in a good agricultural practices

  7. Biogas production from oil palm empty fruit bunches of post mushroom cultivation media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Agus; Suprihatin; Romli, M.; Hasanudin, Udin

    2018-03-01

    The Empty fruit bunches are one of the palm oil industry wastes, which can be used for mushroom cultivation. Post-cultivation of mushroom from former EFB-mushroom media (EFBMM) has the potential to be processed into biogas. The purpose of this research was to examine optimum co-digestion conditions for biogas production of EFBMM.The research was carried out in an anaerobic digester with three different conditions - dry fermentation (Water content (WC)/Total Solid (TS) ratio 1.5 - 3.5), semi-wet fermentation (WC/TS ratio = 4.0 - 5.7) and wet fermentation (WC/TS ratio> 9.0) conditions. Digester of capacity 50L was used. Fermentation was done using 20% cow feces as inoculum which then added with circulation system for 70 days. The results showed that optimum biogas production were produced in semi-wet fermentation conditions (WC/TS ratio = 4). It was produced 37.462 liters (2.420 liters CH4/Kg Volatile Solid (VS)) of biogas with methane contain about 26.231%. Total volume of inoculum during process was 19.6 liters (1: 4 w/v) with absorbed TS inoculum ratio, TS/I = 0.4 (1:2.5 w/v). The result of research also showed that biogas which was produced from control about 2.865 liters (0.041 liters CH4/KgVS), with TS absorbed inoculum ratio, TS/I = 0.5 (1: 5w/v).

  8. High Triterpenic Acids Production in Callus Cultures from Fruit Pulp of Two Apple Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Very rarely fruit pulp has been used in in vitro culture to produce secondary metabolites useful in promoting health. The aims of this work were the study of the best conditions to obtain the callus cultures from the pulp of two varieties of apples, Golden Delicious (GD) and "Mela Rosa Marchigiana" (MRM), and the quali-quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites produced by the two in vitro callus cultures. Callus was induced on both Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg B5 media containing various combinations of supplements. To achieve the maximum recovery of secondary metabolites produced, preliminary extraction tests were carried out on GD apple culture using two different organic solvents (MeOH and EtOAc). The quali-quantitative analysis of the methanolic extract of both cultures was carried out by ESI-MS n and GC-MS techniques. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of triterpenic acids, in particular, oleanolic, ursolic, maslinic, pomolic, tormentic, corosolic and annurcoic acid along with a phytosterol, β-sitosterol. In addition, GD callus culture produced phloridzin, absent in the MRM culture. In this last culture, however, the total amount of secondary metabolites was markedly higher. The in vivo production of these bioactive compounds were also quantified in the GD and MRM apple pulps. Apple pulps produced higher amounts of triterpenic acids in vitro than in vivo. The present work can be considered a method to amplify the production of important secondary metabolites which exert beneficial effects on human health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Yield, fruit quality, contents and sensory quality of old apple varieties trained as slender spindle under organic and integrated cultivation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Lothar; Gössinger, Manfred; Wendelin, Silvia; Martina, Kieler; Thomas, Rühmer; Walter, Brandes; Kathrin, Sigl

    2015-04-01

    Between 2006 and 2013 the old apple varieties 'Ananas Reinette', 'llzer Rosenapfel', 'Kronprinz Rudolf', 'Steirischer Maschanzker', 'Goldparmäne', 'Roter Boskoop', 'Ribston Pepping', 'Steirische Schafnase', 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Lavanttaler Bananenapfel', 'Himbeerapfel' and 'Florianer Rosmarin' (from 2009 on also 'Roter Berlepsch', 'Cox Orange' and 'Kanada Reinette') were tested for their fresh market suitability at the experimental orchard Haschhof of the HBLA and BA für Wein- und Obstbau Klosterneuburg under organic and integrated cultivation (IP) conditions trained as slender spindle. In 2010 the effect of an organic and a combined "integrated-organic summer" plant protection strategie on fruit quality and pesticide residues was tested in addition. No pesticide residues were detected in fruits of both plant protection strategies, expect on fruits of "integrated-organic summer" Schafnase in 2010. At harvest 2010 the bio-variant showed a significantly higher percentage of fruits with skin defects. The losses due to parasitic diseases during storage were strongly depending on the cultivar, but hardly affected by the plant protection strategy in this year. Looking at the entire experimental period, most of the varieties in the organic plot showed a comparable fruiting performance as those in the IP plot. The best fruiting performances were found with 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Roter Boskoop' and 'Kronprinz Rudolf', while the cumulative yield of 'Florianer Rosmarin', 'Himbeerapfel' and 'Lavanttaler Bananenapfel' remained below average. With respect to external fruit quality and storability 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Steirischer Maschanzker', 'Roter Boskoop', 'Kronprinz Rudolf' and 'Ilzer Rosenapfel' showed comparatively good results. With 'Ananas Reinette' the significantly lowest total phenolics contents were determined. 'Kanada Reinette', 'Roter Boskoop' and 'Ananas Reinette' showed a high acidity. High contents of soluble solids were found with 'Goldparmäne', 'Roter

  10. Ginkgo fruit extract as an additive to modify rumen microbiota and fermentation and to mitigate methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S; Shintani, R; Koike, S; Kobayashi, Y

    2017-03-01

    Ginkgo fruit, an unused byproduct of the ginkgo nut industry, contains antimicrobial compounds known as anacardic acids. Two major cultivars of ginkgo, Kyuju (K) and Tokuro (T), were evaluated for their potential as a feed additive for ruminants. In batch culture, we incubated a mixture of hay and concentrate in diluted rumen fluid with or without 1.6% (fruit equivalent) ginkgo fruit extract. We conducted another series of batch culture studies to determine the dose response of fermentation. We also conducted continuous culture using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) with cultivar K and carried out a pure culture study to monitor the sensitivity of 17 representative rumen bacterial species to ginkgo extract and component phenolics. Although both K and T extracts led to decreased methane and increased propionate production, changes were more apparent with K extract, and were dose-dependent. Total gas production was depressed at doses ≥3.2%, suggesting that 1.6% was the optimal supplementation level. In RUSITEC fermentation supplemented with 1.6% ginkgo K, methane decreased by 53% without affecting total gas or total VFA production, but with decreased acetate and increased propionate. Disappearance of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were not affected by ginkgo, but ammonia levels were decreased. Quantitative PCR indicated that the abundance of protozoa, fungi, methanogens, and bacteria related to hydrogen and formate production decreased, but the abundance of bacteria related to propionate production increased. MiSeq analysis (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) confirmed these bacterial changes and identified archaeal community changes, including a decrease in Methanobrevibacter and Methanomassiliicoccaceae and an increase in Methanoplanus. Pure culture study results supported the findings for the above bacterial community changes. These results demonstrate that ginkgo fruit can modulate rumen fermentation toward methane mitigation

  11. Harnessing Product Complexity: An Integrative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Orfi, Nihal Mohamed Sherif

    2011-01-01

    In today's market, companies are faced with pressure to increase variety in product offerings. While increasing variety can help increase market share and sales growth, the costs of doing so can be significant. Ultimately, variety causes complexity in products and processes to soar, which negatively impacts product development, quality, production scheduling, efficiency and more. Product variety is just one common cause of product complexity, a topic that several researchers have tackled with...

  12. Evaluation gives productivity and quality gives fruit in Aguacate subjected has to gamma radiation; Evaluacion de productividad y calidad de fruta en aguacate hass sometido a radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De La Cruz Torres, Eulogio; Garcia Andrade, Juan M [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares. Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ibannez Palacios, Jorge [Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas. U.A.E., Toluca (Mexico); Mijares Oviedo, Pedro [Fundacion Salvador Sanchez Col CICTAMEX, Coatepec Harina (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Evaluation of productivity, post harvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Has avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the La Labor Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300%. In regard to post harvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This means that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and post harvest behavior of fruits.

  13. AM fungi and PGP pseudomonads increase flowering, fruit production, and vitamin content in strawberry grown at low nitrogen and phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Elisa; Lingua, Guido; Manassero, Paola; Cantamessa, Simone; Marsano, Francesco; Todeschini, Valeria; Copetta, Andrea; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Massa, Nadia; Avidano, Lorena; Gamalero, Elisa; Berta, Graziella

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing interest in the quality of crops because of the implications concerning health, economic revenue, and food quality. Here we tested if inoculation with a mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and/or two strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), in conditions of reduced chemical inputs, affects the quality and yield of strawberry fruits. Fruit quality was measured by concentrations of soluble sugars, various organic acids, and two vitamins (ascorbic and folic acid). Co-inoculation with the AMF and each of the two PGPB resulted in increased flower and fruit production, larger fruit size, and higher concentrations of sugars and ascorbic and folic acid in comparison with fruits of uninoculated plants. These results provide further evidence that rhizospheric microorganisms affect fruit crop quality and show that they do so even under conditions of reduced chemical fertilization and can thus be exploited for sustainable agriculture.

  14. EVALUATION OF ANNATTO (Bixa orellana L GENOTYPES THROUGH THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRUITS, SEEDS PRODUCTIVITY AND BIXIN CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Mantovani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989281Bixa orellana L. (annatto is considered an important source of natural colorants for food, pharmaceutical and textile industries and Brazil is one of the largest producers and exporters of this natural dye extracted from this plant. The morphological characterization of fruits, evaluation of  seed productivity and the content of carotenoid bixin present in freshly harvested and stored seeds for periods of 30, 60, 90 and 120 days, were performed on 10 genotypes of annatto to provide subsidies for the selection of superior genotypes for these characteristics. There were variations in all evaluated characteristics between the 10 genotypes. The fruit of all genotypes are covered with bristles or hairs, have reddish, green, yellow or red color, and two basic forms, oval or lanceolate. The fruits had average lengths ranging from 3.1 to 4.8 cm, and widths between 2.4 to 3.1 cm. The average number of seeds per fruit ranged from 41.5 to 50.6. The mass of 100 seeds varied from 1.1 to 2.24 g. There was significant difference in the concentration of bixin among genotypes, being possible to identify genotypes with high levels of bixin carotenoid (5.05%, superior to those already reported by other studies. The content of bixin decreased with the increase in the period of storage of seeds.

  15. Occurrence, distribution and contamination levels of heat-resistant moulds throughout the processing of pasteurized high-acid fruit products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana Lane Paixão Dos; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Biyikli, Ayse; Van Impe, Jan; Akkermans, Simen; Höfte, Monica; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Devlieghere, Frank

    2018-05-19

    Heat-resistant moulds (HRMs) are well known for their ability to survive pasteurization and spoil high-acid food products, which is of great concern for processors of fruit-based products worldwide. Whilst the majority of the studies on HRMs over the last decades have addressed their inactivation, few data are currently available regarding their contamination levels in fruit and fruit-based products. Thus, this study aimed to quantify and identify heat-resistant fungal ascospores from samples collected throughout the processing of pasteurized high-acid fruit products. In addition, an assessment on the effect of processing on the contamination levels of HRMs in these products was carried out. A total of 332 samples from 111 batches were analyzed from three processing plants (=three processing lines): strawberry puree (n = 88, Belgium), concentrated orange juice (n = 90, Brazil) and apple puree (n = 154, the Netherlands). HRMs were detected in 96.4% (107/111) of the batches and 59.3% (197/332) of the analyzed samples. HRMs were present in 90.9% of the samples from the strawberry puree processing line (1-215 ascospores/100 g), 46.7% of the samples from the orange juice processing line (1-200 ascospores/100 g) and 48.7% of samples from the apple puree processing line (1-84 ascospores/100 g). Despite the high occurrence, the majority (76.8%, 255/332) of the samples were either not contaminated or presented low levels of HRMs (processing had no statistically significant effect on the levels of HRMs (p > 0.05). On the contrary, a significant reduction (p levels was observed during the processing of apple puree. Twelve species were identified belonging to four genera - Byssochlamys, Aspergillus with Neosartorya-type ascospores, Talaromyces and Rasamsonia. N. fumigata (23.6%), N. fischeri (19.1%) and B. nivea (5.5%) were the predominant species in pasteurized products. The quantitative data (contamination levels of HRMs) were fitted to exponential

  16. FAMILY AGRICULTURE AND AGRO-INDUSTRIES: PRODUCTIVE SUBORDINATION. CASES OF CITRUS AND FRUIT GROWING IN ARGENTINA (2003-2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Ariel Oscar Garcia

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes to investigate the link between family farming (AF) and agro-industries. The research is based on a qualitative methodology and uses quantitative information. In particular, two cases (citric belt of Middle Uruguay River and fruit growing of Patagonic Valleys) based on: i) the characteristics, evolution and transformation of the actors and agents in the primary phase and marketing; ii) the configuration of the world market and its relations with the identified production...

  17. Passion fruit by-product and fructooligosaccharides stimulate the growth and folate production by starter and probiotic cultures in fermented soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Marcela Albuquerque Cavalcanti; Bedani, Raquel; LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2017-11-16

    Two starter cultures (Streptococcus (St.) thermophilus ST-M6 and TA-40) and five probiotic strains (St. thermophilus TH-4, Lactobacillus (Lb.) acidophilus LA-5, Lb. rhamnosus LGG, Lb. fermentum PCC, and Lb. reuteri RC-14) were used to ferment different soymilk formulations supplemented with passion fruit by-product and/or fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) with the aim of increasing folate concentrations. Growth and folate production of individual strains were evaluated and the results used to select co-cultures. Both St. thermophilus ST-M6 and TH-4 were the best folate producers and were able to increase the folate content of all soymilk formulations when used alone or in co-culture with lactobacilli strains, especially in the presence of both passion fruit by-product and FOS. Thus, passion fruit by-product and FOS could be used as dietary ingredients to stimulate the folate production by selected bacterial strains during the fermentation of soymilk. It was also shown that vitamin production by microorganisms is strain-dependent and may also be influenced by nutritional and environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing engineering processes through integrated modelling of product and process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Bjerrum; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at developing an operational tool for integrated modelling of product assortments and engineering processes in companies making customer specific products. Integrating a product model in the design of engineering processes will provide a deeper understanding of the engineering...... activities as well as insight into how product features affect the engineering processes. The article suggests possible ways of integrating models of products with models of engineering processes. The models have been tested and further developed in an action research study carried out in collaboration...... with a major international engineering company....

  19. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Meilyn González Cortés; Yenisleidy Martínez Martínez; Yailet Albernas Carvajal; Raúl A. Pérez Bermúdez

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from...

  20. Utilization of Jamun Fruit (Syzygium cumini for Production of Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikant S. Patil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jamun (Syzygium cumini fruit was utilized for the production of red wine which is offering lot of health benefits by acting as an effective medicine. The alcohol content of wine varied from 6.62 to 10.25 depending upon the variable concentration of total soluble sugars (7.88 to 10.53% and varying levels of yeast (5, 10, 15 and 20%. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in the process of fermentation. The wine that had 8.22% alcohol obtained by fermentation with 10% yeast level, 8.18% TSS (Treatment T2 was considered to be the best acceptable when compared with others (T1, T3 and T4 Treatments. This wine was found to be the best by the panel members with respect to colour, taste, astringency and flavour. The wine that had 6.62% alcohol obtained by fermentation with 5% yeast level, 7.88% TSS was considered to be the least preferred and less acceptable when compared with others. No significant changes were observed in colour and clarity of wine obtained with 5% addition of yeast. However, with 5% addition of yeast, the taste, flavor and astringency attributes of wine were the least preferred when compared with others. The highest test score for taste, flavour and astringency properties was obtained for Treatment (T2. The time required for fermentation was 7 days at 28 ± 20C. The wine obtained with 15% (9.16% alcohol content and 20% (10.25% alcohol content yeast levels were found to have moderately acceptable scores.

  1. Evolution and integration of innate immune systems from fruit flies to man: lessons and questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Cosimo; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    Despite broad differences in morphology, ecology and behavior, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and humans show a remarkably high degree of conservation for many molecular, cellular, and developmental aspects of their biology. During the last decade, similarities have also been discovered in some of the mechanisms regulating their innate immune system. These parallels regard mainly the Toll-like receptor family and the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the control of the immune response. However, if the overall similarities are important, the detailed pathogen recognition mechanisms differ significantly between fly and humans, highlighting a complicated evolutionary history of the metazoan innate defenses. In this review, we will discuss the main similarities and differences between the two types of organisms. We hope that this current knowledge will be used as a starting point for a more comprehensive view of innate immunity within the broad variety of metazoan phyla.

  2. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  3. Achieving Customer Satisfaction through Integrated Products and Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad; Bourne, Dorota; Goffin, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Complex products such as manufacturing equipment have always needed maintenance and repair services. Increasingly, leading manufacturers are integrating products and services to generate increased revenues and achieve customer satisfaction. Designing integrated products and services requires...... a different approach to new product development and a clear understanding of how customers perceive the value they obtain from actual usage of products and services—so-called value-in-use. However, there is a lack of research on integrated products and services and how they impact customer satisfaction....... An exploratory study was undertaken to understand customers' views on integrated products and services and the value-in-use derived from such offerings. As value-in-use and its impacts are complicated concepts, a technique from psychology—Repertory Grid Technique—was used to gather data in 33 interviews...

  4. An immunomagnetic separation-real-time PCR system for the detection of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in fruit products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouli; Cai, Rui; Yuan, Yahong; Niu, Chen; Hu, Zhongqiu; Yue, Tianli

    2014-04-03

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is the most important spoilage species within the Alicyclobacillus genus and has become a major issue in the pasteurized fruit juice industry. The aim of this study was to develop a method combining immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with real-time PCR system (IMS-PCR) for rapid and specific detection of A. acidoterrestris in fruit products. A real-time PCR with the TaqMan system was designed to target the 16S rDNA genes with specific primer and probe set. The specificity of the assay was confirmed using 9 A. acidoterrestris strains and 21 non-A. acidoterrestris strains. The results indicated that no combination of the designed primers and probe was found in any Alicyclobacillus genus except A. acidoterrestris. The detection limit of the established IMS-PCR was less than 10CFU/mL and the testing process was accomplished in 2-3h. For the three types of samples (sterile water, apple juice and kiwi juice), the correlation coefficient of standard curves was greater than 0.991, and the calculated PCR efficiencies were from 108% to 109%. As compared with the standard culture method performed concurrently on the same set of samples, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of IMS-PCR for 196 naturally contaminated fruit products were 90.0%, 98.3% and 97.5%, respectively. The results exhibited that the proposed IMS-PCR method was effective for the rapid detection of A. acidoterrestris in fruit products. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Food product design. An integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This book explains how to apply barrier technology in food production to improve product stability and the possibilities of modelling and statistics in food product design are elaborated. Attention is given to Life Cycle Assessment as a method to determine the environmental impact of a food from

  6. Designing Integrated Product- Service System Solutions in Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly evolving towards the design of integrated product-service solutions but servitization literature does not provide specific guidance on how to design these integrated solutions. Building upon ProductService System (PSS) and Service Design (SD) approaches...... how it brings new insights to manufacturing companies moving to a service, value cocreation perspective....

  7. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model for a multi-product production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Wenbin; Peng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a production system that can produce multiple products alternately. Products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model is constructed, which is characterized by the delay-time concept. Two different situations are studied based on whether the unqualified products and downtime caused by the failures of the system, set-up and preventive maintenance can be ignored or not. Three cases are considered for each situation, depending on the position of the preventive maintenance epochs: the first case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at the end of each production cycle; the second case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at each set-up time of the products; and the third case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at some set-up times only, since it may not always be optimal to carry out preventive maintenance at the end of the production cycle or at each set-up time. The modeling objectives are to find the optimal number of production cycles per year and the optimal position of preventive maintenance that will maximize the expected profit per unit time. Numerical examples, using real data, are presented to illustrate the model. - Highlights: • We propose an integrated economic production quantity and preventive maintenance model. • The situation that multiple products are produced on the same system alternately is studied. • Two situations are studied based on whether the downtime and the product quality can be ignored or not. • We use enumeration method and analytical method to select the optimal preventive maintenance policy, respectively. • We use the delay-time concept to model the preventive maintenance policy

  8. Sanity of bell pepper fruit fertigated with wastewater from hog production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rodrigues de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the microbiological quality of bell pepper fruits produced with swine wastewater (SW, after preliminary treatment, pepper seedlings of variety Casca Dura Elquida were grown and fertigated with different levels of this wastewater providing 100 and 200% of the amount of the nitrogen needed for cultivation, with and without supplementation of fertilization. The fruits were analyzed for the presence of thermo-tolerant and total coliforms, and of Salmonella sp. The results showed that fertigation with SW, by trickle irrigation system, resulted in bell pepper fruits uncontaminated by fecal coliform and Salmonella spp., in accordance with the microbiological standards required by RDC n°12 02/01/2001.

  9. Evidence of Some Natural Products with Antigenotoxic Effects. Part 1: Fruits and Polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Vega, Jeannett Alejandra; Morales-González, José Antonio; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel; Sosa-Delgado, Sara M.; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Morales-González, Ángel; Paniagua-Pérez, Rogelio; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. The agents capable of causing damage to genetic material are known as genotoxins and, according to their mode of action, are classified into mutagens, carcinogens or teratogens. Genotoxins are involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic degenerative diseases including hepatic, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, chronic inflammation and ageing. In recent decades, researchers have found novel bioactive phytocompounds able to counteract the effects of physical and chemical mutagens. Several studies have shown potential antigenotoxicity in a variety of fruits. In this review (Part 1), we present an overview of research conducted on some fruits (grapefruit, cranberries, pomegranate, guava, pineapple, and mango) which are frequently consumed by humans, as well as the analysis of some phytochemicals extracted from fruits and yeasts which have demonstrated antigenotoxic capacity in various tests, including the Ames assay, sister chromatid exchange, chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus and comet assay. PMID:28157162

  10. Fruit production in three masting tree species does not rely on stored carbon reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Günter; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Keel, Sonja G; Körner, Christian; Han, Qingmin

    2013-03-01

    Fruiting is typically considered to massively burden the seasonal carbon budget of trees. The cost of reproduction has therefore been suggested as a proximate factor explaining observed mast-fruiting patterns. Here, we used a large-scale, continuous (13)C labeling of mature, deciduous trees in a temperate Swiss forest to investigate to what extent fruit formation in three species with masting reproduction behavior (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea) relies on the import of stored carbon reserves. Using a free-air CO2 enrichment system, we exposed trees to (13)C-depleted CO2 during 8 consecutive years. By the end of this experiment, carbon reserve pools had significantly lower δ(13)C values compared to control trees. δ(13)C analysis of new biomass during the first season after termination of the CO2 enrichment allowed us to distinguish the sources of built-in carbon (old carbon reserves vs. current assimilates). Flowers and expanding leaves carried a significant (13)C label from old carbon stores. In contrast, fruits and vegetative infructescence tissues were exclusively produced from current, unlabeled photoassimilates in all three species, including F. sylvatica, which had a strong masting season. Analyses of δ(13)C in purified starch from xylem of fruit-bearing shoots revealed a complete turn-over of starch during the season, likely due to its usage for bud break. This study is the first to directly demonstrate that fruiting is independent from old carbon reserves in masting trees, with significant implications for mechanistic models that explain mast seeding.

  11. Murcott seedless: influence of gamma irradiation on citrus production and fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo, A.; Pardo, J.; Cano, A.

    2012-11-01

    A Seedlessness is an important economic trait relating to fruit quality, and gamma irradiation is a common technique used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Herein, we report a study of new seedless Murcott mandarin clones obtained by bud irradiation from the self-compatible not parthenocarpic Murcott mandarin. All irradiated clones examined presented lower seed numbers (from 0.23 to 2.47 seeds per fruit) and reduced pollen germination (from 1.40% to 8.55%) whereas the wild-type Murcott showed an average number of 9.03 seeds per fruit and a pollen germination value of 47.15%. Fruit quality and nutritional bio-components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control Murcott mandarin, while other clones showed significant differences. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds, using photodiode array, mass and refractive index detectors. Our results indicated high contents in natural antioxidants as vitamin C (from 20.13 to 25.73 mg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds, as flavonoids, in these citrus varieties cultived under the Mediterranean climate. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration. In conclusion, budwood irradiation is a suitable technique to improve cultivars, produce seedless cultivars, adjust ripening time or raise the content of health-promoting compounds. Also this study investigates the influence of temperature during flowering on the number of seeds formed. Findings indicate that low temperatures during flower formation decreased pollen germination and seed number. (Author) 35 refs.

  12. Effect of the rearing tank residue of fish farms on the production of passion fruit tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. R. Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of seedlings and biomass production of blue and yellow passion fruit trees (round cultivar produced from residue of the rearing tanks of fish farms. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using residue obtained from fish farming tanks. Ravine soil (RS, fish tank residue (FR and Tropstrato (TR were used as substrate. The treatments were: T1 = control consisting of Tropstrato substrate; T2 = 25% FR + 75% RS; T3 = 50% FR + 50% RS; T4 = 25% RS + 75% FR; T5 = 100% FR. A completely randomized block design consisting of 5 treatments, 4 replicates and 11 plants per plot was used. Treatment T5 (100% fish farming residue resulted in the largest average number of leaves, highest dry matter production of the aerial part, and highest dry matter accumulation in the root (P<0.05. The worst results were obtained for the treatment using 25% FR (T2, which resulted in less uniformity of the variables studied. Stem height of the passion fruit tree was greater for the treatments that included FR, with the greatest mean height being observed for T5. In conclusion, the treatment using the residue of fish farming tanks was found to be beneficial to produce yellow passion fruit seedlings (round cultivar, representing a good alternative for the reutilization of this residue.

  13. An evaluation system for characterization of polysaccharides from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus and identification of its commercial product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Li, Wen-Zhi; Chen, Jun; Zhong, Qian-Xia; Ju, Yao-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Bzhelyansky, Anton; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-06-25

    An evaluation system including colorimetric assay with iodine and potassium iodide, HPSEC-MALLS-RID analysis, GC-MS analysis, and saccharide mapping based on PACE analysis was proposed for the identification and discrimination of commercial product of Hericium erinaceus based on the chemical characters of polysaccharides in H. erinaceus fruiting body collected from different regions of China. The results showed that the molecular weights, the compositional monosaccharides and the glycosidic linkages of polysaccharides in H. erinaceus collected from different regions of China were similar, respectively. However, polysaccharides in the widely consumed product of H. erinaceus in China were significantly different from those of H. erinaceus fruiting body. The implications from these results were found to be beneficial to improve the quality control of polysaccharides from the H. erinaceus fruiting body, and suggest that the proposed evaluation system could be used as a routine approach for the quality control of polysaccharides in other edible and medicinal mushrooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Implications of inflorescence clustering for the visitation rate by hummingbirds and fruit production by Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Corrêa Missagia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant spatial distribution can influence the activity of floral visitors. Flower clustering in patches may be more attractive to visitors and it supposedly influences the fruit production. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that in Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae the inflorescence clustering size positively influences the visitation rate and fruit production by the species. The study was conducted at a stretch of Atlantic Forest, in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Five hummingbird species were registered as floral visitors. The average visitation rate (± standard deviation of hummingbirds was 2 (± 0.56 visits per hour per clustering. The amount of inflorescences per clustering positively influenced the visitation rate of hummingbirds, but it negatively influenced the amount of fruits produced per inflorescence. According to the results obtained, we suggest that the density of inflorescences in a clustering may negatively influence the number of flowers visited per inflorescence, due to an increased amount of inflorescences included in the foraging routes.

  15. Investigation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Yan, Jinying; Li, Hailong; Chekani, Shabnam; Liu, Loncheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Identify thermal characteristics of amine-based biogas upgrading for waste heat recovery. • Identify thermal characteristics of AD biogas production as sink for heat recovery. • Evaluation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading to improve overall energy efficiency. • Cost analysis applied for the economic feasibility of the thermal integration. • Using the principles of target design and system integration for connected thermal processes. - Abstract: Thermal integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) biogas production with amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading has been studied to improve the overall efficiency of the intergraded system. The thermal characteristics have been investigated for industrial AD raw biogas production and amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading. The investigation provides a basic understanding for the possibilities of energy saving through thermal integration. The thermal integration is carried out through well-defined cases based on the thermal characteristics of the biogas production and the biogas upgrading. The following factors are taken into account in the case study: thermal conditions of sub-systems, material and energy balances, cost issues and main benefits. The potential of heat recovery has been evaluated to utilise the waste heat from amine-based upgrading process for the use in the AD biogas production. The results show that the thermal integration has positive effects on improving the overall energy efficiency of the integrated biogas plant. Cost analysis shows that the thermal integration is economically feasible

  16. Heat and light stresses affect metabolite production in the fruit body of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaojiao, Zhang; Fen, Wang; Kuanbo, Liu; Qing, Liu; Ying, Yang; Caihong, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a highly valued edible and medicinal fungus due to its production of various metabolites, including adenosine, cordycepin, N 6 -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine, and carotenoids. The contents of these metabolites are indicative of the quality of commercially available fruit body of this fungus. In this work, the effects of environmental abiotic factors, including heat and light stresses, on the fruit body growth and metabolite production in C. militaris were evaluated during the late growth stage. The optimal growth temperature of C. militaris was 20 °C. It was found that a heat stress of 25 °C for 5-20 days during the late growth stage significantly promoted cordycepin and carotenoid production without affecting the biological efficiency. Light stress at 6000 lx for 5-20 days during the late growth stage significantly promoted cordycepin production but decreased the carotenoid content. Both heat and light stresses promoted N 6 -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine production. In addition, gene expression analysis showed that there were simultaneous increases in the expression of genes encoding a metal-dependent phosphohydrolase (CCM_04437) and ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (CCM_04438) that are involved in the cordycepin biosynthesis pathway, which was consistent with the accumulation of cordycepin during heat stress for 5-20 days. A positive weak correlation between the cordycepin and adenosine contents was observed with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.338 (P fruit body of C. militaris and contribute to further elucidation of the effects of abiotic stress on metabolite accumulation in fungi.

  17. Table of integrals, series, and products

    CERN Document Server

    Gradshteyn, I S; Zwillinger, Daniel; Moll, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The eighth edition of the classic Gradshteyn and Ryzhik is an updated completely revised edition of what is acknowledged universally by mathematical and applied science users as the key reference work concerning the integrals and special functions. The book is valued by users of previous editions of the work both for its comprehensive coverage of integrals and special functions, and also for its accuracy and valuable updates. Since the first edition, published in 1965, the mathematical content of this book has significantly increased due to the addition of new material, though the size of the book has remained almost unchanged. The new 8th edition contains entirely new results and amendments to the auxiliary conditions that accompany integrals and wherever possible most entries contain valuable references to their source.

  18. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  19. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....

  20. Fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  1. Effects of nitrogen rate and application method on early production and fruit quality in highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted to examine the effects of nitrogen (N) rate and method of N fertilizer application on growth, yield, and fruit quality in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) during the first 4 years after planting in south-coastal BC. Nitrogen was applied at 0-150% of current pr...

  2. Implications of intelligent, integrated microsystems for product design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MYERS, DAVID R.; MCWHORTER, PAUL J.

    2000-01-01

    Intelligent, integrated microsystems combine some or all of the functions of sensing, processing information, actuation, and communication within a single integrated package, and preferably upon a single silicon chip. As the elements of these highly integrated solutions interact strongly with each other, the microsystem can be neither designed nor fabricated piecemeal, in contrast to the more familiar assembled products. Driven by technological imperatives, microsystems will best be developed by multi-disciplinary teams, most likely within the flatter, less hierarchical organizations. Standardization of design and process tools around a single, dominant technology will expedite economically viable operation under a common production infrastructure. The production base for intelligent, integrated microsystems has elements in common with the mathematical theory of chaos. Similar to chaos theory, the development of microsystems technology will be strongly dependent on, and optimized to, the initial product requirements that will drive standardization--thereby further rewarding early entrants to integrated microsystem technology

  3. Energy, fruits and fertilizer integrated system by using ecological engineering; Sistema integrado de energia, fruta e adubo usando engenharia ecologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannir, Selvam P.V.; Fernandes, M R.P.; Costa Neto, M B; Lopes, C E.B.; Bayer, M; Queiroz, W F [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In the present work the study of reutilization of the vegetal organic residue of fruits for improvement in agricultural communities search, in special in agrobusiness micron-plant applying the concept of cleaner production and searching technological innovation and of low cost. One develops in this work study and optimization of bioprocessors for seasoning production and energy using itself synthesis and analysis of projects. Where the vegetable residue is passed by a process of biological daily pay-treatment for acceleration of the degradation of the biomass for then being led to the biodigestor, where he will be proportionate the biological seasoning and biogas. This proper biogas will go to benefit the micron-plant since the same it will be used for the drying of fruits. The project was initiated with a bibliographical research for verification, study and involved election of existing technologies already on the processes of recycling of the residues, generation of biogas, biodegradation and equipment. Initiate a a simulation of bioprocessors through the Super Software Pro Design 4,9 for term the the confirmation of the the study make through bibliographical revision, but still in phase of study. Simulations in Software had been made Budget 2004 developed by our base of research with validation of the economic viability for the drying of the banana. Where four scenes had been created, relating diverse types of energy in the processing of a agroindustry of fruits for drying of the same ones. And getting a bigger viability for the drying of the banana using biogas, providing a bigger annual profit in the return tax. Considering the viability of this process it is intended to apply this technology in agricultural communities as Bebida Velha, Parazinho, Serra do Mel and Pureza, cities of the RN, providing them an energy source of ample utility, as also the use of the deriving seasoning of the biodigestor, bringing innumerable benefits to the population as to make

  4. Technical Integration of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Young; Chang, J. H.; Park, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production system, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production economy. To estimate the attainments of the key technologies in progress with the performance goals of GIF, itemized are the attainment indices based on SRP published in VHTR R and D steering committee of Gen-IV. For assessing the degree of attainments in comparison with the final goals of VHTR technologies in progress of researches, subdivided are the prerequisite items conformed to the NHDD concepts established in a preconceptual design in 2005. The codes for analyzing the hydrogen production economy are developed for calculating the unit production cost of nuclear hydrogen. We developed basic R and D quality management methodology to meet design technology of VHTR's needs. By putting it in practice, we derived some problems and solutions. We distributed R and D QAP and Q and D QAM to each teams and these are in operation. Computer simulations are performed for estimating the thermal efficiency for the electrodialysis component likely to adapting as one of the hydrogen production system in Korea and EED-SI process known as the key components of the hydrogen production systems. Using the commercial codes, the process diagrams and the spread-sheets were produced for the Bunsen reaction process, Sulphuric Acid dissolution process and HI dissolution process, respectively, which are the key components composing of the SI process

  5. A Visual Interface Diagram For Mapping Functions In Integrated Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Mattias; Oliver Jespersen, Mikkel; Göhler, Simon Moritz

    2015-01-01

    In product development there is a recognized tendency towards increased functionality for each new product generation. This leads to more integrated and complex products, with the risk of development delays and quality issues as a consequence of lacking overview and transparency. The work described...... of visualizing relations between parts and functions in highly integrated mechanical products. The result is an interface diagram that supports design teams in communication, decision making and design management. The diagram gives the designer an overview of the couplings and dependencies within a product...... in this article has been conducted in collaboration with Novo Nordisk on the insulin injection device FlexTouch® as case product. The FlexTouch® reflects the characteristics of an integrated product with several functions shared between a relatively low number of parts. In this article we present a novel way...

  6. Extending product modeling methods for integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hauksdóttir, Dagný

    2013-01-01

    Despite great efforts within the modeling domain, the majority of methods often address the uncommon design situation of an original product development. However, studies illustrate that development tasks are predominantly related to redesigning, improving, and extending already existing products...... and PVM methods, in a presented Product Requirement Development model some of the individual drawbacks of each method could be overcome. Based on the UML standard, the model enables the representation of complex hierarchical relationships in a generic product model. At the same time it uses matrix....... Updated design requirements have then to be made explicit and mapped against the existing product architecture. In this paper, existing methods are adapted and extended through linking updated requirements to suitable product models. By combining several established modeling techniques, such as the DSM...

  7. Integrating Field Spectra and Worldview-2 Data for Grapevine Productivity in Different Irrigation Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaitiyiming, M.; Bozzolo, A.; Wulamu, A.; Wilkins, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Precision farming requires high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data to detect plant physiological changes. The higher spatial resolution is particularly as important as the spectral resolution for crop monitoring. It is important to develop data integration techniques between field or airborne hyperspectral data with spaceborne broad band multispectral images for plant productivity monitoring. To investigate varying rootstock and irrigation interactions, different irrigation treatments are implemented in a vineyard experimental site either i) unirrigated ii) full replacement of evapotranspiration (ET) iii) irrigated at 50 % of the potential ET. In summer 2014, we collected leaf and canopy spectra of the vineyard using field spectroscopy along with other plant physiological and nutritional variables. In this contribution, we integrate the field spectra and the spectral wavelengths of WorldView-2 to develop a predictive model for plant productivity,i.e., fruit quality and yield. First, we upscale field and canopy spectra to WorldView-2 spectral bands using radiative transfer simulations (e.g., MODTRAN). Then we develop remote sensing techniques to quantify plant productivity in different scenarios water stress by identifying the most effective and sensitive wavelengths, and indices that are capable of early detection of plant health and estimation of crop nutrient status. Finally we present predictive models developed from partial least square regression (PLSR) for plant productivity using spectral wavelengths and indices derived from integrated field and satellite remote sensing data.

  8. New Approaches to Aluminum Integral Foam Production with Casting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Güner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integral foam has been used in the production of polymer materials for a long time. Metal integral foam casting systems are obtained by transferring and adapting polymer injection technology. Metal integral foam produced by casting has a solid skin at the surface and a foam core. Producing near-net shape reduces production expenses. Insurance companies nowadays want the automotive industry to use metallic foam parts because of their higher impact energy absorption properties. In this paper, manufacturing processes of aluminum integral foam with casting methods will be discussed.

  9. Overview of design issues in product-integrated Photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design features and characteristics of photovoltaic (PV)-powered products based on a literature study on product-integrated PV and an analysis of 90 PV-powered products executed during 2011–2013. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the current

  10. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    The food systems slated for future NASA missions must meet crew nutritional needs, be acceptable for consumption, and use resources efficiently. Although the current food system of prepackaged, moderately stabilized food items works well for International Space Station (ISS) missions, many of the current space menu items do not maintain acceptability and/or nutritive value beyond 2 years. Longer space missions require that the food system can sustain the crew for 3 to 5 years without replenishment. The task "Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization" has the objective of optimizing food-product shelf life for the space-food system through product recipe adjustments, new packaging and processing technologies, and modified storage conditions. Two emergent food processing technologies were examined to identify a pathway to stable, wet-pack foods without the detrimental color and texture effects. Both microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pressure-assisted thermal stabilization (PATS) were evaluated against traditional retort processing to determine if lower heat inputs during processing would produce a product with higher micronutrient quality and longer shelf life. While MATS products did have brighter color and better texture initially, the advantages were not sustained. The non-metallized packaging film used in the process likely provided inadequate oxygen barrier. No difference in vitamin stability was evident between MATS and retort processed foods. Similarly, fruit products produced using PATS showed improved color and texture through 3 years of storage compared to retort fruit, but the vitamin stability was not improved. The final processing study involved freeze drying. Five processing factors were tested in factorial design to assess potential impact of each to the quality of freeze-dried food, including the integrity of the microstructure. The initial freezing rate and primary freeze drying

  11. Integrated production planning and water management in the food industry: A cheese production case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo; Hottenrott, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Efficient water management is increasingly relevant in the food industry. Exploiting water reuse opportunities in planning production activities is a key part of this. We study integrated water management and production planning in cheese production. For this, we develop a water-integrated lot

  12. Current technologies and new insights for the recovery of high valuable compounds from fruits by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Asaduzzaman, Md; Scampicchio, Matteo Mario

    2018-02-11

    The recovery of high valuable compounds from food waste is becoming a tighten issue in food processing. The large amount of non-edible residues produced by food industries causes pollution, difficulties in the management, and economic loss. The waste produced during the transformation of fruits includes a huge amount of materials such as peels, seeds, and bagasse, whose disposal usually represents a problem. Research over the past 20 years revealed that many food wastes could serve as a source of potentially valuable bioactive compounds, such as antioxidants and vitamins with increasing scientific interest thanks to their beneficial effects on human health. The challenge for the recovery of these compounds is to find the most appropriate and environment friendly extraction technique able to achieve the maximum extraction yield without compromising the stability of the extracted products. Based on this scenario, the aim of the current review is twofold. The first is to give a brief overview of the most important bioactive compounds occurring in fruit wastes. The second is to describe the pro and cons of the most up-to-dated innovative and environment friendly extraction technologies that can be an alternative to the classical solvent extraction procedures for the recovery of valuable compounds from fruit processing. Furthermore, a final section will take into account published findings on the combination of some of these technologies to increase the extracts yields of bioactives.

  13. Computerized integrated data base production system (COMPINDAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, D; Buerk, K [Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe, Gesellschaft fuer Wissenschaftlich-Technische Information mbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    1990-05-01

    Based on many years of experience, and with the main objective in mind to guarantee long-term database quality and efficiency of input processes, Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe is developing an integrated interactive data management systems for bibliographic and factual databases. Its concept includes the following range of applications: Subject analysis with computer-assisted classification, indexing and translation; technical procedures with online acquisition and management of literature and factual data, recording by means of optical scanning, computer-assisted bibliographic description, control and update procedures; support of the whole process by continuous surveillance of document flow. All these procedures will be performed in an integrated manner. They system is to meet high standards for flexibility, data integrity and effectiveness of system functions. Independent of the type of data, the appropriate database or the subject field to be handled, all data will be stored in one large pool. One main goal is to avoid duplication of work and redundancy of data storage. The system will work online, interactive and conversational. COMPINDAS is being established on the basis of the ADABAS as database management system for storage and retrieval. The applications are being generated by means of aDis of ASTEC in Munich. aDis is used for the definition of the data structures, checking routines, coupling processes, and the design of dialogue and batch routines including masks. (author). 7 figs.

  14. Computerized integrated data base production system (COMPINDAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, D.; Buerk, K.

    1990-05-01

    Based on many years of experience, and with the main objective in mind to guarantee long-term database quality and efficiency of input processes, Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe is developing an integrated interactive data management systems for bibliographic and factual databases. Its concept includes the following range of applications: Subject analysis with computer-assisted classification, indexing and translation; technical procedures with online acquisition and management of literature and factual data, recording by means of optical scanning, computer-assisted bibliographic description, control and update procedures; support of the whole process by continuous surveillance of document flow. All these procedures will be performed in an integrated manner. They system is to meet high standards for flexibility, data integrity and effectiveness of system functions. Independent of the type of data, the appropriate database or the subject field to be handled, all data will be stored in one large pool. One main goal is to avoid duplication of work and redundancy of data storage. The system will work online, interactive and conversational. COMPINDAS is being established on the basis of the ADABAS as database management system for storage and retrieval. The applications are being generated by means of aDis of ASTEC in Munich. aDis is used for the definition of the data structures, checking routines, coupling processes, and the design of dialogue and batch routines including masks. (author). 7 figs

  15. User Involvement as a Configurable Integrated Product Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    as a configurable integrated product delivery then the architect can – using slightly provocatively a term from the production industry – be seen a configuration manager of processes shaping our physical surroundings. Products focusing on standardisation and mass customisation of the building process rather than......Integrated product deliveries as known from the product industry are beginning to emerge in construction. These are normally considered as physical systems that can be configured and customised for a specific delivery to form part of a unique construction project and help to reduce the complexity...... relevant field for development of customisable integrated product deliveries in construction. This development and its causes challenge the traditional role of the architect as the centre point in the creation of physical wholes or entireties. If user involvement, as argued, can be considered...

  16. Rules for integrals over products of distributions from coordinate independence of path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, H.; Chervyakov, A.

    2001-01-01

    In perturbative calculations of quantum-mechanical path integrals in curvilinear coordinates, one encounters Feynman diagrams involving multiple temporal integrals over products of distributions which are mathematically undefined. In addition, there are terms proportional to powers of Dirac δ-functions at the origin coming from the measure of path integration. We derive simple rules for dealing with such singular terms from the natural requirement of coordinate independence of the path integrals. (orig.)

  17. Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation

  18. Metric integration architecture for product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, David B.

    1997-06-01

    Present-day product development endeavors utilize the concurrent engineering philosophy as a logical means for incorporating a variety of viewpoints into the design of products. Since this approach provides no explicit procedural provisions, it is necessary to establish at least a mental coupling with a known design process model. The central feature of all such models is the management and transformation of information. While these models assist in structuring the design process, characterizing the basic flow of operations that are involved, they provide no guidance facilities. The significance of this feature, and the role it plays in the time required to develop products, is increasing in importance due to the inherent process dynamics, system/component complexities, and competitive forces. The methodology presented in this paper involves the use of a hierarchical system structure, discrete event system specification (DEVS), and multidimensional state variable based metrics. This approach is unique in its capability to quantify designer's actions throughout product development, provide recommendations about subsequent activity selection, and coordinate distributed activities of designers and/or design teams across all design stages. Conceptual design tool implementation results are used to demonstrate the utility of this technique in improving the incremental decision making process.

  19. Electronic tagging and integrated product intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Martin; Weeks, Brian

    1996-03-01

    The advent of 'intelligent,' electronic data bearing tags is set to revolutionize the way industrial and retail products are identified and tracked throughout their life cycles. The dominant system for unique identification today is the bar code, which is based on printed symbology and regulated by the International Article Numbering Association. Bar codes provide users with significant operational advantages and generate considerable added value to packaging companies, product manufacturers, distributors and retailers, across supply chains in many different sectors, from retailing, to baggage handling and industrial components, e.g., for vehicles or aircraft. Electronic tags offer the potential to: (1) record and store more complex data about the product or any modifications which occur during its life cycle; (2) access (and up-date) stored data in real time in a way which does not involve contact with the product or article; (3) overcome the limitations imposed by systems which rely on line-of-sight access to stored data. Companies are now beginning to consider how electronic data tags can be used, not only to improve the efficiency of their supply chain processes, but also to revolutionize the way they do business. This paper reviews the applications and business opportunities for electronic tags and outlines CEST's strategy for achieving an 'open' standard which will ensure that tags from different vendors can co-exist on an international basis.

  20. On the logistics effects of integrated product and package design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramklev, Caroline; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2007-01-01

    obtaining error-free deliveries, saving costs and avoiding quality problems. Thus, the authors of this paper see a challenge in developing the theory and methodology for Integrated Product and Package Design. In this paper we take a first step in this direction. Firstly, we have carried out a broad review...... of literature, which shows that there is a need for research into Integrated Product and Package Design. Secondly, we have analysed three cases from industrial practice, which show that a conscious and integrated design of product and package has positive logistics effects, whereas neglecting this issue might...... result in higher costs and quality problems. On the basis of these cases we have made an initial cross-case analysis, which indicates that it is possible to develop the terminology and methodology for Integrated Product and Package Design....

  1. Integrated Product Team Effectiveness in the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monk, Gregg

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, then Secretary of Defense William Perry, directed a 'fundamental change' in the way DoD did business when he endorsed and required the use of the Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD...

  2. IOCM Aerial Photography: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product (IOCM). The images were acquired from a nominal altitude of 7,500 feet above ground level (AGL), using an Applanix...

  3. Fruit and vegetable by-products as novel ingredients to improve the nutritional quality of baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Manuel; Martinez, Mario M

    2017-03-31

    The industrial manufacturing of fruits and vegetables generates approximately 50% by-product waste, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses. Nevertheless, fruit and vegetable by-products (FVB) are rich nutrients and extranutritional compounds that contribute to bowel health, weight management, lower blood cholesterol levels and improved control of glycemic and insulin responses. Due to the positive influence of FVB fibers and bioactive compounds during the digestion of glycemic carbohydrates, such as starch, baked goods are ideal food systems to accommodate FVB, since most of them have a high glycemic index. Therefore, this is an area of recent interest with critical environmental, economic and health implications worldwide. However, the utilization of FVB in baked goods leads to the loss of acceptability, in many cases caused by a lack of understanding of the physical structure and composition of FVB and their effects on food quality. The objective of this review is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the impact of the physical structure and composition of FVB on common baked goods and their influence on the nutritional and physical quality of the resulting product. This review will support the use of FVB as ideal ingredients while improving the added value of waste streams.

  4. To Study the Influence of Different Substrate on Shiitake Mushroom Fruiting (the First Production Report in IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Razeghi yadak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstarct Shiitake mushroom [Lentinula edodes(Berk Singer/Pegler] has the second production class among the most important edible mushrooms. For a long time this mushroom has draw attention due to its unique flavor and taste and also therapeutic properties. ِDue to the importance of this mushroom in the world and also the effect of substrate on the production of this medicinal mushroom, a research were conducted in randomized complete block design with 6 replications on 4 different substrate formulations including: 1 sawdust, wheat bran, millet; 2 sawdust, wheat bran, molasses, chalk, calcium super phosphate; 3sawdust, wheat bran, tea waste; 4sawdust, saccharose, citric acid, chalk and calcium carbonate on L.edodes production for determining the suitable substarte on early fruiting, yield, biological effeciency, average mushroom numbers and weights per block. Results showed that substrate formulation 1 caused earlier fruiting than others (58 days from incubation time, this formulation also had the highest yield (112/3 g/log and biological effeciency (35/09% between the others formula. mashroom number was the most in substrate formulation 1 (16/67 n/log and the highest mushroom wieght was obtained from formulation 4 (14/33 g/per mushroom. there wasn’t any significant differences at (p≤0.05 between substrate formulation 1 and 2. Keywords: Shiitake, Substrate formulation, Yield, Biological effeciency, Mushroom number and weight

  5. Irreducible integrable theories form tensor products of conformal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.D.; Warner, N.P.

    1991-01-01

    By using Toda field theories we show that there are perturbations of direct products of conformal theories that lead to irreducible integrable field theories. The same affine Toda theory can be truncated to different quantum integrable models for different choices of the charge at infinity and the coupling. The classification of integrable models that can be obtained in this fashion follows the classification of symmetric spaces of type G/H with rank H = rank G. (orig.)

  6. Ergonomics Integration Omproving Production Process Management in Enterprises of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Henrijs Kaļķis

    2013-01-01

    Dotoral thesis ERGONOMICS INTEGRATION IMPROVING PRODUCTION PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN ENTERPRISES OF LATVIA ANNOTATION Ergonomics integration in process management has great significance in organisations` growth of productivity. It is a new approach to entrepreneurship and business strategy, where ergonomic aspects and values are taken into account in ensuring the effective process management and profitability of enterprises. This study is aimed at solution of the problem of e...

  7. FAMILY AGRICULTURE AND AGRO-INDUSTRIES: PRODUCTIVE SUBORDINATION. CASES OF CITRUS AND FRUIT GROWING IN ARGENTINA (2003-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Oscar Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to investigate the link between family farming (AF and agro-industries. The research is based on a qualitative methodology and uses quantitative information. In particular, two cases (citric belt of Middle Uruguay River and fruit growing of Patagonic Valleys based on: i the characteristics, evolution and transformation of the actors and agents in the primary phase and marketing; ii the configuration of the world market and its relations with the identified production restructuring at local level. In both cases, the proliferation of various commitments and proactive strategies that align agribusiness agents linked to export under heterogeneously structured circuits is recorded. Family production becomes, tending in some cases to specialize in a commercial crop and reducing its productive diversity, making it possible stabilization of subsumption because the AF becomes mere supplier of commodities to agro-industry, relegating other crops and / or activities.

  8. Integrals over products of distributions and coordinate independence of zero-temperature path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, H.; Chervyakov, A.

    2003-01-01

    In perturbative calculations of quantum-statistical zero-temperature path integrals in curvilinear coordinates one encounters Feynman diagrams involving multiple temporal integrals over products of distributions, which are mathematically undefined. In addition, there are terms proportional to powers of Dirac δ-functions at the origin coming from the measure of path integration. We give simple rules for integrating products of distributions in such a way that the results ensure coordinate independence of the path integrals. The rules are derived by using equations of motion and partial integration, while keeping track of certain minimal features originating in the unique definition of all singular integrals in 1-ε dimensions. Our rules yield the same results as the much more cumbersome calculations in 1-ε dimensions where the limit ε→0 is taken at the end. They also agree with the rules found in an independent treatment on a finite time interval

  9. An Integrated Methodology for Emulsified Formulated Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele

    are mixed together to determine the desired emulsified product. They are still mainly designed and analysed through trial - and - error based exper- imental techniques, therefore a systematic approach , integrating model-based as well a s experiment - based techniques, for design of these products could......The consumer oriented chemical based products are used every day by millions of people. They are structured products constituted of numerous chemicals, and many of them, especially household and personal care products, are emulsions where active ingredients, solvents, additives and surfactants...... significantly reduce both time and cost connected to product development by doing only the necessary experi- ments , and ensuring chances for innovation . The main contribution of this project i s the development of an integrated methodology for the design of emulsified formulated products. The methodology...

  10. Volatile composition and enantioselective analysis of chiral terpenoids of nine fruit and vegetable fibres resulting from juice industry by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Marsol i Vall, Alexis; Sgorbini, Barbara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Bicchi, Carlo; Eras i Joli, Jordi; Balcells Fluvià, Mercè

    2017-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable fibres resulting as by-products of the fruit juice industry have won popularity because they can be valorised as food ingredients. In this regard, bioactive compounds have already been studied but little attention has been paid to their remaining volatiles. Considering all the samples, 57 volatiles were identified. Composition greatly differed between citrus and noncitrus fibres. The former presented over 90% of terpenoids, with limonene being the most abundant and ranging...

  11. Product market integration, tax distortions and public sector size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    of product market integration for the public sector are far from straightforward. The reason is gains-from-trade effects which tend to increase the tax base and decrease the opportunity costs of public consumption (marginal utility of private consumption falls). It follows that the retrenchment view...... that product market integration inevitable leads to a downward pressure on public sector activities does not get support in a standard setting. A particularly noteworthy finding is that a country with a large public sector (strong preferences for public consumption) may benefit more by integrating......The implications of product market integration for public sector activities (transfers and public consumption) are considered in a standard setting. The analysis supports that a larger public sector (higher tax rate) tends to increase wages and worsen wage competitiveness. However, the implications...

  12. Use of Bacteriophages to Control Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Domestic Ruminants, Meat Products, and Fruits and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Qu, Kunli; Li, Xiaoyu; Cao, Zhenhui; Wang, Xitao; Li, Zhen; Song, Yaxiong; Xu, Yongping

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen that causes severe bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Ruminant manure is a primary source of E. coli O157:H7 contaminating the environment and food sources. Therefore, effective interventions targeted at reducing the prevalence of fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 by cattle and sheep and the elimination of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of meat products as well as fruits and vegetables are required. Bacteriophages offer the prospect of sustainable alternative approaches against bacterial pathogens with the flexibility of being applied therapeutically or for biological control purposes. This article reviews the use of phages administered orally or rectally to ruminants and by spraying or immersion of fruits and vegetables as an antimicrobial strategy for controlling E. coli O157:H7. The few reports available demonstrate the potential of phage therapy to reduce E. coli O157:H7 carriage in cattle and sheep, and preparation of commercial phage products was recently launched into commercial markets. However, a better ecological understanding of the phage E. coli O157:H7 will improve antimicrobial effectiveness of phages for elimination of E. coli O157:H7 in vivo.

  13. A strategy for integrated low-input potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.; Loon, van C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Current systems of potato growing use large amounts of pesticides and fertilizers; these inputs are costly and cause environmental problems. In this paper a strategy for integrated low-input potato production is developed with the aim of reducing costs, improving product quality and reducing

  14. Integrated product development and experience of communication in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Ihle; Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill; Ir. Peter van Kollenburg; Ir. H.E.V. Veenstra

    2000-01-01

    The Technical Departments at the Fontys University of Professional Education in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, offer a course which is devel-oped around the principles of Concurrent Engi-neering. Integrated Product Development (IPD) project teams are multi-disciplinary groups which develop products in

  15. Product development for catering - how to integrate issues on nutrition, quality and environment in the products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector......Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector...

  16. Influence of Irradiated Chicken Manure on Productivity and Fruit Quality of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out on Strawberry fruits (Fragaria×ananassa) cv. camarosa at Atomic Energy Authority, Experimental farm, Inshas, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2011 and 2012. Chicken manure at rates of 15 and 30 m 3 fed -1 were irradiated with 10 KGy gamma were applied in combination with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 . Untreated control but fertilized with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed-1was also included. Generally chicken manure rates significantly increased vegetative growth, and total yield quality of strawberry fruits. The superiority data with 30 m 3 fed -1 irradiated chicken manure was observed on strawberry of plant height, number of leaves plant, and number of crowns plant, root length and dry weight of shoots. Also total soluble solids and acidity, vitamin C, total sugars and anthocyanin content were significantly increased comparable to control. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents non significantly affected most of treatments except the combined treatment of chicken manure at rate 30 m 3 fed -1 and 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 that induced the best results. This was true at the 2nd season. Moreover these results were nearly closed those of irradiated dry chicken manure at rate of 30 m 3 fed -1 plus 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 , for both seasons

  17. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading...... is equivalent to increased mobility of employment acrosscountries and thus a change in the trade-off between wages and employment faced by wagesetters. While the effects of product market integration on the trade-off between wages andemployment in general is ambiguous, it is shown that product market...... integration works like ageneral improvement in productivity via the specialization it allows through trade.Unambiguously, real wages and employment and welfare improve upon reductions in tradefrictions, and therefore workers are better off irrespective of whether the market power ofunions is enhanced or muted...

  18. Microbial Production of Xylitol from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Hydrolysate: Effects of Inoculum and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T.A.P. Kresnowati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering its high content of hemicellulose, oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB lignocellulosic biomass waste from palm oil processing has the potential to be utilized as the raw material for the production of xylitol, a low calorie, low GI, and anti cariogenic alternative sugar with similar sweetness to sucrose. This research explored the possibility of converting EFB to xylitol via green microbial fermentation, in particular the effects of inoculum and initial pH on the fermentation performance. It was observed that the cell concentration in the inoculum and the initial pH affect cell growth and xylitol production. pH 5 was observed to give the best fermentation performance. Further, the fermentation tended to yield more xylitol at higher initial cell concentration. It was also observed that no growth or fermentation inhibitory compounds were found in the EFB hydrolysate obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis of EFB. Thus it can be used directly as substrate for xylitol fermentation.

  19. Effects of Illumination Pattern during Cultivation of Fruiting Body and Bioactive Compound Production by the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chiu-Yeh; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Tseng, Chin-Yin; Hu, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of light intensity in the 3 cultivation stages separately-the mycelium colonization stage, the primordial initiation stage, and the fruiting stage (in order)-on fruiting body and bioactive compound production by Cordyceps militaris. In the mycelium colonization stage, rice substrates were incubated in a spawn running room at 23°C. During the primordial initiation stage, C. militaris was grown at 18°C and illuminated 12 hours/day. In the fruiting stage the temperature was 23°C, with illumination provided 12 hours/day. The highest fruiting body yield and biological efficiency were 4.06 g dry weight/bottle and 86.83%, respectively, under 1750 ± 250 lux during the second and third stages. The cordycepin content was highest during the second and third stages under 1250 ± 250 lux. The mannitol and polysaccharide contents were highest under 1250 ± 250 and 1750 ± 250 lux during the primordial initiation stage and the fruiting stage, respectively. Thus, with controlled lighting, C. militaris can be cultivated in rice-water medium to increase fruiting body yield and bioactive compound production.

  20. OpenFlyData: an exemplar data web integrating gene expression data on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Alistair; Zhao, Jun; Klyne, Graham; White-Cooper, Helen; Shotton, David

    2010-10-01

    Integrating heterogeneous data across distributed sources is a major requirement for in silico bioinformatics supporting translational research. For example, genome-scale data on patterns of gene expression in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are widely used in functional genomic studies in many organisms to inform candidate gene selection and validate experimental results. However, current data integration solutions tend to be heavy weight, and require significant initial and ongoing investment of effort. Development of a common Web-based data integration infrastructure (a.k.a. data web), using Semantic Web standards, promises to alleviate these difficulties, but little is known about the feasibility, costs, risks or practical means of migrating to such an infrastructure. We describe the development of OpenFlyData, a proof-of-concept system integrating gene expression data on D. melanogaster, combining Semantic Web standards with light-weight approaches to Web programming based on Web 2.0 design patterns. To support researchers designing and validating functional genomic studies, OpenFlyData includes user-facing search applications providing intuitive access to and comparison of gene expression data from FlyAtlas, the BDGP in situ database, and FlyTED, using data from FlyBase to expand and disambiguate gene names. OpenFlyData's services are also openly accessible, and are available for reuse by other bioinformaticians and application developers. Semi-automated methods and tools were developed to support labour- and knowledge-intensive tasks involved in deploying SPARQL services. These include methods for generating ontologies and relational-to-RDF mappings for relational databases, which we illustrate using the FlyBase Chado database schema; and methods for mapping gene identifiers between databases. The advantages of using Semantic Web standards for biomedical data integration are discussed, as are open issues. In particular, although the performance of open

  1. Selection of yeast starter culture strains for the production of marula fruit wines and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundira, M; Blom, M; Pretorius, I S; van Rensburg, P

    2002-03-13

    Juice of the Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra (marula) fruit was fermented by indigenous microflora and different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains at different temperatures, namely, 15 and 30 degrees C. Volatile acids, esters, and higher alcohols were quantified in the wine and distillates, and the results were interpreted using a multivariate analysis of variance and an average linkage cluster analysis. Significant differences between 15 and 30 degrees C and also among yeasts with respect to volatile compounds were observed. Yeast strains VIN7 and FC consistently produced wines and final distillates significantly different from the other strains. A panel of tasters and marula and brandy producers was asked to select wines and distillates that had an acceptable and typical marula "nose". They were also asked to detect the differences among wines and distillates fermented with the same yeast strain at different temperatures.

  2. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics.

  3. Influence of poultry litter and plant density on the production and chemical composition of the essential oil of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Tabaldi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the production and chemical composition of the essential oil of Brazilian pepper fruits grown in single and double rows using different doses of semi decomposed poultry litter in two evaluation times. The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Grande Dourados, in the city of Dourados, state o- Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from October 2009 to November 2010. Brazilian pepper plants were grown in single and double rows in soil with incorporated poultry litter at the doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 5 factorial experiment in a randomized block design with four replications. Fruits were harvested 180 and 390 days after transplant (DAT. There was a significant interaction for fresh weight of fruits and weight of 50 fruits, being the values higher at 180 DAT in the double rows with increasing poultry litter doses. Fruits harvested 390 DAT showed higher diameter compared with those harvested 180 DAT. The number of fruits per bunch was significantly influenced by the doses of poultry litter, presenting a linear increase with increasing doses. The essential oil of the Brazilian pepper fruits obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry exhibited predominance of monoterpenes, highlighting α-pinene (20.14% as the major constituent. The chemical composition of the essential oil was not influenced by the number of plant rows in the plot or by the doses of poultry litter in any evaluation time. Therefore, the cultivation of Brazilian pepper plants is recommended in double rows, with 13.59 t ha-1 of incorporated poultry litter in the soi, and with harvest of 180 DAT for higher fruit production.

  4. International Product Market Integration, Rents and Wage Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model......International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....

  5. Effects of CO[sub 2] concentration on photosynthesis, transpiration and production of greenhouse fruit vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    1994-10-25

    The effect of the CO[sub 2] concentration of the greenhouse air (C) in the range 200 to 1100 [mu]mol mol[sup -1] was investigated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), grown in greenhouses. The effect of C on canopy net photosynthetic CO[sub 2] assimilation rate (or photosynthesis, P) was expressed by a set of regression equations, relating P to PAR, C and LAI. A rule of thumb ('CO[sub 2]-rule') was derived, approximating the relative increase of P caused by additional CO[sub 2] at a certain C. This CO[sub 2]-rule is: X = (1000/C)[sup 2] * 1.5 (X in % per 100 [mu]mol[sup -1], and C in [mu]mol mol[sup -1]). Two models for canopy photosynthesis were examined by comparing them with the experimental photosynthesis data. No 'midday depression' in P was observed. The effects of C on leaf conductance (g) and on rate of crop transpiration (E) were investigated. An increase of 100 I[mu]mol mol[sup -1] ' in C reduced g by about 3-4% in sweet pepper, tomato and cucumber and by about 11% in eggplant. The effect of C on E was analyzed by combining the regression equation for g with the Penman-Monteith equation for E. C had only a relatively small effect on E, owing to thermal and hydrological feedback effects. The decoupling of g and E was quantified. No time-dependent variation or 'midday depression' in E was observed, and no significant effect of C on average leaf temperature was established. In five experiments, the effect of C on growth and production and on specific features were analyzed; fruit production (dry weight) was most affected by C in sweet pepper; fresh weight fruit production per unit CO[sub 2] was highest in cucumber; fruit quality was not influenced by C. High C promoted the 'short leaves syndrome' in tomato and 'leaf tip chlorosis' in eggplant, probably related to calcium and boron translocation

  6. Effect of pollen load size and source (self, outcross) on seed and fruit production in highbush blueberry cv. 'Bluecrop' (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM; Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogterom, M H; Winston, M L; Mukai, A

    2000-11-01

    Reproductive fitness of a plant is ultimately determined by both number and quality of seed offspring. This is determined by sexual selection of pollen microspores and ovules during pollination and fertilization. These processes may include pollen competition and seed abortion, which reduce the number of microspores and ovules available for final seed production. Thus, even an excess of pollen microspores to ovules does not result in fertile seeds equal to ovule number. We investigated pollen requirements of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cultivar 'Bluecrop') for maximal seed production and how fertile seed number translates into fruit quality, since fruit quality would ultimately determine the dispersal of its offspring. We demonstrate that individual blueberry flowers with a mean of 106 ovules reach their maximum fruit set and mass and minimum time to ripen when 125 outcross pollen tetrads pollinate a flower, compared to 10 or 25. Three hundred tetrads resulted in the increase of fertile seeds, but did not result in a further increase of fruit mass or fruit set, or decrease in time to ripen. We also examined the effect of pure and mixed loads of self and outcross pollen (25 and 125 tetrads), and found no differences in fertile seed number, fruit mass, or percentage fruit set when pollen loads were either 25 self or outcross pollen tetrads, although number of days to ripen was significantly shorter by 8 d with 25 outcross tetrads. When the pollen load of 125 tetrads consisted of self or a 50:50 mixture of self and outcross pollen, fruit mass, days to ripen, and percentage fruit set were not different from loads of 125 outcross pollen. In addition, a pollen load of 25 outcross tetrads resulted in fertile seed number and fruit quality in between that of 25 self, and 125 self, 125 mixed, or 125 outcross tetrads. Large, small, and flat seed types were identified, and only large seeds (length = 1.7 mm) were fertile. These results improve our understanding of

  7. Improving occupational safety and health by integration into product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The objectives were: (i) to study the product development process and the role of key actors', (ii) to identify current practice on integrating occupational safety and h...... and studies of documents. A questionnaire regarding product development tasks and occupational safety and health were distributed to 30 design and production engineers. A total of 27 completed the questionnaire corresponding to a response rate of 90 per cent.......A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The objectives were: (i) to study the product development process and the role of key actors', (ii) to identify current practice on integrating occupational safety...... and health into the development process, especially the efforts and attitudes of design and production engineers', and (iii) to identify key actors'reflections on how to improve this integration. The study was based on qualitative as well as quantitative methods including interviews, questionnaires...

  8. Integrated system of production information processing for surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Wang, S.; Zeng, Z.; Wei, J.; Ren, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept of Mining Engineering

    2000-09-01

    Based on the concept of geological statistic, mathematical program, condition simulation, system engineering, and the features and duties of each main department in surface mine production, an integrated system for surface mine production information was studied systematically and developed by using the technology of data warehousing, CAD, object-oriented and system integration, which leads to the systematizing and automating of the information management, data processing, optimization computing and plotting. In this paper, its overall object, system design, structure and functions and some key techniques were described. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  9. What Happens to Integrated Product Development Models with Product/Service-System Approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    Integrated Product Development (IPD) has traditionally focused on the development activities relating to physical technological artefacts. With the advent of business approaches for manufacturing firms based on providing customers the utility of integrated products and services – a term dubbed...... ‘product/service-systems (PSS)’ – companies need to extend their activities to include new dimensions of development. Within the paradigm of mass production and consumption, traditional product-oriented business strategies regarded physical technological artefacts (products) as the mediators of customer...... value. Value was based on the exchange of products between a providing company and a receiving customer. The more products the company could sell, the more revenue it generated. At the point of sale the ownership and responsibility of the product was transferred from company to customer. A customer...

  10. Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Industrial production in high-wage countries like Germany is still at risk. Yet, there are many counter-examples in which producing companies dominate their competitors by not only compensating for their specific disadvantages in terms of factor costs (e.g. wages, energy, duties and taxes) but rather by minimising waste using synchronising integrativity as well as by obtaining superior adaptivity on alternating conditions. In order to respond to the issue of economic sustainability of industrial production in high-wage countries, the leading production engineering and material research scientists of RWTH Aachen University together with renowned companies have established the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”. This compendium comprises the cluster’s scientific results as well as a selection of business and technology cases, in which these results have been successfully implemented into industrial practice in close cooperation with more than 30 companies of ...

  11. Technology Epiphany and an Integrated Product and Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring how an integrated product and service contributes to achieving Innovation of Meaning (IoM or technology epiphany. Existing IoM studies have focused on intended meaning (as defined in new product development and ignored the received meaning that users reconstruct. The process by which a user assigns meaning to things can not only be static but also dynamic. This study focuses on integrated products and contexts offered by services and analyses the case of Japan’s largest manufacturer of ankle-foot orthoses. The results show that the service guides the users to reconstruct the meaning in dynamic cognitive processes and use the metaphors that contribute to the consistency between products and services.

  12. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, B [Plant Protection Division, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Fruit, Vine and Wine Institute, Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa); Rosenberg, S; Arnolds, L; Johnson, J [SIT Africa (Pty) Ltd., Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa)

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos

  13. Valorization of residual Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Fibers (EPFBF) by microfluidization: production of nanofibrillated cellulose and EPFBF nanopaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ana; Filpponen, Ilari; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Laine, Janne; Rojas, Orlando J

    2012-12-01

    Different cellulose pulps were produced from sulfur-free chemical treatments of Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Fibers (EPFBF), a by-product from palm oil processing. The pulps were microfluidized for deconstruction into nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and nanopaper was manufactured by using an overpressure device. The morphological and structural features of the obtained NFCs were characterized via atomic force and scanning electron microscopies. The physical properties as well as the interactions with water of sheets from three different pulps were compared with those of nanopaper obtained from the corresponding NFC. Distinctive chemical and morphological characteristics and ensuing nanopaper properties were generated by the EPFBF fibers. The NFC grades obtained compared favorably with associated materials typically produced from bleached wood fibers. Lower water absorption, higher tensile strengths (107-137 MPa) and elastic modulus (12-18 GPa) were measured, which opens the possibility for valorization of such widely available bioresource. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrating transportation and production: an international study case

    OpenAIRE

    L Bertazzi; O Zappa

    2012-01-01

    The problem we study is inspired by the real case of Mesdan S.p.A., an Italian company worldwide leader in the textile machinery sector, which has two production units with two warehouses, one located in Italy (Brescia) and the other in China (Foshan). The critical point in this logistic system is the integration between production and transportation management, given the long distance between Brescia and Foshan. Shipments are performed by the means of different types of vehicles with differe...

  15. Phenology, biometric parameters and productivity of fruits of the palm Butia capitata (Mart. Beccari in the Brazilian cerrado in the north of the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Albertasse Dutra da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of the palm Butia capitata are harvested from wild populations. A lack of knowledge of their ecology has hindered the establishment of sustainable management practices. We investigated fruit biometric parameters, yield and phenology in two populations of B. capitata in the cerrado (savanna in the north of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, at two study sites: in the communities of Mirabela (Fazenda Baixa site, studied from December 2006 through December 2007 and Campos (studied throughout 2007. Overall, adult palms produced an annual average of 7.6 leaves. At the Fazenda Baixa site, the mean annual number of infructescences was 4.9, compared with only 1.6 at the Campos site, and the annual yield was 197-373 and 145-468 fruits per tree (in 2006 and 2007, respectively, compared with 67-247 at the Campos site. Reproductive events were seasonal and influenced by rainfall distribution. Typically, inflorescences and immature infructescences appeared in the dry season, mature infructescences appearing in the rainy season. Inflorescence production and fruit biometric parameters differed between the two populations. Fruit yield correlated with height and leaf biomass. We found that B. capitata fruits, which are highly perishable, should be harvested when nearly-ripe and remain attached to the infructescence during transport. Our findings have important implications for the development of strategies for sustainable management and in situ conservation of populations of this species.

  16. Probiotic-mediated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruit fermentation to yield functionalized products for augmented antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Do-Youn

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation of blueberry fruit with selected probiotic bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Lactobacillus brevis) and yeast (Starmerella bombicola) isolated from fermented starfish for the extraction of functionalized products for biomedical applications. All probiotic-based fermented extracts showed augmented antibacterial and antioxidant activity compared to the control. Biochemical parameters of viable cell count, titratable acidity, total phenol, total anthocyanin, total flavonoids, total sugar, and reducing sugar were analyzed during a 0-96 h fermentation period. In addition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to determine the functional groups in the control and fermented extracts and it signifies the presence of alcohol groups, phenol groups, carboxylic acids, and aliphatic amines, respectively. The well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays determined that the S. bombicola-mediated fermented extract has excellent activity, followed by B. amyloliquefaciens and L. brevis, at a high concentration of 1.0 g/mL fermented extract. The ABTS and DPPH showed significant scavenging activity with IC 50 values of (30.52 ± 0.08)/(155.10 ± 0.06) μg/mL, (24.82 ± 0.16)/(74.21 ± 1.26) μg/mL, and (21.81 ± 0.08)/(125.11 ± 0.04) μg/mL for B. amyloliquefaciens, L. brevis, and S. bombicola, respectively. Developing a value-added fermented blueberry product will help circumvent losses because of the highly perishable nature of the fruit. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  18. Production of oil palm empty fruit bunch compost for ornamental plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Mhardela, P.; Husaini, T.; Irvan; Daimon, H.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to produce the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) compost for ornamental plant cultivation. EFB compost was produced by chopping fresh EFB into 1-3 cm pieces, inserting the pieces into basket composter (33 cm W × 28 cm L × 40 cm H), and adding activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) until moisture content (MC) in the range of 55-65%. During composting, the compost pile was turned every 3 days and the MC was maintained at 55-65% range by adding the ALOF. The compost processed was then mixed with sand and rice husk with a ratio of 1:1:1; 1:3:1; 1:0:1 and was used as a potting medium for planting some valuable ornamental plants i.e. cactus (cactaceae), sansevieria, and anthurium. Composting was carried out for 40 days and the compost characteristic were pH 9.0; MC 52.59%; WHC 76%; CN ratio 12.15; N 1.96%; P 0.58%; and K 0.95%. The compost-sand-husk rice mixture can be used as a growing medium where the best ratio for cactus, sansevieria, and anthurium was 1:3:1; 1:1:1; and 1:0:1, respectively.

  19. Integrating Emotional Attachment and Sustainability in Electronic Product Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lobos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current models for Information and Communication Technology (ICT products encourage frequent product replacement with newer versions that offer only minor incremental improvements. This pattern, named planned obsolescence, diminishes user experience and shortens product lifespan. This paper presents the conceptual basis for a two-part integrated approach to combating planned obsolescence in ICT devices. First, design for emotional attachment, which creates products that users enjoy, value, and use for longer. Second, technological adaptability, which anticipates product upgrades and repairs as new technologies emerge. A model interdisciplinary design course in industrial design and sustainability, also described herein, trains students to apply this approach to create innovative ICT products with smaller environmental footprints.

  20. The Book Trailer Project: Media Production within an Integrated Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, Karen

    2017-01-01

    A special education co-teacher in an integrated elementary classroom describes key aspects of media literacy pedagogy for all students, including opportunities for critical analysis and creative media production. After elementary school students learned about author's craft, purpose, theme/message, three types of writing, and target audience, they…

  1. Dairy production in some selected integrated farms in Sokoto State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of eight integrated farms in four local government areas of Sokoto state in north-western Nigeria revealed the following about dairy production on such farms:breed of cattle kept, Sokoto Gudali, Friesian, and Sahiwal; average dairy herd size,69.4 head; husbandry system was largely semi-intensive; milking was ...

  2. Forest thinnings for integrated lumber and paper production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; C.T. Scott; R. Gleisner; D. Mann; D.W. Vahey; D.P. Dykstra; G.H. Quinn; L.L. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    Integrated lumber and paper productions using forest thinning materials from U.S. national forests can significantly reduce the cost of prescriptive thinning operations. Many of the trees removed during forest thinnings are in small-diameter classes (diameter at breast height

  3. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from the molasses of the sugar process and biogas from the vinasse of the alcohol distillation process. Finally, a third scenario is exergetically evaluated in which sugar, electricity, biogas and alcohol are produced, but this last one from juices and molasses of the sugar process. For the exergetic analysis the integrated scheme was divided into 8 subsystems. From the analysis of results, the major subsystems that generate irreversibilities are: cogeneration (64.36-65.98%, juice extraction (8.85-9.85%, crystallization and cooking, (8.48 -9.02%, fermentation (4.12-4.94% and distillation (2.74-3.2%. Improvements are proposed to minimize irreversibilities, including the thermal integration of processes, technological modifications in the fermentation process and the introduction of more efficient equipment for the generation of electricity. The exergetic efficiency is between 78.95-81.10%, obtaining greater exergetic efficiency in the scheme of joint operation to produce sugar, alcohol and biogas.

  4. Experimental systems of integrated and organic wheat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives and significance of integrated and organic farming are briefly discussed. In wheat production, the cropping methods involved are then described and compared to those of a conventional system. Initial results from an experimental farm at Nagele, The Netherlands, indicate that by an

  5. Integrated Facades as a Product-Service System : Business process innovation to accelerate integral product implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azcarate Aguerre, J.F.; den Heijer, A.C.; Klein, T.

    2017-01-01

    The Circular Economy (CE) attempts to realign business incentives, across all fields of human industry, to support the preservation of raw materials within closed economic loops. Within this conceptual frame, Product-Service Systems (PSS) combine the use of tangible products such as building

  6. Integral measurement of fission products capture in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Deidier, Loick.

    1979-12-01

    For the SUPERPHENIX reactor project, it was necessary to know fission products capture with about 10% accuracy in the fast breeder reactor spectra. In this purpose, integral measurements have been carried out on the main separated products by different experimental technics (oscillation, activation and irradiation methods), but particularly on irradiated fuel pins from RAPSODIE and PHENIX reactors in order to directly obtain total effect of fission products. Same tendencies have been observed for both enriched uranium fuel and LMFBR characteristic plutonium fuel. All experimental results have been introduced in CARNAVAL cross section set [fr

  7. Evaluation of a Participatory Resource Monitoring System for Nontimber Forest Products: the Case of Amla (Phyllanthus spp. Fruit Harvest by Soligas in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Siddappa Setty

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing incomes from the sustainable harvest of nontimber forest products can help to maintain local livelihoods and provide local communities with economic incentives to conserve biodiversity. A key feature of a successful enterprise approach to the conservation of these products is a sound monitoring and evaluation program that involves all concerned stakeholders and leads to adaptive management. However, few studies have presented any of the approaches, successes, or challenges involved in participatory monitoring initiatives for nontimber forest products. We present our experiences using a participatory research model that we developed and used over a 10-yr (1995-2005 period for the wild harvesting of Phyllanthus spp. fruits (amla by indigenous Soliga harvesters in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. We describe the establishment and evolution of our participatory resource monitoring activities, compare some of the results of our activities to those obtained from monitoring using standard ecological approaches, and evaluate some of the successes and challenges associated with our participatory resource model. An initial step in this work was the establishment of Soliga-run enterprises for the processing and value addition of amla and other nontimber forest products. Participatory resource monitoring activities consisted of participatory mapping and assessments of fruit production, fruit harvest and regeneration combined with pre- and postharvesting meetings for sharing information, and adaptive management. Over the years, harvesters rejected, changed, and adapted various participatory resource monitoring methods to select those most appropriate for them. Visual estimates of fruit production made by harvesters at the forest level were very similar to estimates obtained using standard scientific monitoring protocols. Participatory research monitoring techniques that were effective included strategies for

  8. Utilization of fruit peels as carbon source for white rot fungi biomass production under submerged state bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olorunnisola Kola Saheed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present generation of nutrient rich waste streams within the food and hospitality industry is inevitable and remained a matter of concern to stakeholders. Three white rot fungal strains were cultivated under submerged state bioconversion (SmB. Fermentable sugar conversion efficiency, biomass production and substrate utilization constant were indicators used to measure the success of the process. The substrates – banana peel (Bp, pineapple peel (PAp and papaya peel (Pp were prepared in wet and dried forms as substrates. Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium, Panus tigrinus M609RQY, and RO209RQY were cultivated on sole fruit wastes and their composites. All fungal strains produced profound biomass on dry sole wet substrates, but wet composite substrates gave improved results. P. tigrinus RO209RQY was the most efficient in sugar conversion (99.6% on sole substrates while P. tigrinus M609RQY was efficient on composite substrates. Elevated substrate utilization constant (Ku and biomass production heralded wet composite substrates. P. chrysosporium was the most performing fungal strain for biomass production, while PApBp was the best composite substrate.

  9. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    of the specialization gains are similar to anincrease in labour productivity, whereas the labour market reform effectis similar to an increase in the degree of competition in the labourmarket. Wages, employment and welfare increase as a result of furtherproduct market integration. It is interesting to note......In this paper, we set up a two-country general equilibrium modelwhere trade unions have wage bargaining power. We show that adecrease in trade distortions inducing further product market integrationgives rise to specialization gains as well as a labour market reformeffect. The implications...... that the labourmarket reform effect of product market integration is achieved despitean increase in the wage level.JEL Classification: F15, J30, J50.Keywords: Trade frictions, wage formation, employment, welfaregains....

  10. System studies on Biofuel production via Integrated Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Malek, Laura; Hulteberg, Christian [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ. Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly. The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for fair techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project. Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed. The majority of the studies concern gasifiers installed in chemical pulp and paper mills where black liquor gasification is the dominating technology. District heating systems are also well represented. Only a few studies have been found with mechanical pulp and paper mills, steel industries and the oil refineries as case basis. Other industries have rarely, or not at all, been considered for industrial integration studies. Surprisingly, no studies regarding integration of biomass gasification neither in saw mills nor in wood pellet production industry have been found. In the published economic evaluations, it has been found that there is a large number of studies containing both integration and

  11. 2006 China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair:Ample Fruits Shown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 Malaysia China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair, organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT), was held in August in Prince World Trade Center(PWTC), Kuala Lumpur.

  12. Techno-economic feasibility of animal feed production from empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad Lebai Juri; Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Yusri Atan; Tamikazu Kume; Shinpei Matsuhashi

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown in our laboratory that EFB has the potential to be converted into animal feeds through the process of fermentation; and also use as media for mushroom growing (1). Irradiation of EFB at doses above 10 kGy followed by fermentation can reduce crude fibre (CF) content to almost 20-30% and crude protein (CP) content elevated to 10-15% from 50% and 2% respectively (2)(3). The end-product of fermentation displayed all the characteristics of animal feed, and at these levels of CF and CP can be utilised for feeding ruminants. Further reduction of CF and raising of CP can result in the products suitable for feeding non-ruminants such as poultry and pigs. Following the successful conversion of raw EFB into foodstuff for ruminant in the laboratory, there is an urgent need to evaluate whether such products could be mass-produced economically at larger scale for further feeding-trials. Pilot plant has to be set up to simulate the actual commercial production process before any technology transfer can be undertaken. The main objective of this paper is to report firstly, the economic and financial feasibility of the production process at pilot level. Secondly, preliminary evaluation on the cost of production of animal feed from EFB

  13. Comparative analysis on the conditions of production in two associations of fruit growers of western Colombia to participate in fair trade projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Santacoloma Varón

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis was performed on two fruit-farming organizations agro-ecologically and conventionally oriented and established its affinity with fair trade principles. A survey was done on fruit production, marketing systems and opportunities to sell "fair price" products. It was found that both groups are small farmers, agro-ecological producers offer a variety of fruit, because of not using chemicals the consumers recognize the quality by an extra charge, they sell their products in farmer markets and generate direct relationships with consumers.Conventional producers offer only Lulo (Solanum quitoense, chemicals are used, the indicator of quality is recognized by the size and presentation of the fruit and marketing is done in supermarkets. We conclude that agro-ecological producers would be close to a way of fair trade, provided that incorporate quality improvement programs, and use the product information and communication technologies for development of cooperation networks and identification of market niches. It is important to support public or private access to credit, infrastructure and market information to help in decision making improvement.

  14. What do Polish and Dutch consumers think about dried fruit and products with them - creaiwe group discussions as a means of recognittion consumers'perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; P¿ocharski, W.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to get insight into consumers' perception towards dried fruit and products with them, thus the exploratory study designed as a group discussion took place. While group discussions association (as one of the projective technique) and Kelly repertory grid were used to

  15. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  16. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  17. The demographic consequences of mutualism: ants increase host-plant fruit production but not population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Ford; Joshua H. Ness; Judith L. Bronstein; William F. Morris

    2015-01-01

    The impact of mutualists on a partner’s demography depends on how they affect the partner’s multiple vital rates and how those vital rates, in turn, affect population growth. However, mutualism studies rarely measure effects on multiple vital rates or integrate them to assess the ultimate impact on population growth. We used vital rate data, population models and...

  18. Correlation indices physical space of soil and productivity of fruit tomato industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gomes de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With mechanization at all stages of crop management, the soil began to receive a higher surface load, which causes changes in its physical properties with possible production impacts. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the variability and spatial correlation of the physical attributes of a Red Latosol with the productivity of industrial tomatoes. For this, a sample mesh was assembled using a global receiver positioning system (GPS, with 84 pairs of spaced apart 80 x 80 m points. After the mesh construction, samples in the 0.00-0.20 m layer were collected in the field to measure the physical attributes of the soil and plant data. The variables measured were: soil density (Ds, soil penetration resistance (PR, soil texture and tomato productivity. The values obtained were analyzed using geostatistics, and were classified according to the degree of spatial dependence. Then, using the ordinary kriging interpolation method and ordinary cokriging, the values for nonsampled sites were estimated, allowing the mapping of isovalues and the definition of management zones in the field. The spatial correlation of the physical attributes with the production components by the ordinary Cokriging method verified spatial correlation only between attributes (soil x soil density and sand content. The use of geostatistics and the construction of the maps by means of kriging and ordinary cokrigation allowed to identify different management zones, that is, the variability of soil attributes and productivity.

  19. Production of animal and vegetable proteins: an integrated thermal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesari, J P; Bonvehi, F; De Saint-Salvy, A; Miquel, J F

    1984-01-01

    For the optimization of our integrated farm, theoretical models using a microcomputer and experimental tests to verify these models were carried out on two research units. A test cell integrated with a greenhouse and a rock bed and a standard rock bed coupled with solar air collectors. A complete wooden house has been constructed and experimented in a remote village 200 km north of Toulouse as part of a demonstration unit. The geese and the Lemna minor (duckweed) have been selected as an animal and as a vegetable for the protein production. Some of the experimental results are reported.

  20. Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Michael; Svensson, Niclas; Fonseca, Jorge (Linkoeping Univ., Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: michael.martin@liu.se

    2011-06-15

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about, e.g. the energy output versus input and the competition with food has been questioned. However, biofuels may be optimized to increase the environmental performance through the concepts of industrial symbiosis. This paper offers a quantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuel industry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach. Results show that although increasing integration is assumed to produce environmental benefits in industrial symbiosis, not all impact categories have achieved this and the results depend upon the allocation methods chosen

  1. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  2. Integrated preventive maintenance and production decisions for imperfect processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourelfath, Mustapha; Nahas, Nabil; Ben-Daya, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper integrates production, maintenance, and quality for an imperfect process in a multi-period multi-product capacitated lot-sizing context. The production system is modeled as an imperfect machine, whose the status is considered to be either in-control or out-of-control. When the machine is out of control, it produces a fraction of nonconforming items. During each period, this machine is inspected and imperfect preventive maintenance activities are simultaneously performed to reduce its age, proportional to the preventive maintenance level. The objective is to minimize the total cost, while satisfying the demand for all products. Our optimization model allows for a joint selection of the optimal values of production plan, and the maintenance policy, while taking into account quality related costs. A solution algorithm is developed and illustrative numerical examples are presented. It is found that the increase in PM level leads to reductions in quality control costs. Furthermore, if the cost of performing PM is high to the point where it is not compensated for by reductions in the quality related costs, then performing PM is not justifiable. Finally, using non-periodic preventive maintenance with the possibility of different preventive maintenance levels may result in an improvement of the total cost. - Highlights: • We integrate production, maintenance, and quality. • We evaluate all the expected costs. • Our model allows for a joint selection of the optimal values. • A solution algorithm is developed. • Increasing PM level will decrease quality control costs.

  3. Environmental benefits of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integrated bioenergy systems can favor the sustainability of biofuels. ► We analyzed the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. ► GHG emissions and fossil energy use in the ethanol life cycle would be reduced. ► Socio-economic and other environmental aspects must be analyzed in future works. -- Abstract: The biorefinery of the future will be an integrated complex that makes a variety of products (e.g., biofuels, chemicals, power and protein) from a variety of feedstocks. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental benefits, compared to the traditional sugarcane ethanol system, of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel through a sugarcane–soybean biorefinery concept in Brazil. The environmental aspects considered here were the fossil energy use and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions associated with ethanol production. In the Integrated System, soybean would be cultivated in part of the sugarcane reforming areas, which represents ∼17% of the total sugarcane area. Sugarcane and soybean oil would be processed in a combined ethanol–biodiesel plant, which would use only bagasse as fuel. All the demand for utilities of the biodiesel plant would be provided by the distillery. The output products of the combined plant would comprise sugarcane ethanol, soybean biodiesel (which would be used as diesel (B5) substitute in the sugarcane cultivation), bioelectricity and glycerin. The results indicate that the Integrated System can reduce the fossil energy consumption from 75 to 37 kJ/MJ of ethanol, when compared to the traditional system. For GHG emissions, the value would drop from 22.5 to 19.7 g CO 2 eq/MJ of ethanol. This analysis shows that the Integrated System is an important option to contribute to ethanol’s life cycle independence from fossil resources. This is an attractive environmental aspect, but socio-economic (as well as other environmental) aspects should also be analyzed in order to

  4. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B; Anderson, T Michael; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Adler, Peter B; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D; Buckley, Yvonne M; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; Fay, Philip A; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M H; MacDougall, Andrew S; Melbourne, Brett A; Morgan, John W; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-01-21

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  5. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry for determining of cadmium in fruit and vegetable products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowska, B.

    1977-01-01

    The method of atomic absorption with the technique of standard addition was used for determination of cadmium in the following tinned products: green peas, cut bean pods, sorel, stewed black currants, greengage plums, orange juice. The products were dry mineralized. Each mineralizate was divided into three portions, known amounts of cadmium were added to two portions and all portions were supplemented to a defined volume. Determinations were performed using a Pye Unicam SP 90 A spectrophotometer and they served as a base for plotting a curve in the system: absorbance - concentration of added metal. The curve was extrapolated to zero absorbance for reading directly the content of the metal in the product. This content was in the range from 10 to 80 μg/kg at variance coefficient 5-15% and the recovery was 80-130%. (author)

  6. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Wessels

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  7. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation on empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) for cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ming J; Lau, Ming W; Gunawan, Christa; Dale, Bruce E

    2010-11-01

    Empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF), a readily available cellulosic biomass from palm processing facilities, is investigated as a potential carbohydrate source for cellulosic ethanol production. This feedstock was pretreated using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and enzymatically hydrolyzed. The best tested AFEX conditions were at 135 °C, 45 min retention time, water to dry biomass loading of 1:1 (weight ratio), and ammonia to dry biomass loading of 1:1 (weight ratio). The particle size of the pretreated biomass was reduced post-AFEX. The optimized enzyme formulation consists of Accellerase (84 μL/g biomass), Multifect Xylanase (31 μL/g biomass), and Multifect Pectinase (24 μL/g biomass). This mixture achieved close to 90% of the total maximum yield within 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation on the water extract of this biomass affirms that nutrients solely from the pretreated EPFBF can support yeast growth for complete glucose fermentation. These results suggest that AFEX-treated EPFBF can be used for cellulosic biofuels production because biomass recalcitrance has been overcome without reducing the fermentability of the pretreated materials.

  8. Application of Box-Behnken Design in Optimization of Glucose Production from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satriani Aga Pasma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFB is a lignocellulosic waste from palm oil mills. It contains mainly cellulose from which glucose can be derived to serve as raw materials for valuable chemicals such as succinic acid. A three-level Box-Behnken design combined with the canonical and ridge analysis was employed to optimize the process parameters for glucose production from OPEFB cellulose using enzymatic hydrolysis. Organosolv pretreatment was used to extract cellulose from OPEFB using ethanol and water as the solvents. The extracted cellulose was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Hydrolysis parameters including amount of enzyme, amount of cellulose, and reaction time were investigated. The experimental results were fitted with a second-order polynomial equation by a multiple regression analysis and found that more than 97% of the variations could be predicted by the models. Using the ridge analysis, the optimal conditions reaction time found for the production of glucose was 76 hours and 30 min, whereas the optimum amount of enzyme and cellulose was 0.5 mL and 0.9 g, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the corresponding response value predicted for glucose concentration was 169.34 g/L, which was confirmed by validation experiments.

  9. The effect of dry caper (capparis spinosa) fruit on egg production and quality characteristics of laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, A.; Tahtali, Y.; Sen, M. I.; Duman, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary inclusion of dry Caper (Capparis spinosa) fruit (DCF) on egg production and quality characteristics of laying hens between 20 and 32 weeks of age. Four groups of commercial hens (ATAK-S) were fed with diets containing 0, 5, 10 and 15 g DCF/kg. The results showed that final body weight, feed intake, shape index (SI) and morning hen - day egg yield were influenced by dietary supplementation of DCF (P 0.05) during the entire experiment. The lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values for egg shell color were similar (P>0.05) in the DCL supplemented groups as compared to the control group. The yellowness (b*), Hue angle (H), chroma (C*) and E* values were lower (P<0.05) in 15 g DFC/kg group when compared with the control. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolics amount of DCF were 43.75+-0.680 mmol trolox/kg, 60.03+-3.710 mmol TEAC/kg and 3.16+-0.060 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg, respectively. Based on the results from the current study, the dietary supplementation with dry DCF had adverse effects on productivity performance traits and egg quality. (author)

  10. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME...... and 98% biodegradability. Meanwhile, the maximum methane potential of EFB was 202mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 79.1m3 CH4/ton EFB with 38% biodegradability. Co-digestion of EFB with POME enhanced microbial biodegradability and resulted in 25–32% higher methane production at mixing ratios of 0.4:1, 0.......8:1 and 2.3:1 on VS basis than digesting EFB alone. The methane yield was 276–340mL CH4/gVS-added for co-digestion of EFB with POME at mixing ratios of 0.4:1–2.3:1, while minor improvement was observed at mixing ratios of 6.8:1 and 11:1 (175–197mL CH4/gVS-added). The best improved was achieved from co...

  11. Development of method of optimized flavor production systems design based on nano-emulsification Kawista (Feronia limonia) Fruit extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyanto, A.; Noor, E.; Fahma, F.; Rusli, M. S.; Djatna, T.

    2018-01-01

    ‘Kawista’ (Feronia limonia) as a tropical fruit has unique flavor that can be applied as a flavor for food products. Flavor as volatile components are unstable by environment factors such as temperature and storage. Flavor nano emulsification form to improve the stability towards environment and increase its use in food products. Research carried out is system development of the nano emulsification Kawista extract flavor with sonication method. The best treatments are selected by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for independent variable are amplitude (70-100%), time (90-150s) and temperature (5-45°C) controlled by the software of the device. The Flavor Extraction by maceration technique extended highest yield and flavor components. Nano-emulsions made with composition 1% (w/w) flavor extract, 2% (w/w) surfactant (tween 80), 0.25% Gum, and 96.75% (w/w) deionized water. The probe of sonication successfully for preparing stable O/W nano emulsions at amplitude, time and temperature 81.01%, 150s, 45°C, respectively. Characteristic of nano-emulsions i.e energy input (15.489J), viscosity (2.076 mPa.s), droplet size (13.446nm), and Polydispersity index (0.469).

  12. Analysis of humidity effects on growth and production of glasshouse fruit vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Air humidity is a climate factor that can modify final yield and quality of crops through its impact on processes with a short as well as with a long response time. This thesis primarily deals with the long term responses of growth and production of glasshouse cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper and

  13. Effect of physical damage and storage of pineapple fruits on their suitability for juice production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Soumanou, M.M.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Boekel, van T.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of physically damaged pineapples, variety “MD2,” that were stored for up to 9 days at 20C for the production of fresh pineapple juice. Fresh pineapples were bruised and cut in different ways. The study showed an interaction effect of the physical damage

  14. Opportunities for Local for Local Food Production: A Case in the Dutch Fruit and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurriaan Visser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the opportunities for farmers to produce for local consumers, based on a case study in the Dutch horticulture sector. Main requirements for the set-up of a local chain of supply chain actors are investigated. Producer requirements are added value, availability of time, infrastructure and training. Retailer requirements are quality of food, purchasing volumes, food safety, communication to consumers and traceability of products. For consumers taste/freshness, sustainability, health benefits and authenticity are important attributes of local foods. Based on literature review and interviews with stakeholders four possible strategies for local food chains are defined. The ‘keep it local’ strategy means that the local food supply chains will not make use of the current infrastructure of the marketing coop that acts as chain coordinator. Deliveries are directly between farmer and retail outlet. The local products - conventional supply chain strategy implies that current (non-local supply chains are used to distribute local products. The supply chain planning will be more complex since products need to be separated per grower and distributed to several local supermarkets. In the ‘enabling producers’ strategy the marketing coop/chain coordinator is going to enable its member producers to sell their products locally. The marketing coop can support producers in for instance, billing and payments, marketing, logistics. The fourth strategy aims at strengthening current consumer communication strategies. It is argued that connecting producers and consumers, regardless of where they live is advantageous.Conclusion is that strategy 3; ‘Enabling producers’, in combination with strategy 4; ‘Strengthening current consumer communication strategies’ are the most promising options in setting up local food supply chains. Strategies 1 and 2, where the marketing coop/chain coordinator itself takes on the challenge of setting up

  15. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  16. The AINTEGUMENTA genes, MdANT1 and MdANT2, are associated with the regulation of cell production during fruit growth in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Madhumita; Malladi, Anish

    2012-06-25

    Fruit growth in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is mediated by cell production and expansion. Genes involved in regulating these processes and thereby fruit growth, are not well characterized. We hypothesized that the apple homolog(s) of AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), an APETALA2-repeat containing transcription factor, regulates cell production during fruit growth in apple. Two ANT genes, MdANT1 and MdANT2, were isolated from apple and their expression was studied during multiple stages of fruit development. MdANT1 and MdANT2 expression was high during early fruit growth coincident with the period of cell production, rapidly declined during exit from cell production, and remained low during the rest of fruit development. The effects of increase in carbohydrate availability during fruit growth were characterized. Increase in carbohydrate availability enhanced fruit growth largely through an increase in cell production. Expression of MdANT1 and MdANT2 increased sharply by up to around 5-fold in response to an increase in carbohydrate availability. Expression of the ANT genes was compared across two apple genotypes, 'Gala' and 'Golden Delicious Smoothee' (GS), which differ in the extent of fruit growth, largely due to differences in cell production. In comparison to 'Gala', the larger fruit-size genotype, GS, displayed higher levels and a longer duration of MdANT1 and MdANT2 expression. Expression of the ANTs and cell cycle genes in the fruit core and cortex tissues isolated using laser capture microdissection was studied. During early fruit growth, expression of the MdANTs was higher within the cortex, the tissue that constitutes the majority of the fruit. Additionally, MdANT1 and MdANT2 expression was positively correlated with that of A- and B-type CYCLINS, B-type CYCLIN-DEPENDENT-KINASES (CDKBs) and MdDEL1. Multiple lines of evidence from this study suggest that MdANT1 and MdANT2 regulate cell production during fruit growth in apple. ANTs may coordinate the expression of

  17. Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennai Mesfun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biomass-based motor fuels and chemicals are becoming increasingly important to replace fossil energy sources within the coming decades. It is likely that the new biorefineries will evolve mainly from existing forest industry sites, as they already have the required biomass handling infrastructure in place. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential for increasing the profit margin from sawmill byproducts by integrating innovative downstream processes. The focus is on the techno-economic evaluation of an integrated site for biomass-based synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG production. The option of using the syngas in a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (b-IGCC for the production of electricity (instead of SNG is also considered for comparison. The process flowsheets that are used to analyze the energy and material balances are modelled in MATLAB and Simulink. A mathematical process integration model of a typical Nordic sawmill is used to analyze the effects on the energy flows in the overall site, as well as to evaluate the site economics. Different plant sizes have been considered in order to assess the economy-of-scale effect. The technical data required as input are collected from the literature and, in some cases, from experiments. The investment cost is evaluated on the basis of conducted studies, third party supplier budget quotations and in-house database information. This paper presents complete material and energy balances of the considered processes and the resulting process economics. Results show that in order for the integrated SNG production to be favored, depending on the sawmill size, a biofuel subsidy in the order of 28–52 €/MWh SNG is required.

  18. Computer integration of engineering design and production: A national opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as a purchaser of a variety of manufactured products, including complex space vehicles and systems, clearly has a stake in the advantages of computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). Two major NASA objectives are to launch a Manned Space Station by 1992 with a budget of $8 billion, and to be a leader in the development and application of productivity-enhancing technology. At the request of NASA, a National Research Council committee visited five companies that have been leaders in using CIM. Based on these case studies, technical, organizational, and financial issues that influence computer integration are described, guidelines for its implementation in industry are offered, and the use of CIM to manage the space station program is recommended.

  19. Designing Mechatronic Products - Achieving Integration by Means of Modelling Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas

    of a joint effort between mechanical, electronics and software development. Companies engaged in multi-disciplinary product development face the challenge of coordinating different engineering disciplines to pursue a synergistic effect and to avoid failures when solutions from the different engineering...... disciplines have to be combined and function in an integrated fashion. The holistic view of the product concept is sometimes missing in projects and engineering disciplines are reluctant to interact. Investigations of literature, cases from industry and practical experience are used for dissecting...

  20. Emergy and Economic Evaluations of Four Fruit Production Systems on Reclaimed Wetlands Surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The evaluations...

  1. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  2. Virtual Collaborative Simulation Environment for Integrated Product and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulli, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Deneb Robotics is a leader in the development of commercially available, leading edge three- dimensional simulation software tools for virtual prototyping,, simulation-based design, manufacturing process simulation, and factory floor simulation and training applications. Deneb has developed and commercially released a preliminary Virtual Collaborative Engineering (VCE) capability for Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD). This capability allows distributed, real-time visualization and evaluation of design concepts, manufacturing processes, and total factory and enterprises in one seamless simulation environment.

  3. Process Integration Analysis of an Industrial Hydrogen Production Process

    OpenAIRE

    Stolten, Detlef; Grube, Thomas; Tock, Laurence; Maréchal, François; Metzger, Christian; Arpentinier, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The energy efficiency of an industrial hydrogen production process using steam methane reforming (SMR) combined with the water gas shift reaction (WGS) is analyzed using process integration techniques based on heat cascade calculation and pinch analysis with the aim of identifying potential measures to enhance the process performance. The challenge is to satisfy the high temperature heat demand of the SMR reaction by minimizing the consumption of natural gas to feed the combustion and to expl...

  4. Yield and fruit quality of four sweet corn hybrids (Zea mays) under conventional and integrated fertilization with vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Cristina; Revilla, Pedro; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Vermicompost has been proposed as a valuable fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. The effects of vermicompost on yield and quality of sweet corn were evaluated in this study. In two field trials, sweet corn plants were grown under (i) a conventional fertilization regime with inorganic fertilizer, and integrated fertilization regimes in which 75% of the nutrients were supplied by the inorganic fertilizer and 25% of the nutrients were supplied by either (ii) rabbit manure, or (iii) vermicompost. All three types of fertilization regime were supplied at two doses. Two pairs of nearly isogenic sweet corn hybrids homozygous for sugary1 and shrunken2 mutants were included in the trials to explore fertilizer × genotype interactions. Growth, yield and ear quality of the plants were evaluated in relation to the three fertilization regimes. In general, the integrated regimes yielded the same productivity levels as the conventional treatment. Moreover, both vermicompost and manure produced significant increases in plant growth and marketable yield, and also affected the chemical composition and quality of the marketable ear. Nevertheless, most of the observed effects of the organic fertilizers were genotype-dependent. The results confirm that the use of organic fertilizers such as vermicompost has a positive effect on crop yield and quality. Nevertheless, these effects were not general, indicating the complexity of the organic amendment-plant interactions and the importance of controlling genetic variation when studying the effects of vermicompost on plant growth. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Ozone Effects on Fruit Productivity and Photosynthetic Response of Two Tomato Cultivars in Relation to Stomatal Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    Full Text Available An Open-Top Chamber experiment on two tomato cultivars (cv. Oxheart and cv. San Marzano was carried out in Curno (Northern Italy between June and September 2007. Two ozone treatments were applied for a 3.5 months period: Non-Filtered OTC (NF-OTC, 95% of ambient ozone and Charcoal-Filtered OTC (CF-OTC, 50% of ambient ozone. Diurnal cycles of porometry measurements were performed during the season and allowed to draw a stomatal conductance model for each cultivar in order to calculate the ozone stomatal fluxes taken up by plants. Assessments on fruits yield were performed during the season, taking into account the number of fruits, their fresh weight and their marketability. In addition, measurements on the chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystems were carried out to assess possible negative effects on photosynthetic efficiency. Despite the two cultivars absorbed a similar ozone stomatal dose during the season (with an 8% difference, their responses to ozone treatments were totally divergent in relation to both fruits yield and photosynthetic efficiency. Plants of cv. Oxheart grown in NF-OTCs showed significant yield loss in the total weight of fruits (-35.9% which is exclusively related to a decrease in the number of fruits produced (-35.7% of total fruits; -30.6% of marketable fruits, since mean fresh weight of fruits remained unaffected. Moreover the same plants displayed low values (in comparison to CF-OTCs plants of the photosynthetic efficiency index (PIabs during the most intense period of ozone stress (July occurred in the flowering stage of plants and at the beginning of fructification. Plants of the cv. San Marzano had an opposite response behaviour with an increase of the mean fresh weight of fruits in plants grown in NF-OTC (even if not statistically significant and no difference in the number of fruits produced and in the values of photosynthetic efficiency.

  6. Impacts of integration of production of black and green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huizhong; Tamas, Meszaros Matyas

    2010-01-01

    As the mandate for minimum renewable sources renders Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) an essential input for power generation, it may induce mergers between power companies of conventional and renewable sources. Such mergers enable the integrated firms to extend market power from the TGC market to the physical energy market. We find that the price of TGCs is indeed higher in the integrated market than the disintegrated market, indicating the presence of market power leveraging. However, despite higher TGC price, the total supply of electricity is greater under integration than disintegration, reflecting efficiency gains from vertical integration, which eliminates double marginalization. The thrust of this paper is that market changes induced by environmental policies will in turn affect environmental and economic regulations. For example, increased supply resulting from integration induced by the renewable source mandate may reduce the effectiveness of programs that promote energy saving behavior, but at the same time creates room for raising the minimum of renewable sources without unduly depressing production and consumption. (author)

  7. Air gasification of empty fruit bunch for hydrogen-rich gas production in a fluidized-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.

    2011-01-01

    A study on gasification of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a waste of the palm oil industry, was investigated. The composition and particle size distribution of feedstock were determined and the thermal degradation behaviour was analysed by a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Then fluidized bed bench scale gasification unit was used to investigate the effect of the operating parameters on EFB air gasification namely reactor temperature in the range of 700-1000 o C, feedstock particle size in the range of 0.3-1.0 mm and equivalence ratio (ER) in the range of 0.15-0.35. The main gas species generated, as identified by a gas chromatography (GC), were H 2 , CO, CO 2 and CH 4 . With temperature increasing from 700 o C to 1000 o C, the total gas yield was enhanced greatly and reached the maximum value (∼92 wt.%, on the raw biomass sample basis) at 1000 o C with big portions of H 2 (38.02 vol.%) and CO (36.36 vol.%). Feedstock particle size showed an influence on the upgrading of H 2 , CO and CH 4 yields. The feedstock particle size of 0.3-0.5 mm, was found to obtain a higher H 2 yield (33.93 vol.%), and higher LHV of gas product (15.26 MJ/m 3 ). Equivalence ratio (ER) showed a significant influence on the upgrading of hydrogen production and product distribution. The optimum ER (0.25) was found to attain a higher H 2 yield (27.31 vol.%) at 850 o C. Due to the low efficiency of bench scale gasification unit the system needs to be scaling-up. The cost analysis for scale-up EFB gasification unit showed that the hydrogen supply cost is RM 6.70/kg EFB ($2.11/kg = $0.18/Nm 3 ).

  8. INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCKS ON Fusarium WILT, NEMATODE INFESTATION, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY IN WATERMELON PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Álvarez-Hernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata rootstock are used to prevent infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in watermelon production; however, this rootstock is not effective against nematode attack. Because of their vigor, the grafted plants can be planted at lower plant densities than the non-grafted plants. The tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in watermelon plants grafted onto a hybrid of Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta or the Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata cv Super Shintoza rootstocks. The densities of plants were 2083 and 4166 plants ha-1. Non-grafted watermelons were the controls. The Crunchy Red and Sangría watermelon cultivars were used as the scions, it the latter as a pollinator. The experiments were performed for two production cycles in soils infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita. The incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum was significantly greater in the non-grafted than in the grafted plants. The grafted plants presented similar resistance to Fusarium regardless of the rootstock. The root-knot galling index for Meloidogyne incognita was significantly lower in plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta than onto the other rootstock. The yields of plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta grown at both plant densities were significantly higher than in the other treatments.

  9. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome and Hormonal Regulation of Pollinated and Parthenocarpic Fig (Ficus carica L. Fruit Suggest that Fruit Ripening is Coordinated by the Reproductive Part of the Syconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogev Rosianski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the unconventional climacteric fig (Ficus carica fruit, pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit of the same genotype exhibit different ripening characteristics. Integrative comparative analyses of tissue-specific transcript and of hormone levels during fruit repining from pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fig fruit were employed to unravel the similarities and differences in their regulatory processes during fruit repining. Assembling tissue-specific transcripts into 147,000 transcripts with 53,000 annotated genes provided new insights into the spatial distribution of many classes of regulatory and structural genes, including those related to color, taste and aroma, storage, protein degradation, seeds and embryos, chlorophyll, and hormones. Comparison of the pollinated and parthenocarpic tissues during fruit ripening showed differential gene expression, especially in the fruit inflorescence. The distinct physiological green phase II and ripening phase III differed significantly in their gene-transcript patterns in both pulp and inflorescence tissues. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole fruits enabled the first determination of ripening-related hormone levels from pollinated and non-pollinated figs. Ethylene and auxin both increased during fruit ripening, irrespective of pollination, whereas no production of active gibberellins or cytokinins was found in parthenocarpic or pollinated ripening fruit. Tissue-specific transcriptome revealed apparent different metabolic gene patterns for ethylene, auxin and ABA in pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fruit, mostly in the fruit inflorescence. Our results demonstrate that the production of abscisic acid (ABA, non-active ABA–GE conjugate and non-active indoleacetic acid (IAA–Asp conjugate in pollinated fruits is much higher than in parthenocarpic fruits. We suggest that fruit ripening is coordinated by the reproductive part of the syconium and the differences in ABA production between pollinated and

  10. The dominant allele Aft induces a shift from flavonol to anthocyanin production in response to UV-B radiation in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catola, Stefano; Castagna, Antonella; Santin, Marco; Calvenzani, Valentina; Petroni, Katia; Mazzucato, Andrea; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2017-08-01

    The introgression of the A ft allele into domesticated tomato induced a shift from flavonol to anthocyanin production in response to UV-B radiation, while the hp - 1 allele negatively influenced the response of flavonoid biosynthesis to UV-B. Introgression of the dominant allele Anthocyanin fruit (Aft) from Solanum chilense induces anthocyanin accumulation in the peel of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit. UV-B radiation can influence plant secondary metabolism regulating the expression of several genes, among which those involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. Here, we investigated whether post-harvest UV-B treatment could up-regulate flavonoid production in tomato fruits and whether the Aft allele could affect flavonoid biosynthesis under UV-B radiation. Mature green fruits of an anthocyanin-rich tomato mutant line (SA206) and of its wild-type reference, cv. Roma, were daily subjected to post-harvest UV-B treatment until full ripening. Up-regulation of CHS and CHI transcription by UV-B treatment induced flavonoid accumulation in the peel of cv. Roma. Conversely, UV-B decreased the total flavonoid content and CHS transcript levels in the SA206 peel. SA206 being a double mutant containing also hp-1 allele, we investigated also the behavior of hp-1 fruit. The decreased peel flavonoid accumulation and gene transcription in response to UV-B suggest that hp-1 allele is involved in the marked down-regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis observed in SA206 fruit. Interestingly, in SA206, UV-B radiation promoted the synthesis of delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin by increasing F3'5'H and DFR transcription, but it decreased rutin production, suggesting a switch from flavonols to anthocyanins. Finally, although UV-B radiation does not reach the inner fruit tissues, it down-regulated flavonoid biosynthesis in the flesh of both genotypes. This study provides, for the first time, evidence that the presence of the functional Aft allele, under UV-B radiation, redirects

  11. Volatile Composition and Enantioselective Analysis of Chiral Terpenoids of Nine Fruit and Vegetable Fibres Resulting from Juice Industry By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Marsol-Vall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable fibres resulting as by-products of the fruit juice industry have won popularity because they can be valorised as food ingredients. In this regard, bioactive compounds have already been studied but little attention has been paid to their remaining volatiles. Considering all the samples, 57 volatiles were identified. Composition greatly differed between citrus and noncitrus fibres. The former presented over 90% of terpenoids, with limonene being the most abundant and ranging from 52.7% in lemon to 94.0% in tangerine flesh. Noncitrus fibres showed more variable compositions, with the predominant classes being aldehydes in apple (57.5% and peach (69.7%, esters (54.0% in pear, and terpenoids (35.3% in carrot fibres. In addition, enantioselective analysis of some of the chiral terpenoids present in the fibre revealed that the enantiomeric ratio for selected compounds was similar to the corresponding volatile composition of raw fruits and vegetables and some derivatives, with the exception of terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, which showed variation, probably due to the drying process. The processing to which fruit residues were submitted produced fibres with low volatile content for noncitrus products. Otherwise, citrus fibres analysed still presented a high volatile composition when compared with noncitrus ones.

  12. An innovative model of integrated mentorship in film production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Miha Jambrek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author focuses on an innovative approach towards mentoring in film production. Emphasis is placed on a model of integrated mentorship in which the mentor becomes a part of the creative process. The mentor operates from within the creative process and works on an equal basis with the mentee in areas such as production, brainstorming, and problem-solving. This kind of approach assumes reciprocal learning and uses an adult education methodology in a formal pedagogical process. Our research was conducted as a participatory research observation, with participation in several short film productions at the Ljubljana High School for Media and Graphic Technology and the Artes Liberales Film Academy.

  13. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning from...... economics through design to functionality. An LCA study was performed to quantify the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity use in the manufacture of a light-weight lamp based on a plastic foil, a lithium-polymer battery, a polymer solar cell, printed circuitry, blocking diode......, switch and a white light emitting semiconductor diode. The polymer solar cell employed in this prototype presents a power conversion efficiency in the range of 2 to 3% yielding energy payback times (EPBT) in the range of 1.3–2 years. Based on this it is worthwhile to undertake a life-cycle study...

  14. The Effectiveness of A School-Based Nutrition Intervention on Children's Fruit, Vegetables, and Dairy Product Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Vicky; Savard, Mathieu; Gallant, Annette; Nadeau, Luc; Gagnon, Jocelyn

    2016-05-01

    Most Canadian children do not meet daily recommendations for consumption of vegetables and fruits (V/F) and dairy products (DP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Team Nutriathlon on V/F and DP consumption of children. Participants were 404 children from grades 5 and 6 (intervention group [IG] N = 242, control group [CG] N = 162). Teams of children were guided to increase their consumption and variety of V/F and DP over an 8-week period. Daily servings of V/F and DP were compared between groups at 4 time points: baseline (week 0), during (week 6), immediately after (week 9 or 10), and a follow-up 10 weeks after (week 20) the intervention. During and after the program and at follow-up, children in the IG consumed more servings of V/F and DP compared to the CG (group × time, p .05). Team Nutriathlon is an innovative school-based nutrition program that can help to increase the V/F and DP consumption of children. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  15. Enzymatic production of cellulose nanofibers from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) with crude cellulase of Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Dungani, Rudi; Amelia, Cindy

    2018-03-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass was used as a source for isolation of cellulose nanofibers (CNF) using enzymatic method. Non-cellulosic component were removed from biomass by delignification process using inoculum of Marasmius sp. Nanocellulose production began with cryocrushing pre-treatment, enzyme addition, and post-treatment with sonication. In enzyme addition, crushed EFB suspended in sodium-citrate buffer and various percentage of crude cellulase enzyme from Trichoderma sp. which is 50%, 100%, and 200% (v/w), followed by incubation in various period which is 2, 3, and 4 days. Particle size analyzer, Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transmmission infrared spectroscopy were used to determine the properties of CNF. Maximum CNF size distribution of 2, 3, and 4 days incubation period was 30.717 and 70 nm, respectively (50% (v/w)); 94.75 and 635 nm, respectively (100% (v/w)); 837.51 and 433 nm, respectively (200% (v/w)). Almost 100% yield achieved from variation of 50% (v/w) enzyme and 2 days incubation period. FTIR spectroscopy analysis showed that some impurities in nanocellulose. SEM analysis showed that fibril nanocellulose, with larger size than PSA, mainly because aggregation of nanocellulose.

  16. Chemical, structural and combustion characteristics of carbonaceous products obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of palm empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshetti, Ganesh K; Kent Hoekman, S; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2013-05-01

    A carbon-rich solid product, denoted as hydrochar, was synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB), at different pre-treatment temperatures of 150, 250 and 350 °C. The conversion of the raw biomass to its hydrochar occurred via dehydration and decarboxylation processes. The hydrochar produced at 350 °C had the maximum energy-density (>27 MJ kg(-1)) with 68.52% of raw EFB energy retained in the char. To gain a detailed insight into the chemical and structural properties, carbonaceous hydrochar materials were characterized by FE-SEM, FT-IR, XRD and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. This work also investigated the influence of hydrothermally treated hydrochars on the co-combustion characteristics of low rank Indonesian coal. Conventional thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) parameters, kinetics and activation energy of different hydrochar and coal blends were estimated. Our results show that solid hydrochars improve the combustion of low rank coals for energy generation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical and functional properties of fiber rich fractions derived from by-products of six fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index.

  18. Improving availability, promotion and purchase of fruit and vegetable and non sugar-sweetened drink products at community sporting clubs: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Kingsland, Melanie; Rowland, Bosco C; Dodds, Pennie; Gillham, Karen; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sidey, Maree; Wiggers, John

    2015-03-10

    Amateur sporting clubs represent an attractive setting for health promotion. This study assesses the impact of a multi-component intervention on the availability, promotion and purchase of fruit and vegetable and non sugar -sweetened drink products from community sporting club canteens. We also assessed the impact the intervention on sporting club revenue from the sale of food and beverages. A repeat cross-sectional, parallel group, cluster randomized controlled trial was undertaken with amateur community football clubs in New South Wales, Australia. The intervention was conducted over 2.5 winter sporting seasons and sought to improve the availability and promotion of fruit and vegetables and non sugar-sweetened drinks in sporting club canteens. Trial outcomes were assessed via telephone surveys of sporting club representatives and members. Eighty five sporting clubs and 1143 club members participated in the study. Relative to the control group, at follow-up, clubs allocated to the intervention were significantly more likely to have fruit and vegetable products available at the club canteen (OR = 5.13; 95% CI 1.70-15.38), were more likely to promote fruit and vegetable selection using reduced pricing and meal deals (OR = 34.48; 95% CI 4.18-250.00) and members of intervention clubs were more likely to report purchase of fruit and vegetable (OR = 2.58 95% CI; 1.08-6.18) and non sugar -sweetened drink (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.09-2.25) products. There was no significant difference between groups in the annual club revenue from food and non-alcoholic beverage sales. The findings demonstrate that the intervention can improve the nutrition environment of sporting clubs and the purchasing behaviour of members. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000224224 .

  19. Biogas Production from Palm Oil Fruit Bunch in Anaerobic Biodigester through Liquid State (LS-AD and Solid State (SS-AD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Bakti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The crucial problem facing the world today is energy resources. Waste production of palm oil fruit bunch potentially produce as renewable energy resource. Palm oil fruit bunch contains 44% cellulose, 18% lignin and 34% hemicellulose. Organic carbon source is contained in biomass potentially produce biogas. Biogas is one of alternative energy, which is environmentally friendly and has been widely developed. This research is aimed to examine the effect of pretreatment in raw material of waste palm oil fruit bunch for the production of biogas, the effect of time, ratio C/N, and effect of microbial consortium. The variables are total solid (TS used 10% and 18% with a 40 mesh physical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment with NaOH 8% gr / gr TS, and biology 5% g/vol with microbial consortium. Biogas production process was conducted over 2 months in room temperature, the test response quantitative results in the form of biogas volume every 2 days and also flame test. The result of this research shows that the highest daily production rate of biogas obtained from this study was 5,73 ml/gr TS and the highest biogas production accumulation generated at 58,28 ml/gr TS produced through a 40 mesh sieve of waste oil palm empty fruit bunch, immersion in NaOH, through solid state fermentation and C/N 30. From this research, it can be concluded that the optimum production of biogas formation occurs with the value of C/N 30, physical and biological pretreatment, and solid state method.

  20. Consumer Preference Towards Fruit Leather Attributes of Madurese Exotic Tropical Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elys Fauziyah

    2018-01-01

    Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the l...

  1. Application of pulsed electric field in the production of juice and extraction of bioactive compounds from blueberry fruits and their by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobinaitė, Ramunė; Pataro, Gianpiero; Lamanauskas, Nerijus; Šatkauskas, Saulius; Viškelis, Pranas; Ferrari, Giovanna

    2015-09-01

    The influence of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) pre-treatment of blueberry fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), both on the extraction yield and antioxidant properties of juice obtained by pressing and on the on the recovery of bioactive compounds from berry by-products (press cake) by extraction with solvent, was investigated. PEF treatments carried out at field strengths of 1, 3, and 5 kV/cm and an energy input of 10 kJ/kg achieved a cell disintegration index (Z p ) of 0.70, 0.80, and 0.87, respectively. Mechanical pressing (1.32 bar for 8 min) of PEF-treated berries (1, 3, and 5 kV/cm at 10 kJ/kg) significantly increased the juice yield (+28 %) compared with the untreated sample. The juice obtained from PEF pre-treated berries also had a significantly higher total phenolic content (+43 %), total anthocyanin content (+60 %) and antioxidant activity (+31 %). However, PEF treatment intensity higher than 1 kV/cm did not significantly improve the quantitative or qualitative characteristics of the juice. Compared to the untreated sample, higher amounts of total phenolics (+63 %), total athocyanins (+78 %) and antioxidant activity (+65 %) were detected in the press cake extracts. PEF treatment of higher intensity resulted in better extractability of bioactive compounds from blueberry press cake. The results obtained from this study demonstrate the potential of PEF as a mild pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of the industrial processing of berry fruits.

  2. Integration of landslide susceptibility products in the environmental plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are one of the most destructive natural hazard that causes damages to urban area worldwide. The knowledge of where a landslide could occur is essential for the strategic management of the territory and for a good urban planning . In this contest landslide susceptibility zoning (LSZ) is crucial to provide information on the degree to which an area can be affected by future slope movements. Despite landslide susceptibility maps have been prepared extensively during the last decades, there are few examples of application is in the environmental plans (EP). In this work we present a proposal for the integration of the landslide inventory map with the following landslide susceptibility products: (i) landslide susceptibility zonation , (ii) the associated error map and (iii) the susceptibility uncertainty map. Moreover we proposed to incorporate detailed morphological studies for the evaluation of landslide risk associated to local parceling plan. The integration of all this information is crucial for the management of landslide risk in urban expansions forecasts. Municipality, province and regional administration are often not able to support the costs of landslide risk evaluation for extensive areas but should concentrate their financial resources to specific hazardous and unsafe situations defined by the result of the integration of landslide susceptibility products. Zonation and detail morphological analysis should be performed taking into account the existing laws and regulations, and could become a starting point to discuss new regulations for the landslide risk management.

  3. Interferon production and signaling pathways are antagonized during henipavirus infection of fruit bat cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena R Virtue

    Full Text Available Bats are natural reservoirs for a spectrum of infectious zoonotic diseases including the recently emerged henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses. Henipaviruses have been observed both naturally and experimentally to cause serious and often fatal disease in many different mammal species, including humans. Interestingly, infection of the flying fox with henipaviruses occurs in the absence of clinical disease. The extreme variation in the disease pattern between humans and bats has led to an investigation into the effects of henipavirus infection on the innate immune response in bat cell lines. We report that henipavirus infection does not result in the induction of interferon expression, and the viruses also inhibit interferon signaling. We also confirm that the interferon production and signaling block in bat cells is not due to differing viral protein expression levels between human and bat hosts. This information, in addition to the known lack of clinical signs in bats following henipavirus infection, suggests that bats control henipavirus infection by an as yet unidentified mechanism, not via the interferon response. This is the first report of henipavirus infection in bat cells specifically investigating aspects of the innate immune system.

  4. In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Acca sellowiana Fruit Extract on End Products of Advanced Glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, Alethia; Garcia, Abraham H; Pérez, Rosa M; García, Efren V; González, Daphne E

    2018-02-01

    Hyperglycemia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, as it increases protein glycation, as well as the progressive accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are complex structures that produce fluorescence. The glycation reaction raises the levels of protein carbonyl, N ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and fructosamine and decreases the level of thiol groups. In the present study, the antiglycation activity was determined by fluorescence intensity using the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose, CML method, and the level of fructosamine. The oxidation of proteins was determined by the carbonyl protein content and thiol groups. The results show that the hexane extract of Acca sellowiana (FOH) at different concentrations (0.30-5 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of AGEs in the BSA/glucose model during the 4 weeks of the study. FOH reduced the levels of fructosamine and CML. Our results showed a significant effect of FOH in the prevention of oxidative damage of proteins, as well as an effect on the oxidation of thiol groups and carbonyl proteins. The present study indicates that FOH is effective in inhibiting the glycation of proteins in vitro, so it can prevent or ameliorate the chronic conditions of diabetes associated with the formation of AGEs.

  5. Simulation of oxygen-steam gasification with CO{sub 2} adsorption for hydrogen production from empty fruit bunch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M.M.; Inayat, A.; Yusup, S.; Sabil, K.M. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh (Malaysia). Center of Biofuel and Biochemical, Green Technology Mission Oriented Research

    2011-07-01

    The world is facing a critical situation in which fossil fuel reservoir is depleting while the demand for energy is increasing worldwide. Scientists globally have shifted their effort towards developing alternative sustainable fuels and quite a number of technologies have been discovered. One potential alternative solution is to produce energy from hydrogen as its energy content per kilogram is three times larger than that of gasoline. The combustion of hydrogen produces water instead of greenhouse gases, along with energy, making hydrogen even more attractive as a clean fuel. Current study focuses on the process development of hydrogen production via gasification of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) with in-situ adsorption of CO{sub 2} based on equilibrium modeling approach. The process flowsheet simulation is performed using iCON, PETRONAS process simulation software. This work investigates the influence of the temperature within the range of 600 to 1000 C and steam/biomass ratio between 0.1 and 1.0 on the hydrogen yield and product gas composition. The importance of different reactions involved in the system is also discussed. Using the simulation, the optimal operating conditions are predicted to be at 800 C and steam/biomass ratio of 0.6. Hydrogen yield of 149g kg{sup -1} of EFB can be obtained at 1000 C. The preliminary economic potential per annum of the oxygen-steam gasification system coupled with in situ CO{sub 2} adsorption is RM 6.64 x 10{sup 6} or approximately USD 2 x 10{sup 6}.

  6. The product form for path integrals on curved manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosche, C.

    1988-03-01

    A general and simple framework for treating path integrals on curved manifolds is presented. The crucial point will be a product ansatz for the metric tensor and the quantum hamiltonian, i.e. we shall write g αβ = h αγh βγ and H = (1/2m)h αγp αp βh βγ + V + ΔV , respectively, a prescription which we shall call “product form” definition. The p α are hermitian momenta and Δ V is a well-defined quantum correction. We shall show that this ansatz, which looks quite special, is in fact - under reasonable assumptions in quantum mechanics - a very general one. We shall derive the lagrangian path integral in the “product form” definition and shall also prove that the Schro¨dinger equation can be derived from the corresponding short-time kernel. We shall discuss briefly an application of this prescription to the problem of free quantum motion on the Poincare´upper half-plane.

  7. Integration of Mobile Manipulators in an Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole; Bøgh, Simon; Schou, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the technology of autonomous mobile manipulation in a real world industrial manufacturing environment. The objective has been to obtain experience in the integration with existing equipment and determine key challenges in maturing...... reports from such a real-world industrial experiment with two mobile manipulators. Design/methodology/approach – In the experiment, autonomous industrial mobile manipulators are integrated into the actual manufacturing environment of the pump manufacturer Grundfos. The two robots together solve the task...... of producing rotors; a task constituted by several sub-tasks ranging from logistics to complex assembly. With a total duration of 10 days, the experiment includes workspace adaptation, safety regulations, rapid robot instruction and running production. Findings – With a setup time of less than one day...

  8. HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

    2010-10-01

    As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal

  9. HTGR-Integrated Coal To Liquids Production Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandrik, Anastasia M.; Wood, Rick A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the DOE's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to 'shift' the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700 C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: (1) 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66

  10. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Evaluacion de productividad y calidad de fruta en aguacate Hass sometido a radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz T, E. De la; Ibanez P, J; Mijares O, P; Garcia A, J M [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Biologia, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO{sub 2}/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

  11. Biodiesel production from Kutkura (Meyna spinosa Roxb. Ex.) fruit seed oil: Its characterization and engine performance evaluation with 10% and 20% blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakati, J.; Gogoi, T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel is produced from Kutkura seed oil and its fatty acid composition is determined. • Important fuel properties of biodiesel derived from Kutkura seed oil are evaluated. • Properties of Kutkura seed oil and biodiesel are compared with other tree seed biodiesels. • Engine performance of 10% (B10) and 20% (B20) blending of Kutkura biodiesel is reported. • B10 and B20 showed better performance than conventional diesel fuel. - Abstract: Kutkura (Meyna spinosa Roxb.) is a plant species in the genus Meyna from the Rubiaceae family. Kutkura fruits are food items; the fruits and the leaves of the Kutkura plant are also used in traditional medicine. In this article, biodiesel produced from Kutkura fruit seed oil is characterized and compared with other tree seed based biodiesels. Oil content in Kutkura fruit seed was found 35.45%. Free fatty acid (FFA) content in the oil was 3.1%, hence base catalyzed transesterification was used directly for biodiesel production from Kutkura fruit seed oil. Kutkura fruit seed oil contained 7.187% palmitic, 5.382% stearic, 30.251% oleic and 52.553% linoleic acid. Calorific value, kinematic viscosity and density of Kutkura fruit seed oil were found 38.169 MJ/kg, 28.92 mm"2/s and 922.5 kg/m"3 respectively. However, after transesterification, these properties improved to 39.717 MJ/kg, 5.601 mm"2/s and 885.3 kg/m"3 respectively in case of the Kutkura fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Apart from water content, all other properties of Kutkura FAME met the ASTM (D6751) and (EN14214) standards. Blending of Kutkura FAME with diesel up to 20% (vol.) however reduced water content down to an acceptable level of 0.038 wt.%. The kinematic viscosity also reduced to the level of conventional diesel after blending. Further, an engine performance study with biodiesel blends (B10 and B20) showed almost similar fuel consumption rate with diesel. Engine brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was more while the smoke emission was less with B

  12. The Integration Method of Ceramic Arts in the Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuxin, Wang

    2018-03-01

    As one of the four ancient civilization countries, the firing technology of ceramic invented by China has made a great contribution to the progress and development of human society. In modern life, even the development of technology still needs the ceramics, there are large number of artists who take the ceramics as carrier active in the field of contemporary art. The ceramics can be seen everywhere in our daily life, this paper mainly discusses the integration means of ceramic art in the product design.

  13. INTEGRATED METHODOLOGY FOR PRODUCT PLANNING USING MULTI CRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Soota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated approach to multi-criteria decision problems is proposed using quality function deployment and analytical network process. The objective of the work is to rationalize and improve the method of analyzing and interpreting customer needs and technical requirements. The methodology is used to determine, prioritize engineering requirements based on customer needs for development of best product. Framework allows decision maker to decompose a complex problem in a hierarchical structure to show relationship between objective and criteria. Multi-criteria decision modeling is used for extending the hierarchy process to both dependence and feedback. A case study on bikes is presented for the proposed model.

  14. Electrical Integrity Tests during Production of the LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    de Rijk, G; Cornelis, M; Fessia, P; Miles, J; Modena, M; Molinari, G; Rinn, J; Savary, F; Vlogaert, J

    2006-01-01

    For the LHC dipoles, mandatory electrical integrity tests are performed to qualify the cold mass (CM) at four production stages: individual pole, collared coil, CM before end cover welding and final CM. A description of the measurement equipment and its recent development are presented. After passing the demands set out in the specification, the results of the tests are transmitted to CERN where they are further analyzed. The paper presents the most important results of these measurements. We also report a review of the electrical non-conformities encountered e.g. interturn shorts and quench heater failure, their diagnostic and the cures.

  15. Biorefineries to integrate fuel, energy and chemical production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Bargiacchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The world of renewable energies is in fast evolution and arouses political and public interests, especially as an opportunity to boost environmental sustainability by mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This work aims at examining the possibilities related to the development of biorefineries, where biomass conversion processes to produce biofuels, electricity and biochemicals are integrated. Particular interest is given to the production processes of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, for which present world situation, problems, and perspectives are drawn. Potential areas for agronomic and biotech researches are also discussed. Producing biomass for biorefinery processing will eventually lead to maximize yields, in the non food agriculture.

  16. Product architecture development enabling integrated re-design of mechanical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begelinger, R.E.; Post, E.; van Houten, F.J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Global competition forces companies to increase their competitive advantage. The design process represents an interesting area to improve the overall business performance. There are two topics involved in improving the design process. The first one is the integration of constraints from the product

  17. Numerical evaluation of integrals containing a spherical Bessel function by product integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, D.R.; Parke, W.C.; Maximon, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    A method is developed for numerical evaluation of integrals with k-integration range from 0 to infinity that contain a spherical Bessel function j/sub l/(kr) explicitly. The required quadrature weights are easily calculated and the rate of convergence is rapid: only a relatively small number of quadrature points is needed: for an accurate evaluation even when r is large. The quadrature rule is obtained by the method of product integration. With the abscissas chosen to be those of Clenshaw--Curtis and the Chebyshev polynomials as the interpolating polynomials, quadrature weights are obtained that depend on the spherical Bessel function. An inhomogenous recurrence relation is derived from which the weights can be calculated without accumulation of roundoff error. The procedure is summarized as an easily implementable algorithm. Questions of convergence are discussed and the rate of convergence demonstrated for several test integrals. Alternative procedures are given for generating the integration weights and an error analysis of the method is presented

  18. Evaluation palm empty fruit bunch and its fermented products as feed for ruminant animal by nutritional values characterisation and in-vitro dry matter digestibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Wan Badrin Wan Husain; Tajuddin Osman; Mohd Sukri Mahmood; Norihan Zainal; Zal U'yun Wan Mahmod; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Yusri Atan

    1995-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermented by Pleurotus sajor caju as ruminant feed has been investigated extensively. This paper evaluates products obtained from several manipulation. The manipulation includes pretreatment (soaked and mixed) of EFB with lime, variation of fermentation conditions: prolonged incubation period, varied incubation temperature and addition Palm Oil Sludge (POS) as additive; and post-fermentation manipulation such as harvesting mushroom out of the substratum. The fermented products from each of those manipulation were evaluated based on nutritional values and the pertinent in-vitro dry matter digestibility, whenever appropriate. The evaluated products were compared and discussed. 8 tabs

  19. Integration of Titan supercomputer at OLCF with ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. PanDA managed resources are distributed worldwide, on hundreds of computing sites, with thousands of physicists accessing hundreds of Petabytes of data and the rate of data processing already exceeds Exabyte per year. While PanDA currently uses more than 200,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. Additional computing and storage resources are required. Therefore ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. In this talk we will describe a project aimed at integration of ATLAS Production System with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA Pilot framework for job...

  20. Integration of Titan supercomputer at OLCF with ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)643806; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Padolski, Siarhei; Panitkin, Sergey; Wenaus, Torre

    2017-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. PanDA managed resources are distributed worldwide, on hundreds of computing sites, with thousands of physicists accessing hundreds of Petabytes of data and the rate of data processing already exceeds Exabyte per year. While PanDA currently uses more than 200,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. Additional computing and storage resources are required. Therefore ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. In this paper we will describe a project aimed at integration of ATLAS Production System with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA Pilot framework for jo...

  1. INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND ENTERPRISE DESIGN FOR GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Du Preez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presentsan overview of the challenge to integrate product and process life cycles in maintaining global competitiveness of an enterprise and proposes IEKOS as a possible solution . It provides the reader with a framework of two virtual life cycles which create a problem solving matrix for the industrial engineer. In this matrix, bordered by the virtual enterprise life cycle and the virtual product life cycles, the business functions of analyze, design deploy and operate are predominantly functions executed by the, industrial engineer. The different phases of each life cycle serves as a framework to a virtual industrial engineering toolkit providing access to detailed functions, formats, examples and a series of software and other "tools" available to the industrial engineer.
    In conclusion a brief overview is provided of the progress of the IEKOS toolkit which is under development at the department of Industrial Engineering at Stellenbosch University.

  2. Apex pruning in pumpkin for fruit and seed production=Poda apical para produção de frutos e sementes de abóbora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Toledo Rodrigues Claudio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The tip pruning stimulates the emission of lateral shoots, thus can produce higher number of flowers, fruits and seeds. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of apex pruning on fruit and seed production in pumpkin. The treatments consisted of plants without pruning, with pruning in the sixth, eighth and tenth node of main stem. The experimental design was a randomized block, with six replications. It was studied a line of pumpkin of the Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Estadual Paulista/Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas. The characteristics evaluated were: number of branches per plant and fruit position in branches of the plant production (number and weight of fruits per plant, fruit yield, fruit average weight, fruit length and diameter, seed weight per fruit, seed yield and quality (germination test, first count, thousand seed weight, emergence, speed of emergence and accelerated aging. There was a significant difference only for number of secondary branches per plant and thousand seed weight, with larger values for plants that have not been pruned. It was obtained high average of germination (94% and good fruit (16.9 t ha-1 and seed (148 kg ha-1 yield. The apex pruning does not influence the production of fruits and seeds, as well as the physiological seed quality in pumpkin =A poda apical estimula a emissão de brotos laterais, com isso pode haver maior formação de flores e frutos e, consequentemente, maior número de sementes. Diante disso, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da poda da haste principal para a produção de frutos e sementes de abóbora. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de plantas sem poda, com poda no sexto, oitavo e décimo nó da haste principal. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. Foi utilizada a linhagem de abóbora do tipo braquítica do Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual Paulista/Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas. Foram avaliadas as seguintes caracter

  3. 75 FR 49524 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  4. 76 FR 34101 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  5. 75 FR 65654 - In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  6. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.

  7. Integrating mechanisms of visual guidance in naturalistic language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Moreno I; Keller, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Situated language production requires the integration of visual attention and linguistic processing. Previous work has not conclusively disentangled the role of perceptual scene information and structural sentence information in guiding visual attention. In this paper, we present an eye-tracking study that demonstrates that three types of guidance, perceptual, conceptual, and structural, interact to control visual attention. In a cued language production experiment, we manipulate perceptual (scene clutter) and conceptual guidance (cue animacy) and measure structural guidance (syntactic complexity of the utterance). Analysis of the time course of language production, before and during speech, reveals that all three forms of guidance affect the complexity of visual responses, quantified in terms of the entropy of attentional landscapes and the turbulence of scan patterns, especially during speech. We find that perceptual and conceptual guidance mediate the distribution of attention in the scene, whereas structural guidance closely relates to scan pattern complexity. Furthermore, the eye-voice span of the cued object and its perceptual competitor are similar; its latency mediated by both perceptual and structural guidance. These results rule out a strict interpretation of structural guidance as the single dominant form of visual guidance in situated language production. Rather, the phase of the task and the associated demands of cross-modal cognitive processing determine the mechanisms that guide attention.

  8. Occurrence of Cellulose-Producing Gluconacetobacter spp. in Fruit Samples and Kombucha Tea, and Production of the Biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neera; Ramana, Karna Venkata; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose producing bacteria were isolated from fruit samples and kombucha tea (a fermented beverage) using CuSO4 solution in modified Watanabe and Yamanaka medium to inhibit yeasts and molds. Six bacterial strains showing cellulose production were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain DFBT, Ga. xylinus strain dfr-1, Gluconobacter oxydans strain dfr-2, G. oxydans strain dfr-3, Acetobacter orientalis strain dfr-4, and Gluconacetobacter intermedius strain dfr-5. All the cellulose-producing bacteria were checked for the cellulose yield. A potent cellulose-producing bacterium, i.e., Ga. xylinus strain DFBT based on yield (cellulose yield 5.6 g/L) was selected for further studies. Cellulose was also produced in non- conventional media such as pineapple juice medium and hydrolysed corn starch medium. A very high yield of 9.1 g/L cellulose was obtained in pineapple juice medium. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis of the bacterial cellulose showed the characteristic peaks. Soft cellulose with a very high water holding capacity was produced using limited aeration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the surface characteristics of normal bacterial cellulose and soft cellulose. The structural analysis of the polymer was performed using (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More interfibrillar space was observed in the case of soft cellulose as compared to normal cellulose. This soft cellulose can find potential applications in the food industry as it can be swallowed easily without chewing.

  9. Integrated Production-Distribution Scheduling Problem with Multiple Independent Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the nonstandard parts supply chain with a public service platform for machinery integration in China. The platform assigns orders placed by a machinery enterprise to multiple independent manufacturers who produce nonstandard parts and makes production schedule and batch delivery schedule for each manufacturer in a coordinate manner. Each manufacturer has only one plant with parallel machines and is located at a location far away from other manufacturers. Orders are first processed at the plants and then directly shipped from the plants to the enterprise in order to be finished before a given deadline. We study the above integrated production-distribution scheduling problem with multiple manufacturers to maximize a weight sum of the profit of each manufacturer under the constraints that all orders are finished before the deadline and the profit of each manufacturer is not negative. According to the optimal condition analysis, we formulate the problem as a mixed integer programming model and use CPLEX to solve it.

  10. USING DEMATEL-ANP INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR DECIDING PRODUCTION STRATEGY FOR A PRODUCTION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan APAK

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Production planning includes push, pull and hybrid production systems that production firms determine their production strategies according to many variables before starting production. The administration of this process requires experience and time. The intensity of rivalry makes this kind of decision processes important, because no firm has the luxury to waste time and to make a wrong decision. In order to solve this problem, research proposes to use integrated decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL and analytic network process (ANP together which are methods of multi-criteria decision-making models. The process being used to establish which options are found to be most acceptable for operations managers has been demonstrated how applicable it is by using the generated model in automotive industry.

  11. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  13. INTEGRATED COST MODEL FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION IN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hajduova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: All processes in the company play important role in ensuring functional integrated management system. We point out the importance of need for a systematic approach to the use of quantitative, but especially statistical methods for modelling the cost of the improvement activities that are part of an integrated management system. Development of integrated management systems worldwide leads towards building of systematic procedures of implementation maintenance and improvement of all systems according to the requirements of all the sides involved.Methodology: Statistical evaluation of the economic indicators of improvement costs and the need for a systematic approach to their management in terms of integrated management systems have become a key role also in the management of processes in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. The aim of this publication is to highlight the importance of proper implementation of statistical methods in the process of improvement costs management in the integrated management system of current market conditions and document the legitimacy of a systematic approach in the area of monitoring and analysing indicators of improvement with the aim of the efficient process management of company. We provide specific example of the implementation of appropriate statistical methods in the production of copper wire in a company Cu Drôt, a.s. This publication also aims to create a model for the estimation of integrated improvement costs, which through the use of statistical methods in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. is used to support decision-making on improving efficiency.Findings: In the present publication, a method for modelling the improvement process, by an integrated manner, is proposed. It is a method in which the basic attributes of the improvement in quality, safety and environment are considered and synergistically combined in the same improvement project. The work examines the use of sophisticated quantitative, especially

  14. Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Date Tree Irrigation Project: The specific objectives of this evaluation are threefold: - Performance evaluation of project activities, like the mid-term evaluation,...

  15. Effects of different irrigation practices using treated wastewater on tomato yields, quality, water productivity, and soil and fruit mineral contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Azize Dogan; Sahin, Ustun

    2017-11-01

    Wastewater use in agricultural irrigation is becoming a common practice in order to meet the rising water demands in arid and semi-arid regions. The study was conducted to determine the effects of the full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation practices using treated municipal wastewater (TWW) and freshwater (FW) on tomato yield, water use, fruit quality, and soil and fruit heavy metal concentrations. The TWW significantly increased marketable yield compared to the FW, as well as decreased water consumption. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE) in the TWW was significantly higher than in the FW. Although the DI and the PRD practices caused less yields, these practices significantly increased WUE values due to less irrigation water applied. The water-yield linear relationships were statistically significant. TWW significantly increased titratable acidity and vitamin C contents. Reduced irrigation provided significantly lower titratable acidity, vitamin C, and lycopene contents. TWW increased the surface soil and fruit mineral contents in response to FW. Greater increases were observed under FI, and mineral contents declined with reduction in irrigation water. Heavy metal accumulation in soils was within safe limits. However, Cd and Pb contents in fruits exceeded standard limits given by FAO/WHO. Higher metal pollution index values determined for fruits also indicated that TWW application, especially under FI, might cause health risks in long term.

  16. In vitro food production for isolated closed environments: formation of ripe tomato fruits from excised flower buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, P B; K-Sawhney, R; Galston, A W

    1997-01-01

    Excised preanthesis flower buds of young Pixie Hybrid tomato plants develop into red ripe fruits in aseptic culture on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium with 3% sucrose at pH 5.8. The addition of certain synthetic auxins (IAA, NAA, IBA), auxin precursors (ISA), or cytokinins (KIN, IPA, ZEA, BAP) to the medium improved the percentage of buds developing into fruits, the weight of the ripe fruits, or both. The best results were obtained by an auxin-cytokinin combination of 10 microM IBA with 1 microM BAP. Storage of the excised buds at low temperature (6 degrees C) for up to 4 weeks before transfer to 27 degrees C caused only minimal deterioration in size and number of the fruit crop. Extension of low-temperature storage to 8 weeks produced smaller fruits that took longer to develop. This system could produce fresh, ripe small tomatoes on a sustained basis for up to 2 months for an isolated environment such as a space vehicle or submarine.

  17. Inhibitory effect of double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma on spores and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus niger contaminating date palm fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouf, Salama A; Basher, Abdulrahman H; Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam H

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillus niger has been reported as a potentially dangerous pathogen of date-palm fruits in Saudi Arabia due to the production of fumonisin B2 (FB2 ) and ochratoxin A (OTA). In a trial to disinfect this product, a double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma (DAPACP) jet system was set up and evaluated against spore germination and mycotoxin production of the pathogen. The plasma jets were characterised photographically, electrically and spectroscopically. DAPACP jet length increases with the increase of argon flow rate, with optimum rate at 3.5 L min(-1) . The viability of A. niger spores, inoculated onto sterilised date palm fruit discs, progressively decreases with extension of the exposure time of DAPACP due to the more quantitative amount of OH and O radicals interacting with the examined samples. There was a progressive reduction of the amount of FB2 and OTA detected in date palm discs on extension of the exposure time of the plasma-treated inoculums at flow rate of 3.5 L min(-1) . FB2 was not detected in the discs inoculated with 6-min plasma-treated A. niger, while OTA was completely absent when the fungus was treated for 7.5 min. DAPACP showed promising results in dry fruit decontamination and in inhibition of mycotoxin release by A. niger contaminating the fruits. The progress in the commercial application of cold plasma needs further investigation concerning the ideal width of the plasma output to enable it to cover wider surfaces of the sample and consequently inducing greater plasma performance. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. FAMILY FARMERS AND FRUIT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN ITAPURANGA, GOIÁS, BRAZIL AGRICULTORES FAMILIARES E SISTEMAS DE PRODUÇÃO DE FRUTAS EM ITAPURANGA, GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glays Rodrigues Matos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Itapuranga, a municipality in the State of Goiás, Brazil, has a significant representation of the family agriculture developing fruit production systems, especially passion fruit, papaya, and banana. The objective of this research is to analyze the production systems of the Itapuranga family farmers. The methodology used in this case study is based on the agrarian systems theory. The research techniques used for data collection for the field work were documental search, interviews, and observations. At the beginning, the production systems of the family farmers from Itapuranga comprised diversified crops, primarily for family consumption and commercialization of the surplus. Starting from the 1990s, the family farmers began to develop production systems specialized in fruit crops, integrated with other crop systems and with the dairy cattle system. The research concludes that, despite its limitations, the fruit crop developed in Itapuranga offers excellent potential for sustainable family farming.

    KEY-WORDS: Family farming; agrarian systems; farming systems; production systems; fruit crops.

  19. Production of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Lignin by Chemical and Enzymatic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt. and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17±49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67±0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57±1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68±23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44±6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26±41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21±2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75±3.40 ppm ferulic acid, among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt. was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g−1 lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83±14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19±3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80±1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06±1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19±2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced.

  20. Grower perception of the significance of weaver ants as a fruit fly deterrent in Tanzanian smallholder mango production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Msogoya, Theodosy; Offenberg, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Managed populations of weaver ants in mango trees have been used successfully in Australia, SE Asia and parts of Western Africa to deter fruit flies from ovipositing in ripening fruits. The presence of indigenous weaver ants in mango trees of smallholder growers in Tanzania offers the possibility...... of exploiting them as an affordable, environmentally -friendly method to improve marketable fruit yield and quality. In a preliminary interview study in a mango-growing region of rural Tanzania, the farmers were not convinced of any beneficial, deterrent effect attributable to the indigenous weaver ants...... the development of a significant proportion of any deposited eggs. Subsequent field studies supported the grower perceptions as they recorded only an erratic and limited deterrent effect....

  1. Effect of Cold Stress on Fruiting Body Production by Medicinal Basidiomycetes in Submerged and Solid-phase Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Vetchinkina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the medicinal xylotrophic basidiomycetes Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum and Grifola frondosa to produce typical and atypical fruiting bodies with viable basidiospores in submerged and solid-phase culture under stationary conditions in a beer wort-containing medium under cold stress was shown. The examined mushrooms, when not exposed to temperature stress, did not form fruiting bodies. In solid-phase culture in an agarized medium after cold treatment, the basidiome formation period was shortened by 1.5–2 times. Furthermore, the use of a mycelium subjected to temperature stress for inoculation induced and accelerated the formation of fruiting bodies on an industrial wood substrate, which is of great biotechnological importance.

  2. Forecasting Rice Productivity and Production of Odisha, India, Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting of rice area, production, and productivity of Odisha was made from the historical data of 1950-51 to 2008-09 by using univariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models and was compared with the forecasted all Indian data. The autoregressive (p and moving average (q parameters were identified based on the significant spikes in the plots of partial autocorrelation function (PACF and autocorrelation function (ACF of the different time series. ARIMA (2, 1, 0 model was found suitable for all Indian rice productivity and production, whereas ARIMA (1, 1, 1 was best fitted for forecasting of rice productivity and production in Odisha. Prediction was made for the immediate next three years, that is, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10, using the best fitted ARIMA models based on minimum value of the selection criterion, that is, Akaike information criteria (AIC and Schwarz-Bayesian information criteria (SBC. The performances of models were validated by comparing with percentage deviation from the actual values and mean absolute percent error (MAPE, which was found to be 0.61 and 2.99% for the area under rice in Odisha and India, respectively. Similarly for prediction of rice production and productivity in Odisha and India, the MAPE was found to be less than 6%.

  3. Modeling of fission product release in integral codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidurrahman, K.; Raman, Rupak K.; Gaikwad, Avinash J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami that stroke the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station in March 11, 2011 has intensified the needs of detailed nuclear safety research and with this objective all streams associated with severe accident phenomenology are being revisited thoroughly. The present paper would cover an overview of state of art FP release models being used, the important phenomenon considered in semi-mechanistic models and knowledge gaps in present FP release modeling. Capability of FP release module, ELSA of ASTEC integral code in appropriate prediction of FP release under several diversified core degraded conditions will also be demonstrated. Use of semi-mechanistic fission product release models at AERB in source-term estimation shall be briefed. (author)

  4. Information delivery manuals to integrate building product information into design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berard, Ole Bengt; Karlshøj, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Despite continuing BIM progress, professionals in the AEC industry often lack the information they need to perform their work. Although this problem could be alleviated by information systems similar to those in other industries, companies struggle to model processes and information needs...... them in information systems. BIM implies that objects are bearers of information and logic. The present study has three main aims: (1) to explore IDMs capability to capture all four perspectives, (2) to determine whether an IDM’s collaborative methodology is valid for developing standardized processes......, and (3) to ascertain whether IDM’s business rules can support the development of information and logic-bearing BIM objects. The research is based on a case study of re-engineering the bidding process for a design-build project to integrate building product manufacturers, subcontractors...

  5. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The producers and traders of fresh fruit and the processers should implement quality management practices and safety standards in farming, fresh fruit, processing and storage. This is to ensure safety, enhance consumption of fruits and fruit products for health of consumers and eliminate wastage. Key words: Fresh fruit, ...

  6. Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control.

  7. Integrated anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for intensive swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortone, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    Manure processing could help farmers to effectively manage nitrogen (N) surplus load. Many pig farms have to treat wastewater. Piggery wastewater treatment is a complex challenge, due to the high COD and N concentrations and low C/N ratio. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be a convenient pre-treatment, particularly from the energetic view point and farm income, but this causes further reduction of C/N ratio and makes denitrification difficult. N removal can only be obtained integrating anaerobic/aerobic treatment by taking into account the best use of electron donors. Experiences gained in Italy during development of integrated biological treatment approaches for swine manure, from bench to full scale, are reported in this paper. Solid/liquid separation as pre-treatment of raw manure is an efficient strategy to facilitate liquid fraction treatment without significantly lowering C/N ratio. In Italy, two full scale SBRs showed excellent efficiency and reliability. Current renewable energy policy and incentives makes economically attractive the application of AD to the separated solid fraction using high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) technology. Economic evaluation showed that energy production can reduce costs up to 60%, making sustainable the overall treatment.

  8. Morinda citrifolia (Noni Fruit Juice Reduces Inflammatory Cytokines Expression and Contributes to the Maintenance of Intestinal Mucosal Integrity in DSS Experimental Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coutinho de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia L. (noni has been shown to treat different disorders. However, data concerning its role in the treatment of intestinal inflammation still require clarification. In the current study, we investigated the effects of noni fruit juice (NFJ in the treatment of C57BL/6 mice, which were continuously exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS for 9 consecutive days. NFJ consumption had no impact on the reduction of the clinical signs of the disease or on weight loss. Nonetheless, when a dilution of 1 : 10 was used, the intestinal architecture of the mice was preserved, accompanied by a reduction in the inflammatory infiltrate. Regardless of the concentration of NFJ, a decrease in both the activity of myeloperoxidase and the key inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ, was also observed in the intestine. Furthermore, when NFJ was diluted 1 : 10 and 1 : 100, a reduction in the production of nitric oxide and IL-17 was detected in gut homogenates. Overall, the treatment with NFJ was effective in different aspects associated with disease progression and worsening. These results may point to noni fruit as an important source of anti-inflammatory molecules with a great potential to inhibit the progression of inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  9. Connecting Social Actors in Developing Integrated Tourism Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Marija Colarič-Jakše

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Our base of the research was the social capital and its impact on the recognition of the opportunities to innovate the tourism products by invigorating the innovative culture of tourism structures in Slovenia and stimulating the collective cooperation of the tourism stakeholders on the global market. Purpose: Our goal is to make clear the role of the civil society, private enterprises, and organizationsfrom public sector and small entrepreneurs in the creating of social capital, which is the base for the innovation of joint tourism products. Our aim was to identify the factors that stimulate the collaborative networking. Method: We investigated the cooperation networking between the tourism stakeholders with qualitative method of analysis. We conducted eight non structured interviews with tourism stakeholders and thirteen semi-structured interviews with the managers from various tourism organizations. Results: The results show that the right organization of consortium activities has the real impact on the creating of new tourism products. The results also show that the collaborative networking in the form of consortium supports the innovative processes and enables the marketing of the integral tourism products. Organization: The successful networking bases on the means of activation of the social capital, which enables the inclusion of the right stakeholders in the process of creation, translation, and implementing of the innovative ideas in the innovation process. Tourism structures in this process create various consortia form of collaboration and support in the process of acquisition of resources in the process of connecting the know-how, and in the process of the implementation of the same know-how to build the innovative tourism products. Society: Collaborative networking creates innovative culture of the tourism structures and the other structures in the society. The outcomes of the research show that Slovenian

  10. Deep eutectic solvent (DES) as a pretreatment for oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) in production of sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Nur Atikah Md; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Hassan, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) at different parameters to enable a highest yield of sugar. DES is a combination of two or more cheap and safe components to form a eutectic mixture through hydrogen bond interaction, which has a melting point lower than that of each component. DES can be used to replace ionic liquids (ILs), which are more expensive and toxic. In this study, OPEFB was pretreated with DES mixture of choline chloride: urea in 1:2 molar ratio. The pretreatment was performed at temperature 110°C and 80°C for 4 hours and 1 hour. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour). Enzymatic hydrolysis was done by using the combination of two enzymes, namely, Cellic Ctec2 and Cellic Htec2. The treated fiber is tested for crystallinity using XRD and functional group analysis using FTIR, to check the effect of the pretreatment on the fiber and compared it with the untreated fiber. From XRD analysis, DES successfully gave an effect towards degree of crystallinity of cellulose. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours) and B (110°C, 1 hour) successfully reduce the percentage of crystallinity while pretreatment C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) increased the percentage of crystallinity. From FTIR analysis, DES cannot remove the functional group of lignin and hemicellulose but it is believed that DES can expose the structure of cellulose. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis, DES-treated fiber successfully produced sugar but not significantly when compared with raw. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) produced glucose at the amount of 60.47 mg/ml, 66.33 mg/ml, 61.96 mg/ml and 59.12 mg/ml respectively. However, pretreatment C gave the highest xylose (70.01 mg/ml) production compared to other DES pretreatments.

  11. Determination of heavy metal content of processed fruit products from Tehran's market using ICP- OES: A risk assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabad, Ayub Ebadi; Shariatifar, Nabi; Moazzen, Mojtaba; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Fakhri, Yadolah; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Azari, Ali; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the levels of Cd, Hg, Sn, Al, Pb and As of 72 samples (36 samples for fruits juices and 36 samples for fruits canned) of three different brands including of Peach, Orange, Cherry, and Pineapple (18 samples of each fruits) marketed in Tehran, Iran (2015) were evaluated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. Also, Probabilistic risk assessment (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks) was estimated by models include target hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR) in the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) model. However, all samples were contaminated with the heavy metals investigated, most of them not surpassed established standards. The range of concentration for Al, Sn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb as average in fruit juices were reported as 340.62 (65.17-1039.2), 72.33 (49.76-119.4), 3.76 (1.137-18.36), 2.12 (0.89-3.44), 0.351 and 40.86 (27.87-66.1) μg/kg, respectively. The level of heavy metals measured in different kinds of fruit juices was ranked as Al > Sn > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, and for fruits canned this rank was Pb > Al > Sn > As > Cd > Hg. The range of concentration for Al, Sn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb in fruits canned were reported as 361.23 (43.15-1121.2), 101.42 (71.45-141.61), 3.92 (1.279-19.50), 2.78 (1.09-5.56), 0.35 and 690.54 (470.56-910.14) μg/kg, respectively. The lead (Pb) concentration in 97.22% (35 out of 36 samples) of fruit juices samples surpassed Codex limit (0.05 mg/kg) and in all samples of FC was lower than the legal limit of Codex limit (1 mg/kg). All of the samples had Tin (Sn) lower than the legal limit of Codex (fruit juices 100 mg/kg and FC 250 mg/kg). The MCS indicated that the rank order of heavy metals in both adults and children based on THQ was Al > Sn > As > Pb > Cd > Hg. The THQ of Al and Sn in the FJ and FC, for both adults, and children, was considerably higher than 1 value. Also, CR of As in both adults and children

  12. Biohydrogen from thermophilic co-fermentation of swine manure with fruit and vegetable waste: maximizing stable production without pH control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenca, A; Schievano, A; Perazzolo, F; Adani, F; Oberti, R

    2011-09-01

    Hydrogen production by dark fermentation may suffer of inhibition or instability due to pH deviations from optimality. The co-fermentation of promptly degradable feedstock with alkali-rich materials, such as livestock wastes, may represent a feasible and easy to implement approach to avoid external adjustments of pH. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of the mixing ratio of fruit-vegetable waste with swine manure with the aim of maximizing biohydrogen production while obtaining process stability through the endogenous alkalinity of manure. Fruit-vegetable/swine manure ratio of 35/65 and HRT of 2d resulted to give the highest production rate of 3.27 ± 0.51 L(H2)L(-1)d(-1), with a corresponding hydrogen yield of 126 ± 22 mL(H2)g(-1)(VS-added) and H2 content in the biogas of 42 ± 5%. At these operating conditions the process exhibited also one of the highest measured stability, with daily productions deviating for less than 14% from the average. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Process performance and product quality in an integrated continuous antibody production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Daniel J; Steinebach, Fabian; Soos, Miroslav; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    Continuous manufacturing is currently being seriously considered in the biopharmaceutical industry as the possible new paradigm for producing therapeutic proteins, due to production cost and product quality related benefits. In this study, a monoclonal antibody producing CHO cell line was cultured in perfusion mode and connected to a continuous affinity capture step. The reliable and stable integration of the two systems was enabled by suitable control loops, regulating the continuous volumetric flow and adapting the operating conditions of the capture process. For the latter, an at-line HPLC measurement of the harvest concentration subsequent to the bioreactor was combined with a mechanistic model of the capture chromatographic unit. Thereby, optimal buffer consumption and productivity throughout the process was realized while always maintaining a yield above the target value of 99%. Stable operation was achieved at three consecutive viable cell density set points (20, 60, and 40 × 10 6 cells/mL), together with consistent product quality in terms of aggregates, fragments, charge isoforms, and N-linked glycosylation. In addition, different values for these product quality attributes such as N-linked glycosylation, charge variants, and aggregate content were measured at the different steady states. As expected, the amount of released DNA and HCP was significantly reduced by the capture step for all considered upstream operating conditions. This study is exemplary for the potential of enhancing product quality control and modulation by integrated continuous manufacturing. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 298-307. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m flies in the control areas and flies captured outside. In addition, no genetic admixture was revealed from the mass-reared colony flies from the flies within the control area, which supports the effectiveness of SIT. The control pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area.

  15. Runoff, sediment and nutrient exports from a Portuguese vineyard under integrated production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Abrantes, Nelson; Santos, Leisly; Serpa, Dalila; Keizer, Jacob; Ferreira, António

    2017-04-01

    Vineyard is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and particularly in Portugal, where it represents 27% of permanent crops (INE, 2011). It has an unquestionable impact on Portuguese economy, due to direct impacts on primary sector, since it embodies 49% of drink industry sales and it is the seventh vegetable product best quoted (INE, 2015), but also due to indirect impacts on tourism. Although the economical relevance of vineyards, crop sustainability may be endangered due to land degradation. In the Mediterranean region, vineyards are reported as being the land use with highest erosion rates, threatening the long-term agricultural sustainability (Biddoccu et al., 2016). Several research studies have investigated runoff and erosion processes on vineyards, but relatively few focused on nutrient losses. This study aims to (i) quantify surface runoff, sediment and nutrient losses in a Portuguese vineyard managed under integrated production; (ii) relate these losses with rainfall pattern; and (iii) discuss the sustainability of vineyards under integrated production. The study was carried out in a commercial vineyard framed in the specialized wine region of Bairrada, in North-Central Portugal. The vineyard was managed with minimum tillage (non-inversion), performed once per year in some plant rows (changing every year), in order to maintain partial vegetation cover. Fertilization, mostly foliar, is performed twice per year (between May and July), according with integrated production regulations. The climate is Mediterranean but with a significant influence of the Atlantic Ocean. The average annual rainfall is 1077 mm and the average annual temperature is 15.7°C. The soil is a Calcaric Cambisol, with clay texture, and gentle slopes (<10%). Six runoff plots were installed (78-122 m2) in September 2012. The plots were naturally bounded by a path on the top and by plant strips on the sides. At the bottom of each plot, a collector grid was buried and connected

  16. 76 FR 41521 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-786] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits... sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including...

  17. 75 FR 5804 - In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination To Review in... importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits and products containing same by reason of... (collectively ``Seagate''). Qimonda accuses of infringement certain LSI integrated circuits, as well as certain...

  18. 75 FR 16514 - Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor, Dallas, TX; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,291] Maxim Integrated Products... Worker Adjustment Assistance on July 8th, 2009, applicable to workers of Maxim Integrated Products.... The workers produced integrated circuits (analog and mixed signal). Information shows that Maxim...

  19. Grower Perception of the Significance of Weaver Ants as a Fruit Fly Deterrent in Tanzanian Smallholder Mango Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Msogoya, Theodosy; Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2017-01-01

    of exploiting them as an affordable, environmentally -friendly method to improve marketable fruit yield and quality. In a preliminary interview study in a mango-growing region of rural Tanzania, the farmers were not convinced of any beneficial, deterrent effect attributable to the indigenous weaver ants...... in their trees and were sceptical of any likely value as a biological control technique. Additionally, fruit fly infestation was not seen as a priority problem and subsequent enquiry and investigation showed that, fortuitously, traditional, local practices for storage and enhancing ripening prevented...... the development of a significant proportion of any deposited eggs. Subsequent field studies supported the grower perceptions as they recorded only an erratic and limited deterrent effect....

  20. Use of irradiation in combination with preservation techniques to extend the shelf-life of tropical fruits and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Ilangantileke, S.G.; Upadhyay, I.P.; Karki, D.B.; Apintanapong, M.

    1998-01-01

    Gamma irradiation in combination with other treatment processes was investigated with a view to extending the shelf-life of some tropical fruits in fresh and processed conditions. A low dose of irradiation (0.6 kGy) combined with hot water treatment (at 55 deg. C for 20 min) extended the shelf-life of fresh mangoes from 15 to 32 days at 20 deg. C storage. The shelf-life of fresh lychees was extended to 16 days by irradiation (1 kGy) and storage at 5 deg. C through reducing the rotting and preserving the fruit colour. A shelf-life of up to 30 days was obtained by a combination of hot benomyl dipping of the lychess (at 55 deg. C for 2 min) and polyethylene packaging, whereas modified atmosphere storage in CO 2 did not control pericarp browning. Irradiation as a means of preservation was investigated in processed fruits such as semi-dried mangoes and longans, and mango puree. A minimum dose of 2 kGy extended the shelf-life of the semi-dried mangoes and longans for up to 75 days when stored at 14 deg. C, without mould growth, whereas these fruits deteriorated at 30 deg. C storage, as indicated by discoloration and a deterioration in the flavour. On the other hand, doses of up to 4 kGy and storage at a low temperature (5 deg. C) were necessary to maintain microorganism growth (as determined by the aerobic plate count) at the lowest level; no microorganisms were observed at 6 kGy and higher. The chemical attributes of the puree tended to remain unaffected by the irradiation treatment but were more sensitive to the storage duration and conditions. The puree was preserved for as long as 60 days at 5 deg. C, without compromising the keeping quality. (author)

  1. Effects of different irrigation regimes on fruit production, oil quality, water use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hamzei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different irrigation regimes and nitrogen fertilizer on percentage of grain fatty acids, yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency of pumpkin was studies as split plot based on complete randomized block design with three replications in growing season of 2013. Irrigation treatments (320, 420, 600 and 900 mm ha-1 were se as main plots and nitrogen fertilizer (0, 130, 260, 390 and 520 kg urea ha-1 were allocated in subplots. The effect of irrigation and nitrogen on all traits was significant. Also, interaction of irrigation × nitrogen had significant effect on all traits except WUE and NUE. The Highest values of linoleic fatty acid (33.99%, fruit yield (4.40 kg m-2, grain yield (1.53 kg m-2 and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (32.27 kg fruit/kg urea were achieved at consumption of 600 mm water ha-1 and application of 390 kg urea ha-1. The highest water use efficiency for fruit and grain yield; 56.61 and 1.10 kg mm-1, were revealed at 600 mm irrigation water ha-1. Between nitrogen levels, maximum and minimum WUE for fruit and grain yield were achieved at 390 kg urea and non application of urea treatments, respectively. Also, maximum agronomic nitrogen efficiency belonged to 390 kg urea and minimum this trait with 33 reductions was revealed at 520 kg urea. Based on the results of this research and with considering of water and nitrogen use efficiency, irrigation of pumpkin plants with 600 mm water ha-1 and consumption of 390 kg urea ha-1 was identified as a suitable treatment.

  2. [Main interspecific competition and land productivity of fruit-crop intercropping in Loess Region of West Shauxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lei; Bi, Hua-Xing; Tian, Xiao-Ling; Cui, Zhe-Wei; Zhou, Hui-Zi; Gao, Lu-Bo; Liu, Li-Xia

    2011-05-01

    Taking the four typical fruit-crop intercropping models, i.e., walnut-peanut, walnut-soybean, apple-peanut, and apple-soybean, in the Loess Region of western Shanxi Province as the objects, this paper analyzed the crop (peanut and soybean) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), yield, and soil moisture content. Comparing with crop monoculture, fruit-crop intercropping decreased the crop PAR and P(n). The smaller the distance from tree rows, the smaller the crop PAR and P(n). There was a significantly positive correlation between the P(n) and crop yield, suggesting that illumination was one of the key factors affecting crop yield. From the whole trend, the 0-100 cm soil moisture content had no significant differences between walnut-crop intercropping systems and corresponding monoculture cropping systems, but had significant differences between apple-crop intercropping systems and corresponding monoculture cropping systems, indicating that the competition for soil moisture was more intense in apple-crop intercropping systems than in walnut-crop intercropping systems. Comparing with monoculture, fruit-crop intercropping increased the land use efficiency and economic benefit averagely by 70% and 14%, respectively, and walnut-crop intercropping was much better than apple-crop intercropping. To increase the crop yield in fruit-crop intercropping systems, the following strategies should be taken: strengthening the management of irrigation and fertilization, increasing the distances or setting root barriers between crop and tree rows, regularly and properly pruning, and planting shade-tolerant crops in intercropping.

  3. The Use Of Local Product Yeast For Substitution Torula Yeast In The Formulation Of Artificial Diet Fruit Fly Larvae Bactrocera Carambolae Drew and Hancock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikumbang, I.; Nasution, A.I.; Indarwatmi, M.; Kuswandi, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The use of local product yeast I.e brewer yeast, yeast of tapai (fermented cassava), yeast of tempe (fermented soy beam), and brem(intoxicating beverage made of fermented rice) after cooked and uncooked were used to substitute torula yeast to reduce cost production for mass-rearing of fruit fly had been carried out. Artificial diet formulation consisted of torula yeast, wheat bran, nipagin, sodium benzoate, cane sugar, water and HCI ti make pH of 4. One kilogram of diet was inoculated with 1 ml of fruit fly eggs. Parameters of the experiment were, the number of pupae, weight of pupae, percentage of pupae and the percentage of viable fly. The results showed that the number of pupae were 6356 for brewers yeast with cooked and 0.942 gram/100 pupae for brem. Percentage viable emergence fly were 70%, 18.25% and 15.25% for brewers yeast with cooked and uncooked respectively. Cost production for 1.000.000 using cooked brewer yeast was reduced about Rp.179,200 or cost efficiency were 55.56%

  4. Design Features of Product-Integrated PV : An Evaluation of Various Factors under Indoor Irradiance Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the field of product-integrated photovoltaics (PIPV), a term which is used for all types of products that contain solar cells in one or more of their surfaces, aiming at providing power during the product’s use. Product-integrated photovoltaics (PIPV) began to be widely

  5. Computer Aided Product Service Systems Design : Service CAD and Its integration with Life Cycle Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    Integration of product design into service design, or vice versa, is considered to bring more efficient and effective value addition. Besides EcoDesign tools and methods, a methodology to design such an integration of products and services from a systemic perspective, or product-service systems

  6. Integration of Titan supercomputer at OLCF with ATLAS Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro Megino, F.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Padolski, S.; Panitkin, S.; Wells, J.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. PanDA managed resources are distributed worldwide, on hundreds of computing sites, with thousands of physicists accessing hundreds of Petabytes of data and the rate of data processing already exceeds Exabyte per year. While PanDA currently uses more than 200,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. Additional computing and storage resources are required. Therefore ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. In this paper we will describe a project aimed at integration of ATLAS Production System with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA Pilot framework for job submission to Titan’s batch queues and local data management, with lightweight MPI wrappers to run single node workloads in parallel on Titan’s multi-core worker nodes. It provides for running of standard ATLAS production jobs on unused resources (backfill) on Titan. The system already allowed ATLAS to collect on Titan millions of core-hours per month, execute hundreds of thousands jobs, while simultaneously improving Titans utilization efficiency. We will discuss the details of the implementation, current experience with running the system, as well as future plans aimed at improvements in scalability and efficiency. Notice: This manuscript has been authored, by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to

  7. Mandarin fruit quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. RAF-5074: Enhancing Capacity for Detection, Surveillance and Suppression of Exotic and Established Fruit Fly Species through Integration of Sterile Insect Technique with Other Suppression Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyoki, M.; Kasina, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fruit flies (Family Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive and economically challenging pest insect of fruits and vegetables. It is responsible for loss of export markets and poor farm gate prices of fruits and vegetables. Fruit flies are insects (Diptera) and undergoes complete metamorphosis: eggs- larva- pupa- adult. Only larva (maggots) are extremely damaging and the Adults in addition cause economic injury through stippling. The purpose of this project is to build capacity of African countries in the management of fruit flies using area wide approach and incorporating sterile insect technique (SIT ). sterile insect technique is a method that uses sterile insects (males) to flood them in the wild, and by so doing they mate with wild fertile individuals, resulting to no progeny. KALRO looking forward to develop mass rearing facility for fruit flies and SIT facility

  9. An integrated production-inventory model for food products adopting a general raw material procurement policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauza, G.; Prasetyo, H.; Amanto, B. S.

    2018-05-01

    Studies on an integrated production-inventory model for deteriorating items have been done extensively. Most of the studies define deterioration as physical depletion of some inventories over time. This definition may not represent the deterioration characteristics of food products. The quality of food production decreases over time while the quantity remains the same. Further, in the existing models, the raw material is replenished several times (or at least once) within one production cycle. In food industries, however, a food company, for several reasons (e.g., the seasonal raw materials, discounted price, etc.) sometimes will get more benefit if it orders raw materials in a large quantity. Considering this fact, this research, therefore, is aimed at developing a more representative inventory model by (i) considering the quality losses in food and (ii) adopting a general raw material procurement policy. A mathematical model is established to represent the proposed policy in which the total profit of the system is the objective function. To evaluate the performance of the model, a numerical test was conducted. The numerical test indicates that the developed model has better performance, i.e., the total profit is 2.3% higher compared to the existing model.

  10. An integrated new product development framework - an application on green and low-carbon products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lee, Amy H. I.; Kang, He-Yau

    2015-03-01

    Companies need to be innovative to survive in today's competitive market; thus, new product development (NPD) has become very important. This research constructs an integrated NPD framework for developing new products. In stage one, customer attributes (CAs) and engineering characteristics (ECs) for developing products are collected, and fuzzy interpretive structural modelling (FISM) is applied to understand the relationships among these critical factors. Based on quality function deployment (QFD), a house of quality is then built, and fuzzy analytic network process (FANP) is adopted to calculate the relative importance of ECs. In stage two, fuzzy failure mode and effects analysis (FFMEA) is applied to understand the potential failures of the ECs and to determine the importance of ECs with respect to risk control. In stage three, a goal programming (GP) model is constructed to consider the outcome from the FANP-QFD, FFMEA and other objectives, in order to select the most important ECs. Due to pollution and global warming, environmental protection has become an important topic. With both governments and consumers developing environmental consciousness, successful green and low-carbon NPD provides an important competitive advantage, enabling the survival or renewal of firms. The proposed framework is implemented in a panel manufacturing firm for designing a green and low-carbon product.

  11. Volatile sulfur compounds in tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Cannon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods

  12. Experimental and feasibility assessment of biogas production by anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste from Joburg Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masebinu, S O; Akinlabi, E T; Muzenda, E; Aboyade, A O; Mbohwa, C

    2018-05-01

    Substrate-induced instability of anaerobic digestion from fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) results in low biogas yield. In this study, substrate management through fruit to vegetable mix ratio in a two-stage semi-continuous digester was investigated as a pathway for optimality of yield. The experiment conducted over 105 days with 62.52 kg of FVWs sourced from Joburg Market, South Africa showed that a stable process was achieved at a fruit to vegetable waste mix ratio of 2.2:2.8. At this ratio, optimal organic loading rate ranged between 2.68 and 2.97 kg VS/m 3 -d which resulted in a specific biogas yield of 0.87 Nm 3 /kg VS with 57.58% methane on average. The results of the experimental study were used as a feasibility assessment for a full-scale 45 tonnes/d plant for Joburg Market considering three energy pathways. The plant will produce 1,605,455 Nm 3 /y of biogas with the potential for offsetting 15.2% of the Joburg Market energy demand. Conversion of all biogas to biomethane was the most economically attractive energy pathway with a net present value of $2,428,021, an internal rate of return of 16.90% and a simple payback period of 6.17 years. This route avoided the greenhouse gas emission of 12,393 tonnes CO 2 , eq. The study shows that the anaerobic digestion of FVWs as sole substrate is possible with financial and environmental attractiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumer Preference Towards Fruit Leather Attributes of Madurese Exotic Tropical Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elys Fauziyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the levels that become consumer preference in purchasing fruit leather product. There were 60 samples respondents taken accidentally at Bangkalan Plaza Shopping area. Method being used was conjoint analysis. Result showed that fruit leather being chosen by consumers as preference are gummy, mixed fruit taste, yellow color small roll shape, at 100 grams and in a plastic tube package.

  14. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  15. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, C.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  16. Quality characteristics of pork burger added with albedo-fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vargas, Jairo H; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work determined the technological, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers, added with different concentrations (2.5 and 5%) of passion fruit albedo (PFA) co-product, obtained from passion fruit juice processing. The addition of PFA on pork burgers improves their nutritional value (higher fiber content). In raw and cooked burger, all textural parameters, except springiness and cohesiveness, were affected by the incorporation of PFA. PFA addition was found to be effective improving the cooking yield, moisture retention and fat retention. The raw and cooked pork burgers added with PFA had lower TBA values and lower counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and enterobacteria than the control samples. No Escherichia coli and molds were found in the samples. The overall acceptability scores showed that the most appreciated sample was the one containing 2.5% PFA. According to the results obtained, 2.5 and 5% of PFA addition can be recommended in pork burger production as a new dietary fiber source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extended integration the key to future productivity leap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peebler, R.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic benefits and trends in integration of information technology. The paper assesses the historical technologies of simple structure interpretation to complex three- and four-dimensional simulation. It presents historical methods of collecting and analyzing data and a hierarchy of integration that has developed. It shows the economic benefits of integrating computer data bases with multidisciplinary teams to engineer and monitor oil and gas depletion

  18. Effect of blending ratio to the liquid product on co-pyrolysis of low rank coal and oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullaikah Siti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of Indonesia low rank coal should be maximized, since the source of Indonesia law rank coals were abundant. Pyrolysis of this coal can produce liquid product which can be utilized as fuel and chemical feedstocks. The yield of liquid product is still low due to lower of comparison H/C. Since coal is non-renewable source, an effort of coal saving and to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases, biomass such as oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB would added as co-feeding. EFB could act as hydrogen donor in co-pyrolysis to increase liquid product. Co-pyrolysis of Indonesia low rank coal and EFB were studied in a drop tube reactor under the certain temperature (t= 500 °C and time (t= 1 h used N2 as purge gas. The effect of blending ratios of coal/EFB (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100%, w/w % on the yield and composition of liquid product were studied systematically. The results showed that the higher blending ratio, the yield of liquid product and gas obtained increased, while the char decreased. The highest yield of liquid product (28,62 % was obtained used blending ratio of coal/EFB = 25/75, w/w%. Tar composition obtained in this ratio is phenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, acids, esters.

  19. Primary scab control using a "during-infection" spray timing and the effect on fruit quality and yield in organic apple production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamar, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple production in Europe depends to a great extent on the use of copper fungicides for scab control (Venturia inaequalis. The objective of this 6-year study (2003-2008 conducted in Belgium was to determine measures for reducing the use of copper fungicides in organic apple production. The effectiveness of a 'during-infection' spray strategy using wettable sulphur (with or without copper, lime sulphur, potassium bicarbonate, silicon and five natural plant extracts (orange peel, soapbark, tea seed, quinoa seed and grapefruit seed for controlling primary scab was investigated in a split-plot field experiment. Four apple cultivars that express a gradient of partial scab resistance were included: a high scab-susceptible cultivar (cv. 'Pinova', a medium scab-susceptible cultivar (cv. 'Pirouette' and two old cultivars expressing low to very low scab susceptibility (cvs. 'Reinette Hernaut' and 'Reinette des Capucins'. Apart from these cultivars, four monogenic Vf scab-resistant cultivars (cvs. 'Initial', 'Topaz', 'Zvatava' and 'JN 20/33/58' were also included in the experimental orchard. In order to reduce the amount of fungicide required, two strategies were used: a specific spray timing involving spraying during the infection processes, before fungal penetration, determined by the RIMpro software warning system, and a tunnel sprayer machine for optimal treatment applications. Depending on the year, a total of 8-12 applications were made annually. Under field conditions that were highly conducive disease, low rates of elemental sulphur (≤ 40 kg.ha-1 per year combined with low rates of copper (≤ 2.1 kg.ha-1 per year provided the best scab control and reduced scab severity on the leaves and fruits by 85-100%, depending on the year and cultivar, compared with the untreated control. In most cases, the lime sulphur spray treatment, which used more elemental sulphur but did not use copper, provided a similar level of scab control to the

  20. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  1. Amperometric detection of glucose in fruit juices with polypyrrole-based biosensor with an integrated permselective layer for exclusion of interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayenimo, Joseph G; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2017-08-15

    A novel polypyrrole (PPy)-based bilayer amperometric glucose biosensor integrated with a permselective layer has been developed for detection of glucose in the presence of interferences. It comprises of a PPy-GOx film grown, in the absence of electrolyte, as an inner layer, and a permselective PPy-Cl film as an outer layer. The PPy-GOx/PPy-Cl bilayer biosensor was effective in rejecting 98% of ascorbic acid and 100% of glycine, glutamic acid and uric acid. With an outer layer thickness of 6.6nm, the bilayer biosensor gave nearly identical glucose response to that of a single layer PPy-GOx biosensor. The biosensor also exhibited good reproducibility (1.9% rsd, n=10), high stability (more than 2months), wide linear range (0.5-24mM), low K m (8.4mM), high I max (77.2μAcm -2 ), low detection limit (26.9μM) and good sensitivity (3.5μAcm -2 mM -1 ). The bilayer biosensor was successfully employed for glucose determination in various fruit juices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lights and shadows of the red gold. An integrated assessment of Spanish strawberry production and its impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Lopez, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Spanish strawberries are an export success. Spain is the second largest producer of this fruit and it has been the world's leading strawberry exporter for years. In 2012, strawberry exports were approximately 95% of total strawberry production in Spain. The production of the red gold is concentrated in around 7000 hectares of intensive farming in the province of Huelva (south west Spain). At least 85% of all Spanish strawberries are produced in this region, in an area close to the UNESCO World Heritage Site Doñana National Park. The case of the strawberry production in Huelva makes an interesting case study for the integrated analysis of the water-food-land-political economy nexus. Its combination of bio-physical and socio-economic characteristics (local climatic conditions, agricultural techniques, environmental issues, food value chains, trade networks and socio-economic factors) are quite particular and form a case where social and natural issues coevolve. Supporters of the activity argue a high contribution to local GDP and job market and its strategic position in international markets. Critics maintain that this industry creates social and environmental conflicts. The strawberry from Huelva supplies early season strawberries to the richer markets of Germany and France and at the same time seems to fail in alleviating a provincial unemployment rate of 34%. The viability of the system is in danger: production costs are 70% higher than 20 years ago while the price per kilo has not changed or even decreased. In environmental terms, the strawberries of Huelva are irrigated with ground water withdrawn from aquifers that feed the water streams of the natural park. Half of the wells that extract the water are not legally registered for what the total amount of water withdrawal remains unknown. Should we promote the continuity of this activity? In this work, I perform a Multi-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism (MuSIASEM) of Water for the

  3. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  4. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model a system where lignocellulosic ethanol production is integrated with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant. • We conduct an exergy analysis for the ethanol production in six different system operation points. • Integrated operation, district heating (DH) production and low CHP loads all increase the exergy efficiency. • Separate operation has the largest negative impact on the exergy efficiency. • Operation is found to have a significant impact on the exergy efficiency of the ethanol production. - Abstract: Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible, and a gas boiler is used as back-up when integration is not possible. The system was evaluated according to six operation points that alternate on the following three different operation parameters: Load in the CHP unit, integrated versus separate operation, and inclusion of district heating production in the ethanol facility. The calculated standard exergy efficiency of the ethanol facility varied from 0.564 to 0.855, of which the highest was obtained for integrated operation at reduced CHP load and full district heating production in the ethanol facility, and the lowest for separate operation with zero district heating production in the ethanol facility. The results suggest that the efficiency of integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production in CHP plants is highly dependent on operation, and it is therefore suggested that the

  5. Quantitative determination of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel, pulp, and fruit products by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knödler, Matthias; Reisenhauer, Katharina; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2009-05-13

    Despite a number of serious case reports of mango dermatitis, no attempts at the identification and quantification of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango fruits have so far been made. Therefore, total alk(en)ylresorcinol content and relative homologue composition in 13 mango peel samples and 7 samples of mango pulp were determined by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. Furthermore, mango puree and nectar prepared on pilot plant scale were also analyzed and compared with commercially available thermally preserved products. Depending on cultivar, alk(en)ylresorcinol contents ranged from 79.3 to 1850.5 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) in mango peels and from 4.9 to 187.3 mg/kg of DM in samples of mango pulp. The profile of alk(en)ylresorcinols was found to be highly characteristic, with an average homologue composition of C15:0 (6.1%), C15:1 (1.7%), C17:0 (1.1%), C17:1 (52.5%), C17:2 (33.4%), C17:3 (2.4%), C19:1 (2.1%), and C19:2 (0.8%). Mango puree samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits revealed contents of 3.8 and 12.3 mg/kg of fresh weight, respectively. Content and homologue composition were not significantly affected during puree processing and thermal preservation. In nectar samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits, contents of 1.4 and 4.6 mg/L, respectively, were found.

  6. Enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruits bunch fiber using Celluclast® and Accellerase® BG for sugar production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Noor Shafryna; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the ability of commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulases preparation, Celluclast® or in combination with Accellerase®BG β-glucosidase to hydrolyse pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was evaluated. Celluclast® alone hydrolyzed OPEFB to produce 2.41±0.44 mg glucose per gram OPEFB. However, the production of glucose was significantly improved with supplementation of Accellerase®BG (8.12±0.93 mg/g). This result suggested that the endoglucanases and exoglucanases in Celluclast® and β-glucosidase in Accellerase®BG able to work synergistically to increase the production of glucose from OPEFB. In addition, the production of xylose was also improved by 30% when the enzyme mixture was used. The result suggested that the mixture of Celluclast® with Accellerase®BG work synergistically to improve the production of sugars by removing the inhibition by cellobiose for complete cellulose hydrolysis. The production of glucose and xylose from OPEFB wastes showed the potential of this biomass as the source of renewable energy and fine chemicals production in Malaysia.

  7. Integration of production control and enterprise management systems in horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, Cor; Robbemond, Robbert; Kruize, Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    Production processes in horticulture are increasingly industrialized. Greenhouses have developed towards high-tech production plants that are highly automated by advanced systems for climate control, irrigation, crop monitoring, harvesting, internal transportation, sorting and packaging. At the

  8. Design of Sustainable Blended Products using an Integrated Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic methodology for designing blended products consisting of three stages; product design, process identification and experimental verification. The product design stage is considered in this paper. The objective of this stage is to screen and select suitable chemicals...... to be used as building blocks in the mixture design, and then to propose the blend formulations that fulfill the desired product attributes. The result is a set of blends that match the constraints, the compositions, values of the target properties and information about their miscibility. The methodology has...... been applied to design several blended products. A case study on design of blended lubricants is highlighted. The objective is to identify blended products that satisfy the product attributes with at least similar or better performance compared to conventional products....

  9. 75 FR 16837 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits... importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets...

  10. Towards product customization : An integrated order fulfillment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Lee, C.K.M.; Xu, Q.

    To stay competitive, manufacturing companies nowadays pursue product customization: and configure-to-order(CTO) has been recognized as an ideal business model to implement product customization. Due to the complexities resulting from the large number of customized products, an increased attention

  11. The integrated control of production-inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyen, van P.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate a multi-product, multi-machine production-inventory (PI) system that is characterized by: ?? relatively high and stable demand; ?? uncertainty in the precise timing of demand; ?? variability in the production process; ?? job shop routings; ?? considerable setup times

  12. Configurations of NPD : production interfaces and interface integration mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Boer, H.; Hansen, P.H.K.; Gubi, E.; Dorst, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes and illustrates different configurations of the interface between new product development and production processes, including both intra–firm and inter–firm interfaces. These configurations are partly based on a process view of product innovation and partly on a structural view

  13. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2013-01-01

    produces ethanol, solid biofuel, molasses, and is able to produce district heating hot water. Considering all products equally valuable, the exergy efficiency of the ethanol facility was found to be 0.790 during integrated operation with zero district heating production, and 0.852 during integrated...

  14. Global Value Chain Integration and Productivity : Evidence from Enterprise Surveys in Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Deborah; Farole, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In order to adequately measure a firm’s participation in GVCs in this context, it is important to first identify the different forms through which GVC integration can affect domestic firms’ productivity. Integrating a country’s domestic suppliers into GVCs increases the possibility for productivity gains through exporting to a buyer abroad or supplying to a multinational in the country. Bu...

  15. Comparison of Two Static in Vitro Digestion Methods for Screening the Bioaccessibility of Carotenoids in Fruits, Vegetables, and Animal Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniele B; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Mariutti, Lilian R B; Mercadante, Adriana Z; Failla, Mark L

    2017-12-27

    In vitro digestion methods are routinely used to assess the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and other dietary lipophilic compounds. Here, we compared the recovery of carotenoids and their efficiency of micellarization in digested fruits, vegetables, egg yolk, and salmon and also in mixed-vegetable salads with and without either egg yolk or salmon using the static INFOGEST method22 and the procedure of Failla et al.16 Carotenoid stability during the simulated digestion was ≥70%. The efficiencies of the partitioning of carotenoids into mixed micelles were similar when individual plant foods and salad meals were digested using the two static methods. Furthermore, the addition of cooked egg or salmon to vegetable salads increased the bioaccessibility of some carotenoids. Our findings showed that the two methods of in vitro digestion generated similar estimates of carotenoid retention and bioaccessibility for diverse foods.

  16. Diferentes substratos na produção de porta-enxertos de caramboleira Star fruit rootstock production using differents substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Costa Bastos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente estudo verificar a influência de diferentes substratos na produção de porta-enxertos de caramboleira. As sementes foram extraídas de frutos maduros de carambola cultivar Malásia, lavadas em água corrente e semeadas em bandejas de poliestireno (72 células, capacidade de 120 cm³/célula, contendo os seguintes substratos: vermiculita, Plantmax®, Rendmax®, terra de barranco, areia e terra + areia (1:1, 2:1 e 1:2 v/v. Em seguida, as bandejas foram colocadas em ambiente coberto por sombrite com 50 % de luminosidade, efetuando-se regas manuais diárias. Após 130 dias da semeadura, foram coletados os seguintes dados biométricos: porcentagem de plantas vivas, altura das plântulas, comprimento das raízes e número de folhas. Concluiu-se que a mistura terra + areia (1:1 v/v foi mais eficiente na germinação de sementes e formação inicial de porta-enxertos de caramboleira.The aim of the present research was to verify the influence of different substrates in seedling production of star fruit tree rootstocks. Seeds were taken from ripe fruits of sweet star fruit, washed in tap water and sowed in polystyrene trays (72 cells with volume capacity of 120 cm³/cell, containing the following substrates: vermiculite, Plantmax®, Rendmax®, soil, sand, and sand + soil mixture (1:1, 2:1 and 1:2 v/v. After that, the trays were placed inside a lath house covered by 50 % brightness shade, and manually watered daily. After 130 days of sowing, the following biometric data were collected: percentage of live plants, length of sprouts and roots, and number of leaves. It was concluded that the mixture soil + sand (1:1 v/v was most efficient in seed germination and early formation of star fruit rootstocks.

  17. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2014-01-01

    production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible...... district heating production in the ethanol facility. The results suggest that the efficiency of integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production in CHP plants is highly dependent on operation, and it is therefore suggested that the expected operation pattern of such polygeneration system is taken......Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol...

  18. Constructing New Discrete Integrable Coupling System for Soliton Equation by Kronecker Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fajun; Zhang Hongqing

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the Kronecker product can be applied to constructing new discrete integrable coupling system of soliton equation hierarchy in this paper. A direct application to the fractional cubic Volterra lattice spectral problem leads to a novel integrable coupling system of soliton equation hierarchy. It is also indicated that the study of discrete integrable couplings by using the Kronecker product is an efficient and straightforward method. This method can be used generally

  19. Pendugaan Produksi Karkas Dan Daging Kelelawar Pemakan Buah (Pteropus alecto Asal Sulawesi (ESTIMATION OF CARCASS AND MEAT PRODUCTION OF CELEBES NATIVE FRUIT BATS (Pteropus alecto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiltje Andretha Ransaleleh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in North Sulawesi, Gorontalo, and Central Sulawesi during March untilOctober 2011. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of fruit bats  (P. alecto as sourceof meat. Observed variables were body weight, carcass weight, noncarcass weight, the bone weight, meatweight, fat weight, and skin weight, respectively. To estimate the growth rate of the bats, analysis of therelationship between body weight and carcass components was done, while estimation of  growth rate ofcarcass components were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The results showed that the carcassproduction of  P. alecto in the three locations was 54.49%-56.55%, meat production was 45.37% -54.07%,and the coefficient of determination was 0.65-0.99.  Conclusions of this study is that the body weight  canbe used for  prediction  of growth rate, and weight of carcass, meat, bone, fat, and skin of the fruit bats,respectively.

  20. Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with e