WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor

  1. Ultrasensitive mass sensor fully integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuitry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Abadal, G.; Ghatnekar-Nilsson, S.

    2005-01-01

    Nanomechanical resonators have been monolithically integrated on preprocessed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips. Fabricated resonator systems have been designed to have resonance frequencies up to 1.5 MHz. The systems have been characterized in ambient air and vacuum conditions...... and display ultrasensitive mass detection in air. A mass sensitivity of 4 ag/Hz has been determined in air by placing a single glycerine drop, having a measured weight of 57 fg, at the apex of a cantilever and subsequently measuring a frequency shift of 14.8 kHz. CMOS integration enables electrostatic...

  2. High-Performance WSe2 Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology and Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Zubair, Ahmad; Santos, Elton J G; Zhang, Xu; Lin, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yuhao; Palacios, Tomás

    2015-08-12

    Because of their extraordinary structural and electrical properties, two-dimensional materials are currently being pursued for applications such as thin-film transistors and integrated circuit. One of the main challenges that still needs to be overcome for these applications is the fabrication of air-stable transistors with industry-compatible complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a novel high performance air-stable WSe2 CMOS technology with almost ideal voltage transfer characteristic, full logic swing and high noise margin with different supply voltages. More importantly, the inverter shows large voltage gain (∼38) and small static power (picowatts), paving the way for low power electronic system in 2D materials.

  3. Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, SungWoo; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Qihua; Ham, Donhee; Lieber, Charles M

    2009-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D), multi-transistor-layer, integrated circuits represent an important technological pursuit promising advantages in integration density, operation speed, and power consumption compared with 2D circuits. We report fully functional, 3D integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits based on separate interconnected layers of high-mobility n-type indium arsenide (n-InAs) and p-type germanium/silicon core/shell (p-Ge/Si) nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). The DC voltage output (V(out)) versus input (V(in)) response of vertically interconnected CMOS inverters showed sharp switching at close to the ideal value of one-half the supply voltage and, moreover, exhibited substantial DC gain of approximately 45. The gain and the rail-to-rail output switching are consistent with the large noise margin and minimal static power consumption of CMOS. Vertically interconnected, three-stage CMOS ring oscillators were also fabricated by using layer-1 InAs NW n-FETs and layer-2 Ge/Si NW p-FETs. Significantly, measurements of these circuits demonstrated stable, self-sustained oscillations with a maximum frequency of 108 MHz, which represents the highest-frequency integrated circuit based on chemically synthesized nanoscale materials. These results highlight the flexibility of bottom-up assembly of distinct nanoscale materials and suggest substantial promise for 3D integrated circuits.

  4. Metal contact engineering and registration-free fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuits using aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Ryu, Koungmin; Badmaev, Alexander; Zhang, Jialu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2011-02-22

    Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) operation is very desirable for logic circuit applications as it offers rail-to-rail swing, larger noise margin, and small static power consumption. However, it remains to be a challenging task for nanotube-based devices. Here in this paper, we report our progress on metal contact engineering for n-type nanotube transistors and CMOS integrated circuits using aligned carbon nanotubes. By using Pd as source/drain contacts for p-type transistors, small work function metal Gd as source/drain contacts for n-type transistors, and evaporated SiO(2) as a passivation layer, we have achieved n-type transistor, PN diode, and integrated CMOS inverter with an air-stable operation. Compared with other nanotube n-doping techniques, such as potassium doping, PEI doping, hydrazine doping, etc., using low work function metal contacts for n-type nanotube devices is not only air stable but also integrated circuit fabrication compatible. Moreover, our aligned nanotube platform for CMOS integrated circuits shows significant advantage over the previously reported individual nanotube platforms with respect to scalability and reproducibility and suggests a practical and realistic approach for nanotube-based CMOS integrated circuit applications.

  5. Chemistry integrated circuit: chemical system on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Kazuo

    2014-03-28

    By integrating chemical reactions on a large-scale integration (LSI) chip, new types of device can be created. For biomedical applications, monolithically integrated sensor arrays for potentiometric, amperometric and impedimetric sensing of biomolecules have been developed. The potentiometric sensor array detects pH and redox reaction as a statistical distribution of fluctuations in time and space. For the amperometric sensor array, a microelectrode structure for measuring multiple currents at high speed has been proposed. The impedimetric sensor array is designed to measure impedance up to 10 MHz. The multimodal sensor array will enable synthetic analysis and make it possible to standardize biosensor chips. Another approach is to create new functional devices by integrating molecular systems with LSI chips, for example image sensors that incorporate biological materials with a sensor array. The quantum yield of the photoelectric conversion of photosynthesis is 100%, which is extremely difficult to achieve by artificial means. In a recently developed process, a molecular wire is plugged directly into a biological photosynthetic system to efficiently conduct electrons to a gold electrode. A single photon can be detected at room temperature using such a system combined with a molecular single-electron transistor.

  6. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Fung, S.; Wang, Q.; Horsley, D. A. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tang, H.; Boser, B. E. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tsai, J. M.; Daneman, M. [InvenSense, Inc., 1745 Technology Drive, San Jose, California 95110 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This paper presents an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor based on a 24 × 8 array of 22 MHz piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (PMUTs) with 100 μm pitch, fully integrated with 180 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry through eutectic wafer bonding. Each PMUT is directly bonded to a dedicated CMOS receive amplifier, minimizing electrical parasitics and eliminating the need for through-silicon vias. The array frequency response and vibration mode-shape were characterized using laser Doppler vibrometry and verified via finite element method simulation. The array's acoustic output was measured using a hydrophone to be ∼14 kPa with a 28 V input, in reasonable agreement with predication from analytical calculation. Pulse-echo imaging of a 1D steel grating is demonstrated using electronic scanning of a 20 × 8 sub-array, resulting in 300 mV maximum received amplitude and 5:1 contrast ratio. Because the small size of this array limits the maximum image size, mechanical scanning was used to image a 2D polydimethylsiloxane fingerprint phantom (10 mm × 8 mm) at a 1.2 mm distance from the array.

  7. Analysis of the capability to effectively design complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, M. L.

    1984-12-01

    A complete CMOS/BULK design cycle has been implemented and fully tested to evaluate its effectiveness and a viable set of computer-aided design tools for the layout, verification, and simulation of CMOS/BULK integrated circuits. This design cycle is good for p-well, n-well, or twin-well structures, although current fabrication technique available limit this to p-well only. BANE, an integrated layout program from Stanford, is at the center of this design cycle and was shown to be simple to use in the layout of CMOS integrated circuits (it can be also used to layout NMOS integrated circuits). A flowchart was developed showing the design cycle from initial layout, through design verification, and to circuit simulation using NETLIST, PRESIM, and RNL from the University of Washington. A CMOS/BULK library was designed and includes logic gates that were designed and completely tested by following this flowchart. Also designed was an arithmetic logic unit as a more complex test of the CMOS/BULK design cycle.

  8. Design of 5.8 GHz Integrated Antenna on 180nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, A. H. A.; Shamsuddin, M. I. A.; Idros, M. F. M.; Halim, A. K.; Ahmad, A.; Junid, S. A. M. Al

    2018-03-01

    This project discusses the design and simulation performances of integrated loop antenna. Antenna is one of the main parts in any wireless radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC). Naturally, antenna is the bulk in any RFIC design. Thus, this project aims to implement an integrated antenna on a single chip making the end product more compact. This project targets 5.8 GHz as the operating frequency of the integrated antenna for a transceiver module based on Silterra CMOS 180nm technology. The simulation of the antenna was done by using High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). This software is industrial standard software that been used to simulate all electromagnetic effect including antenna simulation. This software has ability to simulate frequency at range of 100 MHz to 4 THz. The simulation set up in 3 dimension structure with driven terminal. The designed antenna has 1400um of diameter and placed on top metal layer. Loop configuration of the antenna has been chosen as the antenna design. From the configuration, it is able to make the chip more compact. The simulation shows that the antenna has single frequency band at center frequency 5.8 GHz with -48.93dB. The antenna radiation patterns shows, the antenna radiate at omnidirectional. From the simulation result, it could be concluded that the antenna have a good radiation pattern and propagation for wireless communication.

  9. Monolithic integration of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistors array on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip for biochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-10-06

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I-V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs.

  10. DNA-decorated carbon-nanotube-based chemical sensors on complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Yang, Chih-Feng; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Agarwal, Vinay; Sonkusale, Sameer; Kim, Taehoon; Busnaina, Ahmed; Chen, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We present integration of single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) onto complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry as nanoscale chemical sensors. SWNTs were assembled onto CMOS circuitry via a low voltage dielectrophoretic (DEP) process. Besides, bare SWNTs are reported to be sensitive to various chemicals, and functionalization of SWNTs with biomolecular complexes further enhances the sensing specificity and sensitivity. After decorating ss-DNA on SWNTs, we have found that the sensing response of the gas sensor was enhanced (up to ∼ 300% and ∼ 250% for methanol vapor and isopropanol alcohol vapor, respectively) compared with bare SWNTs. The SWNTs coupled with ss-DNA and their integration on CMOS circuitry demonstrates a step towards realizing ultra-sensitive electronic nose applications.

  11. High performance high-κ/metal gate complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuit element on flexible silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-02-29

    Thinned silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductor(CMOS)electronics can be physically flexible. To overcome challenges of limited thinning and damaging of devices originated from back grinding process, we show sequential reactive ion etching of silicon with the assistance from soft polymeric materials to efficiently achieve thinned (40 μm) and flexible (1.5 cm bending radius) silicon based functional CMOSinverters with high-κ/metal gate transistors. Notable advances through this study shows large area of silicon thinning with pre-fabricated high performance elements with ultra-large-scale-integration density (using 90 nm node technology) and then dicing of such large and thinned (seemingly fragile) pieces into smaller pieces using excimer laser. The impact of various mechanical bending and bending cycles show undeterred high performance of flexible siliconCMOSinverters. Future work will include transfer of diced silicon chips to destination site, interconnects, and packaging to obtain fully flexible electronic systems in CMOS compatible way.

  12. Dimensional optimization of nanowire--complementary metal oxide--semiconductor inverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yasir; Sidek, Othman

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate dimensional optimization of nanowire-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. Results indicate that optimization depends on both dimensions ratio and digital voltage level (Vdd). Diameter optimization reveals that when Vdd increases, the optimized value of (Dp/Dn) decreases. Channel length optimization results show that when Vdd increases, the optimized value of Ln decreases and that of (Lp/Ln) increases. Dimension ratio optimization reveals that when Vdd increases, the optimized value of Kp/Kn decreases, and silicon nanowire transistor with suitable dimensions (higher Dp and Ln with lower Lp and Dn) can be fabricated.

  13. Ratiometric, filter-free optical sensor based on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor buried double junction photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Ka Yi; Zhan, Zhiyong; Titus, Albert H; Baker, Gary A; Bright, Frank V

    2015-07-16

    We report a complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit (CMOS IC) with a buried double junction (BDJ) photodiode that (i) provides a real-time output signal that is related to the intensity ratio at two emission wavelengths and (ii) simultaneously eliminates the need for an optical filter to block Rayleigh scatter. We demonstrate the BDJ platform performance for gaseous NH3 and aqueous pH detection. We also compare the BDJ performance to parallel results obtained by using a slew scanned fluorimeter (SSF). The BDJ results are functionally equivalent to the SSF results without the need for any wavelength filtering or monochromators and the BDJ platform is not prone to errors associated with source intensity fluctuations or sensor signal drift. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancing the far-ultraviolet sensitivity of silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor imaging arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Bai, Yibin; Ryu, Kevin K.; Gregory, James A.; Welander, Paul B.; Davis, Michael W.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Winters, Gregory S.; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi; Beletic, James W.

    2015-10-01

    We report our progress toward optimizing backside-illuminated silicon P-type intrinsic N-type complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices developed by Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS) for far-ultraviolet (UV) planetary science applications. This project was motivated by initial measurements at Southwest Research Institute of the far-UV responsivity of backside-illuminated silicon PIN photodiode test structures, which revealed a promising QE in the 100 to 200 nm range. Our effort to advance the capabilities of thinned silicon wafers capitalizes on recent innovations in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) doping processes. Key achievements to date include the following: (1) representative silicon test wafers were fabricated by TIS, and set up for MBE processing at MIT Lincoln Laboratory; (2) preliminary far-UV detector QE simulation runs were completed to aid MBE layer design; (3) detector fabrication was completed through the pre-MBE step; and (4) initial testing of the MBE doping process was performed on monitoring wafers, with detailed quality assessments.

  15. Laser line scan underwater imaging by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyi; Luo, Meixing; Song, Xiyu; Wang, Dundong; He, Ning

    2017-12-01

    This work employs the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera to acquire images in a scanning manner for laser line scan (LLS) underwater imaging to alleviate backscatter impact of seawater. Two operating features of the CMOS camera, namely the region of interest (ROI) and rolling shutter, can be utilized to perform image scan without the difficulty of translating the receiver above the target as the traditional LLS imaging systems have. By the dynamically reconfigurable ROI of an industrial CMOS camera, we evenly divided the image into five subareas along the pixel rows and then scanned them by changing the ROI region automatically under the synchronous illumination by the fun beams of the lasers. Another scanning method was explored by the rolling shutter operation of the CMOS camera. The fun beam lasers were turned on/off to illuminate the narrow zones on the target in a good correspondence to the exposure lines during the rolling procedure of the camera's electronic shutter. The frame synchronization between the image scan and the laser beam sweep may be achieved by either the strobe lighting output pulse or the external triggering pulse of the industrial camera. Comparison between the scanning and nonscanning images shows that contrast of the underwater image can be improved by our LLS imaging techniques, with higher stability and feasibility than the mechanically controlled scanning method.

  16. Polycrystalline silicon ring resonator photodiodes in a bulk complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Karan K; Orcutt, Jason S; Shainline, Jeffrey M; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Sternberg, Zvi; Meade, Roy; Popović, Miloš A; Ram, Rajeev J

    2014-02-15

    We present measurements on resonant photodetectors utilizing sub-bandgap absorption in polycrystalline silicon ring resonators, in which light is localized in the intrinsic region of a p+/p/i/n/n+ diode. The devices, operating both at λ=1280 and λ=1550  nm and fabricated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) dynamic random-access memory emulation process, exhibit detection quantum efficiencies around 20% and few-gigahertz response bandwidths. We observe this performance at low reverse biases in the range of a few volts and in devices with dark currents below 50 pA at 10 V. These results demonstrate that such photodetector behavior, previously reported by Preston et al. [Opt. Lett. 36, 52 (2011)], is achievable in bulk CMOS processes, with significant improvements with respect to the previous work in quantum efficiency, dark current, linearity, bandwidth, and operating bias due to additional midlevel doping implants and different material deposition. The present work thus offers a robust realization of a fully CMOS-fabricated all-silicon photodetector functional across a wide wavelength range.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Film Stack Architecture for Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuo-Tsai; Hwang, Sheng-Jye; Lee, Huei-Huang

    2017-05-02

    Image sensors are the core components of computer, communication, and consumer electronic products. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have become the mainstay of image-sensing developments, but are prone to leakage current. In this study, we simulate the CMOS image sensor (CIS) film stacking process by finite element analysis. To elucidate the relationship between the leakage current and stack architecture, we compare the simulated and measured leakage currents in the elements. Based on the analysis results, we further improve the performance by optimizing the architecture of the film stacks or changing the thin-film material. The material parameters are then corrected to improve the accuracy of the simulation results. The simulated and experimental results confirm a positive correlation between measured leakage current and stress. This trend is attributed to the structural defects induced by high stress, which generate leakage. Using this relationship, we can change the structure of the thin-film stack to reduce the leakage current and thereby improve the component life and reliability of the CIS components.

  18. Chip-scale fluorescence microscope based on a silo-filter complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah Lee, Seung; Ou, Xiaoze; Lee, J Eugene; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate a silo-filter (SF) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor for a chip-scale fluorescence microscope. The extruded pixel design with metal walls between neighboring pixels guides fluorescence emission through the thick absorptive filter to the photodiode of a pixel. Our prototype device achieves 13 μm resolution over a wide field of view (4.8 mm × 4.4 mm). We demonstrate bright-field and fluorescence longitudinal imaging of living cells in a compact, low-cost configuration.

  19. Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Richard J.; Light, Roger A.; Johnston, Nicholas S.; Pitter, Mark C.; Somekh, Mike G.; Sharples, Steve D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound system that uses a custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear array detector. This novel sensor allows parallel phase-sensitive detection of very low contrast modulated signals with performance in each channel comparable to that of a discrete photodiode and a lock-in amplifier. Application of the instrument is demonstrated by parallelizing spatial measurements to produce two-dimensional thickness maps on a layered sample, and spectroscopic parallelization is demonstrated by presenting the measured Brillouin oscillations from a gallium arsenide wafer. This paper demonstrates the significant advantages of our approach to pump probe systems, especially picosecond ultrasonics.

  20. Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Richard J.; Light, Roger A.; Johnston, Nicholas S.; Pitter, Mark C.; Somekh, Mike G. [Institute of Biophysics, Imaging and Optical Science, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Sharples, Steve D. [Applied Optics Group, Electrical Systems and Optics Research Division, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    This paper presents a multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound system that uses a custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear array detector. This novel sensor allows parallel phase-sensitive detection of very low contrast modulated signals with performance in each channel comparable to that of a discrete photodiode and a lock-in amplifier. Application of the instrument is demonstrated by parallelizing spatial measurements to produce two-dimensional thickness maps on a layered sample, and spectroscopic parallelization is demonstrated by presenting the measured Brillouin oscillations from a gallium arsenide wafer. This paper demonstrates the significant advantages of our approach to pump probe systems, especially picosecond ultrasonics.

  1. The effect of body bias of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor in the resistive network on spatial current distribution in a bio-inspired complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor vision chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jae-Sung; Hyun, Hyo-Young; Seo, Sang-Ho; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2008-11-01

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) vision chips for edge detection based on a resistive circuit have recently been developed. These chips help in the creation of neuromorphic systems of a compact size, high speed of operation, and low power dissipation. The output of the vision chip depends predominantly upon the electrical characteristics of the resistive network which consists of a resistive circuit. In this paper, the body effect of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor for current distribution in a resistive circuit is discussed with a simple model. In order to evaluate the model, two 160 × 120 CMOS vision chips have been fabricated using a standard CMOS technology. The experimental results nicely match our prediction.

  2. A 94GHz Temperature Compensated Low Noise Amplifier in 45nm Silicon-on-Insulator Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (SOI CMOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ring oscillator based temperature sensor will be designed to compensate for gain variations over temperature. For comparison to a competing solution...Simulated (Green) Capacitance of the GSG Pads ........................ 9 Figure 6: Die Picture and Schematic of the L-2L Coplanar Waveguides...complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. A ring oscillator based temperature sensor was designed to compensate for gain variations

  3. Plasma-Induced Damage on the Reliability of Hf-Based High-k/Dual Metal-Gates Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.; Lin, H.C.; Huang, T.Y.; Lee, Y.J.; Lin, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of plasma-induced damage (PID) on Hf-based high-k/dual metal-gates transistors processed with advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In addition to the gate dielectric degradations, this study demonstrates that thinning the gate dielectric reduces the impact of damage on transistor reliability including the positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) of n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (NMOSFETs) and the negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) of p-channel MOSFETs. This study shows that high-k/metal-gate transistors are more robust against PID than conventional SiO 2 /poly-gate transistors with similar physical thickness. Finally this study proposes a model that successfully explains the observed experimental trends in the presence of PID for high-k/metal-gate CMOS technology.

  4. High performance high-κ/metal gate complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuit element on flexible silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Almuslem, A. S.; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Cruz, Melvin; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    shows large area of silicon thinning with pre-fabricated high performance elements with ultra-large-scale-integration density (using 90 nm node technology) and then dicing of such large and thinned (seemingly fragile) pieces into smaller pieces using

  5. Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible source of single photons at near-visible wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernansky, Robert; Martini, Francesco; Politi, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate on chip generation of correlated pairs of photons in the near-visible spectrum using a CMOS compatible PECVD Silicon Nitride photonic device. Photons are generated via spontaneous four wave mixing enhanced by a ring resonator with high quality Q-factor of 320,000 resulting in a generation rate of 950,000 $\\frac{pairs}{mW}$. The high brightness of this source offers the opportunity to expand photonic quantum technologies over a broad wavelength range and provides a path to develop fully integrated quantum chips working at room temperature.

  6. Note: A disposable x-ray camera based on mass produced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensors and single-board computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoidn, Oliver R.; Seidler, Gerald T., E-mail: seidler@uw.edu [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We have integrated mass-produced commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors and off-the-shelf single-board computers into an x-ray camera platform optimized for acquisition of x-ray spectra and radiographs at energies of 2–6 keV. The CMOS sensor and single-board computer are complemented by custom mounting and interface hardware that can be easily acquired from rapid prototyping services. For single-pixel detection events, i.e., events where the deposited energy from one photon is substantially localized in a single pixel, we establish ∼20% quantum efficiency at 2.6 keV with ∼190 eV resolution and a 100 kHz maximum detection rate. The detector platform’s useful intrinsic energy resolution, 5-μm pixel size, ease of use, and obvious potential for parallelization make it a promising candidate for many applications at synchrotron facilities, in laser-heating plasma physics studies, and in laboratory-based x-ray spectrometry.

  7. Functional integrity of flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on a reversibly bistable platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaraj, Nasir; Hussain, Aftab M.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Aljedaani, Abdulrahman B.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-10-01

    Flexibility can bring a new dimension to state-of-the-art electronics, such as rollable displays and integrated circuit systems being transformed into more powerful resources. Flexible electronics are typically hosted on polymeric substrates. Such substrates can be bent and rolled up, but cannot be independently fixed at the rigid perpendicular position necessary to realize rollable display-integrated gadgets and electronics. A reversibly bistable material can assume two stable states in a reversible way: flexibly rolled state and independently unbent state. Such materials are used in cycling and biking safety wristbands and a variety of ankle bracelets for orthopedic healthcare. They are often wrapped around an object with high impulsive force loading. Here, we study the effects of cumulative impulsive force loading on thinned (25 μm) flexible silicon-based n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor devices housed on a reversibly bistable flexible platform. We found that the transistors have maintained their high performance level up to an accumulated 180 kN of impact force loading. The gate dielectric layers have maintained their reliability, which is evidenced by the low leakage current densities. Also, we observed low variation in the effective electron mobility values, which manifests that the device channels have maintained their carrier transport properties.

  8. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Luisa; Vogt, Christian; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland); Münzenrieder, Niko [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland); Sensor Technology Research Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer (United Kingdom); Faber, Hendrik; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D. [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In

  9. An ultrasensitive method of real time pH monitoring with complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-02-09

    CMOS sensors are becoming a powerful tool in the biological and chemical field. In this work, we introduce a new approach on quantifying various pH solutions with a CMOS image sensor. The CMOS image sensor based pH measurement produces high-accuracy analysis, making it a truly portable and user friendly system. pH indicator blended hydrogel matrix was fabricated as a thin film to the accurate color development. A distinct color change of red, green and blue (RGB) develops in the hydrogel film by applying various pH solutions (pH 1-14). The semi-quantitative pH evolution was acquired by visual read out. Further, CMOS image sensor absorbs the RGB color intensity of the film and hue value converted into digital numbers with the aid of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to determine the pH ranges of solutions. Chromaticity diagram and Euclidean distance represent the RGB color space and differentiation of pH ranges, respectively. This technique is applicable to sense the various toxic chemicals and chemical vapors by situ sensing. Ultimately, the entire approach can be integrated into smartphone and operable with the user friendly manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wafer-scale laser pantography: Fabrication of n-metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and small-scale integrated circuits by direct-write laser-induced pyrolytic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, B.M.; Herman, I.P.; Mitlitsky, F.; Hyde, R.A.; Wood, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    A complete set of processes sufficient for manufacture of n-metal-oxide-semiconductor (n-MOS) transistors by a laser-induced direct-write process has been demonstrated separately, and integrated to yield functional transistors. Gates and interconnects were fabricated of various combinations of n-doped and intrinsic polysilicon, tungsten, and tungsten silicide compounds. Both 0.1-μm and 1-μm-thick gate oxides were micromachined with and without etchant gas, and the exposed p-Si [100] substrate was cleaned and, at times, etched. Diffusion regions were doped by laser-induced pyrolytic decomposition of phosphine followed by laser annealing. Along with the successful manufacture of working n-MOS transistors and a set of elementary digital logic gates, this letter reports the successful use of several laser-induced surface reactions that have not been reported previously

  11. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.; Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H2, are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine an activation energy for the catalyst-assisted systems.

  12. Properties and growth peculiarities of Si{sub 0.30}Ge{sub 0.70} stressor integrated in 14 nm fin-based p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikavyy, A., E-mail: Andriy.Hikavyy@imec.be; Rosseel, E.; Kubicek, S.; Mannaert, G.; Favia, P.; Bender, H.; Loo, R.; Horiguchi, N.

    2016-03-01

    Integration of Si{sub 0.30}Ge{sub 0.70} in the Source/Drain (S/D) areas of metal oxide semiconductor transistors built according to 14 nm technological node rules has been shown. SiGe properties and growth peculiarities are presented and elaborated. In order to preserve the fin structures during a pre-epitaxy surface preparation, the H{sub 2} bake pressure had to be increased to 19,998 Pa at 800 °C. Influence of this bake on the Si recess in the S/D areas is presented. Excellent quality of both the raised and the embedded Si{sub 0.30}Ge{sub 0.70} was demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy inspections. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurement showed two stages of SiGe growth for the embedded case: first with a lower Ge content at the beginning of the deposition until the (111) facets are formed, and second with a higher Ge content which is governed by the growth on (111) planes. Nano-beam diffraction analysis showed that SiGe grown in the S/D areas of p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is fully elastically relaxed in the direction across the fin and partially strained along the fin. Finally, a strain accumulation effect in the chain of transistors has been observed. - Highlights: • Si{sub 0.30}Ge{sub 0.70} stressor has been implemented in the 14 nm technology node CMOS flow. • Embedded and raised variants have been investigated. • High Si{sub 0.30}Ge{sub 0.70} quality was confirmed. • Si{sub 0.30}Ge{sub 0.70} layer is elastically relaxed across the fin direction. • Partial stress presence and stress accumulation effect were observed.

  13. Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura; Xu, Jennifer C.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A report describes the fabrication and testing of nanoscale metal oxide semiconductors (MOSs) for gas and chemical sensing. This document examines the relationship between processing approaches and resulting sensor behavior. This is a core question related to a range of applications of nanotechnology and a number of different synthesis methods are discussed: thermal evaporation- condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed, providing a processing overview to developers of nanotechnology- based systems. The results of a significant amount of testing and comparison are also described. A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. The TECsynthesized single-crystal nanowires offer uniform crystal surfaces, resistance to sintering, and their synthesis may be done apart from the substrate. The TECproduced nanowire response is very low, even at the operating temperature of 200 C. In contrast, the electrospun polycrystalline nanofiber response is high, suggesting that junction potentials are superior to a continuous surface depletion layer as a transduction mechanism for chemisorption. Using a catalyst deposited upon the surface in the form of nanoparticles yields dramatic gains in sensitivity for both nanostructured, one-dimensional forms. For the nanowire materials, the response magnitude and response rate uniformly increase with increasing operating temperature. Such changes are interpreted in terms of accelerated surface diffusional processes, yielding greater access to chemisorbed oxygen species and faster dissociative chemisorption, respectively. Regardless of operating temperature, sensitivity of the nanofibers is a factor of 10 to 100 greater than that of nanowires with the same catalyst for the same test condition. In summary, nanostructure appears critical to governing the reactivity, as measured by electrical

  14. Co-integration of nano-scale vertical- and horizontal-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors for low power CMOS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min-Chul; Kim, Garam; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hyungjin; Lee, Jong-Ho; Shin, Hyungcheol; Park, Byung-Gook

    2012-07-01

    In order to extend the conventional low power Si CMOS technology beyond the 20-nm node without SOI substrates, we propose a novel co-integration scheme to build horizontal- and vertical-channel MOSFETs together and verify the idea using TCAD simulations. From the fabrication viewpoint, it is highlighted that this scheme provides additional vertical devices with good scalability by adding a few steps to the conventional CMOS process flow for fin formation. In addition, the benefits of the co-integrated vertical devices are investigated using a TCAD device simulation. From this study, it is confirmed that the vertical device shows improved off-current control and a larger drive current when the body dimension is less than 20 nm, due to the electric field coupling effect at the double-gated channel. Finally, the benefits from the circuit design viewpoint, such as the larger midpoint gain and beta and lower power consumption, are confirmed by the mixed-mode circuit simulation study.

  15. Metal/oxide/semiconductor interface investigated by monoenergetic positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uedono, A.; Tanigawa, S.; Ohji, Y.

    1988-10-01

    Variable-energy positron-beam studies have been carried out for the first time on a metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) structure of polycrystalline Si/SiO 2/Si-substrate. We were successful in collecting injected positrons at the SiO 2/Si interface by the application of an electric field between the MOS electrodes.

  16. Positron studies of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, H. L.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K. G.

    1993-03-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy provides a new probe to study the properties of interface traps in metal-oxide semiconductors (MOS). Using positrons, we have examined the behavior of the interface traps as a function of gate bias. We propose a simple model to explain the positron annihilation spectra from the interface region of a MOS capacitor.

  17. Unbiased metal oxide semiconductor ionising radiation dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumurdjian, N.; Sarrabayrouse, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the application of MOS devices as low dose rate dosemeters, the sensitivity is the major factor although little studies have been performed on that subject. It is studied here, as well as thermal stability and linearity of the response curve. Other advantages are specified such as large measurable dose range, low cost, small size, possibility of integration. (D.L.)

  18. High-temperature complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBrayer, J.D.

    1979-10-01

    Silicon CMOS devices were studied, tested, and evaluated at high temperatures to determine processing, geometric, operating characteristics, and stability parameters. After more than 1000 hours at 300 0 C, most devices showed good stability, reliability, and operating characteristics. Processing and geometric parameters were evaluated and optimization steps discussed

  19. Metal-oxide-semiconductor devices based on epitaxial germanium-carbon layers grown directly on silicon substrates by ultra-high-vacuum chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David Quest

    After the integrated circuit was invented in 1959, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology soon became the mainstay of the semiconductor industry. Silicon-based CMOS has dominated logic technologies for decades. During this time, chip performance has grown at an exponential rate at the cost of higher power consumption and increased process complexity. The performance gains have been made possible through scaling down circuit dimensions by improvements in lithography capabilities. Since scaling cannot continue forever, researchers have vigorously pursued new ways of improving the performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) without having to shrink gate lengths and reduce the gate insulator thickness. Strained silicon, with its ability to boost transistor current by improving the channel mobility, is one of the methods that has already found its way into production. Although not yet in production, high-kappa dielectrics have also drawn wide interest in industry since they allow for the reduction of the electrical oxide thickness of the gate stack without having to reduce the physical thickness of the dielectric. Further out on the horizon is the incorporation of high-mobility materials such as germanium (Ge), silicon-germanium (Si1-xGe x), and the III-V semiconductors. Among the high-mobility materials, Ge has drawn the most attention because it has been shown to be compatible with high-kappa dielectrics and to produce high drive currents compared to Si. Among the most difficult challenges for integrating Ge on Si is finding a suitable method for reducing the number of crystal defects. The use of strain-relaxed Si1- xGex buffers has proven successful for reducing the threading dislocation density in Ge epitaxial layers, but questions remain as to the viability of this method in terms of cost and process complexity. This dissertation presents research on thin germanium-carbon (Ge 1-yCy layers on Si for the fabrication

  20. Band-to-band tunneling in a carbon nanotube metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is dominated by phonon assisted tunneling

    OpenAIRE

    Koswatta, Siyuranga O.; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Nikonov, Dmitri E.

    2007-01-01

    Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) devices have recently gained a lot of interest due to their potential for reducing power dissipation in integrated circuits. We have performed extensive simulations for the BTBT operation of carbon nanotube metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CNT-MOSFETs) using the non-equilibrium Green's functions formalism for both ballistic and dissipative quantum transport. In comparison with recently reported experimental data (Y. Lu et al, J. Am. Chem. Soc.,...

  1. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serov, Alexander; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2002-01-01

    We utilized a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor video camera for fast f low imaging with the laser Doppler technique. A single sensor is used for both observation of the area of interest and measurements of the interference signal caused by dynamic light scattering from moving particles inside

  2. Mechanical anomaly impact on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors on flexible silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Ghodsi Nasseri, Seyed Faizelldin; Bersuker, G.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We report the impact of mechanical anomaly on high-κ/metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors built on flexible silicon (100) fabric. The mechanical tests include studying the effect of bending radius up to 5 mm minimum bending radius with respect

  3. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  4. Low Power Operation of Temperature-Modulated Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Burgués

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications based on gas sensing present new opportunities for low-cost air quality monitoring, safety, and healthcare. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOX gas sensors represent the most prominent technology for integration into portable devices, such as smartphones and wearables. Traditionally, MOX sensors have been continuously powered to increase the stability of the sensing layer. However, continuous power is not feasible in many battery-operated applications due to power consumption limitations or the intended intermittent device operation. This work benchmarks two low-power, duty-cycling, and on-demand modes against the continuous power one. The duty-cycling mode periodically turns the sensors on and off and represents a trade-off between power consumption and stability. On-demand operation achieves the lowest power consumption by powering the sensors only while taking a measurement. Twelve thermally modulated SB-500-12 (FIS Inc. Jacksonville, FL, USA sensors were exposed to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (0–9 ppm with environmental conditions, such as ambient humidity (15–75% relative humidity and temperature (21–27 °C, varying within the indicated ranges. Partial Least Squares (PLS models were built using calibration data, and the prediction error in external validation samples was evaluated during the two weeks following calibration. We found that on-demand operation produced a deformation of the sensor conductance patterns, which led to an increase in the prediction error by almost a factor of 5 as compared to continuous operation (2.2 versus 0.45 ppm. Applying a 10% duty-cycling operation of 10-min periods reduced this prediction error to a factor of 2 (0.9 versus 0.45 ppm. The proposed duty-cycling powering scheme saved up to 90% energy as compared to the continuous operating mode. This low-power mode may be advantageous for applications that do not require continuous and periodic measurements, and which can tolerate

  5. Low Power Operation of Temperature-Modulated Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgués, Javier; Marco, Santiago

    2018-01-25

    Mobile applications based on gas sensing present new opportunities for low-cost air quality monitoring, safety, and healthcare. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOX) gas sensors represent the most prominent technology for integration into portable devices, such as smartphones and wearables. Traditionally, MOX sensors have been continuously powered to increase the stability of the sensing layer. However, continuous power is not feasible in many battery-operated applications due to power consumption limitations or the intended intermittent device operation. This work benchmarks two low-power, duty-cycling, and on-demand modes against the continuous power one. The duty-cycling mode periodically turns the sensors on and off and represents a trade-off between power consumption and stability. On-demand operation achieves the lowest power consumption by powering the sensors only while taking a measurement. Twelve thermally modulated SB-500-12 (FIS Inc. Jacksonville, FL, USA) sensors were exposed to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (0-9 ppm) with environmental conditions, such as ambient humidity (15-75% relative humidity) and temperature (21-27 °C), varying within the indicated ranges. Partial Least Squares (PLS) models were built using calibration data, and the prediction error in external validation samples was evaluated during the two weeks following calibration. We found that on-demand operation produced a deformation of the sensor conductance patterns, which led to an increase in the prediction error by almost a factor of 5 as compared to continuous operation (2.2 versus 0.45 ppm). Applying a 10% duty-cycling operation of 10-min periods reduced this prediction error to a factor of 2 (0.9 versus 0.45 ppm). The proposed duty-cycling powering scheme saved up to 90% energy as compared to the continuous operating mode. This low-power mode may be advantageous for applications that do not require continuous and periodic measurements, and which can tolerate slightly higher

  6. Mechanical anomaly impact on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors on flexible silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2014-06-09

    We report the impact of mechanical anomaly on high-κ/metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors built on flexible silicon (100) fabric. The mechanical tests include studying the effect of bending radius up to 5 mm minimum bending radius with respect to breakdown voltage and leakage current of the devices. We also report the effect of continuous mechanical stress on the breakdown voltage over extended periods of times.

  7. Signatures of Quantized Energy States in Solution-Processed Ultrathin Layers of Metal-Oxide Semiconductors and Their Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Labram, John G.; Lin, Yenhung; Zhao, Kui; Li, Ruipeng; Thomas, Stuart R.; Semple, James; Androulidaki, Maria; Sygellou, Lamprini; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Amassian, Aram; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    reports of the growth of uniform, ultrathin (<5 nm) metal-oxide semiconductors from solution, however, have potentially opened the door to such phenomena manifesting themselves. Here, a theoretical framework is developed for energy quantization

  8. A fully-integrated 12.5-Gb/s 850-nm CMOS optical receiver based on a spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.J.; Youn, J.S.; Park, K.Y.; Choi, W.Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present a fully integrated 12.5-Gb/s optical receiver fabricated with standard 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology for 850-nm optical interconnect applications. Our integrated optical receiver includes a newly proposed CMOS-compatible spatially-modulated avalanche

  9. Pseudo 2-transistor active pixel sensor using an n-well/gate-tied p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field eeffect transistor-type photodetector with built-in transfer gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Ho; Seo, Min-Woong; Kong, Jae-Sung; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Choi, Pyung

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, a pseudo 2-transistor active pixel sensor (APS) has been designed and fabricated by using an n-well/gate-tied p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (PMOSFET)-type photodetector with built-in transfer gate. The proposed sensor has been fabricated using a 0.35 μm 2-poly 4-metal standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic process. The pseudo 2-transistor APS consists of two NMOSFETs and one photodetector which can amplify the generated photocurrent. The area of the pseudo 2-transistor APS is 7.1 × 6.2 μm2. The sensitivity of the proposed pixel is 49 lux/(V·s). By using this pixel, a smaller pixel area and a higher level of sensitivity can be realized when compared with a conventional 3-transistor APS which uses a pn junction photodiode.

  10. Positron annihilation studies in the field induced depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Leung, T. C.; Lynn, K. G.; Nielsen, B.; Forcier, M. P.; Weinberg, Z. A.; Rubloff, G. W.

    1992-06-01

    The centroid shifts of positron annihilation spectra are reported from the depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors at room temperature and at 35 K. The centroid shift measurement can be explained using the variation of the electric field strength and depletion layer thickness as a function of the applied gate bias. An estimate for the relevant MOS quantities is obtained by fitting the centroid shift versus beam energy data with a steady-state diffusion-annihilation equation and a derivative-gaussian positron implantation profile. Inadequacy of the present analysis scheme is evident from the derived quantities and alternate methods are required for better predictions.

  11. Positron annihilation studies in the field induced depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Leung, T.C.; Lynn, K.G.; Nielsen, B.; Forcier, M.P.; Weinberg, Z.A.; Rubloff, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The centroid shifts of positron annihilation spectra are reported from the depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors at room temperature and at 35 K. The centroid shift measurement can be explained using the variation of the electric field strength and depletion layer thickness as a function of the applied gate bias. An estimate for the relevant MOS quantities is obtained by fitting the centroid shift versus beam energy data with a steady-state diffusion-annihilation equation and a derivative-gaussian positron implantation profile. Inadequacy of the present analysis scheme is evident from the derived quantities and alternate methods are required for better predictions

  12. Modelling of Leakage Current Through Double Dielectric Gate Stack in Metal Oxide Semiconductor Capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatimah A Noor; Mikrajuddin Abdullah; Sukirno; Khairurrijal

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we have derived analytical expression of leakage current through double barriers in Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. Initially, electron transmittance through the MOS capacitor was derived by including the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal energies. The transmittance was then employed to obtain leakage current through the double barrier. In this model, we observed the effect of electron velocity due to the coupling effect and the oxide thickness to the leakage current. The calculated results showed that the leakage current decreases as the electron velocity increases. (author)

  13. Scheme for the fabrication of ultrashort channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appenzeller, J.; Martel, R.; Solomon, P.; Chan, K.; Avouris, Ph.; Knoch, J.; Benedict, J.; Tanner, M.; Thomas, S.; Wang, K. L.

    2000-01-01

    We present a scheme for the fabrication of ultrashort channel length metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) involving nanolithography and molecular-beam epitaxy. The active channel is undoped and is defined by a combination of nanometer-scale patterning and anisotropic etching of an n ++ layer grown on a silicon on insulator wafer. The method is self-limiting and can produce MOSFET devices with channel lengths of less than 10 nm. Measurements on the first batch of n-MOSFET devices fabricated with this approach show very good output characteristics and good control of short-channel effects. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  14. Surface Preparation and Deposited Gate Oxides for Gallium Nitride Based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. McIntyre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature on polar Gallium Nitride (GaN surfaces, surface treatments and gate dielectrics relevant to metal oxide semiconductor devices is reviewed. The significance of the GaN growth technique and growth parameters on the properties of GaN epilayers, the ability to modify GaN surface properties using in situ and ex situ processes and progress on the understanding and performance of GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS devices are presented and discussed. Although a reasonably consistent picture is emerging from focused studies on issues covered in each of these topics, future research can achieve a better understanding of the critical oxide-semiconductor interface by probing the connections between these topics. The challenges in analyzing defect concentrations and energies in GaN MOS gate stacks are discussed. Promising gate dielectric deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition, which is already accepted by the semiconductor industry for silicon CMOS device fabrication, coupled with more advanced physical and electrical characterization methods will likely accelerate the pace of learning required to develop future GaN-based MOS technology.

  15. Single-electron regime and Pauli spin blockade in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Sophie; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Silicon quantum dots are promising candidates for quantum information processing as spin qubits with long coherence time. We present electrical transport measurements on a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) double quantum dot (DQD). First, Coulomb diamonds measurements demonstrate the one-electron regime at a relatively high temperature of 1.5 K. Then, the 8 mK stability diagram shows Pauli spin blockade with a large singlet-triplet separation of approximatively 0.40 meV, pointing towards a strong lifting of the valley degeneracy. Finally, numerical simulations indicate that by integrating a micro-magnet to those devices, we could achieve fast spin rotations of the order of 30 ns. Those results are part of the recent body of work demonstrating the potential of Si MOS DQD as reliable and long-lived spin qubits that could be ultimately integrated into modern electronic facilities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Effect of Water Vapor and Surface Morphology on the Low Temperature Response of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Maier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the low temperature response of metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors is analyzed. Important characteristics of this low-temperature response are a pronounced selectivity to acid- and base-forming gases and a large disparity of response and recovery time constants which often leads to an integrator-type of gas response. We show that this kind of sensor performance is related to the trend of semiconductor gas sensors to adsorb water vapor in multi-layer form and that this ability is sensitively influenced by the surface morphology. In particular we show that surface roughness in the nanometer range enhances desorption of water from multi-layer adsorbates, enabling them to respond more swiftly to changes in the ambient humidity. Further experiments reveal that reactive gases, such as NO2 and NH3, which are easily absorbed in the water adsorbate layers, are more easily exchanged across the liquid/air interface when the humidity in the ambient air is high.

  17. High-performance carbon-nanotube-based complementary field-effect-transistors and integrated circuits with yttrium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shibo; Zhang, Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@pku.edu.cn; Si, Jia; Zhong, Donglai; Peng, Lian-Mao, E-mail: lmpeng@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-08-11

    High-performance p-type carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors utilizing yttrium oxide as gate dielectric are presented by optimizing oxidization and annealing processes. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect-transistors (FETs) are then fabricated on CNTs, and the p- and n-type devices exhibit symmetrical high performances, especially with low threshold voltage near to zero. The corresponding CMOS CNT inverter is demonstrated to operate at an ultra-low supply voltage down to 0.2 V, while displaying sufficient voltage gain, high noise margin, and low power consumption. Yttrium oxide is proven to be a competitive gate dielectric for constructing high-performance CNT CMOS FETs and integrated circuits.

  18. Positron annihilation in a metal-oxide semiconductor studied by using a pulsed monoenergetic positron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uedono, A.; Wei, L.; Tanigawa, S.; Suzuki, R.; Ohgaki, H.; Mikado, T.; Ohji, Y.

    1993-12-01

    The positron annihilation in a metal-oxide semiconductor was studied by using a pulsed monoenergetic positron beam. Lifetime spectra of positrons were measured as a function of incident positron energy for a polycrystalline Si(100 nm)/SiO2(400 nm)/Si specimen. Applying a gate voltage between the polycrystalline Si film and the Si substrate, positrons implanted into the specimen were accumulated at the SiO2/Si interface. From the measurements, it was found that the annihilation probability of ortho-positronium (ortho-Ps) drastically decreased at the SiO2/Si interface. The observed inhibition of the Ps formation was attributed to an interaction between positrons and defects at the SiO2/Si interface.

  19. Positive and negative gain exceeding unity magnitude in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gangyi; Wijesinghe, Udumbara; Naquin, Clint; Maggio, Ken; Edwards, H. L.; Lee, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic gain (AV) measurements on Si quantum well (QW) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) transistors show that these devices can have |AV| > 1 in quantum transport negative transconductance (NTC) operation at room temperature. QW NMOS devices were fabricated using an industrial 45 nm technology node process incorporating ion implanted potential barriers to define a lateral QW in the conduction channel under the gate. While NTC at room temperature arising from transport through gate-controlled QW bound states has been previously established, it was unknown whether the quantum NTC mechanism could support gain magnitude exceeding unity. Bias conditions were found giving both positive and negative AV with |AV| > 1 at room temperature. This result means that QW NMOS devices could be useful in amplifier and oscillator applications.

  20. Gate tunneling current and quantum capacitance in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with graphene gate electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yanbin; Shekhawat, Aniruddh; Behnam, Ashkan; Pop, Eric; Ural, Ant

    2016-11-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with graphene as the metal gate electrode, silicon dioxide with thicknesses ranging from 5 to 20 nm as the dielectric, and p-type silicon as the semiconductor are fabricated and characterized. It is found that Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling dominates the gate tunneling current in these devices for oxide thicknesses of 10 nm and larger, whereas for devices with 5 nm oxide, direct tunneling starts to play a role in determining the total gate current. Furthermore, the temperature dependences of the F-N tunneling current for the 10 nm devices are characterized in the temperature range 77-300 K. The F-N coefficients and the effective tunneling barrier height are extracted as a function of temperature. It is found that the effective barrier height decreases with increasing temperature, which is in agreement with the results previously reported for conventional MOS devices with polysilicon or metal gate electrodes. In addition, high frequency capacitance-voltage measurements of these MOS devices are performed, which depict a local capacitance minimum under accumulation for thin oxides. By analyzing the data using numerical calculations based on the modified density of states of graphene in the presence of charged impurities, it is shown that this local minimum is due to the contribution of the quantum capacitance of graphene. Finally, the workfunction of the graphene gate electrode is extracted by determining the flat-band voltage as a function of oxide thickness. These results show that graphene is a promising candidate as the gate electrode in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  1. Low Temperature Processed Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Device by Oxidation Effect from Capping Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenwei

    2015-04-20

    In this report, both p- and n-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) were simultaneously achieved using single-step deposition of the tin oxide channel layer. The tuning of charge carrier polarity in the tin oxide channel is achieved by selectively depositing a copper oxide capping layer on top of tin oxide, which serves as an oxygen source, providing additional oxygen to form an n-type tin dioxide phase. The oxidation process can be realized by annealing at temperature as low as 190°C in air, which is significantly lower than the temperature generally required to form tin dioxide. Based on this approach, CMOS inverters based entirely on tin oxide TFTs were fabricated. Our method provides a solution to lower the process temperature for tin dioxide phase, which facilitates the application of this transparent oxide semiconductor in emerging electronic devices field.

  2. Characterization study of an intensified complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor active pixel sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J. A.; Chen, D.; Turchetta, R.; Royle, G. J.

    2011-03-01

    An intensified CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) has been constructed for operation in low-light-level applications: a high-gain, fast-light decay image intensifier has been coupled via a fiber optic stud to a prototype "VANILLA" APS, developed by the UK based MI3 consortium. The sensor is capable of high frame rates and sparse readout. This paper presents a study of the performance parameters of the intensified VANILLA APS system over a range of image intensifier gain levels when uniformly illuminated with 520 nm green light. Mean-variance analysis shows the APS saturating around 3050 Digital Units (DU), with the maximum variance increasing with increasing image intensifier gain. The system's quantum efficiency varies in an exponential manner from 260 at an intensifier gain of 7.45 × 103 to 1.6 at a gain of 3.93 × 101. The usable dynamic range of the system is 60 dB for intensifier gains below 1.8 × 103, dropping to around 40 dB at high gains. The conclusion is that the system shows suitability for the desired application.

  3. Low Temperature Processed Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Device by Oxidation Effect from Capping Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenwei; Al-Jawhari, Hala A.; Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Wei, Nini; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    , which is significantly lower than the temperature generally required to form tin dioxide. Based on this approach, CMOS inverters based entirely on tin oxide TFTs were fabricated. Our method provides a solution to lower the process temperature for tin

  4. Band-to-band tunneling in a carbon nanotube metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is dominated by phonon-assisted tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koswatta, Siyuranga O; Lundstrom, Mark S; Nikonov, Dmitri E

    2007-05-01

    Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) devices have recently gained a lot of interest due to their potential for reducing power dissipation in integrated circuits. We have performed extensive simulations for the BTBT operation of carbon nanotube metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CNT-MOSFETs) using the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism for both ballistic and dissipative quantum transport. In comparison with recently reported experimental data (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 3518-3519), we have obtained strong evidence that BTBT in CNT-MOSFETs is dominated by optical phonon assisted inelastic transport, which can have important implications on the transistor characteristics. It is shown that, under large biasing conditions, two-phonon scattering may also become important.

  5. Practical Use of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors for Measuring Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Philip J D; Aujla, Amrita; Grant, Kirsty H; Brundle, Alex G; Thompson, Martin R; Vande Hey, Josh; Leigh, Roland J

    2017-07-19

    The potential of inexpensive Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors to be used for urban air quality monitoring has been the topic of increasing interest in the last decade. This paper discusses some of the lessons of three years of experience working with such sensors on a novel instrument platform (Small Open General purpose Sensor (SOGS)) in the measurement of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and ozone concentrations. Analytic methods for increasing long-term accuracy of measurements are discussed, which permit nitrogen dioxide measurements with 95% confidence intervals of 20.0 μ g m - 3 and ozone precision of 26.8 μ g m - 3 , for measurements over a period one month away from calibration, averaged over 18 months of such calibrations. Beyond four months from calibration, sensor drift becomes significant, and accuracy is significantly reduced. Successful calibration schemes are discussed with the use of controlled artificial atmospheres complementing deployment on a reference weather station exposed to the elements. Manufacturing variation in the attributes of individual sensors are examined, an experiment possible due to the instrument being equipped with pairs of sensors of the same kind. Good repeatability (better than 0.7 correlation) between individual sensor elements is shown. The results from sensors that used fans to push air past an internal sensor element are compared with mounting the sensors on the outside of the enclosure, the latter design increasing effective integration time to more than a day. Finally, possible paths forward are suggested for improving the reliability of this promising sensor technology for measuring pollution in an urban environment.

  6. Characterization of Interface State in Silicon Carbide Metal Oxide Semiconductor Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wei-Chieh

    Silicon carbide (SiC) has always been considered as an excellent material for high temperature and high power devices. Since SiC is the only compound semiconductor whose native oxide is silicon dioxide (SiO2), it puts SiC in a unique position. Although SiC metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) technology has made significant progress in recent years, there are still a number of issues to be overcome before more commercial SiC devices can enter the market. The prevailing issues surrounding SiC MOSFET devices are the low channel mobility, the low quality of the oxide layer and the high interface state density at the SiC/SiO2 interface. Consequently, there is a need for research to be performed in order to have a better understanding of the factors causing the poor SiC/SiO2 interface properties. In this work, we investigated the generation lifetime in SiC materials by using the pulsed metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor method and measured the interface state density distribution at the SiC/SiO2 interface by using the conductance measurement and the high-low frequency capacitance technique. These measurement techniques have been performed on n-type and p-type SiC MOS capacitors. In the course of our investigation, we observed fast interface states at semiconductor-dielectric interfaces in SiC MOS capacitors that underwent three different interface passivation processes, such states were detected in the nitrided samples but not observed in PSG-passivated samples. This result indicate that the lack of fast states at PSG-passivated interface is one of the main reasons for higher channel mobility in PSG MOSFETs. In addition, the effect of mobile ions in the oxide on the response time of interface states has been investigated. In the last chapter we propose additional methods of investigation that can help elucidate the origin of the particular interface states, enabling a more complete understanding of the SiC/SiO2 material system.

  7. Study of SiO2-Si and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures using positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T. C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of SiO2-Si and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures using positrons are summarized and a concise picture of the present understanding of positrons in these systems is provided. Positron annihilation line-shape S data are presented as a function of the positron incident energy, gate voltage, and annealing, and are described with a diffusion-annihilation equation for positrons. The data are compared with electrical measurements. Distinct annihilation characteristics were observed at the SiO2-Si interface and have been studied as a function of bias voltage and annealing conditions. The shift of the centroid (peak) of γ-ray energy distributions in the depletion region of the MOS structures was studied as a function of positron energy and gate voltage, and the shifts are explained by the corresponding variations in the strength of the electric field and thickness of the depletion layer. The potential role of the positron annihilation technique as a noncontact, nondestructive, and depth-sensitive characterization tool for the technologically important, deeply buried interface is shown.

  8. Study of SiO2-Si and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures using positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, T.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of SiO 2 -Si and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures using positrons are summarized and a concise picture of the present understanding of positrons in these systems is provided. Positron annihilation line-shape S data are presented as a function of the positron incident energy, gate voltage, and annealing, and are described with a diffusion-annihilation equation for positrons. The data are compared with electrical measurements. Distinct annihilation characteristics were observed at the SiO 2 -Si interface and have been studied as a function of bias voltage and annealing conditions. The shift of the centroid (peak) of γ-ray energy distributions in the depletion region of the MOS structures was studied as a function of positron energy and gate voltage, and the shifts are explained by the corresponding variations in the strength of the electric field and thickness of the depletion layer. The potential role of the positron annihilation technique as a noncontact, nondestructive, and depth-sensitive characterization tool for the technologically important, deeply buried interface is shown

  9. Deep electron traps in HfO_2-based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, L. Sambuco; Lipovetzky, J.; Carbonetto, S.H.; García Inza, M.A.; Redin, E.G.; Campabadal, F.

    2016-01-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO_2) is currently considered to be a good candidate to take part as a component in charge-trapping nonvolatile memories. In this work, the electric field and time dependences of the electron trapping/detrapping processes are studied through a constant capacitance voltage transient technique on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with atomic layer deposited HfO_2 as insulating layer. A tunneling-based model is proposed to reproduce the experimental results, obtaining fair agreement between experiments and simulations. From the fitting procedure, a band of defects is identified, located in the first 1.7 nm from the Si/HfO_2 interface at an energy level E_t = 1.59 eV below the HfO_2 conduction band edge with density N_t = 1.36 × 10"1"9 cm"−"3. A simplified analytical version of the model is proposed in order to ease the fitting procedure for the low applied voltage case considered in this work. - Highlights: • We characterized deep electron trapping/detrapping in HfO_2 structures. • We modeled the experimental results through a tunneling-based model. • We obtained an electron trap energy level of 1.59 eV below conduction band edge. • We obtained a spatial trap distribution extending 1.7 nm within the insulator. • A simplified tunneling front model is able to reproduce the experimental results.

  10. Ionic behavior of organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Yuming; Pang, Tiqiang; Xu, Jie; Hu, Ziyang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tang, Xiaoyan; Luan, Suzhen; Jia, Renxu

    2017-05-24

    Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites are promising semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. Despite the achievements in device performance, the electrical properties of perovskites have stagnated. Ion migration is speculated to be the main contributing factor for the many unusual electrical phenomena in perovskite-based devices. Here, to understand the intrinsic electrical behavior of perovskites, we constructed metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors based on perovskite films and performed capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the capacitors. The results provide direct evidence for the mixed ionic-electronic transport behavior within perovskite films. In the dark, there is electrical hysteresis in both the C-V and I-V curves because the mobile negative ions take part in charge transport despite frequency modulation. However, under illumination, the large amount of photoexcited free carriers screens the influence of the mobile ions with a low concentration, which is responsible for the normal C-V properties. Validation of ion migration for the gate-control ability of MOS capacitors is also helpful for the investigation of perovskite MOS transistors and other gate-control photovoltaic devices.

  11. Silicon carbide: A unique platform for metal-oxide-semiconductor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Tuttle, Blair R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Dhar, Sarit [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    A sustainable energy future requires power electronics that can enable significantly higher efficiencies in the generation, distribution, and usage of electrical energy. Silicon carbide (4H-SiC) is one of the most technologically advanced wide bandgap semiconductor that can outperform conventional silicon in terms of power handling, maximum operating temperature, and power conversion efficiency in power modules. While SiC Schottky diode is a mature technology, SiC power Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors are relatively novel and there is large room for performance improvement. Specifically, major initiatives are under way to improve the inversion channel mobility and gate oxide stability in order to further reduce the on-resistance and enhance the gate reliability. Both problems relate to the defects near the SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface, which have been the focus of intensive studies for more than a decade. Here we review research on the SiC MOS physics and technology, including its brief history, the state-of-art, and the latest progress in this field. We focus on the two main scientific problems, namely, low channel mobility and bias temperature instability. The possible mechanisms behind these issues are discussed at the device physics level as well as the atomic scale, with the support of published physical analysis and theoretical studies results. Some of the most exciting recent progress in interface engineering for improving the channel mobility and fundamental understanding of channel transport is reviewed.

  12. Thermal stability of atomic layer deposited WCxNy electrodes for metal oxide semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonensain, Oren; Fadida, Sivan; Fisher, Ilanit; Gao, Juwen; Danek, Michal; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2018-01-01

    This study is a thorough investigation of the chemical, structural, and electrical stability of W based organo-metallic films, grown by atomic layer deposition, for future use as gate electrodes in advanced metal oxide semiconductor structures. In an earlier work, we have shown that high effective work-function (4.7 eV) was produced by nitrogen enriched films (WCxNy) dominated by W-N chemical bonding, and low effective work-function (4.2 eV) was produced by hydrogen plasma resulting in WCx films dominated by W-C chemical bonding. In the current work, we observe, using x-ray diffraction analysis, phase transformation of the tungsten carbide and tungsten nitride phases after 900 °C annealing to the cubic tungsten phase. Nitrogen diffusion is also observed and is analyzed with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. After this 900 °C anneal, WCxNy effective work function tunability is lost and effective work-function values of 4.7-4.8 eV are measured, similar to stable effective work function values measured for PVD TiN up to 900 °C anneal. All the observed changes after annealing are discussed and correlated to the observed change in the effective work function.

  13. Characteristics of Superjunction Lateral-Double-Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor and Degradation after Electrical Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyh‑Ling; Lin, Ming‑Jang; Lin, Li‑Jheng

    2006-04-01

    The superjunction lateral double diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect has recently received considerable attention. Introducing heavily doped p-type strips to the n-type drift region increases the horizontal depletion capability. Consequently, the doping concentration of the drift region is higher and the conduction resistance is lower than those of conventional lateral-double-diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (LDMOSFETs). These characteristics may increase breakdown voltage (\\mathit{BV}) and reduce specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). In this study, we focus on the electrical characteristics of conventional LDMOSFETs on silicon bulk, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) LDMOSFETs and superjunction LDMOSFETs after bias stress. Additionally, the \\mathit{BV} and Ron,sp of superjunction LDMOSFETs with different N/P drift region widths and different dosages are discussed. Simulation tools, including two-dimensional (2-D) TSPREM-4/MEDICI and three-dimensional (3-D) DAVINCI, were employed to determine the device characteristics.

  14. CMOS analog integrated circuit design technology; CMOS anarogu IC sekkei gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, H.; Fujisawa, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-10

    In the field of the LSI (large scale integrated circuit) in rapid progress toward high integration and advanced functions, CAD (computer-aided design) technology has become indispensable to LSI development within a short period. Fuji Electric has developed design technologies and automatic design system to develop high-quality analog ICs (integrated circuits), including power supply ICs. within a short period. This paper describes CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) analog macro cell, circuit simulation, automatic routing, and backannotation technologies. (author)

  15. Radiation-Hard Complementary Integrated Circuits Based on Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, Julian J; Cress, Cory D; Gaviria Rojas, William A; Geier, Michael L; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-03-28

    Increasingly complex demonstrations of integrated circuit elements based on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) mark the maturation of this technology for use in next-generation electronics. In particular, organic materials have recently been leveraged as dopant and encapsulation layers to enable stable SWCNT-based rail-to-rail, low-power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuits. To explore the limits of this technology in extreme environments, here we study total ionizing dose (TID) effects in enhancement-mode SWCNT-CMOS inverters that employ organic doping and encapsulation layers. Details of the evolution of the device transport properties are revealed by in situ and in operando measurements, identifying n-type transistors as the more TID-sensitive component of the CMOS system with over an order of magnitude larger degradation of the static power dissipation. To further improve device stability, radiation-hardening approaches are explored, resulting in the observation that SWNCT-CMOS circuits are TID-hard under dynamic bias operation. Overall, this work reveals conditions under which SWCNTs can be employed for radiation-hard integrated circuits, thus presenting significant potential for next-generation satellite and space applications.

  16. Design of nanophotonic, hot-electron solar-blind ultraviolet detectors with a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng

    2014-01-01

    Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) detection refers to photon detection specifically in the wavelength range of 200 nm–320 nm. Without background noises from solar radiation, it has broad applications from homeland security to environmental monitoring. The most commonly used solid state devices for this application are wide band gap (WBG) semiconductor photodetectors (Eg > 3.5 eV). However, WBG semiconductors are difficult to grow and integrate with Si readout integrated circuits (ROICs). In this paper, we design a nanophotonic metal-oxide-semiconductor structure on Si for solar-blind UV detectors. Instead of using semiconductors as the active absorber, we use Sn nano-grating structures to absorb UV photons and generate hot electrons for internal photoemission across the Sn/SiO 2 interfacial barrier, thereby generating photocurrent between the metal and the n-type Si region upon UV excitation. Moreover, the transported hot electron has an excess kinetic energy >3 eV, large enough to induce impact ionization and generate another free electron in the conduction band of n-Si. This process doubles the quantum efficiency. On the other hand, the large metal/oxide interfacial energy barrier (>3.5 eV) also enables solar-blind UV detection by blocking the less energetic electrons excited by visible photons. With optimized design, ∼75% UV absorption and hot electron excitation can be achieved within the mean free path of ∼20 nm from the metal/oxide interface. This feature greatly enhances hot electron transport across the interfacial barrier to generate photocurrent. The simple geometry of the Sn nano-gratings and the MOS structure make it easy to fabricate and integrate with Si ROICs compared to existing solar-blind UV detection schemes. The presented device structure also breaks through the conventional notion that photon absorption by metal is always a loss in solid-state photodetectors, and it can potentially be extended to other active metal photonic devices. (paper)

  17. Infrared rectification in a nanoantenna-coupled metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul S; Jarecki, Robert L; Starbuck, Andrew; Burckel, D Bruce; Kadlec, Emil A; Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Peters, David W

    2015-12-01

    Direct rectification of electromagnetic radiation is a well-established method for wireless power conversion in the microwave region of the spectrum, for which conversion efficiencies in excess of 84% have been demonstrated. Scaling to the infrared or optical part of the spectrum requires ultrafast rectification that can only be obtained by direct tunnelling. Many research groups have looked to plasmonics to overcome antenna-scaling limits and to increase the confinement. Recently, surface plasmons on heavily doped Si surfaces were investigated as a way of extending surface-mode confinement to the thermal infrared region. Here we combine a nanostructured metallic surface with a heavily doped Si infrared-reflective ground plane designed to confine infrared radiation in an active electronic direct-conversion device. The interplay of strong infrared photon-phonon coupling and electromagnetic confinement in nanoscale devices is demonstrated to have a large impact on ultrafast electronic tunnelling in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures. Infrared dispersion of SiO2 near a longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode gives large transverse-field confinement in a nanometre-scale oxide-tunnel gap as the wavelength-dependent permittivity changes from 1 to 0, which leads to enhanced electromagnetic fields at material interfaces and a rectified displacement current that provides a direct conversion of infrared radiation into electric current. The spectral and electrical signatures of the nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diodes are examined under broadband blackbody and quantum-cascade laser (QCL) illumination. In the region near the LO phonon resonance, we obtained a measured photoresponsivity of 2.7 mA W(-1) cm(-2) at -0.1 V.

  18. Effects of oxide traps, interface traps, and ''border traps'' on metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Reber, R.A. Jr.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Riewe, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    We have identified several features of the 1/f noise and radiation response of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices that are difficult to explain with standard defect models. To address this issue, and in response to ambiguities in the literature, we have developed a revised nomenclature for defects in MOS devices that clearly distinguishes the language used to describe the physical location of defects from that used to describe their electrical response. In this nomenclature, ''oxide traps'' are simply defects in the SiO 2 layer of the MOS structure, and ''interface traps'' are defects at the Si/SiO 2 interface. Nothing is presumed about how either type of defect communicates with the underlying Si. Electrically, ''fixed states'' are defined as trap levels that do not communicate with the Si on the time scale of the measurements, but ''switching states'' can exchange charge with the Si. Fixed states presumably are oxide traps in most types of measurements, but switching states can either be interface traps or near-interfacial oxide traps that can communicate with the Si, i.e., ''border traps'' [D. M. Fleetwood, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-39, 269 (1992)]. The effective density of border traps depends on the time scale and bias conditions of the measurements. We show the revised nomenclature can provide focus to discussions of the buildup and annealing of radiation-induced charge in non-radiation-hardened MOS transistors, and to changes in the 1/f noise of MOS devices through irradiation and elevated-temperature annealing

  19. A complementary MOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhabvala, M.D.

    1977-03-01

    The complete sequence used to manufacture complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits is described. The fixed-gate array concept is presented as a means of obtaining CMOS integrated circuits in a fast and reliable fashion. Examples of CMOS circuits fabricated by both the conventional method and the fixed-gate array method are included. The electrical parameter specifications and characteristics are given along with typical values used to produce CMOS circuits. Temperature-bias stressing data illustrating the thermal stability of devices manufactured by this process are presented. Results of a preliminary study on the radiation sensitivity of circuits manufactured by this process are discussed. Some process modifications are given which have improved the radiation hardness of our CMOS devices. A formula description of the chemicals and gases along with the gas flow rates is also included

  20. Towards a Chemiresistive Sensor-Integrated Electronic Nose: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kea-Tiong Tang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses have potential applications in daily life, but are restricted by their bulky size and high price. This review focuses on the use of chemiresistive gas sensors, metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors and conductive polymer gas sensors in an electronic nose for system integration to reduce size and cost. The review covers the system design considerations and the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated technology for a chemiresistive gas sensor electronic nose, including the integrated sensor array, its readout interface, and pattern recognition hardware. In addition, the state-of-the-art technology integrated in the electronic nose is also presented, such as the sensing front-end chip, electronic nose signal processing chip, and the electronic nose system-on-chip.

  1. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: • Acupressure and acupuncture • Aromatherapy • Art therapy and music therapy • Chiropractic medicine and massage • Guided imagery • Meditation and ... should I avoid? • Is this complementary therapy (name therapy) safe? Is there research showing it is safe? • Are there side effects ...

  2. Technology breakthroughs in high performance metal-oxide-semiconductor devices for ultra-high density, low power non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Augustin Jinwoo

    Non-volatile memory devices have attracted much attention because data can be retained without power consumption more than a decade. Therefore, non-volatile memory devices are essential to mobile electronic applications. Among state of the art non-volatile memory devices, NAND flash memory has earned the highest attention because of its ultra-high scalability and therefore its ultra-high storage capacity. However, human desire as well as market competition requires not only larger storage capacity but also lower power consumption for longer battery life time. One way to meet this human desire and extend the benefits of NAND flash memory is finding out new materials for storage layer inside the flash memory, which is called floating gate in the state of the art flash memory device. In this dissertation, we study new materials for the floating gate that can lower down the power consumption and increase the storage capacity at the same time. To this end, we employ various materials such as metal nanodot, metal thin film and graphene incorporating complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes. Experimental results show excellent memory effects at relatively low operating voltages. Detailed physics and analysis on experimental results are discussed. These new materials for data storage can be promising candidates for future non-volatile memory application beyond the state of the art flash technologies.

  3. Effects of Y incorporation in TaON gate dielectric on electrical performance of GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li Ning; Choi, Hoi Wai; Lai, Pui To [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong (China); Xu, Jing Ping [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-09-15

    In this study, GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors using Y-incorporated TaON as gate dielectric have been investigated. Experimental results show that the sample with a Y/(Y + Ta) atomic ratio of 27.6% exhibits the best device characteristics: high k value (22.9), low interfacestate density (9.0 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}), small flatband voltage (1.05 V), small frequency dispersion and low gate leakage current (1.3 x 10{sup -5}A/cm{sup 2} at V{sub fb} + 1 V). These merits should be attributed to the complementary properties of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Y can effectively passivate the large amount of oxygen vacancies in Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, while the positively-charged oxygen vacancies in Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} are capable of neutralizing the effects of the negative oxide charges in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This work demonstrates that an appropriate doping of Y content in TaON gate dielectric can effectively improve the electrical performance for GaAs MOS devices. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. A new metallic oxide semiconductor field effect transistor detector for use of in vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Zhenyu; Deng Xiaowu; Huang Shaomin; Kang Dehua; Anatoly Rosenfeld

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application of a recently developed metallic oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) detector for use in vivo dosimetry. Methods: The MOSFET detector was calibrated for X-ray beams of 8 MV and 15 MV, as well as electron beams with energy of 6,8,12 and 18 MeV. The dose linearity of the MOSFET detector was investigated for the doses ranging from 0 up to 50 Gy using 8 MV X-ray beams. Angular effect was evaluated as well in a cylindrical PMMA phantom by changing the beam entrance angle every 15 degree clockwise. The MOSFET detector was then used for a breast cancer patient in vivo dose measurement, after the treatment plan was verified in a water phantom using a NE-2571 ion chamber, in vivo measurements were performed in the first and last treatment, and once per week during the whole treatment. The measured doses were then compared with planning dose to evaluate the accuracy of each treatment. Results: The MOSFET detector represented a good energy response for X-ray beams of 8 MV and 15 MV, and for electron beams with energy of 6 MeV up to 18 MeV. With the 6 V bias, Dose linearity error of the MOSFET detector was within 3.0% up to approximately 50 Gy, which can be significantly reduced to 1% when the detector was calibrated before and after each measurement. The MOSFET response varied within 1.5% for angles from 270 degree to 90 degree. However, maximum error of 10.0% was recorded comparing MOSFET response between forward and backward direction. In vivo measurement for a breast cancer patient using 3DCRT showed that, the average dose deviation between measurement and calculation was 2.8%, and the maximum error was less then 5.0%. Conclusions: The new MOSFET detector, with its advantages of being in size, easy use, good energy response and dose linearity, can be used for in vivo dose measurement. (authors)

  5. Strained silicon/silicon germanium heterojunction n-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Sarah H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into the performance of strained silicon/silicon-germanium (Si/SiGe) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) have been carried out. Theoretical predictions suggest that use of a strained Si/SiGe material system with advanced material properties compared with conventional silicon allows enhanced MOSFET device performance. This study has therefore investigated the practical feasibility of obtaining superior electrical performance using a Si/SiGe material system. The MOSFET devices consisted of a strained Si surface channel and were fabricated on relaxed SiGe material using a reduced thermal budget process in order to preserve the strain. Two batches of strained Si/SiGe devices fabricated on material grown by differing methods have been analysed and both showed good transistor action. A correlation of electrical and physical device data established that the electrical device behaviour was closely related to the SiGe material quality, which differed depending on growth technique. The cross-wafer variation in the electrical performance of the strained Si/SiGe devices was found to be a function of material quality, thus the viability of Si/SiGe MOSFET technology for commercial applications has been addressed. Of particular importance was the finding that large-scale 'cross-hatching' roughness associated with relaxed SiGe alloys led to degradation in the small-scale roughness at the gate oxide interface, which affects electrical device performance. The fabrication of strained Si MOSFET devices on high quality SiGe material thus enabled significant performance gains to be realised compared with conventional Si control devices. In contrast, the performance of devices fabricated on material with severe cross-hatching roughness was found to be diminished by the nanoscale oxide interface roughness. The effect of device processing on SiGe material with differing as-grown roughness has been carried out and compared with the reactions

  6. Large-scale complementary macroelectronics using hybrid integration of carbon nanotubes and IGZO thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haitian; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Jialu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-06-13

    Carbon nanotubes and metal oxide semiconductors have emerged as important materials for p-type and n-type thin-film transistors, respectively; however, realizing sophisticated macroelectronics operating in complementary mode has been challenging due to the difficulty in making n-type carbon nanotube transistors and p-type metal oxide transistors. Here we report a hybrid integration of p-type carbon nanotube and n-type indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors to achieve large-scale (>1,000 transistors for 501-stage ring oscillators) complementary macroelectronic circuits on both rigid and flexible substrates. This approach of hybrid integration allows us to combine the strength of p-type carbon nanotube and n-type indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors, and offers high device yield and low device variation. Based on this approach, we report the successful demonstration of various logic gates (inverter, NAND and NOR gates), ring oscillators (from 51 stages to 501 stages) and dynamic logic circuits (dynamic inverter, NAND and NOR gates).

  7. Feigenbaum scenario in the dynamics of a metal-oxide semiconductor heterostructure under harmonic perturbation. Golden mean criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, C.P.; Mereu, B.; Stan, Cristina; Agop, M.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigations and theoretical analysis on the dynamics of a metal-oxide semiconductor heterostructure used as nonlinear capacity in a series RLC electric circuit are presented. A harmonic voltage perturbation can induce various nonlinear behaviours, particularly evolution to chaos by period doubling and torus destabilization. In this work we focus on the change in dynamics induced by a sinusoidal driving with constant frequency and variable amplitude. Theoretical treatment based on the microscopic mechanisms involved led us to a dynamic system with a piecewise behaviour. Consequently, a model consisting of a nonlinear oscillator described by a piecewise second order ordinary differential equation is proposed. This kind of treatment is required by the asymmetry in the behaviour of the metal-oxide semiconductor with respect to the polarization of the perturbing voltage. The dynamics of the theoretical model is in good agreement with the experimental results. A connection with El Naschie's E-infinity space-time is established based on the interpretation of our experimental results as evidence of the importance of the golden mean criticality in the microscopic world.

  8. A novel planar vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with inhomogeneous floating islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Min; Li Ze-Hong; Liu Xiao-Long; Xie Jia-Xiong; Deng Guang-Min; Zhang Bo

    2011-01-01

    A novel planar vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (VDMOS) structure with an ultra-low specific on-resistance (Ron,sp),whose distinctive feature is the use of inhomogeneous floating p-islands in the n-drift region,is proposed.The theoretical limit of its Ron,sp is deduced,the influence of structure parameters on the breakdown voltage (BV) and Ron,sp are investigated,and the optimized results with BV of 83 V and Ron,sp of 54 mΩ.mm2 are obtained.Simulations show that the inhomogencous-floating-islands metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET)has a superior “Ron,sp/BV” trade-off to the conventional VDMOS (a 38% reduction of Ron,sp with the same BV) and the homogeneous-floating-islands MOSFET (a 10% reduction of Ron,sp with the same BV).The inhomogeneous-floatingislands MOSFET also has a much better body-diode characteristic than the superjunction MOSFET.Its reverse recovery peak current,reverse recovery time and reverse recovery charge are about 50,80 and 40% of those of the superjunction MOSFET,respectively.

  9. A novel planar vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with inhomogeneous floating islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Min; Li Ze-Hong; Liu Xiao-Long; Xie Jia-Xiong; Deng Guang-Min; Zhang Bo

    2011-01-01

    A novel planar vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (VDMOS) structure with an ultra-low specific on-resistance (R on,sp ), whose distinctive feature is the use of inhomogeneous floating p-islands in the n-drift region, is proposed. The theoretical limit of its R on,sp is deduced, the influence of structure parameters on the breakdown voltage (BV) and R on,sp are investigated, and the optimized results with BV of 83 V and R on,sp of 54 mΩ·mm 2 are obtained. Simulations show that the inhomogeneous-floating-islands metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has a superior 'R on,sp /BV' trade-off to the conventional VDMOS (a 38% reduction of R on,sp with the same BV) and the homogeneous-floating-islands MOSFET (a 10% reduction of R on,sp with the same BV). The inhomogeneous-floating-islands MOSFET also has a much better body-diode characteristic than the superjunction MOSFET. Its reverse recovery peak current, reverse recovery time and reverse recovery charge are about 50, 80 and 40% of those of the superjunction MOSFET, respectively. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Magnetotransport investigations of the two-dimensional metallic state in silicon metal-oxid-semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinz, A.

    2002-03-01

    For more than two decades it was the predominant view among the physical community that the every two-dimensional (2D) disordered electron system becomes insulating as the temperature approaches the absolute zero temperature (0 Kelvin or -273.15 o C). Two-dimensional means that the movement of the charge carriers is confined in one direction by a potential so that the carriers can move freely only perpendicular to the confinement. The most famous physical realization of a 2D system is the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (Si-MOSFET). It is one of the basic elements of most electronic devices in our daily life. The working principle is very simple. Charges are attracted to the semiconductor-oxide interface by an electric field applied between the metallic gate and the semiconductor, so that a 2D conductive channel is formed. The charge density can be adjusted by the voltage from zero up to 10 13 cm -2 . In 1994 Kravchenko and coworkers made a very important discovery. They studied high mobility Si-MOSFETs and found that for densities below a certain critical value, nc, the resistivity increases as the temperature is decreased below 2 K, whereas for densities above $n c $ the resistivity decreases unexpectedly. The transition from insulating to metallic behavior, known as metal-insulator transition (MIT), was obviously a contradiction to the commonly accepted theories which predict insulating behavior for any density. The insulating behavior is a consequence of the wave properties of electrons which leads to interference in disordered media and thus to enhanced backscattering. In the subsequent years, experimental studies were performed on a variety of 2D systems, which qualitatively showed a similar behavior. All the investigated samples had one thing in common. The interaction energy between the carriers was considerable higher than their mean kinetic energy due to their movement in the 2D plane. Since the electron-electron interaction was

  11. Investigation of 'surface donors' in Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures: Correlation of electrical, structural, and chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ťapajna, M.; Stoklas, R.; Gregušová, D.; Gucmann, F.; Hušeková, K.; Haščík, Š.; Fröhlich, K.; Tóth, L.; Pécz, B.; Brunner, F.; Kuzmík, J.

    2017-12-01

    III-N surface polarization compensating charge referred here to as 'surface donors' (SD) was analyzed in Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) heterojunctions using scaled oxide films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition at 600 °C. We systematically investigated impact of HCl pre-treatment prior to oxide deposition and post-deposition annealing (PDA) at 700 °C. SD density was reduced down to 1.9 × 1013 cm-2 by skipping HCl pre-treatment step as compared to 3.3 × 1013 cm-2 for structures with HCl pre-treatment followed by PDA. The nature and origin of SD was then analyzed based on the correlation between electrical, micro-structural, and chemical properties of the Al2O3/GaN interfaces with different SD density (NSD). From the comparison between distributions of interface traps of MOS heterojunction with different NSD, it is demonstrated that SD cannot be attributed to interface trapped charge. Instead, variation in the integrity of the GaOx interlayer confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is well correlated with NSD, indicating SD may be formed by border traps at the Al2O3/GaOx interface.

  12. Ultraviolet-visible electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with CeO2 films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Canxing; Li, Dongsheng; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2015-01-01

    We report on ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) electroluminescence (EL) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with the CeO 2 films annealed at low temperatures. At the same injection current, the UV-Vis EL from the MOS device with the 550 °C-annealed CeO 2 film is much stronger than that from the counterpart with the 450 °C-annealed CeO 2 film. This is due to that the 550 °C-annealed CeO 2 film contains more Ce 3+ ions and oxygen vacancies. It is tentatively proposed that the recombination of the electrons in multiple oxygen-vacancy–related energy levels with the holes in Ce 4f 1 energy band pertaining to Ce 3+ ions leads to the UV-Vis EL

  13. Electrical memory features of ferromagnetic CoFeAlSi nano-particles embedded in metal-oxide-semiconductor matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ja Bin; Kim, Ki Woong; Lee, Jun Seok; An, Gwang Guk; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Half-metallic Heusler material Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 (CFAS) nano-particles (NPs) embedded in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures with thin HfO 2 tunneling and MgO control oxides were investigated. The CFAS NPs were prepared by rapid thermal annealing. The formation of well-controlled CFAS NPs on thin HfO 2 tunneling oxide was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Memory characteristics of CFAS NPs in MOS devices exhibited a large memory window of 4.65 V, as well as good retention and endurance times of 10 5 cycles and 10 9 s, respectively, demonstrating the potential of CFAS NPs as promising candidates for use in charge storage.

  14. Charge-flow structures as polymeric early-warning fire alarm devices. M.S. Thesis; [metal oxide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechen, C. M.; Senturia, S. D.

    1977-01-01

    The charge-flow transistor (CFT) and its applications for fire detection and gas sensing were investigated. The utility of various thin film polymers as possible sensing materials was determined. One polymer, PAPA, showed promise as a relative humidity sensor; two others, PFI and PSB, were found to be particularly suitable for fire detection. The behavior of the charge-flow capacitor, which is basically a parallel-plate capacitor with a polymer-filled gap in the metallic tip electrode, was successfully modeled as an RC transmission line. Prototype charge-flow transistors were fabricated and tested. The effective threshold voltage of this metal oxide semiconductor was found to be dependent on whether surface or bulk conduction in the thin film was dominant. Fire tests with a PFI-coated CFT indicate good sensitivity to smouldering fires.

  15. Interfacial and electrical properties of HfAlO/GaSb metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with sulfur passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhen; Zhao Lian-Feng; Wang Jing; Xu Jun

    2014-01-01

    Interfacial and electrical properties of HfAlO/GaSb metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) with sulfur passivation were investigated and the chemical mechanisms of the sulfur passivation process were carefully studied. It was shown that the sulfur passivation treatment could reduce the interface trap density D it of the HfAlO/GaSb interface by 35% and reduce the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) from 8 nm to 4 nm. The improved properties are due to the removal of the native oxide layer, as was proven by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRXTEM) results. It was also found that GaSb-based MOSCAPs with HfAlO gate dielectrics have interfacial properties superior to those using HfO 2 or Al 2 O 3 dielectric layers. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Semi-classical noise investigation for sub-40nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spathis, C.; Birbas, A.; Georgakopoulou, K.

    2015-01-01

    Device white noise levels in short channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) dictate the performance and reliability of high-frequency circuits ranging from high-speed microprocessors to Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) and microwave circuits. Recent experimental noise measurements with very short devices demonstrate the existence of suppressed shot noise, contrary to the predictions of classical channel thermal noise models. In this work we show that, as the dimensions continue to shrink, shot noise has to be considered when the channel resistance becomes comparable to the barrier resistance at the source-channel junction. By adopting a semi-classical approach and taking retrospectively into account transport, short-channel and quantum effects, we investigate the partitioning between shot and thermal noise, and formulate a predictive model that describes the noise characteristics of modern devices

  17. Single photon sources in 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Y.; Umeda, T.; Okamoto, M.; Kosugi, R.; Harada, S.; Haruyama, M.; Kada, W.; Hanaizumi, O.; Onoda, S.; Ohshima, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present single photon sources (SPSs) embedded in 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). They are formed in the SiC/SiO2 interface regions of wet-oxidation C-face 4H-SiC MOSFETs and were not found in other C-face and Si-face MOSFETs. Their bright room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) was observed in the range from 550 to 750 nm and revealed variable multi-peak structures as well as variable peak shifts. We characterized a wide variety of their PL spectra as the inevitable variation of local atomic structures at the interface. Their polarization dependence indicates that they are formed at the SiC side of the interface. We also demonstrate that it is possible to switch on/off the SPSs by a bias voltage of the MOSFET.

  18. Hydrogen-terminated diamond vertical-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with a trench gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Masafumi, E-mail: inaba-ma@ruri.waseda.jp; Muta, Tsubasa; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Saito, Toshiki; Shibata, Masanobu; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kudo, Takuya; Hiraiwa, Atsushi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kawarada, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Laboratory for Materials Science and Technology, Waseda University, 2-8-26 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan)

    2016-07-18

    The hydrogen-terminated diamond surface (C-H diamond) has a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) layer independent of the crystal orientation. A 2DHG layer is ubiquitously formed on the C-H diamond surface covered by atomic-layer-deposited-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate oxide, C-H diamond metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) operate in a trench gate structure where the diamond side-wall acts as a channel. MOSFETs with a side-wall channel exhibit equivalent performance to the lateral C-H diamond MOSFET without a side-wall channel. Here, a vertical-type MOSFET with a drain on the bottom is demonstrated in diamond with channel current modulation by the gate and pinch off.

  19. Semi-classical noise investigation for sub-40nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spathis, C., E-mail: cspathis@ece.upatras.gr; Birbas, A.; Georgakopoulou, K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Patras 26500 (Greece)

    2015-08-15

    Device white noise levels in short channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) dictate the performance and reliability of high-frequency circuits ranging from high-speed microprocessors to Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) and microwave circuits. Recent experimental noise measurements with very short devices demonstrate the existence of suppressed shot noise, contrary to the predictions of classical channel thermal noise models. In this work we show that, as the dimensions continue to shrink, shot noise has to be considered when the channel resistance becomes comparable to the barrier resistance at the source-channel junction. By adopting a semi-classical approach and taking retrospectively into account transport, short-channel and quantum effects, we investigate the partitioning between shot and thermal noise, and formulate a predictive model that describes the noise characteristics of modern devices.

  20. Single-electron-occupation metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dots formed from efficient poly-silicon gate layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Malcolm S.; rochette, sophie; Rudolph, Martin; Roy, A. -M.; Curry, Matthew Jon; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Wendt, Joel R.; Pluym, Tammy; Carr, Stephen M; Ward, Daniel Robert; Lilly, Michael; pioro-ladriere, michel

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot structure that achieves dot-reservoir tunnel coupling control without a dedicated barrier gate. The elementary structure consists of two accumulation gates separated spatially by a gap, one gate accumulating a reservoir and the other a quantum dot. Control of the tunnel rate between the dot and the reservoir across the gap is demonstrated in the single electron regime by varying the reservoir accumulation gate voltage while compensating with the dot accumulation gate voltage. The method is then applied to a quantum dot connected in series to source and drain reservoirs, enabling transport down to the single electron regime. Finally, tuning of the valley splitting with the dot accumulation gate voltage is observed. This split accumulation gate structure creates silicon quantum dots of similar characteristics to other realizations but with less electrodes, in a single gate stack subtractive fabrication process that is fully compatible with silicon foundry manufacturing.

  1. Electrical analysis of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors on flexible bulk mono-crystalline silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Young, Chadwin D.; Bersuker, Gennadi; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We report on the electrical study of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on a flexible ultra-thin (25 μm) silicon fabric which is peeled off using a CMOS compatible process from a standard

  2. Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of TiN/Al2O3 stacks for metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeland, D.; Jinesh, K.B.; Roozeboom, F.; Besling, W.F.A.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    By employing plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition, thin films of Al2O3 and TiN are subsequently deposited in a single reactor at a single substrate temperature with the objective of fabricating high-quality TiN/Al2O3 / p-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. Transmission electron microscopy

  3. Effective dose assessment in the maxillofacial region using thermoluminescent (TLD) and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosemeters: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koivisto, J.; Schulze, D.; Wolff, J.E.H.; Rottke, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology dosemeters with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) (TLD 100; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) in the maxillofacial area. Methods: Organ and effective

  4. High-Performance Complementary Transistors and Medium-Scale Integrated Circuits Based on Carbon Nanotube Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingjun; Ding, Li; Han, Jie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2017-04-25

    Solution-derived carbon nanotube (CNT) network films with high semiconducting purity are suitable materials for the wafer-scale fabrication of field-effect transistors (FETs) and integrated circuits (ICs). However, it is challenging to realize high-performance complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) FETs with high yield and stability on such CNT network films, and this difficulty hinders the development of CNT-film-based ICs. In this work, we developed a doping-free process for the fabrication of CMOS FETs based on solution-processed CNT network films, in which the polarity of the FETs was controlled using Sc or Pd as the source/drain contacts to selectively inject carriers into the channels. The fabricated top-gated CMOS FETs showed high symmetry between the characteristics of n- and p-type devices and exhibited high-performance uniformity and excellent scalability down to a gate length of 1 μm. Many common types of CMOS ICs, including typical logic gates, sequential circuits, and arithmetic units, were constructed based on CNT films, and the fabricated ICs exhibited rail-to-rail outputs because of the high noise margin of CMOS circuits. In particular, 4-bit full adders consisting of 132 CMOS FETs were realized with 100% yield, thereby demonstrating that this CMOS technology shows the potential to advance the development of medium-scale CNT-network-film-based ICs.

  5. Comparison of modification strategies towards enhanced charge carrier separation and photocatalytic degradation activity of metal oxide semiconductors (TiO2, WO3 and ZnO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Girish; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2017-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductors (TiO2, WO3 and ZnO) finds unparalleled opportunity in wastewater purification under UV/visible light, largely encouraged by their divergent admirable features like stability, non-toxicity, ease of preparation, suitable band edge positions and facile generation of active oxygen species in the aqueous medium. However, the perennial failings of these photocatalysts emanates from the stumbling blocks like rapid charge carrier recombination and meager visible light response. In this review, tailoring the surface-bulk electronic structure through the calibrated and veritable approaches such as impurity doping, deposition with noble metals, sensitizing with other compounds (dyes, polymers, inorganic complexes and simple chelating ligands), hydrogenation process (annealing under hydrogen atmosphere), electronic integration with other semiconductors, modifying with carbon nanostructures, designing with exposed facets and tailoring with hierarchical morphologies to overcome their critical drawbacks are summarized. Taking into account the materials intrinsic properties, the pros and cons together with similarities and striking differences for each strategy in specific to TiO2, WO3 & ZnO are highlighted. These subtlety enunciates the primacy for improving the structure-electronic properties of metal oxides and credence to its fore in the practical applications. Future research must focus on comparing the performances of ZnO, TiO2 and WO3 in parallel to get insight into their photocatalytic behaviors. Such comparisons not only reveal the changed surface-electronic structure upon various modifications, but also shed light on charge carrier dynamics, free radical generation, structural stability and compatibility for photocatalytic reactions. It is envisioned that these cardinal tactics have profound implications and can be replicated to other semiconductor photocatalysts like CeO2, In2O3, Bi2O3, Fe2O3, BiVO4, AgX, BiOX (X = Cl, Br & I), Bi2WO6, Bi2MoO6

  6. Fabrication of integrated metallic MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators are characteri......A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators...

  7. A hybrid magnetic/complementary metal oxide semiconductor three-context memory bit cell for non-volatile circuit design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanović, B.; Brum, R. M.; Torres, L.

    2014-01-01

    After decades of continued scaling to the beat of Moore's law, it now appears that conventional silicon based devices are approaching their physical limits. In today's deep-submicron nodes, a number of short-channel and quantum effects are emerging that affect the manufacturing process, as well as, the functionality of the microelectronic systems-on-chip. Spintronics devices that exploit both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, are promising solutions to circumvent these scaling threats. Being compatible with the CMOS technology, such devices offer a promising synergy of radiation immunity, infinite endurance, non-volatility, increased density, etc. In this paper, we present a hybrid (magnetic/CMOS) cell that is able to store and process data both electrically and magnetically. The cell is based on perpendicular spin-transfer torque magnetic tunnel junctions (STT-MTJs) and is suitable for use in magnetic random access memories and reprogrammable computing (non-volatile registers, processor cache memories, magnetic field-programmable gate arrays, etc). To demonstrate the potential our hybrid cell, we physically implemented a small hybrid memory block using 45 nm × 45 nm round MTJs for the magnetic part and 28 nm fully depleted silicon on insulator (FD-SOI) technology for the CMOS part. We also report the cells measured performances in terms of area, robustness, read/write speed and energy consumption

  8. Thin film complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device using a single-step deposition of the channel layer

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Wang, Zhenwei; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Wang, Q. X.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    We report, for the first time, the use of a single step deposition of semiconductor channel layer to simultaneously achieve both n-and p-type transport in transparent oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). This effect is achieved by controlling

  9. Single Event Upset Rate Estimates for a 16-K CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) SRAM (Static Random Access Memory).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    4 . ~**..ft.. ft . - - - ft SI TABLES 9 I. SA32~40 Single Event Upset Test, 1140-MeV Krypton, 9/l8/8~4. . .. .. .. .. .. .16 II. CRUP Simulation...cosmic ray interaction analysis described in the remainder of this report were calculated using the CRUP computer code 3 modified for funneling. The... CRUP code requires, as inputs, the size of a depletion region specified as a retangular parallel piped with dimensions a 9 b S c, the effective funnel

  10. A complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible monocantilever 12-point probe for conductivity measurements on the nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Lauge; Bøggild, Peter; Wells, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    and a probe pitch of 500 nm. In-air four-point measurements have been performed on indium tin oxide, ruthenium, and titanium-tungsten, showing good agreement with values obtained by other four-point probes. In-vacuum four-point resistance measurements have been performed on clean Bi(111) using different probe...... spacings. The results show the expected behavior for bulk Bi, indicating that the contribution of electronic surface states to the transport properties is very small. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  11. Design and evaluation of basic standard encryption algorithm modules using nanosized complementary metal oxide semiconductor molecular circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Massoud; Raissi, Farshid; Ahmadian, Mahmoud; Keshavarzi, Parviz

    2006-01-01

    We are proposing that the recently proposed semiconductor-nanowire-molecular architecture (CMOL) is an optimum platform to realize encryption algorithms. The basic modules for the advanced encryption standard algorithm (Rijndael) have been designed using CMOL architecture. The performance of this design has been evaluated with respect to chip area and speed. It is observed that CMOL provides considerable improvement over implementation with regular CMOS architecture even with a 20% defect rate. Pseudo-optimum gate placement and routing are provided for Rijndael building blocks and the possibility of designing high speed, attack tolerant and long key encryptions are discussed.

  12. Modeling the dark current histogram induced by gold contamination in complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domengie, F., E-mail: florian.domengie@st.com; Morin, P. [STMicroelectronics Crolles 2 (SAS), 850 Rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Bauza, D. [CNRS, IMEP-LAHC - Grenoble INP, Minatec: 3, rue Parvis Louis Néel, CS 50257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France)

    2015-07-14

    We propose a model for dark current induced by metallic contamination in a CMOS image sensor. Based on Shockley-Read-Hall kinetics, the expression of dark current proposed accounts for the electric field enhanced emission factor due to the Poole-Frenkel barrier lowering and phonon-assisted tunneling mechanisms. To that aim, we considered the distribution of the electric field magnitude and metal atoms in the depth of the pixel. Poisson statistics were used to estimate the random distribution of metal atoms in each pixel for a given contamination dose. Then, we performed a Monte-Carlo-based simulation for each pixel to set the number of metal atoms the pixel contained and the enhancement factor each atom underwent, and obtained a histogram of the number of pixels versus dark current for the full sensor. Excellent agreement with the dark current histogram measured on an ion-implanted gold-contaminated imager has been achieved, in particular, for the description of the distribution tails due to the pixel regions in which the contaminant atoms undergo a large electric field. The agreement remains very good when increasing the temperature by 15 °C. We demonstrated that the amplification of the dark current generated for the typical electric fields encountered in the CMOS image sensors, which depends on the nature of the metal contaminant, may become very large at high electric field. The electron and hole emissions and the resulting enhancement factor are described as a function of the trap characteristics, electric field, and temperature.

  13. Thin film complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device using a single-step deposition of the channel layer

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2014-04-14

    We report, for the first time, the use of a single step deposition of semiconductor channel layer to simultaneously achieve both n-and p-type transport in transparent oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). This effect is achieved by controlling the concentration of hydroxyl groups (OH-groups) in the underlying gate dielectrics. The semiconducting tin oxide layer was deposited at room temperature, and the maximum device fabrication temperature was 350C. Both n and p-type TFTs showed fairly comparable performance. A functional CMOS inverter was fabricated using this novel scheme, indicating the potential use of our approach for various practical applications.

  14. A hybrid magnetic/complementary metal oxide semiconductor three-context memory bit cell for non-volatile circuit design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanović, B., E-mail: bojan.jovanovic@lirmm.fr, E-mail: lionel.torres@lirmm.fr; Brum, R. M.; Torres, L. [LIRMM—University of Montpellier 2/UMR CNRS 5506, 161 Rue Ada, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2014-04-07

    After decades of continued scaling to the beat of Moore's law, it now appears that conventional silicon based devices are approaching their physical limits. In today's deep-submicron nodes, a number of short-channel and quantum effects are emerging that affect the manufacturing process, as well as, the functionality of the microelectronic systems-on-chip. Spintronics devices that exploit both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, are promising solutions to circumvent these scaling threats. Being compatible with the CMOS technology, such devices offer a promising synergy of radiation immunity, infinite endurance, non-volatility, increased density, etc. In this paper, we present a hybrid (magnetic/CMOS) cell that is able to store and process data both electrically and magnetically. The cell is based on perpendicular spin-transfer torque magnetic tunnel junctions (STT-MTJs) and is suitable for use in magnetic random access memories and reprogrammable computing (non-volatile registers, processor cache memories, magnetic field-programmable gate arrays, etc). To demonstrate the potential our hybrid cell, we physically implemented a small hybrid memory block using 45 nm × 45 nm round MTJs for the magnetic part and 28 nm fully depleted silicon on insulator (FD-SOI) technology for the CMOS part. We also report the cells measured performances in terms of area, robustness, read/write speed and energy consumption.

  15. Influence of quantizing magnetic field and Rashba effect on indium arsenide metal-oxide-semiconductor structure accumulation capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovchavtsev, A. P.; Aksenov, M. S.; Tsarenko, A. V.; Nastovjak, A. E.; Pogosov, A. G.; Pokhabov, D. A.; Tereshchenko, O. E.; Valisheva, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    The accumulation capacitance oscillations behavior in the n-InAs metal-oxide-semiconductor structures with different densities of the built-in charge (Dbc) and the interface traps (Dit) at temperature 4.2 K in the magnetic field (B) 2-10 T, directed perpendicular to the semiconductor-dielectric interface, is studied. A decrease in the oscillation frequency and an increase in the capacitance oscillation amplitude are observed with the increase in B. At the same time, for a certain surface accumulation band bending, the influence of the Rashba effect, which is expressed in the oscillations decay and breakdown, is traced. The experimental capacitance-voltage curves are in a good agreement with the numeric simulation results of the self-consistent solution of Schrödinger and Poisson equations in the magnetic field, taking into account the quantization, nonparabolicity of dispersion law, and Fermi-Dirac electron statistics, with the allowance for the Rashba effect. The Landau quantum level broadening in a two-dimensional electron gas (Lorentzian-shaped density of states), due to the electron scattering mechanism, linearly depends on the magnetic field. The correlation between the interface electronic properties and the characteristic scattering times was established.

  16. Characteristics of drain-modulated generation current in n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hai-Feng; Guo Li-Xin; Zheng Pu-Yang; Dong Zhao; Zhang Qian

    2015-01-01

    Drain-modulated generation current I DMG induced by interface traps in an n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (nMOSFET) is investigated. The formation of I DMG ascribes to the change of the Si surface potential φ s . This change makes the channel suffer transformation from the inversion state, depletion I state to depletion II state. The simulation result agrees with the experiment in the inversion and depletion I states. In the depletion II state, the theoretical curve goes into saturation, while the experimental curve drops quickly as V D increases. The reason for this unconformity is that the drain-to-gate voltage V DG lessens φ s around the drain corner and controls the falling edge of the I DMG curve. The experiments of gate-modulated generation and recombination currents are also applied to verify the reasonability of the mechanism. Based on this mechanism, a theoretical model of the I DMG falling edge is set up in which I DMG has an exponential attenuation relation with V DG . Finally, the critical fitting coefficient t of the experimental curves is extracted. It is found that t = 80 mV = 3kT/q. This result fully shows the accuracy of the above mechanism. (paper)

  17. Investigation of structural and electrical properties on substrate material for high frequency metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Janardhan Reddy, K.; JagadeeshChandra, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films were grown on cleaned P-type Ge and Si substrates by using atomic layer deposition technique (ALD) with thickness of 8 nm. The composition analysis of as-deposited and annealed HfO2 films was characterized by XPS, further electrical measurements; we fabricated the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with Pt electrode. Post deposition annealing in O2 ambient at 500 °C for 30 min was carried out on both Ge and Si devices. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) curves measured at 1 MHz. The Ge MOS devices showed improved interfacial and electrical properties, high dielectric constant (~19), smaller EOT value (0.7 nm), and smaller D it value as Si MOS devices. The C-V curves shown significantly high accumulation capacitance values from Ge devices, relatively when compare with the Si MOS devices before and after annealing. It could be due to the presence of very thin interfacial layer at HfO2/Ge stacks than HfO2/Si stacks conformed by the HRTEM images. Besides, from current-voltage (I-V) curves of the Ge devices exhibited similar leakage current as Si devices. Therefore, Ge might be a reliable substrate material for structural, electrical and high frequency applications.

  18. Signatures of Quantized Energy States in Solution-Processed Ultrathin Layers of Metal-Oxide Semiconductors and Their Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Labram, John G.

    2015-02-13

    Physical phenomena such as energy quantization have to-date been overlooked in solution-processed inorganic semiconducting layers, owing to heterogeneity in layer thickness uniformity unlike some of their vacuum-deposited counterparts. Recent reports of the growth of uniform, ultrathin (<5 nm) metal-oxide semiconductors from solution, however, have potentially opened the door to such phenomena manifesting themselves. Here, a theoretical framework is developed for energy quantization in inorganic semiconductor layers with appreciable surface roughness, as compared to the mean layer thickness, and present experimental evidence of the existence of quantized energy states in spin-cast layers of zinc oxide (ZnO). As-grown ZnO layers are found to be remarkably continuous and uniform with controllable thicknesses in the range 2-24 nm and exhibit a characteristic widening of the energy bandgap with reducing thickness in agreement with theoretical predictions. Using sequentially spin-cast layers of ZnO as the bulk semiconductor and quantum well materials, and gallium oxide or organic self-assembled monolayers as the barrier materials, two terminal electronic devices are demonstrated, the current-voltage characteristics of which resemble closely those of double-barrier resonant-tunneling diodes. As-fabricated all-oxide/hybrid devices exhibit a characteristic negative-differential conductance region with peak-to-valley ratios in the range 2-7.

  19. Impact of process temperature on GaSb metal-oxide-semiconductor interface properties fabricated by ex-situ process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Masafumi, E-mail: yokoyama@mosfet.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); JST-CREST, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Asakura, Yuji [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Yokoyama, Haruki [NTT Photonics Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi 243-0198 (Japan)

    2014-06-30

    We have studied the impact of process temperature on interface properties of GaSb metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures fabricated by an ex-situ atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) process. We have found that the ALD temperature strongly affects the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb MOS interface properties. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb MOS interfaces fabricated at the low ALD temperature of 150 °C have the minimum interface-trap density (D{sub it}) of ∼4.5 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}. We have also found that the post-metalization annealing at temperature higher than 200 °C degrades the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb MOS interface properties. The low-temperature process is preferable in fabricating GaSb MOS interfaces in the ex-situ ALD process to avoid the high-temperature-induced degradations.

  20. Study of the tunnelling initiated leakage current through the carbon nanotube embedded gate oxide in metal oxide semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Gargi; Sarkar, C K; Lu, X B; Dai, J Y

    2008-01-01

    The tunnelling currents through the gate dielectric partly embedded with semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure have been investigated. The application of the gate voltage to such an MOS device results in the band bending at the interface of the partly embedded oxide dielectric and the surface of the silicon, initiating tunnelling through the gate oxide responsible for the gate leakage current whenever the thickness of the oxide is scaled. A model for silicon MOS structures, where carbon nanotubes are confined in a narrow layer embedded in the gate dielectric, is proposed to investigate the direct and the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling currents of such systems. The idea of embedding such elements in the gate oxide is to assess the possibility for charge storage for memory device applications. Comparing the FN tunnelling onset voltage between the pure gate oxide and the gate oxide embedded with carbon nanotubes, it is found that the onset voltage decreases with the introduction of the nanotubes. The direct tunnelling current has also been studied at very low gate bias, for the thin oxide MOS structure which plays an important role in scaling down the MOS transistors. The FN tunnelling current has also been studied with varying nanotube diameter

  1. A Customized Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Gas Sensor Array for Onion Quality Evaluation: System Development and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharun Konduru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone, acetonitrile (nitrile, ethyl acetate (ester, and ethanol (alcohol. The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage.

  2. Temperature Modulation with Specified Detection Point on Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors for E-Nose Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief SUDARMAJI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature modulation technique, some called dynamic measurement mode, on Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (MOS/MOX gas sensor has been widely observed and employed in many fields. We present its development, a Specified Detection Point (SDP on modulated sensing element of MOS sensor is applied which associated to its temperature modulation, temperature modulation-SDP so-named. We configured the rectangular modulation signal for MOS gas sensors (TGSs and FISs using PSOC CY8C28445-24PVXI (Programmable System on Chip which also functioned as acquisition unit and interface to a computer. Initial responses and selectivity evaluations were performed using statistical tool and Principal Component Analysis (PCA to differ sample gases (Toluene, Ethanol and Ammonia on dynamic chamber measurement under various frequencies (0.25 Hz, 1 Hz, 4 Hz and duty-cycles (25 %, 50 %, 75 %. We found that at lower frequency the response waveform of the sensors becomes more sloping and distinct, and selected modulations successfully increased the selectivity either on singular or array sensors rather than static temperature measurement.

  3. Nonvolatile memory characteristics in metal-oxide-semiconductors containing metal nanoparticles fabricated by using a unique laser irradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, JungYup; Yoon, KapSoo; Kim, JuHyung; Choi, WonJun; Do, YoungHo; Kim, ChaeOk; Hong, JinPyo

    2006-01-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with metal nanoparticles (Co NP) were successfully fabricated by utilizing an external laser exposure technique for application of non-volatile memories. Images of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the spherically shaped Co NP are clearly embedded in the gate oxide layer. Capacitance-voltage measurements exhibit typical charging and discharging effects with a large flat-band shift. The effects of the tunnel oxide thickness and the different tunnel materials are analyzed using capacitance-voltage and retention characteristics. In addition, the memory characteristics of the NP embedded in a high-permittivity material are investigated because the thickness of conventionally available SiO 2 gates is approaching the quantum tunneling limit as devices are scaled down. Finally, the suitability of NP memory devices for nonvolatile memory applications is also discussed. The present results suggest that our unique laser exposure technique holds promise for the NP formation as floating gate elements in nonvolatile NP memories and that the quality of the tunnel oxide is very important for enhancing the retention properties of nonvolatile memory.

  4. A molybdenum disulfide/carbon nanotube heterogeneous complementary inverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2012-08-24

    We report a simple, bottom-up/top-down approach for integrating drastically different nanoscale building blocks to form a heterogeneous complementary inverter circuit based on layered molybdenum disulfide and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. The fabricated CNT/MoS(2) inverter is composed of n-type molybdenum disulfide (MOS(2)) and p-type CNT transistors, with a high voltage gain of 1.3. The CNT channels are fabricated using directed assembly while the layered molybdenum disulfide channels are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation. This bottom-up fabrication approach for integrating various nanoscale elements with unique characteristics provides an alternative cost-effective methodology to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, laying the foundation for the realization of high performance logic circuits.

  5. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.; Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S.; Buffa, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  6. Study of Si/Si, Si/SiO2, and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) using positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, To Chi.

    1991-01-01

    A variable-energy positron beam is used to study Si/Si, Si/SiO 2 , and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures. The capability of depth resolution and the remarkable sensitivity to defects have made the positron annihilation technique a unique tool in detecting open-volume defects in the newly innovated low temperature (300C) molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) Si/Si. These two features of the positron beam have further shown its potential role in the study of the Si/SiO 2 . Distinct annihilation characteristics has been observed at the interface and has been studied as a function of the sample growth conditions, annealing (in vacuum), and hydrogen exposure. The MOS structure provides an effective way to study the electrical properties of the Si/SiO 2 interface as a function of applied bias voltage. The annihilation characteristics show a large change as the device condition is changed from accumulation to inversion. The effect of forming gas (FG) anneal is studied using positron annihilation and the result is compared with capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The reduction in the number of interface states is found correlated with the changes in the positron spectra. The present study shows the importance of the positron annihilation technique as a non-contact, non-destructive, and depth-sensitive characterization tool to study the Si-related systems, in particular, the Si/SiO 2 interface which is of crucial importance in semiconductor technology, and fundamental understanding of the defects responsible for degradation of the electrical properties

  7. Verification of the plan dosimetry for high dose rate brachytherapy using metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Zhenyu; Deng Xiaowu; Huang Shaomin; Lu Jie; Lerch, Michael; Cutajar, Dean; Rosenfeld, Anatoly

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of a recently designed metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimetry system for dose verification of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment planning was investigated. MOSFET detectors were calibrated with a 0.6 cm 3 NE-2571 Farmer-type ionization chamber in water. Key characteristics of the MOSFET detectors, such as the energy dependence, that will affect phantom measurements with HDR 192 Ir sources were measured. The MOSFET detector was then applied to verify the dosimetric accuracy of HDR brachytherapy treatments in a custom-made water phantom. Three MOSFET detectors were calibrated independently, with the calibration factors ranging from 0.187 to 0.215 cGy/mV. A distance dependent energy response was observed, significant within 2 cm from the source. The new MOSFET detector has a good reproducibility ( 2 =1). It was observed that the MOSFET detectors had a linear response to dose until the threshold voltage reached approximately 24 V for 192 Ir source measurements. Further comparison of phantom measurements using MOSFET detectors with dose calculations by a commercial treatment planning system for computed tomography-based brachytherapy treatment plans showed that the mean relative deviation was 2.2±0.2% for dose points 1 cm away from the source and 2.0±0.1% for dose points located 2 cm away. The percentage deviations between the measured doses and the planned doses were below 5% for all the measurements. The MOSFET detector, with its advantages of small physical size and ease of use, is a reliable tool for quality assurance of HDR brachytherapy. The phantom verification method described here is universal and can be applied to other HDR brachytherapy treatments

  8. Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and Schottky diodes studied with scanning microwave microscopy at 18 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, M. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanoscale Methods in Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Gramse, G. [Biophysics Institute, Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Hoffmann, J. [METAS, National Metrology Institute of Switzerland, Lindenweg 50, 3003 Bern-Wabern (Switzerland); Gaquiere, C. [MC2 technologies, 5 rue du Colibri, 59650 Villeneuve D' ascq (France); Feger, R.; Stelzer, A. [Institute for Communications Engineering and RF-Systems, Johannes Kepler University, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Smoliner, J. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Solid State Electronics, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Kienberger, F., E-mail: ferry-kienberger@keysight.com [Keysight Technologies Austria, Measurement Research Lab, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria)

    2014-11-14

    We measured the DC and RF impedance characteristics of micrometric metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors and Schottky diodes using scanning microwave microscopy (SMM). The SMM consisting of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) interfaced with a vector network analyser (VNA) was used to measure the reflection S11 coefficient of the metallic MOS and Schottky contact pads at 18 GHz as a function of the tip bias voltage. By controlling the SMM biasing conditions, the AFM tip was used to bias the Schottky contacts between reverse and forward mode. In reverse bias direction, the Schottky contacts showed mostly a change in the imaginary part of the admittance while in forward bias direction the change was mostly in the real part of the admittance. Reference MOS capacitors which are next to the Schottky diodes on the same sample were used to calibrate the SMM S11 data and convert it into capacitance values. Calibrated capacitance between 1–10 fF and 1/C{sup 2} spectroscopy curves were acquired on the different Schottky diodes as a function of the DC bias voltage following a linear behavior. Additionally, measurements were done directly with the AFM-tip in contact with the silicon substrate forming a nanoscale Schottky contact. Similar capacitance-voltage curves were obtained but with smaller values (30–300 aF) due to the corresponding smaller AFM-tip diameter. Calibrated capacitance images of both the MOS and Schottky contacts were acquired with nanoscale resolution at different tip-bias voltages.

  9. A Novel Fully Depleted Air AlN Silicon-on-Insulator Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yang; Yong, Gao; Peng-Liang, Gong

    2008-01-01

    A novel fully depleted air AlN silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOS-FET) is presented, which can eliminate the self-heating effect and solve the problem that the off-state current of SOI MOSFETs increases and the threshold voltage characteristics become worse when employing a high thermal conductivity material as a buried layer. The simulation results reveal that the lattice temperature in normal SOI devices is 75 K higher than the atmosphere temperature, while the lattice temperature is just 4K higher than the atmosphere temperature resulting in less severe self-heating effect in air AlN SOI MOSFETs and AlN SOI MOSFETs. The on-state current of air AlN SOI MOSFETs is similar to the AlN SOI structure, and improves 12.3% more than that of normal SOI MOSFETs. The off-state current of AlN SOI is 6.7 times of normal SOI MOSFETs, while the counterpart of air AlN SOI MOSFETs is lower than that of SOI MOSFETs by two orders of magnitude. The threshold voltage change of air AlN SOI MOSFETs with different drain voltage is much less than that of AlN SOI devices, when the drain voltage is biased at 0.8 V, this difference is 28mV, so the threshold voltage change induced by employing high thermal conductivity material is cured. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  10. High permittivity materials for oxide gate stack in Ge-based metal oxide semiconductor capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molle, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.molle@mdm.infm.i [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza, Milano (Italy); Baldovino, Silvia [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Spiga, Sabina [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza, Milano (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2010-01-01

    In the effort to ultimately shrink the size of logic devices towards a post-Si era, the integration of Ge as alternative channel material for high-speed p-MOSFET devices and the concomitant coupling with high permittivity dielectrics (high-k) as gate oxides is currently a key-challenge in microelectronics. However, the Ge option still suffers from a number of unresolved drawbacks and open issues mainly related to the thermodynamic and electrical compatibility of Ge substrates with high-k gate stack. Strictly speaking, two main concerns can be emphasized. On one side is the dilemma on which chemical/physical passivation is more suitable to minimize the unavoidable presence of electrically active defects at the oxide/semiconductor interface. On the other side, overcoming the SiO{sub 2} gate stack opens the route to a number of potentially outperforming high-k oxides. Two deposition approaches were here separately adopted to investigate the high-k oxide growth on Ge substrates, the molecular beam deposition (MBD) of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2}. In the MBD framework epitaxial and amorphous Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were grown onto GeO{sub 2}-passivated Ge substrates. In this case, Ge passivation was achieved by exploiting the Ge{sup 4+} bonding state in GeO{sub 2} ultra-thin interface layers intentionally deposited in between Ge and the high-k oxide by means of atomic oxygen exposure to Ge. The composition of the interface layer has been characterized as a function of the oxidation temperature and evidence of Ge dangling bonds at the GeO{sub 2}/Ge interface has been reported. Finally, the electrical response of MOS capacitors incorporating Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GeO{sub 2}-passivated Ge substrates has been checked by capacitance-voltage measurements. On the other hand, the structural and electrical properties of HfO{sub 2} films grown by ALD on Ge by using different oxygen precursors, i.e. H{sub 2}O, Hf(O{sup t}Bu){sub 2}(mmp

  11. Electrical analysis of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors on flexible bulk mono-crystalline silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the electrical study of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on a flexible ultra-thin (25 μm) silicon fabric which is peeled off using a CMOS compatible process from a standard bulk mono-crystalline silicon substrate. A lifetime projection is extracted using statistical analysis of the ramping voltage (Vramp) breakdown and time dependent dielectric breakdown data. The obtained flexible MOSCAPs operational voltages satisfying the 10 years lifetime benchmark are compared to those of the control MOSCAPs, which are not peeled off from the silicon wafer. © 2014 IEEE.

  12. Anomalous output characteristic shift for the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Siyang; Zhang, Chunwei; Sun, Weifeng; Su, Wei; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Shulang; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous output characteristic shift of the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer is investigated. It shows that the linear drain current has obvious decrease when the output characteristic of fresh device is measured for two consecutive times. The charge pumping experiments demonstrate that the decrease is not from hot-carrier degradation. The reduction of cross section area for the current flowing, which results from the squeezing of the depletion region surrounding the P-top layer, is responsible for the shift. Consequently, the current capability of this special device should be evaluated by the second measured output characteristic

  13. Anomalous output characteristic shift for the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Siyang; Zhang, Chunwei; Sun, Weifeng, E-mail: swffrog@seu.edu.cn [National ASIC System Engineering Research Center, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Su, Wei; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Shulang; Huang, Yu [CSMC Technologies Corporation, Wuxi 214061 (China)

    2014-04-14

    Anomalous output characteristic shift of the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer is investigated. It shows that the linear drain current has obvious decrease when the output characteristic of fresh device is measured for two consecutive times. The charge pumping experiments demonstrate that the decrease is not from hot-carrier degradation. The reduction of cross section area for the current flowing, which results from the squeezing of the depletion region surrounding the P-top layer, is responsible for the shift. Consequently, the current capability of this special device should be evaluated by the second measured output characteristic.

  14. Stress Characterization of 4H-SiC Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) using Raman Spectroscopy and the Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Kosaka, Kenichi; Seki, Hirohumi; Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2016-07-01

    We measured the depolarized and polarized Raman spectra of a 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and found that compressive stress of approximately 20 MPa occurs under the source and gate electrodes and tensile stress of approximately 10 MPa occurs between the source and gate electrodes. The experimental result was in close agreement with the result obtained by calculation using the finite element method (FEM). A combination of Raman spectroscopy and FEM provides much data on the stresses in 4H-SiC MOSFET. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Homostructured ZnO-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors deposited at low temperature by vapor cooling condensation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tzu-Shun [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 701 Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Ching-Ting, E-mail: ctlee@ee.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 701 Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, 701 Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • The vapor cooling condensation system was designed and used to deposit homostructured ZnO-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. • The resulting homostructured ZnO-based MOSFETs operated at a reverse voltage of −6 V had a very low gate leakage current of 24 nA. • The associated I{sub DSS} and the g{sub m(max)} were 5.64 mA/mm and 1.31 mS/mm, respectively. - Abstract: The vapor cooling condensation system was designed and used to deposit homostructured ZnO-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on sapphire substrates. Owing to the high quality of the deposited, various ZnO films and interfaces, the resulting MOSFETs manifested attractive characteristics, such as the low gate leakage current of 24 nA, the low average interface state density of 2.92 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}, and the complete pinch-off performance. The saturation drain–source current, the maximum transconductance, and the gate voltage swing of the resulting homostructured ZnO-based MOSFETs were 5.64 mA/mm, 1.31 mS/mm, and 3.2 V, respectively.

  16. High-precision analog circuit technology for power supply integrated circuits; Dengen IC yo koseido anarogu kairo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamori, A.; Suzuki, T.; Mizoe, K. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development,Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-08-10

    With the recent rapid spread of portable electronic appliances, specification requirements such as compact power supply and long operation with batteries have become severer. Power supply ICs (integrated circuits) are required to reduce power consumption in the circuit and perform high-precision control. To meet these requirements, Fuji Electric develops high-precision CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) analog technology. This paper describes three analog circuit technologies of a voltage reference, an operational amplifier and a comparator as circuit components particularly important for the precision of power supply ICs. (author)

  17. A Wide-Range Tunable Level-Keeper Using Vertical Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors for Current-Reuse Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoi, Satoru; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2012-04-01

    A wide-range tunable level-keeper using vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is proposed for current-reuse analog systems. The design keys for widening tunable range of the operation are a two-path feed-back and a vertical MOSFET with back-bias-effect free. The proposed circuit with the vertical MOSFETs shows the 1.23-V tunable-range of the input level with the 2.4-V internal-supply voltage (VDD) in the simulation. This tunable-range of the proposed circuit is 4.7 times wider than that of the conventional. The achieved current efficiency of the proposed level-keeper is 66% at the 1.2-V output with the 2.4-V VDD. This efficiency of the proposed circuit is twice higher than that of the traditional voltage down converter.

  18. Memory characteristics of Au nanocrystals embedded in metal-oxide-semiconductor structure by using atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 as control oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-C.; Chiou, Y.-K.; Chang, C.-H.; Tseng, J.-Y.; Wu, L.-J.; Chen, C.-Y.; Wu, T.-B.

    2007-01-01

    The nonvolatile memory characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures containing Au nanocrystals in the Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 matrix were studied. In this work, we have demonstrated that the use of Al 2 O 3 as control oxide prepared by atomic-layer-deposition enhances the erase speed of the MOS capacitors. A giant capacitance-voltage hysteresis loop and a very short erase time which is lower than 1 ms can be obtained. Compared with the conventional floating-gate electrically erasable programmable read-only memories, the erase speed was promoted drastically. In addition, very low leakage current and large turn-around voltage resulting from electrons or holes stored in the Au nanocrystals were found in the current-voltage relation of the MOS capacitors

  19. Direct observation of both contact and remote oxygen scavenging of GeO2 in a metal-oxide-semiconductor stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadida, S.; Shekhter, P.; Eizenberg, M.; Cvetko, D.; Floreano, L.; Verdini, A.; Nyns, L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Kymissis, I.

    2014-01-01

    In the path to incorporating Ge based metal-oxide-semiconductor into modern nano-electronics, one of the main issues is the oxide-semiconductor interface quality. Here, the reactivity of Ti on Ge stacks and the scavenging effect of Ti were studied using synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, with an in-situ metal deposition and high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. Oxygen removal from the Ge surface was observed both in direct contact as well as remotely through an Al 2 O 3 layer. The scavenging effect was studied in situ at room temperature and after annealing. We find that the reactivity of Ti can be utilized for improved scaling of Ge based devices.

  20. Non-Stoichiometric SixN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor for Compact Random Number Generator with 0.3 Mbit/s Generation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mari; Ohba, Ryuji; Yasuda, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Ken; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Fujita, Shinobu

    2008-08-01

    The demand for random numbers for security applications is increasing. A conventional random number generator using thermal noise can generate unpredictable high-quality random numbers, but the circuit is extremely large because of large amplifier circuit for a small thermal signal. On the other hand, a pseudo-random number generator is small but the quality of randomness is bad. For a small circuit and a high quality of randomness, we purpose a non-stoichiometric SixN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) noise source device. This device generates a very large noise signal without an amplifier circuit. As a result, it is shown that, utilizing a SiN MOSFET, we can attain a compact random number generator with a high generation rate near 1 Mbit/s, which is suitable for almost all security applications.

  1. A comparison of ionizing radiation and high field stress effects in n-channel power vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mun-Soo; Na, Inmook; Wie, Chu R.

    2005-01-01

    n-channel power vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (VDMOSFET) devices were subjected to a high electric field stress or to a x-ray radiation. The current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements show that the channel-side interface and the drain-side interface are affected differently in the case of high electric field stress, whereas the interfaces are nearly uniformly affected in the case of x-ray radiation. This paper also shows that for the gated diode structure of VDMOSFET, the direct-current current-voltage technique measures only the drain-side interface; the subthreshold current-voltage technique measures only the channel-side interface; and the capacitance-voltage technique measures both interfaces simultaneously and clearly distinguishes the two interfaces. The capacitance-voltage technique is suggested to be a good quantitative method to examine both interface regions by a single measurement

  2. Molecular-beam-deposited yttrium-oxide dielectrics in aluminum-gated metal - oxide - semiconductor field-effect transistors: Effective electron mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragnarsson, L.-A degree.; Guha, S.; Copel, M.; Cartier, E.; Bojarczuk, N. A.; Karasinski, J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on high effective mobilities in yttrium-oxide-based n-channel metal - oxide - semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with aluminum gates. The yttrium oxide was grown in ultrahigh vacuum using a reactive atomic-beam-deposition system. Medium-energy ion-scattering studies indicate an oxide with an approximate composition of Y 2 O 3 on top of a thin layer of interfacial SiO 2 . The thickness of this interfacial oxide as well as the effective mobility are found to be dependent on the postgrowth anneal conditions. Optimum conditions result in mobilities approaching that of SiO 2 -based MOSFETs at higher fields with peak mobilities at approximately 210 cm 2 /Vs. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  3. Structural and electrical characteristics of high-k/metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors fabricated on flexible, semi-transparent silicon (100) fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2013-02-12

    In pursuit of flexible computers with high performance devices, we demonstrate a generic process to fabricate 10 000 metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) with semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-k/metal gate stacks on widely used, inexpensive bulk silicon (100) wafers and then using a combination of iso-/anisotropic etching to release the top portion of the silicon with the already fabricated devices as a mechanically flexible (bending curvature of 133 m−1), optically semi-transparent silicon fabric (1.5 cm × 3 cm × 25 μm). The electrical characteristics show 3.7 nm effective oxide thickness, −0.2 V flat band voltage, and no hysteresis from the fabricated MOSCAPs.

  4. Bimodal gate-dielectric deposition for improved performance of AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Liang; Kim, Kyekyoon

    2012-01-01

    A bimodal deposition scheme combining radiofrequency magnetron sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is proposed as a means for improving the performance of GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs). High-density sputtered-SiO 2 is utilized to reduce the gate leakage current and enhance the breakdown voltage while low-density PECVD-SiO 2 is employed to buffer the sputtering damage and further increase the drain current by engineering the stress-induced-polarization. Thus-fabricated MOSHEMT exhibited a low leakage current of 4.21 × 10 -9 A mm -1 and high breakdown voltage of 634 V for a gate-drain distance of 6 µm, demonstrating the promise of bimodal-SiO 2 deposition scheme for the development of GaN-based MOSHEMTs for high-power application. (paper)

  5. Temperature Dependent Electrical Transport in Al/Poly(4-vinyl phenol/p-GaAs Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şadan Özden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of poly(4-vinyl phenol insulator layer is carried out by applying the spin coating technique onto p-type GaAs substrate so as to create Al/poly(4-vinyl phenol/p-GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS structure. Temperature was set to 80–320 K while the current-voltage (I-V characteristics of the structure were examined in the study. Ideality factor (n and barrier height (ϕb values found in the experiment ranged from 3.13 and 0.616 eV (320 K to 11.56 and 0.147 eV (80 K. Comparing the thermionic field emission theory and thermionic emission theory, the temperature dependent ideality factor behavior displayed that thermionic field emission theory is more valid than the latter. The calculated tunneling energy was 96 meV.

  6. Multi-frequency inversion-charge pumping for charge separation and mobility analysis in high-k/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djara, V.; Cherkaoui, K.; Negara, M. A.; Hurley, P. K., E-mail: paul.hurley@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-11-28

    An alternative multi-frequency inversion-charge pumping (MFICP) technique was developed to directly separate the inversion charge density (N{sub inv}) from the trapped charge density in high-k/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). This approach relies on the fitting of the frequency response of border traps, obtained from inversion-charge pumping measurements performed over a wide range of frequencies at room temperature on a single MOSFET, using a modified charge trapping model. The obtained model yielded the capture time constant and density of border traps located at energy levels aligned with the InGaAs conduction band. Moreover, the combination of MFICP and pulsed I{sub d}-V{sub g} measurements enabled an accurate effective mobility vs N{sub inv} extraction and analysis. The data obtained using the MFICP approach are consistent with the most recent reports on high-k/InGaAs.

  7. Spin-dependent transport properties of a GaMnAs-based vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaki, Toshiki, E-mail: kanaki@cryst.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Asahara, Hirokatsu; Ohya, Shinobu, E-mail: ohya@cryst.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tanaka, Masaaki, E-mail: masaaki@ee.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-12-14

    We fabricate a vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (spin-MOSFET) structure, which is composed of an epitaxial single-crystal heterostructure with a ferromagnetic-semiconductor GaMnAs source/drain, and investigate its spin-dependent transport properties. We modulate the drain-source current I{sub DS} by ∼±0.5% with a gate-source voltage of ±10.8 V and also modulate I{sub DS} by up to 60% with changing the magnetization configuration of the GaMnAs source/drain at 3.5 K. The magnetoresistance ratio is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that obtained in the previous studies on spin MOSFETs. Our result shows that a vertical structure is one of the hopeful candidates for spin MOSFET when the device size is reduced to a sub-micron or nanometer scale.

  8. Radiation hardness of β-Ga2O3 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors against gamma-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Man Hoi; Takeyama, Akinori; Makino, Takahiro; Ohshima, Takeshi; Sasaki, Kohei; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Higashiwaki, Masataka

    2018-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on β-Ga2O3 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were investigated. A gamma-ray tolerance as high as 1.6 MGy(SiO2) was demonstrated for the bulk Ga2O3 channel by virtue of weak radiation effects on the MOSFETs' output current and threshold voltage. The MOSFETs remained functional with insignificant hysteresis in their transfer characteristics after exposure to the maximum cumulative dose. Despite the intrinsic radiation hardness of Ga2O3, radiation-induced gate leakage and drain current dispersion ascribed respectively to dielectric damage and interface charge trapping were found to limit the overall radiation hardness of these devices.

  9. First-principles simulations of the leakage current in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures caused by oxygen vacancies in HfO2 high-K gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, L.F.; Wang, Z.O.

    2008-01-01

    HfO 2 high-K gate dielectric has been used as a new gate dielectric in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures. First-principles simulations are used to study the effects of oxygen vacancies on the tunneling current through the oxide. A level which is nearly 1.25 eV from the bottom of the conduction band is introduced into the bandgap due to the oxygen vacancies. The tunneling current calculations show that the tunneling currents through the gate oxide with different defect density possess the typical characteristic of stress-induced leakage current. Further analysis shows that the location of oxygen vacancies will have a marked effect on the tunneling current. The largest increase in the tunneling current caused by oxygen vacancies comes about at the middle oxide field when defects are located at the middle of the oxide. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Spin-dependent transport properties of a GaMnAs-based vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaki, Toshiki; Asahara, Hirokatsu; Ohya, Shinobu; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We fabricate a vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (spin-MOSFET) structure, which is composed of an epitaxial single-crystal heterostructure with a ferromagnetic-semiconductor GaMnAs source/drain, and investigate its spin-dependent transport properties. We modulate the drain-source current I DS by ∼±0.5% with a gate-source voltage of ±10.8 V and also modulate I DS by up to 60% with changing the magnetization configuration of the GaMnAs source/drain at 3.5 K. The magnetoresistance ratio is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that obtained in the previous studies on spin MOSFETs. Our result shows that a vertical structure is one of the hopeful candidates for spin MOSFET when the device size is reduced to a sub-micron or nanometer scale

  11. Electrical characterization of Ω-gated uniaxial tensile strained Si nanowire-array metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors with - and channel orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habicht, Stefan; Feste, Sebastian; Zhao, Qing-Tai; Buca, Dan; Mantl, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Nanowire-array metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated along and crystal directions on (001) un-/strained silicon-on-insulator substrates. Lateral strain relaxation through patterning was employed to transform biaxial tensile strain into uniaxial tensile strain along the nanowire. Devices feature ideal subthreshold swings and maximum on-current/off-current ratios of 10 11 for n and p-type transistors on both substrates. Electron and hole mobilities were extracted by split C–V method. For p-MOSFETs an increased mobility is observed for channel direction devices compared to devices. The n-MOSFETs showed a 45% increased electron mobility compared to devices. The comparison of strained and unstrained n-MOSFETs along and clearly demonstrates improved electron mobilities for strained channels of both channel orientations.

  12. Structural and electrical characteristics of high-k/metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors fabricated on flexible, semi-transparent silicon (100) fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Sevilla, Galo T.

    2013-01-01

    In pursuit of flexible computers with high performance devices, we demonstrate a generic process to fabricate 10 000 metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) with semiconductor industry's most advanced high-k/metal gate stacks on widely used, inexpensive bulk silicon (100) wafers and then using a combination of iso-/anisotropic etching to release the top portion of the silicon with the already fabricated devices as a mechanically flexible (bending curvature of 133 m−1), optically semi-transparent silicon fabric (1.5 cm × 3 cm × 25 μm). The electrical characteristics show 3.7 nm effective oxide thickness, −0.2 V flat band voltage, and no hysteresis from the fabricated MOSCAPs.

  13. Dual-Material Gate Approach to Suppression of Random-Dopant-Induced Characteristic Fluctuation in 16 nm Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Lee, Kuo-Fu; Yiu, Chun-Yen; Chiu, Yung-Yueh; Chang, Ru-Wei

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we explore for the first time dual-material gate (DMG) and inverse DMG devices for suppressing the random-dopant (RD)-induced characteristic fluctuation in 16 nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET) devices. The physical mechanism of suppressing the characteristic fluctuation of DMG devices is observed and discussed. The achieved improvement in suppressing the RD-induced threshold voltage, on-state current, and off-state current fluctuations are 28, 12.3, and 59%, respectively. To further suppress the fluctuations, an approach that combines the DMG method and channel-doping-profile engineering is also advanced and explored. The results of our study show that among the suppression techniques, the use of the DMG device with an inverse lateral asymmetric channel-doping-profile has good immunity to fluctuation.

  14. Enhancement mode GaN-based multiple-submicron channel array gate-recessed fin metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Wang, Chun-Chi

    2018-04-01

    To study the function of channel width in multiple-submicron channel array, we fabricated the enhancement mode GaN-based gate-recessed fin metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) with a channel width of 450 nm and 195 nm, respectively. In view of the enhanced gate controllability in a narrower fin-channel structure, the transconductance was improved from 115 mS/mm to 151 mS/mm, the unit gain cutoff frequency was improved from 6.2 GHz to 6.8 GHz, and the maximum oscillation frequency was improved from 12.1 GHz to 13.1 GHz of the devices with a channel width of 195 nm, compared with the devices with a channel width of 450 nm.

  15. ZEROES OF GENERALIZED FRESNEL COMPLEMENTARY INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lobo Segura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical upper and lower bounds are established for zeroes of a parametric family of functions which are defined by integrals of the same type as the Fresnel complementary integral. Asymptotic properties for these bounds are obtained as well as monotony properties of the localization intervals. Given the value of the parameter an analytical-numerical procedure is deduced to enclose all zeros of a given function with an a priori error.

  16. Healing and Preventing Pain: Complementary and Integrative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Pain Management Healing and Preventing Pain, Complementary and Integrative Approaches Past ... Pain Management" Articles Putting A Pause In Pain / Healing and Preventing Pain Complementary and Integrative Approaches / Pain ...

  17. CMOS-based carbon nanotube pass-transistor logic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liang, Shibo; Pei, Tian; Wang, Sheng; Li, Yan; Zhou, Weiwei; Liu, Jie; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2012-01-01

    Field-effect transistors based on carbon nanotubes have been shown to be faster and less energy consuming than their silicon counterparts. However, ensuring these advantages are maintained for integrated circuits is a challenge. Here we demonstrate that a significant reduction in the use of field-effect transistors can be achieved by constructing carbon nanotube-based integrated circuits based on a pass-transistor logic configuration, rather than a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor configuration. Logic gates are constructed on individual carbon nanotubes via a doping-free approach and with a single power supply at voltages as low as 0.4 V. The pass-transistor logic configurarion provides a significant simplification of the carbon nanotube-based circuit design, a higher potential circuit speed and a significant reduction in power consumption. In particular, a full adder, which requires a total of 28 field-effect transistors to construct in the usual complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuit, uses only three pairs of n- and p-field-effect transistors in the pass-transistor logic configuration. PMID:22334080

  18. Temperature dependence of frequency dispersion in III–V metal-oxide-semiconductor C-V and the capture/emission process of border traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vais, Abhitosh, E-mail: Abhitosh.Vais@imec.be; Martens, Koen; DeMeyer, Kristin [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lin, Han-Chung; Ivanov, Tsvetan; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dou, Chunmeng [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Xie, Qi; Maes, Jan [ASM International, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Tang, Fu; Givens, Michael [ASM International, Phoenix, Arizona 85034-7200 (United States); Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics, Universiteé Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2015-08-03

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the temperature dependence of frequency dispersion observed in capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. The dispersion in the accumulation region of the capacitance data is found to change from 4%–9% (per decade frequency) to ∼0% when the temperature is reduced from 300 K to 4 K in a wide range of MOS capacitors with different gate dielectrics and III-V substrates. We show that such significant temperature dependence of C-V frequency dispersion cannot be due to the temperature dependence of channel electrostatics, i.e., carrier density and surface potential. We also show that the temperature dependence of frequency dispersion, and hence, the capture/emission process of border traps can be modeled by a combination of tunneling and a “temperature-activated” process described by a non-radiative multi-phonon model, instead of a widely believed single-step elastic tunneling process.

  19. Accuracy of dielectric-dependent hybrid functionals in the prediction of optoelectronic properties of metal oxide semiconductors: a comprehensive comparison with many-body GW and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, M.; E Bottani, C.; Di Valentin, C.; Onida, G.; Pacchioni, G.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the electronic structure of metal oxide semiconductors is crucial to their numerous technological applications, such as photoelectrochemical water splitting and solar cells. The needed experimental and theoretical knowledge goes beyond that of pristine bulk crystals, and must include the effects of surfaces and interfaces, as well as those due to the presence of intrinsic defects (e.g. oxygen vacancies), or dopants for band engineering. In this review, we present an account of the recent efforts in predicting and understanding the optoelectronic properties of oxides using ab initio theoretical methods. In particular, we discuss the performance of recently developed dielectric-dependent hybrid functionals, providing a comparison against the results of many-body GW calculations, including G 0 W 0 as well as more refined approaches, such as quasiparticle self-consistent GW. We summarize results in the recent literature for the band gap, the band level alignment at surfaces, and optical transition energies in defective oxides, including wide gap oxide semiconductors and transition metal oxides. Correlated transition metal oxides are also discussed. For each method, we describe successes and drawbacks, emphasizing the challenges faced by the development of improved theoretical approaches. The theoretical section is preceded by a critical overview of the main experimental techniques needed to characterize the optoelectronic properties of semiconductors, including absorption and reflection spectroscopy, photoemission, and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS).

  20. Technique for producing highly planar Si/SiO0.64Ge0.36/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, T. J.; Parry, C. P.; Phillips, P. J.; McGregor, B. M.; Morris, , R. J. H.; Braithwaite, G.; Whall, T. E.; Parker, E. H. C.; Hammond, R.; Knights, A. P.; Coleman, P. G.

    1999-03-01

    Si/Si0.64Ge0.36/Si heterostructures have been grown at low temperature (450 °C) to avoid the strain-induced roughening observed for growth temperatures of 550 °C and above. The electrical properties of these structures are poor, and thought to be associated with grown-in point defects as indicated in positron annihilation spectroscopy. However, after an in situ annealing procedure (800 °C for 30 min) the electrical properties dramatically improve, giving an optimum 4 K mobility of 2500 cm2 V-1 s-1 for a sheet density of 6.2×1011 cm-2. The low temperature growth yields highly planar interfaces, which are maintained after anneal as evidenced from transmission electron microscopy. This and secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that the metastably strained alloy layer can endure the in situ anneal procedure necessary for enhanced electrical properties. Further studies have shown that the layers can also withstand a 120 min thermal oxidation at 800 °C, commensurate with metal-oxide-semiconductor device fabrication.

  1. The Impact of HCl Precleaning and Sulfur Passivation on the Al2O3/Ge Interface in Ge Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Bai-Qing; Chang Hu-Dong; Sun Bing; Wang Sheng-Kai; Liu Hong-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Surface treatment for Ge substrates using hydrogen chlorine cleaning and chemical passivation are investigated on AuTi/Al 2 O 3 /Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. After hydrogen chlorine cleaning, a smooth Ge surface almost free from native oxide is demonstrated by atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations. Passivation using a hydrogen chlorine solution is found to form a chlorine-terminated surface, while aqueous ammonium sulfide pretreatment results in a surface terminated by Ge-S bonding. Compared with chlorine-passivated samples, the sulfur-passivated ones show less frequency dispersion and better thermal stability based on capacitance-voltage characterizations. The samples with HCl pre-cleaning and (NH 4 ) 2 S passivation show less frequency dispersion than the HF pre-cleaning and (NH 4 ) 2 S passivated ones. The surface treatment process using hydrogen chlorine cleaning followed by aqueous ammonium sulfide passivation demonstrates a promising way to improve gate dielectric/Ge interface quality. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  2. Capacitance characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with a single layer of embedded nickel nanoparticles for the application of nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Li; Ling, Xu; Wei-Ming, Zhao; Hong-Lin, Ding; Zhong-Yuan, Ma; Jun, Xu; Kun-Ji, Chen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with a single layer of Ni nanoparticles were successfully fabricated by using electron-beam evaporation and rapid thermal annealing for application to nonvolatile memory. Experimental scanning electron microscopy images showed that Ni nanoparticles of about 5 nm in diameter were clearly embedded in the SiO 2 layer on p-type Si (100). Capacitance–voltage measurements of the MOS capacitor show large flat-band voltage shifts of 1.8 V, which indicate the presence of charge storage in the nickel nanoparticles. In addition, the charge-retention characteristics of MOS capacitors with Ni nanoparticles were investigated by using capacitance–time measurements. The results showed that there was a decay of the capacitance embedded with Ni nanoparticles for an electron charge after 10 4 s. But only a slight decay of the capacitance originating from hole charging was observed. The present results indicate that this technique is promising for the efficient formation or insertion of metal nanoparticles inside MOS structures. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Demonstration of AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors with silicon-oxy-nitride as the gate insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachander, K.; Arulkumaran, S.; Egawa, T.; Sano, Y.; Baskar, K.

    2005-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) were fabricated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon oxy-nitride (SiON) as an insulating layer. The compositions of SiON thin films were confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The fabricated MOSHEMTs exhibited a very high saturation current density of 1.1 A/mm coupled with high positive operational gate voltage up to +7 V. The MOSHEMTs also exhibited four orders of low gate leakage current and high forward-on voltage when compared with the conventional HEMTs. The drain current collapse using gate pulse measurements showed only a negligible difference in the saturation current density revealing the drastic improvement in passivation of the surface states due to the high quality of dielectric thin films deposited. Thus, based on the improved direct-current operation, SiON can be considered to be a potential gate oxide comparable with other dielectric insulators

  4. Optimization of Vertical Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (VDMOS) Power Transistor Structure for Use in High Frequencies and Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Rozita; Farhadi, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Power transistors, such as the vertical, double-diffused, metal-oxide semiconductor (VDMOS), are used extensively in the amplifier circuits of medical devices. The aim of this research was to construct a VDMOS power transistor with an optimized structure to enhance the operation of medical devices. First, boron was implanted in silicon by implanting unclamped inductive switching (UIS) and a Faraday shield. The Faraday shield was implanted in order to replace the gate-field parasitic capacitor on the entry part of the device. Also, implanting the UIS was used in order to decrease the effect of parasitic bipolar junction transistor (BJT) of the VDMOS power transistor. The research tool used in this study was Silvaco software. By decreasing the transistor entry resistance in the optimized VDMOS structure, power losses and noise at the entry of the transistor were decreased, and, by increasing the breakdown voltage, the lifetime of the VDMOS transistor lifetime was increased, which resulted in increasing drain flow and decreasing Ron. This consequently resulted in enhancing the operation of high-frequency medical devices that use transistors, such as Radio Frequency (RF) and electrocardiograph machines.

  5. Properties of InGaAs/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors modified by surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregušová, D., E-mail: Dagmar.Gregusova@savba.sk [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84104 (Slovakia); Gucmann, F.; Kúdela, R. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84104 (Slovakia); Mičušík, M. [Polymer Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84541 (Slovakia); Stoklas, R.; Válik, L. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84104 (Slovakia); Greguš, J. [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, Bratislava SK-84248 (Slovakia); Blaho, M. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84104 (Slovakia); Kordoš, P. [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology STU, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava SK-81219 (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs-based metal oxide semiconductor transistors-MOSHFET. • Thin Al-layer deposited in-situ and oxidize in air – gate insulator. • MOSHFET vs HFET transistor properties, density of traps evaluated. - Abstract: GaAs-based heterostructures exhibit excellent carrier transport properties, mainly the high carrier velocity. An AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) with an InGaAs channel was prepared using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOVPE). An AlOx layer was formed on the AlGaAs barrier layer by the air-assisted oxidation of a thin Al layer deposited in-situ in an MOVPE reactor immediately after AlGaAs/InGaAs growth. The HFETs and MOSHFETs exhibited a very low trap state density in the order of 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}. Capacitance measurement yielded no significant difference between the HFET and MOSHFET structures. The formation of an AlOx layer modified the surface by partially eliminating surface states that arise from Ga-and As-based native oxides. The presence of an AlOx layer reflected in a reduced gate leakage current, which was evidenced by the two-terminal transistor measurement. Presented preparation procedure and device properties show great potential of AlGaAs/InGaAs-based MOSHFETs.

  6. GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices with InAs quantum dots as charge storage nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Sk Masiul, E-mail: masiulelt@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Sisir; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Nagabhushan, B.; Banerji, P. [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Chakraborty, S. [Applied Materials Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Sector-I, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Mukherjee, Rabibrata [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Ultra-thin InP passivated GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices were fabricated using InAs quantum dots (QDs) as charge storing elements by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique to study the efficacy of the QDs as charge storage elements. The grown QDs were embedded between two high-k dielectric such as HfO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, which were used for tunneling and control oxide layers, respectively. The size and density of the QDs were found to be 5 nm and 1.8×10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}, respectively. The device with a structure Metal/ZrO{sub 2}/InAs QDs/HfO{sub 2}/GaAs/Metal shows maximum memory window equivalent to 6.87 V. The device also exhibits low leakage current density of the order of 10{sup −6} A/cm{sup 2} and reasonably good charge retention characteristics. The low value of leakage current in the fabricated memory device is attributed to the Coulomb blockade effect influenced by quantum confinement as well as reduction of interface trap states by ultra-thin InP passivation on GaAs prior to HfO{sub 2} deposition.

  7. Decrease in effective electron mobility in the channel of a metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor as the gate length is decreased

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsuzov, A. A.; Boyarkina, N. I.; Popov, V. P.

    2008-01-01

    Effective electron mobility μ eff in channels of metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors with a gate length L in the range of 3.8 to 0.34 μm was measured; the transistors were formed on wafers of the silicon-oninsulator type. It was found that μ eff decreases as L is decreased. It is shown that this decrease can be accounted for by the effect of series resistances of the source and drain only if it is assumed that there is a rapid increase in these resistances as the gate voltage is decreased. This assumption is difficult to substantiate. A more realistic model is suggested; this model accounts for the observed decrease in μ eff as L is decreased. The model implies that zones with a mobility lower than that in the middle part of the channel originate at the edges of the gate. An analysis shows that, in this case, the plot of the dependence of 1/μ eff on 1/L should be linear, which is exactly what is observed experimentally. The use of this plot makes it possible to determine both the electron mobility μ 0 in the middle part of the channel and the quantity A that characterizes the zones with lowered mobility at the gate’s edges.

  8. Determination of bulk and interface density of states in metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors by using capacitance-voltage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xixiong; Deng, Wanling; Fang, Jielin; Ma, Xiaoyu; Huang, Junkai

    2017-10-01

    A physical-based straightforward extraction technique for interface and bulk density of states in metal oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFTs) is proposed by using the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. The interface trap density distribution with energy has been extracted from the analysis of capacitance-voltage characteristics. Using the obtained interface state distribution, the bulk trap density has been determined. With this method, for the interface trap density, it is found that deep state density nearing the mid-gap is approximately constant and tail states density increases exponentially with energy; for the bulk trap density, it is a superposition of exponential deep states and exponential tail states. The validity of the extraction is verified by comparisons with the measured current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and the simulation results by the technology computer-aided design (TCAD) model. This extraction method uses non-numerical iteration which is simple, fast and accurate. Therefore, it is very useful for TFT device characterization.

  9. Study on the drain bias effect on negative bias temperature instability degradation of an ultra-short p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-Rong, Cao; Xiao-Hua, Ma; Yue, Hao; Shi-Gang, Hu

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of drain bias on ultra-short p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (PMOSFET) degradation during negative bias temperature (NBT) stress. When a relatively large gate voltage is applied, the degradation magnitude is much more than the drain voltage which is the same as the gate voltage supplied, and the time exponent gets larger than that of the NBT instability (NBTI). With decreasing drain voltage, the degradation magnitude and the time exponent all get smaller. At some values of the drain voltage, the degradation magnitude is even smaller than that of NBTI, and when the drain voltage gets small enough, the exhibition of degradation becomes very similar to the NBTI degradation. When a relatively large drain voltage is applied, with decreasing gate voltage, the degradation magnitude gets smaller. However, the time exponent becomes larger. With the help of electric field simulation, this paper concludes that the degradation magnitude is determined by the vertical electric field of the oxide, the amount of hot holes generated by the strong channel lateral electric field at the gate/drain overlap region, and the time exponent is mainly controlled by localized damage caused by the lateral electric field of the oxide in the gate/drain overlap region where hot carriers are produced. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  10. Characterization of high-sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor dosimeters system and LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence dosimeters for use in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, S.L.; Chu, T.C.; Lan, G.Y.; Wu, T.H.; Lin, Y.C.; Lee, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring radiation exposure during diagnostic radiographic procedures has recently become an area of interest. In recent years, the LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD-100H) and the highly sensitive metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter were introduced as good candidates for entrance skin dose measurements in diagnostic radiology. In the present study, the TLD-100H and the MOSFET dosimeters were evaluated for sensitivity, linearity, energy, angular dependence, and post-exposure response. Our results indicate that the TLD-100H dosimeter has excellent linearity within diagnostic energy ranges and its sensitivity variations were under 3% at tube potentials from 40 Vp to 125 kVp. Good linearity was also observed with the MOSFET dosimeter, but in low-dose regions the values are less reliable and were found to be a function of the tube potentials. Both dosimeters also presented predictable angular dependence in this study. Our findings suggest that the TLD-100H dosimeter is more appropriate for low-dose diagnostic procedures such as chest and skull projections. The MOSFET dosimeter system is valuable for entrance skin dose measurement with lumbar spine projections and certain fluoroscopic procedures

  11. Atomic Layer Deposition of Gallium Oxide Films as Gate Dielectrics in AlGaN/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Chu, Fu-Chuan; Das, Atanu; Lee, Chia-Yu; Chen, Ming-Jang; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2016-12-01

    In this study, films of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) were prepared through remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RP-ALD) using triethylgallium and oxygen plasma. The chemical composition and optical properties of the Ga2O3 thin films were investigated; the saturation growth displayed a linear dependence with respect to the number of ALD cycles. These uniform ALD films exhibited excellent uniformity and smooth Ga2O3-GaN interfaces. An ALD Ga2O3 film was then used as the gate dielectric and surface passivation layer in a metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT), which exhibited device performance superior to that of a corresponding conventional Schottky gate HEMT. Under similar bias conditions, the gate leakage currents of the MOS-HEMT were two orders of magnitude lower than those of the conventional HEMT, with the power-added efficiency enhanced by up to 9 %. The subthreshold swing and effective interfacial state density of the MOS-HEMT were 78 mV decade(-1) and 3.62 × 10(11) eV(-1) cm(-2), respectively. The direct-current and radio-frequency performances of the MOS-HEMT device were greater than those of the conventional HEMT. In addition, the flicker noise of the MOS-HEMT was lower than that of the conventional HEMT.

  12. AlGaN/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistor with Polarized P(VDF-TrFE) Ferroelectric Polymer Gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinke; Lu, Youming; Yu, Wenjie; Wu, Jing; He, Jiazhu; Tang, Dan; Liu, Zhihong; Somasuntharam, Pannirselvam; Zhu, Deliang; Liu, Wenjun; Cao, Peijiang; Han, Sun; Chen, Shaojun; Seow Tan, Leng

    2015-01-01

    Effect of a polarized P(VDF-TrFE) ferroelectric polymer gating on AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) was investigated. The P(VDF-TrFE) gating in the source/drain access regions of AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMTs was positively polarized (i.e., partially positively charged hydrogen were aligned to the AlGaN surface) by an applied electric field, resulting in a shift-down of the conduction band at the AlGaN/GaN interface. This increases the 2-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) density in the source/drain access region of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, and thereby reduces the source/drain series resistance. Detailed material characterization of the P(VDF-TrFE) ferroelectric film was also carried out using the atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and ferroelectric hysteresis loop measurement. PMID:26364872

  13. Epitaxial ZnO gate dielectrics deposited by RF sputter for AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seonno; Lee, Seungmin; Kim, Hyun-Seop; Cha, Ho-Young; Lee, Hi-Deok; Oh, Jungwoo

    2018-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF)-sputtered ZnO gate dielectrics for AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) were investigated with varying O2/Ar ratios. The ZnO deposited with a low oxygen content of 4.5% showed a high dielectric constant and low interface trap density due to the compensation of oxygen vacancies during the sputtering process. The good capacitance-voltage characteristics of ZnO-on-AlGaN/GaN capacitors resulted from the high crystallinity of oxide at the interface, as investigated by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The MOS-HEMTs demonstrated comparable output electrical characteristics with conventional Ni/Au HEMTs but a lower gate leakage current. At a gate voltage of -20 V, the typical gate leakage current for a MOS-HEMT with a gate length of 6 μm and width of 100 μm was found to be as low as 8.2 × 10-7 mA mm-1, which was three orders lower than that of the Ni/Au Schottky gate HEMT. The reduction of the gate leakage current improved the on/off current ratio by three orders of magnitude. These results indicate that RF-sputtered ZnO with a low O2/Ar ratio is a good gate dielectric for high-performance AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMTs.

  14. Modeling of anisotropic two-dimensional materials monolayer HfS{sub 2} and phosphorene metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jiwon [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd #2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Ballistic transport characteristics of metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) based on anisotropic two-dimensional materials monolayer HfS{sub 2} and phosphorene are explored through quantum transport simulations. We focus on the effects of the channel crystal orientation and the channel length scaling on device performances. Especially, the role of degenerate conduction band (CB) valleys in monolayer HfS{sub 2} is comprehensively analyzed. Benchmarking monolayer HfS{sub 2} with phosphorene MOSFETs, we predict that the effect of channel orientation on device performances is much weaker in monolayer HfS{sub 2} than in phosphorene due to the degenerate CB valleys of monolayer HfS{sub 2}. Our simulations also reveal that at 10 nm channel length scale, phosphorene MOSFETs outperform monolayer HfS{sub 2} MOSFETs in terms of the on-state current. However, it is observed that monolayer HfS{sub 2} MOSFETs may offer comparable, but a little bit degraded, device performances as compared with phosphorene MOSFETs at 5 nm channel length.

  15. Novel Dry-Type Glucose Sensor Based on a Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitor Structure with Horseradish Peroxidase + Glucose Oxidase Catalyzing Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Jenn; Wu, You-Lin; Hsu, Po-Yen

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, we present a novel dry-type glucose sensor based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSC) structure using SiO2 as a gate dielectric in conjunction with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) + glucose oxidase (GOD) catalyzing layer. The tested glucose solution was dropped directly onto the window opened on the SiO2 layer, with a coating of HRP + GOD catalyzing layer on top of the gate dielectric. From the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the sensor, we found that the glucose solution can induce an inversion layer on the silicon surface causing a gate leakage current flowing along the SiO2 surface. The gate current changes Δ I before and after the drop of glucose solution exhibits a near-linear relationship with increasing glucose concentration. The Δ I sensitivity is about 1.76 nA cm-2 M-1, and the current is quite stable 20 min after the drop of the glucose solution is tested.

  16. Trap state passivation improved hot-carrier instability by zirconium-doping in hafnium oxide in a nanoscale n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistors with high-k/metal gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hsi-Wen; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Ye, Yi-Han

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the effect on hot carrier degradation (HCD) of doping zirconium into the hafnium oxide high-k layer in the nanoscale high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. Previous n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistor studies demonstrated that zirconium-doped hafnium oxide reduces charge trapping and improves positive bias temperature instability. In this work, a clear reduction in HCD is observed with zirconium-doped hafnium oxide because channel hot electron (CHE) trapping in pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. However, this reduced HCD became ineffective at ultra-low temperature, since CHE traps in the deeper bulk defects at ultra-low temperature, while zirconium-doping only passivates shallow bulk defects.

  17. Impact of GaN cap on charges in Al₂O₃/(GaN/)AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures analyzed by means of capacitance measurements and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ťapajna, M., E-mail: milan.tapajna@savba.sk; Jurkovič, M.; Válik, L.; Haščík, Š.; Gregušová, D.; Kuzmík, J. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Brunner, F.; Cho, E.-M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hashizume, T. [Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE), Hokkaido University, 060-0814 Sapporo, Japan and JST-CREST, 102-0075 Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-09-14

    Oxide/semiconductor interface trap density (D{sub it}) and net charge of Al₂O₃/(GaN)/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) structures with and without GaN cap were comparatively analyzed using comprehensive capacitance measurements and simulations. D{sub it} distribution was determined in full band gap of the barrier using combination of three complementary capacitance techniques. A remarkably higher D{sub it} (∼5–8 × 10¹²eV⁻¹ cm⁻²) was found at trap energies ranging from EC-0.5 to 1 eV for structure with GaN cap compared to that (D{sub it} ∼ 2–3 × 10¹²eV⁻¹ cm⁻²) where the GaN cap was selectively etched away. D{sub it} distributions were then used for simulation of capacitance-voltage characteristics. A good agreement between experimental and simulated capacitance-voltage characteristics affected by interface traps suggests (i) that very high D{sub it} (>10¹³eV⁻¹ cm⁻²) close to the barrier conduction band edge hampers accumulation of free electron in the barrier layer and (ii) the higher D{sub it} centered about EC-0.6 eV can solely account for the increased C-V hysteresis observed for MOS-HEMT structure with GaN cap. Analysis of the threshold voltage dependence on Al₂O₃ thickness for both MOS-HEMT structures suggests that (i) positive charge, which compensates the surface polarization, is not necessarily formed during the growth of III-N heterostructure, and (ii) its density is similar to the total surface polarization charge of the GaN/AlGaN barrier, rather than surface polarization of the top GaN layer only. Some constraints for the positive surface compensating charge are discussed.

  18. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  19. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complementary therapies with your healthcare team: Are there complementary therapies that you would recommend? What research is available about this therapy’s safety and effectiveness? What are the benefits and risks of this ...

  20. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chuantong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  1. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-07-01

    Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs) in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of the normally-off N-channel lateral 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-Wen, Song; Xiao-Yan, Tang; Yan-Jing, He; Guan-Nan, Tang; Yue-Hu, Wang; Yi-Meng, Zhang; Hui, Guo; Ren-Xu, Jia; Hong-Liang, Lv; Yi-Men, Zhang; Yu-Ming, Zhang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the normally-off N-channel lateral 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFFETs) have been fabricated and characterized. A sandwich- (nitridation-oxidation-nitridation) type process was used to grow the gate dielectric film to obtain high channel mobility. The interface properties of 4H-SiC/SiO2 were examined by the measurement of HF I-V, G-V, and C-V over a range of frequencies. The ideal C-V curve with little hysteresis and the frequency dispersion were observed. As a result, the interface state density near the conduction band edge of 4H-SiC was reduced to 2 × 1011 eV-1·cm-2, the breakdown field of the grown oxides was about 9.8 MV/cm, the median peak field-effect mobility is about 32.5 cm2·V-1·s-1, and the maximum peak field-effect mobility of 38 cm2·V-1·s-1 was achieved in fabricated lateral 4H-SiC MOSFFETs. Projcet supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61404098, 61176070, and 61274079), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 20110203110010 and 20130203120017), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB759600), and the Key Specific Projects of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 625010101).

  3. Electroluminescence color tuning between green and red from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices fabricated by spin-coating of rare-earth (terbium + europium) organic compounds on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Toshihiro; Hattori, Fumihiro; Iwata, Hideyuki; Ohzone, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Color tunable electroluminescence (EL) from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with the rare-earth elements Tb and Eu is reported. Organic compound liquid sources of (Tb + Ba) and Eu with various Eu/Tb ratios from 0.001 to 0.4 were spin-coated on an n+-Si substrate and annealed to form an oxide insulator layer. The EL spectra had only peaks corresponding to the intrashell Tb3+/Eu3+ transitions in the spectral range from green to red, and the intensity ratio of the peaks was appropriately tuned using the appropriate Eu/Tb ratios in liquid sources. Consequently, the EL emission colors linearly changed from yellowish green to yellowish orange and eventually to reddish orange on the CIE chromaticity diagram. The gate current +I G current also affected the EL colors for the medium-Eu/Tb-ratio device. The structure of the surface insulator films analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has four layers, namely, (Tb4O7 + Eu2O3), [Tb4O7 + Eu2O3 + (Tb/Eu/Ba)SiO x ], (Tb/Eu/Ba)SiO x , and SiO x -rich oxide. The EL mechanism proposed is that electrons injected from the Si substrate into the SiO x -rich oxide and Tb/Eu/Ba-silicate layers become hot electrons accelerated in a high electric field, and then these hot electrons excite Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions in the Tb4O7/Eu2O3 layers resulting in EL emission from Tb3+ and Eu3+ intrashell transitions.

  4. Effective dose estimation for pediatric upper gastrointestinal examinations using an anthropomorphic phantom set and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emigh, Brent; Gordon, Christopher L; Connolly, Bairbre L; Falkiner, Michelle; Thomas, Karen E

    2013-09-01

    There is a need for updated radiation dose estimates in pediatric fluoroscopy given the routine use of new dose-saving technologies and increased radiation safety awareness in pediatric imaging. To estimate effective doses for standardized pediatric upper gastrointestinal (UGI) examinations at our institute using direct dose measurement, as well as provide dose-area product (DAP) to effective dose conversion factors to be used for the estimation of UGI effective doses for boys and girls up to 10 years of age at other centers. Metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters were placed within four anthropomorphic phantoms representing children ≤10 years of age and exposed to mock UGI examinations using exposures much greater than used clinically to minimize measurement error. Measured effective dose was calculated using ICRP 103 weights and scaled to our institution's standardized clinical UGI (3.6-min fluoroscopy, four spot exposures and four examination beam projections) as determined from patient logs. Results were compared to Monte Carlo simulations and related to fluoroscope-displayed DAP. Measured effective doses for standardized pediatric UGI examinations in our institute ranged from 0.35 to 0.79 mSv in girls and were 3-8% lower for boys. Simulation-derived and measured effective doses were in agreement (percentage differences  0.18). DAP-to-effective dose conversion factors ranged from 6.5 ×10(-4) mSv per Gy-cm(2) to 4.3 × 10(-3) mSv per Gy-cm(2) for girls and were similarly lower for boys. Using modern fluoroscopy equipment, the effective dose associated with the UGI examination in children ≤10 years at our institute is MOSFETs, which were shown to agree with Monte Carlo simulated doses.

  5. Comparative analysis of oxide phase formation and its effects on electrical properties of SiO{sub 2}/InSb metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaeyel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sehun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungsub; Yang, Changjae; Kim, Sujin; Seok, Chulkyun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinsub [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-01

    We report on the changes in the interfacial phases between SiO{sub 2} and InSb caused by various deposition temperatures and heat treatments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to evaluate the relative amount of each phase present at the interface. The effect of interfacial phases on the electrical properties of SiO{sub 2}/InSb metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures was investigated by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The amount of both In and Sb oxides increased with the deposition temperature. The amount of interfacial In oxide was larger for all samples, regardless of the deposition and annealing temperatures and times. In particular, the annealed samples contained less than half the amount of Sb oxide compared with the as-deposited samples, indicating a strong interfacial reaction between Sb oxide and the InSb substrate during annealing. The interface trap density sharply increased for deposition temperatures above 240 Degree-Sign C. The C-V measurements and Raman spectroscopy indicated that elemental Sb accumulation due to the interfacial reaction of Sb oxide with InSb substrate was responsible for the increased interfacial trap densities in these SiO{sub 2}/InSb MOS structures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the quantitative analysis of interfacial oxides at the SiO{sub 2}/InSb interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial oxides were measured quantitatively by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As-grown and annealed samples showed different compositions of oxide phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable reduction of antimony oxide phases was observed during annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interface trap densities at the SiO{sub 2}/InSb interface were calculated.

  6. Ultra-low power high temperature and radiation hard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) voltage reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufouss, El Hafed; Francis, Laurent A; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Gérard, Pierre; Simon, Pascal; Flandre, Denis

    2013-12-13

    This paper presents an ultra-low power CMOS voltage reference circuit which is robust under biomedical extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high total ionized dose (TID) radiation. To achieve such performances, the voltage reference is designed in a suitable 130 nm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) industrial technology and is optimized to work in the subthreshold regime of the transistors. The design simulations have been performed over the temperature range of -40-200 °C and for different process corners. Robustness to radiation was simulated using custom model parameters including TID effects, such as mobilities and threshold voltages degradation. The proposed circuit has been tested up to high total radiation dose, i.e., 1 Mrad (Si) performed at three different temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C). The maximum drift of the reference voltage V(REF) depends on the considered temperature and on radiation dose; however, it remains lower than 10% of the mean value of 1.5 V. The typical power dissipation at 2.5 V supply voltage is about 20 μW at room temperature and only 75 μW at a high temperature of 200 °C. To understand the effects caused by the combination of high total ionizing dose and temperature on such voltage reference, the threshold voltages of the used SOI MOSFETs were extracted under different conditions. The evolution of V(REF) and power consumption with temperature and radiation dose can then be explained in terms of the different balance between fixed oxide charge and interface states build-up. The total occupied area including pad-ring is less than 0.09 mm2.

  7. Broadband image sensor array based on graphene-CMOS integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Stijn; Navickaite, Gabriele; Monasterio, Carles; Gupta, Shuchi; Piqueras, Juan José; Pérez, Raúl; Burwell, Gregory; Nikitskiy, Ivan; Lasanta, Tania; Galán, Teresa; Puma, Eric; Centeno, Alba; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Koppens, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Integrated circuits based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) are at the heart of the technological revolution of the past 40 years, enabling compact and low-cost microelectronic circuits and imaging systems. However, the diversification of this platform into applications other than microcircuits and visible-light cameras has been impeded by the difficulty to combine semiconductors other than silicon with CMOS. Here, we report the monolithic integration of a CMOS integrated circuit with graphene, operating as a high-mobility phototransistor. We demonstrate a high-resolution, broadband image sensor and operate it as a digital camera that is sensitive to ultraviolet, visible and infrared light (300-2,000 nm). The demonstrated graphene-CMOS integration is pivotal for incorporating 2D materials into the next-generation microelectronics, sensor arrays, low-power integrated photonics and CMOS imaging systems covering visible, infrared and terahertz frequencies.

  8. Comparison of modification strategies towards enhanced charge carrier separation and photocatalytic degradation activity of metal oxide semiconductors (TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3} and ZnO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. Girish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, 560012 Karnataka (India); Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering and Technology, CMR University, Bengaluru, 562149, Karnataka (India); Rao, K.S.R. Koteswara, E-mail: raoksrk@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, 560012 Karnataka (India)

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Semiconductor metal oxides: Modifications, charge carrier dynamics and photocatalysis. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3} and ZnO based photocatalysis is reviewed. • Advances to improve the efficiency are emphasized. • Differences and similarities in the modifications are highlighted. • Charge carrier dynamics for each strategy are discussed. - Abstract: Metal oxide semiconductors (TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3} and ZnO) finds unparalleled opportunity in wastewater purification under UV/visible light, largely encouraged by their divergent admirable features like stability, non-toxicity, ease of preparation, suitable band edge positions and facile generation of active oxygen species in the aqueous medium. However, the perennial failings of these photocatalysts emanates from the stumbling blocks like rapid charge carrier recombination and meager visible light response. In this review, tailoring the surface-bulk electronic structure through the calibrated and veritable approaches such as impurity doping, deposition with noble metals, sensitizing with other compounds (dyes, polymers, inorganic complexes and simple chelating ligands), hydrogenation process (annealing under hydrogen atmosphere), electronic integration with other semiconductors, modifying with carbon nanostructures, designing with exposed facets and tailoring with hierarchical morphologies to overcome their critical drawbacks are summarized. Taking into account the materials intrinsic properties, the pros and cons together with similarities and striking differences for each strategy in specific to TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3} & ZnO are highlighted. These subtlety enunciates the primacy for improving the structure-electronic properties of metal oxides and credence to its fore in the practical applications. Future research must focus on comparing the performances of ZnO, TiO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} in parallel to get insight into their photocatalytic behaviors. Such comparisons not only reveal

  9. Integrated Magnetic MEMS Relays: Status of the Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Schiavone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of magnetic technologies employing microfabricated magnetic structures for the production of switching components has generated enormous interest in the scientific and industrial communities over the last decade. Magnetic actuation offers many benefits when compared to other schemes for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, including the generation of forces that have higher magnitude and longer range. Magnetic actuation can be achieved using different excitation sources, which create challenges related to the integration with other technologies, such as CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, and the requirement to reduce power consumption. Novel designs and technologies are therefore sought to enable the use of magnetic switching architectures in integrated MEMS devices, without incurring excessive energy consumption. This article reviews the status of magnetic MEMS technology and presents devices recently developed by various research groups, with key focuses on integrability and effective power management, in addition to the ability to integrate the technology with other microelectronic fabrication processes.

  10. An Overview of High-k Oxides on Hydrogenated-Diamond for Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitors and Field-Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangwei Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its excellent intrinsic properties, diamond is promising for applications of high-power electronic devices, ultraviolet detectors, biosensors, high-temperature tolerant gas sensors, etc. Here, an overview of high-k oxides on hydrogenated-diamond (H-diamond for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS capacitors and MOS field-effect transistors (MOSFETs is demonstrated. Fabrication routines for the H-diamond MOS capacitors and MOSFETs, band configurations of oxide/H-diamond heterointerfaces, and electrical properties of the MOS and MOSFETs are summarized and discussed. High-k oxide insulators are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD and sputtering deposition (SD techniques. Electrical properties of the H-diamond MOS capacitors with high-k oxides of ALD-Al2O3, ALD-HfO2, ALD-HfO2/ALD-Al2O3 multilayer, SD-HfO2/ALD-HfO2 bilayer, SD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3 bilayer, and ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3 bilayer are discussed. Analyses for capacitance-voltage characteristics of them show that there are low fixed and trapped charge densities for the ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond and SD-HfO2/ALD-HfO2/H-diamond MOS capacitors. The k value of 27.2 for the ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3 bilayer is larger than those of the other oxide insulators. Drain-source current versus voltage curves show distinct pitch-off and p-type channel characteristics for the ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond, SD-HfO2/ALD-HfO2/H-diamond, and ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond MOSFETs. Understanding of fabrication routines and electrical properties for the high-k oxide/H-diamond MOS electronic devices is meaningful for the fabrication of high-performance H-diamond MOS capacitor and MOSFET gas sensors.

  11. Effective dose estimation for pediatric upper gastrointestinal examinations using an anthropomorphic phantom set and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emigh, Brent; Gordon, Christopher L.; Falkiner, Michelle; Thomas, Karen E.; Connolly, Bairbre L.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for updated radiation dose estimates in pediatric fluoroscopy given the routine use of new dose-saving technologies and increased radiation safety awareness in pediatric imaging. To estimate effective doses for standardized pediatric upper gastrointestinal (UGI) examinations at our institute using direct dose measurement, as well as provide dose-area product (DAP) to effective dose conversion factors to be used for the estimation of UGI effective doses for boys and girls up to 10 years of age at other centers. Metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters were placed within four anthropomorphic phantoms representing children ≤10 years of age and exposed to mock UGI examinations using exposures much greater than used clinically to minimize measurement error. Measured effective dose was calculated using ICRP 103 weights and scaled to our institution's standardized clinical UGI (3.6-min fluoroscopy, four spot exposures and four examination beam projections) as determined from patient logs. Results were compared to Monte Carlo simulations and related to fluoroscope-displayed DAP. Measured effective doses for standardized pediatric UGI examinations in our institute ranged from 0.35 to 0.79 mSv in girls and were 3-8% lower for boys. Simulation-derived and measured effective doses were in agreement (percentage differences 0.18). DAP-to-effective dose conversion factors ranged from 6.5 x 10 -4 mSv per Gy-cm 2 to 4.3 x 10 -3 mSv per Gy-cm 2 for girls and were similarly lower for boys. Using modern fluoroscopy equipment, the effective dose associated with the UGI examination in children ≤10 years at our institute is < 1 mSv. Estimations of effective dose associated with pediatric UGI examinations can be made for children up to the age of 10 using the DAP-normalized conversion factors provided in this study. These estimates can be further refined to reflect individual hospital examination protocols through the use of direct organ

  12. Effective dose assessment in the maxillofacial region using thermoluminescent (TLD) and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosemeters: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, J; Schulze, D; Wolff, J; Rottke, D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performance of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology dosemeters with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) (TLD 100; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) in the maxillofacial area. Organ and effective dose measurements were performed using 40 TLD and 20 MOSFET dosemeters that were alternately placed in 20 different locations in 1 anthropomorphic RANDO(®) head phantom (the Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY). The phantom was exposed to four different CBCT default maxillofacial protocols using small (4 × 5 cm) to full face (20 × 17 cm) fields of view (FOVs). The TLD effective doses ranged between 7.0 and 158.0 µSv and the MOSFET doses between 6.1 and 175.0 µSv. The MOSFET and TLD effective doses acquired using four different (FOV) protocols were as follows: face maxillofacial (FOV 20 × 17 cm) (MOSFET, 83.4 µSv; TLD, 87.6 µSv; -5%); teeth, upper jaw (FOV, 8.5 × 5.0 cm) (MOSFET, 6.1 µSv; TLD, 7.0 µSv; -14%); tooth, mandible and left molar (FOV, 4 × 5 cm) (MOSFET, 10.3 µSv; TLD, 12.3 µSv; -16%) and teeth, both jaws (FOV, 10 × 10 cm) (MOSFET, 175 µSv; TLD, 158 µSv; +11%). The largest variation in organ and effective dose was recorded in the small FOV protocols. Taking into account the uncertainties of both measurement methods and the results of the statistical analysis, the effective doses acquired using MOSFET dosemeters were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using TLD dosemeters. The MOSFET dosemeters constitute a feasible alternative for TLDs for the effective dose assessment of CBCT devices in the maxillofacial region.

  13. Monolithic integration of SOI waveguide photodetectors and transimpedance amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxia; Tarr, N. Garry; Ye, Winnie N.

    2018-02-01

    In the absence of commercial foundry technologies offering silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonics combined with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, monolithic integration of conventional electronics with SOI photonics is difficult. Here we explore the implementation of lateral bipolar junction transistors (LBJTs) and Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) in a commercial SOI photonics technology lacking MOS devices but offering a variety of n- and p-type ion implants intended to provide waveguide modulators and photodetectors. The fabrication makes use of the commercial Institute of Microelectronics (IME) SOI photonics technology. Based on knowledge of device doping and geometry, simple compact LBJT and JFET device models are developed. These models are then used to design basic transimpedance amplifiers integrated with optical waveguides. The devices' experimental current-voltage characteristics results are reported.

  14. Damage free Ar ion plasma surface treatment on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As-on-silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Donghyi; Shin, Seung Heon; Ahn, Jaehyun; Sonde, Sushant; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Road, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Kwon, Hyuk-Min [SK Hynix, Icheon, 2091, Gyeongchung-daero, Bubal-eub, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do 136-1 (Korea, Republic of); Orzali, Tommaso; Kim, Tae-Woo, E-mail: twkim78@gmail.com [SEMATECH Inc., 257 Fuller Rd #2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kim, Dae-Hyun [Kyungpook National University, 80, Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-02

    In this paper, we investigated the effect of in-situ Ar ion plasma surface pre-treatment in order to improve the interface properties of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As for high-κ top-gate oxide deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) demonstrate that Ar ion treatment removes the native oxide on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As. The XPS spectra of Ar treated In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As show a decrease in the AsO{sub x} and GaO{sub x} signal intensities, and the MOSCAPs show higher accumulation capacitance (C{sub acc}), along with reduced frequency dispersion. In addition, Ar treatment is found to suppress the interface trap density (D{sub it}), which thereby led to a reduction in the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) degradation during constant voltage stress and relaxation. These results outline the potential of surface treatment for III-V channel metal-oxide-semiconductor devices and application to non-planar device process.

  15. Physical and electrical characteristics of AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors with rare earth Er2O3 as a gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ray-Ming; Chu, Fu-Chuan; Das, Atanu; Liao, Sheng-Yu; Chou, Shu-Tsun; Chang, Liann-Be

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the rare earth erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) was deposited using an electron beam onto an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure to fabricate metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOS–HEMTs) that exhibited device performance superior to that of a conventional HEMT. Under similar bias conditions, the gate leakage currents of these MOS–HEMT devices were four orders of magnitude lower than those of conventional Schottky gate HEMTs. The measured sub-threshold swing (SS) and the effective trap state density (N t ) of the MOS–HEMT were 125 mV/decade and 4.3 × 10 12 cm −2 , respectively. The dielectric constant of the Er 2 O 3 layer in this study was 14, as determined through capacitance–voltage measurements. In addition, the gate–source reverse breakdown voltage increased from –166 V for the conventional HEMT to –196 V for the Er 2 O 3 MOS–HEMT. - Highlights: ► GaN/AlGaN/Er 2 O 3 metal-oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistor ► Physical and electrical characteristics are presented. ► Electron beam evaporated Er 2 O 3 with excellent surface roughness ► Device exhibits reduced gate leakage current and improved I ON /I OFF ratio

  16. Materials and fabrication sequences for water soluble silicon integrated circuits at the 90 nm node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Lan; Harburg, Daniel V.; Rogers, John A.; Bozler, Carl; Omenetto, Fiorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten interconnects in silicon integrated circuits built at the 90 nm node with releasable configurations on silicon on insulator wafers serve as the basis for advanced forms of water-soluble electronics. These physically transient systems have potential uses in applications that range from temporary biomedical implants to zero-waste environmental sensors. Systematic experimental studies and modeling efforts reveal essential aspects of electrical performance in field effect transistors and complementary ring oscillators with as many as 499 stages. Accelerated tests reveal timescales for dissolution of the various constituent materials, including tungsten, silicon, and silicon dioxide. The results demonstrate that silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits formed with tungsten interconnects in foundry-compatible fabrication processes can serve as a path to high performance, mass-produced transient electronic systems

  17. Materials and fabrication sequences for water soluble silicon integrated circuits at the 90 nm node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Lan; Harburg, Daniel V.; Rogers, John A., E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 S Goodwin Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Bozler, Carl [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States); Omenetto, Fiorenzo [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Physics, Tufts University, 4 Colby St., Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Tungsten interconnects in silicon integrated circuits built at the 90 nm node with releasable configurations on silicon on insulator wafers serve as the basis for advanced forms of water-soluble electronics. These physically transient systems have potential uses in applications that range from temporary biomedical implants to zero-waste environmental sensors. Systematic experimental studies and modeling efforts reveal essential aspects of electrical performance in field effect transistors and complementary ring oscillators with as many as 499 stages. Accelerated tests reveal timescales for dissolution of the various constituent materials, including tungsten, silicon, and silicon dioxide. The results demonstrate that silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits formed with tungsten interconnects in foundry-compatible fabrication processes can serve as a path to high performance, mass-produced transient electronic systems.

  18. Manipulating Conduction in Metal Oxide Semiconductors: Mechanism Investigation and Conductance Tuning in Doped Fe2O3 Hematite and Metal/Ga2O3/Metal Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo

    This study aims at understanding the fundamental mechanisms of conduction in several metal oxide semiconductors, namely alpha-Fe2O 3 and beta-Ga2O3, and how it could be tuned to desired values/states to enable a wide range of application. In the first effort, by adding Ti dopant, we successfully turned Fe2O3 from insulating to conductive by fabricated compositionally and structurally well-defined epitaxial alpha-(TixFe1-x)2 O3(0001) films for x ≤ 0.09. All films were grown by oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3(0001) sapphire substrate with a buffer layer of Cr2O3 to relax the strain from lattice mismatch. Van der Pauw resistivity and Hall effect measurements reveal carrier concentrations between 1019 and 1020 cm-3 at room temperature and mobilities in the range of 0.1 to 0.6 cm2/V˙s. Such low mobility, unlike conventional band-conduction semiconductor, was attributed to hopping mechanism due to strong electron-phonon interaction in the lattice. More interestingly, conduction mechanism transitions from small-polaron hopping at higher temperatures to variable range hopping at lower temperatures with a transition temperature between 180 to 140 K. Consequently, by adding Ti dopant, conductive Fe 2O3 hematite thin films were achieved with a well-understood conducting mechanism that could guide further device application such as spin transistor and water splitting. In the case of Ga2O3, while having a band gap as high as 5 eV, they are usually conductive for commercially available samples due to unintentional Si doping. However, we discovered the conductance could be repeatedly switched between high resistance state and low resistance state when made into metal/Ga2O3 /metal heterostructure. However, to obtain well controlled switching process with consistent switching voltages and resistances, understanding switching mechanism is the key. In this study, we fabricated resistive switching devices utilizing a Ni/Ga2O3/Ir heterostructure. Bipolar

  19. First experimental results on CMOS Integrated Nickel Electroplated Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Hansen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on MEMS metallic add-on post-fabrication effects on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. Two versions of add-on processing, that use either e-beam evaporation or magnetron sputtering, are compared through investigation of the electri...

  20. 1 mm3-sized optical neural stimulator based on CMOS integrated photovoltaic power receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Takashi; Ishizu, Takaaki; Nattakarn, Wuthibenjaphonchai; Haruta, Makito; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Sawan, Mohamad; Ohta, Jun

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-controlled photovoltaic power-transfer platform that is suitable for very small (less than or equal to 1-2 mm) electronic devices such as implantable health-care devices or distributed nodes for the Internet of Things. We designed a 1.25 mm × 1.25 mm CMOS power receiver chip that contains integrated photovoltaic cells. We characterized the CMOS-integrated power receiver and successfully demonstrated blue light-emitting diode (LED) operation powered by infrared light. Then, we integrated the CMOS chip and a few off-chip components into a 1-mm3 implantable optogenetic stimulator, and demonstrated the operation of the device.

  1. Capacitive Micro Pressure Sensor Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates a capacitive micro pressure sensor integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on a chip. The integrated capacitive pressure sensor is fabricated using the commercial CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor process and a post-process. The ring oscillator is employed to convert the capacitance of the pressure sensor into the frequency output. The pressure sensor consists of 16 sensing cells in parallel. Each sensing cell contains a top electrode and a lower electrode, and the top electrode is a sandwich membrane. The pressure sensor needs a post-CMOS process to release the membranes after completion of the CMOS process. The post-process uses etchants to etch the sacrificial layers, and to release the membranes. The advantages of the post-process include easy execution and low cost. Experimental results reveal that the pressure sensor has a high sensitivity of 7 Hz/Pa in the pressure range of 0–300 kPa.

  2. Complementary, alternative, integrative, or unconventional medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penson, R T; Castro, C M; Seiden, M V; Chabner, B A; Lynch, T J

    2001-01-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded the Kenneth B. Schwartz Center. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and sustenance to the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. Interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has grown exponentially in the past decade, fueled by Internet marketing, dissatisfaction with mainstream medicine, and a desire for patients to be actively involved in their health care. There is a large discordance between physician estimates and reported prevalence of CAM use. Many patients do not disclose their practices mainly because they believe CAM falls outside the rubric of conventional medicine or because physicians do not ask. Concern about drug interactions and adverse effects are compounded by a lack of Food and Drug Administration regulation. Physicians need to be informed about CAM and be attuned to the psychosocial needs of patients.

  3. 5A Zirconium Dioxide Ammonia Microsensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit Manufactured Using the 0.18 μm CMOS Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guan-Ming; Dai, Ching-Liang; Yang, Ming-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    The study presents an ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated sensor chip consists of a heater, an ammonia sensor and a readout circuit. The ammonia sensor is constructed by a sensitive film and the interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zirconium dioxide that is coated on the interdigitated electrodes. The heater is used to provide a working temperature to the sensitive film. A post-process is employed to remove the sacrificial layer and to coat zirconium dioxide on the sensor. When the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas, the sensor produces a change in resistance. The readout circuit converts the resistance variation of the sensor into the output voltage. The experiments show that the integrated ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of 4.1 mV/ppm. PMID:23503294

  4. A fully-integrated 12.5-Gb/s 850-nm CMOS optical receiver based on a spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Jae; Youn, Jin-Sung; Park, Kang-Yeob; Choi, Woo-Young

    2014-02-10

    We present a fully integrated 12.5-Gb/s optical receiver fabricated with standard 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology for 850-nm optical interconnect applications. Our integrated optical receiver includes a newly proposed CMOS-compatible spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector, which provides larger photodetection bandwidth than previously reported CMOS-compatible photodetectors. The receiver also has high-speed CMOS circuits including transimpedance amplifier, DC-balanced buffer, equalizer, and limiting amplifier. With the fabricated optical receiver, detection of 12.5-Gb/s optical data is successfully achieved at 5.8 pJ/bit. Our receiver achieves the highest data rate ever reported for 850-nm integrated CMOS optical receivers.

  5. A Zirconium Dioxide Ammonia Microsensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit Manufactured Using the 0.18 μm CMOS Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhi Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The integrated sensor chip consists of a heater, an ammonia sensor and a readout circuit. The ammonia sensor is constructed by a sensitive film and the interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zirconium dioxide that is coated on the interdigitated electrodes. The heater is used to provide a working temperature to the sensitive film. A post-process is employed to remove the sacrificial layer and to coat zirconium dioxide on the sensor. When the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas, the sensor produces a change in resistance. The readout circuit converts the resistance variation of the sensor into the output voltage. The experiments show that the integrated ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of 4.1 mV/ppm.

  6. Sol-gel zinc oxide humidity sensors integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-10-28

    The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90%RH.

  7. Sol-Gel Zinc Oxide Humidity Sensors Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit On-a-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhi Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90%RH.

  8. Origin of the performances degradation of two-dimensional-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors in the sub-10 nm regime: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Anh Khoa Augustin; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Agarwal, Tarun; Afzalian, Aryan; Radu, Iuliana P.; Houssa, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the scaling of the channel length on the performances of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, based on two-dimensional (2D) channel materials, is theoretically investigated, using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the scaling of the channel length below 10 nm leads to strong device performance degradations. Our simulations reveal that this degradation is essentially due to the tunneling current flowing between the source and the drain in these aggressively scaled devices. It is shown that this electron tunneling process is modulated by the effective mass of the 2D channel material, and sets the limit of the scaling in future transistor designs

  9. Origin of the performances degradation of two-dimensional-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors in the sub-10 nm regime: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Anh Khoa Augustin [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Pourtois, Geoffrey [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, Plasmant Research Group, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Agarwal, Tarun [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Afzalian, Aryan [TSMC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Radu, Iuliana P. [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Houssa, Michel [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-01-25

    The impact of the scaling of the channel length on the performances of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, based on two-dimensional (2D) channel materials, is theoretically investigated, using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the scaling of the channel length below 10 nm leads to strong device performance degradations. Our simulations reveal that this degradation is essentially due to the tunneling current flowing between the source and the drain in these aggressively scaled devices. It is shown that this electron tunneling process is modulated by the effective mass of the 2D channel material, and sets the limit of the scaling in future transistor designs.

  10. Improved linearity and reliability in GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors using nanolaminate La2O3/SiO2 gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Wang-Cheng; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Hsu, Heng-Tung; Hsu, Hisang-Hua; Huang, Yu-Xiang; Lin, Tai-Wei; Wu, Chia-Hsun; Wu, Wen-Hao; Maa, Jer-Shen; Iwai, Hiroshi; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Chang, Edward Yi

    2016-04-01

    Improved device performance to enable high-linearity power applications has been discussed in this study. We have compared the La2O3/SiO2 AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) with other La2O3-based (La2O3/HfO2, La2O3/CeO2 and single La2O3) MOS-HEMTs. It was found that forming lanthanum silicate films can not only improve the dielectric quality but also can improve the device characteristics. The improved gate insulation, reliability, and linearity of the 8 nm La2O3/SiO2 MOS-HEMT were demonstrated.

  11. Electron-electron scattering-induced channel hot electron injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors with high-k/metal gate stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Xi-Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Ho, Szu-Han; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Lu, Ching-Sen

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates electron-electron scattering (EES)-induced channel hot electron (CHE) injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (n-MOSFETs) with high-k/metal gate stacks. Many groups have proposed new models (i.e., single-particle and multiple-particle process) to well explain the hot carrier degradation in nanoscale devices and all mechanisms focused on Si-H bond dissociation at the Si/SiO 2 interface. However, for high-k dielectric devices, experiment results show that the channel hot carrier trapping in the pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. Therefore, we propose a model of EES-induced CHE injection to illustrate the trapping-dominant mechanism in nanoscale n-MOSFETs with high-k/metal gate stacks.

  12. A Zinc Oxide Nanorod Ammonia Microsensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit on-a-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyan-Chyi Wu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.35 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process was investigated. The structure of the ammonia sensor is composed of a sensitive film and polysilicon electrodes. The ammonia sensor requires a post-process to etch the sacrificial layer, and to coat the sensitive film on the polysilicon electrodes. The sensitive film that is prepared by a hydrothermal method is made of zinc oxide. The sensor resistance changes when the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. Experiments show that the ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of about 1.5 mV/ppm at room temperature.

  13. Hankel complementary integral transformations of arbitrary order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Linares Linares

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Four selfreciprocal integral transformations of Hankel type are defined through(ℋi,μf(y=Fi(y=∫0∞αi(xℊi,μ(xyf(xdx,   ℋi,μ−1=ℋi,μ,where i=1,2,3,4; μ≥0; α1(x=x1+2μ, ℊ1,μ(x=x−μJμ(x, Jμ(x being the Bessel function of the first kind of order μ; α2(x=x1−2μ, ℊ2,μ(x=(−1μx2μℊ1,μ(x; α3(x=x−1−2μ, ℊ3,μ(x=x1+2μℊ1,μ(x, and α4(x=x−1+2μ, ℊ4,μ(x=(−1μxℊ1,μ(x. The simultaneous use of transformations ℋ1,μ, and ℋ2,μ, (which are denoted by ℋμ allows us to solve many problems of Mathematical Physics involving the differential operator Δμ=D2+(1+2μx−1D, whereas the pair of transformations ℋ3,μ and ℋ4,μ, (which we express by ℋμ* permits us to tackle those problems containing its adjoint operator Δμ*=D2−(1+2μx−1D+(1+2μx−2, no matter what the real value of μ be. These transformations are also investigated in a space of generalized functions according to the mixed Parseval equation∫0∞f(xg(xdx=∫0∞(ℋμf(y(ℋμ*g(ydy,which is now valid for all real μ.

  14. Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What's In a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information © Jupiter Images We’ve all seen the words “complementary,” “alternative,” and “ integrative ,” but what do they really mean? This fact sheet looks into these terms to help you understand them better and gives you a brief picture of NCCIH’s mission and role in this area ...

  15. Zeroes of functions of Fresnel complementary integral type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Villalobos Arias

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical upper and lower bounds are established for zeroes of a parametric family of functions which are defined by integrals of the same type as  the Fresnel complementary integral. Asymptotic properties for these bounds are obtained as well as monotony properties of the localization  intervals.  Given the value of the parameter an analytical-numerical procedure is deduced to enclose all  zeros of a given function with an a priori error.

  16. Manufacture of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Ammonia Sensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit Using the CMOS-MEMS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyan-Chyi Wu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the fabrication of a polyaniline nanofiber ammonia sensor integrated with a readout circuit on a chip using the commercial 0.35 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process and a post-process. The micro ammonia sensor consists of a sensing resistor and an ammonia sensing film. Polyaniline prepared by a chemical polymerization method was adopted as the ammonia sensing film. The fabrication of the ammonia sensor needs a post-process to etch the sacrificial layers and to expose the sensing resistor, and then the ammonia sensing film is coated on the sensing resistor. The ammonia sensor, which is of resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. A readout circuit is employed to convert the resistance of the ammonia sensor into the voltage output. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the ammonia sensor is about 0.88 mV/ppm at room temperature

  17. Complementary and integrative therapies for lower urinary tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raditic, Donna M

    2015-07-01

    Consumer use of integrative health care is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. Research of veterinary lower urinary tract diseases could be translated to human medicine because veterinary patients are valuable translational models for human urinary tract infection and urolithiasis. An overview of complementary therapies for lower urinary tract disease includes cranberry supplements, mannose, oral probiotics, acupuncture, methionine, herbs, or herbal preparations. Therapies evaluated in dogs and cats, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species, in vivo and in vitro, are presented for their potential use as integrative therapies for veterinary patients and/or translational research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Simple Floating Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Nakamura, Junichi; Kemeny, Sabrina E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel image sensor integrated circuit features simple floating-gate structure, with metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as active circuit element in each pixel. Provides flexibility of readout modes, no kTC noise, and relatively simple structure suitable for high-density arrays. Features desirable for "smart sensor" applications.

  19. Fabrication and electrical properties of metal-oxide semiconductor capacitors based on polycrystalline p-Cu{sub x}O and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} high-{kappa} stack gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Xiao [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physical Science and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Department of Electromachine Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan, 430056 (China); Fang Guojia, E-mail: gjfang@whu.edu.c [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physical Science and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Yuan Longyan; Liu Nishuang; Long Hao; Zhao Xingzhong [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physical Science and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2010-05-31

    Polycrystalline p-type Cu{sub x}O films were deposited after the growth of HfO{sub 2} dielectric on Si substrate by pulsed laser deposition, and Cu{sub x}O metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stack gate dielectric were primarily fabricated and investigated. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied to analyze crystalline structure and Cu{sup +}/Cu{sup 2+} ratios of Cu{sub x}O films respectively. SiO{sub 2} interlayer formed between the high-{kappa} dielectric and substrate was estimated by the transmission electron microscope. Results of electrical characteristic measurement indicate that the permittivity of HfO{sub 2} is about 22, and the gate leakage current density of MOS capacitor with 11.3 nm HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stack dielectrics is {approx} 10{sup -4} A/cm{sup 2}. Results also show that the annealing in N{sub 2} can improve the quality of Cu{sub x}O/HfO{sub 2} interface and thus reduce the gate leakage density.

  20. Enhanced two dimensional electron gas transport characteristics in Al2O3/AlInN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedsman, J. J.; Watanabe, A.; Urayama, Y.; Egawa, T.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on Al 2 O 3 /Al 0.85 In 0.15 N/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (MOS-HEMT) on Si fabricated by using atomic layer deposited Al 2 O 3 as gate insulator and passivation layer. The MOS-HEMT with the gate length of 2 μm exhibits excellent direct-current (dc) characteristics with a drain current maximum of 1270 mA/mm at a gate bias of 3 V and an off-state breakdown voltage of 180 V for a gate-drain spacing of 4 μm. Also, the 1 μm-gate MOS-HEMT shows good radio-frequency (rf) response such as current gain and maximum oscillation cut-off frequencies of 10 and 34 GHz, respectively. The capacitance-voltage characteristics at 1 MHz revealed significant increase in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density for the MOS-HEMT compared to conventional Schottky barrier HEMTs. Analyses using drain-source conductivity measurements showed improvements in 2DEG transport characteristics for the MOS-HEMT. The enhancements in dc and rf performances of the Al 2 O 3 /Al 0.85 In 0.15 N/GaN MOS-HEMT are attributed to the improvements in 2DEG characteristics

  1. The impact of non-uniform channel layer growth on device characteristics in state of the Art Si/SiGe/Si p-metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.C.K.; Ross, I.M.; Norris, D.J.; Cullis, A.G.; Tang, Y.T.; Cerrina, C.; Evans, A.G.R.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we have highlighted the effect of non-uniform channel layer growth by the direct correlation of the microstructure and electrical characteristics in state-of-the-art pseudomorphic Si/SiGe p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor devices fabricated on Si. Two nominally identical sets of devices from adjacent locations of the same wafer were found to have radically different distributions in gate threshold voltages. Due to the close proximity and narrow gate length of the devices, focused ion beam milling was used to prepare a number of thin cross-sections from each of the two regions for subsequent analysis using transmission electron microscopy. It was found that devices from the region giving a very narrow range of gate threshold voltages exhibited a uniform microstructure in general agreement with the intended growth parameters. However, in the second region, which showed a large spread in the gate threshold voltages, profound anomalies in the microstructure were observed. These anomalies consisted of fluctuations in the quality and thickness of the SiGe strained layers. The non-uniform growth of the strained SiGe layer clearly accounted for the poorly controlled threshold voltages of these devices. The results emphasize the importance of good layer growth uniformity to ensure optimum device yield

  2. Near interface traps in SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors monitored by temperature dependent gate current transient measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorenza, Patrick; La Magna, Antonino; Vivona, Marilena; Roccaforte, Fabrizio [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (CNR-IMM), Strada VIII 5, Zona Industriale 95121 Catania (Italy)

    2016-07-04

    This letter reports on the impact of gate oxide trapping states on the conduction mechanisms in SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The phenomena were studied by gate current transient measurements, performed on n-channel MOSFETs operated in “gate-controlled-diode” configuration. The measurements revealed an anomalous non-steady conduction under negative bias (V{sub G} > |20 V|) through the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface. The phenomenon was explained by the coexistence of a electron variable range hopping and a hole Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling. A semi-empirical modified FN model with a time-depended electric field is used to estimate the near interface traps in the gate oxide (N{sub trap} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}).

  3. Assessment of radiation exposure in dental cone-beam computerized tomography with the use of metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, J; Kiljunen, T; Tapiovaara, M; Wolff, J; Kortesniemi, M

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the organ and effective dose (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 103) resulting from dental cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) imaging using a novel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter device, and to assess the reliability of the MOSFET measurements by comparing the results with Monte Carlo PCXMC simulations. Organ dose measurements were performed using 20 MOSFET dosimeters that were embedded in the 8 most radiosensitive organs in the maxillofacial and neck area. The dose-area product (DAP) values attained from CBCT scans were used for PCXMC simulations. The acquired MOSFET doses were then compared with the Monte Carlo simulations. The effective dose measurements using MOSFET dosimeters yielded, using 0.5-cm steps, a value of 153 μSv and the PCXMC simulations resulted in a value of 136 μSv. The MOSFET dosimeters placed in a head phantom gave results similar to Monte Carlo simulations. Minor vertical changes in the positioning of the phantom had a substantial affect on the overall effective dose. Therefore, the MOSFET dosimeters constitute a feasible method for dose assessment of CBCT units in the maxillofacial region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Capacitance-Voltage Characterization of La2O3 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structures on In0.53Ga0.47As Substrate with Different Surface Treatment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Dariush; Kanda, Takashi; Yamashita, Koji; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Nohira, Hiroshi; Ahmet, Parhat; Tsutsui, Kazuo; Nishiyama, Akira; Sugii, Nobuyuki; Natori, Kenji; Hattori, Takeo; Iwai, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    We studied InGaAs surface treatment using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) vapor or (NH4)2S solution after initial oxide removal by hydrofluoric acid. The effect of each treatment on interface properties of La2O3/In0.53Ga0.47As metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor was evaluated. We found that HMDS surface treatment of InGaAs, followed by La2O3 deposition and forming gas annealing reduces the MOS capacitor's interface state density more effectively than (NH4)2S treatment. The comparison of the capacitance-voltage data shows that the HMDS-treated sample reaches a maximum accumulation capacitance of 2.3 µF/cm2 at 1 MHz with roughly 40% less frequency dispersion near accumulation, than the sample treated with (NH4)2S solution. These results suggest that process optimization of HMDS application could lead to further improvement of InGaAs MOS interface, thereby making it a potential routine step for InGaAs surface passivation.

  5. Radiation tolerance of Si{sub 1−y}C{sub y} source/drain n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors with different carbon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Toshiyuki, E-mail: nakashima_t@cdk.co.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Agriculture and Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki (Japan); Chuo Denshi Kogyo Co., Ltd., 3400 Kohoyama, Matsubase, Uki, Kumamoto (Japan); Asai, Yuki; Hori, Masato; Yoneoka, Masashi; Tsunoda, Isao; Takakura, Kenichiro [Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2659-2 Suya, Koshi, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan); Gonzalez, Mireia Bargallo [Institut de Microelectronica de Barcelona (Centre Nacional de Microelectronica — Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas) Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Simoen, Eddy [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Claeys, Cor [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Yoshino, Kenji [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Agriculture and Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki (Japan)

    2014-04-30

    The 2-MeV electron radiation damage of silicon–carbon source/drain (S/D) n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors with different carbon (C) concentrations is studied. Before irradiation, an enhancement of the electron mobility with C concentration of the S/D stressors is clearly observed. On the other hand, after electron irradiation, both the threshold voltage shift and the maximum electron mobility degradation are independent on the C concentration for all electron fluences studied. These results indicate that the strain induced electron mobility enhancement due to the C doping is retained after irradiation in the studied devices. - Highlights: • We have investigated the electron irradiation effect of the Si{sub 1−y}C{sub y} S/D n-MOSFETs. • The threshold voltage variations by irradiation are independent on the C doping. • The electron-mobility decreased for all C concentrations by electron irradiation. • The strain induced mobility enhancement effect is retained after irradiation.

  6. Large current modulation and tunneling magnetoresistance change by a side-gate electric field in a GaMnAs-based vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaki, Toshiki; Yamasaki, Hiroki; Koyama, Tomohiro; Chiba, Daichi; Ohya, Shinobu; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2018-05-08

    A vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (spin MOSFET) is a promising low-power device for the post scaling era. Here, using a ferromagnetic-semiconductor GaMnAs-based vertical spin MOSFET with a GaAs channel layer, we demonstrate a large drain-source current I DS modulation by a gate-source voltage V GS with a modulation ratio up to 130%, which is the largest value that has ever been reported for vertical spin field-effect transistors thus far. We find that the electric field effect on indirect tunneling via defect states in the GaAs channel layer is responsible for the large I DS modulation. This device shows a tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio up to ~7%, which is larger than that of the planar-type spin MOSFETs, indicating that I DS can be controlled by the magnetization configuration. Furthermore, we find that the TMR ratio can be modulated by V GS . This result mainly originates from the electric field modulation of the magnetic anisotropy of the GaMnAs ferromagnetic electrodes as well as the potential modulation of the nonmagnetic semiconductor GaAs channel layer. Our findings provide important progress towards high-performance vertical spin MOSFETs.

  7. Lg = 100 nm In0.7Ga0.3As quantum well metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with atomic layer deposited beryllium oxide as interfacial layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, D.; Kwon, H. M.; Kim, T.-W.; Veksler, D.; Gilmer, D.; Kirsch, P. D.; Kim, D.-H.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Maszara, W.; Banerjee, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated nanometer-scale channel length quantum-well (QW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) incorporating beryllium oxide (BeO) as an interfacial layer. BeO has high thermal stability, excellent electrical insulating characteristics, and a large band-gap, which make it an attractive candidate for use as a gate dielectric in making MOSFETs. BeO can also act as a good diffusion barrier to oxygen owing to its small atomic bonding length. In this work, we have fabricated In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As MOS capacitors with BeO and Al 2 O 3 and compared their electrical characteristics. As interface passivation layer, BeO/HfO 2 bilayer gate stack presented effective oxide thickness less 1 nm. Furthermore, we have demonstrated In 0.7 Ga 0.3 As QW MOSFETs with a BeO/HfO 2 dielectric, showing a sub-threshold slope of 100 mV/dec, and a transconductance (g m,max ) of 1.1 mS/μm, while displaying low values of gate leakage current. These results highlight the potential of atomic layer deposited BeO for use as a gate dielectric or interface passivation layer for III–V MOSFETs at the 7 nm technology node and/or beyond

  8. Management of chronic pain using complementary and integrative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lucy; Michalsen, Andreas

    2017-04-24

    Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) encompasses both Western-style medicine and complementary health approaches as a new combined approach to treat a variety of clinical conditions. Chronic pain is the leading indication for use of CIM, and about 33% of adults and 12% of children in the US have used it in this context. Although advances have been made in treatments for chronic pain, it remains inadequately controlled for many people. Adverse effects and complications of analgesic drugs, such as addiction, kidney failure, and gastrointestinal bleeding, also limit their use. CIM offers a multimodality treatment approach that can tackle the multidimensional nature of pain with fewer or no serious adverse effects. This review focuses on the use of CIM in three conditions with a high incidence of chronic pain: back pain, neck pain, and rheumatoid arthritis. It summarizes research on the mechanisms of action and clinical studies on the efficacy of commonly used CIM modalities such as acupuncture, mind-body system, dietary interventions and fasting, and herbal medicine and nutrients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Epitaxial Gd2O3 on GaN and AlGaN: a potential candidate for metal oxide semiconductor based transistors on Si for high power application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kankat; Das, S.; Khiangte, K. R.; Choudhury, N.; Laha, Apurba

    2017-11-01

    We report structural and electrical properties of hexagonal Gd2O3 grown epitaxially on GaN/Si (1 1 1) and AlGaN/GaN/Si(1 1 1) virtual substrates. GaN and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures were grown on Si(1 1 1) substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE), whereas the Gd2O3 layer was grown by the pulsed laser ablation (PLA) technique. Initial structural characterizations show that Gd2O3 grown on III-nitride layers by PLA, exhibit a hexagonal structure with an epitaxial relationship as {{≤ft[ 0 0 0 1 \\right]}G{{d2}{{O}3}}}||{{≤ft[ 0 0 0 1 \\right]}GaN} and {{≤ft[ 1 \\bar{1} 0 0 \\right]}G{{d2}{{O}3}}}||{{≤ft[ 1 \\bar{1} 0 0 \\right]}GaN} . X-ray photoelectron measurements of the valence bands revealed that Gd2O3 exhibits band offsets of 0.97 eV and 0.4 eV, for GaN and Al0.3Ga0.7N, respectively. Electrical measurements such as capacitance-voltage and leakage current characteristics further confirm that epi-Gd2O3 on III-nitrides could be a potential candidate for future metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-based transistors also for high power applications in radio frequency range.

  10. Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors: Impact of sulfur passivation on gate stack quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Dian; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiao, E-mail: elegong@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: elegong@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng [Institute of Material Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Tok, Eng-Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2016-01-14

    The effect of room temperature sulfur passivation of the surface of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} prior to high-k dielectric (HfO{sub 2}) deposition is investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the chemical bonding at the interface of HfO{sub 2} and Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}. Sulfur passivation is found to be effective in suppressing the formation of both Ge oxides and Sn oxides. A comparison of XPS results for sulfur-passivated and non-passivated Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} samples shows that sulfur passivation of the GeSn surface could also suppress the surface segregation of Sn atoms. In addition, sulfur passivation reduces the interface trap density D{sub it} at the high-k dielectric/Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} interface from the valence band edge to the midgap of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}, as compared with a non-passivated control. The impact of the improved D{sub it} is demonstrated in Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs). Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-MOSFETs with sulfur passivation show improved subthreshold swing S, intrinsic transconductance G{sub m,int}, and effective hole mobility μ{sub eff} as compared with the non-passivated control. At a high inversion carrier density N{sub inv} of 1 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}, sulfur passivation increases μ{sub eff} by 25% in Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-MOSFETs.

  11. Reduction in the interface-states density of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated on high-index Si (114) surfaces by using an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J.; De La Hidalga, J.; Gutierrez, E.

    2014-01-01

    After fabrication of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices on high-index silicon (114) surfaces, their threshold voltage (Vth) and interface-states density (Dit) characteristics were measured under the influence of an externally applied magnetic field of B = 6 μT at room temperature. The electron flow of the MOSFET's channel presents high anisotropy on Si (114), and this effect is enhanced by using an external magnetic field B, applied parallel to the Si (114) surface but perpendicular to the electron flow direction. This special configuration results in the channel electrons experiencing a Lorentzian force which pushes the electrons closer to the Si (114)-SiO 2 interface and therefore to the special morphology of the Si (114) surface. Interestingly, Dit evaluation of n-type MOSFETs fabricated on Si (114) surfaces shows that the Si (114)-SiO 2 interface is of high quality so that Dit as low as ∼10 10  cm −2 ·eV −1 are obtained for MOSFETs with channels aligned at specific orientations. Additionally, using both a small positive Vds ≤ 100 mV and B = 6 μT, the former Dit is reduced by 35% in MOSFETs whose channels are aligned parallel to row-like nanostructures formed atop Si (114) surfaces (channels having a 90° rotation), whereas Dit is increased by 25% in MOSFETs whose channels are aligned perpendicular to these nanostructures (channels having a 0° rotation). From these results, the special morphology of a high-index Si (114) plane having nanochannels on its surface opens the possibility to reduce the electron-trapping characteristics of MOSFET devices having deep-submicron features and operating at very high frequencies

  12. Enhanced two dimensional electron gas transport characteristics in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AlInN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors on Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedsman, J. J., E-mail: freedy54@gmail.com; Watanabe, A.; Urayama, Y. [Research Center for Nano-Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466 8555 (Japan); Egawa, T., E-mail: egawa.takashi@nitech.ac.jp [Research Center for Nano-Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466 8555 (Japan); Innovation Center for Multi-Business of Nitride Semiconductors, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466 8555 (Japan)

    2015-09-07

    The authors report on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 0.85}In{sub 0.15}N/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (MOS-HEMT) on Si fabricated by using atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as gate insulator and passivation layer. The MOS-HEMT with the gate length of 2 μm exhibits excellent direct-current (dc) characteristics with a drain current maximum of 1270 mA/mm at a gate bias of 3 V and an off-state breakdown voltage of 180 V for a gate-drain spacing of 4 μm. Also, the 1 μm-gate MOS-HEMT shows good radio-frequency (rf) response such as current gain and maximum oscillation cut-off frequencies of 10 and 34 GHz, respectively. The capacitance-voltage characteristics at 1 MHz revealed significant increase in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density for the MOS-HEMT compared to conventional Schottky barrier HEMTs. Analyses using drain-source conductivity measurements showed improvements in 2DEG transport characteristics for the MOS-HEMT. The enhancements in dc and rf performances of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 0.85}In{sub 0.15}N/GaN MOS-HEMT are attributed to the improvements in 2DEG characteristics.

  13. Fabrication and operation methods of a one-time programmable (OTP) nonvolatile memory (NVM) based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongjae; Lee, Junghoon; Jung, Sunghun; Park, Sehwan; Park, Byunggook

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel one-time programmable (OTP) nonvolatile memory (NVM) device and its array based on a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure is proposed. The Iindividual memory device has a vertical channel of a silicon diode. Historically, OTP memories were widely used for read-only-memories (ROMs), in which the most basic system architecture model was to store central processing unit (CPU) instructions. By grafting the nanoscale fabrication technology and novel structuring onto the concept of the OTP memory, innovative high-density NVM appliances for mobile storage media may be possible. The program operation is performed by breaking down the thin oxide layer between the pn diode structure and the wordline (WL). The programmed state can be identified by an operation that reads the leakage currents through the broken oxide. Since the proposed OTP NVM is based on neither a transistor structure nor a charge storing mechanism, it is highly reliable and functional for realizing the ultra-large scale integration. The operation physics and the fabrication processes are also explained in detail.

  14. Large-area processing of solution type metal-oxide in TFT backplanes and integration in highly stable OLED displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkovic, Marko; Takata, Ryo; Neumann, Anita; Pham, Duy Vu; Anselmann, Ralf; Maas, Joris; Van Der Steen, Jan Laurens; Gelinck, Gerwin; Katsouras, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    Solution type metal-oxide semiconductor was processed on mass-production ready equipment and integrated in a backplane with ESL architecture TFTs. Excellent thickness uniformity of the semiconductor layer was obtained over the complete Gen I glass substrate (320 mm ×00D7; 352 mm), resulting in

  15. Monolithically Integrated Flexible Black Phosphorus Complementary Inverter Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanda; Ang, Kah-Wee

    2017-07-25

    Two-dimensional (2D) inverters are a fundamental building block for flexible logic circuits which have previously been realized by heterogeneously wiring transistors with two discrete channel materials. Here, we demonstrate a monolithically integrated complementary inverter made using a homogeneous black phosphorus (BP) nanosheet on flexible substrates. The digital logic inverter circuit is demonstrated via effective threshold voltage tuning within a single BP material, which offers both electron and hole dominated conducting channels with nearly symmetric pinch-off and current saturation. Controllable electron concentration is achieved by accurately modulating the aluminum (Al) donor doping, which realizes BP n-FET with a room-temperature on/off ratio >10 3 . Simultaneously, work function engineering is employed to obtain a low Schottky barrier contact electrode that facilities hole injection, thus enhancing the current density of the BP p-FET by 9.4 times. The flexible inverter circuit shows a clear digital logic voltage inversion operation along with a larger-than-unity direct current voltage gain, while exhibits alternating current dynamic signal switching at a record high frequency up to 100 kHz and remarkable electrical stability upon mechanical bending with a radii as small as 4 mm. Our study demonstrates a practical monolithic integration strategy for achieving functional logic circuits on one material platform, paving the way for future high-density flexible electronic applications.

  16. Metal oxide semiconductors for dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of monoclinic and hexagonal WO 3 nanostructures. • Nanocuboid and nanofiber growth using different structure directing agents. • WO 3 –ZnO nanocomposites for dye degradation under UV and visible light. • High photocatalytic efficiency is achieved by 10 wt% monoclinic WO 3 . • WO 3 assists to trap hole in UV and arrests electron in visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Organic contaminants are a growing threat to the environment that widely demands their degradation by high efficient photocatalysts. Thus, the proposed research work primely focuses on the efficient degradation of methyl orange using designed WO 3 –ZnO photocatalysts under both UV and visible light irradiation. Two different sets of WO 3 nanostructures namely, monoclinic WO 3 (m-WO 3 ) and hexagonal WO 3 (h-WO 3 ) synthesizes in presence of a different structure directing agents. A specific dispersion technique allows the intimate contact of as-synthesized WO 3 and ultra-violet active commercial ZnO photocatalyst in different weight variations. ZnO nanocrystal in presence of an optimum 10 wt% m-WO 3 shows a high degree of photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation compared to counterpart h-WO 3 . Symmetrical monoclinic WO 3 assists to trap hole in UV, but electron arresting mechanism predominates in visible irradiation. Coupling of monoclinic nanocuboid WO 3 with ZnO proves to be a promising photocatalyst in both wavelengths.

  17. Metal oxide semiconductors for dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Debasish, E-mail: dsarkar@nitrkl.ac.in

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of monoclinic and hexagonal WO{sub 3} nanostructures. • Nanocuboid and nanofiber growth using different structure directing agents. • WO{sub 3}–ZnO nanocomposites for dye degradation under UV and visible light. • High photocatalytic efficiency is achieved by 10 wt% monoclinic WO{sub 3}. • WO{sub 3} assists to trap hole in UV and arrests electron in visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Organic contaminants are a growing threat to the environment that widely demands their degradation by high efficient photocatalysts. Thus, the proposed research work primely focuses on the efficient degradation of methyl orange using designed WO{sub 3}–ZnO photocatalysts under both UV and visible light irradiation. Two different sets of WO{sub 3} nanostructures namely, monoclinic WO{sub 3} (m-WO{sub 3}) and hexagonal WO{sub 3} (h-WO{sub 3}) synthesizes in presence of a different structure directing agents. A specific dispersion technique allows the intimate contact of as-synthesized WO{sub 3} and ultra-violet active commercial ZnO photocatalyst in different weight variations. ZnO nanocrystal in presence of an optimum 10 wt% m-WO{sub 3} shows a high degree of photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation compared to counterpart h-WO{sub 3}. Symmetrical monoclinic WO{sub 3} assists to trap hole in UV, but electron arresting mechanism predominates in visible irradiation. Coupling of monoclinic nanocuboid WO{sub 3} with ZnO proves to be a promising photocatalyst in both wavelengths.

  18. Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Kirtaev, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which...

  19. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on-Si active photonics materials and devices for photon detection, modulation, and generation. We first discuss the band engineering of Ge using tensile strain, n-type doping, Sn alloying, and separate confinement of Γ vs. L electrons in quantum well (QW structures to transform the material towards a direct band gap semiconductor for enhancing optoelectronic properties. We then give a brief overview of epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials growth, followed by a summary of recent investigations towards low-temperature, direct growth of high crystallinity Ge and GeSn alloys on dielectric layers for 3D photonic integration. Finally, we review the most recent studies on waveguide-integrated Ge-on-Si photodetectors (PDs, electroabsorption modulators (EAMs, and laser diodes (LDs, and suggest possible future research directions for large-scale monolithic electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a Si platform.

  20. Research methods in complementary and alternative medicine: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Andrade, Fabiana; Schlechta Portella, Caio Fabio

    2018-01-01

    The scientific literature presents a modest amount of evidence in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). On the other hand, in practice, relevant results are common. The debates among CAM practitioners about the quality and execution of scientific research are important. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather, synthesize and describe the differentiated methodological models that encompass the complexity of therapeutic interventions. The process of bringing evidence-based medicine into clinical practice in CAM is essential for the growth and strengthening of complementary medicines worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Perspective: The future of quantum dot photonic integrated circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C. Norman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct epitaxial integration of III-V materials on Si offers substantial manufacturing cost and scalability advantages over heterogeneous integration. The challenge is that epitaxial growth introduces high densities of crystalline defects that limit device performance and lifetime. Quantum dot lasers, amplifiers, modulators, and photodetectors epitaxially grown on Si are showing promise for achieving low-cost, scalable integration with silicon photonics. The unique electrical confinement properties of quantum dots provide reduced sensitivity to the crystalline defects that result from III-V/Si growth, while their unique gain dynamics show promise for improved performance and new functionalities relative to their quantum well counterparts in many devices. Clear advantages for using quantum dot active layers for lasers and amplifiers on and off Si have already been demonstrated, and results for quantum dot based photodetectors and modulators look promising. Laser performance on Si is improving rapidly with continuous-wave threshold currents below 1 mA, injection efficiencies of 87%, and output powers of 175 mW at 20 °C. 1500-h reliability tests at 35 °C showed an extrapolated mean-time-to-failure of more than ten million hours. This represents a significant stride toward efficient, scalable, and reliable III-V lasers on on-axis Si substrates for photonic integrate circuits that are fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS foundries.

  2. Perspective: The future of quantum dot photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Justin C.; Jung, Daehwan; Wan, Yating; Bowers, John E.

    2018-03-01

    Direct epitaxial integration of III-V materials on Si offers substantial manufacturing cost and scalability advantages over heterogeneous integration. The challenge is that epitaxial growth introduces high densities of crystalline defects that limit device performance and lifetime. Quantum dot lasers, amplifiers, modulators, and photodetectors epitaxially grown on Si are showing promise for achieving low-cost, scalable integration with silicon photonics. The unique electrical confinement properties of quantum dots provide reduced sensitivity to the crystalline defects that result from III-V/Si growth, while their unique gain dynamics show promise for improved performance and new functionalities relative to their quantum well counterparts in many devices. Clear advantages for using quantum dot active layers for lasers and amplifiers on and off Si have already been demonstrated, and results for quantum dot based photodetectors and modulators look promising. Laser performance on Si is improving rapidly with continuous-wave threshold currents below 1 mA, injection efficiencies of 87%, and output powers of 175 mW at 20 °C. 1500-h reliability tests at 35 °C showed an extrapolated mean-time-to-failure of more than ten million hours. This represents a significant stride toward efficient, scalable, and reliable III-V lasers on on-axis Si substrates for photonic integrate circuits that are fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundries.

  3. Metabolomics on integrated circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Boon Chong; MacDonald, Alasdair I.; Barrett, Michael P.; Cumming, David R.S.

    2017-01-01

    We have demonstrated a chip-based diagnostics tool for the quantification of metabolites, using specific enzymes, to study enzyme kinetics and calculate the Michaelis-Menten constant. An array of 256×256 ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) fabricated in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process is used for this prototype. We have used hexokinase enzyme reaction on the ISFET CMOS chip with glucose concentration in the physiological range of 0.05 mM – 231 mM and succe...

  4. Monolithic integration of a micromachined piezoresistive flow sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Tao; Yang, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Dacheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a monolithic integrated piezoresistive flow sensor is presented, which was fabricated with an intermediate CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) process compatible with integrated pressure sensors. Four symmetrically arranged silicon diaphragms with piezoresistors on them were used to sense the drag force induced by the input gas flow. A signal conditioning CMOS circuit with a temperature compensation module was designed and fabricated simultaneously on the same chip with an increase of the total chip area by only 35%. An extra step of boron implantation and annealing was inserted into the standard CMOS process to form the piezoresistors. KOH anisotropic etching from the backside and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) from the front side were combined to realize the silicon diaphragms. The integrated flow sensor was packaged and tested. The testing results indicated that the addition of piezoresistor formation and structure releasing did not significantly change any of the circuitry characteristics. The measured sensor output has a quadratic relation with the input flow rate of the fluid as predicted. The tested resolution of the sensor is less than 0.1 L min −1 with a measurement range of 0.1–5 L min −1 and the sensitivity is better than 40 mV per (L min −1 ) with a measurement range of 4–5 L min −1 . The measured noise floor of the sensor is 21.7 µV rtHz −1 .

  5. Chip-integrated optical power limiter based on an all-passive micro-ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Siqi; Dong, Jianji; Zheng, Aoling; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in silicon nanophotonics has dramatically advanced the possible realization of large-scale on-chip optical interconnects integration. Adopting photons as information carriers can break the performance bottleneck of electronic integrated circuit such as serious thermal losses and poor process rates. However, in integrated photonics circuits, few reported work can impose an upper limit of optical power therefore prevent the optical device from harm caused by high power. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a feasible integrated scheme based on a single all-passive micro-ring resonator to realize the optical power limitation which has a similar function of current limiting circuit in electronics. Besides, we analyze the performance of optical power limiter at various signal bit rates. The results show that the proposed device can limit the signal power effectively at a bit rate up to 20 Gbit/s without deteriorating the signal. Meanwhile, this ultra-compact silicon device can be completely compatible with the electronic technology (typically complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology), which may pave the way of very large scale integrated photonic circuits for all-optical information processors and artificial intelligence systems.

  6. Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine Into Conventional Health Care System in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Dinesh; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine has been a part of human life and practices since the beginning of time. The role of complementary and alternative medicine for the health of humans is undisputed particularly in light of its role in health promotion and well-being. This article discusses wa...... through which complementary and alternative medicine can be promoted and sustained as an integrated element of health care in developing countries. We specifically present the exemplary of Amchi traditional doctors of Northern Himalayas......Complementary and alternative medicine has been a part of human life and practices since the beginning of time. The role of complementary and alternative medicine for the health of humans is undisputed particularly in light of its role in health promotion and well-being. This article discusses ways...

  7. An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Jonathan M; Hinz, Wolfgang; Rearick, Todd M; Schultz, Jonathan; Mileski, William; Davey, Mel; Leamon, John H; Johnson, Kim; Milgrew, Mark J; Edwards, Matthew; Hoon, Jeremy; Simons, Jan F; Marran, David; Myers, Jason W; Davidson, John F; Branting, Annika; Nobile, John R; Puc, Bernard P; Light, David; Clark, Travis A; Huber, Martin; Branciforte, Jeffrey T; Stoner, Isaac B; Cawley, Simon E; Lyons, Michael; Fu, Yutao; Homer, Nils; Sedova, Marina; Miao, Xin; Reed, Brian; Sabina, Jeffrey; Feierstein, Erika; Schorn, Michelle; Alanjary, Mohammad; Dimalanta, Eileen; Dressman, Devin; Kasinskas, Rachel; Sokolsky, Tanya; Fidanza, Jacqueline A; Namsaraev, Eugeni; McKernan, Kevin J; Williams, Alan; Roth, G Thomas; Bustillo, James

    2011-07-20

    The seminal importance of DNA sequencing to the life sciences, biotechnology and medicine has driven the search for more scalable and lower-cost solutions. Here we describe a DNA sequencing technology in which scalable, low-cost semiconductor manufacturing techniques are used to make an integrated circuit able to directly perform non-optical DNA sequencing of genomes. Sequence data are obtained by directly sensing the ions produced by template-directed DNA polymerase synthesis using all-natural nucleotides on this massively parallel semiconductor-sensing device or ion chip. The ion chip contains ion-sensitive, field-effect transistor-based sensors in perfect register with 1.2 million wells, which provide confinement and allow parallel, simultaneous detection of independent sequencing reactions. Use of the most widely used technology for constructing integrated circuits, the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, allows for low-cost, large-scale production and scaling of the device to higher densities and larger array sizes. We show the performance of the system by sequencing three bacterial genomes, its robustness and scalability by producing ion chips with up to 10 times as many sensors and sequencing a human genome.

  8. Hybrid integrated biological-solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Jared M; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K; Shepard, Kenneth L

    2015-12-07

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 10(6) mm(-2)) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6 pA mm(-2) and an open-circuit voltage of 78 mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27 pW mm(-2) from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%.

  9. Hybrid integrated biological-solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Jared M.; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2015-12-01

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 106 mm-2) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6 pA mm-2 and an open-circuit voltage of 78 mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27 pW mm-2 from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%.

  10. Fabricating an organic complementary inverter by integrating two transistors on a single substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Wei Bin; Zhang Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Organic complementary inverters were fabricated by integrating two transistors of different electric type on a single substrate. One is a p-type organic heterojunction transistor with a depletion–accumulation mode that acts as a load element. The other is an n-type transistor with an accumulation mode that acts as a drive element. Typical inverter characteristics with a voltage gain of 12 were obtained. Compared with conventional devices, our organic complementary inverter used only one-step patterning of an organic semiconductor, and simultaneously suppressed the leakage current between supply voltage and ground. Therefore, current studies provide a simpler path to fabrication of organic complementary circuits

  11. Complementary Self-Biased Logics Based on Single-Electron Transistor (SET)/CMOS Hybrid Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ki-Whan; Lee, Yong Kyu; Sim, Jae Sung; Kim, Kyung Rok; Lee, Jong Duk; Park, Byung-Gook; You, Young Sub; Park, Joo-On; Jin, You Seung; Kim, Young-Wug

    2005-04-01

    We propose a complementary self-biasing method which enables the single-electron transistor (SET)/complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) hybrid multi-valued logics (MVLs) to operate well at high temperatures, where the peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) of the Coulomb oscillation markedly decreases. The new architecture is implemented with a few transistors by utilizing the phase control capability of the sidewall depletion gates in dual-gate single-electron transistors (DGSETs). The suggested scheme is evaluated by a SPICE simulation with an analytical DGSET model. Furthermore, we have developed a new process technology for the SET/CMOS hybrid systems. We have confirmed that both of the fabricated devices, namely, SET and CMOS transistors, exhibit the ideal characteristics for the complementary self-biasing scheme: the SET shows clear Coulomb oscillations with a 100 mV period and the CMOS transistors show a high voltage gain.

  12. A MoTe2-based light-emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Ya-Qing; Grosso, Gabriele; Heuck, Mikkel; Furchi, Marco M; Cao, Yuan; Zheng, Jiabao; Bunandar, Darius; Navarro-Moratalla, Efren; Zhou, Lin; Efetov, Dmitri K; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kong, Jing; Englund, Dirk; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2017-12-01

    One of the current challenges in photonics is developing high-speed, power-efficient, chip-integrated optical communications devices to address the interconnects bottleneck in high-speed computing systems. Silicon photonics has emerged as a leading architecture, in part because of the promise that many components, such as waveguides, couplers, interferometers and modulators, could be directly integrated on silicon-based processors. However, light sources and photodetectors present ongoing challenges. Common approaches for light sources include one or few off-chip or wafer-bonded lasers based on III-V materials, but recent system architecture studies show advantages for the use of many directly modulated light sources positioned at the transmitter location. The most advanced photodetectors in the silicon photonic process are based on germanium, but this requires additional germanium growth, which increases the system cost. The emerging two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offer a path for optical interconnect components that can be integrated with silicon photonics and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) processing by back-end-of-the-line steps. Here, we demonstrate a silicon waveguide-integrated light source and photodetector based on a p-n junction of bilayer MoTe 2 , a TMD semiconductor with an infrared bandgap. This state-of-the-art fabrication technology provides new opportunities for integrated optoelectronic systems.

  13. A MoTe2-based light-emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Ya-Qing; Grosso, Gabriele; Heuck, Mikkel; Furchi, Marco M.; Cao, Yuan; Zheng, Jiabao; Bunandar, Darius; Navarro-Moratalla, Efren; Zhou, Lin; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kong, Jing; Englund, Dirk; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2017-12-01

    One of the current challenges in photonics is developing high-speed, power-efficient, chip-integrated optical communications devices to address the interconnects bottleneck in high-speed computing systems. Silicon photonics has emerged as a leading architecture, in part because of the promise that many components, such as waveguides, couplers, interferometers and modulators, could be directly integrated on silicon-based processors. However, light sources and photodetectors present ongoing challenges. Common approaches for light sources include one or few off-chip or wafer-bonded lasers based on III-V materials, but recent system architecture studies show advantages for the use of many directly modulated light sources positioned at the transmitter location. The most advanced photodetectors in the silicon photonic process are based on germanium, but this requires additional germanium growth, which increases the system cost. The emerging two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offer a path for optical interconnect components that can be integrated with silicon photonics and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) processing by back-end-of-the-line steps. Here, we demonstrate a silicon waveguide-integrated light source and photodetector based on a p-n junction of bilayer MoTe2, a TMD semiconductor with an infrared bandgap. This state-of-the-art fabrication technology provides new opportunities for integrated optoelectronic systems.

  14. Integrated imaging – the complementary roles of radiology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imaging techniques are moving towards integrated diagnostic clinical imaging. J Warwick,1 .... the stomach lesion and a lymph node. ese are shown on CT with calci cation ... fractures are diagnosed using conventional radiographs, but bone.

  15. ERF/ERFC, Calculation of Error Function, Complementary Error Function, Probability Integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ERF and ERFC are used to compute values of the error function and complementary error function for any real number. They may be used to compute other related functions such as the normal probability integrals. 4. Method of solution: The error function and complementary error function are approximated by rational functions. Three such rational approximations are used depending on whether - x .GE.4.0. In the first region the error function is computed directly and the complementary error function is computed via the identity erfc(x)=1.0-erf(x). In the other two regions the complementary error function is computed directly and the error function is computed from the identity erf(x)=1.0-erfc(x). The error function and complementary error function are real-valued functions of any real argument. The range of the error function is (-1,1). The range of the complementary error function is (0,2). 5. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The user is cautioned against using ERF to compute the complementary error function by using the identity erfc(x)=1.0-erf(x). This subtraction may cause partial or total loss of significance for certain values of x

  16. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into cancer care: Canadian oncology nurses′ perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy L Truant; Lynda G Balneaves; Margaret I Fitch

    2015-01-01

    The integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional cancer care in Canada is in its nascent stages. While most patients use CAM during their cancer experience, the majority does not receive adequate support from their oncology health care professionals (HCPs) to integrate CAM safely and effectively into their treatment and care. A variety of factors influence this lack of integration in Canada, such as health care professional(HCP) education and attitudes about CA...

  17. Integrated microelectronic capacitive readout subsystem for lab-on-a-chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spathis, Christos; Georgakopoulou, Konstantina; Petrellis, Nikos; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Birbas, Alexios

    2014-01-01

    A mixed-signal capacitive biosensor readout system is presented with its main readout functionality embedded in an integrated circuit, compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor-type biosensors. The system modularity allows its usage as a consumable since it eventually leads to a system-on-chip where sensor and readout circuitry are hosted on the same die. In this work, a constant current source is used for measuring the input capacitance. Compared to most capacitive biosensor readout circuits, this method offers the convenience of adjusting both the range and the resolution, depending on the requirements dictated by the application. The chip consumes less than 5 mW of power and the die area is 0.06 mm 2 . It shows a broad input capacitance range (capable of measuring bio-capacitances from 6 pF to 9.8 nF), configurable resolution (down to 1 fF), robustness to various biological experiments and good linearity. The integrated nature of the readout system is proven to be sufficient both for one-time in situ (consumable-type) bio-measurements and its incorporation into a point-of-care system. (paper)

  18. Thin SiGe virtual substrates for Ge heterostructures integration on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchi, S.; Chrastina, D.; Frigerio, J.; Isella, G.; Gatti, E.; Guzzi, M.; Müller Gubler, E.; Paul, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to reduce the thickness of the SiGe virtual substrate, required for the integration of Ge heterostructures on Si, without heavily affecting the crystal quality is becoming fundamental in several applications. In this work, we present 1 μm thick Si 1−x Ge x buffers (with x > 0.7) having different designs which could be suitable for applications requiring a thin virtual substrate. The rationale is to reduce the lattice mismatch at the interface with the Si substrate by introducing composition steps and/or partial grading. The relatively low growth temperature (475 °C) makes this approach appealing for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integration. For all the investigated designs, a reduction of the threading dislocation density compared to constant composition Si 1−x Ge x layers was observed. The best buffer in terms of defects reduction was used as a virtual substrate for the deposition of a Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well structure. Room temperature optical absorption and photoluminescence analysis performed on nominally identical quantum wells grown on both a thick graded virtual substrate and the selected thin buffer demonstrates a comparable optical quality, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed approach

  19. A Reconfigurable Readout Integrated Circuit for Heterogeneous Display-Based Multi-Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeonghwan Park

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reconfigurable multi-sensor interface and its readout integrated circuit (ROIC for display-based multi-sensor systems, which builds up multi-sensor functions by utilizing touch screen panels. In addition to inherent touch detection, physiological and environmental sensor interfaces are incorporated. The reconfigurable feature is effectively implemented by proposing two basis readout topologies of amplifier-based and oscillator-based circuits. For noise-immune design against various noises from inherent human-touch operations, an alternate-sampling error-correction scheme is proposed and integrated inside the ROIC, achieving a 12-bit resolution of successive approximation register (SAR of analog-to-digital conversion without additional calibrations. A ROIC prototype that includes the whole proposed functions and data converters was fabricated in a 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process, and its feasibility was experimentally verified to support multiple heterogeneous sensing functions of touch, electrocardiogram, body impedance, and environmental sensors.

  20. 3-Axis Fully-Integrated Capacitive Tactile Sensor with Flip-Bonded CMOS on LTCC Interposer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Asano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a 3-axis fully integrated differential capacitive tactile sensor surface-mountable on a bus line. The sensor integrates a flip-bonded complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS with capacitive sensing circuits on a low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC interposer with Au through vias by Au-Au thermo-compression bonding. The CMOS circuit and bonding pads on the sensor backside were electrically connected through Au bumps and the LTCC interposer, and the differential capacitive gap was formed by an Au sealing frame. A diaphragm for sensing 3-axis force was formed in the CMOS substrate. The dimensions of the completed sensor are 2.5 mm in width, 2.5 mm in length, and 0.66 mm in thickness. The fabricated sensor output coded 3-axis capacitive sensing data according to applied 3-axis force by three-dimensional (3D-printed pins. The measured sensitivity was as high as over 34 Count/mN for normal force and 14 to 15 Count/mN for shear force with small noise, which corresponds to less than 1 mN. The hysteresis and the average cross-sensitivity were also found to be less than 2% full scale and 11%, respectively.

  1. A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, B; Lastras-Montaño, M A; Adam, G; Prezioso, M; Hoskins, B; Payvand, M; Madhavan, A; Ghofrani, A; Theogarajan, L; Cheng, K-T; Strukov, D B

    2017-02-14

    Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore's law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + "Molecular") architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit.

  2. 3-Axis Fully-Integrated Capacitive Tactile Sensor with Flip-Bonded CMOS on LTCC Interposer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Sho; Muroyama, Masanori; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hata, Yoshiyuki; Nonomura, Yutaka; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-10-25

    This paper reports a 3-axis fully integrated differential capacitive tactile sensor surface-mountable on a bus line. The sensor integrates a flip-bonded complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) with capacitive sensing circuits on a low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) interposer with Au through vias by Au-Au thermo-compression bonding. The CMOS circuit and bonding pads on the sensor backside were electrically connected through Au bumps and the LTCC interposer, and the differential capacitive gap was formed by an Au sealing frame. A diaphragm for sensing 3-axis force was formed in the CMOS substrate. The dimensions of the completed sensor are 2.5 mm in width, 2.5 mm in length, and 0.66 mm in thickness. The fabricated sensor output coded 3-axis capacitive sensing data according to applied 3-axis force by three-dimensional (3D)-printed pins. The measured sensitivity was as high as over 34 Count/mN for normal force and 14 to 15 Count/mN for shear force with small noise, which corresponds to less than 1 mN. The hysteresis and the average cross-sensitivity were also found to be less than 2% full scale and 11%, respectively.

  3. Fully Integrated Solar Energy Harvester and Sensor Interface Circuits for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kayal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy-efficient solar energy harvesting and sensing microsystem that harvests solar energy from a micro-power photovoltaic module for autonomous operation of a gas sensor. A fully integrated solar energy harvester stores the harvested energy in a rechargeable NiMH microbattery. Hydrogen concentration and temperature are measured and converted to a digital value with 12-bit resolution using a fully integrated sensor interface circuit, and a wireless transceiver is used to transmit the measurement results to a base station. As the harvested solar energy varies considerably in different lighting conditions, in order to guarantee autonomous operation of the sensor, the proposed area- and energy-efficient circuit scales the power consumption and performance of the sensor. The power management circuit dynamically decreases the operating frequency of digital circuits and bias currents of analog circuits in the sensor interface circuit and increases the idle time of the transceiver under reduced light intensity. The proposed microsystem has been implemented in a 0.18 µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS process and occupies a core area of only 0.25 mm2. This circuit features a low power consumption of 2.1 µW when operating at its highest performance. It operates with low power supply voltage in the 0.8V to 1.6 V range.

  4. Commercialisation of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technology in Multi-Electrode Arrays for Neuroscience and Cell-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R. Bowen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanroom facilities has been achieved. However, to enable adoption of CMOS as a basis for commercial biosensors, the economies of scale of CMOS fabrication must be maintained by using only low-cost post-processing techniques. This review highlights the methodologies employed in cell-based biosensor design where CMOS-based integrated circuits (ICs form an integral part of the transducer system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the application of multi-electrode arrays for in vitro neuroscience applications. Identifying suitable IC packaging methods presents further significant challenges when considering specific applications. The various challenges and difficulties are reviewed and some potential solutions are presented.

  5. Large current MOSFET on photonic silicon-on-insulator wafers and its monolithic integration with a thermo-optic 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, G W; Matsukawa, T; Chiba, T; Tadokoro, H; Yanagihara, M; Ohno, M; Kawashima, H; Kuwatsuka, H; Igarashi, Y; Masahara, M; Ishikawa, H

    2013-03-25

    n-channel body-tied partially depleted metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated for large current applications on a silicon-on-insulator wafer with photonics-oriented specifications. The MOSFET can drive an electrical current as large as 20 mA. We monolithically integrated this MOSFET with a 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch having thermo-optic phase shifters. The static and dynamic performances of the integrated device are experimentally evaluated.

  6. Implementation of an integrated op-amp based chaotic neuron model and observation of its chaotic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinwoo; Lee, Jewon; Song, Hanjung

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated circuit implementation of an operational amplifier (op-amp) based chaotic neuron model with a bipolar output function, experimental measurements, and analyses of its chaotic behavior. The proposed chaotic neuron model integrated circuit consists of several op-amps, sample and hold circuits, a nonlinear function block for chaotic signal generation, a clock generator, a nonlinear output function, etc. Based on the HSPICE (circuit program) simulation results, approximated empirical equations for analyses were formulated. Then, the chaotic dynamical responses such as bifurcation diagrams, time series, and Lyapunov exponent were calculated using these empirical equations. In addition, we performed simulations about two chaotic neuron systems with four synapses to confirm neural network connections and got normal behavior of the chaotic neuron such as internal state bifurcation diagram according to the synaptic weight variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated using a 0.8-μm single poly complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. Measurements of the fabricated single chaotic neuron with ±2.5 V power supplies and a 10 kHz sampling clock frequency were carried out and compared with the simulated results.

  7. 3-Axis Fully-Integrated Capacitive Tactile Sensor with Flip-Bonded CMOS on LTCC Interposer †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Sho; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hata, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a 3-axis fully integrated differential capacitive tactile sensor surface-mountable on a bus line. The sensor integrates a flip-bonded complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) with capacitive sensing circuits on a low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) interposer with Au through vias by Au-Au thermo-compression bonding. The CMOS circuit and bonding pads on the sensor backside were electrically connected through Au bumps and the LTCC interposer, and the differential capacitive gap was formed by an Au sealing frame. A diaphragm for sensing 3-axis force was formed in the CMOS substrate. The dimensions of the completed sensor are 2.5 mm in width, 2.5 mm in length, and 0.66 mm in thickness. The fabricated sensor output coded 3-axis capacitive sensing data according to applied 3-axis force by three-dimensional (3D)-printed pins. The measured sensitivity was as high as over 34 Count/mN for normal force and 14 to 15 Count/mN for shear force with small noise, which corresponds to less than 1 mN. The hysteresis and the average cross-sensitivity were also found to be less than 2% full scale and 11%, respectively. PMID:29068429

  8. Strategies to teach alternative and complementary therapies in nursing: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Chantal Magalhães da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of discussions that clarify the teaching of alternative and complementary therapies in undergraduate nursing programs shows the need for developing research on this topic. The objective of this study was to identify, in scientific literature, the strategies for teaching alternative and complementary therapies in nursing undergraduate programs. The guiding methodology used was integrative review. The search was performed on SCIENCE DIRECT, LILACS and MEDLINE databases. According to the articles included in this study, the proposals for including these therapies in the program are by: lectures, theoretical courses and discussion groups. However, studies should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of these strategies so these therapeutic methods can be included in the Pedagogical Political Project of the nursing undergraduate program, thus allowing for the consolidation of those practices. Descriptors: Education, Nursing; Education, Higher; Complementary Therapies.

  9. The 128-channel fully differential digital integrated neural recording and stimulation interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhi, Farzaneh; Abdelhalim, Karim; Serletis, Demitre; Carlen, Peter L; Genov, Roman

    2010-06-01

    We present a fully differential 128-channel integrated neural interface. It consists of an array of 8 X 16 low-power low-noise signal-recording and generation circuits for electrical neural activity monitoring and stimulation, respectively. The recording channel has two stages of signal amplification and conditioning with and a fully differential 8-b column-parallel successive approximation (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The total measured power consumption of each recording channel, including the SAR ADC, is 15.5 ¿W. The measured input-referred noise is 6.08 ¿ Vrms over a 5-kHz bandwidth, resulting in a noise efficiency factor of 5.6. The stimulation channel performs monophasic or biphasic voltage-mode stimulation, with a maximum stimulation current of 5 mA and a quiescent power dissipation of 51.5 ¿W. The design is implemented in 0.35-¿m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology with the channel pitch of 200 ¿m for a total die size of 3.4 mm × 2.5 mm and a total power consumption of 9.33 mW. The neural interface was validated in in vitro recording of a low-Mg(2+)/high-K(+) epileptic seizure model in an intact hippocampus of a mouse.

  10. Vedic division methodology for high-speed very large scale integration applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Saha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Transistor level implementation of division methodology using ancient Vedic mathematics is reported in this Letter. The potentiality of the ‘Dhvajanka (on top of the flag’ formula was adopted from Vedic mathematics to implement such type of divider for practical very large scale integration applications. The division methodology was implemented through half of the divisor bit instead of the actual divisor, subtraction and little multiplication. Propagation delay and dynamic power consumption of divider circuitry were minimised significantly by stage reduction through Vedic division methodology. The functionality of the division algorithm was checked and performance parameters like propagation delay and dynamic power consumption were calculated through spice spectre with 90 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The propagation delay of the resulted (32 ÷ 16 bit divider circuitry was only ∼300 ns and consumed ∼32.5 mW power for a layout area of 17.39 mm^2. Combination of Boolean arithmetic along with ancient Vedic mathematics, substantial amount of iterations were reduced resulted as ∼47, ∼38, 34% reduction in delay and ∼34, ∼21, ∼18% reduction in power were investigated compared with the mostly used (e.g. digit-recurrence, Newton–Raphson, Goldschmidt architectures.

  11. An analog memory integrated circuit for waveform sampling up to 900 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Wooley, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    The potential of switched-capacitor technology for acquiring analog signals in high-energy physics (HEP) applications has been demonstrated in a number of analog memory designs. The design and implementation of a switched-capacitor memory suitable for capturing high-speed analog waveforms is described. Highlights of the presented circuit are a 900 MHz sampling frequency (generated on chip), input signal independent cell pedestal and sampling instances, and cell gains that are insensitive to component sizes. A two-channel version of the memory with 32 cells for each channel has been integrate in a 2-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with polysilicon-to-polysilicon capacitors. The measured rms cell response variation in a channel after cell pedestal subtraction is less than 0.3 mV across the full input signal range. The cell-to-cell gain matching is better than 0.01% rms, and the nonlinearity is less than 0.03% for a 2.5-V input range. The dynamic range of the memory exceeds 13 bits, and the peak signal-to-(noise + distortion) ratio for a 21.4 MHz sine wave sampled at 900 MHz is 59 dB

  12. Fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop for capacitive microsensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Cho, Dong-Il Dan; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-10-14

    Capacitive sensing schemes are widely used for various microsensors; however, such microsensors suffer from severe parasitic capacitance problems. This paper presents a fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop (AOCL) for capacitive microsensors. The output offsets of the capacitive sensing chain due to the parasitic capacitances and process variations are automatically removed using AOCL. The AOCL generates electrically equivalent offset capacitance and enables charge-domain fine calibration using a 10-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter, charge-transfer switches, and a charge-storing capacitor. The AOCL cancels the unwanted offset by binary-search algorithm based on 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) logic. The chip is implemented using 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process with an active area of 1.76 mm². The power consumption is 220 μW with 3.3 V supply. The input parasitic capacitances within the range of -250 fF to 250 fF can be cancelled out automatically, and the required calibration time is lower than 10 ms.

  13. Cobalt Oxide Nanosheet and CNT Micro Carbon Monoxide Sensor Integrated with Readout Circuit on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Liang Dai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a micro carbon monoxide (CO sensor integrated with a readout circuit-on-a-chip manufactured by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process and a post-process. The sensing film of the sensor is a composite cobalt oxide nanosheet and carbon nanotube (CoOOH/CNT film that is prepared by a precipitation-oxidation method. The structure of the CO sensor is composed of a polysilicon resistor and a sensing film. The sensor, which is of a resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs CO gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. The post-processing of the sensor includes etching the sacrificial layers and coating the sensing film. The advantages of the sensor include room temperature operation, short response/recovery times and easy post-processing. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the CO sensor is about 0.19 mV/ppm, and the response and recovery times are 23 s and 34 s for 200 ppm CO, respectively.

  14. Fully Integrated Low-Noise Readout Circuit with Automatic Offset Cancellation Loop for Capacitive Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryong Song

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive sensing schemes are widely used for various microsensors; however, such microsensors suffer from severe parasitic capacitance problems. This paper presents a fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop (AOCL for capacitive microsensors. The output offsets of the capacitive sensing chain due to the parasitic capacitances and process variations are automatically removed using AOCL. The AOCL generates electrically equivalent offset capacitance and enables charge-domain fine calibration using a 10-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter, charge-transfer switches, and a charge-storing capacitor. The AOCL cancels the unwanted offset by binary-search algorithm based on 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR logic. The chip is implemented using 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS process with an active area of 1.76 mm2. The power consumption is 220 μW with 3.3 V supply. The input parasitic capacitances within the range of −250 fF to 250 fF can be cancelled out automatically, and the required calibration time is lower than 10 ms.

  15. Materials and noncoplanar mesh designs for integrated circuits with linear elastic responses to extreme mechanical deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Song, Jizhou; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Liu, Zhuangjian; Huang, Yonggang Y; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Zhang, Yong-wei; Rogers, John A

    2008-12-02

    Electronic systems that offer elastic mechanical responses to high-strain deformations are of growing interest because of their ability to enable new biomedical devices and other applications whose requirements are impossible to satisfy with conventional wafer-based technologies or even with those that offer simple bendability. This article introduces materials and mechanical design strategies for classes of electronic circuits that offer extremely high stretchability, enabling them to accommodate even demanding configurations such as corkscrew twists with tight pitch (e.g., 90 degrees in approximately 1 cm) and linear stretching to "rubber-band" levels of strain (e.g., up to approximately 140%). The use of single crystalline silicon nanomaterials for the semiconductor provides performance in stretchable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits approaching that of conventional devices with comparable feature sizes formed on silicon wafers. Comprehensive theoretical studies of the mechanics reveal the way in which the structural designs enable these extreme mechanical properties without fracturing the intrinsically brittle active materials or even inducing significant changes in their electrical properties. The results, as demonstrated through electrical measurements of arrays of transistors, CMOS inverters, ring oscillators, and differential amplifiers, suggest a valuable route to high-performance stretchable electronics.

  16. Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Amir H; Moazeni, Sajjad; Pavanello, Fabio; Gevorgyan, Hayk; Notaros, Jelena; Alloatti, Luca; Wade, Mark T; Sun, Chen; Kruger, Seth A; Meng, Huaiyu; Al Qubaisi, Kenaish; Wang, Imbert; Zhang, Bohan; Khilo, Anatol; Baiocco, Christopher V; Popović, Miloš A; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Ram, Rajeev J

    2018-04-01

    Electronic and photonic technologies have transformed our lives-from computing and mobile devices, to information technology and the internet. Our future demands in these fields require innovation in each technology separately, but also depend on our ability to harness their complementary physics through integrated solutions 1,2 . This goal is hindered by the fact that most silicon nanotechnologies-which enable our processors, computer memory, communications chips and image sensors-rely on bulk silicon substrates, a cost-effective solution with an abundant supply chain, but with substantial limitations for the integration of photonic functions. Here we introduce photonics into bulk silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips using a layer of polycrystalline silicon deposited on silicon oxide (glass) islands fabricated alongside transistors. We use this single deposited layer to realize optical waveguides and resonators, high-speed optical modulators and sensitive avalanche photodetectors. We integrated this photonic platform with a 65-nanometre-transistor bulk CMOS process technology inside a 300-millimetre-diameter-wafer microelectronics foundry. We then implemented integrated high-speed optical transceivers in this platform that operate at ten gigabits per second, composed of millions of transistors, and arrayed on a single optical bus for wavelength division multiplexing, to address the demand for high-bandwidth optical interconnects in data centres and high-performance computing 3,4 . By decoupling the formation of photonic devices from that of transistors, this integration approach can achieve many of the goals of multi-chip solutions 5 , but with the performance, complexity and scalability of 'systems on a chip' 1,6-8 . As transistors smaller than ten nanometres across become commercially available 9 , and as new nanotechnologies emerge 10,11 , this approach could provide a way to integrate photonics with state-of-the-art nanoelectronics.

  17. Electrical Design and Evaluation of Asynchronous Serial Bus Communication Network of 48 Sensor Platform LSIs with Single-Ended I/O for Integrated MEMS-LSI Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chenzhong; Tanaka, Shuji; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hata, Yoshiyuki

    2018-01-01

    For installing many sensors in a limited space with a limited computing resource, the digitization of the sensor output at the site of sensation has advantages such as a small amount of wiring, low signal interference and high scalability. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Large-Scale Integration (LSI) (referred to as “sensor platform LSI”) for bus-networked Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS)-LSI integrated sensors. In this LSI, collision avoidance, adaptation and event-driven functions are simply implemented to relieve data collision and congestion in asynchronous serial bus communication. In this study, we developed a network system with 48 sensor platform LSIs based on Printed Circuit Board (PCB) in a backbone bus topology with the bus length being 2.4 m. We evaluated the serial communication performance when 48 LSIs operated simultaneously with the adaptation function. The number of data packets received from each LSI was almost identical, and the average sampling frequency of 384 capacitance channels (eight for each LSI) was 73.66 Hz. PMID:29342923

  18. Electrical Design and Evaluation of Asynchronous Serial Bus Communication Network of 48 Sensor Platform LSIs with Single-Ended I/O for Integrated MEMS-LSI Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhong Shao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For installing many sensors in a limited space with a limited computing resource, the digitization of the sensor output at the site of sensation has advantages such as a small amount of wiring, low signal interference and high scalability. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS Large-Scale Integration (LSI (referred to as “sensor platform LSI” for bus-networked Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS-LSI integrated sensors. In this LSI, collision avoidance, adaptation and event-driven functions are simply implemented to relieve data collision and congestion in asynchronous serial bus communication. In this study, we developed a network system with 48 sensor platform LSIs based on Printed Circuit Board (PCB in a backbone bus topology with the bus length being 2.4 m. We evaluated the serial communication performance when 48 LSIs operated simultaneously with the adaptation function. The number of data packets received from each LSI was almost identical, and the average sampling frequency of 384 capacitance channels (eight for each LSI was 73.66 Hz.

  19. Material insights of HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor resistive random access memory devices processed by batch atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Kim, Hee-Dong; Roelofs, Robin; Perez, Eduardo; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Zaumseil, Peter; Costina, Ioan; Wenger, Christian

    2016-06-17

    With the continuous scaling of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices, in-depth understanding of the physical mechanism and the material issues, particularly by directly studying integrated cells, become more and more important to further improve the device performances. In this work, HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor (1T1R) RRAM devices were processed in a standard 0.25 μm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process line, using a batch atomic layer deposition (ALD) tool, which is particularly designed for mass production. We demonstrate a systematic study on TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN/Si RRAM devices to correlate key material factors (nano-crystallites and carbon impurities) with the filament type resistive switching (RS) behaviours. The augmentation of the nano-crystallites density in the film increases the forming voltage of devices and its variation. Carbon residues in HfO2 films turn out to be an even more significant factor strongly impacting the RS behaviour. A relatively higher deposition temperature of 300 °C dramatically reduces the residual carbon concentration, thus leading to enhanced RS performances of devices, including lower power consumption, better endurance and higher reliability. Such thorough understanding on physical mechanism of RS and the correlation between material and device performances will facilitate the realization of high density and reliable embedded RRAM devices with low power consumption.

  20. Integration of an optical CMOS sensor with a microfluidic channel allows a sensitive readout for biological assays in point-of-care tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorst, Bieke; Brivio, Monica; Van Der Sar, Elfried; Blom, Marko; Reuvekamp, Simon; Tanzi, Simone; Groenhuis, Roelf; Adojutelegan, Adewole; Lous, Erik-Jan; Frederix, Filip; Stuyver, Lieven J

    2016-04-15

    In this manuscript, a microfluidic detection module, which allows a sensitive readout of biological assays in point-of-care (POC) tests, is presented. The proposed detection module consists of a microfluidic flow cell with an integrated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS)-based single photon counting optical sensor. Due to the integrated sensor-based readout, the detection module could be implemented as the core technology in stand-alone POC tests, for use in mobile or rural settings. The performance of the detection module was demonstrated in three assays: a peptide, a protein and an antibody detection assay. The antibody detection assay with readout in the detection module proved to be 7-fold more sensitive that the traditional colorimetric plate-based ELISA. The protein and peptide assay showed a lower limit of detection (LLOD) of 200 fM and 460 fM respectively. Results demonstrate that the sensitivity of the immunoassays is comparable with lab-based immunoassays and at least equal or better than current mainstream POC devices. This sensitive readout holds the potential to develop POC tests, which are able to detect low concentrations of biomarkers. This will broaden the diagnostic capabilities at the clinician's office and at patient's home, where currently only the less sensitive lateral flow and dipstick POC tests are implemented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Scientific publications from Arab world in leading journals of Integrative and Complementary Medicine: a bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Sweileh, Waleed M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bibliometric analysis is increasingly employed as a useful tool to assess the quantity and quality of research performance. The specific goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of research output originating from Arab world and published in international Integrative and Complementary Medicine (ICM) journals. Methods Original scientific publications and reviews from the 22 Arab countries that were published in 22 international peer-reviewed ICM journals during all ...

  2. Development of a construction and manufacturing techniques of complementary transistors for the radiation tolerant integrated circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorban A. N.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of vertical complementary transistors with the full dielectric isolation is developed, new technolo-gical processes of creation on their basis the radiation tolerant integrated circuits with parameters which provide low values of a leakage current along with the considerable values of a forward current and breakdown voltage at the information signals exchange frequency of about 500 kHz are developed.

  3. Failure of the integrated circuits involving complementary MOS transistors under thermal and ionizing radiation stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrabayrouse, G.; Rossel, P.; Buxo, J.; Vialaret, G.

    Some criteria for reliability and sorting of complementary MOS transistor integrated circuits are proposed, that take account for special environmental stresses near plane reactors or nuclear reactor cores. An analysis of the damaging causes for these circuits at high and low temperatures is proposed, results obtained on the evolution of these devices under irradiation and irradiation behaviors are discussed. The whole set of experiments has been carried out on CD 4007 AD(K) circuits [fr

  4. Microwave Imaging Using CMOS Integrated Circuits with Rotating 4 × 4 Antenna Array on a Breast Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A digital breast cancer detection system using 65 nm technology complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS integrated circuits with rotating 4 × 4 antenna array is presented. Gaussian monocycle pulses are generated by CMOS logic circuits and transmitted by a 4 × 4 matrix antenna array via two CMOS single-pole-eight-throw (SP8T switching matrices. Radar signals are received and converted to digital signals by CMOS equivalent time sampling circuits. By rotating the 4 × 4 antenna array, the reference signal is obtained by averaging the waveforms from various positions to extract the breast phantom target response. A signal alignment algorithm is proposed to compensate the phase shift of the signals caused by the system jitter. After extracting the scattered signal from the target, a bandpass filter is applied to reduce the noise caused by imperfect subtraction between original and the reference signals. The confocal imaging algorithm for rotating antennas is utilized to reconstruct the breast image. A 1 cm3 bacon block as a cancer phantom target in a rubber substrate as a breast fat phantom can be detected with reduced artifacts.

  5. Water soluble nano-scale transient material germanium oxide for zero toxic waste based environmentally benign nano-manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Almuslem, A. S.; Hanna, Amir; Yapici, Tahir; Wehbe, N.; Diallo, Elhadj; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    , in addition to transiency, we also show an environmentally friendly manufacturing process for a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Every year, trillions of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are manufactured

  6. Comparison of electron transmittances and tunneling currents in an anisotropic TiNx/HfO2/SiO2/p-Si(100) metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor calculated using exponential- and Airy-wavefunction approaches and a transfer matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, Fatimah A.; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Sukirno; Khairurrijal

    2010-01-01

    Analytical expressions of electron transmittance and tunneling current in an anisotropic TiN x /HfO 2 /SiO 2 /p-Si(100) metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor were derived by considering the coupling of transverse and longitudinal energies of an electron. Exponential and Airy wavefunctions were utilized to obtain the electron transmittance and the electron tunneling current. A transfer matrix method, as a numerical approach, was used as a benchmark to assess the analytical approaches. It was found that there is a similarity in the transmittances calculated among exponential- and Airy-wavefunction approaches and the TMM at low electron energies. However, for high energies, only the transmittance calculated by using the Airy-wavefunction approach is the same as that evaluated by the TMM. It was also found that only the tunneling currents calculated by using the Airy-wavefunction approach are the same as those obtained under the TMM for all range of oxide voltages. Therefore, a better analytical description for the tunneling phenomenon in the MOS capacitor is given by the Airy-wavefunction approach. Moreover, the tunneling current density decreases as the titanium concentration of the TiN x metal gate increases because the electron effective mass of TiN x decreases with increasing nitrogen concentration. In addition, the mass anisotropy cannot be neglected because the tunneling currents obtained under the isotropic and anisotropic masses are very different. (semiconductor devices)

  7. Add-On Complementary Medicine in Cancer Care: Evidence in Literature and Experiences of Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Rossi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the literature an increasing number of cancer patients demand for complementary therapies during their disease. Research has demonstrated that some of these therapies are effective and safe as adjunctive treatments in specific symptoms of these patients. Methods: The aims of the paper are to review the main and recent papers of international literature on the effectiveness of complementary medicine (CM therapies on side effects of anti-cancer protocols and improvement in the quality of life of oncological patients, and to describe the integration of evidence-based acupuncture, herbal medicine and homeopathy treatments in Public Cancer Network of the region of Tuscany. Results: After the review of literature and the approval of a Regional Resolution, some CM will be introduced in Cancer Departments in Tuscany to additionally treat cancer-related symptoms and side effects of conventional cancer therapy: acupuncture for nausea and post-chemotherapy and post-surgery vomiting, pain, hot flashes of iatrogenic menopause, xerostomia; homeopathy for hot flashes of iatrogenic menopause and the side effects of radiotherapy; herbal medicine for cancer-related fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, mucositis, anxiety, and depression. Conclusions: The integration of evidence-based complementary treatments allows for an effective response to the demand coming from cancer patients and combines safety and equity of access in public health systems.

  8. Add-On Complementary Medicine in Cancer Care: Evidence in Literature and Experiences of Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elio; Di Stefano, Mariella; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Monechi, Maria Valeria; Baccetti, Sonia

    2017-01-24

    Background : According to the literature an increasing number of cancer patients demand for complementary therapies during their disease. Research has demonstrated that some of these therapies are effective and safe as adjunctive treatments in specific symptoms of these patients. Methods : The aims of the paper are to review the main and recent papers of international literature on the effectiveness of complementary medicine (CM) therapies on side effects of anti-cancer protocols and improvement in the quality of life of oncological patients, and to describe the integration of evidence-based acupuncture, herbal medicine and homeopathy treatments in Public Cancer Network of the region of Tuscany. Results : After the review of literature and the approval of a Regional Resolution, some CM will be introduced in Cancer Departments in Tuscany to additionally treat cancer-related symptoms and side effects of conventional cancer therapy: acupuncture for nausea and post-chemotherapy and post-surgery vomiting, pain, hot flashes of iatrogenic menopause, xerostomia; homeopathy for hot flashes of iatrogenic menopause and the side effects of radiotherapy; herbal medicine for cancer-related fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, mucositis, anxiety, and depression. Conclusions : The integration of evidence-based complementary treatments allows for an effective response to the demand coming from cancer patients and combines safety and equity of access in public health systems.

  9. Complementary Therapies for Significant Dysfunction from Tinnitus: Treatment Review and Potential for Integrative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Q. Wolever

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is a prevalent and costly chronic condition; no universally effective treatment exists. Only 20% of patients who report tinnitus actually seek treatment, and when treated, most patients commonly receive sound-based and educational (SBE therapy. Additional treatment options are necessary, however, for nonauditory aspects of tinnitus (e.g., anxiety, depression, and significant interference with daily life and when SBE therapy is inefficacious or inappropriate. This paper provides a comprehensive review of (1 conventional tinnitus treatments and (2 promising complementary therapies that have demonstrated some benefit for severe dysfunction from tinnitus. While there has been no systematic study of the benefits of an Integrative Medicine approach for severe tinnitus, the current paper reviews emerging evidence suggesting that synergistic combinations of complementary therapies provided within a whole-person framework may augment SBE therapy and empower patients to exert control over their tinnitus symptoms without the use of medications, expensive devices, or extended programs.

  10. Self-Assembly of Chip-Size Components with Cavity Structures: High-Precision Alignment and Direct Bonding without Thermal Compression for Hetero Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsumasa Koyanagi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available New surface mounting and packaging technologies, using self-assembly with chips having cavity structures, were investigated for three-dimensional (3D and hetero integration of complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS. By the surface tension of small droplets of 0.5 wt% hydrogen fluoride (HF aqueous solution, the cavity chips, with a side length of 3 mm, were precisely aligned to hydrophilic bonding regions on the surface of plateaus formed on Si substrates. The plateaus have micro-channels to readily evaporate and fully remove the liquid from the cavities. The average alignment accuracy of the chips with a 1 mm square cavity was found to be 0.4 mm. The alignment accuracy depends, not only on the area of the bonding regions on the substrates and the length of chip periphery without the widths of channels in the plateaus, but also the area wetted by the liquid on the bonding regions. The precisely aligned chips were then directly bonded to the substrates at room temperature without thermal compression, resulting in a high shear bonding strength of more than 10 MPa.

  11. [Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Brazil: inclusion in the Brazilian Unified National Health System and integration with primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Islandia Maria Carvalho de; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to analyze the inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and its integration with primary healthcare (PHC). A qualitative study drew on institutional data, indexed articles, and case studies in selected Brazilian cities: Campinas (São Paulo State), Florianópolis (Santa Catarina State), Recife (Pernambuco State), Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. The analysis adopted the perspective of inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the healthcare network and its integration with primary healthcare, based on the following dimensions: presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine on the municipal agenda; position in the services; mode of access to Traditional and Complementary Medicine; Traditional and Complementary Medicine practitioners; types of practices; demand profile; and potential for expansion in the SUS. The authors identified and characterized four types of inclusion and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, whether in association or not: Type 1 - in primary healthcare via professionals from the family health teams - Integrated; Type 2 - in primary healthcare via professionals with full-time employment - Juxtaposed; Type 3 - in primary healthcare via matrix-organized teams - Matrix Organization; Type 4 - in specialized services - Without Integration. The combination of types 1 and 3 was considered a potential guideline for the expansion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS and can orient the growth and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine with primary healthcare. The growing presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS requires conceiving its strategic expansion, while existing experiences should not be wasted.

  12. Integrating family medicine and complementary medicine in cancer care: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Israely, Pesi; Baruch, Erez; Dagash, Jamal

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the case study of a 27 year-old Arab female patient receiving palliative care for advanced breast cancer who was referred to complementary medicine (CM) consultation provided within a conventional oncology department. We explore the impact of the integrative CM practitioners' team of three family physicians and one Chinese medicine practitioner on the patient's well-being and specifically on the alleviation of her debilitating hot flashes and insomnia. This quality of life improvement is also affirmed by comparing the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and Measure Yourself Concerns and Well-being (MYCAW) questionnaires administered at the initial and follow-up assessment sessions. In conclusion, we suggest that family physicians trained in evidence-based complementary medicine are optimal integrators of holistic patient-centered supportive care. The inclusion of trained CM practitioners in a multi-disciplinary integrative team may enhance the bio-psycho-social-spiritual perspective, and provide additional practical therapies that improve the quality of life of patients confronting cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lithography for enabling advances in integrated circuits and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, C Michael

    2012-08-28

    Because the transistor was fabricated in volume, lithography has enabled the increase in density of devices and integrated circuits. With the invention of the integrated circuit, lithography enabled the integration of higher densities of field-effect transistors through evolutionary applications of optical lithography. In 1994, the semiconductor industry determined that continuing the increase in density transistors was increasingly difficult and required coordinated development of lithography and process capabilities. It established the US National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors and this was expanded in 1999 to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors to align multiple industries to provide the complex capabilities to continue increasing the density of integrated circuits to nanometre scales. Since the 1960s, lithography has become increasingly complex with the evolution from contact printers, to steppers, pattern reduction technology at i-line, 248 nm and 193 nm wavelengths, which required dramatic improvements of mask-making technology, photolithography printing and alignment capabilities and photoresist capabilities. At the same time, pattern transfer has evolved from wet etching of features, to plasma etch and more complex etching capabilities to fabricate features that are currently 32 nm in high-volume production. To continue increasing the density of devices and interconnects, new pattern transfer technologies will be needed with options for the future including extreme ultraviolet lithography, imprint technology and directed self-assembly. While complementary metal oxide semiconductors will continue to be extended for many years, these advanced pattern transfer technologies may enable development of novel memory and logic technologies based on different physical phenomena in the future to enhance and extend information processing.

  14. QUANTITATIVE СHARACTERISTICS OF COMPLEMENTARY INTEGRATED HEALTH CARE SYSTEM AND INTEGRATED MEDICATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Babintseva

    2015-05-01

    i mportant elements of state regulation of the pharmaceutical sector health. For the first time creation of two information systems: integrated medication management infor mation system and integrated health care system in an integrated medical infor mation area, operating based on th e principle of complementarity was justified. Global and technological coefficients of these systems’ functioning were introduced.

  15. Integrated porous-silicon light-emitting diodes: A fabrication process using graded doping profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillaro, G.; Diligenti, A.; Pieri, F.; Fuso, F.; Allegrini, M.

    2001-01-01

    A fabrication process, compatible with an industrial bipolar+complementary metal - oxide - semiconductor (MOS)+diffusion MOS technology, has been developed for the fabrication of efficient porous-silicon-based light-emitting diodes. The electrical contact is fabricated with a double n + /p doping, achieving a high current injection efficiency and thus lower biasing voltages. The anodization is performed as the last step of the process, thus reducing potential incompatibilities with industrial processes. The fabricated devices show yellow-orange electroluminescence, visible with the naked eye in room lighting. A spectral characterization of light emission is presented and briefly discussed. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  16. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into cancer care: Canadian oncology nurses′ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L Truant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and conventional cancer care in Canada is in its nascent stages. While most patients use CAM during their cancer experience, the majority does not receive adequate support from their oncology health care professionals (HCPs to integrate CAM safely and effectively into their treatment and care. A variety of factors influence this lack of integration in Canada, such as health care professional(HCP education and attitudes about CAM; variable licensure, credentialing of CAM practitioners, and reimbursement issues across the country; an emerging CAM evidence base; and models of cancer care that privilege diseased-focused care at the expense of whole person care. Oncology nurses are optimally aligned to be leaders in the integration of CAM into cancer care in Canada. Beyond the respect afforded to oncology nurses by patients and family members that support them in broaching the topic of CAM, policies, and position statements exist that allow oncology nurses to include CAM as part of their scope. Oncology nurses have also taken on leadership roles in clinical innovation, research, education, and advocacy that are integral to the safe and informed integration of evidence-based CAM therapies into cancer care settings in Canada.

  17. High-Throughput Multiple Dies-to-Wafer Bonding Technology and III/V-on-Si Hybrid Lasers for Heterogeneous Integration of Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianshu eLuo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated optical light source on silicon is one of the key building blocks for optical interconnect technology. Great research efforts have been devoting worldwide to explore various approaches to integrate optical light source onto the silicon substrate. The achievements so far include the successful demonstration of III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers through III/V-gain material to silicon wafer bonding technology. However, for potential large-scale integration, leveraging on mature silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS fabrication technology and infrastructure, more effective bonding scheme with high bonding yield is in great demand considering manufacturing needs. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a high-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer (D2W bonding technology which is then applied for the demonstration of hybrid silicon lasers. By temporarily bonding III/V dies to a handle silicon wafer for simultaneous batch processing, it is expected to bond unlimited III/V dies to silicon device wafer with high yield. As proof-of-concept, more than 100 III/V dies bonding to 200 mm silicon wafer is demonstrated. The high performance of the bonding interface is examined with various characterization techniques. Repeatable demonstrations of 16-III/V-die bonding to pre-patterned 200 mm silicon wafers have been performed for various hybrid silicon lasers, in which device library including Fabry-Perot (FP laser, lateral-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB laser with side wall grating, and mode-locked laser (MLL. From these results, the presented multiple D2W bonding technology can be a key enabler towards the large-scale heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits (H-OEIC.

  18. Role of Active Versus Passive Complementary and Integrative Health Approaches in Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, David; Lin, Erica

    2018-01-01

    A general conclusion about the treatment of chronic, noncancer pain is that the results from traditional, passive modalities are disheartening. Perhaps this may be due to the propensity of patients to seek out passive versus active treatments. In pain management, active treatments should be the primary focus, with passive interventions as an adjunct. The current study tested the hypotheses that Veterans would report a greater significant increase in active versus transitional and active versus passive complementary and integrative health (CIH) utilization after completing a formal pain education program. The current study is a secondary analysis of existing data from an original study. The current study used a quasi-experimental, 1-group, pre-/posttest design. One hundred three Veterans completed a 12-week, "Pain Education School" program at a Midwestern VA Medical Center between November 4, 2011, and October 26, 2012. As part of the introduction and conclusion of the program, all Veterans completed a pre- and posteducation assessment which included an adaptation of the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire©, SECTION A: Use of Alternative Health Care Providers measure. Significant differences were found between the pre- and posttest measures of use of active ( P  = .000) ( p pain education program also seems to be aligned with the goal of pain self-management, which is to utilize more active interventions as a primary therapy.

  19. Integrative therapies for low back pain that include complementary and alternative medicine care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Rose, Kevin; Kadar, Gena E

    2014-09-01

    Systematic review of the literature. To evaluate whether an integrated approach that includes different Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies combined or CAM therapies combined with conventional medical care is more effective for the management of low back pain (LBP) than single modalities alone. LBP is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, yet its optimal management is still unresolved. The PRISMA Statement guidelines were followed. The Cochrane Back Review Group scale was used to rate the quality of the studies found. Twenty-one studies were found that met the inclusion criteria. The CAM modalities used in the studies included spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, exercise therapy, physiotherapy, massage therapy, and a topical ointment. Twenty studies included acupuncture and/or spinal manipulative therapy. Nine high quality studies showed that integrative care was clinically effective for the management of LBP. Spinal manipulative therapy combined with exercise therapy and acupuncture combined with conventional medical care or with exercise therapy appears to be promising approaches to the management of chronic cases of LBP. There is support in the literature for integrated CAM and conventional medical therapy for the management of chronic LBP. Further research into the integrated management of LBP is clearly needed to provide better guidance for patients and clinicians.

  20. Progress in complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor silicon photonics and optoelectronic integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongda; Zhang Zan; Huang Beiju; Mao Luhong; Zhang Zanyun

    2015-01-01

    Silicon photonics is an emerging competitive solution for next-generation scalable data communications in different application areas as high-speed data communication is constrained by electrical interconnects. Optical interconnects based on silicon photonics can be used in intra/inter-chip interconnects, board-to-board interconnects, short-reach communications in datacenters, supercomputers and long-haul optical transmissions. In this paper, we present an overview of recent progress in silicon optoelectronic devices and optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) based on a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor-compatible process, and focus on our research contributions. The silicon optoelectronic devices and OEICs show good characteristics, which are expected to benefit several application domains, including communication, sensing, computing and nonlinear systems. (review)

  1. Integration of SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films for high density ferroelectric random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, D. J.; Maes, D.; Goux, L.; Lisoni, J. G.; Paraschiv, V.; Johnson, J. A.; Schwitters, M.; Everaert, J.-L.; Boullart, W.; Schaekers, M.; Willegems, M.; Vander Meeren, H.; Haspeslagh, L.; Artoni, C.; Caputa, C.; Casella, P.; Corallo, G.; Russo, G.; Zambrano, R.; Monchoix, H.; Vecchio, G.; Van Autryve, L.

    2006-09-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) is an attractive candidate technology for embedded nonvolatile memory, especially in applications where low power and high program speed are important. Market introduction of high-density FeRAM is, however, lagging behind standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) because of the difficult integration technology. This paper discusses the major integration issues for high-density FeRAM, based on SrBi2Ta2O9 (strontium bismuth tantalate or SBT), in relation to the fabrication of our stacked cell structure. We have worked in the previous years on the development of SBT-FeRAM integration technology, based on a so-called pseudo-three-dimensional (3D) cell, with a capacitor that can be scaled from quasi two-dimensional towards a true three-dimensional capacitor where the sidewalls will importantly contribute to the signal. In the first phase of our integration development, we integrated our FeRAM cell in a 0.35μm CMOS technology. In a second phase, then, possibility of scaling of our cell is demonstrated in 0.18μm technology. The excellent electrical and reliability properties of the small integrated ferroelectric capacitors prove the feasibility of the technology, while the verification of the potential 3D effect confirms the basic scaling potential of our concept beyond that of the single-mask capacitor. The paper outlines the different material and technological challenges, and working solutions are demonstrated. While some issues are specific to our own cell, many are applicable to different stacked FeRAM cell concepts, or will become more general concerns when more developments are moving into 3D structures.

  2. Training and operation of an integrated neuromorphic network based on metal-oxide memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, M.; Merrikh-Bayat, F.; Hoskins, B. D.; Adam, G. C.; Likharev, K. K.; Strukov, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    Despite much progress in semiconductor integrated circuit technology, the extreme complexity of the human cerebral cortex, with its approximately 1014 synapses, makes the hardware implementation of neuromorphic networks with a comparable number of devices exceptionally challenging. To provide comparable complexity while operating much faster and with manageable power dissipation, networks based on circuits combining complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOSs) and adjustable two-terminal resistive devices (memristors) have been developed. In such circuits, the usual CMOS stack is augmented with one or several crossbar layers, with memristors at each crosspoint. There have recently been notable improvements in the fabrication of such memristive crossbars and their integration with CMOS circuits, including first demonstrations of their vertical integration. Separately, discrete memristors have been used as artificial synapses in neuromorphic networks. Very recently, such experiments have been extended to crossbar arrays of phase-change memristive devices. The adjustment of such devices, however, requires an additional transistor at each crosspoint, and hence these devices are much harder to scale than metal-oxide memristors, whose nonlinear current-voltage curves enable transistor-free operation. Here we report the experimental implementation of transistor-free metal-oxide memristor crossbars, with device variability sufficiently low to allow operation of integrated neural networks, in a simple network: a single-layer perceptron (an algorithm for linear classification). The network can be taught in situ using a coarse-grain variety of the delta rule algorithm to perform the perfect classification of 3 × 3-pixel black/white images into three classes (representing letters). This demonstration is an important step towards much larger and more complex memristive neuromorphic networks.

  3. Radiation effects in metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of various radiations on commercially made Al-SiO 2 -Si Capacitors (MOSCs) have been investigated. Intrinsic dielectric breakdown in MOSCs has been shown to be a two-stage process dominated by charge injection in a pre-breakdown stage; this is associated with localised high-field injection of carriers from the semiconductor substrate to interfacial and bulk charge traps which, it is proposed, leads to the formation of conducting channels through the dielectric with breakdown occurring as a result of the dissipation of the conduction band energy. A study of radiation-induced dielectric breakdown has revealed the possibility of anomalous hot-electron injection to an excess of bulk oxide traps in the ionization channel produced by very heavily ionizing radiation, which leads to intrinsic breakdown in high-field stressed devices. This is interpreted in terms of a modified model for radiation-induced dielectric breakdown based upon the primary dependence of breakdown on charge injection rather than high-field mechanisms. A detailed investigation of charge trapping and interface state generation due to various radiations has revealed evidence of neutron induced interface states, and the generation of positive oxide charge in devices due to all the radiations tested. The greater the linear energy transfer of the radiation, the greater the magnitude of charge trapped in the oxide and the number of interface states generated. This is interpreted in terms of Si-H and Si-OH bond-breaking at the Si-SiO 2 interface which is enhanced by charge carrier transfer to the interface and by anomalous charge injection to compensate for the excess of charge carriers created by the radiation. (author)

  4. Integrating complementary/alternative medicine into primary care: evaluating the evidence and appropriate implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainapel SF

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stanley F Wainapel,1 Stephanie Rand,1 Loren M Fishman,2 Jennifer Halstead-Kenny1 1The Arthur S Abramson Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, 2Department of Rehabilitation and Regenerative Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The frequency with which patients utilize treatments encompassed by the term complementary/alternative medicine (CAM is well documented. A number of these therapies are beginning to be integrated into contemporary medical practice. This article examines three of them: osteopathic manipulation, yoga, and acupuncture, with a focus on their physiological effects, efficacy in treating medical conditions commonly encountered by practitioners, precautions or contraindications, and ways in which they can be incorporated into clinical practice. Physicians should routinely obtain information about use of CAM as part of their patient history and should consider their role based on physiological effects and clinical research results. Keywords: integrative medicine, osteopathic manipulation, yoga, acupuncture therapy

  5. The Situation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine / Integrative Medicine in Finland: Genuine Research Is Needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter Josef; Aarva, Pauliina; Sorsa, Minna

    The official acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) or integrative medicine in the academic discussion and in health policies in Finland is still poor. This is in contradiction to the fact that modern Finnish citizens use CAM as much as any people elsewhere in the European Union, with rates of 28-46% of the general population, or even more. This was one of the reasons for the foundation of the Finnish Forum for Research in Integrative Medicine and Healthcare (SILF) in November 2014. A first challenge for the SILF was to facilitate a research seminar to address the issue of CAM research as a part of the Finnish academic research. The seminar was organized by the Department of Health Sciences of the University of Tampere on November 13, 2015. Almost one third of the more than 400 participants were health professionals, and again one-third out of this group were physicians. As a result of the seminar, a research network was inaugurated. Obviously there is an increasing interest of health professionals in CAM and maybe even a change of attitude towards CAM also in Finland. However, genuine Finnish CAM research is essential in order to open up the academic discussion. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Complementary responses to mean and variance modulations in the perfect integrate-and-fire model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Joanna; Troyer, Todd W

    2009-07-01

    In the perfect integrate-and-fire model (PIF), the membrane voltage is proportional to the integral of the input current since the time of the previous spike. It has been shown that the firing rate within a noise free ensemble of PIF neurons responds instantaneously to dynamic changes in the input current, whereas in the presence of white noise, model neurons preferentially pass low frequency modulations of the mean current. Here, we prove that when the input variance is perturbed while holding the mean current constant, the PIF responds preferentially to high frequency modulations. Moreover, the linear filters for mean and variance modulations are complementary, adding exactly to one. Since changes in the rate of Poisson distributed inputs lead to proportional changes in the mean and variance, these results imply that an ensemble of PIF neurons transmits a perfect replica of the time-varying input rate for Poisson distributed input. A more general argument shows that this property holds for any signal leading to proportional changes in the mean and variance of the input current.

  7. Determining the attitudes and use of complementary, alternative, and integrative medicine among undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Michael A; Huynh, Ngoc-Tram; Broukhim, Michael; Cheung, Douglas H; Schuster, Tonya L; Najm, Wadie

    2014-09-01

    To (1) determine the attitudes, perceptions, and use of complementary, alternative, and integrative medicine among undergraduate students; (2) assess whether these students would benefit from more academic exposure to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and promotion of integrative medicine (IM); and (3) gauge the need and desire of undergraduates, particularly pre-health learners, to take courses about CAM/IM. This cross-sectional electronic survey study was conducted on the campus of the University of California (UC) Irvine. Selection criteria included being at least 18 years of age and a current undergraduate at UC Irvine. All survey responses were collected between November 20, 2010, and June 1, 2011. The data were analyzed by using Stata software, version 11-SE (Stata Corp., College Station, TX). Completed surveys were received from 2839 participants (mean age of respondents, 20.2 years). Thirty-five percent had used CAM within the past 12 months, and 92.8% believed CAM to be at least somewhat effective; however, only 31% had prior education on CAM. After adjustment for variables, familiarity and belief in effectiveness were both highly linked to the use of CAM, with ascending odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of 3.9 (3.1-4.9), 8.1 (5.7-11.5), 13.4 (6.0-30.2), 2.1 (1.3-3.4), 4.9 (3.0-7.8), and 12.7 (6.9-23.4) among increasing categories (all p<0.01). Sex (OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.01-1.56]; p<0.05), Asian ethnicity (1.46 [1.14-1.88]; p<0.01), and prior education (1.26 [1.01-1.57]; p<0.05) were also significantly correlated to the use of CAM after adjustment. Most respondents indicated that they were likely to take a CAM college course if it fulfilled a graduation requirement (63.6%) or was offered within their major (56.4%). Overall, this large-scale study supports the ideas that education plays a pivotal factor in the decision to use CAM and that there is a large demand for additional CAM knowledge among college students.

  8. The Capabilities of Nurses for Complementary and Traditional Medicine Integration in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Abass, Kabila; Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel; Accam, Burnett Tetteh; Nyamadi, Victoria Mensah

    2018-03-01

    Despite the political commitment of national governments and collaborative efforts by the World Health Organization (WHO) toward the actualization of intercultural healthcare system over the past decades, sub-Saharan African countries feature medical cohabitation rather than a truly integrated medical system. This hospital-based cross-sectional study analyzed the capabilities of nurses for complementary and traditional medicine (CTM) integration in Africa. Practicing nurses (n = 210) were recruited to respond to the CTM Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ) in December 2016. Normality of data was evaluated using Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic with a Lilliefors significance correction. The authors assessed the relationship among nurses' knowledge, personal use, and clinical practice of CTM, using Spearman's Rank Order Correlation (rho). The differences and associations in continuous and categorical baseline variables were determined with Mann-Whitney U test/Kruskal-Wallis H test and Pearson's Chi-square test, respectively, at p nurses' knowledge of CTM therapies was 38 (interquartile range [IQR] 16). This low CTM-related knowledge reflected in the poor mean performance score of 30 (IQR 17) and 22 (IQR 6) for personal use and clinical practice of CTM, respectively, among nurses. Nurses, therefore, lacked the confidence to recommend CTM therapies to patients. Yet, nurses exhibited a high positive attitude to CTM (72.7 ± 12.5). In addition to significant associations among CTM-related knowledge, education (p = 0.023), and religion (p nurses' knowledge of CTM through evidence-based nursing education and training remains the surest way to achieve appropriate CTM integration in Africa as outlined in the WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014-2023.

  9. First, keep it safe: Integration of a complementary medicine service within a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Elad; Levy, Ilana; Arnon, Zahi; Ben-Arye, Eran; Attias, Samuel

    2018-05-01

    This paper sought to explore risk/safety considerations associated with the integration of a complementary medicine (CM) service within a public academic medical centre in Israel. We reviewed various sources pertaining to the CM service (interviews with CM staff, patients' electronic charts, service guidelines, correspondence with hospital administration) and conducted a thematic analysis to evaluate safety-related incidents during the 7 years of operation. In addition, we systematically assessed the charts for reports of treatment-associated adverse effects, which were documented in an obligatory field on treatment reports. After reviewing transcripts of interviews with 12 CM practitioners and with the director and vice-director of the CM service as well as transcripts of 8560 consultations that included 7383 treatments, we categorised 3 major domains of CM safety management: (i) prevention of safety-related incidents by appropriate selection of CM practitioners and modalities, (ii) actual adverse incidents and (iii) prevention of their recurrence using both hospital and CM service safety protocols. CM staff reported 5 categories of adverse incidents, most of which were minor. Twenty-nine adverse incidents were documented in the 7383 treatment sessions (0.4%). Safety management needs to be addressed both before introducing CM services in hospitals and throughout their integration. Important considerations for the safe integration of CM practices in the hospital include communication between CM and conventional practitioners, adherence to hospital safety rules, implementing a systematic approach for detecting and reporting safety-related incidents and continuous adaptation of the CM service safety protocols. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into mainstream healthcare services: the perspectives of health service managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Judy; Adams, Jon

    2014-05-22

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly included within mainstream integrative healthcare (IHC) services. Health service managers are key stakeholders central to ensuring effective integrative health care services. Yet, little research has specifically investigated the role or perspective of health service managers with regards to integrative health care services under their management. In response, this paper reports findings from an exploratory study focusing exclusively on the perspectives of health service managers of integrative health care services in Australia regarding the role of CAM within their service and the health service managers rational for incorporating CAM into clinical care. Health service managers from seven services were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the health service managers. The services addressed trauma and chronic conditions and comprised: five community-based programs including drug and alcohol rehabilitation, refugee mental health and women's health; and two hospital-based specialist services. The CAM practices included in the services investigated included acupuncture, naturopathy, Western herbal medicine and massage. Findings reveal that the health service managers in this study understand CAM to enhance the holistic capacity of their service by: filling therapeutic gaps in existing healthcare practices; by treating the whole person; and by increasing healthcare choices. Health service managers also identified CAM as addressing therapeutic gaps through the provision of a mind-body approach in psychological trauma and in chronic disease management treatment. Health service managers describe the addition of CAM in their service as enabling patients who would otherwise not be able to afford CAM to gain access to these treatments thereby increasing healthcare choices. Some health service managers expressly align the notion of treating the whole person

  11. Assessing local market and organizational readiness for the integration of complementary and alternative medicine into ambulatory care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Suzana K E

    2004-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is one of the fastest growing segments of the health care industry today, with studies suggesting that between 30% and 50% of the adult population in the United States uses some form of CAM. Many ambulatory care centers are considering integrating CAM into their clinical services. This article will review some of the national trends and present a framework for assessing local market demand for CAM in order to help prioritize an organization's CAM integration strategy.

  12. Effective communication about the use of complementary and integrative medicine in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Moshe; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) is becoming an increasingly popular and visible component of oncology care. Many patients affected by cancer and their family members are looking for informed advice and desire communication with their physicians about CIM use. Patients affected by cancer come to discuss CIM use with intense emotions and are experiencing an existential crisis that cannot be ignored. Effective communication is crucial in establishing trust with these patients and their families. Communication is now recognized as a core clinical skill in medicine, including cancer care, and is important to the delivery of high-quality care. The quality of communication affects patient satisfaction, decision-making, patient distress and well-being, compliance, and even malpractice litigation. The communication process about CIM use requires a very sensitive approach that depends on effective communication skills, such as experience in listening, encouraging hope, and ability to convey empathy and compassion. This process can be divided into two parts: the "how" and the "what". The "how" relates to the change in clinician attitude, the process of gathering information, addressing patients' unmet needs and emotions, and dealing with uncertainty. The "what" relates to the process of information exchange while assisting patients in decisions about CIM use by using reliable information sources, leading to informed decision-making.

  13. Building a Strategic Framework for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Witt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of chronic diseases presents not only challenges to the knowledge and expertise of the professional medical community, but also highlights the need to improve the quality and relevance of clinical research in this domain. Many patients now turn to complementary and integrative medicine (CIM to treat their chronic illnesses; however, there is very little evidence to guide their decision-making in usual care. The following research recommendations were derived from a CIM Stakeholder Symposium on Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER: (1 CER studies should be made a priority in this field; (2 stakeholders should be engaged at every stage of the research; (3 CER study designs should highlight effectiveness over efficacy; (4 research questions should be well defined to enable the selection of an appropriate CER study design; (5 the CIM community should cultivate widely shared understandings, discourse, tools, and technologies to support the use and validity of CER methods; (6 Effectiveness Guidance Documents on methodological standards should be developed to shape future CER studies. CER is an emerging field and its development and impact must be reflected in future research strategies within CIM. This stakeholder symposium was a first step in providing systematic guidance for future CER in this field.

  14. Complementary and alternative medicines in irritable bowel syndrome: An integrative view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Oliver; Yoon, Saunjoo L

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with a high incidence in the general population. The diagnosis of IBS is mainly based on exclusion of other intestinal conditions through the absence of inflammatory markers and specific antigens. The current pharmacological treatment approaches available focus on reducing symptom severity while often limiting quality of life because of significant side effects. This has led to an effectiveness gap for IBS patients that seek further relief to increase their quality of life. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have been associated with a higher degree of symptom management and quality of life in IBS patients. Over the past decade, a number of important clinical trials have shown that specific herbal therapies (peppermint oil and Iberogast®), hypnotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, acupuncture, and yoga present with improved treatment outcomes in IBS patients. We propose an integrative approach to treating the diverse symptoms of IBS by combining the benefits of and need for pharmacotherapy with known CAM therapies to provide IBS patients with the best treatment outcome achievable. Initial steps in this direction are already being considered with an increasing number of practitioners recommending CAM therapies to their patients if pharmacotherapy alone does not alleviate symptoms sufficiently. PMID:24574705

  15. Integration of complementary and alternative medicine information and advice in chronic disease management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Team, Victoria; Canaway, Rachel; Manderson, Lenore

    2011-01-01

    The growing evidence on the benefits and risks of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and its high rate of use (69% of Australians) - particularly for chronic or recurrent conditions - means increasing attention on CAM. However, few people disclose CAM use to their GP, and health professionals tend to inadequately discuss CAM-related issues with their patients, partly due to insufficient knowledge. As clinical and non-clinical chronic condition management guidelines are a means to educate primary health care practitioners, we undertook a content analysis of guidelines relevant to two common chronic conditions - cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) - to assess their provision of CAM-related information. Ten current Australian guidelines were reviewed, revealing scant CAM content. When available, the CAM-relevant information was brief, in some cases unclear, inconclusive and lacking in direction to the GP or health care provider. Although we focus on CVD and T2DM, we argue the value of all chronic condition management guidelines integrating relevant evidence-informed information and advice on CAM risks, benefits and referrals, to increase GP awareness and knowledge of appropriate CAM therapies, and potentially to facilitate doctor-client discussion about CAM.

  16. Micromachined piezoresistive inclinometer with oscillator-based integrated interface circuit and temperature readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalola, Simone; Ferrari, Vittorio; Marioli, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a dual-chip system for inclination measurement is presented. It consists of a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) piezoresistive accelerometer manufactured in silicon bulk micromachining and a CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) interface designed for resistive-bridge sensors. The sensor is composed of a seismic mass symmetrically suspended by means of four flexure beams that integrate two piezoresistors each to detect the applied static acceleration, which is related to inclination with respect to the gravity vector. The ASIC interface is based on a relaxation oscillator where the frequency and the duty cycle of a rectangular-wave output signal are related to the fractional bridge imbalance and the overall bridge resistance of the sensor, respectively. The latter is a function of temperature; therefore the sensing element itself can be advantageously used to derive information for its own thermal compensation. DC current excitation of the sensor makes the configuration unaffected by wire resistances and parasitic capacitances. Therefore, a modular system results where the sensor can be placed remotely from the electronics without suffering accuracy degradation. The inclination measurement system has been characterized as a function of the applied inclination angle at different temperatures. At room temperature, the experimental sensitivity of the system results in about 148 Hz/g, which corresponds to an angular sensitivity around zero inclination angle of about 2.58 Hz deg −1 . This is in agreement with finite element method simulations. The measured output fluctuations at constant temperature determine an equivalent resolution of about 0.1° at midrange. In the temperature range of 25–65 °C the system sensitivity decreases by about 10%, which is less than the variation due to the microsensor alone thanks to thermal compensation provided by the current excitation of the bridge and the

  17. Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic-photonic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jifeng; Kimerling, Lionel C.; Michel, Jurgen

    2012-09-01

    A silicon-based monolithic laser source has long been envisioned as a key enabling component for large-scale electronic-photonic integration in future generations of high-performance computation and communication systems. In this paper we present a comprehensive review on the development of monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for this application. Starting with a historical review of light emission from the direct gap transition of Ge dating back to the 1960s, we focus on the rapid progress in band-engineered Ge-on-Si lasers in the past five years after a nearly 30-year gap in this research field. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active devices in Si photonics in the past decade due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. In 2007, we proposed combing tensile strain with n-type doping to compensate the energy difference between the direct and indirect band gap of Ge, thereby achieving net optical gain for CMOS-compatible diode lasers. Here we systematically present theoretical modeling, material growth methods, spontaneous emission, optical gain, and lasing under optical and electrical pumping from band-engineered Ge-on-Si, culminated by recently demonstrated electrically pumped Ge-on-Si lasers with >1 mW output in the communication wavelength window of 1500-1700 nm. The broad gain spectrum enables on-chip wavelength division multiplexing. A unique feature of band-engineered pseudo-direct gap Ge light emitters is that the emission intensity increases with temperature, exactly opposite to conventional direct gap semiconductor light-emitting devices. This extraordinary thermal anti-quenching behavior greatly facilitates monolithic integration on Si microchips where temperatures can reach up to 80 °C during operation. The same band-engineering approach can be extended to other pseudo-direct gap semiconductors, allowing us to achieve efficient light emission at wavelengths previously

  18. Highly Integrated MEMS-ASIC Sensing System for Intracorporeal Physiological Condition Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ning; Wang, Chao; Liu, Cunxiu; Sun, Jianhai

    2018-01-02

    In this paper, a highly monolithic-integrated multi-modality sensor is proposed for intracorporeal monitoring. The single-chip sensor consists of a solid-state based temperature sensor, a capacitive based pressure sensor, and an electrochemical oxygen sensor with their respective interface application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The solid-state-based temperature sensor and the interface ASICs were first designed and fabricated based on a 0.18-μm 1.8-V CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) process. The oxygen sensor and pressure sensor were fabricated by the standard CMOS process and subsequent CMOS-compatible MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) post-processing. The multi-sensor single chip was completely sealed by the nafion, parylene, and PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) layers for biocompatibility study. The size of the compact sensor chip is only 3.65 mm × 1.65 mm × 0.72 mm. The functionality, stability, and sensitivity of the multi-functional sensor was tested ex vivo. Cytotoxicity assessment was performed to verify that the bio-compatibility of the device is conforming to the ISO 10993-5:2009 standards. The measured sensitivities of the sensors for the temperature, pressure, and oxygen concentration are 10.2 mV/°C, 5.58 mV/kPa, and 20 mV·L/mg, respectively. The measurement results show that the proposed multi-sensor single chip is suitable to sense the temperature, pressure, and oxygen concentration of human tissues for intracorporeal physiological condition monitoring.

  19. Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic–photonic integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jifeng; Kimerling, Lionel C; Michel, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    A silicon-based monolithic laser source has long been envisioned as a key enabling component for large-scale electronic–photonic integration in future generations of high-performance computation and communication systems. In this paper we present a comprehensive review on the development of monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for this application. Starting with a historical review of light emission from the direct gap transition of Ge dating back to the 1960s, we focus on the rapid progress in band-engineered Ge-on-Si lasers in the past five years after a nearly 30-year gap in this research field. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active devices in Si photonics in the past decade due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. In 2007, we proposed combing tensile strain with n-type doping to compensate the energy difference between the direct and indirect band gap of Ge, thereby achieving net optical gain for CMOS-compatible diode lasers. Here we systematically present theoretical modeling, material growth methods, spontaneous emission, optical gain, and lasing under optical and electrical pumping from band-engineered Ge-on-Si, culminated by recently demonstrated electrically pumped Ge-on-Si lasers with >1 mW output in the communication wavelength window of 1500–1700 nm. The broad gain spectrum enables on-chip wavelength division multiplexing. A unique feature of band-engineered pseudo-direct gap Ge light emitters is that the emission intensity increases with temperature, exactly opposite to conventional direct gap semiconductor light-emitting devices. This extraordinary thermal anti-quenching behavior greatly facilitates monolithic integration on Si microchips where temperatures can reach up to 80 °C during operation. The same band-engineering approach can be extended to other pseudo-direct gap semiconductors, allowing us to achieve efficient light emission at wavelengths previously

  20. Integrated optical MEMS using through-wafer vias and bump-bonding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Frederick Bossert; Frederick, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    This LDRD began as a three year program to integrate through-wafer vias, micro-mirrors and control electronics with high-voltage capability to yield a 64 by 64 array of individually controllable micro-mirrors on 125 or 250 micron pitch with piston, tip and tilt movement. The effort was a mix of R&D and application. Care was taken to create SUMMiT{trademark} (Sandia's ultraplanar, multilevel MEMS technology) compatible via and mirror processes, and the ultimate goal was to mate this MEMS fabrication product to a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics substrate. Significant progress was made on the via and mirror fabrication and design, the attach process development as well as the electronics high voltage (30 volt) and control designs. After approximately 22 months, the program was ready to proceed with fabrication and integration of the electronics, final mirror array, and through wafer vias to create a high resolution OMEMS array with individual mirror electronic control. At this point, however, mission alignment and budget constraints reduced the last year program funding and redirected the program to help support the through-silicon via work in the Hyper-Temporal Sensors (HTS) Grand Challenge (GC) LDRD. Several months of investigation and discussion with the HTS team resulted in a revised plan for the remaining 10 months of the program. We planned to build a capability in finer-pitched via fabrication on thinned substrates along with metallization schemes and bonding techniques for very large arrays of high density interconnects (up to 2000 x 2000 vias). Through this program, Sandia was able to build capability in several different conductive through wafer via processes using internal and external resources, MEMS mirror design and fabrication, various bonding techniques for arrayed substrates, and arrayed electronics control design with high voltage capability.

  1. Reconfigurable Complementary Monolayer MoTe2 Field-Effect Transistors for Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larentis, Stefano; Fallahazad, Babak; Movva, Hema C P; Kim, Kyounghwan; Rai, Amritesh; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2017-05-23

    Transition metal dichalcogenides are of interest for next generation switches, but the lack of low resistance electron and hole contacts in the same material has hindered the development of complementary field-effect transistors and circuits. We demonstrate an air-stable, reconfigurable, complementary monolayer MoTe 2 field-effect transistor encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride, using electrostatically doped contacts. The introduction of a multigate design with prepatterned bottom contacts allows us to independently achieve low contact resistance and threshold voltage tuning, while also decoupling the Schottky contacts and channel gating. We illustrate a complementary inverter and a p-i-n diode as potential applications.

  2. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Intensity-Driven Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Harry T.; Fossum, Eric R.; Kemeny, Sabrina

    1996-01-01

    Proposed complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image sensor automatically provides readouts from pixels in order of decreasing illumination intensity. Sensor operated in integration mode. Particularly useful in number of image-sensing tasks, including diffractive laser range-finding, three-dimensional imaging, event-driven readout of sparse sensor arrays, and star tracking.

  3. What Patients and Providers Want to Know About Complementary and Integrative Health Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie L; Giannitrapani, Karleen F; Yuan, Anita; Marshall, Nell

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a quality improvement project to determine (1) what information providers and patients most wanted to learn about complementary and integrative health (CIH) therapies and (2) in what format they wanted to receive this information. The overall aim was to develop educational materials to facilitate the CIH therapy decision-making processes. We used mixed methods to iteratively pilot test and revise provider and patient educational materials on yoga and meditation. We conducted semistructured interviews with 11 medical providers and held seven focus groups and used feedback forms with 52 outpatients. We iteratively developed and tested three versions of both provider and patient materials. Activities were conducted at four Veterans Administration medical facilities (two large medical centers and two outpatient clinics). Patients want educational materials with clearly stated basic information about: (1) what mindfulness and yoga are, (2) what a yoga/meditation class entails and how classes can be modified to suit different abilities, (3) key benefits to health and wellness, and (4) how to find classes at the hospital/clinic. Diverse media (videos, handouts, pocket guides) appealed to different Veterans. Videos should depict patients speaking to patients and demonstrating the CIH therapy. Written materials should be one to three pages with colors, and images and messages targeting a variety of patients. Providers wanted a concise (one-page) sheet in black and white font with no images listing the scientific evidence for CIH therapies from high-impact journals, organized by either type of CIH or health condition to use during patient encounters, and including practical information about how to refer patients. Providers and patients want to learn more about CIH therapies, but want the information in succinct, targeted formats. The information learned and materials developed in this study can be used by others to educate patients and providers on CIH

  4. An Integrated Circuit for Chip-Based Analysis of Enzyme Kinetics and Metabolite Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Boon Chong; Macdonald, Alasdair Iain; Martin, Christopher; Streklas, Angelos J; Campbell, Gordon; Al-Rawhani, Mohammed A; Nemeth, Balazs; Grant, James P; Barrett, Michael P; Cumming, David R S

    2016-06-01

    We have created a novel chip-based diagnostic tools based upon quantification of metabolites using enzymes specific for their chemical conversion. Using this device we show for the first time that a solid-state circuit can be used to measure enzyme kinetics and calculate the Michaelis-Menten constant. Substrate concentration dependency of enzyme reaction rates is central to this aim. Ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFET) are excellent transducers for biosensing applications that are reliant upon enzyme assays, especially since they can be fabricated using mainstream microelectronics technology to ensure low unit cost, mass-manufacture, scaling to make many sensors and straightforward miniaturisation for use in point-of-care devices. Here, we describe an integrated ISFET array comprising 2(16) sensors. The device was fabricated with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. Unlike traditional CMOS ISFET sensors that use the Si3N4 passivation of the foundry for ion detection, the device reported here was processed with a layer of Ta2O5 that increased the detection sensitivity to 45 mV/pH unit at the sensor readout. The drift was reduced to 0.8 mV/hour with a linear pH response between pH 2-12. A high-speed instrumentation system capable of acquiring nearly 500 fps was developed to stream out the data. The device was then used to measure glucose concentration through the activity of hexokinase in the range of 0.05 mM-231 mM, encompassing glucose's physiological range in blood. Localised and temporal enzyme kinetics of hexokinase was studied in detail. These results present a roadmap towards a viable personal metabolome machine.

  5. A high-performance complementary inverter based on transition metal dichalcogenide field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ah-Jin; Park, Kee Chan; Kwon, Jang-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    For several years, graphene has been the focus of much attention due to its peculiar characteristics, and it is now considered to be a representative 2-dimensional (2D) material. Even though many research groups have studied on the graphene, its intrinsic nature of a zero band-gap, limits its use in practical applications, particularly in logic circuits. Recently, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), which are another type of 2D material, have drawn attention due to the advantage of having a sizable band-gap and a high mobility. Here, we report on the design of a complementary inverter, one of the most basic logic elements, which is based on a MoS2 n-type transistor and a WSe2 p-type transistor. The advantages provided by the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) configuration and the high-performance TMD channels allow us to fabricate a TMD complementary inverter that has a high-gain of 13.7. This work demonstrates the operation of the MoS2 n-FET and WSe2 p-FET on the same substrate, and the electrical performance of the CMOS inverter, which is based on a different driving current, is also measured.

  6. Bias and other limitations affect measures of journals in integrative and complementary medicineKa-wai Fan, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ka-wai

    2015-07-01

    Publishing articles in a prestigious journal is a golden rule for university professors and researchers nowadays. Impact factor, journal rank, and citation count, included in Science Citation Index managed by Thomson Reuters Web of Science, are the most important indicators for evaluating the quality of academic journals. By listing the journals encompassed in the "Integrative and Complementary Medicine" category of Science Citation Index from 2003 to 2013, this paper examines the publication trends of journals in the category. The examination includes number, country of origin, ranking, and languages of journals. Moreover, newly listed or removed journals in the category, journal publishers, and open access strategies are examined. It is concluded that the role of journal publisher should not be undermined in the "Integrative and Complementary Medicine" category.

  7. Scientific publications from Arab world in leading journals of Integrative and Complementary Medicine: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2015-09-04

    Bibliometric analysis is increasingly employed as a useful tool to assess the quantity and quality of research performance. The specific goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of research output originating from Arab world and published in international Integrative and Complementary Medicine (ICM) journals. Original scientific publications and reviews from the 22 Arab countries that were published in 22 international peer-reviewed ICM journals during all previous years up to December 31(st) 2013, were screened using the Web of Science databases. Five hundred and ninety-one documents were retrieved from 19 ICM journals. The h-index of the set of papers under study was 47. The highest h-index was 27 for Morocco, 21 for Jordan, followed by 19 for each Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and Egypt, and the lowest h-index was 1 for each of Comoros, Qatar, and Syrian Arab Republic. No data related to ICM were published from Djibouti, and Mauritania. After adjusting for economy and population power, Somalia (89), Morocco (32.5), Egypt (31.1), Yemen (21.4), and Palestine (21.2) had the highest research productivity. The total number of citations was 9,466, with an average citation of 16 per document. The study identified 262 (44.3 %) documents with 39 countries in Arab-foreign country collaborations. Arab authors collaborated most with countries in Europe (24.2 %), followed by countries in the Asia-Pacific region (9.8 %). Scientific research output in the ICM field in the Arab world region is increasing. Most of publications from Arab world in ICM filed were driven by societal use of medicinal plants and herbs. Search for new therapies from available low cost medicinal plants in Arab world has motivated many researchers in academia and pharmaceutical industry. Further investigation is required to support these findings in a wider journal as well as to improve research output in the field of ICM from Arab world region by investing in more national and

  8. High-performance hybrid complementary logic inverter through monolithic integration of a MEMS switch and an oxide TFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-Ha; Ahn, Sang-Joon Kenny; Kim, Min-Wu; Lee, Jeong-Oen; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Pi, Jae-Eun; Ko, Seung-Deok; Choi, Kwang-Wook; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2015-03-25

    A hybrid complementary logic inverter consisting of a microelectromechanical system switch as a promising alternative for the p-type oxide thin film transistor (TFT) and an n-type oxide TFT is presented for ultralow power integrated circuits. These heterogeneous microdevices are monolithically integrated. The resulting logic device shows a distinctive voltage transfer characteristic curve, very low static leakage, zero-short circuit current, and exceedingly high voltage gain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Measurement of reaction heats using a polysilicon-based microcalorimetric sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereshchagina, E.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a low-cost, low-power, small sample volume microcalorimetric sensor for the measurement of reaction heats. The polysilicon-based microcalorimetric sensor combines several advantages: (i) complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology (CMOS) for future integration; (ii)

  10. CMOS/SOS processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramondetta, P.

    1980-01-01

    Report describes processes used in making complementary - metal - oxide - semiconductor/silicon-on-sapphire (CMOS/SOS) integrated circuits. Report lists processing steps ranging from initial preparation of sapphire wafers to final mapping of "good" and "bad" circuits on a wafer.

  11. Avalanche-mode silicon LEDs for monolithic optical coupling in CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, Satadal

    2017-01-01

    Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) technology is the most commercially successful platform in modern electronic and control systems. So called "smart power" technologies such as Bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD), combine the computational power of CMOS with high voltage

  12. Interface control scheme for computer high-speed interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Control scheme is general and performs for multiplexed and dedicated channels as well as for data-bus interfaces. Control comprises two 64-pin, dual in-line packages, each of which holds custom large-scale integrated array built with silicon-on-sapphire complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  13. Monitoring Apnea in the Elderly by an Electromechanical System with a Carbon Nanotube-based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chang Liu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that a new device composed of an NEMS by combining an MWCNT sensor and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS circuits could be integrated to effectively detect apnea in the elderly. This novel device may improve the pattern of safe respiratory care for the elderly in the future.

  14. Health Promotion and Complementary Medicine: The Extent and Future of Professional Collaboration and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Faith

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the professional interface between health promotion (HP) and complementary and alternative medicine. Design/methodology/approach: A discussion paper, based on qualitative research involving in-depth interviews with 52 participants from either side of the interface. Findings: The current interface is predominantly limited to…

  15. Integrating Yoga with Psychotherapy: A Complementary Treatment for Anxiety and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forfylow, Andrea L.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the empirical research on yoga as an effective, complementary, clinical intervention for anxiety and depression based on an examination of studies published from 2003 to 2010. There is a discussion of study findings and research limitations and suggestions for researchers and future research. Yoga appears to be an effective…

  16. A Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Partial Fixed-Point Imaging System Using a Field- Programmable Gate Array-Application-Specific Integrated Circuit Hybrid Heterogeneous Parallel Acceleration Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Li, Bingyi; Chen, Liang; Wei, Chunpeng; Xie, Yizhuang; Chen, He; Yu, Wenyue

    2017-06-24

    With the development of satellite load technology and very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit technology, onboard real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems have become a solution for allowing rapid response to disasters. A key goal of the onboard SAR imaging system design is to achieve high real-time processing performance with severe size, weight, and power consumption constraints. In this paper, we analyse the computational burden of the commonly used chirp scaling (CS) SAR imaging algorithm. To reduce the system hardware cost, we propose a partial fixed-point processing scheme. The fast Fourier transform (FFT), which is the most computation-sensitive operation in the CS algorithm, is processed with fixed-point, while other operations are processed with single precision floating-point. With the proposed fixed-point processing error propagation model, the fixed-point processing word length is determined. The fidelity and accuracy relative to conventional ground-based software processors is verified by evaluating both the point target imaging quality and the actual scene imaging quality. As a proof of concept, a field- programmable gate array-application-specific integrated circuit (FPGA-ASIC) hybrid heterogeneous parallel accelerating architecture is designed and realized. The customized fixed-point FFT is implemented using the 130 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as a co-processor of the Xilinx xc6vlx760t FPGA. A single processing board requires 12 s and consumes 21 W to focus a 50-km swath width, 5-m resolution stripmap SAR raw data with a granularity of 16,384 × 16,384.

  17. A Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Partial Fixed-Point Imaging System Using a Field- Programmable Gate Array−Application-Specific Integrated Circuit Hybrid Heterogeneous Parallel Acceleration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of satellite load technology and very large scale integrated (VLSI circuit technology, onboard real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging systems have become a solution for allowing rapid response to disasters. A key goal of the onboard SAR imaging system design is to achieve high real-time processing performance with severe size, weight, and power consumption constraints. In this paper, we analyse the computational burden of the commonly used chirp scaling (CS SAR imaging algorithm. To reduce the system hardware cost, we propose a partial fixed-point processing scheme. The fast Fourier transform (FFT, which is the most computation-sensitive operation in the CS algorithm, is processed with fixed-point, while other operations are processed with single precision floating-point. With the proposed fixed-point processing error propagation model, the fixed-point processing word length is determined. The fidelity and accuracy relative to conventional ground-based software processors is verified by evaluating both the point target imaging quality and the actual scene imaging quality. As a proof of concept, a field- programmable gate array−application-specific integrated circuit (FPGA-ASIC hybrid heterogeneous parallel accelerating architecture is designed and realized. The customized fixed-point FFT is implemented using the 130 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology as a co-processor of the Xilinx xc6vlx760t FPGA. A single processing board requires 12 s and consumes 21 W to focus a 50-km swath width, 5-m resolution stripmap SAR raw data with a granularity of 16,384 × 16,384.

  18. Synchronization of Integrated Systems on a Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Díaz O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the non-conventional interconnected and coupled ring oscillators approach working as clock distribution networks to synchronize electronic systems on a chip (SoC is proposed. Typical CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor N-well 0.35 µm Austria Micro Systems process parameters were used for conventional and non-conventional clock distribution nets design and simulation. Experimental results from local and global clock distribution networks fabricated using a CMOS 0.35 µm process show that the use of interconnected rings arrays, as globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS clock distribution networks, represent an appropriate approach due to good performance regarding scalability, low clock-skew, high-speed, faults tolerant and robust under process variations, regularity, and modularity.

  19. Barriers to Integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Supportive Cancer Care of Arab Patients in Northern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Ben-Arye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, an Integrative Oncology Program (IOP, aiming to improve patients’ quality of life during chemotherapy and advanced cancer, was launched within the Clalit Health Organization's oncology service at the Lin Medical Center, Haifa, Israel. The IOP clinical activity is documented using a research-based registry protocol. In this study, we present an analysis of the registry protocol of 15 Arab patients with cancer who were referred to the IOP. Analysis of patients’ reported outcomes using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale suggests that integrative medicine care improves fatigue (=0.024, nausea (=0.043, depression (=0.012, anxiety (=0.044, appetite (=0.012, and general well-being (=0.031. Barriers to integration of traditional and complementary medicine in supportive care of Arab patients are discussed followed by six practical recommendations aimed at improving accessibility of patients to integrative supportive care, as well as compliance with treatments.

  20. Radiation-hardened gate-around n-MOSFET structure for radiation-tolerant application-specific integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Su; Lee, Hee Chul

    2012-01-01

    To overcome the total ionizing dose effect on an n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (n-MOSFET), we designed a radiation-hardened gate-around n-MOSFET structure and evaluated it through a radiation-exposure experiment. Each test device was fabricated in a commercial 0.35-micron complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. The fabricated devices were evaluated under a total dose of 1 Mrad (Si) at a dose rate of 250 krad/h to obtain very high reliability for space electronics. The experimental results showed that the gate-around n-MOSFET structure had very good performance against 1 Mrad (Si) of gamma radiation, while the conventional n-MOSFET experienced a considerable amount of radiation-induced leakage current. Furthermore, a source follower designed with the gate-around transistor worked properly at 1 Mrad (Si) of gamma radiation while a source follower designed with the conventional n-MOSFET lost its functionality.

  1. Achieving Adherence to Evidence-Based Practices: Are Health IT and Hospital-Physician Integration Complementary or Substitutive Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Jordan; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2016-12-01

    In response to evolving policies and conditions, hospitals have increased health information technology (HIT) adoption and strived to improve hospital-physician integration. While evidence suggests that both HIT and integration confer independent benefits, when combined, they may provide complementary means to achieve high performance or overlap to offset each other's contribution. We explore this relationship in the context of hospital adherence to evidence-based practices (EBPs). Using the American Hospital Association's Annual and IT Supplement surveys, and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services's Hospital Compare, we estimate the independent relationships and interactions between HIT and hospital-physician integration with respect to EBP adherence. HIT adoption and tight (but not loose) integration are independently associated with greater adherence to EBPs. The interaction between HIT adoption and tight integration is negative, consistent with an offsetting association between HIT adoption and integration in their relationship to EBP adherence. This finding reveals the need to be aware of potential substitutive effects from simultaneous pursuit of multiple approaches to performance improvement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. [On the relationship of psychosomatic and mind-body medicine: integrative, complementary or alternative disciplines within an evolutionary approach?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnhuber, Stefan; Michalsen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The text outlines the relation between psychosomatic medicine as an established medical discipline and the emerging concept of mind-body medicine from a historical, clinical and epistemological perspective. Limitations and contributions of both disciplines are discussed and the opportunities within the concept of Integrative Medicine are outlined. Whereas psychosomatic medicine is perceived as a form of transformation through a primarily verbal discoursive relationship, mind-body medicine claims healing through increased traditional techniques of the relaxation response, increased awareness, mindfulness, increasing des-identification and health-promoting lifestyle modification. It becomes clear that mind-body medicine seems to be epistemologically the broader theoretical framework, whereas in a clinical context the combination of both disciplines appears to be complementary and synergistic. The connection between psychosomatic medicine and mind-body medicine can make an important and exemplary contribution to the concept of Integrative Medicine. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Social integration and the quality of life of schizophrenic patients in different types of complementary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisse, M; Kallert, T W

    2000-12-01

    Following reunification in Germany in 1990 the new states in the Federal Republic faced the task of restructuring and rebuilding the structures of complementary care for the chronically mentally ill. First and foremost, residential facilities had to be established that would correspond to and meet the currently high need for de-hospitalization by making different types of care and care concepts available. Five groups of patients with chronic schizophrenic psychoses (N = 245 patients) who live in different types of psychiatric care facilities (psychiatric nursing home, social therapeutic hostel, sheltered community residence) or at home, either with or without a family network, were studied. In addition to the sociodemographic data, the psychopathology and the extent of social disabilities were also surveyed, as well as data on the living situation and the subjective quality of life with an emphasis on 'social relationships', 'recreation/leisure activities', and 'general independence'. The five groups differed with regard to various sociodemographic and disorder-related variables, particularly with regard to the extent of social disabilities. Especially relevant, however, are the differences among the patient groups in the extent of daily social life and recreational/leisure activities that are partially reflected in their statements on the subjective quality of life. Primarily for the two groups of home residents, but also in part for the patients living in sheltered community care, social contacts are more or less limited to the residential situation and patients are more or less otherwise socially isolated. This is due among other things to the fact that patients who have been hospitalized for long periods do not as a rule return to their prior area of residence; thus, the available compensatory mediation of relationships with the social environment does not suffice. Demands for the further development of complementary systems of psychiatric care derive from

  4. The Multidimensional Integrated Intelligent Imaging project (MI-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allinson, N.; Anaxagoras, T.; Aveyard, J.; Arvanitis, C.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Bohndiek, S.; Cabello, J.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Clark, A.; Clayton, C.; Cook, E.; Cossins, A.; Crooks, J.; El-Gomati, M.; Evans, P.M.; Faruqi, W.; French, M.; Gow, J.

    2009-01-01

    MI-3 is a consortium of 11 universities and research laboratories whose mission is to develop complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) and to apply these sensors to a range of imaging challenges. A range of sensors has been developed: On-Pixel Intelligent CMOS (OPIC)-designed for in-pixel intelligence; FPN-designed to develop novel techniques for reducing fixed pattern noise; HDR-designed to develop novel techniques for increasing dynamic range; Vanilla/PEAPS-with digital and analogue modes and regions of interest, which has also been back-thinned; Large Area Sensor (LAS)-a novel, stitched LAS; and eLeNA-which develops a range of low noise pixels. Applications being developed include autoradiography, a gamma camera system, radiotherapy verification, tissue diffraction imaging, X-ray phase-contrast imaging, DNA sequencing and electron microscopy.

  5. The Multidimensional Integrated Intelligent Imaging project (MI-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allinson, N.; Anaxagoras, T. [Vision and Information Engineering, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Aveyard, J. [Laboratory for Environmental Gene Regulation, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Arvanitis, C. [Radiation Physics, University College, London (United Kingdom); Bates, R.; Blue, A. [Experimental Particle Physics, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bohndiek, S. [Radiation Physics, University College, London (United Kingdom); Cabello, J. [Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Chen, L. [Electron Optics, Applied Electromagnetics and Electron Optics, University of York (United Kingdom); Chen, S. [MRC Laboratory for Molecular Biology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Clark, A. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratories (United Kingdom); Clayton, C. [Vision and Information Engineering, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Cook, E. [Radiation Physics, University College, London (United Kingdom); Cossins, A. [Laboratory for Environmental Gene Regulation, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Crooks, J. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratories (United Kingdom); El-Gomati, M. [Electron Optics, Applied Electromagnetics and Electron Optics, University of York (United Kingdom); Evans, P.M. [Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: phil.evans@icr.ac.uk; Faruqi, W. [MRC Laboratory for Molecular Biology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); French, M. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratories (United Kingdom); Gow, J. [Imaging for Space and Terrestrial Applications, Brunel University, London (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2009-06-01

    MI-3 is a consortium of 11 universities and research laboratories whose mission is to develop complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) and to apply these sensors to a range of imaging challenges. A range of sensors has been developed: On-Pixel Intelligent CMOS (OPIC)-designed for in-pixel intelligence; FPN-designed to develop novel techniques for reducing fixed pattern noise; HDR-designed to develop novel techniques for increasing dynamic range; Vanilla/PEAPS-with digital and analogue modes and regions of interest, which has also been back-thinned; Large Area Sensor (LAS)-a novel, stitched LAS; and eLeNA-which develops a range of low noise pixels. Applications being developed include autoradiography, a gamma camera system, radiotherapy verification, tissue diffraction imaging, X-ray phase-contrast imaging, DNA sequencing and electron microscopy.

  6. The role of information technology as a complementary resource in healthcare integrated delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Evelyn H; Revels, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    As in many industries, it is recognized that there is a need to increase the use of information technology (IT) in the healthcare industry. However, until now, this has not occurred. In fact, some say that IT in healthcare has consistently fallen far short of expectations. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the need for a more holistic view of healthcare network integration and demonstrate that simply applying the latest technology to the network is not adequate for improving overall effectiveness. The study results showed that the more holistic view has to include management commitment, of complementarity between IT integration and organizational integration, and continued investments.

  7. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  8. Integration of Complementary and Alternative Medicine into Family Practices in Germany: Results of a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Joos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than two-thirds of patients in Germany use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM provided either by physicians or non-medical practitioners (“Heilpraktiker”. There is little information about the number of family physicians (FPs providing CAM. Given the widespread public interest in the use of CAM, this study aimed to ascertain the use of and attitude toward CAM among FPs in Germany. A postal questionnaire developed based on qualitatively derived data was sent to 3000 randomly selected FPs in Germany. A reminder letter including a postcard (containing a single question about CAM use in practice and reasons for non-particpation in the survey was sent to all FPs who had not returned the questionnaire. Of the 3000 FPs, 1027 (34% returned the questionnaire and 444 (15% returned the postcard. Altogether, 886 of the 1471 responding FPs (60% reported using CAM in their practice. A positive attitude toward CAM was indicated by 503 FPs (55%, a rather negative attitude by 127 FPs (14%. Chirotherapy, relaxation and neural therapy were rated as most beneficial CAM therapies by FPs, whereas neural therapy, phytotherapy and acupuncture were the most commonly used therapies in German family practices. This survey clearly demonstrates that CAM is highly valued by many FPs and is already making a substantial contribution to first-contact primary care in Germany. Therefore, education and research about CAM should be increased. Furthermore, with the provision of CAM by FPs, the role of non-medical CAM practitioners within the German healthcare system is to be questioned.

  9. Adrenal responses of large whales: Integrating fecal aldosterone as a complementary biomarker to glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Elizabeth A; Hunt, Kathleen E; Kraus, Scott D; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2017-10-01

    Until now, physiological stress assessment of large whales has predominantly focused on adrenal glucocorticoid (GC) measures. Elevated GC concentrations in feces (fGC) are known to reflect stressful disturbances, such as fishing gear entanglement and human-generated underwater noise, in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). However, there can be considerable variation in GC production as a function of sex and life history stage, which may confound the interpretation of fGC levels. Additionally, GC antibodies used in immunoassays can cross-react with other fecal metabolites (i.e., non-target steroids), potentially influencing fGC data. Here, aldosterone concentrations (fALD; aldosterone and related metabolites) were measured in fecal samples from right whales (total n=315 samples), including samples from identified individuals of known life history (n=82 individual whales), to evaluate its utility as a complementary biomarker to fGC for identifying adrenal activation. Concentrations of fALD were positively correlated with fGCs in right whales (r=0.59, Pwhales, fALD concentrations showed similar patterns to those reported for fGC, with higher levels in pregnant females (35.9±7.6ng/g) followed by reproductively mature males (9.5±0.9ng/g) (Pwhales. The addition of fALD measurement as a biomarker of adrenal activation may help distinguish between intrinsic and external causes of stress hormone elevations in large whales, as well as other free-living wildlife species, providing a more comprehensive approach for associating adrenal activation with specific natural and anthropogenic stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Making sense of "alternative", "complementary", "unconventional" and "integrative" medicine: exploring the terms and meanings through a textual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jeremy Y; Boon, Heather S; Thompson, Alison K; Whitehead, Cynthia R

    2016-05-20

    Medical pluralism has flourished throughout the Western world in spite of efforts to legitimize Western biomedical healthcare as "conventional medicine" and thereby relegate all non-physician-related forms of healthcare to an "other" category. These "other" practitioners have been referred to as "unconventional", "alternative" and "complementary", among other terms throughout the past half century. This study investigates the discourses surrounding the changes in the terms, and their meanings, used to describe unconventional medicine in North America. Terms identified by the literature as synonymous to unconventional medicine were searched using the Scopus database. A textual analysis following the method described by Kripendorff 2013 was subsequently performed on the five most highly-cited unconventional medicine-related peer-reviewed literature published between 1970 and 2013. Five commonly-used, unconventional medicine-related terms were identified. Authors using "complementary and alternative", "complementary", "alternative", or "unconventional" tended to define them by what they are not (e.g., therapies not taught/used in conventional medicine, therapy demands not met by conventional medicine, and therapies that lack research on safety, efficacy and effectiveness). Authors defined "integrated/integrative" medicine by what it is (e.g., a new model of healthcare, the combining of both conventional and unconventional therapies, accounting for the whole person, and preventative maintenance of health). Authors who defined terms by "what is not" stressed that the purpose of conducting research in this area was solely to create knowledge. Comparatively, authors who defined terms by "what is" sought to advocate for the evidence-based combination of unconventional and conventional medicines. Both author groups used scientific rhetoric to define unconventional medical practices. This emergence of two groups of authors who used two different sets of terms to refer to the

  11. Attitudes toward integration of complementary and alternative medicine with hospital-based care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D; Paterson, M; Beckerman, S; Sandilands, C

    2001-12-01

    To characterize those who have used, expect to use, or are opposed to the use of holistic therapies, especially in a conventional medical (hospital) setting. SAMPLE DESCRIPTION AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of Hamilton-Wentworth residents between March and June 1998 (n = 416; response rate, 63%); analysis used logistic regression. Thirty-seven percent (37%) used at least one holistic therapy in the previous year: the three most common were chiropractic, massage, and herbal/phytology. The three most common reasons for use were general health, fatigue, and arthritis. Thirty-three percent (33%) would use holistic therapy in the future. Barriers to use were lack of information, perceived ineffectiveness, and cost; approximately 40% agreed they would only use holistic therapies with medical advice. Approximately 13% were opposed to holistic therapy and objected to its use in hospitals. Younger age, preference for holistic therapy over conventional medicine, and prior use of holism independently predicted high likelihood for future use. Lower income and high self-perceived health were associated with negative attitude toward use of holistic therapies in hospital. Most respondents would accept integration of holistic techniques into a hospital; therapies would be more acceptable if there were clear evidence of their efficacy. A few might find their opinion of a sponsoring hospital lowered by such integration.

  12. Perceptions of complementary medicine integration in supportive cancer care of Arabs and Jews in Israel: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Schiff, Elad; Silbermann, Michael; Agbarya, Abed; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2015-05-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how cultural background influences patients' attitudes and choices regarding complementary and traditional medicine (CTM) integration. To explore Arab and Jewish patients' perspectives regarding CTM use and its possible integration within conventional cancer care. This was a cross-cultural study. We developed a 27-item questionnaire that evaluates patients' perceptions regarding CTM integration in supportive cancer care. The questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of patients receiving cancer care in community and hospital oncology centers. Of the 770 respondents (response rate 88%), 324 defined their religion as Muslim, Christian, or Druze (henceforth, regarded as Arabs) and 446 were Jews. Respondents in the two groups differed significantly in terms of age, gender, marital status, number of children, education, religiosity, and prevalence of cancer types (excluding breast cancer). Although Arab respondents reported less use of CTM for cancer-related outcomes (39.6% vs. 52.1%; P = 0.001), they expressed greater support than Jewish respondents for optional CTM consultation if provided within conventional oncology care (P < 0.0001). Respondents in both groups stated that their primary expectation from the oncologist concerning CTM was to participate in formulating a CTM treatment plan to be provided within the oncology department. Compared with Arab respondents, Jews expected CTM consultations to focus on improving daily functioning and coping, reducing chemotherapy side effects, and providing spiritual support. Although quality of life-related expectations are more pronounced among Jewish respondents, both groups share the expectation from their health care providers to be actively involved in construction of a tailored integrative CTM treatment plan. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A complementary metal oxide semiconductor—integrable conditioning circuit for resistive chemical sensor management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depari, Alessandro; Flammini, Alessandra; De Marcellis, Andrea; Ferri, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new interface circuit (for MOX-based resistive chemical sensors) capable of overcoming the main limit of the circuits based on the resistance-to-time approach, i.e. the long measuring time with high-value resistances. The system is designed to operate with a single supply of 3.3 V, thus facilitating an ASIC implementation together with digital electronics for a first data analysis and transmission. This is particularly advantageous when the elaboration process requires a large computational load and a data pre-elaboration is advisable. Simulations of the integrable solution of the system have shown the feasibility of the proposed approach. A prototype with discrete components has been furthermore fabricated and experimentally tested, showing good performance in the range 0.5 MΩ to 10 GΩ with a maximum measuring time of 60 ms

  14. Simulating mesoscale coastal evolution for decadal coastal management: A new framework integrating multiple, complementary modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Barend; Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; Barkwith, Andrew; Bonaldo, Davide; Burningham, Helene; Brad Murray, A.; Payo, Andres; Sutherland, James; Thornhill, Gillian; Townend, Ian H.; van der Wegen, Mick; Walkden, Mike J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Coastal and shoreline management increasingly needs to consider morphological change occurring at decadal to centennial timescales, especially that related to climate change and sea-level rise. This requires the development of morphological models operating at a mesoscale, defined by time and length scales of the order 101 to 102 years and 101 to 102 km. So-called 'reduced complexity' models that represent critical processes at scales not much smaller than the primary scale of interest, and are regulated by capturing the critical feedbacks that govern landform behaviour, are proving effective as a means of exploring emergent coastal behaviour at a landscape scale. Such models tend to be computationally efficient and are thus easily applied within a probabilistic framework. At the same time, reductionist models, built upon a more detailed description of hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes, are capable of application at increasingly broad spatial and temporal scales. More qualitative modelling approaches are also emerging that can guide the development and deployment of quantitative models, and these can be supplemented by varied data-driven modelling approaches that can achieve new explanatory insights from observational datasets. Such disparate approaches have hitherto been pursued largely in isolation by mutually exclusive modelling communities. Brought together, they have the potential to facilitate a step change in our ability to simulate the evolution of coastal morphology at scales that are most relevant to managing erosion and flood risk. Here, we advocate and outline a new integrated modelling framework that deploys coupled mesoscale reduced complexity models, reductionist coastal area models, data-driven approaches, and qualitative conceptual models. Integration of these heterogeneous approaches gives rise to model compositions that can potentially resolve decadal- to centennial-scale behaviour of diverse coupled open coast, estuary and inner

  15. CMOS-NEMS Copper Switches Monolithically Integrated Using a 65 nm CMOS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Muñoz-Gamarra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the feasibility to obtain copper nanoelectromechanical (NEMS relays using a commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology (ST 65 nm following an intra CMOS-MEMS approach. We report experimental demonstration of contact-mode nano-electromechanical switches obtaining low operating voltage (5.5 V, good ION/IOFF (103 ratio, abrupt subthreshold swing (4.3 mV/decade and minimum dimensions (3.50 μm × 100 nm × 180 nm, and gap of 100 nm. With these dimensions, the operable Cell area of the switch will be 3.5 μm (length × 0.2 μm (100 nm width + 100 nm gap = 0.7 μm2 which is the smallest reported one using a top-down fabrication approach.

  16. Robust parameter design for integrated circuit fabrication procedure with respect to categorical characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S.Y.

    1999-01-01

    We consider a robust parameter design of the process for forming contact windows in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits. Robust design is often used to find the optimal levels of process conditions which would provide the output of consistent quality as close to a target value. In this paper, we analyze the results of the fractional factorial design of nine factors: mask dimension, viscosity, bake temperature, spin speed, bake time, aperture, exposure time, developing time, etch time, where the outcome of the experiment is measured in terms of a categorized window size with five categories. Random effect analysis is employed to model both the mean and variance of categorized window size as functions of some controllable factors as well as random errors. Empirical Bayes' procedures are then utilized to fit both the models, and to eventually find the robust design of CMOS circuit process by means of a Bootstrap resampling approach

  17. Low-Power Photoplethysmogram Acquisition Integrated Circuit with Robust Light Interference Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongpal; Kim, Jihoon; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-12-31

    To overcome light interference, including a large DC offset and ambient light variation, a robust photoplethysmogram (PPG) readout chip is fabricated using a 0.13-μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. Against the large DC offset, a saturation detection and current feedback circuit is proposed to compensate for an offset current of up to 30 μA. For robustness against optical path variation, an automatic emitted light compensation method is adopted. To prevent ambient light interference, an alternating sampling and charge redistribution technique is also proposed. In the proposed technique, no additional power is consumed, and only three differential switches and one capacitor are required. The PPG readout channel consumes 26.4 μW and has an input referred current noise of 260 pArms.

  18. Robust parameter design for integrated circuit fabrication procedure with respect to categorical characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S.Y

    1999-12-01

    We consider a robust parameter design of the process for forming contact windows in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits. Robust design is often used to find the optimal levels of process conditions which would provide the output of consistent quality as close to a target value. In this paper, we analyze the results of the fractional factorial design of nine factors: mask dimension, viscosity, bake temperature, spin speed, bake time, aperture, exposure time, developing time, etch time, where the outcome of the experiment is measured in terms of a categorized window size with five categories. Random effect analysis is employed to model both the mean and variance of categorized window size as functions of some controllable factors as well as random errors. Empirical Bayes' procedures are then utilized to fit both the models, and to eventually find the robust design of CMOS circuit process by means of a Bootstrap resampling approach.

  19. Towards Flexible Self-powered Micro-scale Integrated Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-04-01

    nanotubes (CNT)-based anode and the second with a more sustainable design and easy to implement. Power production ranges from 392 to 100 mW/m3 depending on design. Additionally we have explored a flexible thermoelectric generator (0.139 μW/cm2) and a lithium-ion battery (~800 μAh/m2) for back-up energy generation and storage. Future work includes the implementation of a self-powered System-on-Package which gathers together energy generation, storage and consumption. Additionally we are working to demonstrate Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry on our flexible platform, as well as memory systems.

  20. Article Commentary: Integral Healthcare: The Benefits and Challenges of Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine with a Conventional Healthcare Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L. Ross PhD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's medicine is in the midst of an undeniable crisis. Calls to reform healthcare are in the forefront of economic and political discussions worldwide. Economic pressures reduce the amount of time physicians can spend with patients contributing to burnout among medical staff and endangering the patient iatrogenically. Politicians are getting involved as the public is calling for more affordable healthcare. A new paradigm must be embraced in order to address all aspects of this dilemma. It is clear that science and technology have resulted in vastly improved understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, but the emphasis on science and technology to the exclusion of other elements of healing has also served to limit the development of a model that humanizes healthcare. The healing of a patient must include more than the biology and chemistry of their physical body; by necessity, it must include the mental, emotional and spiritual aspects. Because of these challenges, the development of an integral healthcare system that is rooted in appropriate regulation and supported by rigorous scientific evidence is the direction that many models of integrative healthcare are moving towards in the 21st century.

  1. Integration of near infrared and visible organic photodiodes on a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible backplane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnel, M.; Thomschke, M.; Fehse, K.; Vogel, U. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Organische Elektronik, Elektronenstrahl-und Plasmatechnik FEP, 01199 Dresden (Germany); An, J.D.; Park, H. [Konkuk University-Fraunhofer Next Generation Solar Cell Research Center (KFnSC), Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Leo, K. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Organische Elektronik, Elektronenstrahl-und Plasmatechnik FEP, 01199 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden (TUD), 01062 Dresden (Germany); Im, C. [Konkuk University-Fraunhofer Next Generation Solar Cell Research Center (KFnSC), Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports about the integration of polymer-based bulk heterojunction organic photo diodes (OPDs) onto complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) compatible electrode materials. The fabrication and performance of four absorber systems in indium tin oxide-free OPDs for sensing applications have been studied. These are based on the following polymer–fullerene blends: Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]Phenyl C{sub 61} Butyric Acid Methyl Ester and Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5 diyl):Di[1,4] methanonaphthaleno [1,2:2′,3′;56,60:2″,3″] [5,6]fullerene-C60-Ih, 1′,1″,4′,4″-tetrahydro-, indene-C60 bisadduct to detect light in the visible range and Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl] [3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl] thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  2. Prevalence, predictors, and perceived effectiveness of complementary, alternative and integrative medicine in adult-onset primary dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandy M; Schwab, Emiko L; Nouer, Simonne S; Wan, Jim Y; LeDoux, Mark S

    2012-09-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use is on the rise in both the US and Europe, despite questions about its safety and effectiveness, and lack of national standards. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of CAM and integrative medicine use (CAM-I) and perceived effectiveness compared to the standard treatment of botulinum toxin injections in patients with adult-onset primary dystonia. This was a retrospective questionnaire study of 389 dystonia patients examining the effects age, gender, education level and number of affected anatomical regions on botulinum toxin and CAM-I use and their perceived effectiveness. 53% (208) of patients reported CAM-I use, while 90% (349) used the standard treatment (botulinum toxin), and 48% used both. Education was the only significant predictor of CAM-I use - individuals with bachelor's degrees were more likely to try CAM-I whereas those with high school diplomas were less likely. The mean effectiveness rate for botulinum toxin injections (59%) significantly exceeded that for CAM-I (28%, p effectiveness and expense of CAM-I treatments for dystonia and other neurological disorders given that CAM-I use is steadily increasing, there is great variability in what is classified as CAM-I, and the effectiveness of some modalities may be significantly less than conventional medical treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of integrating individualized and generic complementary medicine treatments with standard care versus standard care alone for reducing preoperative anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Samuel; Keinan Boker, Lital; Arnon, Zahi; Ben-Arye, Eran; Bar'am, Ayala; Sroka, Gideon; Matter, Ibrahim; Somri, Mostafa; Schiff, Elad

    2016-03-01

    Preoperative anxiety is commonly reported by people undergoing surgery. A significant number of studies have found a correlation between preoperative anxiety and post-operative morbidity. Various methods of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) were found to be effective in alleviating preoperative anxiety. This study examined the relative effectiveness of various individual and generic CAM methods combined with standard treatment (ST) in relieving preoperative anxiety, in comparison with ST alone. Randomized controlled trial. Holding room area Three hundred sixty patients. Patients were randomly divided into 6 equal-sized groups. Group 1 received the standard treatment (ST) for anxiety alleviation with anxiolytics. The five other groups received the following, together with ST (anxiolytics): Compact Disk Recording of Guided Imagery (CDRGI); acupuncture; individual guided imagery; reflexology; and individual guided imagery combined with reflexology, based on medical staff availability. Assessment of anxiety was taken upon entering the holding room area (surgery preparation room) ('pre-treatment assessment'), and following the treatment, shortly before transfer to the operating room ('post-treatment assessment'), based on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire. Data processing included comparison of VAS averages in the 'pre' and 'post' stages among the various groups. Preoperatively, CAM treatments were associated with significant reduction of anxiety level (5.54-2.32, peffective than individualized CAM (Peffective than generic CDRGI. In light of the scope of preoperative anxiety and its implications for public health, integration of CAM therapies with ST should be considered for reducing preoperative anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Negotiating competency, professionalism and risk: the integration of complementary and alternative medicine by nurses and midwives in NHS hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Sarah; Watts, Peter; Ruston, Annmarie

    2011-02-01

    This qualitative interview study examined the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by nurses and midwives in NHS hospital settings in 2008 in the UK. It showed that the groundswell of interest in CAM in the 1990s had diminished by this time due to changes to policy and funding, and increasingly stringent clinical governance. Nevertheless, CAM provided an opportunity for committed and self-motivated practitioners to extend their therapeutic repertoire and develop affective dimensions of practice. However, the integration of CAM did not afford the autonomy, status and material gains traditionally associated with a collective professional project. In practice, occupational strategies were individualistic, and grounded in the assertion of competency through expressions of professionalism rather than the credentialism which underpins classic professionalisation. Central to these strategies was CAM related risk, which became a means by which to claim occupational space. However, the extent to which the adoption of CAM enhanced the nurses' and midwives' roles was limited by traditional medical authority; the uncertain status of CAM knowledge; and the absence of collective strategies - which together often left practitioners in a position of vulnerability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Integration of near infrared and visible organic photodiodes on a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible backplane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnel, M.; Thomschke, M.; Fehse, K.; Vogel, U.; An, J.D.; Park, H.; Leo, K.; Im, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports about the integration of polymer-based bulk heterojunction organic photo diodes (OPDs) onto complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) compatible electrode materials. The fabrication and performance of four absorber systems in indium tin oxide-free OPDs for sensing applications have been studied. These are based on the following polymer–fullerene blends: Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]Phenyl C_6_1 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester and Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5 diyl):Di[1,4] methanonaphthaleno [1,2:2′,3′;56,60:2″,3″] [5,6]fullerene-C60-Ih, 1′,1″,4′,4″-tetrahydro-, indene-C60 bisadduct to detect light in the visible range and Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl] [3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl] thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  6. Integration Strategy for Free-form Lithium Ion Battery: Material, Design to System level Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-10-31

    Power supply in any electronic system is a crucial necessity. Especially so in fully compliant personalized advanced healthcare electronic self-powered systems where we envision seamless integration of sensors and actuators with data management components in a single freeform platform to augment the quality of our healthcare, smart living and sustainable future. However, the status-quo energy storage (battery) options require packaging to protect the indwelling toxic materials against harsh physiological environment and vice versa, compromising its mechanical flexibility, conformability and wearability at the highest electrochemical performance. Therefore, clean and safe energy storage solutions for wearable and implantable electronics are needed to replace the commercially used unsafe lithium-ion batteries. This dissertation discusses a highly manufacturable integration strategy for a free-form lithium-ion battery towards a genuine mechanically compliant wearable system. We sequentially start with the optimization process for the preparation of all solid-state material comprising a ‘’Lithium-free’’ lithium-ion microbattery with a focus on thin film texture optimization of the cathode material. State of the art complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology was used for the thin film based battery. Additionally, this thesis reports successful development of a transfer-less scheme for a flexible battery with small footprint and free form factor in a high yield production process. The reliable process for the flexible lithium-ion battery achieves an enhanced energy density by three orders of magnitude compared to the available rigid ones. Interconnection and bonding procedures of the developed batteries are discussed for a reliable back end of line process flexible, stretchable and stackable modules. Special attention is paid to the advanced bonding, handling and packaging strategies of flexible batteries towards system-level applications. Finally, this

  7. Stakeholders' perspectives on the regulation and integration of complementary and alternative medicine products in Lebanon: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The regulation of the markets for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) products presents a global challenge. There is a dearth of studies that have examined or evaluated the regulatory policies of CAM products in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). We investigate the regulatory frameworks and the barriers for the proper regulation and integration of CAM products in Lebanon, as an example of an EMR country with a weak public infrastructure. Methods We utilized a qualitative study design involving a series of semi-structured interviews with stakeholders of the CAM market in Lebanon. Snowball sampling was used to identify interviewees; interviews continued until the "saturation" point was reached. A total of 16 interviews were carried out with decision makers, representatives of professional associations, academic researchers, CAM product importers, policy makers and a media representative. Interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis of scripts was carried out. Results There was a consensus among all stakeholders that the regulation of the market for CAM products in Lebanon needs to be strengthened. Thematic analysis identified a number of impediments jeopardizing the safety of public consumption and hindering the integration of CAM therapies into mainstream medicine; including: weak infrastructure, poor regulation, ineffective policies and politics, weak CAM awareness and sub-optimal coordination and cooperation among stakeholders. With respect to policy instruments, voluntary instruments (self regulation) were deemed ineffective by stakeholders due to poor awareness of both users and providers on safe use of CAM products. Stakeholders' rather recommended the adoption of a combination of mixed (enhancing public awareness and integration of CAM into medical and nursing curricula) and compulsory (stricter governmental regulation) policy instruments for the regulation of the market for CAM products. Conclusions The current status quo with

  8. Complementary and alternative medicine for cancer patients: results of the EPAAC survey on integrative oncology centres in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elio; Vita, Alessandra; Baccetti, Sonia; Di Stefano, Mariella; Voller, Fabio; Zanobini, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    The Region of Tuscany Health Department was included as an associated member in WP7 "Healthcare" of the European Partnership for Action Against Cancer (EPAAC), initiated by the EU Commission in 2009. The principal aim was to map centres across Europe prioritizing those that provide public health services and operating within the national health system in integrative oncology (IO). A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was used to collect data. A questionnaire was elaborated concerning integrative oncology therapies to be administered to all the national health system oncology centres or hospitals in each European country. These institutes were identified by convenience sampling, searching on oncology websites and forums. The official websites of these structures were analysed to obtain more information about their activities and contacts. Information was received from 123 (52.1 %) out of the 236 centres contacted until 31 December 2013. Forty-seven out of 99 responding centres meeting inclusion criteria (47.5 %) provided integrative oncology treatments, 24 from Italy and 23 from other European countries. The number of patients seen per year was on average 301.2 ± 337. Among the centres providing these kinds of therapies, 33 (70.2 %) use fixed protocols and 35 (74.5 %) use systems for the evaluation of results. Thirty-two centres (68.1 %) had research in progress or carried out until the deadline of the survey. The complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) more frequently provided to cancer patients were acupuncture 26 (55.3 %), homeopathy 19 (40.4 %), herbal medicine 18 (38.3 %) and traditional Chinese medicine 17 (36.2 %); anthroposophic medicine 10 (21.3 %); homotoxicology 6 (12.8 %); and other therapies 30 (63.8 %). Treatments are mainly directed to reduce adverse reactions to chemo-radiotherapy (23.9 %), in particular nausea and vomiting (13.4 %) and leucopenia (5 %). The CAMs were also used to reduce pain and fatigue (10.9

  9. Communication and integration: a qualitative analysis of perspectives among Middle Eastern oncology healthcare professionals on the integration of complementary medicine in supportive cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Samuels, Noah; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Schiff, Elad; Omran, Suha; Charalambous, Haris; Dweikat, Tahani; Ghrayeb, Ibtisam; Turker, Ibrahim; Hassan, Azza; Hassan, Esmat; Nimri, Omar; Kebudi, Rejin; Silbermann, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The use of complementary and traditional medicine (CTM ) in Middle Eastern countries is widespread, including among patients with cancer. Perspectives of oncology healthcare professionals (HCPs) in this region regarding the integration of CTM within conventional supportive cancer care were explored. An 11-item questionnaire with an open-ended question asking respondents to comment about the integration of CTM within supportive cancer care was sent to Middle Eastern oncology HCPs, using snowball sampling methodology. The narratives provided were examined using thematic analysis. A total of 339 oncology HCPs completed and returned the study tool (80.3 % response rate ), of which 178 from 15 Middle Eastern countries responded to the open-ended question. The majority of respondents are in favor of the integration of CTM within supportive cancer care, though ideas on how this should be implemented varied. Thematic analysis identified multifactorial barriers to integration, which focused on HCPs' perspectives (e.g., a lack of knowledge and training; a skeptical approach to CTM), attitudes of patients and caregivers (e.g., unrealistic expectations regarding the outcomes of CTM treatments) and HCP-patient communication. In order to overcome these barriers, respondents suggested education and training programs for oncology HCPs which would focus on improving patients' quality-of-life-related outcomes. Middle Eastern oncology HCPs support the integration of CTM within supportive cancer care, while recognizing the need for education and training in this field. A better understanding of CTM would provide the knowledge and skills which would promote a non-judgmental, evidence-based approach, fostering better communication with patients.

  10. Durability-enhanced two-dimensional hole gas of C-H diamond surface for complementary power inverter applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarada, Hiroshi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Xu, Dechen; Tsuboi, Hidetoshi; Kitabayashi, Yuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Shibata, Masanobu; Kudo, Takuya; Inaba, Masafumi; Hiraiwa, Atsushi

    2017-02-20

    Complementary power field effect transistors (FETs) based on wide bandgap materials not only provide high-voltage switching capability with the reduction of on-resistance and switching losses, but also enable a smart inverter system by the dramatic simplification of external circuits. However, p-channel power FETs with equivalent performance to those of n-channel FETs are not obtained in any wide bandgap material other than diamond. Here we show that a breakdown voltage of more than 1600 V has been obtained in a diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FET with a p-channel based on a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG). Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al 2 O 3 induces the 2DHG ubiquitously on a hydrogen-terminated (C-H) diamond surface and also acts as both gate insulator and passivation layer. The high voltage performance is equivalent to that of state-of-the-art SiC planar n-channel FETs and AlGaN/GaN FETs. The drain current density in the on-state is also comparable to that of these two FETs with similar device size and V B .

  11. Ultralow power complementary inverter circuits using axially doped p- and n-channel Si nanowire field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Ngoc Huynh; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Whang, Dongmok; Kang, Dae Joon

    2016-06-09

    We have successfully synthesized axially doped p- and n-type regions on a single Si nanowire (NW). Diodes and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) inverter devices using single axial p- and n-channel Si NW field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated. We show that the threshold voltages of both p- and n-channel Si NW FETs can be lowered to nearly zero by effectively controlling the doping concentration. Because of the high performance of the p- and n-type Si NW channel FETs, especially with regard to the low threshold voltage, the fabricated NW CMOS inverters have a low operating voltage (<3 V) while maintaining a high voltage gain (∼6) and ultralow static power dissipation (≤0.3 pW) at an input voltage of ±3 V. This result offers a viable way for the fabrication of a high-performance high-density logic circuit using a low-temperature fabrication process, which makes it suitable for flexible electronics.

  12. Complementary role of critical integral experiment and power reactor start-up experiments for LMFBR neutronics data and method validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.

    1986-09-01

    Both critical experiments and power reactor results play at present a complementary role in reducing the uncertainties in Key design parameters for LMFBR, which can be relevant for the economic performances of this type of reactors

  13. Back End of Line Nanorelays for Ultra-low Power Monolithic Integrated NEMS-CMOS Circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Lechuga Aranda, Jesus Javier

    2016-05-01

    Since the introduction of Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, the chip industry has enjoyed many benefits of transistor feature size scaling, including higher speed and device density and improved energy efficiency. However, in the recent years, the IC designers have encountered a few roadblocks, namely reaching the physical limits of scaling and also increased device leakage which has resulted in a slow-down of supply voltage and power density scaling. Therefore, there has been an extensive hunt for alternative circuit architectures and switching devices that can alleviate or eliminate the current crisis in the semiconductor industry. The Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) relay is a promising alternative switch that offers zero leakage and abrupt turn-on behaviour. Even though these devices are intrinsically slower than CMOS transistors, new circuit design techniques tailored for the electromechanical properties of such devices can be leveraged to design medium performance, ultra-low power integrated circuits. In this thesis, we deal with a new generation of such devices that is built in the back end of line (BEOL) CMOS process and is an ideal option for full integration with current CMOS transistor technology. Simulation and verification at the circuit and system level is a critical step in the design flow of microelectronic circuits, and this is especially important for new technologies that lack the standard design infrastructure and well-known verification platforms. Although most of the physical and electrical properties of NEM structures can be simulated using standard electronic automation software, there is no report of a reliable behavioural model for NEMS switches that enable large circuit simulations. In this work, we present an optimised model of a BEOL nano relay that encompasses all the electromechanical characteristics of the device and is robust and lightweight enough for VLSI applications that require simulation of thousands of

  14. Silicon-Nitride-based Integrated Optofluidic Biochemical Sensors using a Coupled-Resonator Optical Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei eWANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nitride (SiN is a promising material platform for integrating photonic components and microfluidic channels on a chip for label-free, optical biochemical sensing applications in the visible to near-infrared wavelengths. The chip-scale SiN-based optofluidic sensors can be compact due to a relatively high refractive index contrast between SiN and the fluidic medium, and low-cost due to the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS-compatible fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate SiN-based integrated optofluidic biochemical sensors using a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW in the visible wavelengths. The working principle is based on imaging in the far field the out-of-plane elastic-light-scattering patterns of the CROW sensor at a fixed probe wavelength. We correlate the imaged pattern with reference patterns at the CROW eigenstates. Our sensing algorithm maps the correlation coefficients of the imaged pattern with a library of calibrated correlation coefficients to extract a minute change in the cladding refractive index. Given a calibrated CROW, our sensing mechanism in the spatial domain only requires a fixed-wavelength laser in the visible wavelengths as a light source, with the probe wavelength located within the CROW transmission band, and a silicon digital charge-coupled device (CCD / CMOS camera for recording the light scattering patterns. This is in sharp contrast with the conventional optical microcavity-based sensing methods that impose a strict requirement of spectral alignment with a high-quality cavity resonance using a wavelength-tunable laser. Our experimental results using a SiN CROW sensor with eight coupled microrings in the 680nm wavelength reveal a cladding refractive index change of ~1.3 × 10^-4 refractive index unit (RIU, with an average sensitivity of ~281 ± 271 RIU-1 and a noise-equivalent detection limit (NEDL of 1.8 ×10^-8 RIU ~ 1.0 ×10^-4 RIU across the CROW bandwidth of ~1 nm.

  15. Effectiveness of active self-care complementary and integrative medicine therapies: options for the management of chronic pain symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Cindy; Lee, Courtney; Freilich, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Chronic pain management typically consists of prescription medications or provider-based, behavioral, or interventional procedures that are often ineffective, may be costly, and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Because chronic pain affects the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), patient-centered complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies that acknowledge the patients' roles in their own healing processes have the potential to provide more efficient and comprehensive chronic pain management. Active self-care CIM (ACT-CIM) therapies allow for a more diverse, patient-centered treatment of complex symptoms, promote self-management, and are relatively safe and cost-effective. To date, there are no systematic reviews examining the full range of ACT-CIM used for chronic pain symptom management. A systematic review was conducted, using Samueli Institute's Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature methodology, to rigorously assess both the quality of the research on ACT-CIM modalities and the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness in treating chronic pain symptoms. A working group of subject matter experts was also convened to evaluate the overall literature pool and develop recommendations for the use and implementation of these modalities. Following key database searches, 146 randomized controlled trials were included in the review, 18 of which directly compared ACT-CIM approaches with one another. This article summarizes the current evidence, quality, effectiveness, and safety of these modalities. Recommendations and next steps to move this field of research forward are also discussed. The entire scope of the review is detailed throughout the current Pain Medicine supplement. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A randomized controlled trial of a multifaceted integrated complementary-alternative therapy for chronic herpes zoster-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Fred; Boyle, Eleanor; Vayda, Eugene; Glazier, Richard H

    2012-03-01

    Our objective was to determine whether a three-week complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approach integrating several therapies from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) along with neural therapy (injection of 1% procaine as local anesthesia) reduces the level of unresolved pain associated with herpes zoster. The design was a randomized controlled clinical trial in a community-based primary care clinic in Toronto, Ontario. We studied individuals 18 years of age and older with a confirmed diagnosis of herpes zoster of at least 30 days duration and with at least moderate postherpetic neuralgia pain (≥4) on a 10-point Likert scale. The CAM therapies used were acupuncture, neural therapy (1% procaine injection as a local anesthetic), cupping and bleeding, and TCM herbs. An immediate treatment group (n=32) received the CAM intervention once daily, five days per week, for three weeks. A wait-list (delayed treatment) group (n=27) was used as a control and received the same treatment starting three weeks after randomization. This three-week time period, when one group was receiving active CAM treatment and the other was not, was used as basis of comparison for treatment effects between groups. Pain, quality of life, and depression were measured at baseline, and three, six, and nine weeks post-randomization. Patients were followed for up to two years. Participants had a mean age of 69.8 years (SD=11.1) and had had herpes zoster-related pain for a median of 4.8 months (range: 1 month to 15 years). The immediate treatment and control groups had similar pain levels at baseline (treatment = 7.5; control = 7.8; p=0.5; scores based on the 10-point Likert pain scale). At three weeks post-randomization (i.e., after the immediate treatment group completed treatment) pain scores differed significantly (treatment = 2.3; control = 7.2; ppain in the immediate treatment group was maintained at nine weeks and at long-term follow-up (one to two years later). The delayed treatment

  17. We and they in the house of healing: debate among Arab complementary medicine practitioners on an integrative versus alternative approach to supportive cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Schiff, Elad; Ben-Arye, Eran

    2013-11-01

    Complementary and traditional medicine (CTM) plays an important role in culture-centered care for cancer patients in the Middle East. In this article, we have studied the attitudes of Arab CTM therapists concerning integration of complementary medicine within the conventional supportive cancer care of Arab patients in northern Israel. Semistructured interviews were held with 27 Arab therapists who use medicinal herbs, the Quran, and various CTM modalities, with the aim of characterizing their treatment practices and learning about their perspectives regarding conventional cancer care. We first summarized the different characteristics of the various CTM therapists, including training, typical practice, and so on. Thematic analysis revealed that folk healers and complementary medicine therapists describe their role as supportive and secondary to that of physicians. Their goal was not to cure patients with cancer but rather to enhance their quality of life by reducing the severity of both the disease symptoms and the side effects of cancer treatment. Religious healers, by contrast, purport to cure the disease. While folk healers opt for parallel alternative care and complementary therapists support integrative care, religious healers claimed that they offer an alternative to conventional medicine in terms of both etiology and practice. The majority of Arab CTM therapists support integration of their treatments with the conventional system, but in practice, they are not sure how to bring about this change or create a parallel model in which 2 different systems are active, but not integrated. Our findings emphasized the need to promote doctor-CTM practitioner communication based on structured referral and bidirectional consultation. Moreover, we recommend intensifying research on the efficacy and safety of CTM in the Middle East and the potential role in promoting culture-based supportive care.

  18. Technologies for Trapped-Ion Quantum Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    we discuss work aiming to leverage a commer- cial CMOS (complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor ) process to develop an integrated ion trap architecture...this integration: alignment of optical elements with tiny modes to point emitters, and trap- ping charged particles close to dielectric surfaces. Inte...far by heating in several ways. The deep optical potentials required to confine a charged particle against stray fields impart significant recoil

  19. Towards Cost-Effective Crystalline Silicon Based Flexible Solar Cells: Integration Strategy by Rational Design of Materials, Process, and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R.

    2017-11-30

    The solar cells market has an annual growth of more than 30 percent over the past 15 years. At the same time, the cost of the solar modules diminished to meet both of the rapid global demand and the technological improvements. In particular for the crystalline silicon solar cells, the workhorse of this technology. The objective of this doctoral thesis is enhancing the efficiency of c-Si solar cells while exploring the cost reduction via innovative techniques. Contact metallization and ultra-flexible wafer based c-Si solar cells are the main areas under investigation. First, Silicon-based solar cells typically utilize screen printed Silver (Ag) metal contacts which affect the optimal electrical performance. To date, metal silicide-based ohmic contacts are occasionally used for the front contact grid lines. In this work, investigation of the microstructure and the electrical characteristics of nickel monosilicide (NiSi) ohmic contacts on the rear side of c-Si solar cells has been carried out. Significant enhancement in the fill factor leading to increasing the total power conversion efficiency is observed. Second, advanced classes of modern application require a new generation of versatile solar cells showcasing extreme mechanical resilience. However, silicon is a brittle material with a fracture strains <1%. Highly flexible Si-based solar cells are available in the form thin films which seem to be disadvantageous over thick Si solar cells due to the reduction of the optical absorption with less active Si material. Here, a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology based integration strategy is designed where corrugation architecture to enable an ultra-flexible solar cell module from bulk mono-crystalline silicon solar wafer with 17% efficiency. This periodic corrugated array benefits from an interchangeable solar cell segmentation scheme which preserves the active silicon thickness and achieves flexibility via interdigitated back contacts. These cells

  20. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  1. Active pixel sensor pixel having a photodetector whose output is coupled to an output transistor gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nakamura, Junichi (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. A Simple Floating Gate (SFG) pixel structure could also be employed in the imager to provide a non-destructive readout and smaller pixel sizes.

  2. Active pixel sensor having intra-pixel charge transfer with analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra K. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node and an analog-to-digital converter formed in the substrate connected to the output of the readout circuit.

  3. A gate enhanced power U-shaped MOSFET integrated with a Schottky rectifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Jiao Wen-Li; Hu Hai-Fan; Liu Yun-Tao; Cao Fei

    2012-01-01

    An accumulation gate enhanced power U-shaped metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (UMOSFET) integrated with a Schottky rectifier is proposed. In this device, a Schottky rectifier is integrated into each cell of the accumulation gate enhanced power UMOSFET. Specific on-resistances of 7.7 mΩ·mm 2 and 6.5 mΩ·mm 2 for the gate bias voltages of 5 V and 10 V are achieved, respectively, and the breakdown voltage is 61 V. The numerical simulation shows a 25% reduction in the reverse recovery time and about three orders of magnitude reduction in the leakage current as compared with the accumulation gate enhanced power UMOSFET. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  4. Ultrastretchable and flexible copper interconnect-based smart patch for adaptive thermotherapy

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2014-12-03

    Unprecedented 800% stretchable, non-polymeric, widely used, low-cost, naturally rigid, metallic thin-film copper (Cu)-based flexible and non-invasive, spatially tunable, mobile thermal patch with wireless controllability, adaptability (tunes the amount of heat based on the temperature of the swollen portion), reusability, and affordability due to low-cost complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible integration. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Ultrastretchable and flexible copper interconnect-based smart patch for adaptive thermotherapy

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Lizardo, Ernesto B.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Unprecedented 800% stretchable, non-polymeric, widely used, low-cost, naturally rigid, metallic thin-film copper (Cu)-based flexible and non-invasive, spatially tunable, mobile thermal patch with wireless controllability, adaptability (tunes the amount of heat based on the temperature of the swollen portion), reusability, and affordability due to low-cost complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible integration. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Ultra-low power circuits based on tunnel FETs for energy harvesting applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalheiro, David

    2017-01-01

    There has been a tremendous evolution in integrated circuit technology in the past decades. With the scaling of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, faster, less power consuming and more complex chips per unit area have made possible electronic gadgets to evolve to what we see today. The increasing demand in electronic portability imposes low power consumption as a key metric to analog and digital circuit design. While dynamic power consumption decreases quadraticall...

  7. Basic mechanisms of radiation effects on electronic materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winokur, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    Many defense and nuclear reactor systems require complementary metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuits that are tolerant to high levels of radiation. This radiation can result from space, hostile environments or nuclear reactor and accelerator beam environments. In addition, many techniques used to fabricate today's complex very-large-scale integration circuits expose the circuits to ionizing radiation during the process sequence. Whatever its origin, radiation can cause significant damage to integrated-circuit materials. This damage can lead to circuit performance degradation, logic upset, and even catastrophic circuit failure. This paper provides a brief overview of the basic mechanisms for radiation damage to silicon-based integrated circuits. Primary emphasis is on the effects of total-dose ionizing radiation on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures

  8. Investigation of InP/InGaAs metamorphic co-integrated complementary doping-channel field-effect transistors for logic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jung-Hui

    2014-01-01

    DC performance of InP/InGaAs metamorphic co-integrated complementary doping-channel field-effect transistors (DCFETs) grown on a low-cost GaAs substrate is first demonstrated. In the complementary DCFETs, the n-channel device was fabricated on the InxGa1-xP metamorphic linearly graded buffer layer and the p-channel field-effect transistor was stacked on the top of the n-channel device. Particularly, the saturation voltage of the n-channel device is substantially reduced to decrease the VOL and VIH values attributed that two-dimensional electron gas is formed and could be modulated in the n-InGaAs channel. Experimentally, a maximum extrinsic transconductance of 215 (17) mS/mm and a maximum saturation current density of 43 (-27) mA/mm are obtained in the n-channel (p-channel) device. Furthermore, the noise margins NMH and NML are up to 0.842 and 0.330 V at a supply voltage of 1.5 V in the complementary logic inverter application.

  9. Experiences and meanings of integration of TCAM (Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medical) providers in three Indian states: results from a cross-sectional, qualitative implementation research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, D; Narayan, V V; Josyula, L K; Porter, J D H; Sathyanarayana, T N; Sheikh, K

    2014-11-25

    Efforts to engage Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medical (TCAM) practitioners in the public health workforce have growing relevance for India's path to universal health coverage. We used an action-centred framework to understand how policy prescriptions related to integration were being implemented in three distinct Indian states. Health departments and district-level primary care facilities in the states of Kerala, Meghalaya and Delhi. In each state, two or three districts were chosen that represented a variation in accessibility and distribution across TCAM providers (eg, small or large proportions of local health practitioners, Homoeopaths, Ayurvedic and/or Unani practitioners). Per district, two blocks or geographical units were selected. TCAM and allopathic practitioners, administrators and representatives of the community at the district and state levels were chosen based on publicly available records from state and municipal authorities. A total of 196 interviews were carried out: 74 in Kerala, and 61 each in Delhi and Meghalaya. We sought to understand experiences and meanings associated with integration across stakeholders, as well as barriers and facilitators to implementing policies related to integration of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative (TCA) providers at the systems level. We found that individual and interpersonal attributes tended to facilitate integration, while system features and processes tended to hinder it. Collegiality, recognition of stature, as well as exercise of individual personal initiative among TCA practitioners and of personal experience of TCAM among allopaths enabled integration. The system, on the other hand, was characterised by the fragmentation of jurisdiction and facilities, intersystem isolation, lack of trust in and awareness of TCA systems, and inadequate infrastructure and resources for TCA service delivery. State-tailored strategies that routinise interaction, reward individual and system

  10. Children and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... review and meta-analysis. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology . 2014;112(6):503–510. Ethical Conduct of ... Print this page Health Topics A–Z Related Topics Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s In a ...

  11. [Advances in research of complementary and integrative medicine: a review of recent publications in some of the leading medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamus, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the evidence for effectiveness, adverse effects and cost-effectiveness of complementary therapies, as reflected in publications in high impact factor medical journals during the years 2012-2014. The search detected 13 randomized controlled studies (RCTs) and 14 meta-analyses, which collectively assessed results of 191 RCTs involving the participation of several thousand patients. Pain was the major focus of acupuncture research in both clinical and fMRI studies, which demonstrated that the effect of acupuncture is beyond the placebo effect. In addition, RCTs supported the use of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in moderate to severe depression. A promising trend was reported for the ameliorating effect of acupuncture in gout. Spinal manipulations may be helpful in cervical pain and yoga may be a useful treatment option for chronic neck pain, chronic low back pain and for pain-related disability. Beneficial effects of adding hypnosis and massage therapy to the treatment of fibromyalgia patients were also documented. Tai-chi may reduce balance impairment in mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease and improve symptoms in patients with osteoarthritis. Products containing cranberry are associated with protective effects in some subgroups of patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. Chinese herbs may assist in glycemic control of diabetes patients and improve survival rate of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Some of the complementary therapies were found to be cost-effective. Physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects of these treatments and of possible drug-herb interactions. Further larger scale trials are justified.

  12. Adsorption smoke detector made of thin-film metal-oxide semiconductor sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamian, A.Z.; Adamian, Z.N.; Aroutiounian, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    Based on results of investigations of the thin-film smoke sensors made of Bi 2 O 3 , irresponsive to a change in relative humidity of the environment, an absorption smoke detector processing circuit, where investigated sensor is used as a sensitive element, is proposed. It is shown that such smoke detector is able to function reliably under conditions of high relative humidity of the environment (up to 100%) and it considerably exceeds the known smoke detectors by the sensitivity threshold

  13. Electronic defect levels in continuous wave laser annealed silicon metal oxide semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M.; Garcia, B. J.; Martinez, J.; Garrido, J.; Piqueras, J.

    1988-09-01

    The effect of laser treatment on the bulk and interface states of the Si-SiO2 structure has been investigated. The annealing was performed prior to the gate metallization using a continuous wave Ar+ laser. For low laser powers the interface state density seems to decrease slightly in comparison with untreated samples. However, for the highest irradiating laser powers a new bulk level at 0.41 eV above the valence band with concentrations up to 1015 cm-3 arises probably due to the electrical activation of the oxygen diluted in the Czochralski silicon. Later postmetallization annealings reduce the interface state density to values in the 1010 cm-2 eV-1 range but leave the concentration of the 0.41-eV center nearly unchanged.

  14. Defect-driven interfacial electronic structures at an organic/metal-oxide semiconductor heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, Paul; Schirra, Laura K; Cornil, David; Li, Hong; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Ndione, Paul F; Sigdel, Ajaya K; Ginley, David S; Berry, Joseph J; Shim, Jaewon; Kim, Hyungchui; Kippelen, Bernard; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Monti, Oliver L A

    2014-07-16

    The electronic structure of the hybrid interface between ZnO and the prototypical organic semiconductor PTCDI is investigated via a combination of ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS/XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The interfacial electronic interactions lead to a large interface dipole due to substantial charge transfer from ZnO to 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylicdiimide (PTCDI), which can be properly described only when accounting for surface defects that confer ZnO its n-type properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Electrosprayed Metal Oxide Semiconductor Films for Sensitive and Selective Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Siadat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor metal oxide films of copper-doped tin oxide (Cu-SnO2, tungsten oxide (WO3 and indium oxide (In2O3 were deposited on a platinum coated alumina substrate employing the electrostatic spray deposition technique (ESD. The morphology studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM shows porous homogeneous films comprising uniformly distributed aggregates of nano particles. The X-ray diffraction technique (XRD proves the formation of crystalline phases with no impurities. Besides, the Raman cartographies provided information about the structural homogeneity. Some of the films are highly sensitive to low concentrations of H2S (10 ppm at low operating temperatures (100 and 200 °C and the best response in terms of Rair/Rgas is given by Cu-SnO2 films (2500 followed by WO3 (1200 and In2O3 (75. Moreover, all the films exhibit no cross-sensitivity to other reducing (SO2 or oxidizing (NO2 gases.

  16. Composite metal oxide semiconductor based photodiodes for solar panel tracking applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A., E-mail: aghamdi90@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Dere, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); Tataroğlu, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Arif, Bilal [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); Yakuphanoglu, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); El-Tantawy, Farid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Farooq, W.A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-11-25

    The Zn{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}O:Cu{sub 2}O composite films were synthesized by the sol gel method to fabricate photodiodes. The transparent metal oxide Zn{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}O:Cu{sub 2}O thin films were grown on p-Si substrates by spin coating technique. Electrical characterization of the p-Si/AZO:Cu{sub 2}O photodiodes was performed by current–voltage and capacitance–conductance–voltage characteristics under dark and various illumination conditions. The transient photocurrent of the diodes increases with increase in illumination intensity. The photoconducting mechanism of the diodes is controlled by the continuous distribution of trap levels. The photocapacitance and photoconductivity of the diodes are decreased with increasing Cu{sub 2}O content. The series resistance–voltage behavior confirms the presence of the interface states in the interface of the diodes. The photoresponse properties of the diodes indicate that the p-Si/Zn{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}O–Cu{sub 2}O diodes can be used as a photosensor in solar panel tracking applications. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}O:Cu{sub 2}O composite films were synthesized by the sol gel method. • p-Si/Zn{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}O–Cu{sub 2}O diodes were fabricated. • p-Si/Zn{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}O–Cu{sub 2}O diodes can be used in the optoelectronic applications.

  17. Development of a Silicon Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Based Qubit Using Spin Exchange Interactions Alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    technology fields: Student Metrics This section only applies to graduating undergraduates supported by this agreement in this reporting period The number...QD device, around a Coulomb peak, shows 1/f power spectra density for the intrinsic gate noise. The noise amplitude reduces continuously as the

  18. Adsorption smoke detector made of thin-film metal-oxide semiconductor sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Adamian, A Z; Aroutiounian, V M

    2001-01-01

    Based on results of investigations of the thin-film smoke sensors made of Bi sub 2 O sub 3 , irresponsive to a change in relative humidity of the environment, an absorption smoke detector processing circuit, where investigated sensor is used as a sensitive element, is proposed. It is shown that such smoke detector is able to function reliably under conditions of high relative humidity of the environment (up to 100%) and it considerably exceeds the known smoke detectors by the sensitivity threshold.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Tunneling Current in an Anisotropic Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairurrijal khairurrijal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have developed a model of the tunneling currents through a high-k dielectric stack in MOS capacitors with anisotropic masses. The transmittance was numerically calculated by employing a transfer matrix method and including longitudinal-transverse kinetic energy coupling which is represented by an electron phase velocity in the gate. The transmittance was then applied to calculate tunneling currents in TiN/HfSiOxN/SiO2/p-Si MOS capacitors. The calculated results show that as the gate electron velocity increases, the transmittance decreases and therefore the tunneling current reduces. The tunneling current becomes lower as the effective oxide thickness (EOT of HfSiOxN layer increases. When the incident electron passed through the barriers in the normal incident to the interface, the electron tunneling process becomes easier. It was also shown that the tunneling current was independent of the substrate orientation. Moreover, the model could be used in designing high speed MOS devices with low tunneling currents.

  20. Atomic origin of high-temperature electron trapping in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiao, E-mail: xiao.shen@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Dhar, Sarit [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-04-06

    MOSFETs based on wide-band-gap semiconductors are suitable for operation at high temperature, at which additional atomic-scale processes that are benign at lower temperatures can get activated, resulting in device degradation. Recently, significant enhancement of electron trapping was observed under positive bias in SiC MOSFETs at temperatures higher than 150 °C. Here, we report first-principles calculations showing that the enhanced electron trapping is associated with thermally activated capturing of a second electron by an oxygen vacancy in SiO{sub 2} by which the vacancy transforms into a structure that comprises one Si dangling bond and a bond between a five-fold and a four-fold Si atoms. The results suggest a key role of oxygen vacancies and their structural reconfigurations in the reliability of high-temperature MOS devices.

  1. Prediction of total dose effects on sub-micron process metal oxide semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Hiroshi; Kato, Masataka.

    1991-01-01

    A method for correcting leakage currents is described to predict the radiation-induced threshold voltage shift of sub-micron MOSFETs. A practical model for predicting the leakage current generated by irradiation is also given on the basis of experimental results on 0.8-μm process MOSFETs. The constants in the threshold voltage shift model are determined from the 'true' I-V characteristic of the MOSFET, which is obtained by correction of leakage currents due to characteristic change of a parasitic transistor. In this way, the threshold voltage shift of the n-channel MOSFET irradiated at a low dose rate of 2 Gy(Si)/h was also calculated by using data from a high dose rate irradiation experiment (100 Gy(Si)/h, 5 h). The calculated result well represented the tendency of measured data on threshold voltage shift. The radiation-induced leakage current was considered to decay approximately in two exponential modes. The constants in this leakage current model were determined from the above high dose rate experiment. The response of leakage current predicted at a low dose rate of 2 Gy(Si)/h approximately agreed with that measured during and after irradiation. (author)

  2. Single Event Effects (SEE) for Power Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Single-event gate rupture (SEGR) continues to be a key failure mode in power MOSFETs. (1) SEGR is complex, making rate prediction difficult SEGR mechanism has two main components: (1) Oxide damage-- Reduces field required for rupture (2) Epilayer response -- Creates transient high field across the oxide.

  3. Electron transport properties of indium oxide - indium nitride metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.; Hauguth, S.; Polyakov, V.; Schwierz, F.; Cimalla, V.; Kups, T.; Himmerlich, M.; Schaefer, J.A.; Krischok, S.; Ambacher, O.; Morales, F.M.; Lozano, J.G.; Gonzalez, D.; Lebedev, V.

    2008-01-01

    The structural, chemical and electron transport properties of In 2 O 3 /InN heterostructures and oxidized InN epilayers are reported. It is shown that the accumulation of electrons at the InN surface can be manipulated by the formation of a thin surface oxide layer. The epitaxial In 2 O 3 /InN heterojunctions show an increase in the electron concentration due to the increasing band banding at the heterointerface. The oxidation of InN results in improved transport properties and in a reduction of the sheet carrier concentration of the InN epilayer very likely caused by a passivation of surface donors. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Gate controlled magnetoresistance in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciccarelli, C.; Park, B.G.; Ogawa, S.; Ferguson, A.J.; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 8 (2010), 082106/1-082106/3 ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : MOSFET Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2010

  5. Magnetic state dependent transient lateral photovoltaic effect in patterned ferromagnetic metal-oxide-semiconductor films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Martinez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of an external magnetic field on the magnitude and dephasing of the transient lateral photovoltaic effect (T-LPE in lithographically patterned Co lines of widths of a few microns grown over naturally passivated p-type Si(100. The T-LPE peak-to-peak magnitude and dephasing, measured by lock-in or through the characteristic time of laser OFF exponential relaxation, exhibit a notable influence of the magnetization direction of the ferromagnetic overlayer. We show experimentally and by numerical simulations that the T-LPE magnitude is determined by the Co anisotropic magnetoresistance. On the other hand, the magnetic field dependence of the dephasing could be described by the influence of the Lorentz force acting perpendiculary to both the Co magnetization and the photocarrier drift directions. Our findings could stimulate the development of fast position sensitive detectors with magnetically tuned magnitude and phase responses.

  6. The synergistic and complementary effects of supply chain justice and integration practices on supply chain performance: A conceptual framework and research propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ziaullah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, firms have been using their supply chain integration (SCI as a competitive weapon in the intensive, globalised competitive arena. The contingent perspective in supply chain management maintains that it is necessary to observe the interaction between SCI practices and supply chain justice. A critical issue to be resolved is whether this fit leads to synergistic and complementary effects on supply chain performance. In order to contribute to this research problem, we analysed supply chain justice instances in order to determine the importance of supply chain justice, as well as highlights complementary role in SCI and its influences on supply chain performance. A conceptual framework has been developed and five propositions established to verify the contents of a theoretical study. Accordingly, balancing the adoption of SCI practices and supply chain justice will lead to the generation of greater benefits relative to the effect of both independent driving forces on supply chain performance. Furthermore, the proposed framework has been analysed in order to examine its applicability in the South African context. The study thereby suggests the empirical research guidelines and the paper concludes with a discussion of future research.

  7. Silicon nanotube field effect transistor with core-shell gate stacks for enhanced high-performance operation and area scaling benefits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2011-10-12

    We introduce the concept of a silicon nanotube field effect transistor whose unique core-shell gate stacks help achieve full volume inversion by giving a surge in minority carrier concentration in the near vicinity of the ultrathin channel and at the same time rapid roll-off at the source and drain junctions constituting velocity saturation-induced higher drive current-enhanced high performance per device with efficient real estate consumption. The core-shell gate stacks also provide superior short channel effects control than classical planar metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and gate-all-around nanowire FET. The proposed device offers the true potential to be an ideal blend for quantum ballistic transport study of device property control by bottom-up approach and high-density integration compatibility using top-down state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor flow. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Silicon nanotube field effect transistor with core-shell gate stacks for enhanced high-performance operation and area scaling benefits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Smith, Casey; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a silicon nanotube field effect transistor whose unique core-shell gate stacks help achieve full volume inversion by giving a surge in minority carrier concentration in the near vicinity of the ultrathin channel and at the same time rapid roll-off at the source and drain junctions constituting velocity saturation-induced higher drive current-enhanced high performance per device with efficient real estate consumption. The core-shell gate stacks also provide superior short channel effects control than classical planar metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and gate-all-around nanowire FET. The proposed device offers the true potential to be an ideal blend for quantum ballistic transport study of device property control by bottom-up approach and high-density integration compatibility using top-down state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor flow. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Integrated active fire retrievals and biomass burning emissions using complementary near-coincident ground, airborne and spaceborne sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfrid Schroeder; Evan Ellicott; Charles Ichoku; Luke Ellison; Matthew B. Dickinson; Roger D. Ottmar; Craig Clements; Dianne Hall; Vincent Ambrosia; Robert. Kremens

    2013-01-01

    Ground, airborne and spaceborne data were collected for a 450 ha prescribed fire implemented on 18 October 2011 at the Henry W. Coe State Park in California. The integration of various data elements allowed near-coincident active fire retrievals to be estimated. The Autonomous Modular Sensor-Wildfire (AMS) airborne multispectral imaging system was used as a bridge...

  10. Knowledge about complementary, alternative and integrative medicine (CAM) among registered health care providers in Swedish surgical care: a national survey among university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerså, Kristofer; Stener Victorin, Elisabet; Fagevik Olsén, Monika

    2012-04-12

    Previous studies show an increased interest and usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the general population and among health care workers both internationally and nationally. CAM usage is also reported to be common among surgical patients. Earlier international studies have reported that a large amount of surgical patients use it prior to and after surgery. Recent publications indicate a weak knowledge about CAM among health care workers. However the current situation in Sweden is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to explore perceived knowledge about CAM among registered healthcare professions in surgical departments at Swedish university hospitals. A questionnaire was distributed to 1757 registered physicians, nurses and physiotherapists in surgical wards at the seven university hospitals in Sweden from spring 2010 to spring 2011. The questionnaire included classification of 21 therapies into conventional, complementary, alternative and integrative, and whether patients were recommended these therapies. Questions concerning knowledge, research, and patient communication about CAM were also included. A total of 737 (42.0%) questionnaires were returned. Therapies classified as complementary; were massage, manual therapies, yoga and acupuncture. Alternative therapies; were herbal medicine, dietary supplements, homeopathy and healing. Classification to integrative therapy was low, and unfamiliar therapies were Bowen therapy, iridology and Rosen method. Therapies recommended by > 40% off the participants were massage and acupuncture. Knowledge and research about CAM was valued as minor or none at all by 95.7% respectively 99.2%. Importance of possessing knowledge about it was valued as important by 80.9%. It was believed by 61.2% that more research funding should be addressed to CAM research, 72.8% were interested in reading CAM-research results, and 27.8% would consider taking part in such research. Half of the participants (55.8%) were

  11. Knowledge about complementary, alternative and integrative medicine (CAM among registered health care providers in Swedish surgical care: a national survey among university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjerså Kristofer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies show an increased interest and usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in the general population and among health care workers both internationally and nationally. CAM usage is also reported to be common among surgical patients. Earlier international studies have reported that a large amount of surgical patients use it prior to and after surgery. Recent publications indicate a weak knowledge about CAM among health care workers. However the current situation in Sweden is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to explore perceived knowledge about CAM among registered healthcare professions in surgical departments at Swedish university hospitals. Method A questionnaire was distributed to 1757 registered physicians, nurses and physiotherapists in surgical wards at the seven university hospitals in Sweden from spring 2010 to spring 2011. The questionnaire included classification of 21 therapies into conventional, complementary, alternative and integrative, and whether patients were recommended these therapies. Questions concerning knowledge, research, and patient communication about CAM were also included. Result A total of 737 (42.0% questionnaires were returned. Therapies classified as complementary; were massage, manual therapies, yoga and acupuncture. Alternative therapies; were herbal medicine, dietary supplements, homeopathy and healing. Classification to integrative therapy was low, and unfamiliar therapies were Bowen therapy, iridology and Rosen method. Therapies recommended by > 40% off the participants were massage and acupuncture. Knowledge and research about CAM was valued as minor or none at all by 95.7% respectively 99.2%. Importance of possessing knowledge about it was valued as important by 80.9%. It was believed by 61.2% that more research funding should be addressed to CAM research, 72.8% were interested in reading CAM-research results, and 27.8% would consider taking part in

  12. Integration of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies into Primary-Care Pain Management for Opiate Reduction in a Rural Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl-Madrona, Lewis; Mainguy, Barbara; Plummer, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Opiates are no longer considered the best strategy for the long-term management of chronic pain. Yet, physicians have made many patients dependent on them, and these patients still request treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies have been shown to be effective, but are not widely available and are not often covered by insurance or available to the medically underserved. Group medical visits (GMVs) provided education about non-pharmacological methods for pain management and taught mindfulness techniques, movement, guided imagery, relaxation training, yoga, qigong, and t'ai chi. Forty-two patients attending GMVs for at least six months were matched prospectively with patients receiving conventional care. No one increased their dose of opiates. Seventeen people reduced their dose, and seven people stopped opiates. On a 10-point scale of pain intensity, reductions in pain ratings achieved statistical significance (p = 0.001). The average reduction was 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.60; p = 0.01). The primary symptom improved on average by -0.42 (95% CI -0.31 to -0.93; p = 0.02) on the My Medical Outcome Profile, 2nd version. Improvement in the quality-of-life rating was statistically significant (p = 0.007) with a change of -1.42 (95% CI = -0.59 to -1.62). In conventional care, no patients reduced their opiate use, and 48.5% increased their dose over the two years of the project. GMVs that incorporated CAM therapies helped patients reduce opiate use. While some patients found other physicians to give them the opiates they desired, those who persisted in an environment of respect and acceptance significantly reduced opiate consumption compared with patients in conventional care. While resistant to CAM therapies initially, the majority of patients came to accept and to appreciate their usefulness. GMVs were useful for incorporating non-reimbursed CAM therapies into primary medical care.

  13. Integration of Homeopathy and Complementary Medicine in the Tuscan Public Health System and the Experience of the Homeopathic Clinic of the Lucca Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, E; Di Stefano, M; Picchi, M; Panozzo, M A; Noberasco, C; Nurra, L; Baccetti, S

    2018-03-17

     The healthcare programs of the Region of Tuscany (Italy) have started the process of integration of some types of complementary medicine (CM), including homeopathy, which began in 1996. The Homeopathic Clinic of Lucca was opened in 1998, followed by the Homeopathic Clinic for Women in 2003, and the Clinic for CM and Diet in Oncology in 2013.  Observational longitudinal studies conducted on 5,877 patients (3,937 in the general clinic, 1,606 in the women's clinic and 334 in oncology) were consecutively examined from 2003 to 2016. The Outcome in Relation to Impact on Daily Living (ORIDL) was generally used to assess outcomes.  Comparing the clinical conditions before and after homeopathic treatment, improvement was observed in 88.8% of general medicine patients with follow-up (45.1%); in particular, 68.1% of the patients had a major improvement in or resolution (ORIDL +2, +3, +4) of their condition. In women, an improvement was obtained in 74.1% cases and a major improvement in 61.2%. In cancer patients with homeopathic and integrative treatment, a significant improvement was observed for all the symptoms during anti-cancer therapy, particularly for hot flashes, nausea, depression, asthenia, and anxiety.  These results suggest that homeopathy can effectively be integrated with allopathic medicine and that the Tuscan experience could provide a useful reference for developing national and European regulations on the use of CM and homeopathy in public healthcare. The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  14. Recovery Act: Integrated DC-DC Conversion for Energy-Efficient Multicore Processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, Kenneth L

    2013-03-31

    In this project, we have developed the use of thin-film magnetic materials to improve in energy efficiency of digital computing applications by enabling integrated dc-dc power conversion and management with on-chip power inductors. Integrated voltage regulators also enables fine-grained power management, by providing dynamic scaling of the supply voltage in concert with the clock frequency of synchronous logic to throttle power consumption at periods of low computational demand. The voltage converter generates lower output voltages during periods of low computational performance requirements and higher output voltages during periods of high computational performance requirements. Implementation of integrated power conversion requires high-capacity energy storage devices, which are generally not available in traditional semiconductor processes. We achieve this with integration of thin-film magnetic materials into a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process for high-quality on-chip power inductors. This project includes a body of work conducted to develop integrated switch-mode voltage regulators with thin-film magnetic power inductors. Soft-magnetic materials and inductor topologies are selected and optimized, with intent to maximize efficiency and current density of the integrated regulators. A custom integrated circuit (IC) is designed and fabricated in 45-nm CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to provide the control system and power-train necessary to drive the power inductors, in addition to providing a digital load for the converter. A silicon interposer is designed and fabricated in collaboration with IBM Research to integrate custom power inductors by chip stacking with the 45-nm CMOS integrated circuit, enabling power conversion with current density greater than 10A/mm2. The concepts and designs developed from this work enable significant improvements in performance-per-watt of future microprocessors in servers, desktops, and mobile

  15. Comparison of Patient Health History Questionnaires Used in General Internal and Family Medicine, Integrative Medicine, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Justin G R; Shapiro, Martin F

    2017-05-01

    Health history questionnaires (HHQs) are a set of self-administered questions completed by patients prior to a clinical encounter. Despite widespread use, minimal research has evaluated the content of HHQs used in general internal medicine and family medicine (GIM/FM), integrative medicine, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; chiropractic, naturopathic, and Traditional Chinese Medicine [TCM]) clinics. Integrative medicine and CAM claim greater emphasis on well-being than does GIM/FM. This study investigated whether integrative medicine and CAM clinics' HHQs include more well-being content and otherwise differ from GIM/FM HHQs. HHQs were obtained from GIM/FM (n = 9), integrative medicine (n = 11), naturopathic medicine (n = 5), chiropractic (n = 4), and TCM (n = 7) clinics in California. HHQs were coded for presence of medical history (chief complaint, past medical history, social history, family history, surgeries, hospitalizations, medications, allergies, review of systems), health maintenance procedures (immunization, screenings), and well-being components (nutrition, exercise, stress, sleep, spirituality). In HHQs of GIM/FM clinics, the average number of well-being components was 1.4 (standard deviation [SD], 1.4) compared with 4.0 (SD, 1.1) for integrative medicine (p medicine (p = 0.04), 2.0 (SD, 1.4) for chiropractic (p = 0.54), and 2.0 (SD, 1.5) for TCM (p = 0.47). In HHQs of GIM/FM clinics, the average number of medical history components was 6.4 (SD, 1.9) compared with 8.3 (SD, 1.2) for integrative medicine (p = 0.01), 9.0 (SD, 0) for naturopathic medicine (p = 0.01), 7.1 (SD, 2.8) for chiropractic (p = 0.58), and 7.1 (SD, 1.7) for TCM (p = 0.41). Integrative and naturopathic medicine HHQs included significantly more well-being and medical history components than did GIM/FM HHQs. Further investigation is warranted to determine the optimal HHQ content to support the clinical and preventive

  16. Attitudes of Arab and Jewish patients toward integration of complementary medicine in primary care clinics in Israel: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Karkabi, Khaled; Karkabi, Sonia; Keshet, Yael; Haddad, Maria; Frenkel, Moshe

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study was to evaluate patient perspectives on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) integration within primary care clinics. It is one of the first multiethnic studies to explore patients' perspectives on the best model for integrating CAM into the conventional care setting. We developed a 13-item questionnaire that addresses issues of CAM use, expectations from the primary care physicians concerning CAM, and attitudes toward CAM integration within a patient's primary care clinic. We constructed the questionnaire with cross-cultural sensitivity concerning the core concepts of CAM and traditional medicine in both the Arab and Jewish communities in northern Israel. Data for statistical analysis were obtained from 3840 patients attending seven primary care clinics. Of the 3713 respondents who were willing to identify their religion, 2184 defined themselves as Muslims, Christians, or Druze and 1529 as Jews. Respondents in the two groups were equally distributed by sex but differed significantly by age, education, self-rated religiosity, and self-reported chronic diseases in their medical background. Respondents in the two groups reported comparable overall CAM use during the previous year, but the Arab respondents reported more use of herbs and traditional medicine. Respondents in both groups stated that their primary expectation from a family physician concerning CAM was to refer them appropriately and safely to a CAM practitioner. Respondents in both groups greatly supported a theoretical scenario of CAM integration into primary medical care. However, Arab respondents were more supportive of the option that non-physician CAM practitioners would provide CAM rather than physicians.

  17. Integrated Active Fire Retrievals and Biomass Burning Emissions Using Complementary Near-Coincident Ground, Airborne and Spaceborne Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellicott, Evan; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Dickinson, Matthew B.; Ottmar, Roger D.; Clements, Craig; Hall, Dianne; Ambrosia, Vincent; Kremens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ground, airborne and spaceborne data were collected for a 450 ha prescribed fire implemented on 18 October 2011 at the Henry W. Coe State Park in California. The integration of various data elements allowed near coincident active fire retrievals to be estimated. The Autonomous Modular Sensor-Wildfire (AMS) airborne multispectral imaging system was used as a bridge between ground and spaceborne data sets providing high quality reference information to support satellite fire retrieval error analyses and fire emissions estimates. We found excellent agreement between peak fire radiant heat flux data (less than 1% error) derived from near-coincident ground radiometers and AMS. Both MODIS and GOES imager active fire products were negatively influenced by the presence of thick smoke, which was misclassified as cloud by their algorithms, leading to the omission of fire pixels beneath the smoke, and resulting in the underestimation of their retrieved fire radiative power (FRP) values for the burn plot, compared to the reference airborne data. Agreement between airborne and spaceborne FRP data improved significantly after correction for omission errors and atmospheric attenuation, resulting in as low as 5 difference between AquaMODIS and AMS. Use of in situ fuel and fire energy estimates in combination with a collection of AMS, MODIS, and GOES FRP retrievals provided a fuel consumption factor of 0.261 kg per MJ, total energy release of 14.5 x 10(exp 6) MJ, and total fuel consumption of 3.8 x 10(exp 6) kg. Fire emissions were calculated using two separate techniques, resulting in as low as 15 difference for various species

  18. [Inheritable phenotypic normalization of rodent cells transformed by simian adenovirus SA7 E1 oncogenes by singled-stranded oligonucleotides complementary to a long region of integrated oncogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineva, N I; Borovkova, T V; Sats, N V; Kurabekova, R M; Rozhitskaia, O S; Solov'ev, G Ia; Pantin, V I

    1995-08-01

    G11 mouse cells and SH2 rat cells transformed with simian adenovirus SA7 DNA showed inheritable oncogen-specific phenotypic normalization when treated with sense and antisense oligonucleotides complementary to long RNA sequences, plus or minus strands of the integrated adenovirus oncogenes E1A and E1B. Transitory treatment of the cells with the oligonucleotides in the absence of serum was shown to cause the appearance of normalized cell lines with fibroblastlike morphology, slower cell proliferation, and lack of ability to form colonies in soft agar. Proliferative activity and adhesion of the normalized cells that established cell lines were found to depend on the concentration of growth factors in the cultural medium. In some of the cell lines, an inhibition of transcription of the E1 oncogenes was observed. The normalization also produced cells that divided 2 - 5 times and died and cells that reverted to a transformed phenotype in 2 - 10 days. The latter appeared predominantly upon the action of the antisense oligonucleotides.

  19. CMOS Optoelectronic Lock-In Amplifier With Integrated Phototransistor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Hu; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P

    2010-10-01

    We describe the design and development of an optoelectronic lock-in amplifier (LIA) for optical sensing and spectroscopy applications. The prototype amplifier is fabricated using Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. complementary metal-oxide semiconductor 0.35-μm technology and uses a phototransistor array (total active area is 400 μm × 640μm) to convert the incident optical signals into electrical currents. The photocurrents are then converted into voltage signals using a transimpedance amplifier for subsequent convenient signal processing by the LIA circuitry. The LIA is optimized to be operational at 20-kHz modulation frequency but is operational in the frequency range from 13 kHz to 25 kHz. The system is tested with a light-emitting diode (LED) as the light source. The noise and signal distortions are suppressed with filters and a phase-locked loop (PLL) implemented in the LIA. The output dc voltage of the LIA is proportional to the incident optical power. The minimum measured dynamic reserve and sensitivity are 1.31 dB and 34 mV/μW, respectively. The output versus input relationship has shown good linearity. The LIA consumes an average power of 12.79 mW with a 3.3-V dc power supply.

  20. An integrative review of complementary and alternative medicine use for back pain: a focus on prevalence, reasons for use, influential factors, self-perceived effectiveness, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Vijayendra; Sibbritt, David W; Adams, Jon

    2015-08-01

    Back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions, and back pain sufferers have been identified as high users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Despite lacking evidence, CAM treatments (e.g., acupuncture, chiropractic, and massage) and CAM products (eg, vitamins, supplements, and aromatherapy oils) for back pain care have become widely available internationally, and CAM use by back pain sufferers has become a significant health service issue. However, to date, there has been no integrative review on CAM use for back pain. This study aims to conduct an integrative review on CAM use for back pain focusing on prevalence of use, commonly used CAM, characteristics of users, factors influencing decision making, self-perceived effectiveness, and communication with health-care providers. The study is based on an integrative literature review. A comprehensive search of international literature from 2000 to 2014 in MEDLINE, CINHAL, AMED, DARE, EMBASE, ExceptaMedica, psycINFO, and SCOPUS databases was conducted. The search was limited to peer-reviewed articles published in English language and reporting empirical research findings on CAM use for back pain. The review reveals a considerable variation in prevalences of CAM use for back pain internationally. Acupuncture, chiropractic, osteopathy, and massage therapy are the commonly used CAM treatments besides a range of self-prescribed CAM, and back pain sufferers use CAM alongside conventional medical treatments. Female gender, chronicity of back pain, and previous exposure to CAM are key predictors of CAM use for back pain as highlighted from the reviewed literature. Family, friends, and recommendation by doctors appear to influence decision making on CAM use for back pain. The review reveals that users of CAM for back pain tend to report CAM as beneficial, but there is little knowledge on communication between CAM users with back pain and health-care providers about such use. Existing literature is

  1. Control of Ambipolar Transport in SnO Thin-Film Transistors by Back-Channel Surface Passivation for High Performance Complementary-like Inverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Dai, Mingzhi; Lu, Yicheng; Wang, Mei

    2015-08-12

    For ultrathin semiconductor channels, the surface and interface nature are vital and often dominate the bulk properties to govern the field-effect behaviors. High-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) rely on the well-defined interface between the channel and gate dielectric, featuring negligible charge trap states and high-speed carrier transport with minimum carrier scattering characters. The passivation process on the back-channel surface of the bottom-gate TFTs is indispensable for suppressing the surface states and blocking the interactions between the semiconductor channel and the surrounding atmosphere. We report a dielectric layer for passivation of the back-channel surface of 20 nm thick tin monoxide (SnO) TFTs to achieve ambipolar operation and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) like logic devices. This chemical passivation reduces the subgap states of the ultrathin channel, which offers an opportunity to facilitate the Fermi level shifting upward upon changing the polarity of the gate voltage. With the advent of n-type inversion along with the pristine p-type conduction, it is now possible to realize ambipolar operation using only one channel layer. The CMOS-like logic inverters based on ambipolar SnO TFTs were also demonstrated. Large inverter voltage gains (>100) in combination with wide noise margins are achieved due to high and balanced electron and hole mobilities. The passivation also improves the long-term stability of the devices. The ability to simultaneously achieve field-effect inversion, electrical stability, and logic function in those devices can open up possibilities for the conventional back-channel surface passivation in the CMOS-like electronics.

  2. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Sevilla, Galo T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows

  3. Exploring SiSn as a performance enhancing semiconductor: A theoretical and experimental approach

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Fahad, Hossain M.; Rader, Kelly; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel semiconducting alloy, silicon-tin (SiSn), as channel material for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit applications. The material has been studied theoretically using first principles analysis as well

  4. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-10-14

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  5. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hanna, Amir; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  6. Transformational III-V Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible electronics using III-V materials for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. This thesis describes a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS

  7. Decal electronics for printed high performance cmos electronic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Sevilla, Galo Torres; Cordero, Marlon Diaz; Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-01-01

    High performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are critical for any full-fledged electronic system. However, state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are rigid and bulky making them unusable for flexible electronic applications

  8. Superconducting Technology Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This Superconducting Technology Assessment (STA) has been conducted by the National Security Agency to address the fundamental question of a potential replacement for silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS...

  9. Modular Lego-Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    . Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance

  10. CMOS technology: a critical enabler for free-form electronics-based killer applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hanna, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology offers batch manufacturability by ultra-large-scaleintegration (ULSI) of high performance electronics with a performance/cost advantage and profound reliability. However, as of today

  11. Directions and dilemmas in massage therapy research: a workshop report from the 2009 north american research conference on complementary and integrative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Christopher A; Dryden, Trish; Shipwright, Stacey

    2009-06-29

    Massage therapy (MT) is widely used and expanding rapidly, but systematic research on its mechanisms and effects has, in contrast with many other therapeutic fields, a short history. To take stock of the current state of MT research and to explore approaches, directions, and strategies with the potential to make the next two decades of MT research optimally productive. The 2009 North American Research Conference on Complementary and Integrative Medicine held in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Using a modified Delphi method, the study authors led an interactive workshop that aimed to identify established MT research findings, needed MT research, weaknesses and limitations in currently available MT research, and directions to pursue in the next two decades of MT research. The thirty-seven conference attendees-including MT researchers, educators, and practitioners, and other health care practitioners who already work interprofessionally with MT-actively participated in the workshop and ensured that a diversity of perspectives were represented. The MT field has made rapid and laudable progress in its short history, but at the same time this short history is probably the main reason for most of the current shortcomings in MT research. Drawing on a diversity of backgrounds, workshop participants identified many opportunities and strategies for future research. Though lost time can never be recovered, the field's late start in research should not be allowed to be a demoralizing handicap to progress. Modern scientific methods and technologies, applied to the range of directions and dilemmas highlighted in this report, can lead to impressive progress in the next twenty years of MT research.

  12. Cultural consonance, constructions of science and co-existence: a review of the integration of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine in low- and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Josyula K; Nambiar, Devaki; Narayan, Venkatesh; Sathyanarayana, Tamysetty N; Porter, John; Sheikh, Kabir

    2015-01-01

    This review examined the determinants, patterns and imports of official recognition, and incorporation of different traditional, complementary and alternative systems of medicine (TCAM) in the public health establishment of low- and middle-income countries, with a particular focus on India. Public health systems in most countries have tended to establish health facilities centred on allopathy, and then to recognize or derecognize different TCAM based on evidence or judgement, to arrive at health-care configurations that include several systems of medicine with disparate levels of authority, jurisdiction and government support. The rationale for the inclusion of TCAM providers in the public health workforce ranges from the need for personnel to address the disease burden borne by the public health system, to the desirability of providing patients with a choice of therapeutic modalities, and the nurturing of local culture. Integration, mostly described as a juxtaposition of different systems of medical practice, is often implemented as a system of establishing personnel with certification in different medical systems, in predominantly allopathic health-care facilities, to practise allopathic medicine. A hierarchy of systems of medicine, often unacknowledged, is exercised in most societies, with allopathy at the top, certain TCAM systems next and local healing traditions last. The tools employed by TCAM practitioners in diagnosis, research, pharmacy, marketing and education and training, which are seen to increasingly emulate those of allopathy, are sometimes inappropriate for use in therapeutic systems with widely divergent epistemologies, which call for distinct research paradigms. The coexistence of numerous systems of medicine, while offering the population greater choice, and presumably enhancing geographical access to health care as well, is often fraught with tensions related to the coexistence of philosophically disparate, even opposed, disciplines, with

  13. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Teens / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... a replacement. How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  14. The Short-Term Effect of Integrated Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment in Inpatients Diagnosed with Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-Riong; Jung, Jaehoon; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of hospital-based intensive nonsurgical treatment in lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IDH) inpatients admitted to an integrated hospital that offers both complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional medicine treatment. A prospective observational study. A private Korean medicine hospital inpatient setting in Korea. A total of 524 inpatients diagnosed with lumbar IDH admitted from June 1, 2012, to May 31, 2013. The participants received treatment according to a CAM treatment protocol (herbal medicine, acupuncture, bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manipulation) and conventional medicine treatment as needed. Numeric rating scale (NRS) of low back pain (LBP) and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and patient global impression of change. The study also assessed whether improvement was obtained over minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in LBP or leg pain. The average hospital stay was 24.4 ± 13.2 days. The majority of patients received CAM treatment and a few selected conventional medicine, such as pain killers (22.7%; 4.2 ± 3.0 administrations) or nerve blocks (14.1%; 1.4 ± 0.7 sessions). At discharge, the average reduction in NRS was 3.18 ± 2.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.99-3.38) for LBP and 2.61 ± 2.60 (95% CI, 2.38-2.83) for leg pain the average reduction in ODI was 19.45 ± 19.53 (95% CI, 17.77-21.12). Two-hundred and seventy patients (51.5%) showed improvement over MCID in both NRS and ODI, 150 (28.6%) in either NRS or ODI, and 104 (19.8%) in neither. Integrated CAM treatment during hospitalization was effective for patients with lumbar IDH who had severe LBP and disability. However, these results must be investigated further to assess whether the effects surpass those seen with placebo and are cost-effective.

  15. Cobalt micro-magnet integration on silicon MOS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Rochette, Sophie; Anderson, John; Manginell, Ronald P.; Pluym, Tammy; Ward, Dan; Carroll, Malcom S.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    Integration of cobalt micro-magnets on silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dot devices has been investigated. The micro-magnets are fabricated in a lift-off process with e-beam lithography and deposited directly on top of an etched poly-silicon gate stack. Among the five resist stacks tested, one is found to be compatible with our MOS specific materials (Si and SiO2) . Moreover, devices with and without additional Al2O3 insulating layer show no additional gate leakage after processing. Preliminary transport data indicates electrostatic stability of our devices with integrated magnets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Reconfigurable, Bi-Directional Flexfet Level Shifter for Low-Power, Rad-Hard Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Kelly; Wilson, Dale G.

    2009-01-01

    Two prototype Reconfigurable, Bi-directional Flexfet Level Shifters (ReBiLS) have been developed, where one version is a stand-alone component designed to interface between external low voltage and high voltage, and the other version is an embedded integrated circuit (IC) for interface between internal low-voltage logic and external high-voltage components. Targeting stand-alone and embedded circuits separately allows optimization for these distinct applications. Both ReBiLS designs use the commercially available 180-nm Flex fet Independently Double-Gated (IDG) SOI CMOS (silicon on insulator, complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology. Embedded ReBiLS circuits were integrated with a Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder using CMOS Ultra-Low-Power Radiation Tolerant (CULPRiT) double-gated digital logic circuits. The scope of the project includes: creation of a new high-voltage process, development of ReBiLS circuit designs, and adjustment of the designs to maximize performance through simulation, layout, and manufacture of prototypes. The primary technical objectives were to develop a high-voltage, thick oxide option for the 180-nm Flexfet process, and to develop a stand-alone ReBiLS IC with two 8-channel I/O busses, 1.8 2.5 I/O on the low-voltage pins, 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O on the high-voltage pins, and 100-MHz minimum operation with 10-pF external loads. Another objective was to develop an embedded, rad-hard ReBiLS I/O cell with 0.5-V low-voltage operation for interface with core logic, 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O pins, and 100-MHz minimum operation with 10- pF external loads. A third objective was to develop a 0.5- V Reed-Solomon Encoder with embedded ReBilS I/O: Transfer the existing CULPRiT RS encoder from a 0.35-micron bulk-CMOS process to the ASI 180-nm Flexfet, rad-hard SOI Process. 0.5-V low-voltage core logic. 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O pins. 100-MHz minimum operation with 10- pF external loads. The stand

  17. Study of CMOS-SOI Integrated Temperature Sensing Circuits for On-Chip Temperature Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malits, Maria; Brouk, Igor; Nemirovsky, Yael

    2018-05-19

    This paper investigates the concepts, performance and limitations of temperature sensing circuits realized in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) silicon on insulator (SOI) technology. It is shown that the MOSFET threshold voltage ( V t ) can be used to accurately measure the chip local temperature by using a V t extractor circuit. Furthermore, the circuit's performance is compared to standard circuits used to generate an accurate output current or voltage proportional to the absolute temperature, i.e., proportional-to-absolute temperature (PTAT), in terms of linearity, sensitivity, power consumption, speed, accuracy and calibration needs. It is shown that the V t extractor circuit is a better solution to determine the temperature of low power, analog and mixed-signal designs due to its accuracy, low power consumption and no need for calibration. The circuit has been designed using 1 µm partially depleted (PD) CMOS-SOI technology, and demonstrates a measurement inaccuracy of ±1.5 K across 300 K⁻500 K temperature range while consuming only 30 µW during operation.

  18. Review of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technologies for High-Speed Photo-Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gyu-Seob; Bae, Woorham; Jeong, Deog-Kyoon

    2017-08-25

    The bandwidth requirement of wireline communications has increased exponentially because of the ever-increasing demand for data centers and high-performance computing systems. However, it becomes difficult to satisfy the requirement with legacy electrical links which suffer from frequency-dependent losses due to skin effects, dielectric losses, channel reflections, and crosstalk, resulting in a severe bandwidth limitation. In order to overcome this challenge, it is necessary to introduce optical communication technology, which has been mainly used for long-reach communications, such as long-haul networks and metropolitan area networks, to the medium- and short-reach communication systems. However, there still remain important issues to be resolved to facilitate the adoption of the optical technologies. The most critical challenges are the energy efficiency and the cost competitiveness as compared to the legacy copper-based electrical communications. One possible solution is silicon photonics which has long been investigated by a number of research groups. Despite inherent incompatibility of silicon with the photonic world, silicon photonics is promising and is the only solution that can leverage the mature complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. Silicon photonics can be utilized in not only wireline communications but also countless sensor applications. This paper introduces a brief review of silicon photonics first and subsequently describes the history, overview, and categorization of the CMOS IC technology for high-speed photo-detection without enumerating the complex circuital expressions and terminologies.

  19. High-Responsivity Graphene-Boron Nitride Photodetector and Autocorrelator in a Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ren-Jye; Gao, Yuanda; Wang, Yifei; Peng, Cheng; Robertson, Alexander D; Efetov, Dmitri K; Assefa, Solomon; Koppens, Frank H L; Hone, James; Englund, Dirk

    2015-11-11

    Graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as promising materials for broadband and ultrafast photodetection and optical modulation. These optoelectronic capabilities can augment complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices for high-speed and low-power optical interconnects. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip ultrafast photodetector based on a two-dimensional heterostructure consisting of high-quality graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride. Coupled to the optical mode of a silicon waveguide, this 2D heterostructure-based photodetector exhibits a maximum responsivity of 0.36 A/W and high-speed operation with a 3 dB cutoff at 42 GHz. From photocurrent measurements as a function of the top-gate and source-drain voltages, we conclude that the photoresponse is consistent with hot electron mediated effects. At moderate peak powers above 50 mW, we observe a saturating photocurrent consistent with the mechanisms of electron-phonon supercollision cooling. This nonlinear photoresponse enables optical on-chip autocorrelation measurements with picosecond-scale timing resolution and exceptionally low peak powers.

  20. CMOS circuit design, layout and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, R Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Third Edition of CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation continues to cover the practical design of both analog and digital integrated circuits, offering a vital, contemporary view of a wide range of analog/digital circuit blocks including: phase-locked-loops, delta-sigma sensing circuits, voltage/current references, op-amps, the design of data converters, and much more. Regardless of one's integrated circuit (IC) design skill level, this book allows readers to experience both the theory behind, and the hands-on implementation of, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) IC design via detailed derivations, discussions, and hundreds of design, layout, and simulation examples.

  1. Development of analog watch with minute repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigami, Tomio; Aoyama, Shigeru; Osa, Takashi; Igarashi, Kiyotaka; Ikegami, Tomomi

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor with large scale integration was developed for an electronic minute repeater. It is equipped with the synthetic struck sound circuit to generate natural struck sound necessary for the minute repeater. This circuit consists of an envelope curve drawing circuit, frequency mixer, polyphonic mixer, and booster circuit made by using analog circuit technology. This large scale integration is a single chip microcomputer with motor drivers and input ports in addition to the synthetic struck sound circuit, and it is possible to make an electronic system of minute repeater at a very low cost in comparison with the conventional type.

  2. Free form CMOS electronics: Physically flexible and stretchable

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-12-07

    Free form (physically flexible and stretchable) electronics can be used for applications which are unexplored today due to the rigid and brittle nature of the state-of-the-art electronics. Therefore, we show integration strategy to rationally design materials, processes and devices to transform advanced complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics into flexible and stretchable one while retaining their high performance, energy efficiency, ultra-large-scale-integration (ULSI) density, reliability and performance over cost benefit to expand its applications for wearable, implantable and Internet-of-Everything electronics.

  3. K-band single-chip electron spin resonance detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Jens; Angerhofer, Alexander; Boero, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of an integrated detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy operating at 27 GHz. The microsystem, consisting of an LC-oscillator and a frequency division module, is integrated onto a single silicon chip using a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The achieved room temperature spin sensitivity is about 10(8)spins/G Hz(1/2), with a sensitive volume of about (100 μm)(3). Operation at 77K is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuron-inspired flexible memristive device on silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-06-18

    Comprehensive understanding of the world\\'s most energy efficient powerful computer, the human brain, is an elusive scientific issue. Still, already gained knowledge indicates memristors can be used as a building block to model the brain. At the same time, brain cortex is folded allowing trillions of neurons to be integrated in a compact volume. Therefore, we report flexible aluminium oxide based memristive devices fabricated and then derived from widely used bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100). We use complementary metal oxide semiconductor based processes to layout the foundation for ultra large scale integration (ULSI) of such memory devices to advance the task of comprehending a physical model of human brain.

  5. Discovering complementary colors from the perspective of steam education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabey, Burak; Yigit Koyunkaya, Melike; Enginoglu, Turan; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2018-05-01

    This study explored the theory and applications of complementary colors using a technology-based activity designed from the perspective of STEAM education. Complementary colors and their areas of use were examined from the perspective of physics, mathematics and art, respectively. The study, which benefits from technology, makes the theory of complementary colors accessible to all through practical applications and provides a multidisciplinary, integrated and innovative technique of teaching the subject of colors, which could be used to teach complementary colors.

  6. Scientific publications from mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in integrative and complementary medicine journals: a ten-year literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qian; Tao, Kun-Ming; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners and researchers from China, the largest user of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), have been publishing an increasing number of scientific articles in world-famous CAM journals in recent years. However, the status of CAM research in the three major regions of China, the Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong has, until now, not been reported. In this study, we compared articles from these three regions published in international CAM journals from 2000 to 2009 using PubMed database and the Journal Citation Reports. The study results showed that the number of published articles from Mainland China increased significantly from 2000 to 2009, particularly since 2005. Meanwhile, the number of published articles from Taiwan also increased, whereas those from Hong Kong remained steady. Clinical trials and randomized controlled trials from Chinese authors both took a small percentage of the total. The impact factors of the journals in which these articles were published suggested similar academic levels whereas the average number of citation of articles from the Mainland was less than those from the other two regions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine and Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine were the most popular journals for Chinese authors.

  7. UV lithography-based protein patterning on silicon: Towards the integration of bioactive surfaces and CMOS electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenci, S., E-mail: silvia.lenci@iet.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, via G.Caruso 16, Pisa I-56122 (Italy); Tedeschi, L. [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica - CNR, via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa I-56124 (Italy); Pieri, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, via G.Caruso 16, Pisa I-56122 (Italy); Domenici, C. [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica - CNR, via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa I-56124 (Italy)

    2011-08-01

    A simple and fast methodology for protein patterning on silicon substrates is presented, providing an insight into possible issues related to the interaction between biological and microelectronic technologies. The method makes use of standard photoresist lithography and is oriented towards the implementation of biosensors containing Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) conditioning circuitry. Silicon surfaces with photoresist patterns were prepared and hydroxylated by means of resist- and CMOS backend-compatible solutions. Subsequent aminosilane deposition and resist lift-off in organic solvents resulted into well-controlled amino-terminated geometries. The discussion is focused on resist- and CMOS-compatibility problems related to the used chemicals. Some samples underwent gold nanoparticle (Au NP) labeling and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observation, in order to investigate the quality of the silane layer. Antibodies were immobilized on other samples, which were subsequently exposed to a fluorescently labeled antigen. Fluorescence microscopy observation showed that this method provides spatially selective immobilization of protein layers onto APTES-patterned silicon samples, while preserving protein reactivity inside the desired areas and low non-specific adsorption elsewhere. Strong covalent biomolecule binding was achieved, giving stable protein layers, which allows stringent binding conditions and a good binding specificity, really useful for biosensing.

  8. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Lung; Zheng, Gou-Tsun

    2015-11-20

    This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm². The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) core is less than 40 µW, and the output is -3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C.

  9. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Lung Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm2. The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO core is less than 40 µW, and the output is −3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C.

  10. Development of CMOS MEMS inductive type tactile sensor with the integration of chrome steel ball force interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sheng-Kai; Chang, Heng-Chung; Fang, Weileun

    2018-04-01

    This study presents an inductive tactile sensor with a chrome steel ball sensing interface based on the commercially available standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process (the TSMC 0.18 µm 1P6M CMOS process). The tactile senor has a deformable polymer layer as the spring of the device and no fragile suspended thin film structures are required. As a tactile force is applied on the chrome steel ball, the polymer would deform. The distance between the chrome steel ball and the sensing coil would changed. Thus, the tactile force can be detected by the inductance change of the sensing coil. In short, the chrome steel ball acts as a tactile bump as well as the sensing interface. Experimental results show that the proposed inductive tactile sensor has a sensing range of 0-1.4 N with a sensitivity of 9.22(%/N) and nonlinearity of 2%. Preliminary wireless sensing test is also demonstrated. Moreover, the influence of the process and material issues on the sensor performances have also been investigated.

  11. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This annual review reports the center's activities and findings on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems design for 1990, including project status, financial support, publications, the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) Symposium on VLSI Design, research results, and outreach programs. Processor chips completed or under development are listed. Research results summarized include a design technique to harden complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) memory circuits against single event upset (SEU); improved circuit design procedures; and advances in computer aided design (CAD), communications, computer architectures, and reliability design. Also described is a high school teacher program that exposes teachers to the fundamentals of digital logic design.

  12. Design and analysis of spiral inductors

    CERN Document Server

    Haobijam, Genemala

    2013-01-01

    The book addresses the critical challenges faced by the ever-expanding wireless communication market and the increasing frequency of operation due to continuous innovation of high performance integrated passive devices. The challenges like low quality factor, design complexity, manufacturability, processing cost, etc., are studied with examples and specifics. Silicon on-chip inductor was first reported in 1990 by Nguyen and Meyer in a 0.8 µm silicon bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology (BiCMOS). Since then, there has been an enormous progress in the research on the perfo

  13. Covalent functionalization of carbon nanotube forests grown in situ on a metal-silicon chip

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Johan R.

    2012-03-12

    We report on the successful covalent functionalization of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, in situ grown on a silicon chip with thin metal contact film as the buffer layer between the CNT forests and the substrate. The CNT forests were successfully functionalized with active amine and azide groups, which can be used for further chemical reactions. The morphology of the CNT forests was maintained after the functionalization. We thus provide a promising foundation for a miniaturized biosensor arrays system that can be easily integrated with Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  14. Covalent functionalization of carbon nanotube forests grown in situ on a metal-silicon chip

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Johan R.; Bosaeus, Niklas; Kann, Nina; Å kerman, Bjö rn; Nordé n, Bengt; Khalid, Waqas

    2012-01-01

    We report on the successful covalent functionalization of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, in situ grown on a silicon chip with thin metal contact film as the buffer layer between the CNT forests and the substrate. The CNT forests were successfully functionalized with active amine and azide groups, which can be used for further chemical reactions. The morphology of the CNT forests was maintained after the functionalization. We thus provide a promising foundation for a miniaturized biosensor arrays system that can be easily integrated with Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  15. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapies are often lacking; therefore, the safety and effectiveness of many CAM therapies are uncertain. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is sponsoring research designed to fill this ...

  16. A New Method for Negative Bias Temperature Instability Assessment in P-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djezzar, Boualem; Tahi, Hakim; Benabdelmoumene, Abdelmadjid; Chenouf, Amel; Kribes, Youcef

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new method, named on the fly oxide trap (OTFOT), to extract the bias temperature instability (BTI) in MOS transistors. The OTFOT method is based on charge pumping technique (CP) at low and high frequencies. We emphasize on the theoretical-based concept, giving a clear insight on the easy-use of the OTFOT methodology and demonstrating its viability to characterize the negative BTI (NBTI). Using alternatively high and low frequencies, OTFOT method separates the interface-traps (ΔNit) and border-trap (ΔNbt) (switching oxide-trap) densities independently and also their contributions to the threshold voltage shift (ΔVth), without needing additional methods. The experimental results, from two experimental scenarios, showing the extraction of NBTI-induced shifts caused by interface- and oxide-trap increases are also presented. In the first scenario, all stresses are performed on the same transistor. It exhibits an artifact value of exponent n. In the second scenario, each voltage stress is applied only on one transistor. Its results show an average n of 0.16, 0.05, and 0.11 for NBTI-induced ΔNit, ΔNbt, ΔVth, respectively. Therefore, OTFOT method can contribute to further understand the behavior of the NBTI degradation, especially through the threshold voltage shift components such as ΔVit and ΔVot caused by interface-trap and border-trap, respectively.

  17. Influence of semiconductor barrier tunneling on the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel metal-oxide-semiconductor diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto M.

    1983-01-01

    of multistep tunneling recombination current and injected minority carrier diffusion current. This can explain the observed values of the diode quality factor n. The results also show that the voltage drop across the oxide Vox is increased with increased NA, with the result that the lowering of the minority...... carrier diode current Jmin is greater than in the usual theory. The conclusion drawn is that the increase in Vox and lowering of Jmin is due to multistep tunneling of majority carriers through the semiconductor barrier. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics.......Current–voltage characteristics have been examined for Al–SiO2–pSi diodes with an interfacial oxide thickness of delta[approximately-equal-to]20 Å. The diodes were fabricated on and oriented substrates with an impurity concentration in the range of NA=1014–1016 cm−3. The results show that for low...

  18. Online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righettini, Paolo; Strada, Roberto; KhademOlama, Ehsan; Valilou, Shirin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator (WCE) over position and acceleration data gathered from an electro hydraulic servo shaking table. This is a batch estimator type that is based on the wavelet filter banks which extract the high and low resolution of data. The proposed complementary estimator combines these two resolutions of velocities which acquired from numerical differentiation and integration of the position and acceleration sensors by considering a fixed moving horizon window as input to wavelet filter. Because of using wavelet filters, it can be implemented in a parallel procedure. By this method the numerical velocity is estimated without having high noise of differentiators, integration drifting bias and with less delay which is suitable for active vibration control in high precision Mechatronics systems by Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF) methods. This method allows us to make velocity sensors with less mechanically moving parts which makes it suitable for fast miniature structures. We have compared this method with Kalman and Butterworth filters over stability, delay and benchmarked them by their long time velocity integration for getting back the initial position data. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Polson, Randy; Menon, Rajesh

    2016-11-01

    Photonic-integrated devices need to be adequately spaced apart to prevent signal cross-talk. This fundamentally limits their packing density. Here we report the use of nanophotonic cloaking to render neighbouring devices invisible to one another, which allows them to be placed closer together than is otherwise feasible. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrated waveguides that are spaced by a distance of ~λ0/2 and designed waveguides with centre-to-centre spacing as small as 600 nm (-2 dB and an extinction ratio >15 dB over a bandwidth larger than 60 nm. This performance can be improved with better design algorithms and industry-standard lithography. The nanophotonic cloak relies on multiple guided-mode resonances, which render such devices very robust to fabrication errors. Our devices are broadly complimentary-metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible, have a minimum pitch of 200 nm and can be fabricated with a single lithography step. The nanophotonic cloaks can be generally applied to all passive integrated photonics.

  20. Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Polson, Randy; Menon, Rajesh

    2016-11-09

    Photonic-integrated devices need to be adequately spaced apart to prevent signal cross-talk. This fundamentally limits their packing density. Here we report the use of nanophotonic cloaking to render neighbouring devices invisible to one another, which allows them to be placed closer together than is otherwise feasible. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrated waveguides that are spaced by a distance of ∼λ 0 /2 and designed waveguides with centre-to-centre spacing as small as 600 nm (-2 dB and an extinction ratio >15 dB over a bandwidth larger than 60 nm. This performance can be improved with better design algorithms and industry-standard lithography. The nanophotonic cloak relies on multiple guided-mode resonances, which render such devices very robust to fabrication errors. Our devices are broadly complimentary-metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible, have a minimum pitch of 200 nm and can be fabricated with a single lithography step. The nanophotonic cloaks can be generally applied to all passive integrated photonics.

  1. Complementary Coffee Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  2. Analysis of the background noise of field effect transistors in MOS complementary technology and application in the construction of a current-sensitive integrated amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuville, E.

    1989-10-01

    A low noise amplifier for use in high energy physics is developed. The origin and the mechanisms of the noise in MOSFET transistors is carried out with the aim of minimizing such effects in amplifiers. The research is applied in the construction of a current-sensitive integrated amplifier. The time scale continuous filtering principle is used and allows the detection of particles arriving in the counter in a random distribution. The rules which must be taken into account in the construction of an analog integrated circuit are shown [fr

  3. High figure-of-merit SOI power LDMOS for power integrated circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashvir Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural modifications in the conventional power laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOS are carried out to improve the breakdown voltage, on-resistance, gate-charge and figure-of-merits of the device with reduced cell pitch. The modified device has planer structure implemented on silicon-on-insulator which is suitable for low to medium voltage power integrated circuits. The proposed LDMOS consists of two gate electrodes placed vertically in two separate trenches build in the drift region and single source and drain contacts are taken on the top. The trench structure reduces the electric field inside the drift region and allow increased drift layer doping concentration leading to higher breakdown voltage, lower specific on-resistance, reduced gate-drain charge, and substantial improvement in the figure-of-merits. Using two-dimensional simulations, the performance of the proposed LDMOS is optimized and results are compared with the conventional LDMOS. Our simulation results show that the proposed device exhibits 110% higher breakdown voltage, 40% reduction in cell pitch, 19% lower specific on-resistance, 30% lower gate-to-drain charge leading to 5.5 times improvement in Baliga's figure-of-merit and 43% reduction in dynamic figure-of-merit over the conventional device.

  4. Polypyrrole Porous Micro Humidity Sensor Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit on Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Lu, De-Hao

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the design and fabrication of a capacitive micro humidity sensor integrated with a five-stage ring oscillator circuit on chip using the complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The area of the humidity sensor chip is about 1 mm2. The humidity sensor consists of a sensing capacitor and a sensing film. The sensing capacitor is constructed from spiral interdigital electrodes that can enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. The sensing film of the sensor is polypyrrole, which is prepared by the chemical polymerization method, and the film has a porous structure. The sensor needs a post-CMOS process to coat the sensing film. The post-CMOS process uses a wet etching to etch the sacrificial layers, and then the polypyrrole is coated on the sensing capacitor. The sensor generates a change in capacitance when the sensing film absorbs or desorbs vapor. The ring oscillator circuit converts the capacitance variation of the sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the humidity sensor is about 99 kHz/%RH at 25 °C. PMID:22163459

  5. Ternary rare-earth based alternative gate-dielectrics for future integration in MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Juergen; Lopes, Joao Marcelo; Durgun Oezben, Eylem; Luptak, Roman; Lenk, Steffi; Zander, Willi; Roeckerath, Martin [IBN 1-IT, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The dielectric SiO{sub 2} has been the key to the tremendous improvements in Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device performance over the past four decades. It has, however, reached its limit in terms of scaling since it exhibits a leakage current density higher than 1 A/cm{sup 2} and does not retain its intrinsic physical properties at thicknesses below 1.5 nm. In order to overcome these problems and keep Moore's law ongoing, the use of higher dielectric constant (k) gate oxides has been suggested. These high-k materials must satisfy numerous requirements such as the high k, low leakage currents, suitable band gap und offsets to silicon. Rare-earth based dielectrics are promising materials which fulfill these needs. We will review the properties of REScO{sub 3} (RE = La, Dy, Gd, Sm, Tb) and LaLuO{sub 3} thin films, grown with pulsed laser deposition, e-gun evaporation or molecular beam deposition, integrated in capacitors and transistors. A k > 20 for the REScO{sub 3} (RE = Dy, Gd) and around 30 for (RE = La, Sm, Tb) and LaLuO{sub 3} are obtained. Transistors prepared on SOI and sSOI show mobility values up to 380 cm{sup 2}/Vs on sSOI, which are comparable to such prepared with HfO{sub 2}.

  6. An Ultrathin Single Crystalline Relaxor Ferroelectric Integrated on a High Mobility Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghadam, Reza M. [Department; Xiao, Zhiyong [Department; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar [Department; Grimley, Everett D. [Department; Bowden, Mark [Environmental; amp, Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Ong, Phuong-Vu [Physical; amp, Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Chambers, Scott A. [Physical; amp, Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Lebeau, James M. [Department; Hong, Xia [Department; Sushko, Peter V. [Physical; amp, Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Ngai, Joseph H. [Department

    2017-09-13

    The epitaxial growth of multifunctional oxides on semiconductors has opened a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor device technologies. In particular, ferroelectric materials integrated on semiconductors could lead to low-power field-effect devices that can be used for logic or memory. Essential to realizing such field-effect devices is the development of ferroelectric metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, in which the polarization of a ferroelectric gate is coupled to the surface potential of a semiconducting channel. Here we demonstrate that ferroelectric MOS capacitors can be realized using single crystalline SrZrxTi1-xO3 (x= 0.7) that has been epitaxially grown on Ge. We find that the ferroelectric properties of SrZrxTi1-xO3 are exceptionally robust, as gate layers as thin as 5 nm give rise to hysteretic capacitance-voltage characteristics that are 2 V in width. The development of ferroelectric MOS capacitors with gate thicknesses that are technologically relevant opens a pathway to realize scalable ferroelectric field-effect devices.

  7. Polypyrrole Porous Micro Humidity Sensor Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Hao Lu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design and fabrication of a capacitive micro humidity sensor integrated with a five-stage ring oscillator circuit on chip using the complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The area of the humidity sensor chip is about 1 mm2. The humidity sensor consists of a sensing capacitor and a sensing film. The sensing capacitor is constructed from spiral interdigital electrodes that can enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. The sensing film of the sensor is polypyrrole, which is prepared by the chemical polymerization method, and the film has a porous structure. The sensor needs a post-CMOS process to coat the sensing film. The post-CMOS process uses a wet etching to etch the sacrificial layers, and then the polypyrrole is coated on the sensing capacitor. The sensor generates a change in capacitance when the sensing film absorbs or desorbs vapor. The ring oscillator circuit converts the capacitance variation of the sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the humidity sensor is about 99 kHz/%RH at 25 °C.

  8. A photonic circuit for complementary frequency shifting, in-phase quadrature/single sideband modulation and frequency multiplication: analysis and integration feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Hu, Jianqi; Nikkhah, Hamdam; Hall, Trevor

    2017-08-01

    A novel photonic integrated circuit architecture for implementing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing by means of photonic generation of phase-correlated sub-carriers is proposed. The circuit can also be used for implementing complex modulation, frequency up-conversion of the electrical signal to the optical domain and frequency multiplication. The principles of operation of the circuit are expounded using transmission matrices and the predictions of the analysis are verified by computer simulation using an industry-standard software tool. Non-ideal scenarios that may affect the correct function of the circuit are taken into consideration and quantified. The discussion of integration feasibility is illustrated by a photonic integrated circuit that has been fabricated using 'library' components and which features most of the elements of the proposed circuit architecture. The circuit is found to be practical and may be fabricated in any material platform that offers a linear electro-optic modulator such as organic or ferroelectric thin films hybridized with silicon photonics.

  9. InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical modulator monolithically integrated with InGaAs driver MOSFET on a III-V CMOS photonics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Kown; Takagi, Shinichi; Takenaka, Mitsuru

    2018-02-19

    We demonstrated the monolithic integration of a carrier-injection InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optical modulator and InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) on a III-V-on-insulator (III-V-OI) wafer. A low-resistivity lateral PIN junction was formed along an InGaAsP rib waveguide by Zn diffusion and Ni-InGaAsP alloy, enabling direct driving of the InGaAsP optical modulator by the InGaAs MOSFET. A π phase shift of the InGaAsP optical modulator was obtained through the injection of a drain current from the InGaAs MOSFET with a gate voltage of approximately 1 V. This proof-of-concept demonstration of the monolithic integration of the InGaAsP optical modulator and InGaAs driver MOSFET will enable us to develop high-performance and low-power electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a III-V CMOS photonics platform.

  10. Complementary Therapies – a spiritual resource in recovery-processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Dürr, Dorte Wiwe; Johannessen, Helle

    rehabilitative treatments intends to support recovery processes of people with serious mental illness. Aim: To investigate how employees and residents perceive complementary therapies as an integral rehabilitative treatment, and to explore the recovery related implications of spirituality employed in the use...... and health as well as for the ethics of providing complementary treatment practice in social psychiatry....

  11. The Complementary Perspective of System of Systems in Collaboration, Integration, and Logistics: A Value-Chain Based Paradigm of Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Jaradat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance and complexity of the problems associated with coordinating multiple organizations to configure value propositions for customers has drawn the attention of multiple disciplines. In an effort to clarify and consolidate terms, this conceptual research examines both supply chain management (SCM and system of systems (SoS literature to postulate, from a value-chain perspective, what roles integration and collaboration play in helping supply chains satisfy customer requirements. A literature review analysis was used to identify the commonalities and differences between supply chain management and system of systems approaches to examining interfirm coordination of value creation efforts. Although a framework of integration and collaboration roles in value creation is proposed, further empirical testing of the concept is required to substantiate initial conclusions. The concepts proposed may help clarify where strategic and operational managers need to focus their efforts in coordinating supply chain member firms. The incorporation of SoS engineering into the supply chain field will draw the linkage between the constituent principles, and concepts of Systems Theory as appropriate for the supply chain management field. This is the first effort to reconcile two separate but parallel scholarship streams examining the coordination of multiple organizations in value creation. This research shows that there are some methodologies, principles, and methods from the SoS field that can supplement supply chain management research. Mainly due to a unit of analysis issue, systems based approaches have not been in the mainstream of supply chain management field development.

  12. Fibromyalgia and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Web site . What the Science Says About Complementary Health Approaches for Fibromyalgia Mind ... Complementary and alternative medical therapies in fibromyalgia . Current Pharmaceutical Design . 2006;12(1):47–57. Sherman KJ, ...

  13. Reading for Integration, Identifying Complementary Threshold Concepts: The ACRL Framework in Conversation with Naming What We Know: Threshold Concepts of Writing Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittney Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, threshold concepts formed the foundation of two disciplinary documents: the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy (2015 and Naming What We Know: Threshold Concepts of Writing Studies (2015. While there is no consensus in the fields about the value of threshold concepts in teaching, reading the six Frames in the ACRL document alongside the threshold concepts of writing studies illuminates overlapping elements that may empower faculty in both fields to advocate collectively against skills-focused writing and research instruction through cross-disciplinary integrations. To facilitate cross-disciplinary conversations around the documents, the authors propose an order for reading the Frames, identify the associated writing concepts, and explain how the shared concepts reveal an internal complexity which may have implications for teaching the ACRL Framework.

  14. Thermal Performance of Motor and Inverter in an Integrated Starter Generator System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If the integrated starter generator (ISG motor and inverter operate under continuously high loading conditions, the system’s performance and durability will decrease and the heat dissipation requirements will increase. Therefore, in this study, we developed two cooling designs for the ISG motor and inverter, and then carried out both a model analysis and an experiment on the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the system under various operating conditions. As the outdoor temperature increased from 25 °C to 95 °C, the coil temperature of the air-cooled motor increased by about 82 °C. Under the harsh-air condition of 95 °C, the coil of the air-cooled motor increased to a maximum temperature of about 158.5 °C. We also determined that the temperature of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET chip in the liquid-cooled inverter increased to a maximum temperature of about 96.8 °C under a coolant flow rate of 4 L/min and a coolant temperature of 65 °C. The observed thermal performance of the ISG motor and inverter using the proposed cooling structures was found to be sufficient for heat loads under various real driving conditions for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV.

  15. Integration of atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics on GaSb via hydrogen plasma exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B. Ruppalt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter we report the efficacy of a hydrogen plasma pretreatment for integrating atomic layer deposited (ALD high-k dielectric stacks with device-quality p-type GaSb(001 epitaxial layers. Molecular beam eptiaxy-grown GaSb surfaces were subjected to a 30 minute H2/Ar plasma treatment and subsequently removed to air. High-k HfO2 and Al2O3/HfO2 bilayer insulating films were then deposited via ALD and samples were processed into standard metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS capacitors. The quality of the semiconductor/dielectric interface was probed by current-voltage and variable-frequency admittance measurements. Measurement results indicate that the H2-plamsa pretreatment leads to a low density of interface states nearly independent of the deposited dielectric material, suggesting that pre-deposition H2-plasma exposure, coupled with ALD of high-k dielectrics, may provide an effective means for achieving high-quality GaSb MOS structures for advanced Sb-based digital and analog electronics.

  16. Large scale integration of flexible non-volatile, re-addressable memories using P(VDF-TrFE) and amorphous oxide transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelinck, Gerwin H; Cobb, Brian; Van Breemen, Albert J J M; Myny, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric polymers and amorphous metal oxide semiconductors have emerged as important materials for re-programmable non-volatile memories and high-performance, flexible thin-film transistors, respectively. However, realizing sophisticated transistor memory arrays has proven to be a challenge, and demonstrating reliable writing to and reading from such a large scale memory has thus far not been demonstrated. Here, we report an integration of ferroelectric, P(VDF-TrFE), transistor memory arrays with thin-film circuitry that can address each individual memory element in that array. n-type indium gallium zinc oxide is used as the active channel material in both the memory and logic thin-film transistors. The maximum process temperature is 200 °C, allowing plastic films to be used as substrate material. The technology was scaled up to 150 mm wafer size, and offers good reproducibility, high device yield and low device variation. This forms the basis for successful demonstration of memory arrays, read and write circuitry, and the integration of these. (paper)

  17. Demographic Characteristics and Medical Service Use of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Patients at an Integrated Treatment Hospital Focusing on Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Retrospective Review of Electronic Medical Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Seung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the patient demographics and nonsurgical complementary and alternative medicine treatment used at a Korean medicine hospital for low back pain (LBP and/or sciatica after surgery. Methods. Medical records of patients who visited a spine-specialized Korean medicine hospital at 2 separate sites for continuous or recurrent LBP or sciatica following back surgery were reviewed. The demographics, MRI and/or CT scans, and treatments were assessed. Results. Of the total 707 patients, 62% were male and the average age was 50.20 years. Ninety percent of patients presented with LBP and 67% with sciatica. Eighty-four percent were diagnosed with herniated nucleus pulposus at time of surgery. Of these patients, 70% had pain recurrence 6 months or later, but 19% experienced no relief or immediate aggravation of pain after surgery. Many patients selected traditional Korean medicine treatment as primary means of postsurgery care (47%. When time to pain recurrence was short or pain persisted after surgery, return of symptoms at the same disc level and side was frequent. Conclusion. An integrative treatment model focusing on Korean medicine and used in conjunction with radiological diagnostics and conventional medicine is currently used as a treatment option for patients with pain after lumbar spine surgery.

  18. A rugged 650 V SOI-based high-voltage half-bridge IGBT gate driver IC for motor drive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qing; Li, Zehong; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Weizhong; Huang, Xiangjun; Feng, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a rugged high-voltage N-channel insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) gate driver integrated circuit. The device integrates a high-side and a low-side output stages on a single chip, which is designed specifically for motor drive applications. High-voltage level shift technology enables the high-side stage of this device to operate up to 650 V. The logic inputs are complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)/transistor transistor logic compatible down to 3.3 V. Undervoltage protection functionality with hysteresis characteristic has also been integrated to enhance the device reliability. The device is fabricated in a 1.0 μm, 650 V high-voltage bipolar CMOS double-diffused metal oxide semiconductor (BCD) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process. Deep trench dielectric isolation technology is employed to provide complete electrical isolation with advantages such as reduced parasitic effects, excellent noise immunity and low leakage current. Experimental results show that the isolation voltage of this device can be up to approximately 779 V at 25°C, and the leakage current is only 5 nA at 650 V, which is 15% higher and 67% lower than the conventional ones. In addition, it delivers an excellent thermal stability and needs very low quiescent current and offers a high gate driver capability which is needed to adequately drive IGBTs that have large input capacitances.

  19. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News : Component of Marijuana Reduces Seizures in Some Children With Epilepsy Mind and Body Approaches for Substance Use Disorders Learn about research on the potential value of mindfulness, hypnosis, acupuncture, music therapy, and yoga for substance use disorders. More on ...

  20. Terms Related to Complementary and Integrative Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of acupuncture incorporate medical traditions from China, Japan, Korea, and other countries. The acupuncture technique that has ... to the practices of one of the major religions or within a spiritual tradition. The techniques used ...

  1. Transmuted Complementary Weibull Geometric Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Z. A…fify

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new generalization of the complementary Weibull geometric distribution that introduced by Tojeiro et al. (2014, using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw and Buckley (2007. The new distribution is referred to as transmuted complementary Weibull geometric distribution (TCWGD. The TCWG distribution includes as special cases the complementary Weibull geometric distribution (CWGD, complementary exponential geometric distribution(CEGD,Weibull distribution (WD and exponential distribution (ED. Various structural properties of the new distribution including moments, quantiles, moment generating function and RØnyi entropy of the subject distribution are derived. We proposed the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the ‡exibility of the transmuted version versus the complementary Weibull geometric distribution.

  2. The current state of the science for active self-care complementary and integrative medicine therapies in the management of chronic pain symptoms: lessons learned, directions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Cindy; Lee, Courtney; Buckenmaier, Chester; Schoomaker, Eric; Petri, Richard; Jonas, Wayne

    2014-04-01

    Chronic pain management typically consists of prescription medications or provider-based, behavioral, or interventional procedures which are often ineffective, may be costly, and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Because chronic pain affects the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), patient-centered complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies that acknowledge the patients' roles in their own healing processes have the potential to provide more efficient and comprehensive chronic pain management. Active self-care CIM (ACT-CIM) therapies allow for a more diverse, patient-centered treatment of complex symptoms, promote self-management, and are relatively safe and cost-effective. To date, there are no systematic reviews examining the full range of ACT-CIM used for chronic pain symptom management. A systematic review was conducted, using Samueli Institute's rapid evidence assessment of the literature methodology, to rigorously assess both the quality of the research on ACT-CIM modalities and the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness in treating chronic pain symptoms. A working group of subject matter experts was also convened to evaluate the overall literature pool and develop recommendations for the use and implementation of these modalities. Following key database searches, 146 randomized controlled trials were included in the review. This article summarizes the current state of the science, lessons learned from the gaps exposed by the review, as well as suggestions for next steps toward translation for the field. Although the review's entire scope is detailed throughout the current Pain Medicine supplement, the authors encourage the use of this report as a guide for future ACT-CIM research. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Assessing the quality, efficacy, and effectiveness of the current evidence base of active self-care complementary and integrative medicine therapies for the management of chronic pain: a rapid evidence assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Roxana; York, Alexandra; Lee, Courtney; Crawford, Cindy; Buckenmaier, Chester; Schoomaker, Eric; Crawford, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Chronic pain management typically consists of prescription medications or provider-based, behavioral, or interventional procedures that are often ineffective, may be costly, and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Because chronic pain affects the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), patient-centered complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies that acknowledge the patients' roles in their own healing processes have the potential to provide more efficient and comprehensive chronic pain management. Active self-care CIM (ACT-CIM) therapies allow for a more diverse, patient-centered treatment of complex symptoms, promote self-management, and are relatively safe and cost-effective. To date, there are no systematic reviews examining the full range of ACT-CIM used for chronic pain symptom management. A systematic review was conducted, using Samueli Institute's Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature methodology, to rigorously assess both the quality of the research on ACT-CIM modalities and the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness in treating chronic pain symptoms. A working group of subject matter experts was also convened to evaluate the overall literature pool and develop recommendations for the use and implementation of these modalities. Following key database searches, 146 randomized controlled trials were included in the review. This article provides an introduction and background to the review, summarizes the methodological processes involved, details the initial results, and identifies strengths and weakness of the review. Specific results of the review as well as overall recommendations for moving this field of research forward are detailed throughout the current Pain Medicine supplement. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An analysis of the various chronic pain conditions captured in a systematic review of active self-care complementary and integrative medicine therapies for the management of chronic pain symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Courtney; Crawford, Cindy; Teo, Lynn; Spevak, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Chronic pain management typically consists of prescription medications or provider-based, behavioral, or interventional procedures that are often ineffective, may be costly, and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Because chronic pain affects the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), patient-centered complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies that acknowledge the patients' roles in their own healing processes have the potential to provide more efficient and comprehensive chronic pain management. Active self-care CIM therapies (ACT-CIM) allow for a more diverse, patient-centered treatment of complex symptoms, promote self-management, and are relatively safe and cost-effective. To date, there are no systematic reviews examining the full range of ACT-CIM used for chronic pain symptom management. A systematic review was conducted, using Samueli Institute's rapid evidence assessment of the literature (REAL©) methodology, to rigorously assess both the quality of the research on ACT-CIM modalities and the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness in treating chronic pain symptoms. A working group of subject matter experts was also convened to evaluate the overall literature pool and develop recommendations for the use and implementation of these modalities. Following key database searches, 146 randomized controlled trials, covering 33 different pain conditions, were included in the review. This article categorized studies by pain condition, describing the diagnostic criteria used and modalities that seem most effective for each condition. Complexities associated with investigating chronic pain populations are also discussed. The entire scope of the review, categorized by modality rather than pain condition, is detailed throughout the current Pain Medicine supplement. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Self-Sustained Wireless Multi-Sensor Platform Integrated with Printable Organic Sensors for Indoor Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chang Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A self-sustained multi-sensor platform for indoor environmental monitoring is proposed in this paper. To reduce the cost and power consumption of the sensing platform, in the developed platform, organic materials of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS/EB-PANI are used as the sensing films for humidity and CO2 detection, respectively. Different from traditional gas sensors, these organic sensing films can operate at room temperature without heating processes or infrared transceivers so that the power consumption of the developed humidity and the CO2 sensors can be as low as 10 μW and 5 μW, respectively. To cooperate with these low-power sensors, a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS system-on-chip (SoC is designed to amplify and to read out multiple sensor signals with low power consumption. The developed SoC includes an analog-front-end interface circuit (AFE, an analog-to-digital convertor (ADC, a digital controller and a power management unit (PMU. Scheduled by the digital controller, the sensing circuits are power gated with a small duty-cycle to reduce the average power consumption to 3.2 μW. The designed PMU converts the power scavenged from a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC module into required supply voltages for SoC circuits operation under typical indoor illuminance conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first multiple environmental parameters (Temperature/CO2/Humidity sensing platform that demonstrates a true self-powering functionality for long-term operations.

  6. A Self-Sustained Wireless Multi-Sensor Platform Integrated with Printable Organic Sensors for Indoor Environmental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Chang; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Wu, Ching-Da; Su, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Yang; Huang, Yang-Jing; Peng, Sheng-Yu; Yu, Shih-An; Lin, Chih-Ting; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2017-03-29

    A self-sustained multi-sensor platform for indoor environmental monitoring is proposed in this paper. To reduce the cost and power consumption of the sensing platform, in the developed platform, organic materials of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS/EB-PANI are used as the sensing films for humidity and CO₂ detection, respectively. Different from traditional gas sensors, these organic sensing films can operate at room temperature without heating processes or infrared transceivers so that the power consumption of the developed humidity and the CO₂ sensors can be as low as 10 μW and 5 μW, respectively. To cooperate with these low-power sensors, a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) system-on-chip (SoC) is designed to amplify and to read out multiple sensor signals with low power consumption. The developed SoC includes an analog-front-end interface circuit (AFE), an analog-to-digital convertor (ADC), a digital controller and a power management unit (PMU). Scheduled by the digital controller, the sensing circuits are power gated with a small duty-cycle to reduce the average power consumption to 3.2 μW. The designed PMU converts the power scavenged from a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) module into required supply voltages for SoC circuits operation under typical indoor illuminance conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first multiple environmental parameters (Temperature/CO₂/Humidity) sensing platform that demonstrates a true self-powering functionality for long-term operations.

  7. A Low-Noise CMOS THz Imager Based on Source Modulation and an In-Pixel High-Q Passive Switched-Capacitor N-Path Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhayma, Assim; Dupret, Antoine; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Enz, Christian

    2016-03-03

    This paper presents the first low noise complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) deletedCMOS terahertz (THz) imager based on source modulation and in-pixel high-Q filtering. The 31 × 31 focal plane array has been fully integrated in a 0 . 13 μ m standard CMOS process. The sensitivity has been improved significantly by modulating the active THz source that lights the scene and performing on-chip high-Q filtering. Each pixel encompass a broadband bow tie antenna coupled to an N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) detector that shifts the THz radiation, a low noise adjustable gain amplifier and a high-Q filter centered at the modulation frequency. The filter is based on a passive switched-capacitor (SC) N-path filter combined with a continuous-time broad-band Gm-C filter. A simplified analysis that helps in designing and tuning the passive SC N-path filter is provided. The characterization of the readout chain shows that a Q factor of 100 has been achieved for the filter with a good matching between the analytical calculation and the measurement results. An input-referred noise of 0 . 2 μ V RMS has been measured. Characterization of the chip with different THz wavelengths confirms the broadband feature of the antenna and shows that this THz imager reaches a total noise equivalent power of 0 . 6 nW at 270 GHz and 0 . 8 nW at 600 GHz.

  8. Non-Planar Nano-Scale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Sevilla, Galo T.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Sridharan, Ashvitha; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nano-scale non-planar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in-situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nano-scale, non-planar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stack, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length exhibits ION ~70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low sub-threshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device’s performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  9. Nonplanar Nanoscale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jhonathan P; Torres Sevilla, Galo A; Alfaraj, Nasir; Ghoneim, Mohamed T; Kutbee, Arwa T; Sridharan, Ashvitha; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-05-26

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nanoscale nonplanar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nanoscale, nonplanar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stacks, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length, exhibits an ION value of nearly 70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low subthreshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device's performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  10. An ultra-low-voltage electronic implementation of inertial neuron model with nonmonotonous Liao's activation function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Nasir Ali; Dar, Mohamad Rafiq; Khanday, Farooq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The output of every neuron in neural network is specified by the employed activation function (AF) and therefore forms the heart of neural networks. As far as the design of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is concerned, hardware approach is preferred over software one because it promises the full utilization of the application potential of ANNs. Therefore, besides some arithmetic blocks, designing AF in hardware is the most important for designing ANN. While attempting to design the AF in hardware, the designs should be compatible with the modern Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) design techniques. In this regard, the implemented designs should: only be in Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) technology in order to be compatible with the digital designs, provide electronic tunability feature, and be able to operate at ultra-low voltage. Companding is one of the promising circuit design techniques for achieving these goals. In this paper, 0.5 V design of Liao's AF using sinh-domain technique is introduced. Furthermore, the function is tested by implementing inertial neuron model. The performance of the AF and inertial neuron model have been evaluated through simulation results, using the PSPICE software with the MOS transistor models provided by the 0.18-μm Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturer Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (TSM CMOS) process.

  11. Direct protein detection with a nano-interdigitated array gate MOSFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaohui; Jonas, Alain M; Nysten, Bernard; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Blondeau, Franoise; Prévot, Pierre-Paul; Pampin, Rémi; Godfroid, Edmond; Iñiguez, Benjamin; Colinge, Jean-Pierre; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Flandre, Denis; Bayot, Vincent

    2009-08-15

    A new protein sensor is demonstrated by replacing the gate of a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) with a nano-interdigitated array (nIDA). The sensor is able to detect the binding reaction of a typical antibody Ixodes ricinus immunosuppressor (anti-Iris) protein at a concentration lower than 1 ng/ml. The sensor exhibits a high selectivity and reproducible specific detection. We provide a simple model that describes the behavior of the sensor and explains the origin of its high sensitivity. The simulated and experimental results indicate that the drain current of nIDA-gate MOSFET sensor is significantly increased with the successive binding of the thiol layer, Iris and anti-Iris protein layers. It is found that the sensor detection limit can be improved by well optimizing the geometrical parameters of nIDA-gate MOSFET. This nanobiosensor, with real-time and label-free capabilities, can easily be used for the detection of other proteins, DNA, virus and cancer markers. Moreover, an on-chip associated electronics nearby the sensor can be integrated since its fabrication is compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  12. Non-Planar Nano-Scale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2015-05-01

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nano-scale non-planar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in-situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nano-scale, non-planar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stack, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length exhibits ION ~70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low sub-threshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device’s performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  13. Water soluble nano-scale transient material germanium oxide for zero toxic waste based environmentally benign nano-manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Almuslem, A. S.

    2017-02-14

    In the recent past, with the advent of transient electronics for mostly implantable and secured electronic applications, the whole field effect transistor structure has been dissolved in a variety of chemicals. Here, we show simple water soluble nano-scale (sub-10 nm) germanium oxide (GeO) as the dissolvable component to remove the functional structures of metal oxide semiconductor devices and then reuse the expensive germanium substrate again for functional device fabrication. This way, in addition to transiency, we also show an environmentally friendly manufacturing process for a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Every year, trillions of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are manufactured and billions are disposed, which extend the harmful impact to our environment. Therefore, this is a key study to show a pragmatic approach for water soluble high performance electronics for environmentally friendly manufacturing and bioresorbable electronic applications.

  14. Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), Communalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Prof. Asouzu

    Glossary of Igbo Terms and Phrases ihe ahụ na anya ... other words, it is in mutual dependence that the feeling of intimacy found among kindred ..... Complementary Reflection, Communalism and Theory Formulation in African Philosophy 25.

  15. Cancer and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... According to the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which included a comprehensive survey on the use ... their use of complementary health approaches. In the NHIS, survey respondents who had been diagnosed with cancer ...

  16. BASED COMPLEMENTARY FOODS USING GERMINAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... Malnutrition affects physical growth, morbidity, mortality, cognitive development, reproduction, and ... malnutrition. Development of complementary foods is guided by nutritional value, acceptability, availability and affordability of raw materials, and simplicity of food processing ... (Memmert, Germany) at 55. 0.

  17. Building Capacity for Complementary and Integrative Medicine Through a Large, Cross-Agency, Acupuncture Training Program: Lessons Learned from a Military Health System and Veterans Health Administration Joint Initiative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemtzow, Richard; Baxter, John; Gallagher, Rollin M; Pock, Arnyce; Calabria, Kathryn; Drake, David; Galloway, Kevin; Walter, Joan; Petri, Richard; Piazza, Thomas; Burns, Stephen; Hofmann, Lew; Biery, John; Buckenmaier, Chester

    2018-03-26

    Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) use in the USA continues to expand, including within the Military Health System (MHS) and Veterans Health Administration (VHA). To mitigate the opioid crisis and provide additional non-pharmacological pain management options, a large cross-agency collaborative project sought to develop and implement a systems-wide curriculum, entitled Acupuncture Training Across Clinical Settings (ATACS). ATACS curriculum content and structure were created and refined over the course of the project in response to consultations with Subject Matter Experts and provider feedback. Course content was developed to be applicable to the MHS and VHA environments and training was open to many types of providers. Training included a 4-hr didactic and "hands on" clinical training program focused on a single auricular acupuncture protocol, Battlefield Acupuncture. Trainee learning and skills proficiency were evaluated by trainer-observation and written examination. Immediately following training, providers completed an evaluation survey on their ATACS experience. One month later, they were asked to complete another survey regarding their auricular acupuncture use and barriers to use. The present evaluation describes the ATACS curriculum, faculty and trainee characteristics, as well as trainee and program developer perspectives. Over the course of a 19-mo period, 2,712 providers completed the in-person, 4-hr didactic and hands-on clinical training session. Due to the increasing requests for training, additional ATACS faculty were trained. Overall, 113 providers were approved to be training faculty. Responses from the trainee surveys indicated high satisfaction with the ATACS training program and illuminated several challenges to using auricular acupuncture with patients. The most common reported barrier to using auricular acupuncture was the lack of obtaining privileges to administer auricular acupuncture within clinical practice. The ATACS program

  18. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  19. All-optical differential equation solver with constant-coefficient tunable based on a single microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Dong, Jianji; Lu, Liangjun; Zhou, Linjie; Zheng, Aoling; Zhang, Xinliang; Chen, Jianping

    2014-07-04

    Photonic integrated circuits for photonic computing open up the possibility for the realization of ultrahigh-speed and ultra wide-band signal processing with compact size and low power consumption. Differential equations model and govern fundamental physical phenomena and engineering systems in virtually any field of science and engineering, such as temperature diffusion processes, physical problems of motion subject to acceleration inputs and frictional forces, and the response of different resistor-capacitor circuits, etc. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a feasible integrated scheme to solve first-order linear ordinary differential equation with constant-coefficient tunable based on a single silicon microring resonator. Besides, we analyze the impact of the chirp and pulse-width of input signals on the computing deviation. This device can be compatible with the electronic technology (typically complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology), which may motivate the development of integrated photonic circuits for optical computing.

  20. Micromachined high-performance RF passives in CMOS substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinxin; Ni, Zao; Gu, Lei; Wu, Zhengzheng; Yang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    This review systematically addresses the micromachining technologies used for the fabrication of high-performance radio-frequency (RF) passives that can be integrated into low-cost complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-grade (i.e. low-resistivity) silicon wafers. With the development of various kinds of post-CMOS-compatible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes, 3D structural inductors/transformers, variable capacitors, tunable resonators and band-pass/low-pass filters can be compatibly integrated into active integrated circuits to form monolithic RF system-on-chips. By using MEMS processes, including substrate modifying/suspending and LIGA-like metal electroplating, both the highly lossy substrate effect and the resistive loss can be largely eliminated and depressed, thereby meeting the high-performance requirements of telecommunication applications. (topical review)