WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated aquifer analysis

  1. An integrated study of spatial multicriteria analysis and mathematical modelling for managed aquifer recharge site suitability mapping and site ranking at Northern Gaza coastal aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Rusteberg, Bernd; Uddin, Mohammad Salah; Lutz, Annegret; Saada, Muath Abu; Sauter, Martin

    2013-07-30

    This paper describes an integrated approach of site suitability mapping and ranking of the most suitable sites, for the implementation of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) projects, using spatial multicriteria decision analysis (SMCDA) techniques and mathematical modelling. The SMCDA procedure contains constraint mapping, site suitability analysis with criteria standardization and weighting, criteria overlay by analytical hierarchy process (AHP) combined with weighted linear combination (WLC) and ordered weighted averaging (OWA), and sensitivity analysis. The hydrogeological impacts of the selected most suitable sites were quantified by using groundwater flow and transport modelling techniques. Finally, ranking of the selected sites was done with the WLC method. The integrated approach is demonstrated by a case study in the coastal aquifer of North Gaza. Constraint mapping shows that 50% of the total study area is suitable for MAR implementation. About 25% of the total area is "very good" and 25% percent is "good" for MAR, according to the site suitability analysis. Six locations were selected and ranked against six representative decision criteria. Long term (year 2003 to year 2040) groundwater flow and transport simulations were performed to quantify the selected criteria under MAR project operation conditions at the selected sites. Finally, the suitability mapping and hydrogeological investigation recommends that the location of the existing infiltration ponds, constructed near the planned North Gaza Wastewater Treatment Plant (NGWWTP) is most suitable for MAR project implementation. This paper concludes that mathematical modelling should be combined with the SMCDA technique in order to select the best location for MAR project implementation. Besides MAR project implementation, the generalised approach can be applicable for any other water resources development project that deals with site selection and implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Spectral Noise Logging for well integrity analysis in the mineral water well in Asselian aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Kantyukov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mineral water well with decreasing salinity level according to lab tests. A well integrity package including Spectral Noise Logging (SNL, High-Precision Temperature (HPT logging and electromagnetic defectoscopy (EmPulse was performed in the well which allowed finding casing leaks and fresh water source. In the paper all logging data were thoroughly analyzed and recommendation for workover was mentioned. The SNL-HPT-EmPulse survey allowed avoiding well abandonment.

  3. Hydraulic characterization of volcanic rocks in Pahute Mesa using an integrated analysis of 16 multiple-well aquifer tests, Nevada National Security Site, 2009–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Jackson, Tracie R.; Halford, Keith J.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Damar, Nancy A.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Reiner, Steven R.

    2017-01-20

    An improved understanding of groundwater flow and radionuclide migration downgradient from underground nuclear-testing areas at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, requires accurate subsurface hydraulic characterization. To improve conceptual models of flow and transport in the complex hydrogeologic system beneath Pahute Mesa, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized bulk hydraulic properties of volcanic rocks using an integrated analysis of 16 multiple-well aquifer tests. Single-well aquifer-test analyses provided transmissivity estimates at pumped wells. Transmissivity estimates ranged from less than 1 to about 100,000 square feet per day in Pahute Mesa and the vicinity. Drawdown from multiple-well aquifer testing was estimated and distinguished from natural fluctuations in more than 200 pumping and observation wells using analytical water-level models. Drawdown was detected at distances greater than 3 miles from pumping wells and propagated across hydrostratigraphic units and major structures, indicating that neither faults nor structural blocks noticeably impede or divert groundwater flow in the study area.Consistent hydraulic properties were estimated by simultaneously interpreting drawdown from the 16 multiple-well aquifer tests with an integrated groundwater-flow model composed of 11 well-site models—1 for each aquifer test site. Hydraulic properties were distributed across volcanic rocks with the Phase II Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Hydrostratigraphic Framework Model. Estimated hydraulic-conductivity distributions spanned more than two orders of magnitude in hydrostratigraphic units. Overlapping hydraulic conductivity ranges among units indicated that most Phase II Hydrostratigraphic Framework Model units were not hydraulically distinct. Simulated total transmissivity ranged from 1,600 to 68,000 square feet per day for all pumping wells analyzed. High-transmissivity zones exceeding 10,000 square feet per day exist near caldera margins and extend

  4. Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer contains the shallowest principal aquifers of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, portrayed as polygons....

  5. Model-Based Integration and Analysis of Biogeochemical and Isotopic Dynamics in a Nitrate-Polluted Pyritic Aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.C.; Prommer, H.; Slomp, C.P.; Broers, H.P.; van der Grift, B.; Passier, H.F.; Greskowiak, J.; Boettcher, M.E.; van Capellen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Leaching of nitrate from agricultural land to groundwater and the resulting nitrate pollution are a major environmental problem worldwide. Its impact is often mitigated in aquifers hosting sufficiently reactive reductants that can promote autotrophic denitrification. In the case of pyrite acting as

  6. Model-based integration and analysis of biogeochemical and isotopic dynamics in a nitrate-polluted pyritic aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.-C.; Prommer, H.; Broers, H.P.; Slomp, C.P.; Greskowiak, J.; Van Der Grift, B.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Leaching of nitrate from agricultural land to groundwater and the resulting nitrate pollution are a major environmental problem worldwide. Its impact is often mitigated in aquifers hosting sufficiently reactive reductants that can promote autotrophic denitrification. In the case of pyrite acting as

  7. The typology of Irish hard-rock aquifers based on an integrated hydrogeological and geophysical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Nitsche, Janka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Pilatova, Katarina; Flynn, Raymond

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater flow in hard-rock aquifers is strongly controlled by the characteristics and distribution of structural heterogeneity. A methodology for catchment-scale characterisation is presented, based on the integration of complementary, multi-scale hydrogeological, geophysical and geological approaches. This was applied to three contrasting catchments underlain by metamorphic rocks in the northern parts of Ireland (Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, UK). Cross-validated surface and borehole geophysical investigations confirm the discontinuous overburden, lithological compartmentalisation of the bedrock and important spatial variations of the weathered bedrock profiles at macro-scale. Fracture analysis suggests that the recent (Alpine) tectonic fabric exerts strong control on the internal aquifer structure at meso-scale, which is likely to impact on the anisotropy of aquifer properties. The combination of the interpretation of depth-specific hydraulic-test data with the structural information provided by geophysical tests allows characterisation of the hydrodynamic properties of the identified aquifer units. Regionally, the distribution of hydraulic conductivities can be described by inverse power laws specific to the aquifer litho-type. Observed groundwater flow directions reflect this multi-scale structure. The proposed integrated approach applies widely available investigative tools to identify key dominant structures controlling groundwater flow, characterising the aquifer type for each catchment and resolving the spatial distribution of relevant aquifer units and associated hydrodynamic parameters.

  8. Sedimentological analysis of a contaminated groundwater aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of sedimentological reservoir analysis techniques adapted from standard oilfield practice can improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of the evaluation of groundwater aquifers and the design of restoration programs. An evaluation/restoration program at a site in California drilled over 200 test wells in about 750 ac. All wells were logged lithologically and with wireline. The shallow aquifer is a complex braided alluvial floodplain deposit of Late Quaternary age. Analysis demonstrates depositional and erosional responses to periodic hinterland uplifts and to changing climatic conditions. Channel, overbank, lacustrine, and minor deltaic deposits can be recognized. The aquifer architecture has been interpreted to explain the movement of fuel and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents in the sediments and water. Routine engineering geology techniques and hydrologic tests were used to evaluate contamination and to design experimental restoration processes. As demonstrated here, sedimentological techniques show promise in reducing the costs and time required for this type of study. The abundant detailed data will be used in an attempt to develop a microcomputer-based expert system for rapid preliminary analyses of similar aquifers or reservoirs

  9. Data-base system for northern Midwest regional aquifer-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, A.L.; Mandle, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a study of the Cambrian and Ordovician aquifer system of the northern Midwest as part of a national series of Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis (RASA). An integral part of this study will be a simulation of the ground-water flow regime using the Geological Survey's three-dimensional finite-difference model. The first step in the modeling effort is the design and development of a systematic set of processes to facilitate the collection, evaluation, manipulation, and use of large quantities of information. A computerized data-base system to accomplish these goals has been completed for the northern Midwest RASA.

  10. Integrative approach to delineate natural attenuation of chlorinated benzenes in anoxic aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelzer, Nicole; Imfeld, Gwenael; Thullner, Martin; Lehmann, Juergen; Poser, Alexander; Richnow, Hans-H.; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradation of chlorobenzenes was assessed at an anoxic aquifer by combining hydrogeochemistry and stable isotope analyses. In situ microcosm analysis evidenced microbial assimilation of chlorobenzene (MCB) derived carbon and laboratory investigations asserted mineralization of MCB at low rates. Sequential dehalogenation of chlorinated benzenes may affect the isotope signature of single chlorobenzene species due to simultaneous depletion and enrichment of 13 C, which complicates the evaluation of degradation. Therefore, the compound-specific isotope analysis was interpreted based on an isotope balance. The enrichment of the cumulative isotope composition of all chlorobenzenes indicated in situ biodegradation. Additionally, the relationship between hydrogeochemistry and degradation activity was investigated by principal component analysis underlining variable hydrogeochemical conditions associated with degradation activity at the plume scale. Although the complexity of the field site did not allow straightforward assessment of natural attenuation processes, the application of an integrative approach appeared relevant to characterize the in situ biodegradation potential. - Lines of evidence for in situ biodegradation of chlorinated benzenes in an anoxic aquifer by combining hydrogeochemical and stable isotope data with multivariate statistics.

  11. Integrative approach to delineate natural attenuation of chlorinated benzenes in anoxic aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzer, Nicole; Imfeld, Gwenael [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Thullner, Martin [Department of Environmental Microbiology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Lehmann, Juergen [Ingenieurbuero Roth and Partner GmbH, Hans-Sachs-Str. 9, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Poser, Alexander [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Richnow, Hans-H., E-mail: hans.richnow@ufz.d [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Nijenhuis, Ivonne [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Biodegradation of chlorobenzenes was assessed at an anoxic aquifer by combining hydrogeochemistry and stable isotope analyses. In situ microcosm analysis evidenced microbial assimilation of chlorobenzene (MCB) derived carbon and laboratory investigations asserted mineralization of MCB at low rates. Sequential dehalogenation of chlorinated benzenes may affect the isotope signature of single chlorobenzene species due to simultaneous depletion and enrichment of {sup 13}C, which complicates the evaluation of degradation. Therefore, the compound-specific isotope analysis was interpreted based on an isotope balance. The enrichment of the cumulative isotope composition of all chlorobenzenes indicated in situ biodegradation. Additionally, the relationship between hydrogeochemistry and degradation activity was investigated by principal component analysis underlining variable hydrogeochemical conditions associated with degradation activity at the plume scale. Although the complexity of the field site did not allow straightforward assessment of natural attenuation processes, the application of an integrative approach appeared relevant to characterize the in situ biodegradation potential. - Lines of evidence for in situ biodegradation of chlorinated benzenes in an anoxic aquifer by combining hydrogeochemical and stable isotope data with multivariate statistics.

  12. Integration of models of various types of aquifers for water quality management in the transboundary area of the Soča/Isonzo river basin (Slovenia/Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vižintin, Goran; Ravbar, Nataša; Janež, Jože; Koren, Eva; Janež, Naško; Zini, Luca; Treu, Francesco; Petrič, Metka

    2018-04-01

    Due to intrinsic characteristics of aquifers groundwater frequently passes between various types of aquifers without hindrance. The complex connection of underground water paths enables flow regardless of administrative boundaries. This can cause problems in water resources management. Numerical modelling is an important tool for the understanding, interpretation and management of aquifers. Useful and reliable methods of numerical modelling differ with regard to the type of aquifer, but their connections in a single hydrodynamic model are rare. The purpose of this study was to connect different models into an integrated system that enables determination of water travel time from the point of contamination to water sources. The worst-case scenario is considered. The system was applied in the Soča/Isonzo basin, a transboundary river in Slovenia and Italy, where there is a complex contact of karst and intergranular aquifers and surface flows over bedrock with low permeability. Time cell models were first elaborated separately for individual hydrogeological units. These were the result of numerical hydrological modelling (intergranular aquifer and surface flow) or complex GIS analysis taking into account the vulnerability map and tracer tests results (karst aquifer). The obtained cellular models present the basis of a contamination early-warning system, since it allows an estimation when contaminants can be expected to appear, and in which water sources. The system proves that the contaminants spread rapidly through karst aquifers and via surface flows, and more slowly through intergranular aquifers. For this reason, karst water sources are more at risk from one-off contamination incidents, while water sources in intergranular aquifers are more at risk in cases of long-term contamination. The system that has been developed is the basis for a single system of protection, action and quality monitoring in the areas of complex aquifer systems within or on the borders of

  13. Thermal modeling of a greenhouse integrated to an aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 008, Punjab (India); Sharma, S.K. [Energy Research Centre, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 017, Punjab (India)

    2007-06-15

    A thermal model is developed for heating and cooling of an agricultural greenhouse integrated with an aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system (ACCFHES). The ACCFHES works on the principal of utilizing deep aquifer water available at the ground surface through an irrigation tube well already installed in every agricultural field at constant year-round temperature of 24 C. The analysis is based on the energy balance equations for different components of the greenhouse. Using the derived analytical expressions, a computer program is developed in C{sup ++} for computing the hourly greenhouse plant and room air temperature for various design and climatic parameters. Experimental validation of the developed model is carried out using the measured plant and room air temperature data of the greenhouse (in which capsicum is grown) for the winter and summer conditions of the year 2004-2005 at Chandigarh (31 N and 78 E), Punjab, India. It is observed that the predicted and measured values are in close agreement. Greenhouse room air and plant temperature is maintained 6-7 K and 5-6 K below ambient, respectively for an extreme summer day and 7-8 K and 5-6 K above ambient, respectively for an extreme winter night. Finally, parametric studies are conducted to observe the effect of various operating parameters such as mass of the plant, area of the plant, mass flow rate of the circulating air and area of the ACCFHES on the greenhouse room air and plant temperature. (author)

  14. Integrated assessment of future potential global change scenarios and their hydrological impacts in coastal aquifers – a new tool to analyse management alternatives in the Plana Oropesa-Torreblanca aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pulido-Velazquez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Any change in the components of the water balance in a coastal aquifer, whether natural or anthropogenic, can alter the freshwater–salt water equilibrium. In this sense climate change (CC and land use and land cover (LULC change might significantly influence the availability of groundwater resources in the future. These coastal systems demand an integrated analysis of quantity and quality issues to obtain an appropriate assessment of hydrological impacts using density-dependent flow solutions. The aim of this work is to perform an integrated analysis of future potential global change (GC scenarios and their hydrological impacts in a coastal aquifer, the Plana Oropesa-Torreblanca aquifer. It is a Mediterranean aquifer that extends over 75 km2 in which important historical LULC changes have been produced and are planned for the future. Future CC scenarios will be defined by using an equi-feasible and non-feasible ensemble of projections based on the results of a multi-criteria analysis of the series generated from several regional climatic models with different downscaling approaches. The hydrological impacts of these CC scenarios combined with future LULC scenarios will be assessed with a chain of models defined by a sequential coupling of rainfall-recharge models, crop irrigation requirements and irrigation return models (for the aquifer and its neighbours that feed it, and a density-dependent aquifer approach. This chain of models, calibrated using the available historical data, allow testing of the conceptual approximation of the aquifer behaviour. They are also fed with series representatives of potential global change scenarios in order to perform a sensitivity analysis regarding future scenarios of rainfall recharge, lateral flows coming from the hydraulically connected neighbouring aquifer, agricultural recharge (taking into account expected future LULC changes and sea level rise (SLR. The proposed analysis is valuable for

  15. Aquifer test interpretation using derivative analysis and diagnostic plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Espriú, Antonio; Real-Rangel, Roberto; Cortés-Salazar, Iván; Castro-Herrera, Israel; Luna-Izazaga, Gabriela; Sánchez-León, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Pumping tests remain a method of choice to deduce fundamental aquifer properties and to assess well condition. In the oil and gas (O&G) industry, well testing has been the core technique in examining reservoir behavior over the last 50 years. The pressure derivative by Bourdet, it is perhaps, the most significant single development in the history of well test analysis. Recently, the so-called diagnostics plots (e.g. drawdown and drawdown derivative in a log-log plot) have been successfully tested in aquifers. However, this procedure is still underutilized by groundwater professionals. This research illustrates the applicability range, advantages and drawbacks (e.g. smoothing procedures) of diagnostic plots using field examples from a wide spectrum of tests (short/long tests, constant/variable flow rates, drawdown/buildup stages, pumping well/observation well) in dissimilar geological conditions. We analyze new and pre-existent aquifer tests in Mexico, USA, Canada, Germany, France and Saudi Arabia. In constant flow rate tests, our results show that derivative analysis is an easy, robust and powerful tool to assess near-borehole damage effects, formation heterogeneity, boundaries, flow regimes, infinite-acting radial stages, i.e., valid Theisian framework, and fracture-driven flow. In step tests, the effectiveness relies on high-frequency drawdown measurements. Moreover, we adapt O&G analytical solutions to cater for the conditions in groundwater systems. In this context, further parameters can be computed analytically from the plots, such as skin factor, head losses, wellbore storage, distance to the boundary, channel-aquifer and/or fracture zone width, among others. Therefore, diagnostic plots should be considered a mandatory tool for pumping tests analysis among hydrogeologists. This project has been supported by DGAPA (UNAM) under the research project PAPIIT IN-112815.

  16. Integration of Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery and HACCP for Ensuring Drinking Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. I.; Ji, H. W.

    2015-12-01

    The integration of ASTR (Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery) and HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is being attempted to ensure drinking water quality in a delta area. ASTR is a water supply system in which surface water is injected into a well for storage and recovered from a different well. During the process natural water treatment is achieved in the aquifer. ASTR has advantages over surface reservoirs in that the water is protected from external contaminants and free from water loss by evaporation. HACCP, originated from the food industry, can efficiently manage hazards and reduce risks when it is introduced to the drinking water production. The study area is the located in the Nakdong River Delta, South Korea. Water quality of this region has been deteriorated due to the increased pollution loads from the upstream cities and industrial complexes. ASTR equipped with HACCP system is suggested as a means to heighten the public trust in drinking water. After the drinking water supply system using ASTR was decomposed into ten processes, principles of HACCP were applied. Hazardous event analysis was conducted for 114 hazardous events and nine major hazardous events were identified based on the likelihood and the severity assessment. Potential risk of chemical hazards, as a function of amounts, travel distance and toxicity, was evaluated and the result shows the relative threat a city poses to the drinking water supply facility. Next, critical control points were determined using decision tree analysis. Critical limits, maximum and/or minimum values to which biological, chemical or physical parameters must be controlled, were established. Other procedures such as monitoring, corrective actions and will be presented.

  17. Molecular Analysis of Microbial Community Structures in Pristine and Contaminated Aquifers: Field and Laboratory Microcosm Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Zwolinski, M. D.; Schreiber, M. E.; Bahr, J. M.; Sewell, G. W.; Hickey, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    FC aquifer community. These studies demonstrated that alterations in aquifer microbial communities resulting from specific anthropogenic perturbances can be inferred from microcosm studies integrating chemical and phylogenetic probe analysis and in the case of hydrocarbon contamination may facilitate the identification of organisms important for in situ biodegradation processes. Further work integrating and coordinating microcosm and field experiments is needed to explore how differences in scale, substrate complexity, and other hydrogeological conditions may affect patterns observed in these systems. PMID:10224013

  18. Potential shallow aquifers characterization through an integrated geophysical method: multivariate approach by means of k-means algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bernardinetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to obtain a detailed hydrogeological characterization of the subsurface and its interpretation for the groundwater resources management, often requires to apply several and complementary geophysical methods. The goal of the approach in this paper is to provide a unique model of the aquifer by synthesizing and optimizing the information provided by several geophysical methods. This approach greatly reduces the degree of uncertainty and subjectivity of the interpretation by exploiting the different physical and mechanic characteristics of the aquifer. The studied area, into the municipality of Laterina (Arezzo, Italy, is a shallow basin filled by lacustrine and alluvial deposits (Pleistocene and Olocene epochs, Quaternary period, with alternated silt, sand with variable content of gravel and clay where the bottom is represented by arenaceous-pelitic rocks (Mt. Cervarola Unit, Tuscan Domain, Miocene epoch. This shallow basin constitutes the unconfined superficial aquifer to be exploited in the nearly future. To improve the geological model obtained from a detailed geological survey we performed electrical resistivity and P wave refraction tomographies along the same line in order to obtain different, independent and integrable data sets. For the seismic data also the reflected events have been processed, a remarkable contribution to draw the geologic setting. Through the k-means algorithm, we perform a cluster analysis for the bivariate data set to individuate relationships between the two sets of variables. This algorithm allows to individuate clusters with the aim of minimizing the dissimilarity within each cluster and maximizing it among different clusters of the bivariate data set. The optimal number of clusters “K”, corresponding to the individuated geophysical facies, depends to the multivariate data set distribution and in this work is estimated with the Silhouettes. The result is an integrated tomography that shows a finite

  19. Hydrologic analysis of data for the Lost Lake Aquifer Zone of the Steel Pond Aquifer at recovery well RWM-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.; Hiergesell, R.A.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis of data obtained from a large-scale, multiple-well aquifer test of the sandy unit referred to as the Lost Lake Aquifer Zone of the Steed Pond Aquifer in an area just south of the A and M Areas. Pumping was conducted at recovery well RWM-16, which is located near the MSB-40 well cluster, approximately 4000 feet south of the M-Area Basin. RWM-16 is located in the lower left portion of Figure 1, which also illustrates the general relationship of the testing site to the A and M Areas and other monitor wells. The data generated from testing RWM-16 was used to calculate estimates of transmissivity and storage for the aquifer system within which RWM-16 is screened. These parameters are related to hydraulic conductivity and storativity of the aquifer system by the vertical thickness of the unit. The leakage coefficient for the overlying confining unit is also estimated. This information is needed to refine conceptual understanding of the groundwater flow system beneath the A and M Areas. The refined conceptual model will more adequately describe the pattern of groundwater flow, and will contribute to updating the open-quotes Zone of Captureclose quotes model that has been used in the initial phases of designing a groundwater remediation system in the A and M Areas

  20. Activation and chemical analysis of drinking water from shallow aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    In most of the Indian cities drinking water is drawn from shallow aqiufers with the help of hand pumps. These shallow aquifers get easilyl polluted. In the present work we have measured 20 trace elements using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and 8 chemical parameters using standard chemical methods of drinking water drawn from Rajpura city. It was found that almost all water samples are highly polluted. We attribute this to unplaned disposal of industrial and domestic waste over a period of many decades. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  1. Dynamic data analysis of climate and recharge conditions over time in the Edwards Aquifer, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.; Collins, J.; Banner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the temporal patterns in datasets related to climate, recharge, and water resource conditions is important for informing water management and policy decisions. Data analysis and pipelines for evaluating these disparate sources of information are challenging to set up and rely on emerging informatics tools to complete. This project gathers data from both historical and recent sources for the Edwards Aquifer of central Texas. The Edwards faces a unique array of challenges, as it is composed of karst limestone, is susceptible to contaminants and climate change, and is expected to supply water for a rapidly growing population. Given these challenges, new approaches to integrating data will be particularly important. Case study data from the Edwards is used to evaluate aquifer and hydrologic system conditions over time as well as to discover patterns and possible relationships across the information sources. Prior research that evaluated trends in discharge and recharge of the aquifer is revisited by considering new data from 1992-2015, and the sustainability of the Edwards as a water resource within the more recent time period is addressed. Reusable and shareable analytical data pipelines are constructed using Jupyter Notebooks and Python libraries, and an interactive visualization is implemented with the information. In addition to the data sources that are utilized for the water balance analyses, the Global Surface Water Monitoring System from the University of Minnesota, a tool that integrates a wide number of satellite datasets with known surface water dynamics and machine learning, is used to evaluate water body persistence and change over time at regional scales. Preliminary results indicate that surface water body over the Edwards with differing aerial extents are declining, excepting some dam-controlled lakes in the region. Other existing tools and machine learning applications are also considered. Results are useful to the Texas Water Research

  2. WTAQ - A computer program for aquifer-test analysis of confined and unconfined aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, P.M.; Moench, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Computer program WTAQ was developed to implement a Laplace-transform analytical solution for axial-symmetric flow to a partially penetrating, finite-diameter well in a homogeneous and anisotropic unconfined (water-table) aquifer. The solution accounts for wellbore storage and skin effects at the pumped well, delayed response at an observation well, and delayed or instantaneous drainage from the unsaturated zone. For the particular case of zero drainage from the unsaturated zone, the solution simplifies to that of axial-symmetric flow in a confined aquifer. WTAQ calculates theoretical time-drawdown curves for the pumped well and observation wells and piezometers. The theoretical curves are used with measured time-drawdown data to estimate hydraulic parameters of confined or unconfined aquifers by graphical type-curve methods or by automatic parameter-estimation methods. Parameters that can be estimated are horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific storage, and specific yield. A sample application illustrates use of WTAQ for estimating hydraulic parameters of a hypothetical, unconfined aquifer by type-curve methods. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  3. Sea-level rise impacts on seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Review and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabchi, Hamed; Mahmoodzadeh, Davood; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.

    2016-04-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) influences groundwater hydraulics and in particular seawater intrusion (SWI) in many coastal aquifers. The quantification of the combined and relative impacts of influential factors on SWI has not previously been considered in coastal aquifers. In the present study, a systematic review of the available literature on this topic is first provided. Then, the potential remaining challenges are scrutinized. Open questions on the effects of more realistic complexities such as gradual SLR, parameter uncertainties, and the associated influences in decision-making models are issues requiring further investigation. We assess and quantify the seawater toe location under the impacts of SLR in combination with recharge rate variations, land-surface inundation (LSI) due to SLR, aquifer bed slope variation, and changing landward boundary conditions (LWBCs). This is the first study to include all of these factors in a single analysis framework. Both analytical and numerical models are used for these sensitivity assessments. It is demonstrated that (1) LSI caused by SLR has a significant incremental impact on the seawater toe location, especially in the flatter coasts and the flux-controlled (FC) LWBCs, however this impact is less than the reported orders of magnitude differences which were estimated using only analytical solutions; (2) LWBCs significantly influence the SLR impacts under almost all conditions considered in this study; (3) The main controlling factors of seawater toe location are the magnitudes of fresh groundwater discharge to sea and recharge rate. Regional freshwater flux entering from the landward boundary and the groundwater hydraulic gradient are the major contributors of fresh groundwater discharge to sea for both FC and head-controlled (HC) systems, respectively; (4) A larger response of the aquifer and larger seawater toe location changes are demonstrable for a larger ratio of the aquifer thickness to the aquifer length particularly in

  4. Impact of model complexity and multi-scale data integration on the estimation of hydrogeological parameters in a dual-porosity aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Mas, Elena; Bianchi, Marco; Mansour, Majdi

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the impact of model complexity and multi-scale prior hydrogeological data on the interpretation of pumping test data in a dual-porosity aquifer (the Chalk aquifer in England, UK). In order to characterize the hydrogeological properties, different approaches ranging from a traditional analytical solution (Theis approach) to more sophisticated numerical models with automatically calibrated input parameters are applied. Comparisons of results from the different approaches show that neither traditional analytical solutions nor a numerical model assuming a homogenous and isotropic aquifer can adequately explain the observed drawdowns. A better reproduction of the observed drawdowns in all seven monitoring locations is instead achieved when medium and local-scale prior information about the vertical hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution is used to constrain the model calibration process. In particular, the integration of medium-scale vertical K variations based on flowmeter measurements lead to an improvement in the goodness-of-fit of the simulated drawdowns of about 30%. Further improvements (up to 70%) were observed when a simple upscaling approach was used to integrate small-scale K data to constrain the automatic calibration process of the numerical model. Although the analysis focuses on a specific case study, these results provide insights about the representativeness of the estimates of hydrogeological properties based on different interpretations of pumping test data, and promote the integration of multi-scale data for the characterization of heterogeneous aquifers in complex hydrogeological settings.

  5. Integrated monitoring technologies for the management of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment (SAT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Alexandros; Kallioras, Andreas; Kofakis, Petros; Bumberger, Jan; Schmidt, Felix; Athanasiou, Georgios; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos; Amditis, Angelos; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse as treated wastewater effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for aquifer recharge. As the effluent moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. The pilot site of Lavrion Technological & Cultural Park (LTCP) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), involves the employment of plot infiltration basins at experimental scale, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. Τhe LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved by the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensing technologies, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry (TDR & FDR) sensors is developed and will be installed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. Additionally, the system contains two different radar-based sensing systems that will be offering (i) identification of preferential

  6. The integrated impacts of natural processes and human activities on groundwater salinization in the coastal aquifers of Beihai, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghua; Zhang, Yanpeng; Chen, Wen; Yu, Shaowen

    2018-03-01

    Salinization in coastal aquifers is usually related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction. The results of chemical and isotopic methods were combined to identify the origin and processes of groundwater salinization in Daguansha area of Beihai, southern China. The concentrations of the major ions that dominate in seawater (Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO4 2- ), as well as the isotopic content and ratios (2H, 18O, 87Sr/86Sr and 13C), suggest that the salinization occurring in the aquifer of the coastal plain is related to seawater and that the prevailing hydrochemical processes are evaporation, mixing, dissolution and ion exchange. For the unconfined aquifer, groundwater salinization has occurred in an area that is significantly influenced by land-based sea farming. The integrated impacts of seawater intrusion from the Beibuwan Gulf and infiltration of seawater from the culture ponds are identified in the shallowest confined aquifer (I) in the middle of the area (site BBW2). Leakage from this polluted confined aquifer causes the salinization of groundwater in the underlying confined aquifer (II). At the coastal monitoring site (BBW3), confined aquifer I and lower confined aquifer II are heavily contaminated by seawater intrusion. The weak connectivity between the upper aquifers, and the seaward movement of freshwater, prevents saltwater from encroaching the deepest confined aquifer (III). A conceptual model is presented. Above all, understanding of the origin and processes of groundwater salinization will provide essential information for the planning and sustainable management of groundwater resources in this region.

  7. Molecular analysis of microbial community structures in pristine and contaminated aquifers--Field and laboratory microcosm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Zwolinski, M.D.; Schreiber, M.E.; Bahr, J.M.; Sewell, G.W.; Hickey, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    % of theBacteria community was no longer identifiable by the phylum or subclass probes used. The latter result suggested that toluene exposure fostered the proliferation of phylotype(s) that were otherwise minor constituents of the FC aquifer community. These studies demonstrated that alterations in aquifer microbial communities resulting from specific anthropogenic perturbances can be inferred from microcosm studies integrating chemical and phylogenetic probe analysis and in the case of hydrocarbon contamination may facilitate the identification of organisms important for in situ biodegradation processes. Further work integrating and coordinating microcosm and field experiments is needed to explore how differences in scale, substrate complexity, and other hydrogeological conditions may affect patterns observed in these systems.

  8. Integrated subsurface water solutions for coastal environments through integrated pump&treat and aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikaki, Martha; Kallioras, Andreas; Christoforidis, Christophoros; Iossifidis, Dimitris; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Makropoulos, Christos; Raat, Klaasjan; van den Berg, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands in semi-arid regions, as in Circum-Mediterranean, are considered important ecosystems that provide valuable services to human population and the environment, such as: flood protection, erosion control, wildlife habitat, water quality, recreation and carbon sequestration. Un-managed surface and groundwater exploitation in these areas usually leads to deterioration of such sensitive ecosystems by means of water resources degradation and/or increased salinity. Groundwater usually plays a vital role for the sustainability of these hydrological systems, as the underlying aquifers operate as regulators for both quantity and quality of their waters. Multi-layer and multi-objective Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems can be proved effective groundwater engineered solutions for the restoration of deteriorated coastal wetlands in semi- and arid regions. The plain of Marathon is a typical Mediterranean environment that hosts a naturally occurring -and today degraded- coastal wetland with the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem linked to a typical coastal hydrogeological system of a semi-arid region; and therefore can serve as a model for similar systems world-wide. The geo-hydrological setting of the area involves a multi-layer aquifer system consisting of (i) an upper un-consolidated formation of depositional unit dominated mostly by fluvial sediments and (ii) the surrounding and underlying karstified marbles; both being linked to the investigated wetland and also subjected to seawater encroachment. A smart engineered MAR system via an optimised Pump & Treat system integrated with an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) scheme in this area would include the abstraction of brackish groundwater from the deeper karst aquifer at a location close to the shoreline and direct treatment with Reverse Osmosis (RO). for desalination. Two-fold re-use scheme of the purified effluent can then be engineered for (i) the restoration of the coastal wetland; and (ii

  9. Long-Term Managed Aquifer Recharge in a Saline-Water Aquifer as a Critical Component of an Integrated Water Scheme in Southwestern Florida, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Missimer; Weixing Guo; John Woolschlager; Robert G. Maliva

    2017-01-01

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems can be used within the context of integrated water management to create solutions to multiple objectives. Southwestern Florida is faced with severe environmental problems associated with the wet season discharge of excessive quantities of surface water containing high concentrations of nutrients into the Caloosahatchee River Estuary and a future water supply shortage. A 150,000 m3/day MAR system is proposed as an economic solution to solve part of the en...

  10. Digital Aquifer - Integrating modeling, technical, software and policy aspects to develop a groundwater management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirupathi, S.; McKenna, S. A.; Fleming, K.; Wambua, M.; Waweru, P.; Ondula, E.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater management has traditionally been observed as a study for long term policy measures to ensure that the water resource is sustainable. IBM Research, in association with the World Bank, extended this traditional analysis to include realtime groundwater management by building a context-aware, water rights management and permitting system. As part of this effort, one of the primary objectives was to develop a groundwater flow model that can help the policy makers with a visual overview of the current groundwater distribution. In addition, the system helps the policy makers simulate a range of scenarios and check the sustainability of the groundwater resource in a given region. The system also enables a license provider to check the effect of the introduction of a new well on the existing wells in the domain as well as the groundwater resource in general. This process simplifies how an engineer will determine if a new well should be approved. Distance to the nearest well neighbors and the maximum decreases in water levels of nearby wells are continually assessed and presented as evidence for an engineer to make the final judgment on approving the permit. The system also facilitates updated insights on the amount of groundwater left in an area and provides advice on how water fees should be structured to balance conservation and economic development goals. In this talk, we will discuss the concept of Digital Aquifer, the challenges in integrating modeling, technical and software aspects to develop a management system that helps policy makers and license providers with a robust decision making tool. We will concentrate on the groundwater model developed using the analytic element method that plays a very important role in the decision making aspects. Finally, the efficiency of this system and methodology is shown through a case study in Laguna Province, Philippines, which was done in collaboration with the National Water Resource Board, Philippines and World

  11. Vertically-Integrated Dual-Continuum Models for CO2 Injection in Fractured Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Guo, B.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Injection of CO2 into a saline aquifer leads to a two-phase flow system, with supercritical CO2 and brine being the two fluid phases. Various modeling approaches, including fully three-dimensional (3D) models and vertical-equilibrium (VE) models, have been used to study the system. Almost all of that work has focused on unfractured formations. 3D models solve the governing equations in three dimensions and are applicable to generic geological formations. VE models assume rapid and complete buoyant segregation of the two fluid phases, resulting in vertical pressure equilibrium and allowing integration of the governing equations in the vertical dimension. This reduction in dimensionality makes VE models computationally more efficient, but the associated assumptions restrict the applicability of VE model to formations with moderate to high permeability. In this presentation, we extend the VE and 3D models for CO2 injection in fractured aquifers. This is done in the context of dual-continuum modeling, where the fractured formation is modeled as an overlap of two continuous domains, one representing the fractures and the other representing the rock matrix. Both domains are treated as porous media continua and can be modeled by either a VE or a 3D formulation. The transfer of fluid mass between rock matrix and fractures is represented by a mass transfer function connecting the two domains. We have developed a computational model that combines the VE and 3D models, where we use the VE model in the fractures, which typically have high permeability, and the 3D model in the less permeable rock matrix. A new mass transfer function is derived, which couples the VE and 3D models. The coupled VE-3D model can simulate CO2 injection and migration in fractured aquifers. Results from this model compare well with a full-3D model in which both the fractures and rock matrix are modeled with 3D models, with the hybrid VE-3D model having significantly reduced computational cost. In

  12. Integrated and sustainable management of the shared aquifer systems in the Sahel region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwerd, Mickel

    2012-01-01

    It highlights the project Justification, the long term objective, the specific objectives and the project implementation strategy. The countries which participate to this project are the following: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, central African Republic, Chad, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal. Regarding Aquifer System we have: Chad Basin, Liptako-Gourma Aquifer, Iullemeden Aquifer, Senegalo-Mauritanian Aquifer and Taoudeni/Tanezrouft Basin.

  13. Assessment of integrated electrical resistivity data on complex aquifer structures in NE Nuba Mountains - Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, N. E.; Yaramanci, U.; Kheiralla, K. M.; Abdelgalil, M. Y.

    2011-07-01

    Two geophysical techniques were integrated to map the groundwater aquifers on complex geological settings, in the crystalline basement terrain in northeast Nuba Mountains. The water flow is structurally controlled by the northwest-southeast extensional faults as one of several in-situ deformational patterns that are attributed to the collision of the Pan-African oceanic assemblage of the Nubian shield against the pre-Pan African continental crust to the west. The structural lineaments and drainage systems have been enhanced by the remote sensing technique. The geophysical techniques used are: vertical electrical soundings (VES) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), in addition to hydraulic conductivity measurements. These measurements were designed to overlap in order to improve the producibility of the geophysical data and to provide a better interpretation of the hydrogeological setting of the aquifer complex structure. Smooth and Block inversion schemes were attempted for the observed ERT data to study their reliability in mapping the different geometries in the complex subsurface. The VES data was conducted where ERT survey was not accessible, and inverted smoothly and merged with the ERT in the 3D resistivity grid. The hydraulic conductivity was measured for 42 water samples collected from the distributed dug wells in the study area; where extremely high saline zones were recorded and have been compared to the resistivity values in the 3D model.

  14. Integration of crosswell seismic data for simulating porosity in a heterogeneous carbonate aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Xavier; Parra, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    A challenge for the geostatistical simulation of subsurface properties in mining, petroleum and groundwater applications is the integration of well logs and seismic measurements, which can provide information on geological heterogeneities at a wide range of scales. This paper presents a case study conducted at the Port Mayaca aquifer, located in western Martin County, Florida, in which it is of interest to simulate porosity, based on porosity logs at two wells and high-resolution crosswell seismic measurements of P-wave impedance. To this end, porosity and impedance are transformed into cross-correlated Gaussian random fields, using local transformations. The model parameters (transformation functions, mean values and correlation structure of the transformed fields) are inferred and checked against the data. Multiple realizations of porosity can then be constructed conditionally to the impedance information in the interwell region, which allow identifying one low-porosity structure and two to three flow units that connect the two wells, mapping heterogeneities within these units and visually assessing fluid paths in the aquifer. In particular, the results suggest that the paths in the lower flow units, formed by a network of heterogeneous conduits, are not as smooth as in the upper flow unit.

  15. Degradation of herbicides in shallow Danish aquifers - an integrated laboratory and field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Mills, M.; Aamand, J.

    2001-01-01

    Degradation of pesticides in aquifers has been evaluated based on a number of co-ordinated field and laboratory studies carried out in Danish aquifers. These studies included investigations of vertical and horizontal variability in degradation rates from the vadose zone to an aquifer, the effects...

  16. Use of computer programs STLK1 and STWT1 for analysis of stream-aquifer hydraulic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, Leslie A.; Barlow, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Quantifying the hydraulic interaction of aquifers and streams is important in the analysis of stream base fow, flood-wave effects, and contaminant transport between surface- and ground-water systems. This report describes the use of two computer programs, STLK1 and STWT1, to analyze the hydraulic interaction of streams with confined, leaky, and water-table aquifers during periods of stream-stage fuctuations and uniform, areal recharge. The computer programs are based on analytical solutions to the ground-water-flow equation in stream-aquifer settings and calculate ground-water levels, seepage rates across the stream-aquifer boundary, and bank storage that result from arbitrarily varying stream stage or recharge. Analysis of idealized, hypothetical stream-aquifer systems is used to show how aquifer type, aquifer boundaries, and aquifer and streambank hydraulic properties affect aquifer response to stresses. Published data from alluvial and stratifed-drift aquifers in Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Iowa are used to demonstrate application of the programs to field settings. Analytical models of these three stream-aquifer systems are developed on the basis of available hydrogeologic information. Stream-stage fluctuations and recharge are applied to the systems as hydraulic stresses. The models are calibrated by matching ground-water levels calculated with computer program STLK1 or STWT1 to measured ground-water levels. The analytical models are used to estimate hydraulic properties of the aquifer, aquitard, and streambank; to evaluate hydrologic conditions in the aquifer; and to estimate seepage rates and bank-storage volumes resulting from flood waves and recharge. Analysis of field examples demonstrates the accuracy and limitations of the analytical solutions and programs when applied to actual ground-water systems and the potential uses of the analytical methods as alternatives to numerical modeling for quantifying stream-aquifer interactions.

  17. Integrated Assessment to Evaluate the Artificial Recharge in a Small Portion of the Aquifer of Puebla, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Galván, C.; Flores-Marquez, L. E.; Martínez-Serrano, R.

    2009-12-01

    New policies on the use of water resources in Mexico have led to implement some alternative measures to optimize water management. In particular, water regulation entities have recommended some tools to preserve and protect the groundwater supplies. One of these tools is the artificial recharge by injecting water directly into the aquifer. The main goal of this study is to assess if it is suitable to inject rainwater and surface water in a small portion of the aquifer of the city of Puebla, in central Mexico. Artificial aquifer recharging was evaluated using a numeric model, which simulated the physical properties of the system. The model setup was inferred from an integrated study taking into account hydraulic, geological and geophysical data. The geoelectrical model was computed using electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and time domain electromagnetic data (TDEM). The aquifer geological structure inferred from geophysics depicts the presence of a shallower layer composed of sand and clay deposits with low saturation and permeability. This layer contains silt lenses that can be controlling the persistence of small water bodies on surface. Some water surficial bodies seem to be isolated from the main aquifer system. The intermediate layer shows lower electrical resistivity and higher permeability. Underlying this horizon, it is a deeper layer that reaches 200 m depth, according to information obtained from borehole in the zone. This layer shows an electrical resistivity even lower than intermediate layer but low permeability, caused by the higher content of silts. Both of these layers are the shallower aquifer exploited in the area. Once the numeric model was built we proceeded to simulate scenarios that include the continued extraction and recharge of water in wells located in strategic areas of the study zone. The results suggest that the effect of infiltration is beneficial on aquifer recharge and reduces the cone of depression caused by the extraction

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of DRASTIC Model in Vulnerability Assessment of Shahrood Alluvial Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Abolhasan Almasi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater vulnerability assessment is typically accomplished as a management tool to protect groundwater resources. In this research, the DRASTIC model which is an empirical one used for evaluating the potential of an aquifer for pollution was employed to evaluate the vulnerability of Shahrood alluvial aquifer. Moreover, the sensitivity of the model paramneters was assessed to identify the ones with greatest effect on vulnerability. The model layers including depth to groundwater table level, recharge, aquifer media, topography, impact of unsaturated zone, and hydraulic conductivity were prepared and classified in the ArcGIS software based on analyses of both the available data and the layer of surface soil texture using Aster satellite images. Once the vulnerability index was calculated, the sensitivity map of Shahroud aquifer vulnerability was analyzed using the two parameter removal and single parameter sensitivity methods. These were further verified by textural analysis of soil samples from different parts of the region. The layers with appropriate weights were overlaid and the DRASTIC index of the aquifer was estimated at 28 to 148. The highest vulnerability was detected in the northern margins and southwestern parts of the aquifer while other parts were characterized by medium to low vulnerability. The low nitrogen concentration observed in the farm areas and its rise to 45 mg/l in the northern stretches of the aquifer bear witness to the accuracy of the zoning rendered by the DRASTIC model. Based on the vulnerability map of Sharoud aquifer, it was found that 1.6% of the aquifer’s area has a very high vulnerability or potential for pollution followed by 10%, 28.8%, and 18.9% of the area were identified as having high, medium and low potentials for pollution, respecytively. The remaining (i.e., 40.5% was found to have no risk of pollution.

  19. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  20. Sequestration of carbon in saline aquifers - mathematical and numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin

    2004-01-01

    The work in this thesis focuses equally on two main topics. The set of these subjects deals with development of criteria for monotonicity of control volume methods. These methods are important and frequently used for solving the pressure equation arising in porous media flow. First we consider homogeneous parallelogram grids, and subsequently general logical Cartesian grids in heterogeneous media. This subject is concluded by the development of a new class of Multi Point Flux Approximation methods, motivated by the monotonicity results obtained. The second topic of this thesis is the development of analytical and semi- analytical solutions to the problem of leakage through abandoned wells. More specially, we look at a set of aquifers, separated by impermeable layers (aquicludes), where injection of water or CO{sub 2} takes place in some or all the aquifers. The aquifers and aquicludes are frequently penetrated by abandoned wells from oil exploration, and our problem consists of finding solutions to flow and leakage through these wells. The goal is to obtain expressions for leakage rates that may be evaluated quickly enough such that Monte Carlo realizations over statistical distributions of properties for abandoned wells can be performed. (author)

  1. Hydrogeology of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest: B in Regional aquifer-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.L.; Siegel, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system contains the most extensive and continuous aquifers in the northern Midwest of the United States. It is the source of water for many municipalities, industries, and rural water users. Since the beginning of ground-water development from the aquifer system in the late 1800's, hydraulic heads have declined hundreds of feet in the heavily pumped Chicago-Milwaukee area and somewhat less in other metropolitan areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a regional assessment of this aquifer system within a 161,000-square-mile area encompassing northern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, Iowa, southeastern Minnesota, northern Missouri, and Wisconsin.

  2. The integrated impacts of natural processes and human activities on the origin and processes of groundwater salinization in the coastal aquifers of Beihai, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zhan, Y., , Dr; Chen, W. Ms; Yu, S., , Dr

    2017-12-01

    Salinization in coastal aquifers usually is the results of contamination related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction. The chemical and isotopic methods were combined to identify the origin and processes of groundwater salinization in Daguansha area of Beihai. The concentrations of the major ions that dominate in sea water (Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO2- 4), as well as the isotopic ratios (2H, 18O, 87Sr/86Sr and 13C) suggest that the salinization occurring in the aquifer water of the coastal plain is related to seawater and the prevailing hydrochemical processes are evaporation, mixing, dissolution and ion exchange. For the unconfined aquifer, groundwater salinization occurred in parts of the area, which is significantly influenced by the land-based sea farming. The integrated impacts of seawater intrusion from the Beibuwan Gulf and infiltration of seawater from the culture ponds is identified in the confined aquifer I at site BBW2. In consequence, the leakage from this polluted aquifer causes the salinization of groundwater in the confined aquifer II. At site BBW3, the confined aquifer I and lower confined aquifer II are remarkably contaminated by seawater intrusion. The weak connectivity with upper aquifers and seaward movement of freshwater prevents saltwater from encroaching the confined aquifer III. Above all, understanding of the origin and processes of groundwater salinization will provide essential information for sustainable planning and management of groundwater resources in this region.

  3. Application of factor analysis to the hydrogeochemical study of a coastal aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Beviá, Francisco; Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Blasco Alemany, Pilar

    1989-01-01

    The use of numerical values for the chemical components of waters from an aquifer as input data for factor analysis is shown to be sometimes more convenient than the use of the logarithms of these figures. Factor analysis was applied to the hydrogeochemical study of a coastal aquifer located in Javea, Alicante (Spain). A set of factors was found which explained the source of the ions in the water and even certain chemical processes which accompany the intrusion of seawater, such as the strong...

  4. Fundamental quantitative analysis of microbial activity in aquifer bioreclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittmann, B.E.; Valocchi, A.J. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Baveye, P. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA). Dept. of Agronomy)

    1990-01-01

    Research continued on aquifer bioreclamation. The project has four primary areas: (1) biodegradation of poorly soluble organic contaminants, (2) dual-limitation kinetics of electron donors and acceptors, (3) two-dimensional modeling of biofilm reactions in nonhomogeneous porous media, and (4) biologically induced clogging in porous media. For each area, this report gives a brief summary of the first year's progress, report this quarter's progress in detail, and indicate plans for future work. 25 refs., 10 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Supplement to procedures, analysis, and comparison of groundwater velocity measurement methods for unconfined aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkl, R.J.; Kearl, P.M.

    1988-09-01

    This report is a supplement to Procedures, Analysis, and Comparison of Groundwater Velocity Measurement Methods for Unconfined Aquifers and provides computer program descriptions, type curves, and calculations for the analysis of field data in determining groundwater velocity in unconfined aquifers. The computer programs analyze bail or slug tests, pumping tests, Geoflo Meter data, and borehole dilution data. Appendix A is a description of the code, instructions for using the code, an example data file, and the calculated results to allow checking the code after installation on the user's computer. Calculations, development of formulas, and correction factors for the various programs are presented in Appendices B through F. Appendix G provides a procedure for calculating transmissivity and specific yield for pumping tests performed in unconfined aquifers

  6. Analysis of flow near a dug well in an unconfined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, K.; Sathyanarayana, D.; Reddy, A. Siva

    1990-11-01

    A numerical analysis of flow to a dug well in an unconfined aquifer is made, taking into account well storage, elastic storage release, gravity drainage, anisotropy, partial penetration, vertical flow and seepage surface at the well face, and treating the water table in the aquifer and water level in the well as unknown boundaries. The pumped discharge is maintained constant. The solution is obtained by a two-level iterative scheme. The effects of governing parameters on the drawdown, development of seepage surface and contribution from aquifer flow to the total discharge are discussed. The degree of anisotropy and partial penetration are found to be the parameters which affect the flow characteristics most significantly. The effect of anisotropy on the development of seepage surface is very pronounced.

  7. The contribution of cluster and discriminant analysis to the classification of complex aquifer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, G P; Angelopoulou, D; Tzirtzilakis, E E; Giannoulopoulos, P

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an innovated method for the discrimination of groundwater samples in common groups representing the hydrogeological units from where they have been pumped. This method proved very efficient even in areas with complex hydrogeological regimes. The proposed method requires chemical analyses of water samples only for major ions, meaning that it is applicable to most of cases worldwide. Another benefit of the method is that it gives a further insight of the aquifer hydrogeochemistry as it provides the ions that are responsible for the discrimination of the group. The procedure begins with cluster analysis of the dataset in order to classify the samples in the corresponding hydrogeological unit. The feasibility of the method is proven from the fact that the samples of volcanic origin were separated into two different clusters, namely the lava units and the pyroclastic-ignimbritic aquifer. The second step is the discriminant analysis of the data which provides the functions that distinguish the groups from each other and the most significant variables that define the hydrochemical composition of the aquifer. The whole procedure was highly successful as the 94.7 % of the samples were classified to the correct aquifer system. Finally, the resulted functions can be safely used to categorize samples of either unknown or doubtful origin improving thus the quality and the size of existing hydrochemical databases.

  8. Integration of electrical resistivity imaging and ground penetrating radar to investigate solution features in the Biscayne Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah-Forson, Albert; Comas, Xavier; Whitman, Dean

    2014-07-01

    The limestone composing the Biscayne Aquifer in southeast Florida is characterized by cavities and solution features that are difficult to detect and quantify accurately because of their heterogeneous spatial distribution. Such heterogeneities have been shown by previous studies to exert a strong influence in the direction of groundwater flow. In this study we use an integrated array of geophysical methods to detect the lateral extent and distribution of solution features as indicative of anisotropy in the Biscayne Aquifer. Geophysical methods included azimuthal resistivity measurements, electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) and were constrained with direct borehole information from nearby wells. The geophysical measurements suggest the presence of a zone of low electrical resistivity (from ERI) and low electromagnetic wave velocity (from GPR) below the water table at depths of 4-9 m that corresponds to the depth of solution conduits seen in digital borehole images. Azimuthal electrical measurements at the site reported coefficients of electrical anisotropy as high as 1.36 suggesting the presence of an area of high porosity (most likely comprising different types of porosity) oriented in the E-W direction. This study shows how integrated geophysical methods can help detect the presence of areas of enhanced porosity which may influence the direction of groundwater flow in a complex anisotropic and heterogeneous karst system like the Biscayne Aquifer.

  9. Integrated Assessment of Shallow-Aquifer Vulnerability to Multiple Contaminants and Drinking-Water Exposure Pathways in Holliston, Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Claus Henn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Half of U.S. drinking water comes from aquifers, and very shallow ones (<20 feet to water table are especially vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. We present the case of Holliston, a Boston, Massachusetts suburb that draws its drinking water from very shallow aquifers, and where metals and solvents have been reported in groundwater. Community concerns focus on water discolored by naturally occurring manganese (Mn, despite reports stating regulatory aesthetic compliance. Epidemiologic studies suggest Mn is a potentially toxic element (PTE for children exposed by the drinking-water pathway at levels near the regulatory aesthetic level. We designed an integrated, community-based project: five sites were profiled for contaminant releases; service areas for wells were modeled; and the capture zone for one vulnerable well was estimated. Manganese, mercury, and trichloroethylene are among 20 contaminants of interest. Findings show that past and/or current exposures to multiple contaminants in drinking water are plausible, satisfying the criteria for complete exposure pathways. This case questions the adequacy of aquifer protection and monitoring regulations, and highlights the need for integrated assessment of multiple contaminants, associated exposures and health risks. It posits that community-researcher partnerships are essential for understanding and solving complex problems.

  10. Integrated genetic analysis microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, Eric T; Mathies, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the ongoing DNA sequencing of the genomes of other animals, bacteria, plants and others, a wealth of new information about the genetic composition of organisms has become available. However, as the demand for sequence information grows, so does the workload required both to generate this sequence and to use it for targeted genetic analysis. Microfabricated genetic analysis systems are well poised to assist in the collection and use of these data through increased analysis speed, lower analysis cost and higher parallelism leading to increased assay throughput. In addition, such integrated microsystems may point the way to targeted genetic experiments on single cells and in other areas that are otherwise very difficult. Concomitant with these advantages, such systems, when fully integrated, should be capable of forming portable systems for high-speed in situ analyses, enabling a new standard in disciplines such as clinical chemistry, forensics, biowarfare detection and epidemiology. This review will discuss the various technologies available for genetic analysis on the microscale, and efforts to integrate them to form fully functional robust analysis devices. (topical review)

  11. DETECTION OF THE NITRATE POLLUTION SOURCES IN SHALLOW AQUIFER, USING INTEGRATION OF RS&GIS WITH STABLE ISOTOPES TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. I. Shakak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information system (GIS and remote sensing technique is a tool which is used for acquiring data from space, storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data, also can use for investigating source of environmental pollution which is affect health. Sudan landsat mosaic image which acquired in 2013 was used in this study to develop land use and land cover maps for tow selected study area, Khartoum urban area, and Bara locality in North kordofan state western Sudan. The main objective to assess the source of Nitrate pollution in shallow aquifer. ERDAS software was used to create land cover-land use maps for the study areas. For Khartoum town we used land sat mosaic image which acquire in 2013, and used supervised classification which more closely controlled than unsupervised. In this process, we select pixel that represent patterns you recognized or can identify with help from knowledge of the data, the classes desired, and the algorithm to be used is required. In this paper we integrated the (GIS&RS, and stable isotopes methods for fingerprinting Nitrate sources in shallow boreholes. The global positioning system (GPS, used in the field to identify the shallow boreholes location in a three dimensional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude, Water samples were collected from 19 shallow boreholes in the study areas according to the standard sampling method send to laboratory to measure stable nitrogen (δ15Nnitrate, and Nitrate-oxygen (δ18Onitrate isotopes. Analysis were conducted by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS. We can conclude that, special distribution and integration of GIs & RS help to identify the source of nitrate pollution.

  12. Detection of the Nitrate Pollution Sources in Shallow Aquifer, Using Integration of RS&GIS with Stable Isotopes Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N. B. I.

    2018-04-01

    Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique is a tool which is used for acquiring data from space, storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data, also can use for investigating source of environmental pollution which is affect health. Sudan landsat mosaic image which acquired in 2013 was used in this study to develop land use and land cover maps for tow selected study area, Khartoum urban area, and Bara locality in North kordofan state western Sudan. The main objective to assess the source of Nitrate pollution in shallow aquifer. ERDAS software was used to create land cover-land use maps for the study areas. For Khartoum town we used land sat mosaic image which acquire in 2013, and used supervised classification which more closely controlled than unsupervised. In this process, we select pixel that represent patterns you recognized or can identify with help from knowledge of the data, the classes desired, and the algorithm to be used is required. In this paper we integrated the (GIS&RS), and stable isotopes methods for fingerprinting Nitrate sources in shallow boreholes. The global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the shallow boreholes location in a three dimensional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), Water samples were collected from 19 shallow boreholes in the study areas according to the standard sampling method send to laboratory to measure stable nitrogen (δ15Nnitrate), and Nitrate-oxygen (δ18Onitrate) isotopes. Analysis were conducted by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We can conclude that, special distribution and integration of GIs & RS help to identify the source of nitrate pollution.

  13. Integrated frameworks for assessing and managing health risks in the context of managed aquifer recharge with river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmuth, Timo; Simola, Antti; Pitkänen, Tarja; Lyytimäki, Jari; Huttula, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Integrated assessment and management of water resources for the supply of potable water is increasingly important in light of projected water scarcity in many parts of the world. This article develops frameworks for regional-level waterborne human health risk assessment of chemical and microbiological contamination to aid water management, incorporating economic aspects of health risks. Managed aquifer recharge with surface water from a river in Southern Finland is used as an illustrative case. With a starting point in watershed governance, stakeholder concerns, and value-at-risk concepts, we merge common methods for integrative health risk analysis of contaminants to describe risks and impacts dynamically and broadly. This involves structuring analyses along the risk chain: sources-releases-environmental transport and fate-exposures-health effects-socio-economic impacts-management responses. Risks attributed to contaminants are embedded in other risks, such as contaminants from other sources, and related to benefits from improved water quality. A set of models along this risk chain in the case is presented. Fundamental issues in the assessment are identified, including 1) framing of risks, scenarios, and choices; 2) interaction of models and empirical information; 3) time dimension; 4) distributions of risks and benefits; and 5) uncertainties about risks and controls. We find that all these combine objective and subjective aspects, and involve value judgments and policy choices. We conclude with proposals for overcoming conceptual and functional divides and lock-ins to improve modeling, assessment, and management of complex water supply schemes, especially by reflective solution-oriented interdisciplinary and multi-actor deliberation. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Model-based analysis of δ34S signatures to trace sedimentary pyrite oxidation during managed aquifer recharge in a heterogeneous aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Simone; Descourvieres, Carlos; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Deng, Hailin; Prommer, Henning

    2017-05-01

    The oxidation of pyrite is often one of the main drivers affecting groundwater quality during managed aquifer recharge in deep aquifers. Data and techniques that allow detailed identification and quantification of pyrite oxidation are therefore crucial for assessing and predicting the adverse water quality changes that may be associated with this process. In this study, we explore the benefits of combining stable sulphur isotope analysis with reactive transport modelling to improve the identification and characterisation of pyrite oxidation during an aquifer storage and recovery experiment in a chemically and physically heterogeneous aquifer. We characterise the stable sulphur isotope signal (δ34S) in both the ambient groundwater and the injectant as well as its spatial distribution within the sedimentary sulphur species. The identified stable sulphur isotope signal for pyrite was found to vary between -32 and +34‰, while the signal of the injectant ranged between +9.06 and +14.45‰ during the injection phase of the experiment. Both isotope and hydrochemical data together suggest a substantial contribution of pyrite oxidation to the observed, temporally variable δ34S signals. The variability of the δ34S signal in pyrite and the injectant were both found to complicate the analysis of the stable isotope data. However, the incorporation of the data into a numerical modelling approach allowed to successfully employ the δ34S signatures as a valuable additional constraint for identifying and quantifying the contribution of pyrite oxidation to the redox transformations that occur in response to the injection of oxygenated water.

  15. Fluoride in the Serra Geral Aquifer System: Source Evaluation Using Stable Isotopes and Principal Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nanni, Arthur Schmidt; Roisenberg, Ari; de Hollanda, Maria Helena Bezerra Maia; Marimon, Maria Paula Casagrande; Viero, Antonio Pedro; Scheibe, Luiz Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater with anomalous fluoride content and water mixture patterns were studied in the fractured Serra Geral Aquifer System, a basaltic to rhyolitic geological unit, using a principal component analysis interpretation of groundwater chemical data from 309 deep wells distributed in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. A four-component model that explains 81% of the total variance in the Principal Component Analysis is suggested. Six hydrochemical groups were identified. δ18O and δ...

  16. Estimating hydraulic parameters of the Açu-Brazil aquifer using the computer analysis of micrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucena, Leandson R. F.; da Silva, Luis R. D.; Vieira, Marcela M.; Carvalho, Bruno M.; Xavier Júnior, Milton M.

    2016-04-01

    The conventional way of obtaining hydraulic parameters of aquifers is through the interpretation of aquifer tests that requires a fairly complex logistics in terms of equipment and personnel. On the other way, the processing and analysis of digital images of two-dimensional rock sample micrographs presents itself as a promising (simpler and cheaper) alternative procedure for obtaining estimates for hydraulics parameters. This methodology involves the sampling of rocks, followed by the making and imaging of thin rock samples, image segmentation, three-dimensional reconstruction and flow simulation. This methodology was applied to the outcropping portion of the Açu aquifer in the northeast of Brazil, and the computational analyses of the thin rock sections of the acquired samples produced effective porosities between 11.2% and 18.5%, and permeabilities between 52.4 mD and 1140.7 mD. Considering that the aquifer is unconfined, these effective porosity values can be used effectively as storage coefficients. The hydraulic conductivities produced by adopting different water dynamic viscosities at the temperature of 28 °C in the conversion of the permeabilities result in values in the range of [ 6.03 ×10-7, 1.43 ×10-5 ] m/s, compatible with the local hydrogeology.

  17. Integrating geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-log measurements to characterize the Chalk aquifer, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Marc; Buckley, David

    2002-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-logging techniques were integrated to characterize hydraulic and hydrogeochemical properties of the Chalk aquifer at boreholes in Berkshire, UK. The down-hole measurements were made to locate fissures in the chalk, their spatial extent between boreholes, and to determine the groundwater chemical quality of the water-bearing layers. The geophysical borehole logging methods used were caliper, focused resistivity, induction resistivity, gamma ray, fluid temperature, fluid electrical conductivity, impeller and heat-pulse flowmeter, together with borehole wall optical-imaging. A multiparameter data transmitter was used to measure groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and redox potential of the borehole fluid down-hole. High permeability developed at the Chalk Rock by groundwater circulation provides the major flow horizon at the Banterwick Barn study site and represents a conduit system that serves as an effective local hydraulic connection between the boreholes. The Chalk Rock includes several lithified solution-ridden layers, hardgrounds, which imply a gap in sedimentation possibly representing an unconformity. Lower groundwater temperature, high dissolved-oxygen content, and flowmeter evidence of preferential groundwater flow in the Chalk Rock indicated rapid groundwater circulation along this horizon. By repeating the logging at different times of the year under changing hydraulic conditions, other water-inflow horizons within the Chalk aquifer were recognized. Résumé. Des techniques géophysiques et hydrochimiques de diagraphies en forage ont été mises en oeuvre pour caractériser les propriétés hydrauliques et hydrogéochimiques de l'aquifère de la craie dans des forages du Berkshire (Grande-Bretagne). Les mesures en descente ont été faites pour localiser les fissures dans la craie et leur développement spatial entre forages, et pour déterminer la qualité de l'eau souterraine des

  18. An integrated geophysical and hydraulic investigation to characterize a fractured-rock aquifer, Norwalk, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.W.; Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.; Savino, D.M.; Haeni, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an integrated geophysical and hydraulic investigation at the Norden Systems, Inc. site in Norwalk, Connecticut, where chlorinated solvents have contaminated a fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole, borehole-to-borehole, surface-geophysical, and hydraulic methods were used to characterize the site bedrock lithology and structure, fractures, and transmissive zone hydraulic properties. The geophysical and hydraulic methods included conventional logs, borehole imagery, borehole radar, flowmeter under ambient and stressed hydraulic conditions, and azimuthal square-array direct-current resistivity soundings. Integrated interpretation of geophysical logs at borehole and borehole-to-borehole scales indicates that the bedrock foliation strikes northwest and dips northeast, and strikes north-northeast to northeast and dips both southeast and northwest. Although steeply dipping fractures that cross-cut foliation are observed, most fractures are parallel or sub-parallel to foliation. Steeply dipping reflectors observed in the radar reflection data from three boreholes near the main building delineate a north-northeast trending feature interpreted as a fracture zone. Results of radar tomography conducted close to a suspected contaminant source area indicate that a zone of low electromagnetic (EM) velocity and high EM attenuation is present above 50 ft in depth - the region containing the highest density of fractures. Flowmeter logging was used to estimate hydraulic properties in the boreholes. Thirty-three transmissive fracture zones were identified in 11 of the boreholes. The vertical separation between transmissive zones typically is 10 to 20 ft. Open-hole and discrete-zone transmissivity was estimated from heat-pulse flowmeter data acquired under ambient and stressed conditions. The open-hole transmissivity ranges from 2 to 86 ft2/d. The estimated transmissivity of individual transmissive zones ranges from 0.4 to 68 ft2/d. Drawdown monitoring

  19. Development and evaluation of a building integrated aquifer thermal storage model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkaya, Basar; Li, Rongling; Labeodan, Timilehin

    2017-01-01

    An aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) in combination with a heat pump is an excellent way to reduce the net energy usage of buildings. The use of ATES has been demonstrated to have the potential to provide a reduction of between 20 and 40% in the cooling and heating energy use of buildings. ATES...... systems are however a complex system to analyse as a number of ground conditions influence heat losses within the aquifer. ATES is also not confined from the sides and is therefore vulnerable to heat losses through conduction, advection and dispersion. The analyses of ATES system is even further...... complicated when the dynamic of a building is considered. When connected to a building, the temperature in the aquifer is influenced by the amount of heat exchange with the varying building load. Given the energy saving potentials of ATES systems in building operation, detailed understanding of the influence...

  20. Aquifer heterogeneity characterization with oscillatory pumping: Sensitivity analysis and imaging potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, M.; Bakhos, T.; Kitanidis, P. K.; Barrash, W.

    2013-09-01

    Periodic pumping tests, in which a fluid is extracted during half a period, then reinjected, have been used historically to estimate effective aquifer properties. In this work, we suggest a modified approach to periodic pumping test analysis in which one uses several periodic pumping signals of different frequencies as stimulation, and responses are analyzed through inverse modeling using a "steady-periodic" model formulation. We refer to this strategy as multifrequency oscillatory hydraulic imaging. Oscillating pumping tests have several advantages that have been noted, including no net water extraction during testing and robust signal measurement through signal processing. Through numerical experiments, we demonstrate additional distinct advantages that multifrequency stimulations have, including: (1) drastically reduced computational cost through use of a steady-periodic numerical model and (2) full utilization of the aquifer heterogeneity information provided by responses at different frequencies. We first perform fully transient numerical modeling for heterogeneous aquifers and show that equivalent results are obtained using a faster steady-periodic heterogeneous numerical model of the wave phasor. The sensitivities of observed signal response to aquifer heterogeneities are derived using an adjoint state-based approach, which shows that different frequency stimulations provide complementary information. Finally, we present an example 2-D application in which sinusoidal signals at multiple frequencies are used as a data source and are inverted to obtain estimates of aquifer heterogeneity. These analyses show the different heterogeneity information that can be obtained from different stimulation frequencies, and that data from several sinusoidal pumping tests can be rapidly inverted using the steady-periodic framework.

  1. Nominal Range Sensitivity Analysis of peak radionuclide concentrations in randomly heterogeneous aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadini, F.; De Sanctis, J.; Cherubini, A.; Zio, E.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Uncertainty quantification problem associated with the radionuclide migration. ► Groundwater transport processes simulated within a randomly heterogeneous aquifer. ► Development of an automatic sensitivity analysis for flow and transport parameters. ► Proposal of a Nominal Range Sensitivity Analysis approach. ► Analysis applied to the performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository. - Abstract: We consider the problem of quantification of uncertainty associated with radionuclide transport processes within a randomly heterogeneous aquifer system in the context of performance assessment of a near-surface radioactive waste repository. Radionuclide migration is simulated at the repository scale through a Monte Carlo scheme. The saturated groundwater flow and transport equations are then solved at the aquifer scale for the assessment of the expected radionuclide peak concentration at a location of interest. A procedure is presented to perform the sensitivity analysis of this target environmental variable to key parameters that characterize flow and transport processes in the subsurface. The proposed procedure is exemplified through an application to a realistic case study.

  2. Analysis of Tide and Offshore Storm-Induced Water Table Fluctuations for Structural Characterization of a Coastal Island Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trglavcnik, Victoria; Morrow, Dean; Weber, Kela P.; Li, Ling; Robinson, Clare E.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of water table fluctuations can provide important insight into the hydraulic properties and structure of a coastal aquifer system including the connectivity between the aquifer and ocean. This study presents an improved approach for characterizing a permeable heterogeneous coastal aquifer system through analysis of the propagation of the tidal signal, as well as offshore storm pulse signals through a coastal aquifer. Offshore storms produce high wave activity, but are not necessarily linked to significant onshore precipitation. In this study, we focused on offshore storm events during which no onshore precipitation occurred. Extensive groundwater level data collected on a sand barrier island (Sable Island, NS, Canada) show nonuniform discontinuous propagation of the tide and offshore storm pulse signals through the aquifer with isolated inland areas showing enhanced response to both oceanic forcing signals. Propagation analysis suggests that isolated inland water table fluctuations may be caused by localized leakage from a confined aquifer that is connected to the ocean offshore but within the wave setup zone. Two-dimensional groundwater flow simulations were conducted to test the leaky confined-unconfined aquifer conceptualization and to identify the effect of key parameters on tidal signal propagation in leaky confined-unconfined coastal aquifers. This study illustrates that analysis of offshore storm signal propagation, in addition to tidal signal propagation, provides a valuable and low resource approach for large-scale characterization of permeable heterogeneous coastal aquifers. Such an approach is needed for the effective management of coastal environments where water resources are threatened by human activities and the changing climate.

  3. Long-Term Managed Aquifer Recharge in a Saline-Water Aquifer as a Critical Component of an Integrated Water Scheme in Southwestern Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Missimer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR systems can be used within the context of integrated water management to create solutions to multiple objectives. Southwestern Florida is faced with severe environmental problems associated with the wet season discharge of excessive quantities of surface water containing high concentrations of nutrients into the Caloosahatchee River Estuary and a future water supply shortage. A 150,000 m3/day MAR system is proposed as an economic solution to solve part of the environmental and water supply issues. Groundwater modeling has demonstrated that the injection of about 150,000 m3/day into the Avon Park High Permeable Zone will result in the creation of a 1000 m wide plume of fresh and brackish-water (due to mixing extending across the water short area over a 10-year period. The operational cost of the MAR injection system would be less than $0.106/m3 and the environmental benefits would alone more than cover this cost in the long term. In addition, the future unit water supply cost to the consumer would be reduced from $1 to $1.25/m3 to $0.45 to $0.65/m3.

  4. Impact Assessment and Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Alternative Managed Aquifer Recharge Strategies Based on Treated Wastewater in Northern Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azizur Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For better planning of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR project, the most promising strategies should analyze the environmental impact, socio-economic efficiency, and their contribution to the existing or future water resource conditions in the region. The challenge of such studies is to combine and quantify a wide range of criteria from the environment and society. This necessity leads to an integrated concept and analysis. This paper outlines an integrated approach considering environmental, health, social and economic aspects to support in the decision-making process to implement a managed aquifer recharge project as a potential response to water resource problems. In order to demonstrate the approach in detail, this paper analysed several water resources management strategies based on MAR implementation, by using treated wastewater in the Northern Gaza Strip and the potential impacts of the strategies on groundwater resources, agriculture, environment, health, economy and society. Based on the Palestinian water policy (Year 2005–2025 on wastewater reuse, three MAR strategies were developed in close cooperation with the local decision makers. The strategies were compared with a base line strategy referred to as the so-called “Do Nothing Approach”. The results of the study show that MAR project implementation with treated wastewater at a maximum rate, considered together with sustainable development of groundwater, is the best and most robust strategy amongst those analyzed. The analysis shows the defined MAR strategies contribute to water resources development and environmental protection or improvement including an existing eutrophic lake. The integrated approach used in this paper may be applicable not only to MAR project implementation but also to other water resources and environmental development projects.

  5. Development and evaluation of a building integrated aquifer thermal storage model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozkaya, B.; Li, R.; Labeodan, T.; Kramer, R.P.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    An aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) in combination with a heat pump is an excellent way to reduce the net energy usage of buildings. The use of ATES has been demonstrated to have the potential to provide a reduction of between 20 and 40% in the cooling and heating energy use of buildings. ATES

  6. New methodology to investigate potential contaminant mass fluxes at the stream-aquifer interface by combining integral pumping tests and streambed temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbus, E.; Schmidt, C.; Bayer-Raich, M.; Leschik, S.; Reinstorf, F.; Balcke, G.U.; Schirmer, M.

    2007-01-01

    The spatial pattern and magnitude of mass fluxes at the stream-aquifer interface have important implications for the fate and transport of contaminants in river basins. Integral pumping tests were performed to quantify average concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in an unconfined aquifer partially penetrated by a stream. Four pumping wells were operated simultaneously for a time period of 5 days and sampled for contaminant concentrations. Streambed temperatures were mapped at multiple depths along a 60 m long stream reach to identify the spatial patterns of groundwater discharge and to quantify water fluxes at the stream-aquifer interface. The combined interpretation of the results showed average potential contaminant mass fluxes from the aquifer to the stream of 272 μg m -2 d -1 MCB and 71 μg m -2 d -1 DCB, respectively. This methodology combines a large-scale assessment of aquifer contamination with a high-resolution survey of groundwater discharge zones to estimate contaminant mass fluxes between aquifer and stream. - We provide a new methodology to quantify the potential contaminant mass flux from an aquifer to a stream

  7. A quantitative comparison of moldic and vuggy porosity structure in karst aquifers using image and geospatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, A. R.; Manda, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    Limestone aquifers are vital sources of groundwater for domestic and industrial use throughout the world. To sustain rising population throughout the southeastern United States, aquifers are increasingly exploited to provide the populace clean and reliable water resources. The moldic Castle Hayne and the vuggy Biscayne aquifer systems are two highly productive aquifers that provide critical water resources to millions of citizens in eastern North Carolina and southeastern Florida, respectively. In order to better understand karst aquifers and evaluate the potential for contaminant transport, detailed investigation of 2D porosity and pore geometry using image and geospatial analysis were undertaken. The objective of this study is to compare and contrast the porosity structure of moldic and vuggy karst aquifers by quantifying 2D porosity and pore geometry from images of slabbed core samples and optical televiewer images. Televiewer images and images of painted core samples from the Spring Garden Member of the Castle Hayne aquifer and Miami Limestone Formation of the Biscayne aquifer were acquired for analysis of porosity structure. The procedure for converting images of slabbed core and televiewer images to a GIS useable format consisted of rectification, calibration, image enhancement, classification, recoding and filtering. In GIS, raster or vector formats were used to assess pore attributes (e.g., area and perimeter) and structure. Preliminary results show that both pore area and perimeter for the Spring Garden Member of the Castle Hayne and Miami Limestone Formation of the Biscayne aquifers can be described by exponential distributions. In both sets of slabbed core images the relatively small pores have the highest occurrence, whereas larger pores occur less frequently. However, the moldic Spring Garden Member of the Castle Hayne aquifer has larger pore sizes derived from cores images than the vuggy Miami Limestone Formation of Biscayne aquifer. Total porosity

  8. Geostatistical analysis of potentiometric data in Wolfcamp aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, W.V.; Furr, J.M.

    1986-04-01

    This report details a geostatistical analysis of potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp aquifer in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. Such an analysis is a part of an overall uncertainty analysis for a high-level waste repository in salt. Both an expected potentiometric surface and the associated standard error surface are produced. The Wolfcamp data are found to be well explained by a linear trend with a superimposed spherical semivariogram. A cross-validation of the analysis confirms this. In addition, the cross-validation provides a point-by-point check to test for possible anomalous data

  9. Analysis of aquifer tests conducted in borehole USW G-2, 1996, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole USW G-2 is located north of Yucca Mountain in a large-hydraulic-gradient area. Two single-borehole aquifer tests were conducted in the borehole during 1996. A 54.9-hour pumping period was conducted February 6--8, 1996, and a 408-hour pumping period was conducted April 8--25, 1996. The purpose of testing was to obtain estimates of the aquifer-system transmissivity and to determine if perched water was affecting the observed water level in borehole USW G-2. This report presents and analyzes data collected between February 6 and December 17, 1996. Analysis of the aquifer-test data indicated that fracture flow, dual-porosity flow, and boundary-affected flow conditions were observed in the drawdown and recovery data. Transmissivity estimates ranged from 2.3 to 12 meters squared per day. The most representative transmissivity estimate for the interval tested is the early-time mean transmissivity of 9.4 meters squared per day. The Calico Hills Formation was the primary formation tested, but the top 3 meters of the nonpumping water column was within the overlying Topopah Spring Tuff. Persistent residual drawdown following pumping more than 6 million liters of water during aquifer testing may indicate that the bore-hole intersected a perched water body. After 236 days of recovery, residual drawdown was 0.5 meter. The quantitative effect of the perched water on the observed water level in borehole USW G-2, however, cannot be determined with the available data

  10. Future integrated aquifer vulnerability assessment considering land use / land cover and climate change using DRASTIC and SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, W.; Engel, B.; Chaubey, I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change causes significant changes to temperature regimes and precipitation patterns across the world. Such alterations in climate pose serious risks for not only inland freshwater ecosystems but also groundwater systems, and may adversely affect numerous critical services they provide to humans. All groundwater results from precipitation, and precipitation is affected by climate change. Climate change is also influenced by land use / land cover (LULC) change and vice versa. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports, climate change is caused by global warming which is generated by the increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere. LULC change is a major driving factor causing an increase in GHG emissions. LULC change data (years 2006-2100) will be produced by the Land Transformation Model (LTM) which simulates spatial patterns of LULC change over time. MIROC5 (years 2006-2100) will be obtained considering GCMs and ensemble characteristics such as resolution and trend of temperature and precipitation which is a consistency check with observed data from local weather stations and historical data from GCMs output data. Thus, MIROC5 will be used to account for future climate change scenarios and relationship between future climate change and alteration of groundwater quality in this study. For efficient groundwater resources management, integrated aquifer vulnerability assessments (= intrinsic vulnerability + hazard potential assessment) are required. DRASTIC will be used to evaluate intrinsic vulnerability, and aquifer hazard potential will be evaluated by Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) which can simulate pollution potential from surface and transport properties of contaminants. Thus, for effective integrated aquifer vulnerability assessment for LULC and climate change in the Midwestern United States, future projected LULC and climate data from the LTM and GCMs will be incorporated with DRASTIC and SWAT. It is

  11. Integrating non-colocated well and geophysical data to capture subsurface heterogeneity at an aquifer recharge and recovery site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Ian P.; Hermans, Thomas; Knight, Rosemary; Caers, Jef; Cameron, David A.; Regnery, Julia; McCray, John E.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical data have proven to be very useful for lithological characterization. However, quantitatively integrating the information gained from acquiring geophysical data generally requires colocated lithological and geophysical data for constructing a rock-physics relationship. In this contribution, the issue of integrating noncolocated geophysical and lithological data is addressed, and the results are applied to simulate groundwater flow in a heterogeneous aquifer in the Prairie Waters Project North Campus aquifer recharge site, Colorado. Two methods of constructing a rock-physics transform between electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data and lithology measurements are assessed. In the first approach, a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is used to fit a bimodal lognormal distribution to horizontal crosssections of the ERT resistivity histogram. In the second approach, a spatial bootstrap is applied to approximate the rock-physics relationship. The rock-physics transforms provide soft data for multiple point statistics (MPS) simulations. Subsurface models are used to run groundwater flow and tracer test simulations. Each model's uncalibrated, predicted breakthrough time is evaluated based on its agreement with measured subsurface travel time values from infiltration basins to selected groundwater recovery wells. We find that incorporating geophysical information into uncalibrated flow models reduces the difference with observed values, as compared to flow models without geophysical information incorporated. The integration of geophysical data also narrows the variance of predicted tracer breakthrough times substantially. Accuracy is highest and variance is lowest in breakthrough predictions generated by the MLE-based rock-physics transform. Calibrating the ensemble of geophysically constrained models would help produce a suite of realistic flow models for predictive purposes at the site. We find that the success of breakthrough predictions is highly

  12. Smart Aquifer Characterisation validated using Information Theory and Cost benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The field data acquisition required to characterise aquifer systems are time consuming and expensive. Decisions regarding field testing, the type of field measurements to make and the spatial and temporal resolution of measurements have significant cost repercussions and impact the accuracy of various predictive simulations. The Smart Aquifer Characterisation (SAC) research programme (New Zealand (NZ)) addresses this issue by assembling and validating a suite of innovative methods for characterising groundwater systems at the large, regional and national scales. The primary outcome is a suite of cost effective tools and procedures provided to resource managers to advance the understanding and management of groundwater systems and thereby assist decision makers and communities in the management of their groundwater resources, including the setting of land use limits that protect fresh water flows and quality and the ecosystems dependent on that fresh water. The programme has focused novel investigation approaches including the use of geophysics, satellite remote sensing, temperature sensing and age dating. The SMART (Save Money And Reduce Time) aspect of the programme emphasises techniques that use these passive cost effective data sources to characterise groundwater systems at both the aquifer and the national scale by: • Determination of aquifer hydraulic properties • Determination of aquifer dimensions • Quantification of fluxes between ground waters and surface water • Groundwater age dating These methods allow either a lower cost method for estimating these properties and fluxes, or a greater spatial and temporal coverage for the same cost. To demonstrate the cost effectiveness of the methods a 'data worth' analysis is undertaken. The data worth method involves quantification of the utility of observation data in terms of how much it reduces the uncertainty of model parameters and decision focussed predictions which depend on these parameters. Such

  13. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system usually shows higher performance than other borehole thermal energy storage systems. Although there is a limitation in the widespread use of the HT-ATES system because of several technical problems such as clogging, corrosion, etc., it is getting more attention as these issues are gradually alleviated. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in two cases of HT-ATES system with a single well is conducted to select key parameters. For a fractional factorial design used to choose input parameters with uniformity, the optimal Latin hypercube sampling with an enhanced stochastic evolutionary algorithm is considered. Then, the recovery efficiency is obtained using a computer model developed by COMSOL Multiphysics. With input and output variables, the surrogate modeling technique, namely the Gaussian-Kriging method with Smoothly Clopped Absolute Deviation Penalty, is utilized. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on the variation decomposition. According to the result of sensitivity analysis, the most important input variables are selected and confirmed to consider the interaction effects for each case and it is confirmed that key parameters vary with the experiment domain of hydraulic and thermal properties as well as the number of input variables. - Highlights: • Main and interaction effects on recovery efficiency in HT-ATES was investigated. • Reliability depended on fractional factorial design and interaction effects. • Hydraulic permeability of aquifer had an important impact on recovery efficiency. • Site-specific sensitivity analysis of HT-ATES was recommended.

  14. GRACE-Based Analysis of Total Water Storage Trends and Groundwater Fluctuations in the North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) and Tindouf Aquifer in Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, K. A.; Milewski, A.

    2013-12-01

    Optimal water management practices and strategies, in arid and semi-arid environments, are often hindered by a lack of quantitative and qualitative understanding of hydrological processes. Moreover, progressive overexploitation of groundwater resources to meet agricultural, industrial, and domestic requirements is drawing concern over the sustainability of such exhaustive abstraction levels, especially in environments where groundwater is a major source of water. NASA's GRACE (gravity recovery and climate change experiment) mission, since March 2002, has advanced the understanding of hydrological events, especially groundwater depletion, through integrated measurements and modeling of terrestrial water mass. In this study, GLDAS variables (rainfall rate, evapotranspiration rate, average soil moisture), and TRMM 3B42.V7A precipitation satellite data, were used in combination with 95 GRACE-generated gravitational anomalies maps, to quantify total water storage change (TWSC) and groundwater storage change (GWSC) from January 2003 to December 2010 (excluding June 2003), in the North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) and Tindouf Aquifer System in northwestern Africa. Separately processed and computed GRACE products by JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA), CSR (Center of Space Research, UT Austin), and GFZ (German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam), were used to determine which GRACE dataset(s) best reflect total water storage and ground water changes in northwest Africa. First-order estimates of annual TWSC for NWSAS (JPL: +5.297 BCM; CSR: -5.33 BCM; GFZ: -9.96 BCM) and Tindouf Aquifer System (JPL: +1.217 BCM; CSR: +0.203 BCM; GFZ: +1.019 BCM), were computed using zonal averaging over a span of eight years. Preliminary findings of annual GWSC for NWSAS (JPL: +2.45 BCM; CSR: -2.278 BCM; GFZ: -6.913 BCM) and Tindouf Aquifer System (JPL: +1.108 BCM; CSR: +0.094 BCM; GFZ: +0.910 BCM), were calculating using a water budget approach, parameterized by GLDAS

  15. Determination of dominant biogeochemical processes in a contaminated aquifer-wetland system using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez-Cazull, S. E.; McGuire, J.T.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Voytek, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Determining the processes governing aqueous biogeochemistry in a wetland hydrologically linked to an underlying contaminated aquifer is challenging due to the complex exchange between the systems and their distinct responses to changes in precipitation, recharge, and biological activities. To evaluate temporal and spatial processes in the wetland-aquifer system, water samples were collected using cm-scale multichambered passive diffusion samplers (peepers) to span the wetland-aquifer interface over a period of 3 yr. Samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, methane, and a suite of organic acids resulting in a large dataset of over 8000 points, which was evaluated using multivariate statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was chosen with the purpose of exploring the sources of variation in the dataset to expose related variables and provide insight into the biogeochemical processes that control the water chemistry of the system. Factor scores computed from PCA were mapped by date and depth. Patterns observed suggest that (i) fermentation is the process controlling the greatest variability in the dataset and it peaks in May; (ii) iron and sulfate reduction were the dominant terminal electron-accepting processes in the system and were associated with fermentation but had more complex seasonal variability than fermentation; (iii) methanogenesis was also important and associated with bacterial utilization of minerals as a source of electron acceptors (e.g., barite BaSO4); and (iv) seasonal hydrological patterns (wet and dry periods) control the availability of electron acceptors through the reoxidation of reduced iron-sulfur species enhancing iron and sulfate reduction. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  16. Global Sensitivity Analysis to Assess Salt Precipitation for CO2 Geological Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt precipitation is generated near the injection well when dry supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 is injected into saline aquifers, and it can seriously impair the CO2 injectivity of the well. We used solid saturation (Ss to map CO2 injectivity. Ss was used as the response variable for the sensitivity analysis, and the input variables included the CO2 injection rate (QCO2, salinity of the aquifer (XNaCl, empirical parameter m, air entry pressure (P0, maximum capillary pressure (Pmax, and liquid residual saturation (Splr and Sclr. Global sensitivity analysis methods, namely, the Morris method and Sobol method, were used. A significant increase in Ss was observed near the injection well, and the results of the two methods were similar: XNaCl had the greatest effect on Ss; the effect of P0 and Pmax on Ss was negligible. On the other hand, with these two methods, QCO2 had various effects on Ss: QCO2 had a large effect on Ss in the Morris method, but it had little effect on Ss in the Sobol method. We also found that a low QCO2 had a profound effect on Ss but that a high QCO2 had almost no effect on the Ss value.

  17. Analysis of anaerobic BTX biodegradation in a subarctic aquifer using isotopes and benzylsuccinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R; Lindstrom, Jon E; Beller, Harry R; Richmond, Sharon A; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2005-12-01

    In situ biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer near Fairbanks, Alaska was assessed using carbon and hydrogen compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of benzene and toluene and analysis of signature metabolites for toluene (benzylsuccinate) and xylenes (methylbenzylsuccinates). Carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of benzene were between -25.9 per thousand and -26.8 per thousand for delta13C and -119 per thousand and -136 per thousand for delta2H, suggesting that biodegradation of benzene is unlikely at this site. However, biodegradation of both xylenes and toluene were documented in this subarctic aquifer. Biodegradation of xylenes was indicated by the presence of methylbenzylsuccinates with concentrations of 17-50 microg/L in three wells. Anaerobic toluene biodegradation was also indicated by benzylsuccinate concentrations of 10-49 microg/L in the three wells with the highest toluene concentrations (1500-5000 microg/L toluene). Since benzylsuccinate typically accounts for a very small fraction of the toluene present in groundwater (generally data is particularly valuable given the challenge of verifying biodegradation in subarctic environments where degradation rates are typically much slower than in temperate environments.

  18. Well Integrity for Natural Gas Storage in Depleted Reservoirs and Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perfect, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morris, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bauer, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bromhal, Grant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Glosser, Deborah [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Wyatt, Douglas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Introduction Motivation The 2015-2016 Aliso Canyon/Porter Ranch natural gas well blowout emitted approximately 100,000 tonnes of natural gas (mostly methane, CH4) over four months. The blowout impacted thousands of nearby residents, who were displaced from their homes. The high visibility of the event has led to increased scrutiny of the safety of natural gas storage at the Aliso Canyon facility, as well as broader concern for natural gas storage integrity throughout the country. Federal Review of Well Integrity In April of 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) through the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), announced the formation of a new Interagency Task Force on Natural Gas Storage Safety. The Task Force enlisted a group of scientists and engineers at the DOE National Laboratories to review the state of well integrity in natural gas storage in the U.S. The overarching objective of the review is to gather, analyze, catalogue, and disseminate information and findings that can lead to improved natural gas storage safety and security and thus reduce the risk of future events. The “Protecting our Infrastructure of Pipelines and Enhancing Safety Act of 2016’’ or the ‘‘PIPES Act of 2016,’’which was signed into law on June 22, 2016, created an Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Leak Task Force led by the Secretary of Energy and consisting of representatives from the DOT, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Health and Human Services, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Department of Commerce and the Department of Interior. The Task Force was asked to perform an analysis of the Aliso Canyon event and make recommendations on preventing similar incidents in the future. The PIPES Act also required that DOT/PHMSA promulgate minimum safety standards for underground storage that would take effect within two years. Background on the DOE

  19. Alluvial Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This coverage shows the extents of the alluvial aquifers in Kansas. The alluvial aquifers consist of unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium and contiguous terrace...

  20. Sensitivity Analysis for Hydraulic Behavior of Shiraz Plain Aquifer Using PMWIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza karimipour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hydraulic behavior of Shirazplain aquifer, with an area of ~300 km2, was simulated using PMWIN model. The performance of recently constructed drainage system in the plain was modeled and parameters affecting hydraulic behavior of the aquifer were analyzed. Measured rainfall and evaporation rates in the plain, recharge and discharge rates through the aqueducts, Khoshk and Chenar Rahdar rivers, as well as amount of water discharged from production wells and recharge due to returned wastewater were considered in the model. Plain hydrodynamic coefficients were estimated via calibration and sensitivity analysis of the model was performed for four important parameters. Results showed that the model is most sensitive to recharge rate and hydraulic conductivity, respectively, such that a small variation in these two parameters causes a dramatic change in hydraulic head distribution in the plain. Furthermore, specific yield coefficient influences the seasonal water level fluctuations, but the aqueducts conductance coefficient only affects the aqueduct radius of influence with little effect on the overall hydraulic behavior of the plain.

  1. Hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis applied to understand fluoride provenance in the Guarani Aquifer System, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimon, Maria Paula C; Roisenberg, Ari; Suhogusoff, Alexandra V; Viero, Antonio Pedro

    2013-06-01

    High fluoride concentrations (up to 11 mg/L) have been reported in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer System (Santa Maria Formation) in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this area, dental fluorosis is an endemic disease. This paper presents the geochemical data and the combination of statistical analysis (Principal components and cluster analyses) and geochemical modeling to achieve the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and discusses the possible fluoride origin. The groundwater from the Santa Maria Formation is comprised of four different geochemical groups. The first group corresponds to a sodium chloride groundwater which evolves to sodium bicarbonate, the second one, both containing fluoride anomalies. The third group is represented by calcium bicarbonate groundwater, and in the fourth, magnesium is the distinctive parameter. The statistical and geochemical analyses supported by isotopic measurements indicated that groundwater may have originated from mixtures of deeper aquifers and the fluoride concentrations could be derived from rock/water interactions (e.g., desorption from clay minerals).

  2. Groundwater Quality: Analysis of Its Temporal and Spatial Variability in a Karst Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Castro, Roger; Pacheco Ávila, Julia; Ye, Ming; Cabrera Sansores, Armando

    2018-01-01

    This study develops an approach based on hierarchical cluster analysis for investigating the spatial and temporal variation of water quality governing processes. The water quality data used in this study were collected in the karst aquifer of Yucatan, Mexico, the only source of drinking water for a population of nearly two million people. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to the quality data of all the sampling periods lumped together. This was motivated by the observation that, if water quality does not vary significantly in time, two samples from the same sampling site will belong to the same cluster. The resulting distribution maps of clusters and box-plots of the major chemical components reveal the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater quality. Principal component analysis was used to verify the results of cluster analysis and to derive the variables that explained most of the variation of the groundwater quality data. Results of this work increase the knowledge about how precipitation and human contamination impact groundwater quality in Yucatan. Spatial variability of groundwater quality in the study area is caused by: a) seawater intrusion and groundwater rich in sulfates at the west and in the coast, b) water rock interactions and the average annual precipitation at the middle and east zones respectively, and c) human contamination present in two localized zones. Changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation cause temporal variation by diluting groundwater in the aquifer. This approach allows to analyze the variation of groundwater quality controlling processes efficiently and simultaneously. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Use of microbial analysis to evaluate denitrification in the karstic aquifer of Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumoto, J.

    2014-12-01

    Denitrification, a microbial process in the nitrogen cycle, is a facultative respiratory pathway in which nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O), successively, are reduced to nitrogen gas (N2). This study explores the use of microbial analysis to evaluate the processes involved in nitrate attenuation in groundwater. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is used to identify denitrifiers based only on their 16SrRNA gene sequences, and Real-Time PCR analysis is used to quantify nitrite reducing genes (nirK and nirS), this suggest that a new methods for detecting denitrification activity by comparing the gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15NNO3- and δ18ONO3-. This study focuses on a zone of significant NO3- attenuation occurring at underground dam catchment area in the karstic Ryukyu limestone aquifer, which is located southern part of Okinawa, Japan. As a result of microbial analysis, the bacteria were detected at all observation points which have been reported to have denitrification ability. And it has been confirmed that the bacteria has a gene nirS which is related to denitrification. In addition, many bacteria related to denitrification have been extracted from suspended solids more than from groundwater in the aquifer. And, the correlation was high between nirK /nirS gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15N and δ18O; therefore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of using Real-Time PCR analysis for providing insights into the processes affecting nitrate attenuation in ground water.

  4. Numerical modeling and sensitivity analysis of seawater intrusion in a dual-permeability coastal karst aquifer with conduit networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance seawater intrusion has been widely observed through the subsurface conduit system in coastal karst aquifers as a source of groundwater contaminant. In this study, seawater intrusion in a dual-permeability karst aquifer with conduit networks is studied by the two-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport SEAWAT model. Local and global sensitivity analyses are used to evaluate the impacts of boundary conditions and hydrological characteristics on modeling seawater intrusion in a karst aquifer, including hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, specific storage, and dispersivity of the conduit network and of the porous medium. The local sensitivity analysis evaluates the parameters' sensitivities for modeling seawater intrusion, specifically in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP. A more comprehensive interpretation of parameter sensitivities, including the nonlinear relationship between simulations and parameters, and/or parameter interactions, is addressed in the global sensitivity analysis. The conduit parameters and boundary conditions are important to the simulations in the porous medium because of the dynamical exchanges between the two systems. The sensitivity study indicates that salinity and head simulations in the karst features, such as the conduit system and submarine springs, are critical for understanding seawater intrusion in a coastal karst aquifer. The evaluation of hydraulic conductivity sensitivity in the continuum SEAWAT model may be biased since the conduit flow velocity is not accurately calculated by Darcy's equation as a function of head difference and hydraulic conductivity. In addition, dispersivity is no longer an important parameter in an advection-dominated karst aquifer with a conduit system, compared to the sensitivity results in a porous medium aquifer. In the end, the extents of seawater intrusion are quantitatively evaluated and measured under different scenarios with the variabilities of

  5. Fingerprinting TCE in a bedrock aquifer using compound-specific isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojkasek-Lima, Paulo; Aravena, Ramon; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A

    2012-01-01

    A dual isotope approach based on compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of carbon (C) and chlorine (Cl) was used to identify sources of persistent trichloroethylene (TCE) that caused the shut-down in 1994 of a municipal well in an extensive fractured dolostone aquifer beneath Guelph, Ontario. Several nearby industrial properties have known subsurface TCE contamination; however, only one has created a comprehensive monitoring network in the bedrock. The impacted municipal well and many monitoring wells were sampled for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), inorganic parameters, and CSIA. A wide range in isotope values was observed at the study site. The TCE varies between -35.6‰ and -21.8‰ and from 1.6‰ to 3.2‰ for δ(13) C and δ(37) Cl, respectively. In case of cis-1,2-dichloroethene, the isotope values range between -36.3‰ and -18.9‰ and from 2.4‰ to 4.7‰ for δ(13) C and δ(37) Cl, respectively. The dual isotope approach represented by a plot of δ(13) C vs. δ(37) Cl shows the municipal well samples grouped in a domain clearly separate from all other samples from the property with the comprehensive well network. The CSIA results collected under non-pumping and short-term pumping conditions thus indicate that this particular property, which has been studied intensively for several years, is not a substantial contributor of the TCE presently in the municipal well under non-pumping conditions. This case study demonstrates that CSIA signatures would have been useful much earlier in the quest to examine sources of the TCE in the municipal well if bedrock monitoring wells had been located at several depths beneath each of the potential TCE-contributing properties. Moreover, the CSIA results show that microbial reductive dechlorination of TCE occurs in some parts of the bedrock aquifer. At this site, the use of CSIA for C and Cl in combination with analyses of VOC and redox parameters proved to be important due to the complexity introduced by

  6. Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Jaruco-Aguacate Aquifer; Analisis hidrodinamico del acuifero Jaurco-Aguacate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilla Salvador, Felix [Centro de Investigaciones Hidraulicas (Cuba)

    2002-03-01

    The paper shows the hydrodynamic analysis of the Jaruco-Aguacate aquifer using an unsteady groundwater flow mathematical model. The simulation includes conditions before and after pumping from a well filed, called El Gato, which is considered, as the most important water source for Havana city. The system is closed to the sea and conformed by an unconfined karstic aquifer with a well defined storage zone; its natural discharge flows through two spring groups. Results obtained with the model for the main spring discharge are near to the measured values, i. e. around 5 m{sup 3}/dec as the mean value for the period without main pumping station. Flow is reduced to 2.5-1.5 m{sup 3}/sec during pumping period but there are no data to confirm this result. Besides, a detailed study of the open boundary of the system is done when piezometric head variation in time is known. The mathematical modelling has been able to simulate the aquifer in its most general conception, in its regional as well as local representation, with a mean deviation of simulated head from observed values less than one meter in both analysed simulated periods. [Spanish] El objetivo del trabajo fue realizar un analisis hidrodinamico del acuifero Jaruco-Aguacate antes y despues de la puesta en marcha del acueducto el Gato, una de las fuentes de abasto mas importantes de la ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, basado en un modelo matematico de simulacion de flujo subterraneo transitorio bidimensional. El acuifero es una llanura carstica cerrada al mar y libre; hacia su centro, la zona de almacenamiento esta bien definida; el sistema de descarga natural realiza por medio de dos grupos de manantiales. El resultado obtenido para el gasto del manantial coincide con los valores aforados para un valor medio de 5 m{sup 3}/seg en el periodo analizado antes del funcionamiento del acueducto, pero su valor se reduce, variando desde 2.5 a 1.5 m{sup 3}/seg, en el periodo posterior, sin embargo, no existe informacion para

  7. Integrated modelling of enhanced in situ biodenitrification in a fractured aquifer: biogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Escales, Paula; Folch, Albert; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Vidal-Gavilan, Georgina; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Enhanced in-situ biodenitrification is a feasible technology to recovery groundwater polluted by nitrates and achieves drinking water standards. Under optimum conditions, nitrate is reduced by autochthonous bacteria trough different reactions until arrive to harmless dinitrogen gas. Isotopic fractionation monitoring in field applications allows knowing the exact degree and the real scope of this technology. Using the Rayleigh equation the change in the isotope ratio of the nitrate molecule (δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-) is related to the fraction of molecules remaining as a result of biodenitrification. However, Rayleigh application at field scale is sometimes limited due to other processes involved during groundwater flow such as dispersion or adsorption and geological media heterogeneities that interferes in concentration values. Then, include isotope fractionation processes in reactive transport models is a useful tool to interpret and predict data from in-situ biodenitrification. We developed a reactive transport model of enhanced in situ application at field scale in a fractured aquifer that considers biogeochemical processes as well as isotope fractionation to enable better monitoring and management of this technology. Processes considered were: microbiological- exogenous and endogenous nitrate and sulfate respiration coupled with microbial growth and decay, geochemical reactions (precipitation of calcite) and isotopic fractionation (δ15N-NO3-; δ18O- NO3- and carbon isotope network). The 2-D simulations at field scale were developed using PHAST code. Modeling of nitrate isotope geochemistry has allowed determining the extent of biodenitrification in model domain. We have quantified which is the importance in decreasing of nitrate concentrations due to biodegradation (percentage of biodegradation, 'B%') and due to dilution process (percentage of dilution, 'D%'). On the other hand, the stable carbon isotope geochemistry has been modeled. We have considered the

  8. Well Integrity for Natural Gas Storage in Depleted Reservoirs and Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perfect, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morris, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bauer, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bromhal, Grant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Glosser, Deborah [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Wyatt, Douglas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The 2015-2016 Aliso Canyon/Porter Ranch natural gas well blowout emitted approximately 100,000 tonnes of natural gas (mostly methane, CH4) over four months. The blowout impacted thousands of nearby residents, who were displaced from their homes. The high visibility of the event has led to increased scrutiny of the safety of natural gas storage at the Aliso Canyon facility, as well as broader concern for natural gas storage integrity throughout the country. This report presents the findings of the DOE National Laboratories Well Integrity Work Group efforts in the four tasks. In addition to documenting the work of the Work Group, this report presents high priority recommendations to improve well integrity and reduce the likelihood and consequences of subsurface natural gas leaks.

  9. Groundwater-level analysis of selected wells in the Hoosic River Valley near Hoosick Falls, New York, for aquifer framework and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Heisig, Paul M.

    2018-03-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, analyzed groundwater levels, drilling record logs, and field water-quality data from selected wells, and the surficial geology in the Hoosic River valley south of the village of Hoosick Falls, New York, to provide information about the framework and properties of a confined aquifer. The aquifer, which consists of ice-contact sand and gravel overlain by lacustrine clay and silt, was evaluated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation as part of their investigation of alternate water supplies for the village whose wellfield has been affected by perfluorooctanoic acid. Wells inventoried in the study area were classified as confined, water table, or transitional between the two aquifer conditions. Groundwater levels in three confined-aquifer wells and a transitional-aquifer well responded to pumping of a test production well finished in the confined aquifer. Groundwater levels in a water-table well showed no detectable water-level change in response to test-well pumping. Analysis of drawdown and recovery data from the three confined-aquifer wells and a transitional-aquifer well through the application of the Theis type-curve method provided estimates of aquifer properties. Representation of a constant-head boundary in the analysis where an unnamed pond and fluvial-terrace deposits abut the valley wall resulted in satisfactory matches of the Theis type curves with the observed water-level responses. Aquifer transmissivity estimates ranged from 1,160 to 1,370 feet squared per day. Aquifer storativity estimates ranged from 5.2×10–5 to 1.1×10–3 and were consistent with the inferred degree of confinement and distance from the represented recharge boundary.

  10. Analysis of pumping tests of partially penetrating wells in an unconfined aquifer using inverse numerical optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvilshøj, S.; Jensen, K. H.; Barlebo, H. C.; Madsen, B.

    1999-08-01

    Inverse numerical modeling was applied to analyze pumping tests of partially penetrating wells carried out in three wells established in an unconfined aquifer in Vejen, Denmark, where extensive field investigations had previously been carried out, including tracer tests, mini-slug tests, and other hydraulic tests. Drawdown data from multiple piezometers located at various horizontal and vertical distances from the pumping well were included in the optimization. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities, specific storage, and specific yield were estimated, assuming that the aquifer was either a homogeneous system with vertical anisotropy or composed of two or three layers of different hydraulic properties. In two out of three cases, a more accurate interpretation was obtained for a multi-layer model defined on the basis of lithostratigraphic information obtained from geological descriptions of sediment samples, gammalogs, and flow-meter tests. Analysis of the pumping tests resulted in values for horizontal hydraulic conductivities that are in good accordance with those obtained from slug tests and mini-slug tests. Besides the horizontal hydraulic conductivity, it is possible to determine the vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, and specific storage based on a pumping test of a partially penetrating well. The study demonstrates that pumping tests of partially penetrating wells can be analyzed using inverse numerical models. The model used in the study was a finite-element flow model combined with a non-linear regression model. Such a model can accommodate more geological information and complex boundary conditions, and the parameter-estimation procedure can be formalized to obtain optimum estimates of hydraulic parameters and their standard deviations.

  11. Characterization of deep aquifer dynamics using principal component analysis of sequential multilevel data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kurtzman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two sequential multilevel profiles were obtained in an observation well opened to a 130-m thick, unconfined, contaminated aquifer in Tel Aviv, Israel. While the general profile characteristics of major ions, trace elements, and volatile organic compounds were maintained in the two sampling campaigns conducted 295 days apart, the vertical locations of high concentration gradients were shifted between the two profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA of the chemical variables resulted in a first principal component which was responsible for ∼60% of the variability, and was highly correlated with depth. PCA revealed three distinct depth-dependent water bodies in both multilevel profiles, which were found to have shifted vertically between the sampling events. This shift cut across a clayey bed which separated the top and intermediate water bodies in the first profile, and was located entirely within the intermediate water body in the second profile. Continuous electrical conductivity monitoring in a packed-off section of the observation well revealed an event in which a distinct water body flowed through the monitored section (v ∼ 150 m yr−1. It was concluded that the observed changes in the profiles result from dominantly lateral flow of water bodies in the aquifer rather than vertical flow. The significance of this study is twofold: (a it demonstrates the utility of sequential multilevel observations from deep wells and the efficacy of PCA for evaluating the data; (b the fact that distinct water bodies of 10 to 100 m vertical and horizontal dimensions flow under contaminated sites, which has implications for monitoring and remediation.

  12. Assessment of vulnerability in karst aquifers using a quantitative integrated numerical model: catchment characterization and high resolution monitoring - Application to semi-arid regions- Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, Joanna; Aoun, Michel; Andari, Fouad

    2016-04-01

    Karst aquifers are highly heterogeneous and characterized by a duality of recharge (concentrated; fast versus diffuse; slow) and a duality of flow which directly influences groundwater flow and spring responses. Given this heterogeneity in flow and infiltration, karst aquifers do not always obey standard hydraulic laws. Therefore the assessment of their vulnerability reveals to be challenging. Studies have shown that vulnerability of aquifers is highly governed by recharge to groundwater. On the other hand specific parameters appear to play a major role in the spatial and temporal distribution of infiltration on a karst system, thus greatly influencing the discharge rates observed at a karst spring, and consequently the vulnerability of a spring. This heterogeneity can only be depicted using an integrated numerical model to quantify recharge spatially and assess the spatial and temporal vulnerability of a catchment for contamination. In the framework of a three-year PEER NSF/USAID funded project, the vulnerability of a karst catchment in Lebanon is assessed quantitatively using a numerical approach. The aim of the project is also to refine actual evapotranspiration rates and spatial recharge distribution in a semi arid environment. For this purpose, a monitoring network was installed since July 2014 on two different pilot karst catchment (drained by Qachqouch Spring and Assal Spring) to collect high resolution data to be used in an integrated catchment numerical model with MIKE SHE, DHI including climate, unsaturated zone, and saturated zone. Catchment characterization essential for the model included geological mapping and karst features (e.g., dolines) survey as they contribute to fast flow. Tracer experiments were performed under different flow conditions (snow melt and low flow) to delineate the catchment area, reveal groundwater velocities and response to snowmelt events. An assessment of spring response after precipitation events allowed the estimation of the

  13. Carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  14. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Regional aquifers underlying the 15,600-square-mile Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The largest and most productive aquifers in the Snake River Plain are composed of Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group, which underlies most of the 10,8000-square-mile eastern plain. Aquifer tests and simulation indicate that transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain commonly ranges from about 100,000 to 1,000,000 feet squared per day. However, transmissivity of the total aquifer thickness may be as much as 10 million feet squared per day. Specific yield of the upper 200 feet of the aquifer ranges from about 0.01 to 0.20. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer ranges from less than 100 to 9,000 feet per day. Values may be one to several orders of magnitude higher in parts in individual flows, such as flow tops. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is probably several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is generally related to the number of joints. Pillow lava in ancestral Snake River channels has the highest hydraulic conductivity of all rock types. Hydraulic conductivity of the basalt decreases with depth because of secondary filling of voids with calcite and silica. An estimated 80 to 120 million acre-feet of water is believed to be stored in the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain. The most productive aquifers in the 4,800-square-mile western plain are alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley. Although aquifer tests indicate that transmissivity of alluvium in the Boise River valley ranges from 5,000 to 160,000 feet squared per day, simulation suggests that average transmissivity of the upper 500 feet is generally less than 20,000 feet squared per day. Vertically averaged horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper

  15. Groundwater potentiality mapping using geoelectrical-based aquifer hydraulic parameters: A GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Anthony Mogaji Hwee San Lim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted a robust analysis on acquired 2D resistivity imaging data and borehole pumping test records to optimize groundwater potentiality mapping in Perak province, Malaysia using derived aquifer hydraulic properties. The transverse resistance (TR parameter was determined from the interpreted 2D resistivity imaging data by applying the Dar-Zarrouk parameter equation. Linear regression and GIS techniques were used to regress the estimated values for TR parameters with the aquifer transmissivity values extracted from the geospatially produced BPT records-based aquifer transmissivity map to develop the aquifer transmissivity parameter predictive (ATPP model. The reliability evaluated ATPP model using the Theil inequality coefficient measurement approach was used to establish geoelectrical-based hydraulic parameters (GHP modeling equations for the modeling of transmissivity (Tr, hydraulic conductivity (K, storativity (St, and hydraulic diffusivity (D properties. The applied GHP modeling equation results to the delineated aquifer media was used to produce aquifer potential conditioning factor maps for Tr, K, St, and D. The maps were modeled to develop an aquifer potential mapping index (APMI model via applying the multi-criteria decision analysis-analytic hierarchy process principle. The area groundwater reservoir productivity potential model map produced based on the processed APMI model estimates in the GIS environment was found to be 71% accurate. This study establishes a good alternative approach to determine aquifer hydraulic parameters even in areas where pumping test information is unavailable using a cost effective geophysical data. The produced map can be explored for hydrological decision making.

  16. State of the art and risk analysis for CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. Investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farret, R.; Gombert, P.; Hulot, C.; BOUR, Olivier; Thoraval, Alain

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the impact of supercritical CO 2 injection in deep saline aquifer, but also addresses the case of depleted hydrocarbons fields. After a general presentation of the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technique, this report presents the main principles of risk analysis and defines an analysis method applicable to the whole CCS sector. It is based on practices coming from the field of industrial risk analysis, on the knowledge of underground processes, and on the state of the art of health risk analysis in the case of chemical species. The main considered risks are hydraulic risks (fluid pressurization), mechanical risks (cracking, soil rising and induced seismicity), CO 2 migration or leakages towards aquifers and surface, and migration of other species than CO 2 . The report addresses the characterisation of fluids and of possible geochemical evolutions, the characterisation of scenarios of fluid migration, and the hierarchy of health impacts related to fluid leakages

  17. Study of variation in groundwater quality in a coastal aquifer in north-eastern Tunisia using multivariate factor analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Charfi, Sihem; Zouari, Kamel; Feki, Saber; Mami, Ezeddine

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on the Grombalia aquifer which constitutes the main water resource in Northeast Tunisia, Cap Bon Peninsula. The recharge of this aquifer is ensured mainly by direct infiltration of rainwater through permeable layers. Under semi-arid climatic conditions and increasing water demand for irrigation, about 80% of the Grombalia aquifer system shows different vulnerabilities to anthropogenic activities. The total dissolved solids values range from 0.75 to 5.6g/l.Isotopic characterization with stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) of Grombalia aquifer system identified geochemistry processes that control water chemistry. In addition, the multivariate statistical technique (Principal Component Analysis) was used to identify the origin, the recharge mode and geochemical processes controlling groundwater quality. The principal reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the Grombalia groundwater fall into three categories: (1) denitrification process; (2) dissolution of salts; and (3) irrigation return flow process. Tritium data in groundwater from the study area suggest the existence of pre1950 and post1960 recharge. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  18. Study of variation in groundwater quality in a coastal aquifer in north-eastern Tunisia using multivariate factor analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Charfi, Sihem

    2013-07-01

    This work focuses on the Grombalia aquifer which constitutes the main water resource in Northeast Tunisia, Cap Bon Peninsula. The recharge of this aquifer is ensured mainly by direct infiltration of rainwater through permeable layers. Under semi-arid climatic conditions and increasing water demand for irrigation, about 80% of the Grombalia aquifer system shows different vulnerabilities to anthropogenic activities. The total dissolved solids values range from 0.75 to 5.6g/l.Isotopic characterization with stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) of Grombalia aquifer system identified geochemistry processes that control water chemistry. In addition, the multivariate statistical technique (Principal Component Analysis) was used to identify the origin, the recharge mode and geochemical processes controlling groundwater quality. The principal reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the Grombalia groundwater fall into three categories: (1) denitrification process; (2) dissolution of salts; and (3) irrigation return flow process. Tritium data in groundwater from the study area suggest the existence of pre1950 and post1960 recharge. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  19. Integrative and sustantibility management of the underground water in America Latina. Sustantibility management of Raigon Aquifer. Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This work is a Project which was carried out with the participation of Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. These countries carried out eleven hydrogeolical studies with conventional and isotopic methods.The aim of this project is improve the hydrogeologic knowledge. In Uruguay the interest of its study was The Raigon System Aquifer which was denominated as maintained gestion of Raigon Aquifer.

  20. Quantifying wetland–aquifer interactions in a humid subtropical climate region: An integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Niu, Jie; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; McGuire, Jennifer T.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are widely recognized as sentinels of global climate change. Long-term monitoring data combined with process-based modeling has the potential to shed light on key processes and how they change over time. This paper reports the development and application of a simple water balance model based on long-term climate, soil, vegetation and hydrological dynamics to quantify groundwater–surface water (GW–SW) interactions at the Norman landfill research site in Oklahoma, USA. Our integrated approach involved model evaluation by means of the following independent measurements: (a) groundwater inflow calculation using stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (16O, 18O, 1H, 2H); (b) seepage flux measurements in the wetland hyporheic sediment; and (c) pan evaporation measurements on land and in the wetland. The integrated approach was useful for identifying the dominant hydrological processes at the site, including recharge and subsurface flows. Simulated recharge compared well with estimates obtained using isotope methods from previous studies and allowed us to identify specific annual signatures of this important process during the period of study (1997–2007). Similarly, observations of groundwater inflow and outflow rates to and from the wetland using seepage meters and isotope methods were found to be in good agreement with simulation results. Results indicate that subsurface flow components in the system are seasonal and readily respond to rainfall events. The wetland water balance is dominated by local groundwater inputs and regional groundwater flow contributes little to the overall water balance.

  1. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemker, C. J.

    1999-11-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The finite-difference technique is used for the vertical flow component only. The aquifer is discretized in the vertical dimension and the heterogeneous aquifer is considered to be a layered (stratified) formation with a finite number of homogeneous sublayers, where each sublayer may have different properties. The transient part of the differential equation is solved with Stehfest's algorithm, a numerical inversion technique of the Laplace transform. The well is of constant discharge and penetrates one or more of the sublayers. The effect of wellbore storage on early drawdown data is taken into account. In this way drawdowns are found for a finite number of sublayers as a continuous function of radial distance to the well and of time since the pumping started. The model is verified by comparing results with published analytical and numerical solutions for well flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous, confined and unconfined aquifers. Instantaneous and delayed drainage of water from above the water table are considered, combined with the effects of partially penetrating and finite-diameter wells. The model is applied to demonstrate that the transient effects of wellbore storage in unconfined aquifers are less pronounced than previous numerical experiments suggest. Other applications of the presented solution technique are given for partially penetrating wells in heterogeneous formations, including a demonstration of the effect of decreasing specific storage values with depth in an otherwise homogeneous aquifer. The presented solution can be a powerful tool for the analysis of drawdown from pumping tests, because hydraulic properties of layered heterogeneous aquifer systems with

  2. Hydrogeology and Analysis of Aquifer Characteristics in West-Central Pinellas County, Florida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broska, James C; Barnette, Holly L

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pinellas County, Florida, conducted an investigation to describe the hydrogeology and analyze the aquifer characteristics in west-central Pinellas County...

  3. Digital model analysis of the principal artesian aquifer, Savannah, Georgia area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, H.B.; Krause, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    A digital model of the principal artesian aquifer has been developed for the Savannah, Georgia, area. The model simulates the response of the aquifer system to various hydrologic stresses. Model results of the water levels and water-level changes are shown on maps. Computations may be extended in time, indicating changes in pumpage were applied to the system and probable results calculated. Drawdown or water-level differences were computed, showing comparisons of different water management alternatives. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Stochastic analysis of the efficiency of coupled hydraulic-physical barriers to contain solute plumes in highly heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Masetti, Marco; Beretta, Giovanni Pietro

    2017-10-01

    The expected long-term efficiency of vertical cutoff walls coupled to pump-and-treat technologies to contain solute plumes in highly heterogeneous aquifers was analyzed. A well-characterized case study in Italy, with a hydrogeological database of 471 results from hydraulic tests performed on the aquifer and the surrounding 2-km-long cement-bentonite (CB) walls, was used to build a conceptual model and assess a representative remediation site adopting coupled technologies. In the studied area, the aquifer hydraulic conductivity Ka [m/d] is log-normally distributed with mean E (Ya) = 0.32 , variance σYa2 = 6.36 (Ya = lnKa) and spatial correlation well described by an exponential isotropic variogram with integral scale less than 1/12 the domain size. The hardened CB wall's hydraulic conductivity, Kw [m/d], displayed strong scaling effects and a lognormal distribution with mean E (Yw) = - 3.43 and σYw2 = 0.53 (Yw =log10Kw). No spatial correlation of Kw was detected. Using this information, conservative transport was simulated across a CB wall in spatially correlated 1-D random Ya fields within a numerical Monte Carlo framework. Multiple scenarios representing different Kw values were tested. A continuous solute source with known concentration and deterministic drains' discharge rates were assumed. The efficiency of the confining system was measured by the probability of exceedance of concentration over a threshold (C∗) at a control section 10 years after the initial solute release. It was found that the stronger the aquifer heterogeneity, the higher the expected efficiency of the confinement system and the lower the likelihood of aquifer pollution. This behavior can be explained because, for the analyzed aquifer conditions, a lower Ka generates more pronounced drawdown in the water table in the proximity of the drain and consequently a higher advective flux towards the confined area, which counteracts diffusive fluxes across the walls. Thus, a higher σYa2 results

  5. Application of the Aquifer Impact Model to support decisions at a CO 2 sequestration site: Modeling and Analysis: Application of the Aquifer Impact Model to support decisions at a CO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Diana Holford [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Locke II, Randall A. [University of Illinois, Illinois State Geological Survey Champaign IL USA; Keating, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM USA; Carroll, Susan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA USA; Iranmanesh, Abbas [University of Illinois, Illinois State Geological Survey Champaign IL USA; Mansoor, Kayyum [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA USA; Wimmer, Bracken [University of Illinois, Illinois State Geological Survey Champaign IL USA; Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Shao, Hongbo [University of Illinois, Illinois State Geological Survey Champaign IL USA; Greenberg, Sallie E. [University of Illinois, Illinois State Geological Survey Champaign IL USA

    2017-10-04

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) has developed a suite of tools to assess and manage risk at CO2 sequestration sites (1). The NRAP tool suite includes the Aquifer Impact Model (AIM), based on reduced order models developed using site-specific data from two aquifers (alluvium and carbonate). The models accept aquifer parameters as a range of variable inputs so they may have more broad applicability. Guidelines have been developed for determining the aquifer types for which the ROMs should be applicable. This paper considers the applicability of the aquifer models in AIM to predicting the impact of CO2 or Brine leakage were it to occur at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP). Based on the results of the sensitivity analysis, the hydraulic parameters and leakage source term magnitude are more sensitive than clay fraction or cation exchange capacity. Sand permeability was the only hydraulic parameter measured at the IBDP site. More information on the other hydraulic parameters, such as sand fraction and sand/clay correlation lengths, could reduce uncertainty in risk estimates. Some non-adjustable parameters, such as the initial pH and TDS and the pH no-impact threshold, are significantly different for the ROM than for the observations at the IBDP site. The reduced order model could be made more useful to a wider range of sites if the initial conditions and no-impact threshold values were adjustable parameters.

  6. Analysis of three geopressured geothermal aquifer-natural gas fields; Duson Hollywood and Church Point, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.A.; Boardman, C.R.

    1981-05-01

    The available well logs, production records and geological structure maps were analyzed for the Hollywood, Duson, and Church Point, Louisiana oil and gas field to determine the areal extent of the sealed geopressured blocks and to identify which aquifer sands within the blocks are connected to commercial production of hydrocarbons. The analysis showed that over the depth intervals of the geopressured zones shown on the logs essentially all of the sands of any substantial thickness had gas production from them somewhere or other in the fault block. It is therefore expected that the sands which are fully brine saturated in many of the wells are the water drive portion of the producing gas/oil somewhere else within the fault block. In this study only one deep sand was identified, in the Hollywood field, which was not connected to a producing horizon somewhere else in the field. Estimates of the reservoir parameters were made and a hypothetical production calculation showed the probable production to be less than 10,000 b/d. The required gas price to profitably produce this gas is well above the current market price.

  7. Preliminary Analysis of the Role of Wetlands and Rivers in the Groundwater Discharge of the Guarani Aquifer System in NE Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, L.; Rodriguez, L.; Manzano, M.; Valladares, A.; Agarwaal, P.; Araguas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is a transboundary aquifer occupying parts of Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina, covering some 1200000 km''2. The location and magnitude of recharge and the magnitude of regional discharges are uncertain. Regional groundwater flow modeling suggests that some discharge may occur through selected reaches of the Parana and Uruguay rivers and their tributaries, and perhaps, through the Ibera wetland system within Argentina. Preliminary findings of hydrochemical and isotopic sampling and analysis from surface water and groundwater in the Southern GAS region, studying the role of rivers and wetlands in the aquifer discharge and revising the conceptual model, are presented.

  8. Machine-readable files developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Machine-readable files were developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project are stored on two magnetic tapes available from the U.S. Geological Survey. The first tape contains computer programs that were used to prepare, store, retrieve, organize, and preserve the areal interpretive data collected by the project staff. The second tape contains 134 data files that can be divided into five general classes: (1) Aquifer geometry data, (2) aquifer and water characteristics , (3) water levels, (4) climatological data, and (5) land use and water use data. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) to characterize microbial communities in aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Scow, Kate M.

    This paper reviews published applications of lipid-based biochemical techniques for characterizing microbial communities in aquifers and other deep subsurface habitats. These techniques, such as phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, can provide information on a variety of microbial characteristics, such as biomass, physiology, taxonomic and functional identity, and overall community composition. In addition, multivariate statistical analysis of lipid data can relate spatial or temporal changes in microbial communities to environmental factors. The use of lipid-based techniques in the study of groundwater microbiology is advantageous because they do not require culturing and can provide quantitative data on entire communities. However, combined effects of physiological and phylogenetic changes on the lipid composition of a community can confound interpretation of the data, and many questions remain about the validity of various lipid techniques. Despite these caveats, lipid-based research has begun to show trends in community composition in contaminated and pristine aquifers that contribute to our understanding of groundwater microbial ecology and have potential for use in optimization of bioremediation of groundwater pollutants. Résumé Ce papier passe en revue les applications des techniques biochimiques basées sur les lipides pour caractériser les communautés microbiennes présentes dans les aquifères et dans les autres habitats souterrains profonds. Ces techniques, telles que l'analyse des acides gras phospholipidiques (PLFA), peuvent fournir des informations sur un ensemble de caractères microbiens, tels que la biomasse, la physiologie, l'identité taxonomique et fonctionnelle, et surtout la composition de la communauté. En outre, l'analyse statistique multivariée des données sur les lipides peut établir les liens entre des changements spatiaux ou temporels dans la communauté microbienne et des facteurs environnementaux. L'utilisation des

  10. Analysis of groundwater flow and stream depletion in L-shaped fluvial aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Chih; Chang, Ya-Chi; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the head distribution in aquifers is crucial for the evaluation of groundwater resources. This article develops a model for describing flow induced by pumping in an L-shaped fluvial aquifer bounded by impermeable bedrocks and two nearly fully penetrating streams. A similar scenario for numerical studies was reported in Kihm et al. (2007). The water level of the streams is assumed to be linearly varying with distance. The aquifer is divided into two subregions and the continuity conditions of the hydraulic head and flux are imposed at the interface of the subregions. The steady-state solution describing the head distribution for the model without pumping is first developed by the method of separation of variables. The transient solution for the head distribution induced by pumping is then derived based on the steady-state solution as initial condition and the methods of finite Fourier transform and Laplace transform. Moreover, the solution for stream depletion rate (SDR) from each of the two streams is also developed based on the head solution and Darcy's law. Both head and SDR solutions in the real time domain are obtained by a numerical inversion scheme called the Stehfest algorithm. The software MODFLOW is chosen to compare with the proposed head solution for the L-shaped aquifer. The steady-state and transient head distributions within the L-shaped aquifer predicted by the present solution are compared with the numerical simulations and measurement data presented in Kihm et al. (2007).

  11. Analysis of groundwater flow and stream depletion in L-shaped fluvial aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the head distribution in aquifers is crucial for the evaluation of groundwater resources. This article develops a model for describing flow induced by pumping in an L-shaped fluvial aquifer bounded by impermeable bedrocks and two nearly fully penetrating streams. A similar scenario for numerical studies was reported in Kihm et al. (2007. The water level of the streams is assumed to be linearly varying with distance. The aquifer is divided into two subregions and the continuity conditions of the hydraulic head and flux are imposed at the interface of the subregions. The steady-state solution describing the head distribution for the model without pumping is first developed by the method of separation of variables. The transient solution for the head distribution induced by pumping is then derived based on the steady-state solution as initial condition and the methods of finite Fourier transform and Laplace transform. Moreover, the solution for stream depletion rate (SDR from each of the two streams is also developed based on the head solution and Darcy's law. Both head and SDR solutions in the real time domain are obtained by a numerical inversion scheme called the Stehfest algorithm. The software MODFLOW is chosen to compare with the proposed head solution for the L-shaped aquifer. The steady-state and transient head distributions within the L-shaped aquifer predicted by the present solution are compared with the numerical simulations and measurement data presented in Kihm et al. (2007.

  12. AnalyzeHOLE: An Integrated Wellbore Flow Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith J. Halford

    2009-10-01

    Conventional interpretation of flow logs assumes that hydraulic conductivity is directly proportional to flow change with depth. However, well construction can significantly alter the expected relation between changes in fluid velocity and hydraulic conductivity. Strong hydraulic conductivity contrasts between lithologic intervals can be masked in continuously screened wells. Alternating intervals of screen and blank casing also can greatly complicate the relation between flow and hydraulic properties. More permeable units are not necessarily associated with rapid fluid-velocity increases. Thin, highly permeable units can be misinterpreted as thick and less permeable intervals or not identified at all. These conditions compromise standard flow-log interpretation because vertical flow fields are induced near the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE, an integrated wellbore analysis tool for simulating flow and transport in wells and aquifer systems, provides a better alternative for simulating and evaluating complex well-aquifer system interaction. A pumping well and adjacent aquifer system are simulated with an axisymmetric, radial geometry in a two-dimensional MODFLOW model. Hydraulic conductivities are distributed by depth and estimated with PEST by minimizing squared differences between simulated and measured flows and drawdowns. Hydraulic conductivity can vary within a lithology but variance is limited with regularization. Transmissivity of the simulated system also can be constrained to estimates from single-well, pumping tests. Water-quality changes in the pumping well are simulated with simple mixing models between zones of differing water quality. These zones are differentiated by backtracking thousands of particles from the well screens with MODPATH. An Excel spreadsheet is used to interface the various components of AnalyzeHOLE by (1) creating model input files, (2) executing MODFLOW, MODPATH, PEST, and supporting FORTRAN routines, and (3) importing and graphically

  13. Integrating urban recharge uncertainty into standard groundwater modeling practice: A case study on water main break predictions for the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer, Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinner, K.; Teasley, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater models serve as integral tools for understanding flow processes and informing stakeholders and policy makers in management decisions. Historically, these models tended towards a deterministic nature, relying on historical data to predict and inform future decisions based on model outputs. This research works towards developing a stochastic method of modeling recharge inputs from pipe main break predictions in an existing groundwater model, which subsequently generates desired outputs incorporating future uncertainty rather than deterministic data. The case study for this research is the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer near Austin, Texas. Researchers and water resource professionals have modeled the Edwards Aquifer for decades due to its high water quality, fragile ecosystem, and stakeholder interest. The original case study and model that this research is built upon was developed as a co-design problem with regional stakeholders and the model outcomes are generated specifically for communication with policy makers and managers. Recently, research in the Barton Springs segment demonstrated a significant contribution of urban, or anthropogenic, recharge to the aquifer, particularly during dry period, using deterministic data sets. Due to social and ecological importance of urban water loss to recharge, this study develops an evaluation method to help predicted pipe breaks and their related recharge contribution within the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer. To benefit groundwater management decision processes, the performance measures captured in the model results, such as springflow, head levels, storage, and others, were determined by previous work in elicitation of problem framing to determine stakeholder interests and concerns. The results of the previous deterministic model and the stochastic model are compared to determine gains to stakeholder knowledge through the additional modeling

  14. Ozark Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — These digital maps contain information on the altitude of the base and top, the extent, and the potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer in Kansas. The Ozark...

  15. Preliminary analysis of some waters from the confined aquifers underlying the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.

    1978-09-01

    This report presents results of analyses available at this time from waters from some wells sampled in or near the Hanford Site. The analyses of these wells were done for various purposes and are consolidated to help define the nature of the waters found within the Columbia Plateau basaltic sequence. Results of the analyses show the waters from the unconfined aquifers underlying the Hanford Site are characterized by a high calcium--magnesium content. These waters can be described as calcium--magnesium--bicarbonate-type. Waters from deeper basaltic confined aquifers are primarily of the sodium bicarbonate type. Two waters sampled from the Grande Ronde Formation from Rattlesnake Hills Exploratory Well Number 1 are slightly different and can be described as sodium--calcium--bicarbonate--sulfate--chloride-type. Age-dating results for these water samples lead to the conclusions that waters from the confined aquifers were entrapped 15,000 to 23,000 years ago

  16. Integrated piping structural analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoi, Toshio; Yamadera, Masao; Horino, Satoshi; Idehata, Takamasa

    1979-01-01

    Structural analysis of the piping system for nuclear power plants has become larger in scale and in quantity. In addition, higher quality analysis is regarded as of major importance nowadays from the point of view of nuclear plant safety. In order to fulfill to the above requirements, an integrated piping structural analysis system (ISAP-II) has been developed. Basic philosophy of this system is as follows: 1. To apply the date base system. All information is concentrated. 2. To minimize the manual process in analysis, evaluation and documentation. Especially to apply the graphic system as much as possible. On the basis of the above philosophy four subsystems were made. 1. Data control subsystem. 2. Analysis subsystem. 3. Plotting subsystem. 4. Report subsystem. Function of the data control subsystem is to control all information of the data base. Piping structural analysis can be performed by using the analysis subsystem. Isometric piping drawing and mode shape, etc. can be plotted by using the plotting subsystem. Total analysis report can be made without the manual process through the reporting subsystem. (author)

  17. Monitoring Aquifer Depletion from Space: Case Studies from the Saharan and Arabian Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Wahr, J. M.; Yan, E.

    2013-12-01

    Access to potable fresh water resources is a human right and a basic requirement for economic development in any society. In arid and semi-arid areas, the characterization and understanding of the geologic and hydrologic settings of, and the controlling factors affecting, these resources is gaining increasing importance due to the challenges posed by increasing population. In these areas, there is immense natural fossil fresh water resources stored in large extensive aquifers, the transboundary aquifers. Yet, natural phenomena (e.g., rainfall patterns and climate change) together with human-related factors (e.g., population growth, unsustainable over-exploitation, and pollution) are threatening the sustainability of these resources. In this study, we are developing and applying an integrated cost-effective approach to investigate the nature (i.e., natural and anthropogenic) and the controlling factors affecting the hydrologic settings of the Saharan (i.e., Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System [NSAS], Northwest Sahara Aquifer System [NWSA]) and Arabian (i.e., Arabian Peninsula Aquifer System [APAS]) aquifer systems. Analysis of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) inter-annual trends over the NSAS and the APAS revealed two areas of significant TWS depletions; the first correlated with the Dakhla Aquifer System (DAS) in the NSAS and second with the Saq Aquifer System (SAS) in the APAS. Annual depletion rates were estimated at 1.3 × 0.66 × 109 m3/yr and 6.95 × 0.68 × 109 m3/yr for DAS and SAS, respectively. Findings include (1) excessive groundwater extraction, not climatic changes, is responsible for the observed TWS depletions ;(2) the DAS could be consumed in 350 years if extraction rates continue to double every 50 years and the APAS available reserves could be consumed within 60-140 years at present extraction (7.08 × 109 m3/yr) and depletion rates; and (3) observed depletions over DAS and SAS and their

  18. Analysis and Remediation of the Salinized, Damour Coastal (Dolomitic) Limestone Aquifer in Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khadra, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal aquifer management has recently emerged as a main scope in groundwater hydrology, especially in arid and semi-arid zones. About two thirds of the human population are currently gathered close to shorelines relying on coastal groundwater resources. Worldwide, these systems are subject to

  19. Investigating the Factors Affecting theZahedan’s Aquifer Hydrogeochemistry Using Foctor Analysis, Saturation Indices and Composite Diagrams’ Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dowlati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zahedan aquifer is located in the northernof Zahedanwatedshed. It is essential to evaluate the quality of groundwater resources due to proving some part of drinking water, agricultural and industrial waters of this city. In order to carry out ground water quality monitoring, and assess the controlling possesses and determine cations and anions sources of the groundwater, 26 wells were sampled and water quality parameters were measured.The results of the analysis showed that almost all of the samples proved very saline and electrical conductivity varied from 1,359 to 12,620μS cm−1. In the Zahedan aquifer, sodium, chloride and sulfate were predominant Cation and Anions respectively, and sodium-chloride Na-Cl( and sodium - sulfateNa-So4 were dominant types of the groundwater. The factor analysis of samples results indicates that the two natural and human factors controlled about the 83/30% and 74/37% of the quality variations of the groundwater respectively in October and February. The first and major factor related to the natural processes of ion exchange and dissolution had a correlation with positive loadings of EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, Cl-, K+ and So42- and controls the 65.25% of the quality variations of the ground water in October and the 58.82% in February. The second factor related toCa2+, No3- constituted the18.05% of the quality variations in October and 15.56% in February, and given the urban development and less agricultural development in the aquifer, is dependent on human activities. For the samples collected in October, the saturation indices of calcite, gypsum and dolomite minerals showed saturated condition and calcite and dolomite in February showed saturated condition for more than 60% and 90% of samples and gypsum index revealed under-saturated condition for almost all samples.The unsaturated condition of Zahedan groundwater aquifer is resulted from the insufficient time for retaining water in the aquifer to dissolve the minerals

  20. Integrated sequence analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.; Pyy, P.

    1998-02-01

    The NKS/RAK subprojet 3 'integrated sequence analysis' (ISA) was formulated with the overall objective to develop and to test integrated methodologies in order to evaluate event sequences with significant human action contribution. The term 'methodology' denotes not only technical tools but also methods for integration of different scientific disciplines. In this report, we first discuss the background of ISA and the surveys made to map methods in different application fields, such as man machine system simulation software, human reliability analysis (HRA) and expert judgement. Specific event sequences were, after the surveys, selected for application and testing of a number of ISA methods. The event sequences discussed in the report were cold overpressure of BWR, shutdown LOCA of BWR, steam generator tube rupture of a PWR and BWR disturbed signal view in the control room after an external event. Different teams analysed these sequences by using different ISA and HRA methods. Two kinds of results were obtained from the ISA project: sequence specific and more general findings. The sequence specific results are discussed together with each sequence description. The general lessons are discussed under a separate chapter by using comparisons of different case studies. These lessons include areas ranging from plant safety management (design, procedures, instrumentation, operations, maintenance and safety practices) to methodological findings (ISA methodology, PSA,HRA, physical analyses, behavioural analyses and uncertainty assessment). Finally follows a discussion about the project and conclusions are presented. An interdisciplinary study of complex phenomena is a natural way to produce valuable and innovative results. This project came up with structured ways to perform ISA and managed to apply the in practice. The project also highlighted some areas where more work is needed. In the HRA work, development is required for the use of simulators and expert judgement as

  1. Meta-Transcriptomic Analysis of a Chromate-Reducing Aquifer Microbial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Han, R.; Karaoz, U.

    2010-12-01

    A major challenge for microbial ecology that has become more tractable in the advent of new molecular techniques is characterizing gene expression in complex microbial communities. We are using meta-transcriptomic analysis to characterize functional changes in an aquifer-derived, chromate-reducing microbial community as it transitions through various electron-accepting conditions. We inoculated anaerobic microcosms with groundwater from the Cr-contaminated Hanford 100H site and supplemented them with lactate and electron acceptors present at the site, namely, nitrate, sulfate, and Fe(III). The microcosms progressed successively through various electron-accepting conditions (e.g., denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and ferric iron-reducing conditions, as well as nitrate-dependent, chemolithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions). Cr(VI) was rapidly reduced initially and again upon further Cr(VI) amendments. Extensive geochemical sampling and analysis (e.g., lactate, acetate, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, dissolved Cr(VI), total Fe(II)), RNA/DNA harvesting, and PhyloChip analyses were conducted. Methods were developed for removal of rRNA from total RNA in preparation for meta-transcriptome sequencing. To date, samples representing denitrifying and fermentative/sulfate-reducing conditions have been sequenced using 454 Titanium technology. Of the non-rRNA related reads for the denitrifying sample (which was also actively reducing chromate), ca. 8% were associated with denitrification and ca. 0.9% were associated with chromate resistance/transport, in contrast to the fermentative/sulfate-reducing sample (in which chromate had already been reduced), which had zero reads associated with either of these categories but many predicted proteins associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria. We observed sequences for key functional transcripts that were unique at the nucleotide level compared to the GenBank non-redundant database [such as L-lactate dehydrogenase (iron

  2. Understanding Kendal aquifer system: a baseline analysis for sustainable water management proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, A.; Aryanto, M. D.; Pramudito, A.; Andhika, A.; Irawan, D. E.

    2017-07-01

    North coast of Java has been grown as the center of economic activities and major connectivity hub for Sumatra and Bali. Sustainable water management must support such role. One of the basis is to understand the baseline of groundwater occurrences and potential. However the complex alluvium aquiver system has not been well-understood. A geoelectric measurements were performed to determine which rock layer has a good potential as groundwater aquifers in the northern coast of Kaliwungu Regency, Kendal District, Central Java province. Total of 10 vertical electrical sounding (VES) points has been performed, using a Schlumberger configuration with the current electrode spacing (AB/2) varies between 200 - 300 m and the potential difference electrode spacing (MN/2) varies between 0.5 to 20 m with depths target ranging between 150 - 200 m. Geoelectrical data processing is done using Ip2win software which generates resistivity value, thickness and depth of subsurface rock layers. Based on the correlation between resistivity value with regional geology, hydrogeology and local well data, we identify three aquifer layers. The first layer is silty clay with resistivity values vary between 0 - 10 ohm.m, then the second layer is tuffaceous claystone with resistivity value between 10 - 60 ohm.m. Both layers serve as impermeable layer. The third layer is sandy tuff with resistivity value between 60 - 100 ohm.m which serves as a confined aquifer layer located at 70 - 100 m below surface. Its thickness is vary between 70 to 110 m. The aquifer layer is a mixing of volcanic and alluvium sediment, which is a member of Damar Formation. The stratification of the aquifer system may change in short distance and depth. This natural setting prevent us to make a long continuous correlation between layers. Aquifer discharge is estimated between 5 - 71 L/s with the potential deep well locations lies in the west and southeast part of the study area. These hydrogeological settings should be used

  3. Guarani aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The environmental protection and sustain ability develop project of Guarani Aquifer System is a join work from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay with a purpose to increase the knowledge resource and propose technical legal and organizational framework for sustainable management between countries.The Universities funds were created as regional universities support in promotion, training and academic research activities related to environmental al social aspects of the Guarani Aquifer System.The aim of the project is the management and protection of the underground waters resources taking advantage and assesment for nowadays and future generations

  4. A hotspot analysis of the water footprint and groundwater depletion in the High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multsch, Sebastian; Pahlow, Markus; Ellensohn, Judith; Michalik, Thomas; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The water footprint (WF) of irrigation agriculture sums up to 45.72 km3 yr-1(46% blue, 54% green) across the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) in the USA. Green WFs are dominating the north-east. Blue WFs are related to regions with intensive depletion of groundwater in the center and southern HPA, a situation further exacerbated by an increase of the blue water fraction of crop WF over the past (by 50% for 1990-1999; by 57% for 2000-2012). By means of a cluster analysis with the three parameter groundwater decline, blue and green WF, hotspots have been delineated spatially. Two sub-regions in the southern and central covering merely 20% of the HPA area have a share of one-third (7.92 km3 yr-1) of the total WF. This clearly shows that local strategies for sustainable allocation and use of freshwater resources are required. A likely impact of the sowing date (earliest vs. latest) on the WF has been studied, showing that blue WF increases by about 4% on average for all crops for the late sowing date, whereby the green and blue WF of cotton decreases totally about 0.9 km3 yr-1. Further evaluation criteria apart from water conservation considered are economic water productivity and nutritional value per volume of water consumed in agricultural production. Corn leads to the highest economic water productivity of 0.34 USD m-3, which in addition provides the highest nutritional value of 4362 kcal m-3. Favoring sorghum over corn was found advantageous in years with water shortage, because irrigation requirements and crop evapotranspiration of sorghum are lower by 20% and 25%, respectively, yet accompanied with nutritional losses of 28% compared to corn production. Such a trade-off is to be evaluated by farmers and policy makers, whereby the green and blue WFs, the impact of the sowing date as well as the economic and nutritional productivity presented here supports decision making.

  5. Analysis of arsenic pollution in groundwater aquifers by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbarato, V.M.; Sanchez, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The serious contamination of groundwater in the southeastern plain of the province of Cordoba (Argentina), a phenomenon mentioned in the literature for over 80 years, has given rise to this initial hydrologic study covering an area over 250 km 2 . This study analyzes a rural area near a little town called La Francia, and is motivated by the existence of an important pollution with arsenic in the first-aquifer groundwater of the region. This phenomenon has been mentioned for a long time and evidenced by the high incidence of diseases associated with this element in the local population. By means of the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique, and using an energy-dispersive spectrometer, 50 samples of groundwater of the rural zone of La Francia from about 100 m deep (second aquifer), were analyzed. The samples were excited with a 3 kW X-ray tube and measured using a reflecting geometry with 45 deg. of incident and take-off directions. Preconcentration techniques for the preparation of the samples were employed in order to obtain an adequate signal-to-noise ratio. The As concentration in water was obtained using calibration curves and the internal standard method for quantification. A high percentage of the analyzed samples showed concentrations lesser than or equal to 0.05 mg l -1 . This value corresponds to the maximum pollutant level for humans. The maximum measured value reaches 3 mg l -1 in samples collected in perforations of first-aquifer wells and in some second-aquifer isolated wells

  6. Analysis of methods to estimate spring flows in a karst aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Nicasio

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulically and statistically based methods were analyzed to identify the most reliable method to predict spring flows in a karst aquifer. Measured water levels at nearby observation wells, measured spring pool altitudes, and the distance between observation wells and the spring pool were the parameters used to match measured spring flows. Measured spring flows at six Upper Floridan aquifer springs in central Florida were used to assess the reliability of these methods to predict spring flows. Hydraulically based methods involved the application of the Theis, Hantush-Jacob, and Darcy-Weisbach equations, whereas the statistically based methods were the multiple linear regressions and the technology of artificial neural networks (ANNs). Root mean square errors between measured and predicted spring flows using the Darcy-Weisbach method ranged between 5% and 15% of the measured flows, lower than the 7% to 27% range for the Theis or Hantush-Jacob methods. Flows at all springs were estimated to be turbulent based on the Reynolds number derived from the Darcy-Weisbach equation for conduit flow. The multiple linear regression and the Darcy-Weisbach methods had similar spring flow prediction capabilities. The ANNs provided the lowest residuals between measured and predicted spring flows, ranging from 1.6% to 5.3% of the measured flows. The model prediction efficiency criteria also indicated that the ANNs were the most accurate method predicting spring flows in a karst aquifer.

  7. Aquifer thermal energy stores in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabus, F.; Seibt, P.; Poppei, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the state of essential demonstration projects of heat and cold storage in aquifers in Germany. Into the energy supply system of the buildings of the German Parliament in Berlin, there are integrated both a deep brine-bearing aquifer for the seasonal storage of waste heat from power and heat cogeneration and a shallow-freshwater bearing aquifer for cold storage. In Neubrandenburg, a geothermal heating plant which uses a 1.200 m deep aquifer is being retrofitted into an aquifer heat storage system which can be charged with the waste heat from a gas and steam cogeneration plant. The first centralised solar heating plant including an aquifer thermal energy store in Germany was constructed in Rostock. Solar collectors with a total area of 1000m 2 serve for the heating of a complex of buildings with 108 flats. A shallow freshwater-bearing aquifer is used for thermal energy storage. (Authors)

  8. Integrated sequence analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.; Pyy, P

    1998-02-01

    The NKS/RAK subprojet 3 `integrated sequence analysis` (ISA) was formulated with the overall objective to develop and to test integrated methodologies in order to evaluate event sequences with significant human action contribution. The term `methodology` denotes not only technical tools but also methods for integration of different scientific disciplines. In this report, we first discuss the background of ISA and the surveys made to map methods in different application fields, such as man machine system simulation software, human reliability analysis (HRA) and expert judgement. Specific event sequences were, after the surveys, selected for application and testing of a number of ISA methods. The event sequences discussed in the report were cold overpressure of BWR, shutdown LOCA of BWR, steam generator tube rupture of a PWR and BWR disturbed signal view in the control room after an external event. Different teams analysed these sequences by using different ISA and HRA methods. Two kinds of results were obtained from the ISA project: sequence specific and more general findings. The sequence specific results are discussed together with each sequence description. The general lessons are discussed under a separate chapter by using comparisons of different case studies. These lessons include areas ranging from plant safety management (design, procedures, instrumentation, operations, maintenance and safety practices) to methodological findings (ISA methodology, PSA,HRA, physical analyses, behavioural analyses and uncertainty assessment). Finally follows a discussion about the project and conclusions are presented. An interdisciplinary study of complex phenomena is a natural way to produce valuable and innovative results. This project came up with structured ways to perform ISA and managed to apply the in practice. The project also highlighted some areas where more work is needed. In the HRA work, development is required for the use of simulators and expert judgement as

  9. Evaluation of Stakeholder-Driven Groundwater Management through Integrated Modeling and Remote Sensing in the US High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, J. M.; Kendall, A. D.; Butler, J. J., Jr.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Irrigation greatly enhances agricultural yields and stabilizes farmer incomes, but overexploitation of water resources has depleted groundwater aquifers around the globe. In much of the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) in the United States, water-level declines threaten the continued viability of agricultural operations reliant on irrigation. Policy and management institutions to address this sustainability challenge differ widely across the HPA and the world. In Kansas, grassroots-driven legislation in 2012 allowed local stakeholder groups to establish Local Enhanced Management Areas (LEMAs) and work with state officials to generate enforceable and monitored water use reduction programs. The pioneering LEMA was formed in 2013, following a popular vote by farmers within a 256 km2 region in northwestern Kansas. The group sought to reduce groundwater pumping by 20% through 2017 in order to stabilize water levels while minimally reducing crop productivity. Initial statistical estimates indicate the LEMA has been successful; planning is underway to extend it for five years (2018-2022) and to implement additional LEMAs in the wider groundwater management district. Here, we assess the efficacy of this first LEMA with coupled crop-hydrology models to quantify water budget impacts and any associated trade-offs in crop productivity. We drive these models with a novel data fusion of water use data and our recent remotely sensed Annual Irrigation Maps (AIM) dataset, allowing detailed tracking of irrigation water in space and time. Results from these process-based models provide detailed insights into changes in the physical system resulting from the LEMA program that can inform future stakeholder-driven management in Kansas and in stressed aquifers around the world.

  10. Lithology identification of aquifers from geophysical well logs and fuzzy logic analysis: Shui-Lin Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Bieng-Zih; Lewis, Charles; Lin, Zsay-Shing

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct a fuzzy lithology system from well logs to identify formation lithology of a groundwater aquifer system in order to better apply conventional well logging interpretation in hydro-geologic studies because well log responses of aquifers are sometimes different from those of conventional oil and gas reservoirs. The input variables for this system are the gamma-ray log reading, the separation between the spherically focused resistivity and the deep very-enhanced resistivity curves, and the borehole compensated sonic log reading. The output variable is groundwater formation lithology. All linguistic variables are based on five linguistic terms with a trapezoidal membership function. In this study, 50 data sets are clustered into 40 training sets and 10 testing sets for constructing the fuzzy lithology system and validating the ability of system prediction, respectively. The rule-based database containing 12 fuzzy lithology rules is developed from the training data sets, and the rule strength is weighted. A Madani inference system and the bisector of area defuzzification method are used for fuzzy inference and defuzzification. The success of training performance and the prediction ability were both 90%, with the calculated correlation of training and testing equal to 0.925 and 0.928, respectively. Well logs and core data from a clastic aquifer (depths 100-198 m) in the Shui-Lin area of west-central Taiwan are used for testing the system's construction. Comparison of results from core analysis, well logging and the fuzzy lithology system indicates that even though the well logging method can easily define a permeable sand formation, distinguishing between silts and sands and determining grain size variation in sands is more subjective. These shortcomings can be improved by a fuzzy lithology system that is able to yield more objective decisions than some conventional methods of log interpretation.

  11. Integrative Workflows for Metagenomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymios eLadoukakis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of all sequencing technologies, described by the term Next Generation Sequencing (NGS, have revolutionized metagenomic analysis. They constitute a combination of high-throughput analytical protocols, coupled to delicate measuring techniques, in order to potentially discover, properly assemble and map allelic sequences to the correct genomes, achieving particularly high yields for only a fraction of the cost of traditional processes (i.e. Sanger. From a bioinformatic perspective, this boils down to many gigabytes of data being generated from each single sequencing experiment, rendering the management or even the storage, critical bottlenecks with respect to the overall analytical endeavor. The enormous complexity is even more aggravated by the versatility of the processing steps available, represented by the numerous bioinformatic tools that are essential, for each analytical task, in order to fully unveil the genetic content of a metagenomic dataset. These disparate tasks range from simple, nonetheless non-trivial, quality control of raw data to exceptionally complex protein annotation procedures, requesting a high level of expertise for their proper application or the neat implementation of the whole workflow. Furthermore, a bioinformatic analysis of such scale, requires grand computational resources, imposing as the sole realistic solution, the utilization of cloud computing infrastructures. In this review article we discuss different, integrative, bioinformatic solutions available, which address the aforementioned issues, by performing a critical assessment of the available automated pipelines for data management, quality control and annotation of metagenomic data, embracing various, major sequencing technologies and applications.

  12. Integrating seismic-reflection and sequence-stratigraphic methods to characterize the hydrogeology of the Floridan aquifer system in southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system (FAS) is receiving increased attention as a result of regulatory restrictions on water-supply withdrawals and treated wastewater management practices. The South Florida Water Management District’s Regional Water Availability Rule, adopted in 2007, restricts urban withdrawals from the shallower Biscayne aquifer to pre-April 2006 levels throughout southeast Florida. Legislation adopted by the State of Florida requires elimination of ocean outfalls of treated wastewater by 2025. These restrictions have necessitated the use of the more deeply buried FAS as an alternate water resource to meet projected water-supply shortfalls, and as a repository for the disposal of wastewater via Class I deep injection wells and injection of reclaimed water. Some resource managers in Broward County have expressed concern regarding the viability of the FAS as an alternative water supply due to a lack of technical data and information regarding its long-term sustainability. Sustainable development and management of the FAS for water supply is uncertain because of the potential risk posed by structural geologic anomalies (faults, fractures, and karst collapse structures) and knowledge gaps in the stratigraphy of the system. The integration of seismic-reflection and borehole data into an improved geologic and hydrogeologic framework will provide a better understanding of the structural and stratigraphic features that influence groundwater flow and contaminant transport.

  13. Integrated Radiation Analysis and Design Tools

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Radiation Analysis and Design Tools (IRADT) Project develops and maintains an integrated tool set that collects the current best practices, databases,...

  14. Analysis of the effects of proposed pumping from the principal artesian aquifer, Savannah, Georgia area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, R.B.; Krause, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-difference model of the principal artesian aquifer in the Savannah, Georgia, area, originally developed by Counts and Krause (1976), has been expanded and refined. The model was updated and the grid redesigned to provide more current and accurate detail for ground-water resources management alternatives. Improvements in the definition of the flow system were made possible by the acquisition of additional data in the area and by recently completed regional models that include the area. The model was initially calibrated by using the estimated predevelopment potentiometric surface of 1880. The flow system under predevelopment conditions was sluggish and only 100 cubic feet per second (65 million gallons per day) flowed through the model area. It was then tested for acceptance by using the May 1980 potentiometric surface and corresponding pumping stress of approximately 85 million gallons per day in the Savannah, Georgia-Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, area. The flow through the system under 1980 conditions was about 390 cubic feet per second (250 million gallons per day) and the vertical inflow from the overlying surficial aquifer more than doubled due to formerly rejected recharge that now flows vertically into the aquifer. Calibration was accurate + or - 10 feet. The absolute error per node was 3.4 feet. A hypothetical 25-percent increase in pumpage over the entire area was used to represent a gradual growth in commercial and municipal pumpage over the next 20 to 30 years. The increase produced a maximum decline of 30 feet below the existing water level of 135 feet below sea level at the center of the cone of depression in Savannah, and a 5-foot decline at a radius of 20 miles from the center of the cone of depression. (USGS)

  15. Analysis of aquifer tests conducted in boreholes USW WT-10, UE-25 WT No. 12, and USW SD-7, 1995-96, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Single-borehole aquifer tests were conducted in three boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area between March 1995 and January 1996 to obtain estimates of borehole specific capacity and aquifer transmissivity. Analysis of aquifer testing in borehole USW SD-7 also resulted in an estimate of reservoir volume. Aquifer-test data were analyzed with the Cooper and Jacob straight-line method, two modified Theis nonequilibrium equation solutions, and a modified reservoir-limit solution. The highest estimates of transmissivity were in borehole USW WT-10, completed in the Topopah Spring Tuff. Mean transmissivity, based on the results of three drawdown tests, was 1,600 meters squared per day. Mean specific capacity in borehole USW WT-10 after 5 hours of pumping was 1,100 meters squared per day, and was estimated to be 740 meters squared per day after 24 hours of pumping. Aquifer testing in borehole UE-25 WT No. 12 appeared to be significantly affected by well losses. A mean transmissivity of 7 meters squared per day was obtained on the basis of analysis of three drawdown tests in borehole UE-25 WT No. 12. Mean specific capacity in borehole UE-25 WT No. 12, after 24 hours of pumping, was 7 meters squared per day. Borehole UE-25 WT No. 12 seemed to be producing water from fractures that could provide only a limited amount of water to the borehole

  16. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

    The Grand Forks aquifer, located in south-central British Columbia, Canada was used as a case study area for modeling the sensitivity of an aquifer to changes in recharge and river stage consistent with projected climate-change scenarios for the region. Results suggest that variations in recharge to the aquifer under the different climate-change scenarios, modeled under steady-state conditions, have a much smaller impact on the groundwater system than changes in river-stage elevation of the Kettle and Granby Rivers, which flow through the valley. All simulations showed relatively small changes in the overall configuration of the water table and general direction of groundwater flow. High-recharge and low-recharge simulations resulted in approximately a +0.05 m increase and a -0.025 m decrease, respectively, in water-table elevations throughout the aquifer. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect higher-than-peak-flow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of 2.72 and 3.45 m, respectively. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect lower-than-baseflow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of -0.48 and -2.10 m, respectively. Current observed water-table elevations in the valley are consistent with an average river-stage elevation (between current baseflow and peak-flow stages). L'aquifère de Grand Forks, situé en Colombie britannique (Canada), a été utilisé comme zone d'étude pour modéliser la sensibilité d'un aquifère à des modifications de la recharge et du niveau de la rivière, correspondant à des scénarios envisagés de changement climatique dans cette région. Les résultats font apparaître que les variations de recharge de l'aquifère pour différents scénarios de changement climatique, modélisées pour des conditions de régime permanent, ont un impact sur le système aquifère beaucoup plus faible que les changements du niveau des

  17. aquifer in ajaokuta, southwestern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-08

    Mar 8, 2005 ... (1969) straight line method (observation well) of draw-down analysis in an unconfined aquifer (B=1) yield ... April) and a short wet season (May-September). .... DECOMPOSED. GRANITIC ROCK WITH. QUARTZ VEINS. 13.

  18. Integrated minicomputer alpha analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilik, D.G.; Coy, D.E.; Seamons, M.; Henderson, R.W.; Romero, L.L.; Thomson, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Approximately 1,000 stack and occupation air samples from plutonium and uranium facilities at LASL are analyzed daily. The concentrations of radio-nuclides in air are determined by measuring absolute alpha activities of particulates collected on air sample filter media. The Integrated Minicomputer Pulse system (IMPULSE) is an interface between many detectors of extremely simple design and a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/04 minicomputer. The detectors are photomultiplier tubes faced with zinc sulfide (ZnS). The average detector background is approximately 0.07 cpm. The IMPULSE system includes two mainframes, each of which can hold up to 64 detectors. The current hardware configuration includes 64 detectors in one mainframe and 40 detectors in the other. Each mainframe contains a minicomputer with 28K words of Random Access Memory. One minicomputer controls the detectors in both mainframes. A second computer was added for fail-safe redundancy and to support other laboratory computer requirements. The main minicomputer includes a dual floppy disk system and a dual DEC 'RK05' disk system for mass storage. The RK05 facilitates report generation and trend analysis. The IMPULSE hardware provides for passage of data from the detectors to the computer, and for passage of status and control information from the computer to the detector stations

  19. GeoChip-based analysis of microbial functional gene diversity in a landfill leachate-contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Parisi, Victoria A.; Kang, Sanghoon; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2012-01-01

    The functional gene diversity and structure of microbial communities in a shallow landfill leachate-contaminated aquifer were assessed using a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0). Water samples were obtained from eight wells at the same aquifer depth immediately below a municipal landfill or along the predominant downgradient groundwater flowpath. Functional gene richness and diversity immediately below the landfill and the closest well were considerably lower than those in downgradient wells. Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggested that various geochemical parameters had a significant impact on the subsurface microbial community structure. That is, leachate from the unlined landfill impacted the diversity, composition, structure, and functional potential of groundwater microbial communities as a function of groundwater pH, and concentrations of sulfate, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Historical geochemical records indicate that all sampled wells chronically received leachate, and the increase in microbial diversity as a function of distance from the landfill is consistent with mitigation of the impact of leachate on the groundwater system by natural attenuation mechanisms.

  20. Analysis of Aquifer Response, Groundwater Flow, and PlumeEvolution at Site OU 1, Former Fort Ord, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Preston D.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Su, Grace W.

    2005-02-24

    This report presents a continuation from Oldenburg et al. (2002) of analysis of the hydrogeology, In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS) results, aquifer response, and changes in the trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County. Fuels and solvents were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) during airport fire suppression training between 1962 and 1985. This activity resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in the unconfined A-aquifer. In the late 1980's, soil excavation and bioremediation were successful in remediating soil contamination at the site. Shortly thereafter, a groundwater pump, treat, and recharge system commenced operation. This system has been largely successful at remediating groundwater contamination at the head of the groundwater plume. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In the analyses presented here, we augment our prior work (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with new information including treatment-system totalizer data, recent water-level and chemistry data, and data collected from new wells to discern trends in contaminant migration and groundwater flow that may be useful for ongoing remediation efforts. Some conclusions from the prior study have been modified based on these new analyses, and these are pointed out clearly in this report.

  1. Spatial analysis of Ardabil plain aquifer potable groundwater using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kord

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality of drinking water and qualitative classification of potable water in Ardabil plain aquifer. To determine the chemical properties 58 water samples were collected from wells and analyzed. Distribution of each quality parameter was estimated using data driven techniques of kriging and fuzzy logic modeling. According to the obtained results, the fuzzy model provides better results compared to kriging. Different water quality standards are used for assessment of drinking water. The quantitative limits specified in these standards and also water quality data are associated with uncertainty. To reduce the uncertainty a fuzzy based decision making approach was applied for interpretation of groundwater quality. Final output was presented in the form of a zoning map with three categories as ‘Desirable’, ‘Acceptable’ and ‘Not acceptable’. This map indicates that most parts of the aquifer have acceptable and desirable water quality for drinking; but the groundwater in the Southwest and North of the plain, being in conformity with Miocene formations, is undesirable (Not acceptable. This spatial distribution map can help a lot for groundwater supply and offers a good insight of groundwater qualitative trend in this study area.

  2. Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.; Bauer, Glenn R.

    The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Groundwater flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units. Résumé Le système aquifère littoral du sud d'Oahu (Hawaii, États-Unis) est constitué par des aquifères de terrains volcaniques très perméables, recouverts par des roches volcaniques altérées, et interstratifiés avec des sédiments marins et continentaux de perméabilité aussi bien forte que faible. Les roches volcaniques altérées et les sédiments sont globalement considérés comme une couverture, parce qu'ils s'opposent à l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine provenant des aquifères volcaniques sous-jacents. Les contrôles hydrogéologiques sur le système aquifère régional du sud-ouest d'Oahu ont étéévaluées au moyen d'un modèle d'écoulement et de transport sur une section transversale. Ces contrôles prennent en compte la conductivit

  3. Numerical analysis of capillary entrapment for effective CO{sub 2} aquifer storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uelker, B.; Pusch, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik; May, F. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    The success of underground CO{sub 2} sequestration projects relies on the ability of keeping CO{sub 2} immobilized. The risk of CO{sub 2} leakage into the atmosphere through faults, cap rock formations or wellbore must be evaluated for the long term safety of storage. In case of CO{sub 2} sequestration in a saline aquifer capillary trapping of CO{sub 2} is one of the essential mechanisms controlling the upward and lateral migration of CO{sub 2} plumes after the injection phase. Therefore, assessment of CO{sub 2} immobilization requires accurate modelling of multi phase flow performance. A generic reservoir model was created to examine the impact of the relative permeabilities and capillary forces on capillary trapping. This study reveals how the mechanism of capillary trapping is affected by varying the CO{sub 2} injection rate, hysteresis between drainage and imbibition processes and residual phase saturations. The leakage risk of injected CO{sub 2} in vertical and horizontal wells was also compared to identify the effective injection geometry. Vertical injection across the entire storage formation interval leads to extensive contact with cap rock and leakage through it. Horizontal wells located in the lower part of the formation both increase the aquifer utilization and eliminate contact with cap rock immediately. Thus horizontal wells can be an alternative to inject more CO{sub 2} and minimize leakage. (orig.)

  4. Procedures, analysis, and comparison of groundwater velocity measurement methods for unconfined aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearl, P.M.; Dexter, J.J.; Price, J.E.

    1988-09-01

    Six methods for determining the average linear velocity of ground- water were tested at two separate field sites. The methods tested include bail tests, pumping tests, wave propagation, tracer tests, Geoflo Meter/reg sign/, and borehole dilution. This report presents procedures for performing field tests and compares the results of each method on the basis of application, cost, and accuracy. Comparisons of methods to determine the ground-water velocity at two field sites show certain methods yield similar results while other methods measure significantly different values. The literature clearly supports the reliability of pumping tests for determining hydraulic conductivity. Results of this investigation support this finding. Pumping tests, however, are limited because they measure an average hydraulic conductivity which is only representative of the aquifer within the radius of influence. Bail tests are easy and inexpensive to perform. If the tests are conducted on the majority of wells at a hazardous waste site, then the heterogeneity of the site aquifer can be assessed. However, comparisons of bail-test results with pumping-test and tracer-test results indicate that the accuracy of the method is questionable. Consequently, the principal recommendation of this investigation, based on cost and reliability of the ground-water velocity measurement methods, is that bail tests should be performed on all or a majority of monitoring wells at a site to determine the ''relative'' hydraulic conductivities

  5. Analysis of mineral trapping for CO{sub 2} disposal in deep aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-07-20

    CO{sub 2} disposal into deep aquifers has been suggested as a potential means whereby atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases may be reduced. However, our knowledge of the geohydrology, geochemistry, geophysics, and geomechanics of CO{sub 2} disposal must be refined if this technology is to be implemented safely, efficiently, and predictably. As a prelude to a fully coupled treatment of physical and chemical effects of CO{sub 2} injection, we have analyzed the impact of CO{sub 2} immobilization through carbonate precipitation. A survey of all major classes of rock-forming minerals, whose alteration would lead to carbonate precipitation, indicated that very few minerals are present in sufficient quantities in aquifer host rocks to permit significant sequestration of CO{sub 2}. We performed batch reaction modeling of the geochemical evolution of three different aquifer mineralogies in the presence of CO{sub 2} at high pressure. Our modeling considered (1) redox processes that could be important in deep subsurface environments, (2) the presence of organic matter, (3) the kinetics of chemical interactions between the host rock minerals and the aqueous phase, and (4) CO{sub 2} solubility dependence on pressure, temperature and salinity of the system. The geochemical evolution under both natural background and CO{sub 2} injection conditions was evaluated. In addition, changes in porosity were monitored during the simulations. Results indicate that CO{sub 2} sequestration by matrix minerals varies considerably with rock type. Under favorable conditions the amount of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered by precipitation of secondary carbonates is comparable with and can be larger than the effect of CO{sub 2} dissolution in pore waters. The precipitation of ankerite and siderite is sensitive to the rate of reduction of ferric mineral precursors such as glauconite, which in turn is dependent on the reactivity of associated organic material. The accumulation of carbonates in

  6. Analysis of mineral trapping for CO(sub 2) disposal in deep aquifers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    CO(sub 2) disposal into deep aquifers has been suggested as a potential means whereby atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases may be reduced. However, our knowledge of the geohydrology, geochemistry, geophysics, and geomechanics of CO(sub 2) disposal must be refined if this technology is to be implemented safely, efficiently, and predictably. As a prelude to a fully coupled treatment of physical and chemical effects of CO(sub 2) injection, we have analyzed the impact of CO(sub 2) immobilization through carbonate precipitation. A survey of all major classes of rock-forming minerals, whose alteration would lead to carbonate precipitation, indicated that very few minerals are present in sufficient quantities in aquifer host rocks to permit significant sequestration of CO(sub 2). We performed batch reaction modeling of the geochemical evolution of three different aquifer mineralogies in the presence of CO(sub 2) at high pressure. Our modeling considered (1) redox processes that could be important in deep subsurface environments, (2) the presence of organic matter, (3) the kinetics of chemical interactions between the host rock minerals and the aqueous phase, and (4) CO(sub 2) solubility dependence on pressure, temperature and salinity of the system. The geochemical evolution under both natural background and CO(sub 2) injection conditions was evaluated. In addition, changes in porosity were monitored during the simulations. Results indicate that CO(sub 2) sequestration by matrix minerals varies considerably with rock type. Under favorable conditions the amount of CO(sub 2) that may be sequestered by precipitation of secondary carbonates is comparable with and can be larger than the effect of CO(sub 2) dissolution in pore waters. The precipitation of ankerite and siderite is sensitive to the rate of reduction of ferric mineral precursors such as glauconite, which in turn is dependent on the reactivity of associated organic material. The accumulation of carbonates in

  7. A Trans-disciplinary Hydrogeological Systems Analysis Approach for Identifying and Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Options: Example from the Darling River Floodplain, N.S.W., Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, K.; Brodie, R. S.; Tan, K. P.; Halas, L.; Magee, J.; Gow, L.; Christensen, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    (including limited pump tests) and laboratory measurements. Recognition of significant Neogene-to-Present faulting, warping and tilting of the unconsolidated sediments (using AEM, airborne magnetics, regional gravity, LiDAR and drilling data) was critical to understanding recharge, inter-aquifer leakage and potential environmental impacts of MAR options. A program of borehole Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) logging provided a record of near-continuous variations in K through the saturated sedimentary sequence, with the NMR data integrated with other borehole and AEM data to produce 3D maps of aquifer transmissivity. A priority site was identified where aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) options were assessed. Maximal and residual risk assessments of 12 hazard types included hydrogeological modelling, laboratory column clogging studies and geochemical assessment to identify source water treatment requirements. The study found that the residual scientific/technical risks for ASR at the priority site are low if the supplementary water treatment trains are included.

  8. Problems in mathematical analysis III integration

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczor, W J

    2003-01-01

    We learn by doing. We learn mathematics by doing problems. This is the third volume of Problems in Mathematical Analysis. The topic here is integration for real functions of one real variable. The first chapter is devoted to the Riemann and the Riemann-Stieltjes integrals. Chapter 2 deals with Lebesgue measure and integration. The authors include some famous, and some not so famous, integral inequalities related to Riemann integration. Many of the problems for Lebesgue integration concern convergence theorems and the interchange of limits and integrals. The book closes with a section on Fourier series, with a concentration on Fourier coefficients of functions from particular classes and on basic theorems for convergence of Fourier series. The book is primarily geared toward students in analysis, as a study aid, for problem-solving seminars, or for tutorials. It is also an excellent resource for instructors who wish to incorporate problems into their lectures. Solutions for the problems are provided in the boo...

  9. The Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis Experience: Reconnecting With Technical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Very early in the Space Launch Initiative program, a small team of engineers at MSFC proposed a process for performing system-level assessments of a launch vehicle. Aimed primarily at providing insight and making NASA a smart buyer, the Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis (VIPA) team was created. The difference between the VIPA effort and previous integration attempts is that VIPA a process using experienced people from various disciplines, which focuses them on a technically integrated assessment. The foundations of VIPA s process are described. The VIPA team also recognized the need to target early detailed analysis toward identifying significant systems issues. This process is driven by the T-model for technical integration. VIPA s approach to performing system-level technical integration is discussed in detail. The VIPA process significantly enhances the development and monitoring of realizable project requirements. VIPA s assessment validates the concept s stated performance, identifies significant issues either with the concept or the requirements, and then reintegrates these issues to determine impacts. This process is discussed along with a description of how it may be integrated into a program s insight and review process. The VIPA process has gained favor with both engineering and project organizations for being responsive and insightful

  10. Integrated logistic support analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnicero Iniguez, E.J.; Garcia de la Sen, R.

    1993-01-01

    Integrating logic support into a system results in a large volume of information having to be managed which can only be achieved with the help of computer applications. Both past experience and growing needs in such tasks have led Emperesarios Agrupados to undertake an ambitious development project which is described in this paper. (author)

  11. Analysis of integrated energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Takaharu; Kaya, Yoichi; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Taketo; Yasukawa, Shigeru.

    1988-01-01

    World attention is now attracted to the concept of Novel Horizontally Integrated Energy System (NHIES). In NHIES, all fossil fuels are fist converted into CO and H 2 . Potential environmental contaminants such as sulfur are removed during this process. CO turbines are mainly used to generate electric power. Combustion is performed in pure oxygen produced through air separation, making it possible to completely prevent the formation of thermal NOx. Thus, NHIES would release very little amount of such substances that would contribute to acid rain. In this system, the intermediate energy sources of CO, H 2 and O 2 are integrated horizontally. They are combined appropriately to produce a specific form of final energy source. The integration of intermediate energy sources can provide a wide variety of final energy sources, allowing any type of fossil fuel to serve as an alternative to other types of fossil fuel. Another feature of NHIES is the positive use of nuclear fuel to reduce the formation of CO 2 . Studies are under way in Japan to develop a new concept of integrated energy system. These studies are especially aimed at decreased overall efficiency and introduction of new liquid fuels that are high in conversion efficiency. Considerations are made on the final form of energy source, robust control, acid fallout, and CO 2 reduction. (Nogami, K.)

  12. An evaluation of aquifer intercommunication between the unconfined and Rattlesnake Ridge aquifers on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.J.

    1987-10-01

    During 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study of a portion of the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer (confined aquifer) that lies beneath the B Pond - Gable Mountain Pond area of the Hanford Site. The purpose was to determine the extent of intercommunication between the unconfined aquifer and the uppermost regionally extensive confined aquifer, referred to as the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer. Hydraulic head data and chemical data were collected from the ground water in the study area during December 1986. The hydraulic head data were used to determine the effects caused by water discharged to the ground from B Pond on both the water table of the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the confined aquifer. The chemical data were collected to determine the extent of chemical constituents migrating from the unconfined aquifer to the confined aquifer. Analysis of chemical constituents in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer demonstrated that communication between the unconfined and confined aquifers had occurred. However, the levels of contaminants found in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer during this study were below the DOE Derived Concentration Guides

  13. Flow regime analysis for fluid injection into a confined aquifer: implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Zheng, Z.; Celia, M. A.; Stone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection into a confined saline aquifer may be modeled as an axisymmetric two-phase flow problem. Assuming the two fluids segregate in the vertical direction due to strong buoyancy, and neglecting capillary pressure and miscibility, the lubrication approximation leads to a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors in the system are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of the displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ , the gravity number, which represents the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. Four different analytical solutions can be derived as the asymptotic approximations, representing specific values of the parameter pairs. The four solutions correspond to: (1) Γ 1; and (4) Γ >> 1, any M values. The first two of these solutions are new, while the third corresponds to the solution of Nordbotten and Celia (2006) for confined injections and the fourth corresponds to the solution of (Lyle et al., 2005) for gravity currents in an unconfined aquifer. Overall, the various axisymmetric flows can be summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime (Fig. 1). Data from a number of CO2 injection sites around the world can be used to compute the two dimensionless groups Γ and M associated with each injection. When plotted on the regime diagram, these values show the flow behavior for each injection and how the values vary from site to site. For all the CO2 injections, M is always larger than 1, while Γ can range from 0.01 up to 100. The pairs of (Γ, M) with lower Γ values correspond to solution (3), while the ones with higher Γ values can move up to the intermediate regime and the flow regime for solution (4). The higher values of Γ correspond to pilot-scale injections with low injection rates; most industrial-scale injection

  14. Evaluation of Microstructural Parameters of Reservoir Rocks of the Guarani Aquifer by Analysis of Images Obtained by X- Ray Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, J. S.; Lima, F. A.; Vieira, S. F.; Reis, P. J.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2015-07-01

    Microstructural parameters evaluation of porous materials, such as, rocks reservoir (water, petroleum, gas...), it is of great importance for several knowledge areas. In this context, the X-ray microtomography (μ-CT) has been showing a technical one quite useful for the analysis of such rocks (sandstone, limestone and carbonate), object of great interest of the petroleum and water industries, because it facilitates the characterization of important parameters, among them, porosity, permeability, grains or pore size distribution. The X-ray microtomography is a non-destructive method, that besides already facilitating the reuse of the samples analyzed, it also supplies images 2-D and 3-D of the sample. In this work samples of reservoir rock of the Guarani aquifer will be analyzed, given by the company of perforation of wells artesian Blue Water, in the municipal district of Videira, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The acquisition of the microtomographys data of the reservoir rocks was accomplished in a Skyscan 1172 μ-CT scanner, installed in Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory (LFNA) in the State University of Londrina (UEL), Paraná, Brazil. In this context, this work presents the microstructural characterization of reservoir rock sample of the Guarani aquifer, analyzed for two space resolutions, 2.8 μm and 4.8 μm, where determined average porosity was 28.5% and 21.9%, respectively. Besides, we also determined the pore size distribution for both resolutions. Two 3-D images were generated of this sample, one for each space resolution, in which it is possible to visualize the internal structure of the same ones.

  15. Evaluation of Microstructural Parameters of Reservoir Rocks of the Guarani Aquifer by Analysis of Images Obtained by X- Ray Microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, J S; Lima, F A; Vieira, S F; Reis, P J; Appoloni, C R

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural parameters evaluation of porous materials, such as, rocks reservoir (water, petroleum, gas...), it is of great importance for several knowledge areas. In this context, the X-ray microtomography (μ-CT) has been showing a technical one quite useful for the analysis of such rocks (sandstone, limestone and carbonate), object of great interest of the petroleum and water industries, because it facilitates the characterization of important parameters, among them, porosity, permeability, grains or pore size distribution. The X-ray microtomography is a non-destructive method, that besides already facilitating the reuse of the samples analyzed, it also supplies images 2-D and 3-D of the sample. In this work samples of reservoir rock of the Guarani aquifer will be analyzed, given by the company of perforation of wells artesian Blue Water, in the municipal district of Videira, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The acquisition of the microtomographys data of the reservoir rocks was accomplished in a Skyscan 1172 μ-CT scanner, installed in Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory (LFNA) in the State University of Londrina (UEL), Paraná, Brazil. In this context, this work presents the microstructural characterization of reservoir rock sample of the Guarani aquifer, analyzed for two space resolutions, 2.8 μm and 4.8 μm, where determined average porosity was 28.5% and 21.9%, respectively. Besides, we also determined the pore size distribution for both resolutions. Two 3-D images were generated of this sample, one for each space resolution, in which it is possible to visualize the internal structure of the same ones. (paper)

  16. Estimating hydraulic properties of the Floridan Aquifer System by analysis of earth-tide, ocean-tide, and barometric effects, Collier and Hendry Counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquifers are subjected to mechanical stresses from natural, non-anthropogenic, processes such as pressure loading or mechanical forcing of the aquifer by ocean tides, earth tides, and pressure fluctuations in the atmosphere. The resulting head fluctuations are evident even in deep confined aquifers. The present study was conducted for the purpose of reviewing the research that has been done on the use of these phenomena for estimating the values of aquifer properties, and determining which of the analytical techniques might be useful for estimating hydraulic properties in the dissolved-carbonate hydrologic environment of southern Florida. Fifteen techniques are discussed in this report, of which four were applied.An analytical solution for head oscillations in a well near enough to the ocean to be influenced by ocean tides was applied to data from monitor zones in a well near Naples, Florida. The solution assumes a completely non-leaky confining unit of infinite extent. Resulting values of transmissivity are in general agreement with the results of aquifer performance tests performed by the South Florida Water Management District. There seems to be an inconsistency between results of the amplitude ratio analysis and independent estimates of loading efficiency. A more general analytical solution that takes leakage through the confining layer into account yielded estimates that were lower than those obtained using the non-leaky method, and closer to the South Florida Water Management District estimates. A numerical model with a cross-sectional grid design was applied to explore additional aspects of the problem.A relation between specific storage and the head oscillation observed in a well provided estimates of specific storage that were considered reasonable. Porosity estimates based on the specific storage estimates were consistent with values obtained from measurements on core samples. Methods are described for determining aquifer diffusivity by comparing the time

  17. Integrative Analysis of Omics Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Tian; Zeng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The diversity and huge omics data take biology and biomedicine research and application into a big data era, just like that popular in human society a decade ago. They are opening a new challenge from horizontal data ensemble (e.g., the similar types of data collected from different labs or companies) to vertical data ensemble (e.g., the different types of data collected for a group of person with match information), which requires the integrative analysis in biology and biomedicine and also asks for emergent development of data integration to address the great changes from previous population-guided to newly individual-guided investigations.Data integration is an effective concept to solve the complex problem or understand the complicate system. Several benchmark studies have revealed the heterogeneity and trade-off that existed in the analysis of omics data. Integrative analysis can combine and investigate many datasets in a cost-effective reproducible way. Current integration approaches on biological data have two modes: one is "bottom-up integration" mode with follow-up manual integration, and the other one is "top-down integration" mode with follow-up in silico integration.This paper will firstly summarize the combinatory analysis approaches to give candidate protocol on biological experiment design for effectively integrative study on genomics and then survey the data fusion approaches to give helpful instruction on computational model development for biological significance detection, which have also provided newly data resources and analysis tools to support the precision medicine dependent on the big biomedical data. Finally, the problems and future directions are highlighted for integrative analysis of omics big data.

  18. Containment integrity analysis under accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chengge; Zhao Ruichang; Liu Zhitao

    2010-01-01

    Containment integrity analyses for current nuclear power plants (NPPs) mainly focus on the internal pressure caused by design basis accidents (DBAs). In addition to the analyses of containment pressure response caused by DBAs, the behavior of containment during severe accidents (SAs) are also evaluated for AP1000 NPP. Since the conservatism remains in the assumptions,boundary conditions and codes, margin of the results of containment integrity analyses may be overestimated. Along with the improvements of the knowledge to the phenomena and process of relevant accidents, the margin overrated can be appropriately reduced by using the best estimate codes combined with the uncertainty methods, which could be beneficial to the containment design and construction of large passive plants (LPP) in China. (authors)

  19. Integrative biological analysis for neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Mark R; Kroes, Roger A; Moskal, Joseph R; Conrad, Charles A; Priebe, Waldemar; Laezza, Fernanda; Meyer-Baese, Anke; Nilsson, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    Although advances in psychotherapy have been made in recent years, drug discovery for brain diseases such as schizophrenia and mood disorders has stagnated. The need for new biomarkers and validated therapeutic targets in the field of neuropsychopharmacology is widely unmet. The brain is the most complex part of human anatomy from the standpoint of number and types of cells, their interconnections, and circuitry. To better meet patient needs, improved methods to approach brain studies by understanding functional networks that interact with the genome are being developed. The integrated biological approaches--proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and glycomics--have a strong record in several areas of biomedicine, including neurochemistry and neuro-oncology. Published applications of an integrated approach to projects of neurological, psychiatric, and pharmacological natures are still few but show promise to provide deep biological knowledge derived from cells, animal models, and clinical materials. Future studies that yield insights based on integrated analyses promise to deliver new therapeutic targets and biomarkers for personalized medicine.

  20. Analysis of Fault Permeability Using Mapping and Flow Modeling, Hickory Sandstone Aquifer, Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto Camargo, Jorge E., E-mail: jorge.nietocamargo@aramco.com; Jensen, Jerry L., E-mail: jjensen@ucalgary.ca [University of Calgary, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    Reservoir compartments, typical targets for infill well locations, are commonly created by faults that may reduce permeability. A narrow fault may consist of a complex assemblage of deformation elements that result in spatially variable and anisotropic permeabilities. We report on the permeability structure of a km-scale fault sampled through drilling a faulted siliciclastic aquifer in central Texas. Probe and whole-core permeabilities, serial CAT scans, and textural and structural data from the selected core samples are used to understand permeability structure of fault zones and develop predictive models of fault zone permeability. Using numerical flow simulation, it is possible to predict permeability anisotropy associated with faults and evaluate the effect of individual deformation elements in the overall permeability tensor. We found relationships between the permeability of the host rock and those of the highly deformed (HD) fault-elements according to the fault throw. The lateral continuity and predictable permeability of the HD fault elements enhance capability for estimating the effects of subseismic faulting on fluid flow in low-shale reservoirs.

  1. Hydrological connectivity of perched aquifers and regional aquifers in semi-arid environments: a case study from Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamutoko, J. T.; Wanke, H.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated isotopic and hydrological tracers along with standard hydrological data are used to understand complex dry land hydrological processes on different spatial and temporal scales. The objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between the perched aquifers and the regional aquifer using hydrochemical data and isotopic composition in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia. This relation between the aquifers will aid in understanding groundwater recharge processes and flow dynamics. Perched aquifers are discontinuous shallow aquifers with water level ranging from 0 to 30 meters below ground level. The regional aquifer occurs in semi-consolidated sandstone at depths between about 60 and 160 meters below ground level. Water samples were collected from both aquifers in 10 villages and were analysed for major ions and stable isotopes. The results show overlapping hydrochemistry and isotopic compositions of both aquifers in 8 villages which suggest the possibility of perched aquifer water infiltrating into the regional aquifer. In two villages the hydrochemistry and isotopic composition of the aquifers are totally different and this suggests that there is no interaction between this aquifers. Areas where perched aquifers are connected to regional aquifers maybe recharge zones. These finding have important implications for groundwater resource management.

  2. Integrating reliability analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    This report describes the Interactive Reliability Analysis Project and demonstrates the advantages of using computer-aided design systems (CADS) in reliability analysis. Common cause failure problems require presentations of systems, analysis of fault trees, and evaluation of solutions to these. Results have to be communicated between the reliability analyst and the system designer. Using a computer-aided design system saves time and money in the analysis of design. Computer-aided design systems lend themselves to cable routing, valve and switch lists, pipe routing, and other component studies. At EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Applicon CADS is being applied to the study of water reactor safety systems

  3. Analysis of fracturing in the basalts of the Serra Geral Aquifer and the potential regional recharge of the Guarani Aquifer System; Analise de fraturas dos basaltos do Aquifero Serra Geral e o potencial de recarga regional do Sistema Aquifero Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A. J.; Assis Negri, F. de; Azevedo Sobrino, J. M.; Varnier, C.

    2012-11-01

    The Geological Institute, belonging to the Ministry for the Environment of the State of Sao Paulo, is currently undertaking regional research into vertical groundwater flow through the basalts in the Serra Geral Aquifer (ASG), which influences recharge of the sandstones in the underlying Guarani Aquifer System (SAG) and therefore the quantity of groundwater available and its susceptibility to pollution. The study area corresponds to the outcropping region of the ASG, an area of the state of Sao Paulo that contains important urban centres. The methods used included: (1) field work, focused on characterizing the vertical tectonic structures and the stresses responsible for their origin; and (2) an analysis of the structural data collected, aimed at identifying brittle tectonic events and their influence on groundwater flow. Distinguishing between cooling and tectonic fractures is a relevant aspect of the field work as only the tectonic events are capable of cutting across the vesicular beds, which otherwise form a barrier against vertical flow and block any connection between the aquifers. Three tectonic strike-slip events have been identified, each having generated hybrid tectonic fractures, which, because they involve extension as well as shearing, potentially favour flow. Diagnostic features suggest the occurrence in the south-western zone of the study area of preferential flow along fractures in the direction N70-80W and N60-80E, and secondary ones trending N20W and N20E; in the northeastern zone there is flow along secondary fractures in the direction N15W and N5-10E and in the central zone N40-65W. (Author)

  4. Planning report for the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Hayes F.

    1984-01-01

    Large quantities of water for municipal, industrial and agriculture use are supplied from the aquifers in Tertiary and younger sediments over an area of about 225,000 square miles in the Coastal Plain of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas. Three regional aquifer systems, the Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system, and the Texas Coastal Uplands aquifer system have been developed to varying degrees throughout the area. A variety of problems has resulted from development such as movement of the saline-freshwater interface into parts of aquifers that were previously fresh, lowering of the potentiometric surface with resulting increases in pumping lift, and land-surface subsidence due to the compaction of clays within the aquifer. Increased demand for ground water is anticipated to meet the needs of urban growth, expanded energy development, and growth of irrigated agriculture. The U. S. Geological Survey initiated an eightyear study in 1981 to define the geohydrologic framework, describe the chemistry of the ground water, and to analyze the regional ground-water flow patterns. The objectives, plan, and organization of the study are described in this report and the major tasks to be undertaken are outlined.

  5. Simulation of groundwater flow in the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Houston, Natalie A.; Foster, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer is a vital groundwater resource for agricultural, industrial, and public supply uses in the Pecos County region of western Texas. The U.S. Geological Survey completed a comprehensive, integrated analysis of available hydrogeologic data to develop a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the study area in parts of Brewster, Jeff Davis, Pecos, and Reeves Counties. The active model area covers about 3,400 square miles of the Pecos County region of Texas west of the Pecos River, and its boundaries were defined to include the saturated areas of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer. The model is a five-layer representation of the Pecos Valley, Edwards-Trinity, Dockum, and Rustler aquifers. The Pecos Valley aquifer is referred to as the alluvial layer, and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer is divided into layers representing the Edwards part of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer and the Trinity part of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer, respectively. The calibration period of the simulation extends from 1940 to 2010. Simulated hydraulic heads generally were in good agreement with observed values; 1,684 out of 2,860 (59 percent) of the simulated values were within 25 feet of the observed value. The average root mean square error value of hydraulic head for the Edwards-Trinity aquifer was 34.2 feet, which was approximately 4 percent of the average total observed change in groundwater-level altitude (groundwater level). Simulated spring flow representing Comanche Springs exhibits a pattern similar to observed spring flow. Independent geochemical modeling corroborates results of simulated groundwater flow that indicates groundwater in the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in the Leon-Belding and Fort Stockton areas is a mixture of recharge from the Barilla and Davis Mountains and groundwater that has upwelled from the Rustler aquifer.

  6. Characterising aquifer treatment for pathogens in managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, D; Dillon, P; Toze, S; Sidhu, J P S

    2010-01-01

    In this study the value of subsurface treatment of urban stormwater during Aquifer Storage Transfer Recovery (ASTR) is characterised using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) methodology. The ASTR project utilizes a multi-barrier treatment train to treat urban stormwater but to date the role of the aquifer has not been quantified. In this study it was estimated that the aquifer barrier provided 1.4, 2.6, >6.0 log(10) removals for rotavirus, Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter respectively based on pathogen diffusion chamber results. The aquifer treatment barrier was found to vary in importance vis-à-vis the pre-treatment via a constructed wetland and potential post-treatment options of UV-disinfection and chlorination for the reference pathogens. The risk assessment demonstrated that the human health risk associated with potable reuse of stormwater can be mitigated (disability adjusted life years, DALYs aquifer is integrated with suitable post treatment options into a treatment train to attenuate pathogens and protect human health.

  7. Integrative cluster analysis in bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Jamous, Basel; Nandi, Asoke K

    2015-01-01

    Clustering techniques are increasingly being put to use in the analysis of high-throughput biological datasets. Novel computational techniques to analyse high throughput data in the form of sequences, gene and protein expressions, pathways, and images are becoming vital for understanding diseases and future drug discovery. This book details the complete pathway of cluster analysis, from the basics of molecular biology to the generation of biological knowledge. The book also presents the latest clustering methods and clustering validation, thereby offering the reader a comprehensive review o

  8. Combining lead isotopes and cluster analysis to distinguish the Guarani and Serra Geral Aquifer Systems and contaminated waters in a highly industrialized area in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Isadora Aumond; Roisenberg, Ari

    2017-10-01

    The Rio dos Sinos Watershed area is located at the Middle-West region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil, along thirty two municipalities and affecting 1.5 million inhabitants and many important industrial centers. Three main aquifers are recognized in the study area: the unconfined-fractured Serra Geral Aquifer System, the porous Guarani Aquifer System, and the Permian Aquitard. This study aims to understand groundwater, surface water and human activity interactions in the Rio dos Sinos Watershed, evaluating the application of stable lead isotopic ratios analyzed for this propose. Thirty six groundwater samples, 8 surface water samples and 5 liquid effluents of tanneries and landfills samples were measured using a Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer Thermo-Finnigan and a Neptune Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Groundwater isotopic ratios have a wider range compared to the surface water, with less radiogenic averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.1837 vs 38.4050 (standard deviation = 0.2921 vs 0.1343) and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.2947 vs 18.4766 (standard deviation = 0.2215 vs 0.1059), respectively. Industrial liquid effluents (tanneries and industrial landfill) have averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.1956 and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.3169, distinct from effluent samples of domestic sanitary landfill (averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.2353 and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.6607). Hierarchical cluster analysis led to distinguish six groups of groundwater, representing the three aquifers that occur in the area, two clusters suggesting groundwater mixtures and one demonstrating a highly contaminated groundwater. By analyzing the cluster results and wells' stratigraphic profiles it was possible to distinguish the different aquifers in the area. The Serra Geral Aquifer System has 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios between 18.4718 and 18.7089; 207 Pb/ 204 Pb between 15.6692 and 15.6777; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb between 38.6826 and 38.7616; 207 Pb/ 206 Pb between 0.8372 and 0

  9. Integral data analysis for resonance parameters determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.

    1997-09-01

    Neutron time-of-flight experiments have long been used to determine resonance parameters. Those resonance parameters have then been used in calculations of integral quantities such as Maxwellian averages or resonance integrals, and results of those calculations in turn have been used as a criterion for acceptability of the resonance analysis. However, the calculations were inadequate because covariances on the parameter values were not included in the calculations. In this report an effort to correct for that deficiency is documented: (1) the R-matrix analysis code SAMMY has been modified to include integral quantities of importance, (2) directly within the resonance parameter analysis, and (3) to determine the best fit to both differential (microscopic) and integral (macroscopic) data simultaneously. This modification was implemented because it is expected to have an impact on the intermediate-energy range that is important for criticality safety applications

  10. Investigation by multivariate analysis of groundwater composition in a multilayer aquifer system from North Africa: A multi-tracer approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassi, Lassaad, E-mail: lassaad@geologist.com [Faculte des Sciences, Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Zrig, Gabes 6072 (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > We investigate the hydrodynamics and hydrochemistry of a multilayer aquifer system. > We examine the geochemical evolution, the origins and the circulation patterns of groundwater. > The mineralization is controlled by water-rock interaction and return flow process. > Groundwater derives from palaeoclimatic and modern end-members. > Mixing by upward and downward leakage occurs between these two end-members. - Abstract: A multi-tracer approach has been carried out in the Sbeitla multilayer aquifer system, central Tunisia, to investigate the geochemical evolution, the origin of groundwaters and their circulation patterns. It involves statistical data analysis coupled with the definition of the hydrochemical and isotopic features of the different groundwaters. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of geochemical data used in conjunction with bivariate diagrams of major and trace elements indicate that groundwater mineralization is mainly controlled by water-rock interaction and anthropogenic processes in relation to return flow of irrigation waters. The PCA of isotopic data and bivariate conventional diagrams of stable and radiogenic isotopes i.e. {delta}{sup 18}O vs. {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O vs. {sup 14}C provide valuable information about the origin and the circulation patterns of the different groundwater groups. They permit classifying groundwaters into three groups. The first group is characterized by low {sup 3}H concentrations, low {sup 14}C activities and depleted stable isotope contents. It corresponds to an old end-member in relation with palaeoclimatic recharge which occurred during the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene humid periods. The second group is distinguished by high to moderate {sup 3}H concentrations, high {sup 14}C activities and enriched heavy isotope signatures. It corresponds to a modern end-member originating from a mixture of post-nuclear and present-day recharge in relation to return flow of irrigation waters

  11. Validation of an Integrative Methodology to Assess and Monitor Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Ethenes in Contaminated Aquifers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarnawski, S.E.; Rossi, P.; Brennerová, Mária; Stavělová, M.; Holliger, Ch.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, February (2016), s. 7 E-ISSN 2296-665X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02020534 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : dechlorination * integrative methodology * chlorinated ethenes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  12. The Tunisian Jurassic aquifer in the North African Sahara aquifer system: information derived from two-dimensional seismic reflection and well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lasmar, Rafika; Guellala, Rihab; Garrach, Mohamed; Mahroug, Ali; Sarsar Naouali, Benen; Inoubli, Mohamed Hédi

    2017-12-01

    Southern Tunisia is an arid area where socio-economic activities are dependent on groundwater resources. The presented study aims to better characterize the Jurassic aquifer based on geological and geophysical data, with a view to develop a rational exploitation program. Well logs are used to precisely determine the position and composition of the known Jurassic aquifer layers and to identify others able to produce good quality water. The logs show that limestones, sandstones and dolomites of the Krachoua, Techout and Foum Tataouine formations are the main Jurassic aquifers. Sixty-eight seismic-reflection sections are integrated within this study. The interpolation between the interpreted sections leads to the construction of isochronous isopach maps and geoseismic sections, and their analysis finds that compressive and extensive tectonic deformations have influenced the Jurassic aquifer geometry. The Hercynian orogeny phase manifestation is remarkable in that there are several stratigraphic gaps in the Jurassic sequence. The E-W, NW-SE, and NNW-SSE accidents, reactivated in normal faults since the Permian to Lower Cretaceous epochs, have generated the structures found in the Jurassic series, such as subsided and raised blocks. Their syn-sedimentary activity has controlled the thickness and facies of these series. The Cretaceous, Tortonian and Post-Villafranchian compressions are responsible for the Jurassic-deposits folding in some localities. The highlighted tectonic and sedimentary events have an important impact on the Jurassic aquifer function by favoring the Jurassic aquifer interconnections and their connections with the Triassic and Cretaceous permeable series.

  13. Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwyn, D.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides the status of the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Integrated Safety Analysis (EA) by identifying the initial work scope scheduled for completion during the ISA development period, the schedules associated with the tasks identified, safety analysis issues encountered, and a summary of accomplishments during the reporting period. This status covers the period from October 1, 2000 through March 30, 2001

  14. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  15. Integrability of dynamical systems algebra and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to systematically state the fundamental theory of integrability and its development of ordinary differential equations with emphasis on the Darboux theory of integrability and local integrability together with their applications. It summarizes the classical results of Darboux integrability and its modern development together with their related Darboux polynomials and their applications in the reduction of Liouville and elementary integrabilty and in the center—focus problem, the weakened Hilbert 16th problem on algebraic limit cycles and the global dynamical analysis of some realistic models in fields such as physics, mechanics and biology. Although it can be used as a textbook for graduate students in dynamical systems, it is intended as supplementary reading for graduate students from mathematics, physics, mechanics and engineering in courses related to the qualitative theory, bifurcation theory and the theory of integrability of dynamical systems.

  16. Strategic Analysis of Technology Integration at Allstream

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Innovation has been defined as the combination of invention and commercialization. Invention without commercialization is rarely, if ever, profitable. For the purposes of this paper the definition of innovation will be further expanded into the concept of technology integration. Successful technology integration not only includes new technology introduction, but also the operationalization of the new technology within each business unit of the enterprise. This paper conducts an analysis of Al...

  17. Continuity and productivity analysis of three geopressured geothermal aquifer-natural gas fields: Duson, Hollywood and Church Point, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.A.; Boardman, C.R.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The available well logs, production records and geological structure maps were analyzed for the Hollywood, Duson, and Church Point, Louisiana oil and gas fields to determine the areal extent of the sealed geopressured blocks and to identify which aquifer sands within the blocks are connected to commercial production of hydrocarbons. Studies such as these are needed for the Department of Energy program to identify geopressured brine reservoirs that are not connected to commercial productions. The analysis showed that over the depth intervals at the geopressured zones shown on the logs essentially all of the sands of any substantial thickness had gas production from them somewhere or other in the fault block. It is therefore expected that the sands which are fully brine saturated in many of the wells are the water drive portion of the producing gas/oil somewhere else within the fault block. In this study only one deep sand was identified, in the Hollywood field, which was apparently not connected to a producing horizon somewhere else in the field. Estimates of the reservoir parameters were made for this sand and a hypothetical production calculation showed the probable production to be less than 10,000 b/d. The required gas price to profitably produce this gas is well above the current market price.

  18. Inverse modeling and uncertainty analysis of potential groundwater recharge to the confined semi-fossil Ohangwena II Aquifer, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Markus; Houben, Georg; Lohe, Christoph; Quinger, Martin; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The identification of potential recharge areas and estimation of recharge rates to the confined semi-fossil Ohangwena II Aquifer (KOH-2) is crucial for its future sustainable use. The KOH-2 is located within the endorheic transboundary Cuvelai-Etosha-Basin (CEB), shared by Angola and Namibia. The main objective was the development of a strategy to tackle the problem of data scarcity, which is a well-known problem in semi-arid regions. In a first step, conceptual geological cross sections were created to illustrate the possible geological setting of the system. Furthermore, groundwater travel times were estimated by simple hydraulic calculations. A two-dimensional numerical groundwater model was set up to analyze flow patterns and potential recharge zones. The model was optimized against local observations of hydraulic heads and groundwater age. The sensitivity of the model against different boundary conditions and internal structures was tested. Parameter uncertainty and recharge rates were estimated. Results indicate that groundwater recharge to the KOH-2 mainly occurs from the Angolan Highlands in the northeastern part of the CEB. The sensitivity of the groundwater model to different internal structures is relatively small in comparison to changing boundary conditions in the form of influent or effluent streams. Uncertainty analysis underlined previous results, indicating groundwater recharge originating from the Angolan Highlands. The estimated recharge rates are less than 1% of mean yearly precipitation, which are reasonable for semi-arid regions.

  19. Evaluating impacts of recharging partially treated wastewater on groundwater aquifer in semi-arid region by integration of monitoring program and GIS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alslaibi, Tamer M; Kishawi, Yasser; Abunada, Ziyad

    2017-05-01

    The current study investigates the impact of recharging of partially treated wastewater through an infiltration basin on the groundwater aquifer quality parameters. A monitoring program supported by a geographic information analysis (GIS) tool was used to conduct this study. Groundwater samples from the entire surrounding boreholes located downstream the infiltration basin, in addition to samples from the recharged wastewater coming from the Beit Lahia wastewater treatment (BLWWTP), were monitored and analysed between 2011 and 2014. The analysis was then compared with the available historical data since 2008. Results revealed a groundwater replenishment with the groundwater level increased by 1.0-2.0 m during the study period. It also showed a slight improvement in the groundwater quality parameters, mainly a decrease in TDS, Cl - and NO 3 - levels by 5.5, 17.1 and 20%, respectively, resulting from the relatively better quality of the recharged wastewater. Nevertheless, the level of boron and ammonium in the groundwater wells showed a significant increase over time by 96 and 100%, respectively. Moreover, the infiltration rate was slowed down in time due to the relatively high level of total suspended solid (TSS) in the infiltrated wastewater.

  20. Groundwater nitrate pollution and climate change: learnings from a water balance-based analysis of several aquifers in a western Mediterranean region (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Pla, Josep; Menció, Anna

    2018-04-11

    Climate change will affect the dynamics of the hydrogeological systems and their water resources quality; in particular nitrate, which is herein taken as a paradigmatic pollutant to illustrate the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. Based on climatic predictions of temperature and precipitation for the horizon of 2021 and 2050, as well as on land use distribution, water balances are recalculated for the hydrological basins of distinct aquifer systems in a western Mediterranean region as Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to determine the reduction of available water resources. Besides the fact that climate change will represent a decrease of water availability, we qualitatively discuss the modifications that will result from the future climatic scenarios and their impact on nitrate pollution according to the geological setting of the selected aquifers. Climate effects in groundwater quality are described according to hydrological, environmental, socio-economic, and political concerns. Water reduction stands as a major issue that will control stream-aquifer interactions and subsurface recharge, leading to a general modification of nitrate in groundwater as dilution varies. A nitrate mass balance model provides a gross estimation of potential nitrate evolution in these aquifers, and it points out that the control of the fertilizer load will be crucial to achieve adequate nitrate content in groundwater. Reclaimed wastewater stands as local reliable resource, yet its amount will only satisfy a fraction of the loss of available resources due to climate change. Finally, an integrated management perspective is necessary to avoid unplanned actions from private initiatives that will jeopardize the achievement of sustainable water resources exploitation under distinct hydrological scenarios.

  1. Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun Ho [Inzest Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun Sang [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.

  2. Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun Ho; Lee, Kun Sang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.

  3. Integrated funnel-and-gate/GZB product recovery technologies for in situ management of creosote NAPL-impacted aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.G.; Borchert, S.M.; Klingel, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    An in situ source management system was modeled and designed for the containment and recovery of creosote non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) at a former wood treating facility in Nashua, New Hampshire. The conceptual system was based on the integration of patented technologies for physical source containment and management (ie., funnel-and-gate technology) with patented in situ product recovery (i.e, GZB technology - described below). A funnel-and-gate physical barrier was proposed to mitigate the continued flow of NAPL into the Merrimack River. The purpose of the funnel was to divert groundwater (and potential NAPL) flow through two gate areas. Where required, an in situ system for product recovery was integrated. Mathematical modeling of the combined technologies led to the selection of a metal sheet pile barrier wall along 650 feet of the river's shoreline with the wall anchored into an underlying zone of lesser permeability. Multiple GZB wells were placed strategically within the system. This combination of technologies promised to offer a more effective, cost-efficient approach for long-term management of environmental concerns at Nashua, and related sites

  4. An integrated acquisition, display, and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Huckins, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The design goal of the ND9900/Genuie was to integrate a high performance data acquisition and display subsystem with a state-of-the-art 32-bit supermicrocomputer. This was achieved by integrating a Digital Equipment Corporation MicroVAX II CPU board with acquisition and display controllers via the Q-bus. The result is a tightly coupled processing and analysis system for Pulse Height Analysis and other applications. The system architecture supports distributed processing, so that acquisition and display functions are semi-autonomous, making the VAX concurrently available for applications programs

  5. Abel integral equations analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gorenflo, Rudolf

    1991-01-01

    In many fields of application of mathematics, progress is crucially dependent on the good flow of information between (i) theoretical mathematicians looking for applications, (ii) mathematicians working in applications in need of theory, and (iii) scientists and engineers applying mathematical models and methods. The intention of this book is to stimulate this flow of information. In the first three chapters (accessible to third year students of mathematics and physics and to mathematically interested engineers) applications of Abel integral equations are surveyed broadly including determination of potentials, stereology, seismic travel times, spectroscopy, optical fibres. In subsequent chapters (requiring some background in functional analysis) mapping properties of Abel integral operators and their relation to other integral transforms in various function spaces are investi- gated, questions of existence and uniqueness of solutions of linear and nonlinear Abel integral equations are treated, and for equatio...

  6. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    ., it is getting more attention as these issues are gradually alleviated. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in two cases of HT-ATES system with a single well is conducted to select key parameters. For a fractional factorial design used to choose input parameters with uniformity...... with Smoothly Clopped Absolute Deviation Penalty, is utilized. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on the variation decomposition. According to the result of sensitivity analysis, the most important input variables are selected and confirmed to consider the interaction effects for each case...

  7. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new formulation termed the Integrated Force Method (IFM) was proposed by Patnaik ... nated ``Structure (nY m)'' where (nY m) are the force and displacement degrees of ..... Patnaik S N, Yadagiri S 1976 Frequency analysis of structures.

  8. Time series analysis for the estimation of tidal fluctuation effect on different aquifers in a small coastal area of Saijo plain, Ehime prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Tsujimura, Maki; Nakano, Takanori; Minoru, Tokumasu

    2013-04-01

    Considering the current poor understanding of the seawater-freshwater (SW-FW) interaction pattern at dynamic hydro-geological boundary of coastal aquifers, this work strives to study tidal effect on groundwater quality using chemical tracers combined with environmental isotopes. In situ measurement data of electrical conductivity and groundwater level along with laboratory measurement data of hydro-chemical species were compared with tidal level data measured by Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, Saijo City, Japan for time series analysis. Result shows that diurnal tides have significant effect on groundwater level as well as its chemical characteristics; however, the magnitude of effect is different in case of different aquifers. Various scatter diagrams were plotted in order to infer mechanisms responsible for water quality change with tidal phase, and results show that cations exchange, selective movement and local SW-FW mixing were likely to be the main processes responsible for water quality changes. It was also found that geological structure of the aquifers is the most important factor affecting the intensity of tidal effect on water quality.

  9. Single-well reactive tracer test and stable isotope analysis for determination of microbial activity in a fast hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbery, L.; Cassiani, G.; Andreotti, G.; Ricchiuto, T.; Semple, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Single-well reactive tracer tests, such as the push-pull test are useful tools for characterising in-situ bioattenuation processes in contaminated aquifers. However, the analytical models that are used to interpret push-pull data may be over-simplified, and potentially overlook important processes responsible for the frequent discrepancy between predicted and observed results obtained from push-pull tests. In this study, the limitations underlying the push-pull test methodology were investigated and were supported with results from a push-pull test conducted in a sulphate-reducing aquifer contaminated by crude oil. Poor ( 20% mass recoveries were achieved. Push-pull test data collected from sulphate-reducing aquifers indicate that the assumption of a well-mixed batch reactor system is incorrect and that reaction rates obtained from push-pull tests in such systems may be affected by the extraction regime implemented. Evidence of microbial respiration of the reactive tracer was provided by stable sulphur isotope analysis, from which an isotope fractionation factor of +9.9±8.1%o was estimated. The stable isotope data support the argument that reaction rates calculated using push-pull tests are not uniformly distributed in space and time and are likely to be influenced by heterogeneities in the flow field. - Reaction rates calculated by push-pull tests are not uniformly distributed in time and space

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of future groundwater flow conditions and contaminant plume transport in the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1996 and 1997 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.R.; Wurstner, S.K.; Williams, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow and transport, based on the Coupled Fluid Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) code, was developed for the Hanford Site to support the Hanford Groundwater Project (HGWP), managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The model was developed to increase the understanding and better forecast the migration of several contaminant plumes being monitored by the HGWP, and to support the Hanford Site Composite Analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200-Area Plateau. Recent modeling efforts have focused on continued refinement of an initial version of the three-dimensional model developed in 1995 and its application to simulate future transport of selected contaminant plumes in the aquifer system. This version of the model was updated using a more current version of the CFEST code called CFEST96. Prior to conducting simulations of contaminant transport with the three-dimensional model, a previous steady-state, two-dimensional model of the unconfined aquifer system was recalibrated to 1979 water-table conditions with a statistical inverse method implemented in the CFEST-INV computer code. The results of the recalibration were used to refine the three-dimensional conceptual model and to calibrate it with a conceptualization that preserves the two-dimensional hydraulic properties and knowledge of the aquifer`s three-dimensional properties for the same 1979 water-table conditions. The transient behavior of the three-dimensional flow model was also calibrated by adjusting model storage properties (specific yield) until transient water-table predictions approximated observed water-table elevations between 1979 and 1996.

  11. Comparison of aquifer characteristics derived from local and regional aquifer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, R.B.; Krause, R.E.; Maslia, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the aquifer parameter values obtained through the analysis of a local and a regional aquifer test involving the same area in southeast Georgia is made in order to evaluate the validity of extrapolating local aquifer-test results for use in large-scale flow simulations. Time-drawdown and time-recovery data were analyzed by using both graphical and least-squares fitting of the data to the Theis curve. Additionally, directional transmissivity, transmissivity tensor, and angle of anisotropy were computed for both tests. -from Authors Georgia drawdown transmissivity regional aquifer tests

  12. Uncertainty Quantification and Global Sensitivity Analysis of Subsurface Flow Parameters to Gravimetric Variations During Pumping Tests in Unconfined Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Fadji Zaouna; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    We study the contribution of typically uncertain subsurface flow parameters to gravity changes that can be recorded during pumping tests in unconfined aquifers. We do so in the framework of a Global Sensitivity Analysis and quantify the effects of uncertainty of such parameters on the first four statistical moments of the probability distribution of gravimetric variations induced by the operation of the well. System parameters are grouped into two main categories, respectively, governing groundwater flow in the unsaturated and saturated portions of the domain. We ground our work on the three-dimensional analytical model proposed by Mishra and Neuman (2011), which fully takes into account the richness of the physical process taking place across the unsaturated and saturated zones and storage effects in a finite radius pumping well. The relative influence of model parameter uncertainties on drawdown, moisture content, and gravity changes are quantified through (a) the Sobol' indices, derived from a classical decomposition of variance and (b) recently developed indices quantifying the relative contribution of each uncertain model parameter to the (ensemble) mean, skewness, and kurtosis of the model output. Our results document (i) the importance of the effects of the parameters governing the unsaturated flow dynamics on the mean and variance of local drawdown and gravity changes; (ii) the marked sensitivity (as expressed in terms of the statistical moments analyzed) of gravity changes to the employed water retention curve model parameter, specific yield, and storage, and (iii) the influential role of hydraulic conductivity of the unsaturated and saturated zones to the skewness and kurtosis of gravimetric variation distributions. The observed temporal dynamics of the strength of the relative contribution of system parameters to gravimetric variations suggest that gravity data have a clear potential to provide useful information for estimating the key hydraulic

  13. Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage: a Rayleigh-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schout, Gilian; Drijver, Benno; Gutierrez-Neri, Mariene; Schotting, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HT-ATES systems applied in permeable aquifers typically have lower recovery efficiencies than conventional (low-temperature) ATES systems. For a reliable estimation of the recovery efficiency it is, therefore, important to take the effect of density-driven flow into account. A numerical evaluation of the prime factors influencing the recovery efficiency of HT-ATES systems is presented. Sensitivity runs evaluating the effects of aquifer properties, as well as operational variables, were performed to deduce the most important factors that control the recovery efficiency. A correlation was found between the dimensionless Rayleigh number (a measure of the relative strength of free convection) and the calculated recovery efficiencies. Based on a modified Rayleigh number, two simple analytical solutions are proposed to calculate the recovery efficiency, each one covering a different range of aquifer thicknesses. The analytical solutions accurately reproduce all numerically modeled scenarios with an average error of less than 3 %. The proposed method can be of practical use when considering or designing an HT-ATES system.

  14. Molecular analysis of phosphate limitation in Geobacteraceae during the bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Guessan, L.A.; Elifantz, H.; Nevin, K.P.; Mouser, P.J.; Methe, B.; Woodard, T. L.; Manley, K.; Williams, K. H.; Wilkins, M. J.; Larsen, J.T.; Long, P. E.; Lovley, D. R.

    2009-09-01

    Nutrient limitation is an environmental stress that may reduce the effectiveness of bioremediation strategies, especially when the contaminants are organic compounds or when organic compounds are added to promote microbial activities such as metal reduction. Genes indicative of phosphate-limitation were identified via microarray analysis of chemostat cultures of Geobacter sulfureducens. This analysis revealed that genes in the pst-pho operon, which is associated with a high affinity phosphate uptake system in other microorganisms, had significantly higher transcript abundance under phosphate-limiting conditions, with the genes pstB and phoU the most up-regulated. Quantitative PCR analysis of pstB and phoU transcript levels in G. sulfurreducens grown in chemostats demonstrated that the expression of these genes increased when phosphate was removed from the culture medium. Transcripts of pstB and phoU within the subsurface Geobacter species predominating during an in situ uranium bioremediation field experiment were more abundant than in chemostat cultures of G. sulfurreducens that were not limited for phosphate. Addition of phosphate to incubations of subsurface sediments did not stimulate dissimilatory metal reduction. The added phosphate was rapidly adsorbed onto the sediments. The results demonstrate that Geobacter species can effectively reduce U(VI) even when experiencing suboptimal phosphate concentrations and that increasing phosphate availability with phosphate additions is difficult to achieve due to the high reactivity of this compound. This transcript-based approach developed for diagnosing phosphate limitation should be applicable to assessing the potential need for additional phosphate in other bioremediation processes.

  15. An Integrated Hydrogeologic and Geophysical Investigation to Characterize the Hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards Aquifer in an Area of Northeastern Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin D.; Smith, Bruce D.; Clark, Allan K.; Payne, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In August 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, did a hydrogeologic and geophysical investigation to characterize the hydrostratigraphy (hydrostratigraphic zones) and also the hydrogeologic features (karst features such as sinkholes and caves) of the Edwards aquifer in a 16-square-kilometer area of northeastern Bexar County, Texas, undergoing urban development. Existing hydrostratigraphic information, enhanced by local-scale geologic mapping in the area, and surface geophysics were used to associate ranges of electrical resistivities obtained from capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity surveys, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys, time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings, and two-dimensional direct-current (2D-DC) resistivity surveys with each of seven hydrostratigraphic zones (equivalent to members of the Kainer and Person Formations) of the Edwards aquifer. The principal finding of this investigation is the relation between electrical resistivity and the contacts between the hydrostratigraphic zones of the Edwards aquifer and the underlying Trinity aquifer in the area. In general, the TDEM data indicate a two-layer model in which an electrical conductor underlies an electrical resistor, which is consistent with the Trinity aquifer (conductor) underlying the Edwards aquifer (resistor). TDEM data also show the plane of Bat Cave fault, a well-known fault in the area, to be associated with a local, nearly vertical zone of low resistivity that provides evidence, although not definitive, for Bat Cave fault functioning as a flow barrier, at least locally. In general, the CC resistivity, FDEM survey, and 2D-DC resistivity survey data show a sharp electrical contrast from north to south, changing from high resistivity to low resistivity across Bat Cave fault as well as possible karst features in the study area. Interpreted karst features that show relatively low resistivity within a relatively high

  16. Integrating neural network technology and noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN

    1995-01-01

    The integrated use of neural network and noise analysis technologies offers advantages not available by the use of either technology alone. The application of neural network technology to noise analysis offers an opportunity to expand the scope of problems where noise analysis is useful and unique ways in which the integration of these technologies can be used productively. The two-sensor technique, in which the responses of two sensors to an unknown driving source are related, is used to demonstration such integration. The relationship between power spectral densities (PSDs) of accelerometer signals is derived theoretically using noise analysis to demonstrate its uniqueness. This relationship is modeled from experimental data using a neural network when the system is working properly, and the actual PSD of one sensor is compared with the PSD of that sensor predicted by the neural network using the PSD of the other sensor as an input. A significant deviation between the actual and predicted PSDs indicate that system is changing (i.e., failing). Experiments carried out on check values and bearings illustrate the usefulness of the methodology developed. (Author)

  17. Hydrologic analysis of data from the Lower Lost Lake Aquifer at recovery well RWM-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents an analysis of water level responses that were monitored in wells near recovery well RWM-12 when it was brought online on March 23, 1992 as part of the system of wells used to pump and treat a groundwater contaminant plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) beneath the A/M Areas of the Savannah River Site. The series of wells, all similar to RWM-12, pump groundwater and deliver it to air strippers that effectively separate and remove the TCE. Water level responses to pumping at RWM-12 were monitored using both pressure transducers/data loggers, and electric tapes. The purpose of obtaining measurements of water level responses was to obtain the data that is needed to make a quantitative estimate of hydraulic conductivity in the pumped horizon, and to assess the hydraulic connection between adjacent layers

  18. Investigation of aquifer-estuary interaction using wavelet analysis of fiber-optic temperature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, R.D.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FODTS) provides sub-minute temporal and meter-scale spatial resolution over kilometer-long cables. Compared to conventional thermistor or thermocouple-based technologies, which measure temperature at discrete (and commonly sparse) locations, FODTS offers nearly continuous spatial coverage, thus providing hydrologic information at spatiotemporal scales previously impossible. Large and information-rich FODTS datasets, however, pose challenges for data exploration and analysis. To date, FODTS analyses have focused on time-series variance as the means to discriminate between hydrologic phenomena. Here, we demonstrate the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and cross-wavelet transform (XWT) to analyze FODTS in the context of related hydrologic time series. We apply the CWT and XWT to data from Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts to identify the location and timing of tidal pumping of submarine groundwater.

  19. [Integrated health care organizations: guideline for analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Navarrete, M Luisa; Vargas Lorenzo, Ingrid; Farré Calpe, Joan; Terraza Núñez, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    There has been a tendency recently to abandon competition and to introduce policies that promote collaboration between health providers as a means of improving the efficiency of the system and the continuity of care. A number of countries, most notably the United States, have experienced the integration of health care providers to cover the continuum of care of a defined population. Catalonia has witnessed the steady emergence of increasing numbers of integrated health organisations (IHO) but, unlike the United States, studies on health providers' integration are scarce. As part of a research project currently underway, a guide was developed to study Catalan IHOs, based on a classical literature review and the development of a theoretical framework. The guide proposes analysing the IHO's performance in relation to their final objectives of improving the efficiency and continuity of health care by an analysis of the integration type (based on key characteristics); external elements (existence of other suppliers, type of services' payment mechanisms); and internal elements (model of government, organization and management) that influence integration. Evaluation of the IHO's performance focuses on global strategies and results on coordination of care and efficiency. Two types of coordination are evaluated: information coordination and coordination of care management. Evaluation of the efficiency of the IHO refers to technical and allocative efficiency. This guide may have to be modified for use in the Catalan context.

  20. Integrated tools for control-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Clark, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The basic functions embedded within a user friendly software package (MATRIXx) are used to provide a high level systems approach to the analysis of linear control systems. Various control system analysis configurations are assembled automatically to minimize the amount of work by the user. Interactive decision making is incorporated via menu options and at selected points, such as in the plotting section, by inputting data. There are five evaluations such as the singular value robustness test, singular value loop transfer frequency response, Bode frequency response, steady-state covariance analysis, and closed-loop eigenvalues. Another section describes time response simulations. A time response for random white noise disturbance is available. The configurations and key equations used for each type of analysis, the restrictions that apply, the type of data required, and an example problem are described. One approach for integrating the design and analysis tools is also presented.

  1. An integrated system for genetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Xiao

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale genetic mapping projects require data management systems that can handle complex phenotypes and detect and correct high-throughput genotyping errors, yet are easy to use. Description We have developed an Integrated Genotyping System (IGS to meet this need. IGS securely stores, edits and analyses genotype and phenotype data. It stores information about DNA samples, plates, primers, markers and genotypes generated by a genotyping laboratory. Data are structured so that statistical genetic analysis of both case-control and pedigree data is straightforward. Conclusion IGS can model complex phenotypes and contain genotypes from whole genome association studies. The database makes it possible to integrate genetic analysis with data curation. The IGS web site http://bioinformatics.well.ox.ac.uk/project-igs.shtml contains further information.

  2. Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.D.; McKay, M.K.; Sattison, M.B.; Skinner, N.L.; Wood, S.T.; Rasmuson, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) is a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model development and analysis tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. IRRAS is an integrated software tool that gives the user the ability to create and analyze fault trees and accident sequences using a microcomputer. This program provides functions that range from graphical fault tree construction to cut set generation and quantification. Version 1.0 of the IRRAS program was released in February of 1987. Since that time, many user comments and enhancements have been incorporated into the program providing a much more powerful and user-friendly system. This version has been designated IRRAS 4.0 and is the subject of this Reference Manual. Version 4.0 of IRRAS provides the same capabilities as Version 1.0 and adds a relational data base facility for managing the data, improved functionality, and improved algorithm performance

  3. Analysis of the karst aquifer structure of the Lamalou area (Herault, France) with ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fares, W.; Bakalowicz, M.; Guerin, R.; Dukhan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The study site at Lamalou karst spring Hortus karst plateau) is situated 40 km north of Montpellier in France. It consists of a limestone plateau, drained by a karst conduit discharging as a spring. This conduit extends for a few dozen meters in fractured and karstified limestone rocks, 15 to 70 m below the surface. The conduit is accessible from the surface. The main goal of this study is to analyze the surface part of the karst and to highlight the karstic features and among them the conduit, and to test the performances of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in a karstic environment. This method thus appears particularly well adapted to the analysis of the near-surface (<30 m in depth) structure of a karst, especially when clayey coating or soil that absorbs and attenuates the radar is rare and discontinuous. A GPR pulse EKKO 100 (Sensors and Software) was used on the site with a 50 MHz antenna frequency. The results highlight structures characterizing the karstic environment: The epikarst, bedding planes, fractured and karstified zones, compact and massive rock and karrens, a typical karst landform. One of the sections revealed in detail the main conduit located at a depth of 20 m, and made it possible to determine its geometry. This site offers possibilities of validation of GPR data by giving direct access to the karstic conduit and through two cored boreholes. These direct observations confirm the interpretation of all the GPR sections. (author

  4. Integrity Analysis of Damaged Steam Generator Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanic, D.

    1998-01-01

    Variety of degradation mechanisms affecting steam generator tubes makes steam generators as one of the critical components in the nuclear power plants. Depending of their nature, degradation mechanisms cause different types of damages. It requires performance of extensive integrity analysis in order to access various conditions of crack behavior under operating and accidental conditions. Development and application of advanced eddy current techniques for steam generator examination provide good characterization of found damages. Damage characteristics (shape, orientation and dimensions) may be defined and used for further evaluation of damage influence on tube integrity. In comparison with experimental and analytical methods, numerical methods are also efficient tools for integrity assessment. Application of finite element methods provides relatively simple modeling of different type of damages and simulation of various operating conditions. The stress and strain analysis may be performed for elastic and elasto-plastic state with good ability for visual presentation of results. Furthermore, the fracture mechanics parameters may be calculated. Results obtained by numerical analysis supplemented with experimental results are the base for definition of alternative plugging criteria which may significantly reduce the number of plugged tubes. (author)

  5. Fluoride characterization by principal component analysis in the hydrochemical facies of Serra Geral Aquifer System in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Nanni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis is applied to 309 groundwater chemical data information from wells in the Serra Geral Aquifer System. Correlations among seven hydrochemical parameters are statistically examined. A four-component model is suggested and explains 81% of total variance. Component 1 represents calcium-magnesium bicarbonated groundwaters with long time of residence. Component 2 represents sulfated and chlorinated calcium and sodium groundwaters; Component 3 represents sodium bicarbonated groundwaters; and Component 4 is characterized by sodium sulfated with high fluoride facies. The components' spatial distribution shows high fluoride concentration along analyzed tectonic fault system and aligned on northeast direction in other areas, suggesting other hydrogeological fault systems. High fluoride concentration increases according to groundwater pumping depth. The Principal Component Analysis reveals features of the groundwater mixture and individualizes water facies. In this scenery, it can be determined hydrogeological blocks associated with tectonic fault system here introduced.A Análise de Componentes Principais foi aplicada em 309 dados químicos de águas subterrâneas de poços do Sistema Aqüífero Serra Geral. Correlações entre sete parâmetros hidroquímicos foram examinadas através da estatística. O modelo de quatro componentes foi utilizado por explicar 81% da variância total. A Componente 1 é representada por águas cálcio-magnesianas com longo tempo de residência, a Componente 2 representa águas bicarbonatadas sulfatadas e cloretadas, a Componente 3 representa águas bicarbonatadas sódicas e a Componente 4 é caracterizada por águas de fácies sódica e sulfatada com alto fluoreto. A distribuição espacial das componentes mostra águas com concentrações anômalas ao longo dos sistemas tectônicos de falhas, analisados e alinhados a NE em algumas áreas, sugerindo outros sistemas de falhas hidrogeológicos. As

  6. The integrated microbial genome resource of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checcucci, Alice; Mengoni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Microbial Genomes and Metagenomes (IMG) is a biocomputational system that allows to provide information and support for annotation and comparative analysis of microbial genomes and metagenomes. IMG has been developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE)-Joint Genome Institute (JGI). IMG platform contains both draft and complete genomes, sequenced by Joint Genome Institute and other public and available genomes. Genomes of strains belonging to Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya domains are present as well as those of viruses and plasmids. Here, we provide some essential features of IMG system and case study for pangenome analysis.

  7. Insights from the salinity origins and interconnections of aquifers in a regional scale sedimentary aquifer system (Adour-Garonne district, SW France): Contributions of δ34S and δ18O from dissolved sulfates and the 87Sr/86Sr ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, Agnès; Négrel, Philippe; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Millot, Romain; Malcuit, Eline

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Regional sedimentary aquifer on the Aquitaine Basin (SW France). • Dealing with limited number of groundwater wells available. • Strong control of evaporite dissolution on groundwater dissolved elements. • Guidelines for decision-makers to manage water resources. - Abstract: The multi-layered Eocene aquifer is a regional scale sedimentary aquifer system occupying ∼120,000 km 2 within the Adour-Garonne district (France). Local authorities have recently identified the aquifer as being at risk from extensive irrigation abstractions, threatening the sustainability of this key resource. Because large water abstractions for human activities can significantly influence the natural functioning of such aquifer systems, e.g., with leakage between aquifer layers, which can lead to water quality degradation, the characterization of such large systems constitutes a key point to protect and prevent further deterioration of aquatic ecosystems. This study provides further insight on this large aquifer through a geochemical approach, which addresses the limited number of groundwater wells where sampling is possible. For that purpose, a geochemical analysis combining two isotope systems (δ 34 S SO4 , δ 18 O SO4 and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) has been applied. The Eocene sedimentary aquifer system (detrital to carbonate deposits) is made up of four aquifer layers, Eocene Infra-Molassic sand, Early Eocene, Middle Eocene and Late Eocene, and has a mineralized area north of the Aquitaine Basin, where groundwater shows strong mineralization and anomalous levels of critical substances (SO 4 , F, etc.), increasing the difficulty of resource exploitation. The extreme heterogeneity of the geochemical composition of the groundwater between the aquifers and within a single aquifer is discussed in terms of the lithological control induced by the lateral variation of facies and interconnections between aquifer layers. Geochemical tools, especially the δ 34 S and δ 18 O from

  8. Integrated analysis of genetic data with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic data are now widely available. There is, however, an apparent lack of concerted effort to produce software systems for statistical analysis of genetic data compared with other fields of statistics. It is often a tremendous task for end-users to tailor them for particular data, especially when genetic data are analysed in conjunction with a large number of covariates. Here, R http://www.r-project.org, a free, flexible and platform-independent environment for statistical modelling and graphics is explored as an integrated system for genetic data analysis. An overview of some packages currently available for analysis of genetic data is given. This is followed by examples of package development and practical applications. With clear advantages in data management, graphics, statistical analysis, programming, internet capability and use of available codes, it is a feasible, although challenging, task to develop it into an integrated platform for genetic analysis; this will require the joint efforts of many researchers.

  9. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate......, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect......) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; (2) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; (3) supporting transdisciplinary research; and (4) supporting education and outreach efforts....

  10. Analysis of radioactive waste contamination in soils. Part 1: integral transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Z.V.; Cotta, R.M.; Perez-Guerreo, J.S.; Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.

    1997-01-01

    The migration of radioactive waste in soils and other porous media is studied through the hybrid numerical-analytical solution of the mass convection-diffusion equations for this phenomenon. Initially, a radionuclide leak function is derived to model the phenomenon that occurs after the failure of the engineering barriers of the repository. This function is obtained from a first order ordinary differential equation which is solved numerically. Subsequently, the migration of this radioactive waste through the soil and the aquifer below the repository is studied; the soil and the aquifer are modeled as two saturated and coupled porous media. The convection-diffusion equations obtained for the concentration field in each medium studied are solved through the use of the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (G.I.T.T.), which provides automatic error control and relatively low computational cost for a user-prescribed accuracy. This work is part of the joint project COPPE/CNEN on the analysis of radioactive waste contamination in soils. (author)

  11. Integrating Spatial Multi Criteria Decision Making (SMCDM) with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for delineation of the most suitable areas for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahani Amineh, Zainab Banoo; Hashemian, Seyyed Jamal Al-Din; Magholi, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    Hamoon-Jazmoorian plain is located in southeast of Iran. Overexploitation of groundwater in this plain has led to water level decline and caused serious problems such as land subsidence, aquifer destruction and water quality degradation. The increasing population and agricultural development along with drought and climate change, have further increased the pressure on water resources in this region over the last years. In order to overcome such crisis, introduction of surface water into an aquifer at particular locations can be a suitable solution. A wide variety of methods have been developed to recharge groundwater, one of which is aquifer storage and recovery (ASR). One of the fundamental principles of making such systems is delineation of suitable areas based on scientific and natural facts in order to achieve relevant objectives. To that end, the Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was applied in this study. More specifically, nine main parameters including depth of runoff as the considered source of water, morphology of the earth surface features such as geology, geomorphology, land use and land cover, drainage and aquifer characteristics along with quality of water in the aquifer were considered as the main layers in GIS. The runoff water available for artificial recharge in the basin was estimated through Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method. The weighted curve number for each watershed was derived through spatial intersection of land use and hydrological soil group layers. Other thematic layers were extracted from satellite images, topographical map, and other collateral data sources, then weighed according to their influence in locating process. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was then used to calculate weights of individual parameters. The normalized weighted layers were then overlaid to build up the recharge potential map. The results revealed that 34% of the

  12. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  13. Performing Pumping Test Data Analysis Applying Cooper-Jacob’s Method for Estimating of the Aquifer Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Khider Mawlood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single well test is more common than aquifer test with having observation well, since the advantage of single well test is that the pumping test can be conducted on the production well with the absence of observation well. A kind of single well test, which is step-drawdown test used to determine the efficiency and specific capacity of the well, however in case of single well test it is possible to estimate Transmissivity, but the other parameter which is Storativity is overestimated, so the aim of this study is to analyze four pumping test data located in KAWRGOSK area by using cooper-Jacob’s (1946 time drawdown approximation of Theis method to estimate the aquifer parameters, also in order to determine the reasons which are affecting the reliability of the Storativity value and obtain the important aspect behind that in practice.

  14. Analysis of potentials and costs of CO{sub 2} storage in the Utsira aquifer in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidje, Audun; Espegren, Kari; Wangen, Magnus; Seljom, Pernille; Ramirez, Andrea; Hoefnagels, Ric; Wu, Zhenxue; Broek, Machteld van den; Strachan, Neil; Blesl, Markus; Kober, Tom; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Luethje, Mikael

    2010-10-22

    models give considerable differences in the CCS implementation dependent on the emission reduction targets. The national models have been analysed with both 20% and 80% emission reduction targets towards 2050. In Germany, e.g. the amount of CO{sub 2} captured in 2050 is 22 Mt/y with a 20% emission reduction compared to 238 Mt/y with an 80% emission reduction. The comparison of the modeling results at the national and regional level highlights the impact that geographic scale can have on the design of strategies since analysis made at the regional level tend to have a larger and different spectrum for combining cost-effective measures. In any case, analyses at the national and regional level indicate that, under a stringent climate policy, the storage of CO{sub 2} in the Utsira formation can be a cost effective option for North Europe. With an 80% emission reduction target in 2050 the regional analysis results in approximately 575 Mt CO{sub 2} captured annually, while the sum of the five national models give approximately 475 Mt CO{sub 2} captured. Up to 1.4 Gt CO{sub 2} will be captured annually in 2050 in Europe according to the regional analysis. This will increase the need for storages, and also long transport distances will be of interest. The United Kingdom profit from the comparably short transport distance to Utsira and the Netherlands utilize the Utsira formation due to limited domestic low cost storage possibilities over time and the fact that the country appears to become a CO{sub 2} hub for the region. In Germany and Denmark the availability of domestic onshore saline aquifers determines the competitiveness of CO{sub 2} storage in Utsira. If these aquifers are not usable, Utsira will be a competitive storage option. The price development of oil, natural gas and coal influences the role of CCS in the energy system. CCS technologies compete with renewable and nuclear power production. Higher fossil fuel prices favor the deployment of renewable technologies while

  15. Integrated framework for dynamic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Wan; Karanki, Durga R.

    2012-01-01

    In the conventional PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), detailed plant simulations by independent thermal hydraulic (TH) codes are used in the development of accident sequence models. Typical accidents in a NPP involve complex interactions among process, safety systems, and operator actions. As independent TH codes do not have the models of operator actions and full safety systems, they cannot literally simulate the integrated and dynamic interactions of process, safety systems, and operator responses. Offline simulation with pre decided states and time delays may not model the accident sequences properly. Moreover, when stochastic variability in responses of accident models is considered, defining all the combinations for simulations will be cumbersome task. To overcome some of these limitations of conventional safety analysis approach, TH models are coupled with the stochastic models in the dynamic event tree (DET) framework, which provides flexibility to model the integrated response due to better communication as all the accident elements are in the same model. The advantages of this framework also include: Realistic modeling in dynamic scenarios, comprehensive results, integrated approach (both deterministic and probabilistic models), and support for HRA (Human Reliability Analysis)

  16. Managed aquifer recharge experiences with shallow wells: first analysis of the experimental activities in the high Vicenza plain (Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Altissimo; Silvia Bertoldo; Francesca Campagnolo; Giancarlo Gusmaroli; Teresa Muraro; Andrea Sottani

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, groundwater resources of the high Vicenza plain were subjected to an increasing extraction rate and, at the same time, to a lower quantity of groundwater recharge. The result is a decreasing flow from the plain springs and a high reduction in piezometric levels of the middle and lower Venetian aquifers. In order to restore the balance of groundwater resources in the Vicenza area, the Vicenza Province has promoted experimental activities aimed to increase the recharge of the...

  17. Geospatial data to support analysis of water-quality conditions in basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Southwest Principal Aquifers study area consists of most of California and Nevada and parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado; it is about 409,000 square miles. The Basin-fill aquifers extend through about 201,000 square miles of the study area and are the primary source of water for cities and agricultural communities in basins in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Southwest). The demand on limited ground-water resources in areas in the southwestern United States has increased significantly. This increased demand underscores the importance of understanding factors that affect the water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region, which are being studied through the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. As a part of this study, spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic factors that may affect ground-water quality of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States were developed. These data include physical characteristics of the region, such as geology, elevation, and precipitation, as well as anthropogenic factors, including population, land use, and water use. Spatial statistics for the alluvial basins in the Southwest have been calculated using the datasets. This information provides a foundation for the development of conceptual and statistical models that relate natural and anthropogenic factors to ground-water quality across the Southwest. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine and illustrate the spatial distribution of these basin-fill variables across the region. One hundred-meter resolution raster data layers that represent the spatial characteristics of the basins' boundaries, drainage areas, population densities, land use, and water use were developed for the entire Southwest.

  18. Managed aquifer recharge experiences with shallow wells: first analysis of the experimental activities in the high Vicenza plain (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Altissimo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, groundwater resources of the high Vicenza plain were subjected to an increasing extraction rate and, at the same time, to a lower quantity of groundwater recharge. The result is a decreasing flow from the plain springs and a high reduction in piezometric levels of the middle and lower Venetian aquifers. In order to restore the balance of groundwater resources in the Vicenza area, the Vicenza Province has promoted experimental activities aimed to increase the recharge of the aquifer in the high Vicenza plain and in the River Agno valley, using infiltration wells, forested infiltration areas, infiltration trenches, subsurface fields and infiltration canals. All recharge plants are fed by irrigation water, managed by agricultural consortia only during periods of water surplus. Construction works were preceded by specific geological and hydrogeological investigations to verify the suitability for recharge, with the purpose of optimizing the available economic resources. For the protection of the aquifer system, a chemical background of infiltration water was assessed with periodical chemical-physical and microbiological surveys. After the activation date, a monthly monitoring program started to verify the quality of both surface and groundwater, collecting samples in monitoring wells downstream the infiltration structures. The input flow rate entering the various systems, monitored by automatic instruments either in the superficial structure and in groundwater, have provided interesting information about the volumes and the quality of water. These scientific experiences appear to be very helpful in case of future applications for other sites, especially during critical hydrologic period.

  19. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose...... while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding...... the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession...

  20. Application of a numerical model in the interpretation of a leaky aquifer test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroth, B.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of numerical models in aquifer analysis is by no means a new concept; yet relatively few engineers and scientists are taking advantage of this powerful tool that is more convenient to use now than ever before. In this technical note the authors present an example of using a numerical model in an integrated analysis of data from a three-layer leaky aquifer system involving well-bore storage, skin effects, variable discharge, and observation wells in the pumped aquifer and in an unpumped aquifer. The modeling detail may differ for other cases. The intent is to show that interpretation can be achieved with reduced bias by reducing assumptions in regard to system geometry, flow rate, and other details. A multiwell aquifer test was carried out at a site on the western part of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), located about 60 kilometers east of San Francisco. The test was conducted to hydraulically characterize one part of the site and thus help develop remediation strategies to alleviate the ground-water contamination

  1. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina M; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert J; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy K; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie M; Seager, Thomas P; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina A

    2017-06-13

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. We assessed whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and were prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We concluded that the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: a ) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; b ) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; c ) supporting transdisciplinary research; and d ) supporting education and outreach efforts. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP483.

  2. Structural integrity analysis of a steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagarcia, Maria P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a power utility is the rotor of the steam turbine. Catastrophic failures of the last decades have promoted the development of life assessment procedures for rotors. The present study requires the knowledge of operating conditions, component geometry, the properties of materials, history of the component, size, location and nature of the existing flaws. The aim of the present work is the obtention of a structural integrity analysis procedure for a steam turbine rotor, taking into account the above-mentioned parameters. In this procedure, a stress thermal analysis by finite elements is performed initially, in order to obtain the temperature and stress distribution for a subsequent analysis by fracture mechanics. The risk of a fast fracture due to flaws in the central zone of the rotor is analyzed. The procedure is applied to an operating turbine: the main steam turbine of the Atucha I nuclear power utility. (author)

  3. A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.

    2004-12-23

    W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.

  4. The ASDEX integrated data analysis system AIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, K.; Gruber, O.; Kardaun, O.; Kaufmann, M.; Lackner, K.; Martin, P.; Mast, K.F.; McCarthy, P.J.; Mertens, V.; Pohl, D.; Rang, U.; Wunderlich, R.

    1989-11-01

    Since about two years, the ASDEX integrated data analysis system (AIDA), which combines the database (DABA) and the statistical analysis system (SAS), is successfully in operation. Besides a considerable, but meaningful, reduction of the 'raw' shot data, it offers the advantage of carefully selected and precisely defined datasets, which are easily accessible for informative tabular data overviews (DABA), and multi-shot analysis (SAS). Even rather complicated, statistical analyses can be performed efficiently within this system. In this report, we want to summarise AIDA's main features, give some details on its set-up and on the physical models which have been used for the derivation of the processed data. We also give short introduction how to use DABA and SAS. (orig.)

  5. Accelerator physics analysis with an integrated toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Michelotti, L.; Satogata, T.

    1992-08-01

    Work is in progress on an integrated software toolkit for linear and nonlinear accelerator design, analysis, and simulation. As a first application, ''beamline'' and ''MXYZPTLK'' (differential algebra) class libraries, were used with an X Windows graphics library to build an user-friendly, interactive phase space tracker which, additionally, finds periodic orbits. This program was used to analyse a theoretical lattice which contains octupoles and decapoles to find the 20th order, stable and unstable periodic orbits and to explore the local phase space structure

  6. Three-dimensional analysis of future groundwater flow conditions and contaminant plume transport in the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1996 and 1997 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Wurstner, S.K.; Williams, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow and transport, based on the Coupled Fluid Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) code, was developed for the Hanford Site to support the Hanford Groundwater Project (HGWP), managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The model was developed to increase the understanding and better forecast the migration of several contaminant plumes being monitored by the HGWP, and to support the Hanford Site Composite Analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200-Area Plateau. Recent modeling efforts have focused on continued refinement of an initial version of the three-dimensional model developed in 1995 and its application to simulate future transport of selected contaminant plumes in the aquifer system. This version of the model was updated using a more current version of the CFEST code called CFEST96. Prior to conducting simulations of contaminant transport with the three-dimensional model, a previous steady-state, two-dimensional model of the unconfined aquifer system was recalibrated to 1979 water-table conditions with a statistical inverse method implemented in the CFEST-INV computer code. The results of the recalibration were used to refine the three-dimensional conceptual model and to calibrate it with a conceptualization that preserves the two-dimensional hydraulic properties and knowledge of the aquifer's three-dimensional properties for the same 1979 water-table conditions. The transient behavior of the three-dimensional flow model was also calibrated by adjusting model storage properties (specific yield) until transient water-table predictions approximated observed water-table elevations between 1979 and 1996

  7. Inverse Porosity-Hydraulic Conductivity Relationship in Sand-and-Gravel Aquifers Determined From Analysis of Geophysical Well Logs: Implications for Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, R. H.

    2004-05-01

    It is intuitive to think of hydraulic conductivity K as varying directly and monotonically with porosity P in porous media. However, laboratory studies and field observations have documented a possible inverse relationship between these two parameters in unconsolidated deposits under certain grain-size distributions and packing arrangements. This was confirmed at two sites in sand-and-gravel aquifers on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, where sets of geophysical well logs were used to examine the interdependence of several aquifer properties. Along with K and P, the resistivity R and the natural-gamma activity G of the surrounding sediments were measured as a function of depth. Qualitative examination of field results from the first site was useful in locating a contaminant plume and inferred an inverse relation between K and P; this was substantiated by a rigorous multivariate analysis of log data collected from the second site where K and P were determined to respond in a bipolar manner among the four independent variables. Along with this result come some implications regarding our conceptual understanding of contaminant transport processes in the shallow subsurface. According to Darcy's law, the interstitial fluid velocity V is proportional to the ratio K/P and, consequently, a general inverse K-P relationship implies that values of V can extend over a much wider range than conventionally assumed. This situation introduces a pronounced flow stratification within these granular deposits that can result in large values of longitudinal dispersivity; faster velocities occur in already fast zones and slower velocities in already slow zones. An inverse K-P relationship presents a new perspective on the physical processes associated with groundwater flow and transport. Although the results of this study apply strictly to the Cape Cod aquifers, they may merit a re-evaluation of modeling approaches undertaken at other locations having similar geologic environments.

  8. The Integral A Crux for Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2011-01-01

    This book treats all of the most commonly used theories of the integral. After motivating the idea of integral, we devote a full chapter to the Riemann integral and the next to the Lebesgue integral. Another chapter compares and contrasts the two theories. The concluding chapter offers brief introductions to the Henstock integral, the Daniell integral, the Stieltjes integral, and other commonly used integrals. The purpose of this book is to provide a quick but accurate (and detailed) introduction to all aspects of modern integration theory. It should be accessible to any student who has had ca

  9. Hydrogeologic framework and salinity distribution of the Floridan aquifer system of Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about water-level decline and seawater intrusion in the surficial Biscayne aquifer, currently the principal source of water supply to Broward County, prompted a study to refine the hydrogeologic framework of the underlying Floridan aquifer system to evaluate its potential as an alternative source of supply. This report presents cross sections that illustrate the stratigraphy and hydrogeology in eastern Broward County; maps of the upper surfaces and thicknesses of several geologic formations or units within the Floridan aquifer system; and maps of two of the potentially productive water-bearing zones within the system, the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Avon Park permeable zone. An analysis of data on rock depositional textures, associated pore networks, and flow zones in the Floridan aquifer system shows that groundwater moves through the system in two ways. These data support a conceptual, dual-porosity model of the system wherein groundwater moves either as concentrated flow in discrete, thin bedding-plane vugs or zones of vuggy megaporosity, or as diffuse flow through rocks with primarily interparticle and moldic-particle porosity. Because considerable exchange of groundwater may occur between the zones of vuggy and matrix-dominated porosity, understanding the distribution of that porosity and flow zone types is important to evaluating the suitability of the several units within the Floridan aquifer system for managing the water through practices such as aquifer storage and recovery (ASR). The salinity of the water in the Floridan aquifer system is highest in the central part of the study area, and lower toward the north and south. Although salinity generally increases with depth, in the western part of the study area a zone of relatively high saline water is perched above water of lower salinity in the underlying Avon Park permeable zone. Overall, the areas of highest salinity in the aquifer system coincide with those with the lowest estimated

  10. Performing Pumping Test Data Analysis Applying Cooper-Jacob’s Method for Estimating of the Aquifer Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Khider Mawlood; Jwan Sabah Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Single well test is more common than aquifer test with having observation well, since the advantage of single well test is that the pumping test can be conducted on the production well with the absence of observation well. A kind of single well test, which is step-drawdown test used to determine the efficiency and specific capacity of the well, however in case of single well test it is possible to estimate Transmissivity, but the other parameter which is Storativity is overestimated, so the a...

  11. Parallel processing of structural integrity analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami Prasad, P.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    Structural integrity analysis forms an important role in assessing and demonstrating the safety of nuclear reactor components. This analysis is performed using analytical tools such as Finite Element Method (FEM) with the help of digital computers. The complexity of the problems involved in nuclear engineering demands high speed computation facilities to obtain solutions in reasonable amount of time. Parallel processing systems such as ANUPAM provide an efficient platform for realising the high speed computation. The development and implementation of software on parallel processing systems is an interesting and challenging task. The data and algorithm structure of the codes plays an important role in exploiting the parallel processing system capabilities. Structural analysis codes based on FEM can be divided into two categories with respect to their implementation on parallel processing systems. The first category codes such as those used for harmonic analysis, mechanistic fuel performance codes need not require the parallelisation of individual modules of the codes. The second category of codes such as conventional FEM codes require parallelisation of individual modules. In this category, parallelisation of equation solution module poses major difficulties. Different solution schemes such as domain decomposition method (DDM), parallel active column solver and substructuring method are currently used on parallel processing systems. Two codes, FAIR and TABS belonging to each of these categories have been implemented on ANUPAM. The implementation details of these codes and the performance of different equation solvers are highlighted. (author). 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  12. Parameter Optimisation and Uncertainty Analysis in Visual MODFLOW based Flow Model for predicting the groundwater head in an Eastern Indian Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, B.; Jena, S.; Panda, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    The overexploitation of groundwater elicited in abandoning several shallow tube wells in the study Basin in Eastern India. For the sustainability of groundwater resources, basin-scale modelling of groundwater flow is indispensable for the effective planning and management of the water resources. The basic intent of this study is to develop a 3-D groundwater flow model of the study basin using the Visual MODFLOW Flex 2014.2 package and successfully calibrate and validate the model using 17 years of observed data. The sensitivity analysis was carried out to quantify the susceptibility of aquifer system to the river bank seepage, recharge from rainfall and agriculture practices, horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities, and specific yield. To quantify the impact of parameter uncertainties, Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Algorithm (SUFI-2) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) techniques were implemented. Results from the two techniques were compared and the advantages and disadvantages were analysed. Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE), Coefficient of Determination (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Percent Deviation (Dv) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) were adopted as criteria of model evaluation during calibration and validation of the developed model. NSE, R2, MAE, Dv and RMSE values for groundwater flow model during calibration and validation were in acceptable range. Also, the McMC technique was able to provide more reasonable results than SUFI-2. The calibrated and validated model will be useful to identify the aquifer properties, analyse the groundwater flow dynamics and the change in groundwater levels in future forecasts.

  13. The combined use of dynamic factor analysis and wavelet analysis to evaluate latent factors controlling complex groundwater level fluctuations in a riverside alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yun-Yeong; Yun, Seong-Taek; Yu, Soonyoung; Hamm, Se-Yeong

    2017-12-01

    To identify and quantitatively evaluate complex latent factors controlling groundwater level (GWL) fluctuations in a riverside alluvial aquifer influenced by barrage construction, we developed the combined use of dynamic factor analysis (DFA) and wavelet analysis (WA). Time series data of GWL, river water level and precipitation were collected for 3 years (July 2012 to June 2015) from an alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area of the Nakdong river basin, South Korea. Based on the wavelet coefficients of the final approximation, the GWL data was clustered into three groups (WCG1 to WCG3). Two dynamic factors (DFs) were then extracted using DFA for each group; thus, six major factors were extracted. Next, the time-frequency variability of the extracted DFs was examined using multiresolution cross-correlation analysis (MRCCA) with the following steps: 1) major driving forces and their scales in GWL fluctuations were identified by comparing maximum correlation coefficients (rmax) between DFs and the GWL time series and 2) the results were supplemented using the wavelet transformed coherence (WTC) analysis between DFs and the hydrological time series. Finally, relative contributions of six major DFs to the GWL fluctuations could be quantitatively assessed by calculating the effective dynamic efficiency (Def). The characteristics and relevant process of the identified six DFs are: 1) WCG1DF4,1 as an indicative of seasonal agricultural pumping (scales = 64-128 days; rmax = 0.68-0.89; Def ≤ 23.1%); 2) WCG1DF4,4 representing the cycle of regional groundwater recharge (scales = 64-128 days; rmax = 0.98-1.00; Def ≤ 11.1%); 3) WCG2DF4,1 indicating the complex interaction between the episodes of precipitation and direct runoff (scales = 2-8 days; rmax = 0.82-0.91; Def ≤ 35.3%) and seasonal GW-RW interaction (scales = 64-128 days; rmax = 0.76-0.91; Def ≤ 14.2%); 4) WCG2DF4,4 reflecting the complex effects of seasonal pervasive pumping and the local recharge

  14. Office of Integrated Assessment and Policy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The mission of the Office of Integrated Assessments and Policy Analysis (OIAPA) is to examine current and future policies related to the development and use of energy technologies. The principal ongoing research activity to date has focused on the impacts of several energy sources, including coal, oil shale, solar, and geothermal, from the standpoint of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. An additional project has recently been initiated on an evaluation of impacts associated with the implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act. The impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act on energy supply constitute the principal research focus of OIAPA for the near term. From these studies a research approach will be developed to identify certain common elements in the regulatory evaluation cycle as a means of evaluating subsequent environmental, health, and socioeconomic impact. It is planned that an integrated assessment team examine studies completed or underway on the following aspects of major regulations: health, risk assessment, testing protocols, environment control cost/benefits, institutional structures, and facility siting. This examination would assess the methodologies used, determine the general applicability of such studies, and present in a logical form information that appears to have broad general application. A suggested action plan for the State of Tennessee on radioactive and hazardous waste management is outlined

  15. Integrating Data Transformation in Principal Components Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi

    2015-01-02

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular dimension reduction method to reduce the complexity and obtain the informative aspects of high-dimensional datasets. When the data distribution is skewed, data transformation is commonly used prior to applying PCA. Such transformation is usually obtained from previous studies, prior knowledge, or trial-and-error. In this work, we develop a model-based method that integrates data transformation in PCA and finds an appropriate data transformation using the maximum profile likelihood. Extensions of the method to handle functional data and missing values are also developed. Several numerical algorithms are provided for efficient computation. The proposed method is illustrated using simulated and real-world data examples.

  16. Reservoir characterization and final pre-test analysis in support of the compressed-air-energy-storage Pittsfield aquifer field test in Pike County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The work reported is part of a field experimental program to demonstrate and evaluate compressed air energy storage in a porous media aquifer reservoir near Pittsfield, Illinois. The reservoir is described. Numerical modeling of the reservoir was performed concurrently with site development. The numerical models were applied to predict the thermohydraulic performance of the porous media reservoir. This reservoir characterization and pre-test analysis made use of evaluation of bubble development, water coning, thermal development, and near-wellbore desaturation. The work was undertaken to define the time required to develop an air storage bubble of adequate size, to assess the specification of instrumentation and above-ground equipment, and to develop and evaluate operational strategies for air cycling. A parametric analysis was performed for the field test reservoir. (LEW)

  17. A Black Hills-Madison Aquifer origin for Dakota Aquifer groundwater in northeastern Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, Randy; Harvey, F Edwin; Gosselin, David C

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of the Dakota Aquifer in South Dakota attributed elevated groundwater sulfate concentrations to Madison Aquifer recharge in the Black Hills with subsequent chemical evolution prior to upward migration into the Dakota Aquifer. This study examines the plausibility of a Madison Aquifer origin for groundwater in northeastern Nebraska. Dakota Aquifer water samples were collected for major ion chemistry and isotopic analysis ((18)O, (2)H, (3)H, (14)C, (13)C, (34)S, (18)O-SO(4), (87)Sr, (37)Cl). Results show that groundwater beneath the eastern, unconfined portion of the study area is distinctly different from groundwater sampled beneath the western, confined portion. In the east, groundwater is calcium-bicarbonate type, with delta(18)O values (-9.6 per thousand to -12.4 per thousand) similar to local, modern precipitation (-7.4 per thousand to -10 per thousand), and tritium values reflecting modern recharge. In the west, groundwater is calcium-sulfate type, having depleted delta(18)O values (-16 per thousand to -18 per thousand) relative to local, modern precipitation, and (14)C ages 32,000 to more than 47,000 years before present. Sulfate, delta(18)O, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O-SO(4) concentrations are similar to those found in Madison Aquifer groundwater in South Dakota. Thus, it is proposed that Madison Aquifer source water is also present within the Dakota Aquifer beneath northeastern Nebraska. A simple Darcy equation estimate of groundwater velocities and travel times using reported physical parameters from the Madison and Dakota Aquifers suggests such a migration is plausible. However, discrepancies between (14)C and Darcy age estimates indicate that (14)C ages may not accurately reflect aquifer residence time, due to mixtures of varying aged water.

  18. Sequence-Stratigraphic Analysis of the Regional Observation Monitoring Program (ROMP) 29A Test Corehole and Its Relation to Carbonate Porosity and Regional Transmissivity in the Floridan Aquifer System, Highlands County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, W. C.; Cunningham, K.J.; Renken, R.A.; Wacker, M.A.; Carlson, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis was made to describe and interpret the lithology of a part of the Upper Floridan aquifer penetrated by the Regional Observation Monitoring Program (ROMP) 29A test corehole in Highlands County, Florida. This information was integrated into a one-dimensional hydrostratigraphic model that delineates candidate flow zones and confining units in the context of sequence stratigraphy. Results from this test corehole will serve as a starting point to build a robust three-dimensional sequence-stratigraphic framework of the Floridan aquifer system. The ROMP 29A test corehole penetrated the Avon Park Formation, Ocala Limestone, Suwannee Limestone, and Hawthorn Group of middle Eocene to Pliocene age. The part of the Avon Park Formation penetrated in the ROMP 29A test corehole contains two composite depositional sequences. A transgressive systems tract and a highstand systems tract were interpreted for the upper composite sequence; however, only a highstand systems tract was interpreted for the lower composite sequence of the deeper Avon Park stratigraphic section. The composite depositional sequences are composed of at least five high-frequency depositional sequences. These sequences contain high-frequency cycle sets that are an amalgamation of vertically stacked high-frequency cycles. Three types of high-frequency cycles have been identified in the Avon Park Formation: peritidal, shallow subtidal, and deeper subtidal high-frequency cycles. The vertical distribution of carbonate-rock diffuse flow zones within the Avon Park Formation is heterogeneous. Porous vuggy intervals are less than 10 feet, and most are much thinner. The volumetric arrangement of the diffuse flow zones shows that most occur in the highstand systems tract of the lower composite sequence of the Avon Park Formation as compared to the upper composite sequence, which contains both a backstepping transgressive systems tract and a prograding highstand systems tract. Although the porous and permeable

  19. Analysis of radioactive waste contamination in soils. Part 1: integral transformations; Analise da contaminacao de solos por rejeitos radioativos. Parte 1: solucoes por transformacao integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romani, Z.V.; Cotta, R.M.; Perez-Guerreo, J.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Transmissao e Tecnologia do Calor; Heilbron Filho, P.F.L. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Rejeitos Radioativos

    1997-12-31

    The migration of radioactive waste in soils and other porous media is studied through the hybrid numerical-analytical solution of the mass convection-diffusion equations for this phenomenon. Initially, a radionuclide leak function is derived to model the phenomenon that occurs after the failure of the engineering barriers of the repository. This function is obtained from a first order ordinary differential equation which is solved numerically. Subsequently, the migration of this radioactive waste through the soil and the aquifer below the repository is studied; the soil and the aquifer are modeled as two saturated and coupled porous media. The convection-diffusion equations obtained for the concentration field in each medium studied are solved through the use of the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (G.I.T.T.), which provides automatic error control and relatively low computational cost for a user-prescribed accuracy. This work is part of the joint project COPPE/CNEN on the analysis of radioactive waste contamination in soils. (author) 7 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemker, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The

  1. Qualitative Analysis of Integration Adapter Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Daniel; Holzleitner, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Integration Adapters are a fundamental part of an integration system, since they provide (business) applications access to its messaging channel. However, their modeling and configuration remain under-represented. In previous work, the integration control and data flow syntax and semantics have been expressed in the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) as a semantic model for message-based integration, while adapter and the related quality of service modeling were left for further studi...

  2. Managing the unseen: Langebaan Road Aquifer System | du Plessis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effective management of groundwater resources is a critical aspect to ... The paper highlights specific problems experienced with the implementation of the Langebaan Road Aquifer well-field as an integrated water resource, and the ...

  3. PHIDIAS- Pathogen Host Interaction Data Integration and Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PHIDIAS- Pathogen Host Interaction Data Integration and Analysis- allows searching of integrated genome sequences, conserved domains and gene expressions data related to pathogen host interactions in high priority agents for public health and security ...

  4. Integrating an artificial intelligence approach with k-means clustering to model groundwater salinity: the case of Gaza coastal aquifer (Palestine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagha, Jawad S.; Seyam, Mohammed; Md Said, Md Azlin; Mogheir, Yunes

    2017-12-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have increasingly become efficient alternative modeling tools in the water resources field, particularly when the modeled process is influenced by complex and interrelated variables. In this study, two AI techniques—artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machine (SVM)—were employed to achieve deeper understanding of the salinization process (represented by chloride concentration) in complex coastal aquifers influenced by various salinity sources. Both models were trained using 11 years of groundwater quality data from 22 municipal wells in Khan Younis Governorate, Gaza, Palestine. Both techniques showed satisfactory prediction performance, where the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and correlation coefficient ( R) for the test data set were, respectively, about 4.5 and 99.8% for the ANNs model, and 4.6 and 99.7% for SVM model. The performances of the developed models were further noticeably improved through preprocessing the wells data set using a k-means clustering method, then conducting AI techniques separately for each cluster. The developed models with clustered data were associated with higher performance, easiness and simplicity. They can be employed as an analytical tool to investigate the influence of input variables on coastal aquifer salinity, which is of great importance for understanding salinization processes, leading to more effective water-resources-related planning and decision making.

  5. Assessing the impact of dairy waste lagoons on groundwater quality using a spatial analysis of vadose zone and groundwater information in a coastal phreatic aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, S; Kurtzman, D; Ronen, Z; Peeters, A; Dahan, O

    2014-01-01

    Dairy waste lagoons are considered to be point sources of groundwater contamination by chloride (Cl(-)), different nitrogen-species and pathogens/microorganisms. The objective of this work is to introduce a methodology to assess the past and future impacts of such lagoons on regional groundwater quality. The method is based on a spatial statistical analysis of Cl(-) and total nitrogen (TN) concentration distributions in the saturated and the vadose (unsaturated) zones. The method provides quantitative data on the relation between the locations of dairy lagoons and the spatial variability in Cl(-) and TN concentrations in groundwater. The method was applied to the Beer-Tuvia region, Israel, where intensive dairy farming has been practiced for over 50 years above the local phreatic aquifer. Mass balance calculations accounted for the various groundwater recharge and abstraction sources and sinks in the entire region. The mass balances showed that despite the small surface area covered by the dairy lagoons in this region (0.8%), leachates from lagoons have contributed 6.0% and 12.6% of the total mass of Cl(-) and TN (mainly as NO3(-)-N) added to the aquifer. The chemical composition of the aquifer and vadose zone water suggested that irrigated agricultural activity in the region is the main contributor of Cl(-) and TN to the groundwater. A low spatial correlation between the Cl(-) and NO3(-)-N concentrations in the groundwater and the on-land location of the dairy farms strengthened this assumption, despite the dairy waste lagoon being a point source for groundwater contamination by Cl(-) and NO3(-)-N. Mass balance calculations, for the vadose zone of the entire region, indicated that drying of the lagoons would decrease the regional groundwater salinization process (11% of the total Cl(-) load is stored under lagoons). A more considerable reduction in the groundwater contamination by NO3(-)-N is expected (25% of the NO3(-)-N load is stored under lagoons). Results

  6. Migration in Deltas: An Integrated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Hutton, Craig W.; Lazar, Attila; Adger, W. Neil; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Vincent, Katharine; Rahman, Munsur; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Sugata, Hazra; Ghosh, Tuhin; Codjoe, Sam; Appeaning-Addo, Kwasi

    2017-04-01

    Deltas and low-lying coastal regions have long been perceived as vulnerable to global sea-level rise, with the potential for mass displacement of exposed populations. The assumption of mass displacement of populations in deltas requires a comprehensive reassessment in the light of present and future migration in deltas, including the potential role of adaptation to influence these decisions. At present, deltas are subject to multiple drivers of environmental change and often have high population densities as they are accessible and productive ecosystems. Climate change, catchment management, subsidence and land cover change drive environmental change across all deltas. Populations in deltas are also highly mobile, with significant urbanization trends and the growth of large cities and mega-cities within or adjacent to deltas across Asia and Africa. Such migration is driven primarily by economic opportunity, yet environmental change in general, and climate change in particular, are likely to play an increasing direct and indirect role in future migration trends. The policy challenges centre on the role of migration within regional adaptation strategies to climate change; the protection of vulnerable populations; and the future of urban settlements within deltas. This paper reviews current knowledge on migration and adaptation to environmental change to discern specific issues pertinent to delta regions. It develops a new integrated methodology to assess present and future migration in deltas using the Volta delta in Ghana, Mahanadi delta in India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta across India and Bangladesh. The integrated method focuses on: biophysical changes and spatial distribution of vulnerability; demographic changes and migration decision-making using multiple methods and data; macro-economic trends and scenarios in the deltas; and the policies and governance structures that constrain and enable adaptation. The analysis is facilitated by a range of

  7. EPA Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information on sole source aquifers (SSAs) is widely used in assessments under the National Environmental Policy Act and at the state and local level. A national...

  8. Tracers Detect Aquifer Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enfield, Carl

    1995-01-01

    The EPA's National Laboratory (NRMRL) at Ada, OK, along with the University of Florida and the University of Texas, have developed a tracer procedure to detect the amount of contamination in aquifer formations...

  9. Evaluation of ethyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation in a contaminated aquifer by compound-specific isotope analysis and in situ microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombach, Petra, E-mail: petra.bombach@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Isodetect GmbH Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5b, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Nägele, Norbert [Kuvier the Biotech Company S.L., Ctra. N-I, p.k. 234–P.E. INBISA 23" a, E-09001 Burgos (Spain); Rosell, Mònica [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), C/Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Richnow, Hans H. [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Fischer, Anko [Isodetect GmbH Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5b, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • In situ biodegradation of ETBE was investigated in a fuel contaminated aquifer. • Degradation was studied by CSIA and in situ microcosms in combination with TLFA-SIP. • ETBE was degraded when ETBE was the main groundwater contaminant. • ETBE was also degraded in the presence of BTEX and MTBE. • Hydrochemical analysis indicated aerobic and anaerobic ETBE biodegradation. - Abstract: Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is an upcoming groundwater pollutant in Europe whose environmental fate has been less investigated, thus far. In the present study, we investigated the in situ biodegradation of ETBE in a fuel-contaminated aquifer using compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA), and in situ microcosms in combination with total lipid fatty acid (TLFA)-stable isotope probing (SIP). In a first field investigation, CSIA revealed insignificant carbon isotope fractionation, but low hydrogen isotope fractionation of up to +14‰ along the prevailing anoxic ETBE plume suggesting biodegradation of ETBE. Ten months later, oxygen injection was conducted to enhance the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) at the field site. Within the framework of this remediation measure, in situ microcosms loaded with [{sup 13}C{sub 6}]-ETBE (BACTRAP{sup ®}s) were exposed for 119 days in selected groundwater wells to assess the biodegradation of ETBE by TLFA-SIP under the following conditions: (i) ETBE as main contaminant; (ii) ETBE as main contaminant subjected to oxygen injection; (iii) ETBE plus other PH; (iv) ETBE plus other PH subjected to oxygen injection. Under all conditions investigated, significant {sup 13}C-incorporation into microbial total lipid fatty acids extracted from the in situ microcosms was found, providing clear evidence of ETBE biodegradation.

  10. Evaluation of ethyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation in a contaminated aquifer by compound-specific isotope analysis and in situ microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombach, Petra; a, E-09001 Burgos (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (Kuvier the Biotech Company S.L., Ctra. N-I, p.k. 234–P.E. INBISA 23a, E-09001 Burgos (Spain))" >Nägele, Norbert; Rosell, Mònica; Richnow, Hans H.; Fischer, Anko

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In situ biodegradation of ETBE was investigated in a fuel contaminated aquifer. • Degradation was studied by CSIA and in situ microcosms in combination with TLFA-SIP. • ETBE was degraded when ETBE was the main groundwater contaminant. • ETBE was also degraded in the presence of BTEX and MTBE. • Hydrochemical analysis indicated aerobic and anaerobic ETBE biodegradation. - Abstract: Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is an upcoming groundwater pollutant in Europe whose environmental fate has been less investigated, thus far. In the present study, we investigated the in situ biodegradation of ETBE in a fuel-contaminated aquifer using compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA), and in situ microcosms in combination with total lipid fatty acid (TLFA)-stable isotope probing (SIP). In a first field investigation, CSIA revealed insignificant carbon isotope fractionation, but low hydrogen isotope fractionation of up to +14‰ along the prevailing anoxic ETBE plume suggesting biodegradation of ETBE. Ten months later, oxygen injection was conducted to enhance the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) at the field site. Within the framework of this remediation measure, in situ microcosms loaded with [ 13 C 6 ]-ETBE (BACTRAP ® s) were exposed for 119 days in selected groundwater wells to assess the biodegradation of ETBE by TLFA-SIP under the following conditions: (i) ETBE as main contaminant; (ii) ETBE as main contaminant subjected to oxygen injection; (iii) ETBE plus other PH; (iv) ETBE plus other PH subjected to oxygen injection. Under all conditions investigated, significant 13 C-incorporation into microbial total lipid fatty acids extracted from the in situ microcosms was found, providing clear evidence of ETBE biodegradation

  11. Ogallala Aquifer Mapping Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    A computerized data file has been established which can be used efficiently by the contour-plotting program SURFACE II to produce maps of the Ogallala aquifer in 17 counties of the Texas Panhandle. The data collected have been evaluated and compiled into three sets, from which SURFACE II can generate maps of well control, aquifer thickness, saturated thickness, water level, and the difference between virgin (pre-1942) and recent (1979 to 1981) water levels. 29 figures, 1 table

  12. Integration of risk analysis, land use planning, and cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajen, G.; Sanchez, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Pueblo of San Ildefonso (Pueblo), which is a sovereign Indian tribe, have often been involved in adversarial situations regarding the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Pueblo shares a common boundary with the LANL. This paper describes an on-going project that could alter the DOE and the Pueblo's relationship to one of cooperation; and unite the DOE and the Pueblo in a Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization, and Integrated Risk Analysis and Land Use Planning effort

  13. Factors affecting public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. © 2014 The Authors. Groundwater published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of National Ground Water Association.

  14. IMP: Integrated method for power analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    An integrated, easy to use, economical package of microcomputer programs has been developed which can be used by small hydro developers to evaluate potential sites for small scale hydroelectric plants in British Columbia. The programs enable evaluation of sites located far from the nearest stream gauging station, for which streamflow data are not available. For each of the province's 6 hydrologic regions, a streamflow record for one small watershed is provided in the data base. The program can then be used to generate synthetic streamflow records and to compare results obtained by the modelling procedure with the actual data. The program can also be used to explore the significance of modelling parameters and to develop a detailed appreciation for the accuracy which can be obtained under various circumstances. The components of the program are an atmospheric model of precipitation; a watershed model that will generate a continuous series of streamflow data, based on information from the atmospheric model; a flood frequency analysis system that uses site-specific topographic data plus information from the atmospheric model to generate a flood frequency curve; a hydroelectric power simulation program which determines daily energy output for a run-of-river or reservoir storage site based on selected generation facilities and the time series generated in the watershed model; and a graphic analysis package that provides direct visualization of data and modelling results. This report contains a description of the programs, a user guide, the theory behind the model, the modelling methodology, and results from a workshop that reviewed the program package. 32 refs., 16 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  16. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  17. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  18. Noise analysis of switched integrator preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongbo; Li Yulan; Zhu Weibin

    2004-01-01

    The main noise sources of switched integrator preamplifiers are discussed, and their noise performance are given combined PSpice simulation and experiments on them. Then, some practical methods on how to reduce noise of preamplifiers in two different integrator modes are provided. (authors)

  19. Social Ecological Model Analysis for ICT Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagami, Jason

    2013-01-01

    ICT integration of teacher preparation programmes was undertaken by the Australian Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) project in all 39 Australian teacher education institutions and highlighted the need for guidelines to inform systemic ICT integration approaches. A Social Ecological Model (SEM) was used to positively inform integration…

  20. Ground-water levels in aquifers used for residential supply, Campton Township, Kane County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Kraske, Kurt A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Campton Township Board of Trustees, measured water levels in the aquifers used for residential supply in Campton Township, Kane County, Illinois. Aquifers used for residential supply are the shallow and deep aquifers in the glacial drift, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravels; the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer, composed of dolomite and shale of the Alexandrian Series and the Maquoketa Group; the Galena-Platteville aquifer, composed of dolomite of the Platteville and Galena Groups; and the Ancell aquifer, composed of sandstones of the Glenwood Formation and the St. Peter Sanstone. Water-level altitudes in the shallow drift aquifers generally follow surface topography. Analysis of water-level data does not clearly indicate overutilization of these aquifers. Water-level altitudes in the deep drift aquifers decrease from west to east. Comparison of historical depth to water measurements with current (1995) measurements indicates large decreases in water levels in some areas. The deep drift aquifers may be overutilized at these locations. Water-level altitudes in the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer generally decrease from west to east. The potentiometric surface of the aquifer follows the bedrock-surface topography in some locations. Localized low water-level altitudes and large decreases in water levels indicate the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer is overutilized in several areas. Water-level altitudes in the wells finished in the Galena- Platteville aquifer vary by more than 300 feet. Large decreases in water levels in wells finished in the Galena-Platteville aquifer indicate the Galena-Platteville and Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifers are overutilized in the northern part of the township. Water-level altitudes in the wells finished in the Ancell aquifer are also highly variable. There is no indication that the Ancell aquifer is overutilized.

  1. IPAD: the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database for Systematic Enrichment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Drabier, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) generate millions of reads and hundreds of datasets, and there is an urgent need for a better way to accurately interpret and distill such large amounts of data. Extensive pathway and network analysis allow for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of disease vs. healthy samples in the NGS and GWAS. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to elucidation of the complex biological pathways affected by drug treatment, to patient stratification studies of new and existing drug treatments, and to understanding the underlying anti-cancer drug effects. There are approximately 141 biological human pathway resources as of Jan 2012 according to the Pathguide database. However, most currently available resources do not contain disease, drug or organ specificity information such as disease-pathway, drug-pathway, and organ-pathway associations. Systematically integrating pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity together becomes increasingly crucial for understanding the interrelationships between signaling, metabolic and regulatory pathway, drug action, disease susceptibility, and organ specificity from high-throughput omics data (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics). We designed the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database for Systematic Enrichment Analysis (IPAD, http://bioinfo.hsc.unt.edu/ipad), defining inter-association between pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity, based on six criteria: 1) comprehensive pathway coverage; 2) gene/protein to pathway/disease/drug/organ association; 3) inter-association between pathway, disease, drug, and organ; 4) multiple and quantitative measurement of enrichment and inter-association; 5) assessment of enrichment and inter-association analysis with the context of the existing biological knowledge and a "gold standard" constructed from reputable and reliable sources; and 6) cross-linking of

  2. Using global analysis models of water resources as an initial measure in management proposals concerning the artificial recharge of aquifers; Empleo de modelos de analisis global de recursos hidricos como primera actuacion a emprender en propuestas de gestion que contemplen operaciones de recarga artificial de acuiferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, J. M.; Navarro, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses artificial recharge not as an individual component disconnected from the other elements that make up a system of water resources, but as an integrated part of such a system, one that is interrelated with all the others, such that any action affecting a given element may affect the recharge operation, and vice versa. The methodology applied throughout this study is based on the technique of systems analysis, and makes use of the AQUATOOL software package with respect to assessing guarantees, water availability for the artificial recharge operation and the suitability of the host aquifer. The results obtained show that it is necessary, in the first place, to draw up a global model of water resources, incorporating all the elements that constitute the system; then, taking into account the results obtained, a viability analysis should be made of the artificial recharge operation, by means of a numerical model of the relevant parameters for the aquifer(s) in question. This model should specify in detail the infiltration operation proposed. If deemed appropriate, and either before or after drawing up the parameter model, a pilot artificial recharge plant can be constructed, so that a small-scale assay may be made of specific aspects of the artificial recharge; in any case, such a pilot plant should always be constructed after obtaining the global analysis model of water resources. The practical application described in this paper refers to the Quiebrajano-Viboras water exploitation system, which is located in the province of Jaen (Spain). (Author) 43 refs.

  3. CFD Analysis for Advanced Integrated Head Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Won Ho; Kang, Tae Kyo; Cho, Yeon Ho; Kim, Hyun Min [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Integrated Head Assembly (IHA) is permanently installed on the reactor vessel closure head during the normal plant operation and refueling operation. It consists of a number of systems and components such as the head lifting system, seismic support system, Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) cooling system, cable support system, cooling shroud assemblies. With the operating experiences of the IHA, the needs for the design change to the current APR1400 IHA arouse to improve the seismic resistance and to accommodate the convenient maintenance. In this paper, the effects of the design changes were rigorously studied for the various sizes of the inlet openings to assure the proper cooling of the CEDMs. And the system pressure differentials and required flow rate for the CEDM cooling fan were analyzed regarding the various operating conditions for determining the capacity of the fan. As a part of the design process of the AIHA, the number of air inlets and baffle regions are reduced by simplifying the design of the APR1400 IHA. The design change of the baffle regions has been made such that the maximum possible space are occupied inside the IHA cooling shroud shell while avoiding the interference with CEDMs. So, only the air inlet opening was studied for the design change to supply a sufficient cooling air flow for each CEDM. The size and location of the air inlets in middle cooling shroud assembly were determined by the CFD analyses of the AIHA. And the case CFD analyses were performed depending on the ambient air temperature and fan operating conditions. The size of the air inlet openings is increased by comparison with the initial AIHA design, and it is confirmed that the cooling air flow rate for each CEDM meet the design requirement of 800 SCFM ± 10% with the increased air inlets. At the initial analysis, the fan outlet flow rate was assumed as 48.3 lbm/s, but the result revealed that the less outflow rate at the fan is enough to meet the design requirement

  4. Hydraulic analysis of harmonic pumping tests in frequency and time domains for identifying the conduits networks in a karstic aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P.; Jardani, A.; Cardiff, M.; Lecoq, N.; Jourde, H.

    2018-04-01

    In a karstic field, the flow paths are very complex as they globally follow the conduit network. The responses generated from an investigation in this type of aquifer can be spatially highly variable. Therefore, the aim of the investigation in this case is to define a degree of connectivity between points of the field, in order to understand these flow paths. Harmonic pumping tests represent a possible investigation method for characterizing the subsurface flow of groundwater. They have several advantages compared to a constant-rate pumping (more signal possibilities, ease of extracting the signal in the responses and possibility of closed loop investigation). We show in this work that interpreting the responses from a harmonic pumping test is very useful for delineating a degree of connectivity between measurement points. We have firstly studied the amplitude and phase offset of responses from a harmonic pumping test in a theoretical synthetic modeling case in order to define a qualitative interpretation method in the time and frequency domains. Three different type of responses have been separated: a conduit connectivity response, a matrix connectivity, and a dual connectivity (response of a point in the matrix, but close to a conduit). We have then applied this method to measured responses at a field research site. Our interpretation method permits a quick and easy reconstruction of the main flow paths, and the whole set of field responses appear to give a similar range of responses to those seen in the theoretical synthetic case.

  5. Anthropogenic features in the Sines (Portugal and Essaouira (Morocco coastal aquifers: a comparative study of their hydrochemical evolution by a Principal Component Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, M. O.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the effects of climatic conditions on groundwater resources salinization and quality, a comparative study was conducted on the coastal aquifers of Sines (Portugal and Essaouira (Morocco. Under the climatic and environmental conditions these two basins present different vulnerabilities to anthropogenic activities. Both aquifers correspond to sedimentary basins with similar structures and lithologies. From the available physical, chemical and piezometric data, two series of results of each area were selected corresponding to two different years that were analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Sines basin is characterised by a temperate climate. In the Sines aquifer the waterrock interaction process is the major mechanism responsible for the groundwater evolution, conferring a calcium-bicarbonate facies. Applying the PCA, punctual anthropogenic contamination was identified and linked to agricultural activities. The water resources of the Essaouira basin are characteristic of a semi-arid climate, and are severely impacted by the climate (quantity and quality. PCA allowed the evaluation of the contribution of the Tidzi diapir in the water recharge that confers to the groundwater a sodium-chloride facies. Although this statistical method did not shown a nitrate contamination input in the Essaouira multi-aquifer, this polluent presents locally high values. Also the very high evaporation and scarce precipitation activate the processes of salinization and contamination.Considerando los efectos de las condiciones climáticas sobre la calidad y la salinidad de las aguas subterráneas, se ha llevado a cabo un estudio comparativo entre los acuíferos costeros de Sines (Portugal y de Essaouira (Marruecos. Teniendo en cuenta las condiciones climáticas y el medio ambiente de estas dos cuencas, resultan distintas vulnerabilidades a las actividades antrópicas. Ambos acuíferos se localizan en cuencas sedimentarias de estructura y de litolog

  6. Application of multivariate statistical analysis and hydrochemical and isotopic investigations for evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agriculture purposes: case of Oum Ali-Thelepte aquifer, central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Imen; Hamzaoui-Azaza, Fadoua; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater plays a dominant role in arid regions; it is among the most available water resources in Tunisia. Located in northwestern Tunisia, Oum Ali-Thelepte is a deep Miocene sedimentary aquifer, where groundwater is the most important source of water supply. The aim of the study is to investigate the hydrochemical processes leading to mineralization and to assess water quality with respect to agriculture and drinking for a better management of groundwater resources. To achieve such objectives, water analysis was carried out on 16 groundwater samples collected during January-February 2014. Stable isotopes and 26 hydrochemical parameters were examined. The interpretation of these analytical data showed that the concentrations of major and trace elements were within the permissible level for human use. The distribution of mineral processes in this aquifer was identified using conventional classification techniques, suggesting that the water facies gradually changes from Ca-HCO3 to Mg-SO4 type and are controlled by water-rock interaction. These results were endorsed using multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The sustainability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation was assessed based on the water quality index (WQI) and on Wilcox and Richards's diagrams. This aquifer has been classified as "excellent water" serving good irrigation in the area. As for the stable isotope, the measurements showed that groundwater samples lay between global meteoric water line (GMWL) and LMWL; hence, this arrangement signifies that the recharge of the Oum Ali-Thelepte aquifer is ensured by rainwater infiltration through mountains in the border of the aquifer without evaporation effects.

  7. Hydrochemistry of New Zealand's aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    taken from regional authority 'State of the Environment' reports and from detailed reports on central Canterbury. The chapter summarises the major element chemistry and relates this to aquifer geology and land use. Nutrient chemistry and an analysis of some heavy metals are also included and this information is related to land use. Pesticides and nitrate are discussed in Chapter 8 and nitrate is only briefly mentioned here under nutrients. A brief discussion of hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals is included for areas that have available data, but a discussion of microbial contamination of groundwater is reserved for Chapter 9. (author). 53 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Sensitivity Analysis for Design Optimization Integrated Software Tools, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposed project is to provide a new set of sensitivity analysis theory and codes, the Sensitivity Analysis for Design Optimization Integrated...

  9. Game analysis of product-service integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims at defining the value creation mechanism and income distribution strategies of product-service integration in order to promote product-service integration of a firm.Design/methodology/approach: This paper conducts researches quantitatively on the coordination mechanism of product-service integration by using game theory, and uses the methods of Shapley value and Equal growth rate to further discuss income distribution strategies of product-service integration.Findings: Product-service integration increases the total income of a firm and the added value of the income decreases as the unit price demand variation coefficient of products and services increases, while decreases as the marginal cost of products increases, decreases as the marginal cost of services increases. Moreover, the findings suggest that both income distribution strategies of product-service integration based on Shapley value method and Equal growth rate method can make the product department and service department of a firm win-win and realize the pareto improvement. The choice of what kind of distribution strategy to coordinate the actions between departments depends on the department playing dominant role in the firm. Generally speaking, for a firm at the center of market, when the product department is the main contributor to firm income, the service department will choose the income distribution strategy of product-service integration based on Shapley value method; when the service department is the main contributor to firm income, the service department will choose the income distribution strategy of product-service integration based on Equal growth rate method.Research limitations/implications: This paper makes some strict assumptions such as complete information, risk neutral, linear cost function and so on and the discussion is limited to the simple relationship between product department and service department.Practical implications: Product

  10. Ground Water movement in crystalline rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serejo, A.N.C.; Freire, C.; Siqueira, H.B. de; Frischkorn, H.; Torquato, J.R.F.; Santiago, M.M.F.; Barbosa, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water movement studies were performed in crystalline rock aquifers from the upper Acarau River hydrographic basin, state of Ceara, Brazil. The studies included carbon-14, 18 O/ 16 O and tritium measurements as well as chemical analysis. A total of 35 wells were surveyed during drought seasons. Carbon-14 values displayed little variation which implied that the water use was adequate despite of the slower recharge conditions. Fairly constant isotopic 18 O/ 16 O ratio values in the wells and their similarity with rainwater values indicated that the recharge is done exclusively by pluvial waters. A decreasing tendency within the tritium concentration values were interpreted as a periodic rainwater renewal for these aquifers. The chemical analysis demonstrated that there is in fact no correlation between salinity and the time the water remains in the aquifer itself. (D.J.M.) [pt

  11. Advanced Concept Architecture Design and Integrated Analysis (ACADIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-03

    1 Advanced Concept Architecture Design and Integrated Analysis (ACADIA) Submitted to the National Institute of Aerospace (NIA) on...Research Report 20161001 - 20161030 Advanced Concept Architecture Design and Integrated Analysis (ACADIA) W911NF-16-2-0229 8504Cedric Justin, Youngjun

  12. Integrating fire management analysis into land management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Mills

    1983-01-01

    The analysis of alternative fire management programs should be integrated into the land and resource management planning process, but a single fire management analysis model cannot meet all planning needs. Therefore, a set of simulation models that are analytically separate from integrated land management planning models are required. The design of four levels of fire...

  13. Real analysis measure theory, integration, and Hilbert spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2005-01-01

    Real Analysis is the third volume in the Princeton Lectures in Analysis, a series of four textbooks that aim to present, in an integrated manner, the core areas of analysis. Here the focus is on the development of measure and integration theory, differentiation and integration, Hilbert spaces, and Hausdorff measure and fractals. This book reflects the objective of the series as a whole: to make plain the organic unity that exists between the various parts of the subject, and to illustrate the wide applicability of ideas of analysis to other fields of mathematics and science. After

  14. Semantic web for integrated network analysis in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huajun; Ding, Li; Wu, Zhaohui; Yu, Tong; Dhanapalan, Lavanya; Chen, Jake Y

    2009-03-01

    The Semantic Web technology enables integration of heterogeneous data on the World Wide Web by making the semantics of data explicit through formal ontologies. In this article, we survey the feasibility and state of the art of utilizing the Semantic Web technology to represent, integrate and analyze the knowledge in various biomedical networks. We introduce a new conceptual framework, semantic graph mining, to enable researchers to integrate graph mining with ontology reasoning in network data analysis. Through four case studies, we demonstrate how semantic graph mining can be applied to the analysis of disease-causal genes, Gene Ontology category cross-talks, drug efficacy analysis and herb-drug interactions analysis.

  15. Integrated risk analysis of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyakhter, Alexander; Wilson, Richard; Valverde A, L.J. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses several factors that should be considered in integrated risk analyses of global climate change. We begin by describing how the problem of global climate change can be subdivided into largely independent parts that can be linked together in an analytically tractable fashion. Uncertainty plays a central role in integrated risk analyses of global climate change. Accordingly, we consider various aspects of uncertainty as they relate to the climate change problem. We also consider the impacts of these uncertainties on various risk management issues, such as sequential decision strategies, value of information, and problems of interregional and intergenerational equity. (author)

  16. Structural Control and Groundwater Flow in the Nubian Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy, K.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Save, H.; Emil, M. K.; Elkaliouby, B.

    2017-12-01

    An integrated research approach (remote sensing, field, geophysics) was conducted to investigate the structural control on groundwater flow in large aquifers using the less studied Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) of NE Africa as a test site. The aquifer extends over 2.2 x 106 km2 in Egypt, Libya, Chad, and Sudan and consists of thick (> 3 kms), water-bearing, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone with intercalations of Tertiary shale and clay. It is subdivided into three sub-basins (Northern Sudan Platform [NSP], Dakhla [DAS], and Kufra) that are separated by basement uplifts (e.g., E-W trending Uweinat-Aswan uplift that separates DAS from the NSP). Aquifer recharge occurs in the south (NSP and southern Kufra) where the aquifer is unconfined and precipitation is high (Average Annual Precipitation [AAP]: 117 mm/yr.) and discharge is concentrated in the north (DAS and northern Kufra). Our approach is a three-fold exercise. Firstly, we compared GOCE-based Global Geopotential Models (GGMs) to terrestrial gravity anomalies for 21262 sites to select the optimum model for deriving Bouguer gravity anomalies. Secondly, structures and uplifts were mapped using hill shade images and their extension in the subsurface were mapped using the Eigen_6C4 model-derived Bouguer anomalies and their Tilt Derivative products (TDR). Thirdly, hydrological analysis was conducted using GRACE CSR 1° x 1° mascon solutions to investigate the mass variations in relation to the mapped structures. Our findings include: (1) The Eigen-6C4 is the optimum model having the lowest deviation (9.122 mGal) from the terrestrial gravity anomalies; (2) the surface expressions of structures matched fairly well with their postulated extensions in the subsurface; (3) identified fault systems include: Red Sea rift-related N-S to NW-SE trending grabens formed by reactivating basement structures during Red Sea opening and Syrian arc-related NE-SW trending dextral shear systems; (4) TWS patterns are uniform

  17. Integrated watershed analysis: adapting to changing times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves

    2013-01-01

    Resource managers are increasingly required to conduct integrated analyses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems before undertaking any activities. Th ere are a number of research studies on the impacts of management actions on these ecosystems, as well as a growing body of knowledge about ecological processes that aff ect them, particularly aquatic ecosystems, which...

  18. Relay Feedback Analysis for Double Integral Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Ye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Double integral plants under relay feedback are studied. Complete results on the uniqueness of solutions, existence, and stability of the limit cycles are established using the point transformation method. Analytical expressions are also given for determining the amplitude and period of a limit cycle from the plant parameters.

  19. Integration of video and radiation analysis data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Howell, J.A.; Rodriguez, C.A.; Eccleston, G.W.; Beddingfield, D.; Smith, J.E.; Baumgart, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    For the past several years, the integration of containment and surveillance (C/S) with nondestructive assay (NDA) sensors for monitoring the movement of nuclear material has focused on the hardware and communications protocols in the transmission network. Little progress has been made in methods to utilize the combined C/S and NDA data for safeguards and to reduce the inspector time spent in nuclear facilities. One of the fundamental problems in the integration of the combined data is that the two methods operate in different dimensions. The C/S video data is spatial in nature; whereas, the NDA sensors provide radiation levels versus time data. The authors have introduced a new method to integrate spatial (digital video) with time (radiation monitoring) information. This technology is based on pattern recognition by neural networks, provides significant capability to analyze complex data, and has the ability to learn and adapt to changing situations. This technique has the potential of significantly reducing the frequency of inspection visits to key facilities without a loss of safeguards effectiveness

  20. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater aquifer using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrochemical data analysis revealed four sources of solutes. The processes responsible for their enrichment include: chemical weathering, leaching of the overlying sediments, domestic activities, climatic condition and the flow pattern of the aquifer. The factors have contributed to the changes of the groundwater chemistry ...

  1. Integration of Design and Control through Model Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    A systematic computer aided analysis of the process model is proposed as a pre-solution step for integration of design and control problems. The process model equations are classified in terms of balance equations, constitutive equations and conditional equations. Analysis of the phenomena models...... (structure selection) issues for the integrated problems are considered. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... representing the constitutive equations identify the relationships between the important process and design variables, which help to understand, define and address some of the issues related to integration of design and control. Furthermore, the analysis is able to identify a set of process (control) variables...

  2. Simple method for quick estimation of aquifer hydrogeological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C.; Li, Y. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Development of simple and accurate methods to determine the aquifer hydrogeological parameters was of importance for groundwater resources assessment and management. Aiming at the present issue of estimating aquifer parameters based on some data of the unsteady pumping test, a fitting function of Theis well function was proposed using fitting optimization method and then a unitary linear regression equation was established. The aquifer parameters could be obtained by solving coefficients of the regression equation. The application of the proposed method was illustrated, using two published data sets. By the error statistics and analysis on the pumping drawdown, it showed that the method proposed in this paper yielded quick and accurate estimates of the aquifer parameters. The proposed method could reliably identify the aquifer parameters from long distance observed drawdowns and early drawdowns. It was hoped that the proposed method in this paper would be helpful for practicing hydrogeologists and hydrologists.

  3. Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Energy Integrated Distillation Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong Wen; Hansen, C.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of manufacturing systems can be significantly increased through diligent application of control based on mathematical models thereby enabling more tight integration of decision making with systems operation. In the present paper analysis of optimal operation of an energy integrated...

  4. Integrated program of using of Probabilistic Safety Analysis in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since 25 June 1986, when the CSN (Nuclear Safety Conseil) approve the Integrated Program of Probabilistic Safety Analysis, this program has articulated the main activities of CSN. This document summarize the activities developed during these years and reviews the Integrated programme

  5. The Use of Hydrograph Analysis and Impulse Response Functions to Improve Understanding of Groundwater Flooding: A Case Study from the Chalk Aquifer, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascott, M.; Bloomfield, J.; Macdonald, D.; Marchant, B.; McKenzie, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Cretaceous Chalk, the most important aquifer in the United Kingdom (UK) for public water supply, underlies many large cities in southern and eastern England including parts of London, however, it is prone to groundwater flooding. We have developed a new approach to analyse the spatio-temporal extent of groundwater flooding using statistical analysis of groundwater level hydrographs and impulse response functions (IRFs) applied to a major Chalk groundwater flooding event in the UK during winter 2013/14. Using monthly groundwater levels for 26 boreholes in the Chalk and a new standardised index for groundwater flooding, we have: estimated standardised series; grouped them using k-means cluster analysis; and, cross-correlated the cluster centroids with the Standardised Precipitation Index accumulated over time intervals between 1 and 60 months. This analysis reveals two spatially coherent groups of standardised hydrographs which respond to precipitation over different timescales. We estimate IRF models of the groundwater level response to effective precipitation for three boreholes in each group. The IRF models support the SPI analysis showing different response functions between the two groups. If we apply identical effective precipitation inputs to each of the IRF models we see differences between the hydrographs from each group. It is proposed that these differences are due to the intrinsic, hydrogeological properties of the Chalk and of overlying relatively low permeability superficial deposits. Consequently, it is concluded that the overarching controls on groundwater flood response are a complex combination of antecedent conditions, rainfall and catchment hydrogeological properties. These controls should be taken into consideration when anticipating and managing future groundwater flood events.

  6. Analysis of integrated video and radiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Rodriguez, C.A.; Beddingfield, D.; Vasil, A.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed prototype software for a facility-monitoring application that will detect anomalous activity in a nuclear facility. The software, which forms the basis of a simple model, automatically reviews and analyzes integrated safeguards data from continuous unattended monitoring systems. This technology, based on pattern recognition by neural networks, provides significant capability to analyze complex data and has the ability to learn and adapt to changing situations. It is well suited for large automated facilities, reactors, spent-fuel storage facilities, reprocessing plants, and nuclear material storage vaults

  7. Signal integrity analysis on discontinuous microstrip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Qingyang; Dai, Yawen; Chen, Zipeng

    2013-01-01

    In high speed PCB design, microstirp lines were used to control the impedance, however, the discontinuous microstrip line can cause signal integrity problems. In this paper, we use the transmission line theory to study the characteristics of microstrip lines. Research results indicate that the discontinuity such as truncation, gap and size change result in the problems such as radiation, reflection, delay and ground bounce. We change the discontinuities to distributed parameter circuits, analysed the steady-state response and transient response and the phase delay. The transient response cause radiation and voltage jump.

  8. A comparative research of different ensemble surrogate models based on set pair analysis for the DNAPL-contaminated aquifer remediation strategy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zeyu; Lu, Wenxi; Xue, Haibo; Lin, Jin

    2017-08-01

    Surrogate-based simulation-optimization technique is an effective approach for optimizing the surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) strategy for clearing DNAPLs. The performance of the surrogate model, which is used to replace the simulation model for the aim of reducing computation burden, is the key of corresponding researches. However, previous researches are generally based on a stand-alone surrogate model, and rarely make efforts to improve the approximation accuracy of the surrogate model to the simulation model sufficiently by combining various methods. In this regard, we present set pair analysis (SPA) as a new method to build ensemble surrogate (ES) model, and conducted a comparative research to select a better ES modeling pattern for the SEAR strategy optimization problems. Surrogate models were developed using radial basis function artificial neural network (RBFANN), support vector regression (SVR), and Kriging. One ES model is assembling RBFANN model, SVR model, and Kriging model using set pair weights according their performance, and the other is assembling several Kriging (the best surrogate modeling method of three) models built with different training sample datasets. Finally, an optimization model, in which the ES model was embedded, was established to obtain the optimal remediation strategy. The results showed the residuals of the outputs between the best ES model and simulation model for 100 testing samples were lower than 1.5%. Using an ES model instead of the simulation model was critical for considerably reducing the computation time of simulation-optimization process and maintaining high computation accuracy simultaneously.

  9. Advantages of Integrative Data Analysis for Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainter, Sierra A.; Curran, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Amid recent progress in cognitive development research, high-quality data resources are accumulating, and data sharing and secondary data analysis are becoming increasingly valuable tools. Integrative data analysis (IDA) is an exciting analytical framework that can enhance secondary data analysis in powerful ways. IDA pools item-level data across…

  10. VULNERABILITY AND RISK OF CONTAMINATION KARSTIC AQUIFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameli Aguilar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Karstic systems occupy nearly 20% of the surface of the earth and are inhabited by numerous human communities. Karstic aquifers are the most exposed to pollution from human activities. Pollution of karstic aquifers is a severe environmental problem worldwide.  In order to face the vulnerability of karstic aquifers to pollution, researchers have created a diversity of study approaches and models, each one having their own strengths and weaknesses depending on the discipline from which they were originated, thus requiring a thorough discussion within the required multidisciplinary character. The objective of this article was to analyze the theoretical and methodological approaches applied to the pollution of karstic aquifers. The European hydrogeological, land evaluation, hydropedological and a geographic approach were analyzed. The relevance of a geomorphological analysis as a cartographic basis for the analysis of vulnerability and risks were emphasized. From the analysis of models, approaches and methodologies discussed the following recommendation is made: to form an interdisciplinary work team, to elaborate a conceptual model according to the site and the working scale and to e, apply and validate the model.

  11. Integrated care: a comprehensive bibliometric analysis and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrated care could not only fix up fragmented health care but also improve the continuity of care and the quality of life. Despite the volume and variety of publications, little is known about how ‘integrated care’ has developed. There is a need for a systematic bibliometric analysis on studying the important features of the integrated care literature.Aim: To investigate the growth pattern, core journals and jurisdictions and identify the key research domains of integrated care.Methods: We searched Medline/PubMed using the search strategy ‘(delivery of health care, integrated [MeSH Terms] OR integrated care [Title/Abstract]’ without time and language limits. Second, we extracted the publishing year, journals, jurisdictions and keywords of the retrieved articles. Finally, descriptive statistical analysis by the Bibliographic Item Co-occurrence Matrix Builder and hierarchical clustering by SPSS were used.Results: As many as 9090 articles were retrieved. Results included: (1 the cumulative numbers of the publications on integrated care rose perpendicularly after 1993; (2 all documents were recorded by 1646 kinds of journals. There were 28 core journals; (3 the USA is the predominant publishing country; and (4 there are six key domains including: the definition/models of integrated care, interdisciplinary patient care team, disease management for chronically ill patients, types of health care organizations and policy, information system integration and legislation/jurisprudence.Discussion and conclusion: Integrated care literature has been most evident in developed countries. International Journal of Integrated Care is highly recommended in this research area. The bibliometric analysis and identification of publication hotspots provides researchers and practitioners with core target journals, as well as an overview of the field for further research in integrated care.

  12. An operator expansion technique for path integral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, I.V.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of path integral analysis in the framework of a power series technique is presented. The method is based on the operator expansion of an exponential. A regular procedure to calculate the correction terms is found. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of Price Variation and Market Integration of Prosopis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Price Variation and Market Integration of Prosopis Africana (guill. ... select five markets based on the presence of traders selling the commodity in the markets ... T- test result showed that Prosopis africana seed trade is profitable and ...

  14. Integrating Data Transformation in Principal Components Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Hu, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular dimension reduction method to reduce the complexity and obtain the informative aspects of high-dimensional datasets. When the data distribution is skewed, data transformation is commonly used prior

  15. Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Maliva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Managed aquifer recharge (MAR technologies can provide a variety of water resources management benefits by increasing the volume of stored water and improving water quality through natural aquifer treatment processes. Implementation of MAR is often hampered by the absence of a clear economic case for the investment to construct and operate the systems. Economic feasibility can be evaluated using cost benefit analysis (CBA, with the challenge of monetizing benefits. The value of water stored or treated by MAR systems can be evaluated by direct and indirect measures of willingness to pay including market price, alternative cost, value marginal product, damage cost avoided, and contingent value methods. CBAs need to incorporate potential risks and uncertainties, such as failure to meet performance objectives. MAR projects involving high value uses, such as potable supply, tend to be economically feasible provided that local hydrogeologic conditions are favorable. They need to have low construction and operational costs for lesser value uses, such as some irrigation. Such systems should therefore be financed by project beneficiaries, but dichotomies may exist between beneficiaries and payers. Hence, MAR projects in developing countries may be economically viable, but external support is often required because of limited local financial resources.

  16. Evaluation of karstic aquifers contribution to streams by the statistical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and water budget balance, have been applied to assess ... Keywords. Recession curve; karstic aquifer; western Mediterranean Basin–Turkey; data analysis; hydrology; modelling. .... on the solution of the general differential equa- tion of the ...

  17. Comparative analysis of the evaluation of the intrinsic vulnerability in carbonate aquifers (Canete Mountain Range, province of Malaga); Analisis comparativo de la evaluacion de la vulnerabilidad intrinseca de acuiferos carbonaticos (Sierra de Canete, provincia de Malaga)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Madrid, A.; Carrasco Cantos, F.; Martinez Navarrete, C.

    2009-07-01

    Groundwater of the carbonate aquifers of Canete Mountain Range constitute a basic source for water supply to different populations. Vulnerability intrinsic assesment is one of the most useful tools for the protection of the groundwater bodies, for this reason, this area has been chosen, to realize a comparative analysis, by means of the use of tools of spatial analysis and technical statistics of a Geographical Information System. In this work, Reduced DRASTIC, COP and RISK method have been applied, due to the fact that they are the methods used by Spain, both first ones, to evaluate the vulnerability of the groundwater bodies in the inter communal basins of the whole national territory, and for BRGM of France, the last one, to approach the carbonate aquifers protection. The obtained results show as the COP and RISK methods, specifics of carbonate aquifers, there show results more according to the characteristics of Canete Mountain Range that the obtained ones with Reduced DRASTIC, which unsaturated zone valuation causes an undervaluing the results of vulnerability obtained. (Author) 35 refs.

  18. Cost benefit analysis of power plant database integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, B.E.; Cimento, A.; Stuart, R.

    1988-01-01

    A cost benefit analysis of plant wide data integration allows utility management to evaluate integration and automation benefits from an economic perspective. With this evaluation, the utility can determine both the quantitative and qualitative savings that can be expected from data integration. The cost benefit analysis is then a planning tool which helps the utility to develop a focused long term implementation strategy that will yield significant near term benefits. This paper presents a flexible cost benefit analysis methodology which is both simple to use and yields accurate, verifiable results. Included in this paper is a list of parameters to consider, a procedure for performing the cost savings analysis, and samples of this procedure when applied to a utility. A case study is presented involving a specific utility where this procedure was applied. Their uses of the cost-benefit analysis are also described

  19. Karst aquifer characterization using geophysical remote sensing of dynamic recharge events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapenthin, R.; Bilek, S. L.; Luhmann, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical monitoring techniques, long used to make significant advances in a wide range of deeper Earth science disciplines, are now being employed to track surficial processes such as landslide, glacier, and river flow. Karst aquifers are another important hydrologic resource that can benefit from geophysical remote sensing, as this monitoring allows for safe, noninvasive karst conduit measurements. Conduit networks are typically poorly constrained, let alone the processes that occur within them. Geophysical monitoring can also provide a regionally integrated analysis to characterize subsurface architecture and to understand the dynamics of flow and recharge processes in karst aquifers. Geophysical signals are likely produced by several processes during recharge events in karst aquifers. For example, pressure pulses occur when water enters conduits that are full of water, and experiments suggest seismic signals result from this process. Furthermore, increasing water pressure in conduits during recharge events increases the load applied to conduit walls, which deforms the surrounding rock to yield measureable surface displacements. Measureable deformation should also occur with mass loading, with subsidence and rebound signals associated with increases and decreases of water mass stored in the aquifer, respectively. Additionally, geophysical signals will likely arise with turbulent flow and pore pressure change in the rock surrounding conduits. Here we present seismic data collected during a pilot study of controlled and natural recharge events in a karst aquifer system near Bear Spring, near Eyota, MN, USA as well as preliminary model results regarding the processes described above. In addition, we will discuss an upcoming field campaign where we will use seismometers, tiltmeters, and GPS instruments to monitor for recharge-induced responses in a FL, USA karst system with existing cave maps, coupling these geophysical observations with hydrologic and

  20. Development of data analysis tool for combat system integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Chun Shin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available System integration is an important element for the construction of naval combat ships. In particular, because impeccable combat system integration together with the sensors and weapons can ensure the combat capability and survivability of the ship, the integrated performance of the combat system should be verified and validated whether or not it fulfills the requirements of the end user. In order to conduct systematic verification and validation, a data analysis tool is requisite. This paper suggests the Data Extraction, Recording and Analysis Tool (DERAT for the data analysis of the integrated performance of the combat system, including the functional definition, architecture and effectiveness of the DERAT by presenting the test results.

  1. Evaluation of modeling approaches to simulate contaminant transport in a fractured limestone aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Broholm, Mette Martina

    in fractured limestone aquifers. The model comparison is conducted for a contaminated site in Denmark, where a plume of dissolved PCE has migrated through a fractured limestone aquifer. Field data includes information on spill history, distribution of the contaminant (multilevel sampling), geology...... and hydrogeology. To describe the geology and fracture system, data from borehole logs and cores was combined with an analysis of heterogeneities and fractures from a nearby excavation and pump test data. We present how field data is integrated into the different model concepts. A challenge in the use of field...... and remediation strategies. Each model is compared with field data, considering both model fit and model suitability. Results show a considerable difference between the approaches, and that it is important to select the right one for the actual modeling purpose. The comparison with data showed how much...

  2. Integrated systems analysis of the PIUS reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, F.; Kroeger, P.; Higgins, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1993-11-01

    Results are presented of a systems failure analysis of the PIUS plant systems that are used during normal reactor operation and postulated accidents. This study was performed to provide the NRC with an understanding of the behavior of the plant. The study applied two diverse failure identification methods, Failure Modes Effects & Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and Hazards & Operability (HAZOP) to the plant systems, supported by several deterministic analyses. Conventional PRA methods were also used along with a scheme for classifying events by initiator frequency and combinations of failures. Principal results of this study are: (a) an extensive listing of potential event sequences, grouped in categories that can be used by the NRC, (b) identification of support systems that are important to safety, and (c) identification of key operator actions.

  3. Integrated systems analysis of the PIUS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, F.; Kroeger, P.; Higgins, J.

    1993-11-01

    Results are presented of a systems failure analysis of the PIUS plant systems that are used during normal reactor operation and postulated accidents. This study was performed to provide the NRC with an understanding of the behavior of the plant. The study applied two diverse failure identification methods, Failure Modes Effects ampersand Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and Hazards ampersand Operability (HAZOP) to the plant systems, supported by several deterministic analyses. Conventional PRA methods were also used along with a scheme for classifying events by initiator frequency and combinations of failures. Principal results of this study are: (a) an extensive listing of potential event sequences, grouped in categories that can be used by the NRC, (b) identification of support systems that are important to safety, and (c) identification of key operator actions

  4. Integrative data analysis of male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edsgard, Stefan Daniel

    of such data in conjunction with data from publicly available repositories. This thesis presents an introduction to disease genetics and molecular systems biology, followed by four studies that each provide detailed clues to the etiology of male reproductive disorders. Finally, a fifth study illustrates......-wide association data with respect to copy number variation and show that the aggregated effect of rare variants can influence the risk for testicular cancer. Paper V provides an example of the application of RNA-Seq for expression analysis of a species with an unsequenced genome. We analysed the plant...... of this thesis is the identification of the molecular basis of male reproductive disorders, with a special focus on testicular cancer. To this end, clinical samples were characterized by microarraybased transcription and genomic variation assays and molecular entities were identified by computational analysis...

  5. An integrated platform for biomolecule interaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Chia-Ming; Tsai, Pei-I.; Chou, Shin-Ting; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2013-02-01

    We developed a new metrology platform which can detect real-time changes in both a phase-interrogation mode and intensity mode of a SPR (surface plasmon resonance). We integrated a SPR and ellipsometer to a biosensor chip platform to create a new biomolecular interaction measurement mechanism. We adopted a conductive ITO (indium-tinoxide) film to the bio-sensor platform chip to expand the dynamic range and improve measurement accuracy. The thickness of the conductive film and the suitable voltage constants were found to enhance performance. A circularly polarized ellipsometry configuration was incorporated into the newly developed platform to measure the label-free interactions of recombinant human C-reactive protein (CRP) with immobilized biomolecule target monoclonal human CRP antibody at various concentrations. CRP was chosen as it is a cardiovascular risk biomarker and is an acute phase reactant as well as a specific prognostic indicator for inflammation. We found that the sensitivity of a phaseinterrogation SPR is predominantly dependent on the optimization of the sample incidence angle. The effect of the ITO layer effective index under DC and AC effects as well as an optimal modulation were experimentally performed and discussed. Our experimental results showed that the modulated dynamic range for phase detection was 10E-2 RIU based on a current effect and 10E-4 RIU based on a potential effect of which a 0.55 (°/RIU) measurement was found by angular-interrogation. The performance of our newly developed metrology platform was characterized to have a higher sensitivity and less dynamic range when compared to a traditional full-field measurement system.

  6. An analysis of 3D particle path integration algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmofal, D.L.; Haimes, R.

    1996-01-01

    Several techniques for the numerical integration of particle paths in steady and unsteady vector (velocity) fields are analyzed. Most of the analysis applies to unsteady vector fields, however, some results apply to steady vector field integration. Multistep, multistage, and some hybrid schemes are considered. It is shown that due to initialization errors, many unsteady particle path integration schemes are limited to third-order accuracy in time. Multistage schemes require at least three times more internal data storage than multistep schemes of equal order. However, for timesteps within the stability bounds, multistage schemes are generally more accurate. A linearized analysis shows that the stability of these integration algorithms are determined by the eigenvalues of the local velocity tensor. Thus, the accuracy and stability of the methods are interpreted with concepts typically used in critical point theory. This paper shows how integration schemes can lead to erroneous classification of critical points when the timestep is finite and fixed. For steady velocity fields, we demonstrate that timesteps outside of the relative stability region can lead to similar integration errors. From this analysis, guidelines for accurate timestep sizing are suggested for both steady and unsteady flows. In particular, using simulation data for the unsteady flow around a tapered cylinder, we show that accurate particle path integration requires timesteps which are at most on the order of the physical timescale of the flow

  7. Accounting for pore water pressure and confined aquifers in assessing the stability of slopes: a Limit Equilibrium analysis carried out through the Minimum Lithostatic Deviation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The model we introduce is an implementation of the Minimum Lithostatic Deviation (MLD) method, developed by Tinti and Manucci (Tinti and Manucci 2006; 2008), that makes use of the limit equilibrium (LE) theory to estimate the stability of a slope. The main purpose here is to analyse the role of a confined aquifer on the value of the Safety Factor (F), the parameter that in the LE is used to determine if a slope is stable or unstable. The classical LE methods treat unconfined aquifers by including the water pore pressure in the Mohr-Coulomb failure formula: since the water decreases the friction shear strength, the soil above the sliding surface turns out to be more prone to instability. In case of a confined aquifer, however, due to a presence of impermeable layers, the water is not free to flow into the matrix of the overlying soil. We consider here the assumption of a permeable soil sliding over an impermeable layer, which is an occurrence that is found in several known landslide cases (e.g. Person, 2008; Strout and Tjeltja, 2008; Morgan et al., 2010 for offshore slides; and Palladino and Peck, 1972; Miller and Sias, 1998; Jiao et al. 2005; Paparo et al., 2013 for slopes in proximity of artificial or natural water basins) where clay beds form the potential sliding surface: the water, confined below, pushes along these layers and acts on the sliding body as an external bottom load. We modify the MLD method equations in order to take into account the load due to a confined aquifer and apply the new model to the Vajont case, where many have hypothesised the contribution of a confined aquifer to the failure. Our calculations show that the rain load i) infiltrating directly into the soil body and ii) penetrating into the confined aquifer below the clay layers, in addition with the lowering of the reservoir level, were key factors of destabilization of the Mt Toc flank and caused the disastrous landslide.

  8. Integrating human factors into process hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, S.G.; Loewe, K.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive process hazard analysis (PHA) needs to address human factors. This paper describes an approach that systematically identifies human error in process design and the human factors that influence its production and propagation. It is deductive in nature and therefore considers human error as a top event. The combinations of different factors that may lead to this top event are analysed. It is qualitative in nature and is used in combination with other PHA methods. The method has an advantage because it does not look at the operator error as the sole contributor to the human failure within a system but a combination of all underlying factors

  9. Integrative Genomic Analysis of Complex traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehsani, Ali Reza

    In the last decade rapid development in biotechnologies has made it possible to extract extensive information about practically all levels of biological organization. An ever-increasing number of studies are reporting miltilayered datasets on the entire DNA sequence, transceroption, protein...... expression, and metabolite abundance of more and more populations in a multitude of invironments. However, a solid model for including all of this complex information in one analysis, to disentangle genetic variation and the underlying genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases, has not yet been...

  10. Project analysis and integration economic analyses summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    An economic-analysis summary was presented for the manufacture of crystalline-silicon modules involving silicon ingot/sheet, growth, slicing, cell manufacture, and module assembly. Economic analyses provided: useful quantitative aspects for complex decision-making to the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project; yardsticks for design and performance to industry; and demonstration of how to evaluate and understand the worth of research and development both to JPL and other government agencies and programs. It was concluded that future research and development funds for photovoltaics must be provided by the Federal Government because the solar industry today does not reap enough profits from its present-day sales of photovoltaic equipment.

  11. Integrative analysis of metabolomics and transcriptomics data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Bak, Søren; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    ) measurements from the same samples, to identify genes controlling the production of metabolites. Due to the high dimensionality of both LC-MS and DNA microarray data, dimension reduction and variable selection are key elements of the analysis. Our proposed approach starts by identifying the basis functions......The abundance of high-dimensional measurements in the form of gene expression and mass spectroscopy calls for models to elucidate the underlying biological system. For widely studied organisms like yeast, it is possible to incorporate prior knowledge from a variety of databases, an approach used...... ("building blocks") that constitute the output from a mass spectrometry experiment. Subsequently, the weights of these basis functions are related to the observations from the corresponding gene expression data in order to identify which genes are associated with specific patterns seen in the metabolite data...

  12. Arsenic levels in groundwater aquifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miodrag Jelic

    resistance (ρ); dielectric constant (ε); magnetic permeability (η); electrochemical activity ..... comprises grey sands of different particle size distribution ..... groundwater: testing pollution mechanisms for sedimentary aquifers in. Bangladesh.

  13. Vertically Integrated Seismological Analysis II : Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, N. S.; Russell, S.; Sudderth, E.

    2009-12-01

    Methods for automatically associating detected waveform features with hypothesized seismic events, and localizing those events, are a critical component of efforts to verify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). As outlined in our companion abstract, we have developed a hierarchical model which views detection, association, and localization as an integrated probabilistic inference problem. In this abstract, we provide more details on the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods used to solve this inference task. MCMC generates samples from a posterior distribution π(x) over possible worlds x by defining a Markov chain whose states are the worlds x, and whose stationary distribution is π(x). In the Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) method, transitions in the Markov chain are constructed in two steps. First, given the current state x, a candidate next state x‧ is generated from a proposal distribution q(x‧ | x), which may be (more or less) arbitrary. Second, the transition to x‧ is not automatic, but occurs with an acceptance probability—α(x‧ | x) = min(1, π(x‧)q(x | x‧)/π(x)q(x‧ | x)). The seismic event model outlined in our companion abstract is quite similar to those used in multitarget tracking, for which MCMC has proved very effective. In this model, each world x is defined by a collection of events, a list of properties characterizing those events (times, locations, magnitudes, and types), and the association of each event to a set of observed detections. The target distribution π(x) = P(x | y), the posterior distribution over worlds x given the observed waveform data y at all stations. Proposal distributions then implement several types of moves between worlds. For example, birth moves create new events; death moves delete existing events; split moves partition the detections for an event into two new events; merge moves combine event pairs; swap moves modify the properties and assocations for pairs of events. Importantly, the rules for

  14. The study of using earth tide response of groundwater level and rainfall recharge to identify groundwater aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W. J.; Hsu, C. H.; Chang, L. C.; Chiang, C. J.; Wang, Y. S.; Lu, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological framework is the most important basis for groundwater analysis and simulation. Conventionally, the core drill is a most commonly adopted skill to acquire the core's data with the help of other research methods to artificially determine the result. Now, with the established groundwater station network, there are a lot of groundwater level information available. Groundwater level is an integrated presentation of the hydrogeological framework and the external pumping and recharge system. Therefore, how to identify the hydrogeological framework from a large number of groundwater level data is an important subject. In this study, the frequency analysis method and rainfall recharge mechanism were used to identify the aquifer where the groundwater level's response frequency and amplitude react to the earth tide. As the earth tide change originates from the gravity caused by the paths of sun and moon, it leads to soil stress and strain changes, which further affects the groundwater level. The scale of groundwater level's change varies with the influence of aquifer pressure systems such as confined or unconfined aquifers. This method has been applied to the identification of aquifers in the Cho-Shui River Alluvial Fan. The results of the identification are compared to the records of core drill and they both are quite consistent. It is shown that the identification methods developed in this study can considerably contribute to the identification of hydrogeological framework.

  15. Development of safety analysis technology for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Suk K.; Song, J. H.; Chung, Y. J. and others

    1999-03-01

    Inherent safety features and safety system characteristics of the SMART integral reactor are investigated in this study. Performance and safety of the SMART conceptual design have been evaluated and confirmed through the performance and safety analyses using safety analysis system codes as well as a preliminary performance and safety analysis methodology. SMART design base events and their acceptance criteria are identified to develop a preliminary PIRT for the SMART integral reactor. Using the preliminary PIRT, a set of experimental program for the thermal hydraulic separate effect tests and the integral effect tests was developed for the thermal hydraulic model development and the system code validation. Safety characteristics as well as the safety issues of the integral reactor has been identified during the study, which will be used to resolve the safety issues and guide the regulatory criteria for the integral reactor. The results of the performance and safety analyses performed during the study were used to feedback for the SMART conceptual design. The performance and safety analysis code systems as well as the preliminary safety analysis methodology developed in this study will be validated as the SMART design evolves. The performance and safety analysis technology developed during the study will be utilized for the SMART basic design development. (author)

  16. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of...

  17. Overcoming barriers to integrating economic analysis into risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sandra

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory risk analysis is designed to provide decisionmakers with a clearer understanding of how policies are likely to affect risk. The systems that produce risk are biological, physical, and social and economic. As a result, risk analysis is an inherently interdisciplinary task. Yet in practice, risk analysis has been interdisciplinary in only limited ways. Risk analysis could provide more accurate assessments of risk if there were better integration of economics and other social sciences into risk assessment itself. This essay examines how discussions about risk analysis policy have influenced the roles of various disciplines in risk analysis. It explores ways in which integrated bio/physical-economic modeling could contribute to more accurate assessments of risk. It reviews examples of the kind of integrated economics-bio/physical modeling that could be used to enhance risk assessment. The essay ends with a discussion of institutional barriers to greater integration of economic modeling into risk assessment and provides suggestions on how these might be overcome. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. A network analysis of leadership theory : the infancy of integration.

    OpenAIRE

    Meuser, J. D.; Gardner, W. L.; Dinh, J. E.; Hu, J.; Liden, R. C.; Lord, R. G.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the status of leadership theory integration by reviewing 14 years of published research (2000 through 2013) in 10 top journals (864 articles). The authors of these articles examined 49 leadership approaches/theories, and in 293 articles, 3 or more of these leadership approaches were included in their investigations. Focusing on these articles that reflected relatively extensive integration, we applied an inductive approach and used graphic network analysis as a guide for drawi...

  19. Integrated analysis of oxide nuclear fuel sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.; Kuzmin, R.; Tenishev, A.; Timoshin, I.; Khlunov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Petrov, I.

    2011-01-01

    Dilatometric and thermal-gravimetric investigations have been carried out for the sintering process of oxide nuclear fuel in gaseous Ar - 8% H 2 atmosphere at temperatures up to 1600 0 C. The pressed compacts were fabricated under real production conditions of the OAO MSZ with application of two different technologies, so called 'dry' and 'wet' technologies. Effects of the grain size growth after the heating to different temperatures were observed. In order to investigate the effects produced by rate of heating on properties of sintered fuel pellets, the heating rates were varied from 1 to 8 0 C per minute. Time of isothermal overexposure at maximal temperature (1600 0 C) was about 8 hours. Real production conditions were imitated. The results showed that the sintering process of the fuel pellets produced by two technologies differs. The samples sintered under different heating rates were studied with application of scanning electronic microscopy analysis for determination of mean grain size. A simulation of heating profile for industrial furnaces was performed to reduce the beam cycles and estimate the effects of variation of the isothermal overexposure temperatures. Based on this data, an optimization of the sintering conditions was performed in operations terms of OAO MSZ. (authors)

  20. Integrated Network Analysis and Effective Tools in Plant Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1 network visualization tools, (2 pathway analyses, (3 genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4 the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms.

  1. Momentum integral network method for thermal-hydraulic transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new momentum integral network method has been developed, and tested in the MINET computer code. The method was developed in order to facilitate the transient analysis of complex fluid flow and heat transfer networks, such as those found in the balance of plant of power generating facilities. The method employed in the MINET code is a major extension of a momentum integral method reported by Meyer. Meyer integrated the momentum equation over several linked nodes, called a segment, and used a segment average pressure, evaluated from the pressures at both ends. Nodal mass and energy conservation determined nodal flows and enthalpies, accounting for fluid compression and thermal expansion

  2. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrove, M., E-mail: mmusgrov@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Opsahl, S.P. [U.S. Geological Survey, 5563 DeZavala, Ste. 290, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Mahler, B.J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Herrington, C. [City of Austin Watershed Protection Department, Austin, TX 78704 (United States); Sample, T.L. [U.S. Geological Survey, 19241 David Memorial Dr., Ste. 180, Conroe, TX 77385 (United States); Banta, J.R. [U.S. Geological Survey, 5563 DeZavala, Ste. 290, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO{sub 3}{sup −} in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO{sub 3}{sup −} stable isotopes (δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 18}O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO{sub 3}{sup −}. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO{sub 3}{sup −} contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −} than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates

  3. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, M.; Opsahl, S.P.; Mahler, B.J.; Herrington, C.; Sample, T.L.; Banta, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO 3 − ) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO 3 − in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO 3 − stable isotopes (δ 15 N and δ 18 O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO 3 − concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO 3 − concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO 3 − concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO 3 − . These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO 3 − contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO 3 − than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a

  4. Study on integrated design and analysis platform of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Dongsen; Gao Zuying; Zhou Zhiwei

    2001-01-01

    Many calculation software have been developed to nuclear system's design and safety analysis, such as structure design software, fuel design and manage software, thermal hydraulic analysis software, severe accident simulation software, etc. This study integrates those software to a platform, develops visual modeling tool for Retran, NGFM90. And in this platform, a distribution calculation method is also provided for couple calculation between different software. The study will improve the design and analysis of NPP

  5. Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2000-01-01

    SOLVE, Inc. These best fit theoretical response curves are based on a transmissivity of 24,000 ft2/d or a hydraulic conductivity of about 600 ft/d, a storage coefficient of 0.05, a specific yield of 0.42, and vertical hydraulic conductivity equal to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The theoretical type curves match the observed data fairly closely at Wells A and B until about 2,500 minutes and 1,000 minutes, respectively, after pumping began. The increasing rate of drawdown after these breaks is an indication that a no-flow boundary (an area with much lower hydraulic conductivity) likely was encountered and that Wells A and B may be completed in a part of the Elm aquifer with limited hydraulic connection to the rest of the aquifer. Additional analysis indicates that if different assumptions regarding the screened interval for Well B and aquifer anisotropy are used, type curves can be calculated that fit the observed data using a lower specific yield that is within the commonly accepted range. When the screened interval for Well B was reduced to 5 ft near the top of the aquifer and horizontal hydraulic conductivity was set to 20 times vertical hydraulic conductivity, the type curves calculated using a specific yield of 0.1 and a transmissivity of 30,200 ft2/d also matched the observed data from Wells A and B fairly well. A version of the Theim equilibrium equation was used to calculate the theoretical drawdown in an idealized unconfined aquifer when a perfectly efficient well is being pumped at a constant rate. These calculations were performed for a range of pumping rates, drawdowns at the wells, and distances between wells that might be found in a production well field in the Elm aquifer. Although the aquifer test indicates that hydraulic conductivity near the well may be adequate to support a production well, the comparison of drawdown and recovery curves indicates the possibility that heterogeneities may limit the productive capacity of specific loca

  6. Groundwater availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  7. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of water conservation policies in a depleting aquifer:A dynamic analysis of the Kansas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research analyzes two groundwater conservation policies in the Kansas High Plains located within the Ogallala aquifer: 1) cost-share assistance to increase irrigation efficiency; and 2) incentive payments to convert irrigated crop production to dryland crop production. To compare the cost-effec...

  8. Integrated failure probability estimation based on structural integrity analysis and failure data: Natural gas pipeline case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundulis, Gintautas; Žutautaitė, Inga; Janulionis, Remigijus; Ušpuras, Eugenijus; Rimkevičius, Sigitas; Eid, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present an approach as an overall framework for the estimation of the failure probability of pipelines based on: the results of the deterministic-probabilistic structural integrity analysis (taking into account loads, material properties, geometry, boundary conditions, crack size, and defected zone thickness), the corrosion rate, the number of defects and failure data (involved into the model via application of Bayesian method). The proposed approach is applied to estimate the failure probability of a selected part of the Lithuanian natural gas transmission network. The presented approach for the estimation of integrated failure probability is a combination of several different analyses allowing us to obtain: the critical crack's length and depth, the failure probability of the defected zone thickness, dependency of the failure probability on the age of the natural gas transmission pipeline. A model's uncertainty analysis and uncertainty propagation analysis are performed, as well. - Highlights: • Degradation mechanisms of natural gas transmission pipelines. • Fracture mechanic analysis of the pipe with crack. • Stress evaluation of the pipe with critical crack. • Deterministic-probabilistic structural integrity analysis of gas pipeline. • Integrated estimation of pipeline failure probability by Bayesian method.

  9. Direct integration multiple collision integral transport analysis method for high energy fusion neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    A new analysis method specially suited for the inherent difficulties of fusion neutronics was developed to provide detailed studies of the fusion neutron transport physics. These studies should provide a better understanding of the limitations and accuracies of typical fusion neutronics calculations. The new analysis method is based on the direct integration of the integral form of the neutron transport equation and employs a continuous energy formulation with the exact treatment of the energy angle kinematics of the scattering process. In addition, the overall solution is analyzed in terms of uncollided, once-collided, and multi-collided solution components based on a multiple collision treatment. Furthermore, the numerical evaluations of integrals use quadrature schemes that are based on the actual dependencies exhibited in the integrands. The new DITRAN computer code was developed on the Cyber 205 vector supercomputer to implement this direct integration multiple-collision fusion neutronics analysis. Three representative fusion reactor models were devised and the solutions to these problems were studied to provide suitable choices for the numerical quadrature orders as well as the discretized solution grid and to understand the limitations of the new analysis method. As further verification and as a first step in assessing the accuracy of existing fusion-neutronics calculations, solutions obtained using the new analysis method were compared to typical multigroup discrete ordinates calculations

  10. IMG: the integrated microbial genomes database and comparative analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Chen, I-Min A.; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chu, Ken; Szeto, Ernest; Grechkin, Yuri; Ratner, Anna; Jacob, Biju; Huang, Jinghua; Williams, Peter; Huntemann, Marcel; Anderson, Iain; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system serves as a community resource for comparative analysis of publicly available genomes in a comprehensive integrated context. IMG integrates publicly available draft and complete genomes from all three domains of life with a large number of plasmids and viruses. IMG provides tools and viewers for analyzing and reviewing the annotations of genes and genomes in a comparative context. IMG's data content and analytical capabilities have been continuously extended through regular updates since its first release in March 2005. IMG is available at http://img.jgi.doe.gov. Companion IMG systems provide support for expert review of genome annotations (IMG/ER: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/er), teaching courses and training in microbial genome analysis (IMG/EDU: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/edu) and analysis of genomes related to the Human Microbiome Project (IMG/HMP: http://www.hmpdacc-resources.org/img_hmp). PMID:22194640

  11. Groundwater-related Land Deformation over the Mega Aquifer System in Saudi Arabia: Inferences from InSAR, GRACE, Earthquake records, Field, and Spatial Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Sefry, S.; Alharbi, T.; Alharbi, H.; Gebremichael, E.

    2017-12-01

    Land deformational features (subsidence, and earth fissures, etc.) are being reported from many locations over the Lower Mega Aquifer System (LMAS) in the central and northern parts of Saudi Arabia. We applied an integrated approach (remote sensing, geodesy, GIS, geology, hydrogeology, and geotechnical) to identify nature, intensity, spatial distribution, and factors controlling the observed deformation. A three-fold approach was adopted to accomplish the following: (1) investigate, identify, and verify the land deformation through fieldwork; (2) assess the spatial and temporal distribution of land deformation and quantify deformation rates using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) methods (period: 2003 to 2012); (3) generate a GIS database to host all relevant data and derived products (remote sensing, geology, geotechnical, GPS, groundwater extraction rates, and water levels, etc.) and to correlate these spatial and temporal datasets in search of causal effects. The following observations are consistent with deformational features being caused by excessive groundwater extraction: (1) distribution of deformational features correlated spatially and temporally with increased agricultural development and groundwater extraction, and with the decline in groundwater levels and storage; (2) earthquake events (1.5 - 5.5 M) increased from one event at the beginning of the agricultural development program in 1980 (average annual extraction [ANE]: 1-2 km³/yr), to 13 events per year between 1995 to 2005, the decade that witnessed the largest expansion in groundwater extraction (ANE: >6.4 km³) and land reclamation using groundwater resources; and (3) earthquake epicenters and the deformation sites are found largely within areas bound by the Kahf fault system suggesting that faults play a key role in the deformation phenomenon. Findings from the PSI investigation revealed high, yet irregularly distributed, subsidence

  12. Using Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW to Characterize Aquifer System of Northwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    By integrating Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW2005, an optimizing tool is developed to characterize the aquifer system of Region II, Northwest Florida. The history and the newest available observation data of the aquifer system is fitted automatically by using the numerical model c...

  13. Using Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW to Characterize Aquifer System of Northwest Florida (Published Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    By integrating Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW2005, an optimizing tool is developed to characterize the aquifer system of Region II, Northwest Florida. The history and the newest available observation data of the aquifer system is fitted automatically by using the numerical model c...

  14. Geochemical studies of backfill aggregates, lake sediment cores and the Hueco Bolson Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapalia, Anita

    Aquifer that an important sources of water in the El Paso/Cd. Juraez metroplex. To delineate the boundary between fresh and brackish water from the northern Hueco Bolson Aquifer, we utilize an integrative geochemical, geophysical, and sedimentological approach. The goal of this study is to use geophysical well-log analysis and the water chemical analysis for identifying the changes in the quality of the groundwater. A detailed microgravity survey is utilized to explore the subsurface geological structures that control the conduits and/or barriers of groundwater flow. A detailed geochemical analysis of aquifer samples provide salinity of groundwater that will complement to the subsurface structures obtained from the geophysical study. This fundamental research in developing methods from an integrated approach to estimate aquifer quality can be used as an analog for similar studies in other arid regions.

  15. New methodology for aquifer influx status classification for single wells in a gas reservoir with aquifer support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For gas reservoirs with strong bottom or edge aquifer support, the most important thing is avoiding aquifer breakthrough in a gas well. Water production in gas wells does not only result in processing problems in surface facilities, but it also explicitly reduces well productivity and reservoir recovery. There are a lot of studies on the prediction of water breakthrough time, but they are not completely practicable due to reservoir heterogeneity. This paper provides a new method together with three diagnostic curves to identify aquifer influx status for single gas wells; the aforementioned curves are based on well production and pressure data. The whole production period of a gas well can be classified into three periods based on the diagnostic curves: no aquifer influx period, early aquifer influx period, and middle-late aquifer influx period. This new method has been used for actual gas well analysis to accurately identify gas well aquifer influx status and the water breakthrough sequence of all wells in the same gas field. Additionally, the evaluation results are significantly beneficial for well production rate optimization and development of an effective gas field.

  16. Integrative sparse principal component analysis of gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengque; Fan, Xinyan; Fang, Kuangnan; Zhang, Qingzhao; Ma, Shuangge

    2017-12-01

    In the analysis of gene expression data, dimension reduction techniques have been extensively adopted. The most popular one is perhaps the PCA (principal component analysis). To generate more reliable and more interpretable results, the SPCA (sparse PCA) technique has been developed. With the "small sample size, high dimensionality" characteristic of gene expression data, the analysis results generated from a single dataset are often unsatisfactory. Under contexts other than dimension reduction, integrative analysis techniques, which jointly analyze the raw data of multiple independent datasets, have been developed and shown to outperform "classic" meta-analysis and other multidatasets techniques and single-dataset analysis. In this study, we conduct integrative analysis by developing the iSPCA (integrative SPCA) method. iSPCA achieves the selection and estimation of sparse loadings using a group penalty. To take advantage of the similarity across datasets and generate more accurate results, we further impose contrasted penalties. Different penalties are proposed to accommodate different data conditions. Extensive simulations show that iSPCA outperforms the alternatives under a wide spectrum of settings. The analysis of breast cancer and pancreatic cancer data further shows iSPCA's satisfactory performance. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  17. Krypton-81, Helium-4 and Carbon-14 based estimation of groundwater ages in the Guarani Aquifer System: implications for the He-4 geochronometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Chang, H. K.; Gastmans, D.; Sturchio, N. C.; Araguas, L.; Matsumoto, T.; Lu, Z.; Jiang, W.; Yokochi, R.; Mueller, P.

    2012-12-01

    Characterization of aquifer systems remains a challenge, particularly for large aquifers with limited hydrogeological information. Groundwater age is an important parameter that integrates aquifer recharge and flow dynamics and provides the ability to reliably constrain groundwater models. We have used multiple isotope tracers (C-14, He-4, and Kr-81) to estimate the age of groundwater along a 400-km transect in the north-eastern part of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in Brazil. Carbon-14 measurements were made with an AMS, He-4 by mass-spectrometry, and Kr-81 by atom trap trace analysis (ATTA). Groundwater samples were collected along a groundwater flow path that runs from the outcrop area in the east to the deep confined section in the west, where the aquifer is up to about 1000 m deep. Present groundwater recharge occurs in the outcrop areas, as indicated by the presence of tritium and modern 14C. Carbon-14 activities reach values below detection limit at relatively short distances (a few km) from the outcrop. Abundance of 81Kr (half-life 229 Ka), in samples free of C-14, decreases from 0.81±0.11 (expressed as (81Kr/Kr)sample/(81Kr/Kr)air) in the east to 0.18±0.03 in the western-most sample (estimated age = 566±60 ka). Measured 4He-excess is far above that expected from in-situ production rates in sandstone aquifers and overestimates the age by several orders of magnitude. We used 81Kr ages to calibrate the 4He geochronometer which indicates a basal flux of about 2.8 x10-11 cm3STP He/cm2/a. This flux is lower than most estimates of basal flux in previous studies and will allow a wider use of 4He for groundwater dating and aquifer characterization.

  18. AQUIFER IN AJAOKUTA, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-08

    Mar 8, 2005 ... To establish the feasibility of water supply in a basement complex area ofAjaokuta, Southwestern Nigeria, pumping test results were used to investigate the storage properties and groundwater potential of the aquifer. The aquifer system consists of weathered and weathered/fractured zone of decomposed ...

  19. Integration of seismic-reflection and well data to assess the potential impact of stratigraphic and structural features on sustainable water supply from the Floridan aquifer system, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Broward County water managers commenced a 3.5-year cooperative study in July 2012 to refine the geologic and hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) in Broward County. A lack of advanced stratigraphic knowledge of the physical system and structural geologic anomalies (faults and fractures originating from tectonics and karst-collapse structures) within the FAS pose a risk to the sustainable management of the resource. The principal objective of the study is to better define the regional stratigraphic and structural setting of the FAS in Broward County. The objective will be achieved through the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of new seismic-reflection data along several canals in Broward County. The interpretation includes integration of the new seismic-reflection data with existing seismic-reflection profiles along Hillsboro Canal in Broward County and within northeast Miami-Dade County, as well as with data from nearby FAS wellbores. The scope of the study includes mapping the geologic, hydrogeologic, and seismic-reflection framework of the FAS, and identifying stratigraphic and structural characteristics that could either facilitate or preclude the sustainable use of the FAS as an alternate water supply or a treated effluent repository. In addition, the investigation offers an opportunity to: (1) improve existing groundwater flow models, (2) enhance the understanding of the sensitivity of the groundwater system to well-field development and upconing of saline fluids, and (3) support site selection for future FAS projects, such as Class I wells that would inject treated effluent into the deep Boulder Zone.

  20. Train integrity detection risk analysis based on PRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuan

    2018-04-01

    GNSS based Train Integrity Monitoring System (TIMS) is an effective and low-cost detection scheme for train integrity detection. However, as an external auxiliary system of CTCS, GNSS may be influenced by external environments, such as uncertainty of wireless communication channels, which may lead to the failure of communication and positioning. In order to guarantee the reliability and safety of train operation, a risk analysis method of train integrity detection based on PRISM is proposed in this article. First, we analyze the risk factors (in GNSS communication process and the on-board communication process) and model them. Then, we evaluate the performance of the model in PRISM based on the field data. Finally, we discuss how these risk factors influence the train integrity detection process.

  1. Completion of Kr-81 and Kr-85 Analysis Development for Hydrogeology and Testing its Validity by Assessing Aquifer Recharge Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thonnard, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    The overall objective was to complete the development of a RIMS-based analytical technique to determine the concentration of the rare krypton radioisotopes, 81Kr and 85Kr, in samples of interest to the geoscience and planetary science community The key to RIMS is the use of tunable lasers to selectively and efficiently excite by resonant photon absorption atomic states unique to the chosen element. Ionization of the specified element can then occur while excluding all other constituents of the sample, bringing detection limits down to the single-atom level. Combining RIMS with several steps of isotopic enrichment makes detection of a rare isotope, such as 81Kr, feasible. A complete process for groundwater samples consists of starting with (1) collecting the groundwater sample, (2) degassing the water sample, (3) separating Kr from the recovered gases, (4 and 5) two isotopic enrichments reducing interfering isotopes by >109, and (6) detecting the rare krypton isotope using RIMS in a time-of-flight system. Required water sample size is 20 liters for 81Kr and 10 to 3 liters for 85Kr. Weak links in the above steps were to be identified and rectified. Most of the troublesome issues were resolved, but unfortunately, two key difficulties could not be resolved with the available resources, so the overall, final goal of completing a suite of measurements was not achieved. In spite of this, valuable collaborations were established to demonstrate the value of 81Kr and 85Kr measurements in two critical applications, the future site of a nuclear waste repository, where high efficiency 81Kr measurements would allow groundwater dating of low-yield formations, and a multi-method analysis of potential contamination inflow into a large municipal water system, where the simplicity of interpretation of 85Kr measurements could become a valuable future interpretive tool. Therefore, samples were collected anyway, and processing started using the working parts of the method, so that

  2. Integrating petrography, mineralogy and hydrochemistry to constrain the influence and distribution of groundwater contributions to baseflow in poorly productive aquifers: insights from Gortinlieve catchment, Co. Donegal, NW Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, John; Chelliah, Merlyn; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Flynn, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    Identifying groundwater contributions to baseflow forms an essential part of surface water body characterisation. The Gortinlieve catchment (5 km(2)) comprises a headwater stream network of the Carrigans River, itself a tributary of the River Foyle, NW Ireland. The bedrock comprises poorly productive metasediments that are characterised by fracture porosity. We present the findings of a multi-disciplinary study that integrates new hydrochemical and mineralogical investigations with existing hydraulic, geophysical and structural data to identify the scales of groundwater flow and the nature of groundwater/bedrock interaction (chemical denudation). At the catchment scale, the development of deep weathering profiles is controlled by NE-SW regional scale fracture zones associated with mountain building during the Grampian orogeny. In-situ chemical denudation of mineral phases is controlled by micro- to meso-scale fractures related to Alpine compression during Palaeocene to Oligocene times. The alteration of primary muscovite, chlorite (clinochlore) and albite along the surfaces of these small-scale fractures has resulted in the precipitation of illite, montmorillonite and illite-montmorillonite clay admixtures. The interconnected but discontinuous nature of these small-scale structures highlights the role of larger scale faults and fissures in the supply and transportation of weathering solutions to/from the sites of mineral weathering. The dissolution of primarily mineral phases releases the major ions Mg, Ca and HCO3 that are shown to subsequently form the chemical makeup of groundwaters. Borehole groundwater and stream baseflow hydrochemical data are used to constrain the depths of groundwater flow pathways influencing the chemistry of surface waters throughout the stream profile. The results show that it is predominantly the lower part of the catchment, which receives inputs from catchment/regional scale groundwater flow, that is found to contribute to the

  3. Argentinean integrated small reactor design and scale economy analysis of integrated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, P. C.; Bergallo, J. E.; Ishida, M. V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design of CAREM, which is Argentinean integrated small reactor project and the scale economy analysis results of integrated reactor. CAREM project consists on the development, design and construction of a small nuclear power plant. CAREM is an advanced reactor conceived with new generation design solutions and standing on the large experience accumulated in the safe operation of Light Water Reactors. The CAREM is an indirect cycle reactor with some distinctive and characteristic features that greatly simplify the reactor and also contribute to a highly level of safety: integrated primary cooling system, self pressurized, primary cooling by natural circulation and safety system relying on passive features. For a fully doupled economic evaluation of integrated reactors done by IREP (Integrated Reactor Evaluation Program) code transferred to IAEA, CAREM have been used as a reference point. The results shows that integrated reactors become competitive with power larger than 200MWe with Argentinean cheapest electricity option. Due to reactor pressure vessel construction limit, low pressure drop steam generator are used to reach power output of 200MWe for natural circulation. For forced circulation, 300MWe can be achieved. (author)

  4. Development of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Integrated with Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Nagpal, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    An effort has been initiated to integrate manufacturing process simulations with probabilistic structural analyses in order to capture the important impacts of manufacturing uncertainties on component stress levels and life. Two physics-based manufacturing process models (one for powdered metal forging and the other for annular deformation resistance welding) have been linked to the NESSUS structural analysis code. This paper describes the methodology developed to perform this integration including several examples. Although this effort is still underway, particularly for full integration of a probabilistic analysis, the progress to date has been encouraging and a software interface that implements the methodology has been developed. The purpose of this paper is to report this preliminary development.

  5. Integration of rocket turbine design and analysis through computer graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wayne; Boynton, Jim

    1988-01-01

    An interactive approach with engineering computer graphics is used to integrate the design and analysis processes of a rocket engine turbine into a progressive and iterative design procedure. The processes are interconnected through pre- and postprocessors. The graphics are used to generate the blade profiles, their stacking, finite element generation, and analysis presentation through color graphics. Steps of the design process discussed include pitch-line design, axisymmetric hub-to-tip meridional design, and quasi-three-dimensional analysis. The viscous two- and three-dimensional analysis codes are executed after acceptable designs are achieved and estimates of initial losses are confirmed.

  6. INS integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bazakos, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The use of inertial navigation system (INS) measurements to enhance the quality and robustness of motion analysis techniques used for obstacle detection is discussed with particular reference to autonomous vehicle navigation. The approach to obstacle detection used here employs motion analysis of imagery generated by a passive sensor. Motion analysis of imagery obtained during vehicle travel is used to generate range measurements to points within the field of view of the sensor, which can then be used to provide obstacle detection. Results obtained with an INS integrated motion analysis approach are reviewed.

  7. Integrating computer programs for engineering analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, A. W.; Crisp, V. K.; Johnson, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The design of a third-generation system for integrating computer programs for engineering and design has been developed for the Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design (AVID) system. This system consists of an engineering data management system, program interface software, a user interface, and a geometry system. A relational information system (ARIS) was developed specifically for the computer-aided engineering system. It is used for a repository of design data that are communicated between analysis programs, for a dictionary that describes these design data, for a directory that describes the analysis programs, and for other system functions. A method is described for interfacing independent analysis programs into a loosely-coupled design system. This method emphasizes an interactive extension of analysis techniques and manipulation of design data. Also, integrity mechanisms exist to maintain database correctness for multidisciplinary design tasks by an individual or a team of specialists. Finally, a prototype user interface program has been developed to aid in system utilization.

  8. Analysis and Modeling of Integrated Magnetics for LLC resonant Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingxiao; Ouyang, Ziwei; Zhao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Shunt-inserted transformers are widely used toobtain high leakage inductance. This paper investigates thismethod in depth to make it applicable to integrate resonantinductor for the LLC resonant converters. The analysis andmodel of magnetizing inductance and leakage inductance forshunt...... transformers can provide a significantdifference. The way to obtain the desirable magnetizing andleakage inductance value for LLC resonant converters issimplified by the creation of air gaps together with a magneticshunt. The calculation and relation are validated by finiteelement analysis (FEA) simulations...

  9. Integrated dynamic modeling and management system mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.K.

    1994-12-28

    This document summarizes the mission analysis performed on the Integrated Dynamic Modeling and Management System (IDMMS). The IDMMS will be developed to provide the modeling and analysis capability required to understand the TWRS system behavior in terms of the identified TWRS performance measures. The IDMMS will be used to demonstrate in a verified and validated manner the satisfactory performance of the TWRS system configuration and assurance that the requirements have been satisfied.

  10. Integrated dynamic modeling and management system mission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    This document summarizes the mission analysis performed on the Integrated Dynamic Modeling and Management System (IDMMS). The IDMMS will be developed to provide the modeling and analysis capability required to understand the TWRS system behavior in terms of the identified TWRS performance measures. The IDMMS will be used to demonstrate in a verified and validated manner the satisfactory performance of the TWRS system configuration and assurance that the requirements have been satisfied

  11. Heater-Integrated Cantilevers for Nano-Samples Thermogravimetric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Toffoli, Valeria; Carrato, Sergio; Lee, Dongkyu; Jeon, Sangmin; Lazzarino, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a micro-system for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in which heater, temperature sensor and mass sensor are integrated into a single device are presented. The system consists of a suspended cantilever that incorporates a microfabricated resistor, used as both heater and thermometer. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to define the structure parameters. TGA sensors were fabricated by standard microlithographic techniques and tested using mill...

  12. On the Integration of Digital Design and Analysis Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Jens; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research is to look into integrated digital design and analysis tools in order to find out if it is suited for use by architects and designers or only by specialists and technicians - and if not, then to look at what can be done to make them more available to architects and design...

  13. Multi-criteria decision analysis integrated with GIS for radio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-criteria decision analysis integrated with GIS for radio astronomical observatory site selection in peninsular of Malaysia. R Umar, Z.Z. Abidin, Z.A. Ibrahim, M.K.A. Kamarudin, S.N. Hazmin, A Endut, H Juahir ...

  14. Integrated analysis for genotypic adaptation in rice | Das | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated analysis for genotypic adaptation in rice. S Das, RC Misra, MC Pattnaik, SK Sinha. Abstract. Development of varieties with high yield potential coupled with wide adaptability is an important plant breeding objective. The presence of genotype by environment (GxE) interaction plays a crucial role in determining the ...

  15. Integration of Design and Control Through Model Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2000-01-01

    of the phenomena models representing the process model identify the relationships between the important process and design variables, which help to understand, define and address some of the issues related to integration of design and control issues. The model analysis is highlighted through examples involving...... processes with mass and/or energy recycle. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Redox Conditions in Selected Principal Aquifers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Cowdery, T.K.; Chapelle, F.H.; Jurgens, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    Reduction/oxidation (redox) processes affect the quality of groundwater in all aquifer systems. Redox processes can alternately mobilize or immobilize potentially toxic metals associated with naturally occurring aquifer materials, contribute to the degradation or preservation of anthropogenic contami-nants, and generate undesirable byproducts, such as dissolved manganese (Mn2+), ferrous iron (Fe2+), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Determining the kinds of redox processes that occur in an aquifer system, documenting their spatial distribution, and understanding how they affect concentrations of natural or anthropogenic contaminants are central to assessing and predicting the chemical quality of groundwater. This Fact Sheet extends the analysis of U.S. Geological Survey authors to additional principal aquifer systems by applying a framework developed by the USGS to a larger set of water-quality data from the USGS national water databases. For a detailed explanation, see the 'Introduction' in the Fact Sheet.

  17. Hydraulic conductivities of fractures and matrix in Slovenian carbonate aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotej Verbovšek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivities and specific storage coefficients of fractures and matrix in Slovenian carbonate aquifers were determined by Barker’s method for pumping test analysis, based on fractional flow dimension. Values are presented for limestones and mainly for dolomites, and additionally for separate aquifers, divided by age andlithology in several groups. Data was obtained from hydrogeological reports for 397 water wells, and among these, 79 pumping tests were reinterpreted. Hydraulic conductivities of fractures are higher than the hydraulic conductivities of matrix, and the differences are highly statistically significant. Likewise, differences are significant for specific storage, and the values of these coefficients are higher in the matrix. Values of all coefficients vary in separate aquifers, and the differences can be explained by diagenetic effects, crystal size, degree of fracturing, andcarbonate purity. Comparison of the methods, used in the reports, and the Barker’s method (being more suitable for karstic and fractured aquifers, shows that the latter fits real data better.

  18. Enhancing yeast transcription analysis through integration of heterogeneous data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Thomas; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    of Saccharomyces cerevisiae whole genome transcription data. A special focus is on the quantitative aspects of normalisation and mathematical modelling approaches, since they are expected to play an increasing role in future DNA microarray analysis studies. Data analysis is exemplified with cluster analysis......DNA microarray technology enables the simultaneous measurement of the transcript level of thousands of genes. Primary analysis can be done with basic statistical tools and cluster analysis, but effective and in depth analysis of the vast amount of transcription data requires integration with data...... from several heterogeneous data Sources, such as upstream promoter sequences, genome-scale metabolic models, annotation databases and other experimental data. In this review, we discuss how experimental design, normalisation, heterogeneous data and mathematical modelling can enhance analysis...

  19. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Data for Assessment of Aquifer Depletion and Related Land Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Abdullah; Sultan, Mohamed; Becker, Richard; Alsefry, Saleh; Alharbi, Talal; Gebremichael, Esayas; Alharbi, Hassan; Abdelmohsen, Karem

    2018-01-01

    An integrated approach [field, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), hydrogeology, geodesy, and spatial analysis] was adopted to identify the nature, intensity, and spatial distribution of deformational features (sinkholes, fissures, differential settling) reported over fossil aquifers in arid lands, their controlling factors, and possible remedies. The Lower Mega Aquifer System (area 2 × 106 km2) in central and northern Arabia was used as a test site. Findings suggest that excessive groundwater extraction from the fossil aquifer is the main cause of deformation: (1) deformational features correlated spatially and/or temporally with increased agricultural development and groundwater extraction, and with a decline in water levels and groundwater storage (- 3.7 ± 0.6 km3/year); (2) earthquake events (years 1985-2016; magnitude 1-5) are largely (65% of reported earthquakes) shallow (1-5 km) and increased from 1 event/year in the early 1980s (extraction 1 km3/year), up to 13 events/year in the 1990s (average annual extraction > 6.4 km3). Results indicate that faults played a role in localizing deformation given that deformational sites and InSAR-based high subsidence rates (- 4 to - 15 mm/year) were largely found within, but not outside of, NW-SE-trending grabens bound by the Kahf fault system. Findings from the analysis of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment solutions indicate that sustainable extraction could be attained if groundwater extraction was reduced by 3.5-4 km3/year. This study provides replicable and cost-effective methodologies for optimum utilization of fossil aquifers and for minimizing deformation associated with their use.

  20. Integration of End-User Cloud Storage for CMS Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Riahi, Hassen; Álvarez Ayllón, Alejandro; Balcas, Justas; Ciangottini, Diego; Hernández, José M; Keeble, Oliver; Magini, Nicolò; Manzi, Andrea; Mascetti, Luca; Mascheroni, Marco; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Vaandering, Eric Wayne

    2018-01-01

    End-user Cloud storage is increasing rapidly in popularity in research communities thanks to the collaboration capabilities it offers, namely synchronisation and sharing. CERN IT has implemented a model of such storage named, CERNBox, integrated with the CERN AuthN and AuthZ services. To exploit the use of the end-user Cloud storage for the distributed data analysis activity, the CMS experiment has started the integration of CERNBox as a Grid resource. This will allow CMS users to make use of their own storage in the Cloud for their analysis activities as well as to benefit from synchronisation and sharing capabilities to achieve results faster and more effectively. It will provide an integration model of Cloud storages in the Grid, which is implemented and commissioned over the world’s largest computing Grid infrastructure, Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). In this paper, we present the integration strategy and infrastructure changes needed in order to transparently integrate end-user Cloud storage with...

  1. Preliminary Analysis of the Role of Wetlands and Rivers in the Groundwater Discharge of the Guarani Aquifer System in NE Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, L., E-mail: lvives@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Instituto de Hidrologia de Llanuras, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Azul (Argentina); Rodriguez, L. [Centro de Estudios Hidroambientales, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Hidricas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (Argentina); Manzano, M. [Escuela de Ingenieria de Caminos y de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Spain); Valladares, A. [Subsecretaria de Recursos Hidricos (Argentina); Aggarwal, P. K.; Araguas Araguas, L. [International Atomic Energy Angency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is the largest aquifer in South America. Previous regional hydrochemical and isotopic studies suggested that discharge may occur at wetlands and reaches of the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. Preliminary findings of a project aimed at verifying the discharge hypothesis on the southern GAS region are presented. The hydrochemical- isotopic composition of 17 samples from surface and groundwater in that area were analysed. Some waters showed chemical facies and isotopic (stable isotope and carbon-14) signatures similar to the formerly identified as GAS+pre-GAS formations. Admixtures between modern and GAS+pre-GAS waters were found at depths between less than 100 m and 200 m. A 96 m deep well located near the Ibera lagoon showed chemical and isotopic composition indicating presence of GAS waters. The hydraulic gradient favours upward flow near the wetlands, but surface waters seem to originate from local recharge. Investigations continue, incorporating {sup 222}Rn and new sampling sites. (author)

  2. Analysis of nitrate in near-surface aquifers in the midcontinental United States: An application of the inverse hyperbolic sine Tobit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Steven T.; Liu, Shiping; Kolpin, Dana W.

    1996-01-01

    A nonnormal and heteroscedastic Tobit model is used to determine the primary factors that affect nitrate concentrations in near-surface aquifers, using data from the U.S. Geological Survey collected in 1991. Both normality and homoscedasticity of errors are rejected, justifying the use of a nonnormal and heteroscedastic model. The following factors are found to have significant impacts on nitrate concentrations in groundwater: well screen interval, depth to top of aquifers, percentages of urban residential, forest land, and pasture within 3.2 km, dissolved oxygen concentration level, and presence of a chemical facility and feedlot. The effects of explanatory variables on nitrate concentration are explored further by calculating elasticities. Dissolved oxygen concentration level has more notable effects on nitrate concentrations in groundwater than other variables.

  3. Analysis of data from test-well sites along the downdip limit of freshwater in the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio, Texas, 1985-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groschen, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Many researchers have studied the downdip limit of freshwater in the Edwards aquifer or various aspects of the saline-water zone and its relation to the freshwater zone. These studies were summarized and used to synthesize a consistent hydrologic and geochemical framework from which to interpret data from field studies. The concept derived from the previous work on the downdip limit of the freshwater zone is that fresh recharge water entered the aquifer and developed a vast flow system controlled by barrier faults. Some recharge water flows into the saline-water zone rather than toward major freshwater discharge points. The water that enters the salinewater zone continues to dissolve gypsum and dolomite, and calcite precipitates out of the water. This process of dedolomitization has helped to develop the large secondary porosity of the freshwater zone as the downdip limit of the freshwater zone progressively moved downdip in recent geologic time.

  4. An integrated hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach to study groundwater Salinization in the overexploited aquifers of Indo-Gangetic Plain, a part of NCR Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R.

    2017-12-01

    roundwater resources in arid and semi-arid areas are highly vulnerable to salinity problems. Inadequate availability of surface water supply, vagaries of mansoonal rainfall and overexploitation due to population pressure and rapid landuse change induced decline in groundwater levels and salinization has been observed in many Asian cities. After green revolution, large part of Indo-Gangetic plain groundwater salinization has been reported. One such region is National Capital Region, Delhi- India's largest and the world's second largest agglomeration of people and economic hub of Northern India. The present study includes National capital territory, Delhi, Gurgaon and Faridabad. In the present study, different graphical plots, Piper plot, saturation index values (using PHREEQC), stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) and GIS is used to create the database for analysis of spatial variation in respective water quality parameters as well as to decipher the hydrogeochemical process occurring in the area. Major ions are analysed to describe the composition and distribution of salinization and dissolution/precipitation dynamics. It was observed that groundwater weathering is governed by carbonate and silicate weathering and reverse ion-exchange, however due to semi-arid climate evaporation is also playing a major role in groundwater chemistry and salinity of the area. δ18O and δD regression line of groundwater samples of the study area is below the LMWL also suggest from non-equilibrium fractionation during evaporation. Large lateral variation in chloride concentration indicates impact of evapotranspiration rate during recharge. Most of water facies are of Na-Cl. Stable isotope (δ18O and δD) analysis helps to identify evaporation and to better understand recharge processes and mixing dynamics in the study region. Limited availability of surface water supply, no pricing exists for groundwater extraction has resulted in a widespread decline in the water table and intermixing of

  5. Multi-isotope (carbon and chlorine) analysis for fingerprinting and site characterization at a fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by chlorinated ethenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palau, Jordi; Marchesi, Massimo; Chambon, Julie C.C.; Aravena, Ramon; Canals, Àngels; Binning, Philip J.; Bjerg, Poul L.; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The use of compound specific multi-isotope approach (C and Cl) in the characterization of a chlorinated ethenes contaminated fractured aquifer allows the identification of several sources and contaminant plumes, as well as the occurrence of biodegradation and mixing processes. The study site is located in Spain with contamination resulting in groundwater concentrations of up to 50 mg/L of trichloroethene (TCE), the most abundant chlorinated ethene, and 7 mg/L of tetrachloroethene (PCE). The potential sources of contamination including abandoned barrels, an underground tank, and a disposal lagoon, showed a wide range in δ 13 C values from − 15.6 to − 40.5‰ for TCE and from − 18.5 to − 32.4‰ for PCE, allowing the use of isotope fingerprinting for tracing of the origin and migration of these contaminants in the aquifer. In contrast, there is no difference between the δ 37 Cl values for TCE in the contaminant sources, ranging from + 0.53 to + 0.66‰. Variations of δ 37 Cl and δ 13 C in the different contaminant plumes were used to investigate the role of biodegradation in groundwater. Moreover, the isotopic data were incorporated into a reactive transport model for determination of whether the isotope pattern observed downstream from the tank's source could be explained by the simultaneous effect of mixing and biodegradation. The results demonstrate that a multi-isotope approach is a valuable tool for characterization of complex sites such as fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by multiple sources, providing important information which can be used by consultants and site managers to prioritize and design more successful remediation strategies. - Highlights: • Origin and fate of CAHs in groundwater by means of multi CSIA ( 13 C, 35 Cl) survey • Innovative/new approach tested in a fractured bedrock site • Differentiation of distinct CAH sources • Biodegradation and source mixing recognition in the aquifer

  6. Application of Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis to Integrated Force Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. F. Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new formulation in structural analysis, Integrated Force Method has been successfully applied to many structures for civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering due to the accurate estimate of forces in computation. Right now, it is being further extended to the probabilistic domain. For the assessment of uncertainty effect in system optimization and identification, the probabilistic sensitivity analysis of IFM was further investigated in this study. A set of stochastic sensitivity analysis formulation of Integrated Force Method was developed using the perturbation method. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate its application. Its efficiency and accuracy were also substantiated with direct Monte Carlo simulations and the reliability-based sensitivity method. The numerical algorithm was shown to be readily adaptable to the existing program since the models of stochastic finite element and stochastic design sensitivity are almost identical.

  7. A Key Event Path Analysis Approach for Integrated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By studying the key event paths of probabilistic event structure graphs (PESGs, a key event path analysis approach for integrated system models is proposed. According to translation rules concluded from integrated system architecture descriptions, the corresponding PESGs are constructed from the colored Petri Net (CPN models. Then the definitions of cycle event paths, sequence event paths, and key event paths are given. Whereafter based on the statistic results after the simulation of CPN models, key event paths are found out by the sensitive analysis approach. This approach focuses on the logic structures of CPN models, which is reliable and could be the basis of structured analysis for discrete event systems. An example of radar model is given to characterize the application of this approach, and the results are worthy of trust.

  8. Integrative Analysis of Metabolic Models – from Structure to Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Anja, E-mail: hartmann@ipk-gatersleben.de [Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Gatersleben (Germany); Schreiber, Falk [Monash University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)

    2015-01-26

    The characterization of biological systems with respect to their behavior and functionality based on versatile biochemical interactions is a major challenge. To understand these complex mechanisms at systems level modeling approaches are investigated. Different modeling formalisms allow metabolic models to be analyzed depending on the question to be solved, the biochemical knowledge and the availability of experimental data. Here, we describe a method for an integrative analysis of the structure and dynamics represented by qualitative and quantitative metabolic models. Using various formalisms, the metabolic model is analyzed from different perspectives. Determined structural and dynamic properties are visualized in the context of the metabolic model. Interaction techniques allow the exploration and visual analysis thereby leading to a broader understanding of the behavior and functionality of the underlying biological system. The System Biology Metabolic Model Framework (SBM{sup 2} – Framework) implements the developed method and, as an example, is applied for the integrative analysis of the crop plant potato.

  9. Assessing hydraulic connections across a complex sequence of volcanic rocks - Analysis of U-20 WW multiple-well aquifer test, Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Halford, Keith J.; Reiner, Steven R.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater beneath Pahute Mesa flows through a complexly layered sequence of volcanic rock aquifers and confining units that have been faulted into distinct structural blocks. Hydraulic property estimates of rocks and structures in this flow system are necessary to assess radionuclide migration near underground nuclear testing areas. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used a 12 month (October 1, 2008— October 1, 2009) intermittent pumping schedule of well U-20 WW and continuously monitored water levels in observation wells ER-20-6 #3, UE-20bh 1, and U-20bg as a multi-well aquifer test to evaluate hydraulic connections across structural blocks, bulk hydraulic properties of volcanic rocks, and the hydraulic significance of a major fault. Measured water levels were approximated using synthetic water levels generated from an analytical model. Synthetic water levels are a summation of environmental water-level fluctuations and a Theis (1935) transform of the pumping signal from flow rate to water-level change. Drawdown was estimated by summing residual differences between measured and synthetic water levels and the Theis-transformed pumping signal from April to September 2009. Drawdown estimates were used in a three‑dimensional numerical model to estimate hydraulic properties of distinct aquifers, confining units, and a major fault.

  10. Construction of an integrated database to support genomic sequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, W.; Overbeek, R.

    1994-11-01

    The central goal of this project is to develop an integrated database to support comparative analysis of genomes including DNA sequence data, protein sequence data, gene expression data and metabolism data. In developing the logic-based system GenoBase, a broader integration of available data was achieved due to assistance from collaborators. Current goals are to easily include new forms of data as they become available and to easily navigate through the ensemble of objects described within the database. This report comments on progress made in these areas.

  11. Containment integrity analysis with SAMPSON/DCRA module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, Seigo; Shirakawa, Noriyuki; Naitoh, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    The integrity of PWR containment under a severe accident is analyzed using the debris concrete reaction analysis code. If core fuels melt through the pressure vessel and the debris accumulates on the reactor cavity of a lower part of containment, its temperature continues to rise due to decay heat and the debris ablates the concrete floor. In case that cooling water is issued into the containment cavity and the amount of debris is limited to 30% of core fuels, our analyses showed that the debris could be cooled and frozen so that integrity of containment could hold. (author)

  12. Investigating Potential Artesian Aquifers in Rod-Kohi Area of DI Khan, NWFP using GIS and Geo-Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ashraf

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The artesian aquifers provide economical and sustainable source of groundwater for irrigation and domestic use. GIS (Geographic Information System was used for development and integration of spatial databases, analysis and visualization of spatial data in two- and three-dimensional views. The aquifer system of Daraban Rod-Kohi area of DI Khan was analyzed to identify potential artesian aquifers using geological sections of the observation wells representing detail of subsurface lithology and strata encountered. According to an estimate, about 1,700 million m3 of extractable volume of groundwater exists in this part of rod-kohi area. Different profile sections were drawn to analyze the subsurface condition of the study area using Rockworks GIS-based software. The geo-processing technique of horizontal litho-blending was utilized for lithological modeling. Based on stratigraphic information of the area, three distinct aquifers were identified down to a depth of about 200 meters among which two are semi-confined to confined having prospects of artesian water. The 2D and 3D analysis show that characteristics of the confined aquifers vary spatially with the subsurface lithology and structural setup of the area. The depth range of confined layer-1 is found between 118 and 133 meters while of confined layer-2 between 182 and 195 meters. The output data indicated a close agreement with the observed data of the artesian wells. The study results can provide base for detail investigation of artesian resource and selection of potential sites for installation of artesian wells in the target area.

  13. Occurrence and geochemical behavior of arsenic in a coastal aquifer-aquitard system of the Pearl River Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ya [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Jiao, Jiu Jimmy, E-mail: jjiao@hku.hk [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Cherry, John A. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 161 {mu}g/L, have been identified in groundwater samples from the confined basal aquifer underlying the aquitard of the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Both aquatic arsenic in pore water and solid arsenic in the sediments in the basal aquifer and aquitard were identified. Arsenic speciation of groundwater in the basal aquifer was elucidated on a pH-Eh diagram. In the PRD, arsenic is enriched in groundwater having both low and high salinity, and arsenic enriched groundwater is devoid of dissolved oxygen, has negative Eh values, is slightly alkaline, and has abnormally high concentrations of ammonium and dissolved organic carbon, but low concentrations of nitrate and nitrite. Results of geochemical and hydrochemical analyses and sequential extraction analysis suggest that reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxide could be one of the important processes that mobilized solid arsenic. We speculate that mineralization of sedimentary organic matter could also contribute to aquatic arsenic. Scanning electron microscope analysis confirms that abundant authigenic pyrite is present in the sediments. Sulphate derived from paleo-seawater served as the important sulfur source for authigenic pyrite formation. Co-precipitation of arsenic with authigenic pyrite significantly controlled concentrations of aquatic arsenic in the coastal aquifer-aquitard system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coastal aquifer and aquitard are treated as an integrate system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both aquatic arsenic and solid arsenic are observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aquatic arsenic is derived from reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aquatic arsenic can also derived from mineralization of sedimentary organic matter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-precipitation of arsenic with authigenic pyrite is significant in such a system.

  14. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of projected water use for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer, western and central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John H.; Mashburn, Shana L.; Graves, Grant M.; Peterson, Steven M.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Fuhrig, Leland T.; Wagner, Derrick L.; Sanford, Jon E.

    2017-02-13

    This report describes a study of the hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer in western and central Oklahoma conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The report (1) quantifies the groundwater resources of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer by developing a conceptual model, (2) summarizes the general water quality of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer groundwater by using data collected during August and September 2013, (3) evaluates the effects of estimated equal proportionate share (EPS) on aquifer storage and streamflow for time periods of 20, 40, and 50 years into the future by using numerical groundwater-flow models, and (4) evaluates the effects of present-day groundwater pumping over a 50-year period and sustained hypothetical drought conditions over a 10-year period on stream base flow and groundwater in storage by using numerical flow models. The Canadian River alluvial aquifer is a Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace unit consisting of beds of clay, silt, sand, and fine gravel sediments unconformably overlying Tertiary-, Permian-, and Pennsylvanian-age sedimentary rocks. For groundwater-flow modeling purposes, the Canadian River was divided into Reach I, extending from the Texas border to the Canadian River at the Bridgeport, Okla., streamgage (07228500), and Reach II, extending downstream from the Canadian River at the Bridgeport, Okla., streamgage (07228500), to the confluence of the river with Eufaula Lake. The Canadian River alluvial aquifer spans multiple climate divisions, ranging from semiarid in the west to humid subtropical in the east. The average annual precipitation in the study area from 1896 to 2014 was 34.4 inches per year (in/yr).A hydrogeologic framework of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer was developed that includes the areal and vertical extent of the aquifer and the distribution, texture variability, and hydraulic properties of

  15. Plant-wide integrated equipment monitoring and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, C.N.; Hunter, T.A.; Chiang, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    A nuclear power plant equipment monitoring system monitors plant equipment and reports deteriorating equipment conditions. The more advanced equipment monitoring systems can also provide information for understanding the symptoms and diagnosing the root cause of a problem. Maximizing the equipment availability and minimizing or eliminating consequential damages are the ultimate goals of equipment monitoring systems. GE Integrated Equipment Monitoring System (GEIEMS) is designed as an integrated intelligent monitoring and analysis system for plant-wide application for BWR plants. This approach reduces system maintenance efforts and equipment monitoring costs and provides information for integrated planning. This paper describes GEIEMS and how the current system is being upgraded to meet General Electric's vision for plant-wide decision support. (author)

  16. STINGRAY: system for integrated genomic resources and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Glauber; Jardim, Rodrigo; Tschoeke, Diogo A; Loureiro, Daniel R; Ocaña, Kary A C S; Ribeiro, Antonio C B; Emmel, Vanessa E; Probst, Christian M; Pitaluga, André N; Grisard, Edmundo C; Cavalcanti, Maria C; Campos, Maria L M; Mattoso, Marta; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2014-03-07

    The STINGRAY system has been conceived to ease the tasks of integrating, analyzing, annotating and presenting genomic and expression data from Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms. STINGRAY includes: (a) a complete and integrated workflow (more than 20 bioinformatics tools) ranging from functional annotation to phylogeny; (b) a MySQL database schema, suitable for data integration and user access control; and (c) a user-friendly graphical web-based interface that makes the system intuitive, facilitating the tasks of data analysis and annotation. STINGRAY showed to be an easy to use and complete system for analyzing sequencing data. While both Sanger and NGS platforms are supported, the system could be faster using Sanger data, since the large NGS datasets could potentially slow down the MySQL database usage. STINGRAY is available at http://stingray.biowebdb.org and the open source code at http://sourceforge.net/projects/stingray-biowebdb/.

  17. An Integrated Solution for Performing Thermo-fluid Conjugate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornberg, Oren

    2009-01-01

    A method has been developed which integrates a fluid flow analyzer and a thermal analyzer to produce both steady state and transient results of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D analysis models. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a one dimensional, general purpose fluid analysis code which computes pressures and flow distributions in complex fluid networks. The MSC Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (MSC.SINDA) is a one dimensional general purpose thermal analyzer that solves network representations of thermal systems. Both GFSSP and MSC.SINDA have graphical user interfaces which are used to build the respective model and prepare it for analysis. The SINDA/GFSSP Conjugate Integrator (SGCI) is a formbase graphical integration program used to set input parameters for the conjugate analyses and run the models. The contents of this paper describes SGCI and its thermo-fluids conjugate analysis techniques and capabilities by presenting results from some example models including the cryogenic chill down of a copper pipe, a bar between two walls in a fluid stream, and a solid plate creating a phase change in a flowing fluid.

  18. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Phillip F [ORNL

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  19. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  20. Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis, the VIPA Experience: Reconnecting with Technical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Today's NASA is facing significant challenges and changes. The Exploration initiative indicates a large increase in projects with limited increase in budget. The Columbia report has criticized NASA for its lack of insight and technical integration impacting its ability to provide safety. The Aldridge report is advocating NASA find new ways of doing business. Very early in the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program a small team of engineers at MSFC were asked to propose a process for performing a system level assessment of a launch vehicle. The request was aimed primarily at providing insight and making NASA a "smart buyer." Out of this effort the VIPA team was created. The difference between the VIPA effort and many integration attempts is that VIPA focuses on using experienced people from various disciplines and a process which focuses them on a technically integrated assessment. Most previous attempts have focused on developing an all encompassing software tool. In addition, VIPA anchored its process formulation in the experience of its members and in early developmental Space Shuttle experience. The primary reference for this is NASA-TP-2001-210092, "Launch Vehicle Design Process: Characterization, Technical Integration, and Lessons Learned," and discussions with its authors. The foundations of VIPA's process are described. The VIPA team also recognized the need to drive detailed analysis earlier in the design process. Analyses and techniques typically done in later design phases, are brought forward using improved computing technology. The intent is to allow the identification of significant sensitivities, trades, and design issues much earlier in the program. This process is driven by the T-model for Technical Integration described in the aforementioned reference. VIPA's approach to performing system level technical integration is discussed in detail. Proposed definitions are offered to clarify this discussion and the general systems integration dialog. VIPA

  1. Geopressured-geothermal aquifers. Final contract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Task 1 is to provide petrophysical and reservoir analysis of wells drilled into geopressured-geothermal aquifers containing dissolved methane. The list of Design Wells and Wells of Opportunity analyzed: Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 (WOO), Pleasant Bayou No. 2 (Design), Amoco Fee No. 1 (Design), G.M. Koelemay No. 1 (WOO), Gladys McCall No. 1 (Design), P.R. Girouard No. 1 (WOO), and Crown Zellerbach No. 2 (WOO). Petrophysical and reservoir analysis of the above wells were performed based on availability of data. The analysis performed on each well, the assumptions made during simulation, and conclusions reached.

  2. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Floridan aquifer system and effects of Lower Floridan aquifer pumping on the Upper Floridan aquifer at Fort Stewart, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Cherry, Gregory C.; Gonthier, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Test drilling, field investigations, and digital modeling were completed at Fort Stewart, GA, during 2009?2010, to assess the geologic, hydraulic, and water-quality characteristics of the Floridan aquifer system and evaluate the effect of Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA) pumping on the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). This work was performed pursuant to the Georgia Environmental Protection Division interim permitting strategy for new wells completed in the LFA that requires simulation to (1) quantify pumping-induced aquifer leakage from the UFA to LFA, and (2) identify the equivalent rate of UFA pumping that would produce the same maximum drawdown in the UFA that anticipated pumping from LFA well would induce. Field investigation activities included (1) constructing a 1,300-foot (ft) test boring and well completed in the LFA (well 33P028), (2) constructing an observation well in the UFA (well 33P029), (3) collecting drill cuttings and borehole geophysical logs, (4) collecting core samples for analysis of vertical hydraulic conductivity and porosity, (5) conducting flowmeter and packer tests in the open borehole within the UFA and LFA, (6) collecting depth-integrated water samples to assess basic ionic chemistry of various water-bearing zones, and (7) conducting aquifer tests in new LFA and UFA wells to determine hydraulic properties and assess interaquifer leakage. Using data collected at the site and in nearby areas, model simulation was used to assess the effects of LFA pumping on the UFA. Borehole-geophysical and flowmeter data indicate the LFA at Fort Stewart consists of limestone and dolomitic limestone between depths of 912 and 1,250 ft. Flowmeter data indicate the presence of three permeable zones at depth intervals of 912-947, 1,090-1,139, and 1,211?1,250 ft. LFA well 33P028 received 50 percent of the pumped volume from the uppermost permeable zone, and about 18 and 32 percent of the pumped volume from the middle and lowest permeable zones, respectively. Chemical

  3. Transient well flow in leaky multiple-aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemker, C. J.

    1985-10-01

    A previously developed eigenvalue analysis approach to groundwater flow in leaky multiple aquifers is used to derive exact solutions for transient well flow problems in leaky and confined systems comprising any number of aquifers. Equations are presented for the drawdown distribution in systems of infinite extent, caused by wells penetrating one or more of the aquifers completely and discharging each layer at a constant rate. Since the solution obtained may be regarded as a combined analytical-numerical technique, a type of one-dimensional modelling can be applied to find approximate solutions for several complicating conditions. Numerical evaluations are presented as time-drawdown curves and include effects of storage in the aquitard, unconfined conditions, partially penetrating wells and stratified aquifers. The outcome of calculations for relatively simple systems compares very well with published corresponding results. The proposed multilayer solution can be a valuable tool in aquifer test evaluation, as it provides the analytical expression required to enable the application of existing computer methods to the determination of aquifer characteristics.

  4. INTEGRATION OF FACILITY MODELING CAPABILITIES FOR NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; Garcia, H.; Burr, T.; Coles, G.; Edmunds, T.; Garrett, A.; Krebs, J.; Kress, R.; Lamberti, V.; Schoenwald, D.; Tzanos, C.; Ward, R.

    2011-07-18

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  5. Integration of facility modeling capabilities for nuclear nonproliferation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Humberto; Burr, Tom; Coles, Garill A.; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Garrett, Alfred; Gorensek, Maximilian; Hamm, Luther; Krebs, John; Kress, Reid L.; Lamberti, Vincent; Schoenwald, David; Tzanos, Constantine P.; Ward, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  6. Integration Of Facility Modeling Capabilities For Nuclear Nonproliferation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; Garcia, H.; Burr, T.; Coles, G.; Edmunds, T.; Garrett, A.; Krebs, J.; Kress, R.; Lamberti, V.; Schoenwald, D.; Tzanos, C.; Ward, R.

    2011-01-01

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  7. Combination and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I am going to outline ways of combining qualitative and quantitative steps of analysis on five levels. On the technical level, programs for the computer-aided analysis of qualitative data offer various combinations. Where the data are concerned, the employment of categories (for instance by using qualitative content analysis allows for combining qualitative and quantitative forms of data analysis. On the individual level, the creation of types and the inductive generalisation of cases allow for proceeding from individual case material to quantitative generalisations. As for research design, different models can be distinguished (preliminary study, generalisation, elaboration, triangulation which combine qualitative and quantitative steps of analysis. Where the logic of research is concerned, it can be shown that an extended process model which combined qualitative and quantitative research can be appropriate and thus lead to an integration of the two approaches. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs010162

  8. Inertial navigation sensor integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bhanu, Bir

    1992-01-01

    Recent work on INS integrated motion analysis is described. Results were obtained with a maximally passive system of obstacle detection (OD) for ground-based vehicles and rotorcraft. The OD approach involves motion analysis of imagery acquired by a passive sensor in the course of vehicle travel to generate range measurements to world points within the sensor FOV. INS data and scene analysis results are used to enhance interest point selection, the matching of the interest points, and the subsequent motion-based computations, tracking, and OD. The most important lesson learned from the research described here is that the incorporation of inertial data into the motion analysis program greatly improves the analysis and makes the process more robust.

  9. Characterising Bedrock Aquifer Systems in Korea Using Paired Water-Level Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Min Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on characterising aquifer systems based on water-level changes observed systematically at 159 paired groundwater monitoring wells throughout Korea. Using spectral analysis, principal component analysis (PCA, and cross-correlation analysis with linear regression, aquifer conditions were identified from the comparison of water-level changes in shallow alluvial and deep bedrock monitoring wells. The spectral analysis could identify the aquifer conditions (i.e., unconfined, semi-confined and confined of 58.5% of bedrock wells and 42.8% of alluvial wells: 93 and 68 wells out of 159 wells, respectively. Even among the bedrock wells, 50 wells (53.7% exhibited characteristics of the unconfined condition, implying significant vulnerability of the aquifer to contaminants from the land surface and shallow depths. It appears to be better approach for deep bedrock aquifers than shallow alluvial aquifers. However, significant portions of the water-level changes remained unclear for categorising aquifer conditions due to disturbances in data continuity. For different aquifer conditions, PCA could show typical pattern and factor scores of principal components. Principal component 1 due to wet-and-dry seasonal changes and water-level response time was dominant covering about 55% of total variances of each aquifer conditions, implying the usefulness of supplementary method of aquifer characterisation. Cross-correlation and time-lag analysis in the water-level responses to precipitations clearly show how the water levels in shallow and deep wells correspond in time scale. No significant differences in time-lags was found between shallow and deep wells. However, clear time-lags were found to be increasing from unconfined to confined conditions: from 1.47 to 2.75 days and from 1.78 to 2.75 days for both shallow alluvial and deep bedrock wells, respectively. In combination of various statistical methods, three types of water-level fluctuation

  10. Sparse Group Penalized Integrative Analysis of Multiple Cancer Prognosis Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Xie, Yang; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In cancer research, high-throughput profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for markers associated with prognosis. Because of the “large d, small n” characteristic, results generated from the analysis of a single dataset can be unsatisfactory. Recent studies have shown that integrative analysis, which simultaneously analyzes multiple datasets, can be more effective than single-dataset analysis and classic meta-analysis. In most of existing integrative analysis, the homogeneity model has been assumed, which postulates that different datasets share the same set of markers. Several approaches have been designed to reinforce this assumption. In practice, different datasets may differ in terms of patient selection criteria, profiling techniques, and many other aspects. Such differences may make the homogeneity model too restricted. In this study, we assume the heterogeneity model, under which different datasets are allowed to have different sets of markers. With multiple cancer prognosis datasets, we adopt the AFT (accelerated failure time) model to describe survival. This model may have the lowest computational cost among popular semiparametric survival models. For marker selection, we adopt a sparse group MCP (minimax concave penalty) approach. This approach has an intuitive formulation and can be computed using an effective group coordinate descent algorithm. Simulation study shows that it outperforms the existing approaches under both the homogeneity and heterogeneity models. Data analysis further demonstrates the merit of heterogeneity model and proposed approach. PMID:23938111

  11. Simulation analysis of globally integrated logistics and recycling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, S.J.; Hiroshi, K. [Hiroshima Inst. of Tech., Graduate School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Dept. of In formation and Intelligent Systems Engineering, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the optimal analysis of world-wide recycling activities associated with managing the logistics and production activities in global manufacturing whose activities stretch across national boundaries. Globally integrated logistics and recycling strategies consist of the home country and two free trading economic blocs, NAFTA and ASEAN, where significant differences are found in production and disassembly cost, tax rates, local content rules and regulations. Moreover an optimal analysis of globally integrated value-chain was developed by applying simulation optimization technique as a decision-making tool. The simulation model was developed and analyzed by using ProModel packages, and the results help to identify some of the appropriate conditions required to make well-performed logistics and recycling plans in world-wide collaborated manufacturing environment. (orig.)

  12. Integration, warehousing, and analysis strategies of Omics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedela, Srinubabu

    2011-01-01

    "-Omics" is a current suffix for numerous types of large-scale biological data generation procedures, which naturally demand the development of novel algorithms for data storage and analysis. With next generation genome sequencing burgeoning, it is pivotal to decipher a coding site on the genome, a gene's function, and information on transcripts next to the pure availability of sequence information. To explore a genome and downstream molecular processes, we need umpteen results at the various levels of cellular organization by utilizing different experimental designs, data analysis strategies and methodologies. Here comes the need for controlled vocabularies and data integration to annotate, store, and update the flow of experimental data. This chapter explores key methodologies to merge Omics data by semantic data carriers, discusses controlled vocabularies as eXtensible Markup Languages (XML), and provides practical guidance, databases, and software links supporting the integration of Omics data.

  13. LLIMAS: Revolutionizing integrating modeling and analysis at MIT Lincoln Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Keith B.; Stoeckel, Gerhard P.; Rey, Justin J.; Bury, Mark E.

    2017-08-01

    MIT Lincoln Laboratory's Integrated Modeling and Analysis Software (LLIMAS) enables the development of novel engineering solutions for advanced prototype systems through unique insights into engineering performance and interdisciplinary behavior to meet challenging size, weight, power, environmental, and performance requirements. LLIMAS is a multidisciplinary design optimization tool that wraps numerical optimization algorithms around an integrated framework of structural, thermal, optical, stray light, and computational fluid dynamics analysis capabilities. LLIMAS software is highly extensible and has developed organically across a variety of technologies including laser communications, directed energy, photometric detectors, chemical sensing, laser radar, and imaging systems. The custom software architecture leverages the capabilities of existing industry standard commercial software and supports the incorporation of internally developed tools. Recent advances in LLIMAS's Structural-Thermal-Optical Performance (STOP), aeromechanical, and aero-optical capabilities as applied to Lincoln prototypes are presented.

  14. Computational Approaches for Integrative Analysis of the Metabolome and Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Chong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the microbiome, the totality of all microbes inhabiting the host or an environmental niche, has experienced exponential growth over the past few years. The microbiome contributes functional genes and metabolites, and is an important factor for maintaining health. In this context, metabolomics is increasingly applied to complement sequencing-based approaches (marker genes or shotgun metagenomics to enable resolution of microbiome-conferred functionalities associated with health. However, analyzing the resulting multi-omics data remains a significant challenge in current microbiome studies. In this review, we provide an overview of different computational approaches that have been used in recent years for integrative analysis of metabolome and microbiome data, ranging from statistical correlation analysis to metabolic network-based modeling approaches. Throughout the process, we strive to present a unified conceptual framework for multi-omics integration and interpretation, as well as point out potential future directions.

  15. Techniques of remote sensing applied to the environmental analysis of part of an aquifer located in the São José dos Campos Region sp, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Mariana Affonseca; Dos Anjos, Célio Eustáquio

    2003-05-01

    The anthropogenic activity on the surface can modify and introduce new mechanisms of recharging the groundwater system, modifying the tax, the frequency and the quality of recharge of underground waters. The understanding of these mechanisms and the correct evaluation of such modifications are fundamental in determining the vulnerability of groundwater contamination. The groundwater flow of the South Paraíba Compartment, in the region of São José dos Campos, São Paulo, is directly related to structural features of the Taubaté Basin and, therefore, the analysis of its behaviour enhances the understanding of tectonic structure. The methodology adopted for this work consists in pre-processing and processing of the satellite images, visual interpretation of HSI products, field work and data integration. The derivation of the main structural features was based on visual analysis of the texture elements of drainage, and the relief in sedimentary and crystalline rocks. Statistical analysis of the feature densities and the metric-geometric relations between the analysed elements have been conducted. The crystalline rocks, on which the sediments were laying, conditions and controls the structural arrangement of sedimentary formations. The formation of the South Paraíba Grabén is associated with Cenozoic distensive movement which reactivated old features of crust weakness and generated previous cycles with normal characteristics. The environmental analysis is based on the integration of the existing methodology to characterise vulnerability of an universal pollutant and density fracture zone. The digital integration was processed using GIS (Geographic Information System) to delineate five defined vulnerability classes. The hydrogeological settings were analysed in each thematic map and, using fuzzy logic, an index for each different vulnerability class was compiled. Evidence maps could be combined in a series of steps using map algebra.

  16. Sensitivity Analysis Based on Markovian Integration by Parts Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Hang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity analysis is widely applied in financial risk management and engineering; it describes the variations brought by the changes of parameters. Since the integration by parts technique for Markov chains is well developed in recent years, in this paper we apply it for computation of sensitivity and show the closed-form expressions for two commonly-used time-continuous Markovian models. By comparison, we conclude that our approach outperforms the existing technique of computing sensitivity on Markovian models.

  17. Corporate Disclosure, Materiality, and Integrated Report: An Event Study Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cleofe Giorgino; Enrico Supino; Federico Barnabè

    2017-01-01

    Within the extensive literature investigating the impacts of corporate disclosure in supporting the sustainable growth of an organization, few studies have included in the analysis the materiality issue referred to the information being disclosed. This article aims to address this gap, exploring the effect produced on capital markets by the publication of a recent corporate reporting tool, Integrated Report (IR). The features of this tool are that it aims to represent the multidimensional imp...

  18. Process Integration Analysis of an Industrial Hydrogen Production Process

    OpenAIRE

    Stolten, Detlef; Grube, Thomas; Tock, Laurence; Maréchal, François; Metzger, Christian; Arpentinier, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The energy efficiency of an industrial hydrogen production process using steam methane reforming (SMR) combined with the water gas shift reaction (WGS) is analyzed using process integration techniques based on heat cascade calculation and pinch analysis with the aim of identifying potential measures to enhance the process performance. The challenge is to satisfy the high temperature heat demand of the SMR reaction by minimizing the consumption of natural gas to feed the combustion and to expl...

  19. Unconfined aquifer response to infiltration basins and shallow pump tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorf, David W.; DeGroot, Don J.; Hinlein, Erich S.

    2007-05-01

    SummaryWe measure and model the unsteady, axisymmetric response of an unconfined aquifer to delayed, arbitrary recharge. Water table drainage follows the initial elastic aquifer response, as modeled for uniform, instantaneous recharge by Zlotnik and Ledder [Zlotnik, V., Ledder, G., 1992. Groundwater flow in a compressible unconfined aquifer with uniform circular recharge. Water Resources Research 28(6), 1619-1630] and delayed drainage by Moench [Moench, A.F., 1995. Combining the Neuman and Boulton models for flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer. Ground Water 33(3), 378-384]. We extend their analyses with a convolution integral that models the delayed response of an aquifer to infiltration from a circular infiltration basin. The basin routes the hydrograph to the water table with a decay constant dependent on a Brooks and Corey [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Properties of porous media affecting fluid flow. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division ASCE 92(2), 61-88] unsaturated permeability exponent. The resulting closed form model approaches Neuman's [Neuman, S.P., 1972. Theory of flow in unconfined aquifers considering delayed response of the water table. Water Resources Research 8(4), 1031-1045] partially penetrating pump test equation for a small source radius, instantaneous, uniform drainage and a shallow screen section. Irrigation pump data at a well characterized part of the Plymouth-Carver Aquifer in southeastern Massachusetts calibrate the small source model, while infiltration data from the closed drainage system of State Route 25 calibrate the infiltration basin model. The calibrated permeability, elasticity, specific yield, and permeability exponent are plausible and consistent for the pump and infiltration data sets.

  20. Building-integrated renewable energy policy analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚春妮; 郝斌

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic development of renewable energy all over the world,and for purpose of adjusting energy structure,the Ministry of Construction of China plans to promote the large scale application of renewable energy in buildings. In order to ensure the validity of policy-making,this work firstly exerts a method to do cost-benefit analysis for three kinds of technologies such as building-integrated solar hot water (BISHW) system,building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technology and ground water heat pump (GWHP). Through selecting a representative city of every climate region,the analysis comes into different results for different climate regions in China and respectively different suggestion for policy-making. On the analysis basis,the Ministry of Construction (MOC) and the Ministry of Finance of China (MOF) united to start-up Building-integrated Renewable Energy Demonstration Projects (BIREDP) in 2006. In the demonstration projects,renewable energy takes place of traditional energy to supply the domestic hot water,electricity,air-conditioning and heating. Through carrying out the demonstration projects,renewable energy related market has been expanded. More and more relative companies and local governments take the opportunity to promote the large scale application of renewable energy in buildings.

  1. Lectures on functional analysis and the Lebesgue integral

    CERN Document Server

    Komornik, Vilmos

    2016-01-01

    This textbook, based on three series of lectures held by the author at the University of Strasbourg, presents functional analysis in a non-traditional way by generalizing elementary theorems of plane geometry to spaces of arbitrary dimension. This approach leads naturally to the basic notions and theorems. Most results are illustrated by the small ℓp spaces. The Lebesgue integral, meanwhile, is treated via the direct approach of Frigyes Riesz, whose constructive definition of measurable functions leads to optimal, clear-cut versions of the classical theorems of Fubini-Tonelli and Radon-Nikodým. Lectures on Functional Analysis and the Lebesgue Integral presents the most important topics for students, with short, elegant proofs. The exposition style follows the Hungarian mathematical tradition of Paul Erdős and others. The order of the first two parts, functional analysis and the Lebesgue integral, may be reversed. In the third and final part they are combined to study various spaces of continuous and integ...

  2. Heater-Integrated Cantilevers for Nano-Samples Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Toffoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and characteristics of a micro-system for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA in which heater, temperature sensor and mass sensor are integrated into a single device are presented. The system consists of a suspended cantilever that incorporates a microfabricated resistor, used as both heater and thermometer. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to define the structure parameters. TGA sensors were fabricated by standard microlithographic techniques and tested using milli-Q water and polyurethane microcapsule. The results demonstrated that our approach provides a faster and more sensitive TGA with respect to commercial systems.

  3. Heater-Integrated Cantilevers for Nano-Samples Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoli, Valeria; Carrato, Sergio; Lee, Dongkyu; Jeon, Sangmin; Lazzarino, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a micro-system for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in which heater, temperature sensor and mass sensor are integrated into a single device are presented. The system consists of a suspended cantilever that incorporates a microfabricated resistor, used as both heater and thermometer. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to define the structure parameters. TGA sensors were fabricated by standard microlithographic techniques and tested using milli-Q water and polyurethane microcapsule. The results demonstrated that our approach provides a faster and more sensitive TGA with respect to commercial systems.

  4. Structural integrity analysis of an INPP building under external loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundulis, G.; Karalevicius, R.; Uspuras, E.; Kulak, R.F.; Marchertas, A.

    2005-01-01

    After the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington D. C. using civil airplanes, the evaluation of civil airplane crashes into civil and NPP structures has become very important. The interceptions of many terrorists' communications reveal that the use of commandeered commercial aircraft is still a major part of their plans for destruction. Aircraft crash or other flying objects in the territory of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) represents a concern to the plant. Aircraft traveling at high velocity have a destructive potential. The aircraft crash may damage the roof and walls of buildings, pipelines, electric motors, cases of power supplies, power cables of electricity transmission and other elements and systems, which are important for safety. Therefore, the evaluation of the structural response to an of aircraft crash is important and was selected for analysis. The structural integrity analysis due to the effects of an aircraft crash on an NPP building structure is the subject of this paper. The finite element method was used for the structural analysis of a typical Ignalina NPP building. The structural integrity analysis was performed for a portion of the ALS using the dynamic loading of an aircraft crash impact model. The computer code NEPTUNE was used for this analysis. The local effects caused by impact of the aircraft's engine on the building wall were evaluated independently by using an empirical formula. (authors)

  5. Penalized differential pathway analysis of integrative oncogenomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wieringen, Wessel N; van de Wiel, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Through integration of genomic data from multiple sources, we may obtain a more accurate and complete picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. We discuss the integration of DNA copy number and mRNA gene expression data from an observational integrative genomics study involving cancer patients. The two molecular levels involved are linked through the central dogma of molecular biology. DNA copy number aberrations abound in the cancer cell. Here we investigate how these aberrations affect gene expression levels within a pathway using observational integrative genomics data of cancer patients. In particular, we aim to identify differential edges between regulatory networks of two groups involving these molecular levels. Motivated by the rate equations, the regulatory mechanism between DNA copy number aberrations and gene expression levels within a pathway is modeled by a simultaneous-equations model, for the one- and two-group case. The latter facilitates the identification of differential interactions between the two groups. Model parameters are estimated by penalized least squares using the lasso (L1) penalty to obtain a sparse pathway topology. Simulations show that the inclusion of DNA copy number data benefits the discovery of gene-gene interactions. In addition, the simulations reveal that cis-effects tend to be over-estimated in a univariate (single gene) analysis. In the application to real data from integrative oncogenomic studies we show that inclusion of prior information on the regulatory network architecture benefits the reproducibility of all edges. Furthermore, analyses of the TP53 and TGFb signaling pathways between ER+ and ER- samples from an integrative genomics breast cancer study identify reproducible differential regulatory patterns that corroborate with existing literature.

  6. Water quality management of aquifer recharge using advanced tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling.

  7. Probabilistic modelling and uncertainty analysis of flux and water balance changes in a regional aquifer system due to coal seam gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekanth, J; Cui, Tao; Pickett, Trevor; Rassam, David; Gilfedder, Mat; Barrett, Damian

    2018-09-01

    Large scale development of coal seam gas (CSG) is occurring in many sedimentary basins around the world including Australia, where commercial production of CSG has started in the Surat and Bowen basins. CSG development often involves extraction of large volumes of water that results in depressurising aquifers that overlie and/or underlie the coal seams thus perturbing their flow regimes. This can potentially impact regional aquifer systems that are used for many purposes such as irrigation, and stock and domestic water. In this study, we adopt a probabilistic approach to quantify the depressurisation of the Gunnedah coal seams and how this impacts fluxes to, and from the overlying Great Artesian Basin (GAB) Pilliga Sandstone aquifer. The proposed method is suitable when effects of a new resource development activity on the regional groundwater balance needs to be assessed and account for large scale uncertainties in the groundwater flow system and proposed activity. The results indicated that the extraction of water and gas from the coal seam could potentially induce additional fluxes from the Pilliga Sandstone to the deeper formations due to lowering pressure heads in the coal seams. The median value of the rise in the maximum flux from the Pilliga Sandstone to the deeper formations is estimated to be 85ML/year, which is considered insignificant as it forms only about 0.29% of the Long Term Annual Average Extraction Limit of 30GL/year from the groundwater management area. The probabilistic simulation of the water balance components indicates only small changes being induced by CSG development that influence interactions of the Pilliga Sandstone with the overlying and underlying formations and with the surface water courses. The current analyses that quantified the potential maximum impacts of resource developments and how they influences the regional water balance, would greatly underpin future management decisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Multi-isotope (carbon and chlorine) analysis for fingerprinting and site characterization at a fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by chlorinated ethenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.palau@unine.ch [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marchesi, Massimo [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Chambon, Julie C.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Aravena, Ramon [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Canals, Àngels [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Binning, Philip J.; Bjerg, Poul L. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-01

    The use of compound specific multi-isotope approach (C and Cl) in the characterization of a chlorinated ethenes contaminated fractured aquifer allows the identification of several sources and contaminant plumes, as well as the occurrence of biodegradation and mixing processes. The study site is located in Spain with contamination resulting in groundwater concentrations of up to 50 mg/L of trichloroethene (TCE), the most abundant chlorinated ethene, and 7 mg/L of tetrachloroethene (PCE). The potential sources of contamination including abandoned barrels, an underground tank, and a disposal lagoon, showed a wide range in δ{sup 13}C values from − 15.6 to − 40.5‰ for TCE and from − 18.5 to − 32.4‰ for PCE, allowing the use of isotope fingerprinting for tracing of the origin and migration of these contaminants in the aquifer. In contrast, there is no difference between the δ{sup 37}Cl values for TCE in the contaminant sources, ranging from + 0.53 to + 0.66‰. Variations of δ{sup 37}Cl and δ{sup 13}C in the different contaminant plumes were used to investigate the role of biodegradation in groundwater. Moreover, the isotopic data were incorporated into a reactive transport model for determination of whether the isotope pattern observed downstream from the tank's source could be explained by the simultaneous effect of mixing and biodegradation. The results demonstrate that a multi-isotope approach is a valuable tool for characterization of complex sites such as fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by multiple sources, providing important information which can be used by consultants and site managers to prioritize and design more successful remediation strategies. - Highlights: • Origin and fate of CAHs in groundwater by means of multi CSIA ({sup 13}C,{sup 35}Cl) survey • Innovative/new approach tested in a fractured bedrock site • Differentiation of distinct CAH sources • Biodegradation and source mixing recognition in the aquifer.

  9. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas; Banta, John

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3−) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3− in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3− stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3− concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3− concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3− concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3−. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3− contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3−than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously

  10. Hydrochemistry and isotope geochemistry as management tools for groundwater resources in multilayer aquifers: A study case from the Po plain (Lomellina, South-Western Lombardy, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilla, G; Sacchi, E; Ciancetti, G; Braga, G [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Zuppi, G M [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita Ca' Foscari di Venezia, Venice (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    distinguished. All data were georeferenced and integrated in a GIS database. Subsequently, 40 wells and natural outflows were selected for the hydrochemical and isotopic characterisation. The selection was performed in order to cover homogeneously the studied region both in terms of extension and depth. Analyses included major ions, trace elements, pesticides, stable isotopes of the water molecule, {sup 13}C and {sup 14}C of dissolved inorganic carbon. Shallow waters containing high levels of nitrates were considered for the isotopic analysis of {sup 15}N and {sup 18}O of NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Hydrochemical analyses defined the hydrochemical facies as calcium-bicarbonate. Groundwaters generally show a decreasing conductivity and mineralisation with depth. The phreatic aquifer displays evidence for groundwater pollution from agricultural activities, namely high nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents and, locally, detectable levels of pesticides. Deep confined aquifers contain groundwater of excellent quality standards. Activity diagrams clearly allow the distinction between the phreatic aquifer and the confined aquifers, which display a higher degree of interaction with the aquifer matrix. Stable isotopes of the water molecule are in agreement with the results form adjacent sectors of the Po plain (Pilla, 1998), evidencing the lateral continuity of the aquifers. The phreatic aquifer and the different confined aquifers may be distinguished on the basis of their isotopic composition, which also allowed to verify their hydraulic confinement of deeper aquifers. Intermediate aquifers are in part recharged by the shallow phreatic aquifer, which in turn is fed by local infiltration and by streams and irrigation channels. The isotopic analysis of nitrates of 10 waters samples from outflows and shallow wells confirms the agricultural origin of contaminants in the phreatic aquifer. The isotopic signature is typical for the nitrification of synthetic fertilisers (Clark and Fritz, 1997). A

  11. The usefulness of multi-well aquifer tests in heterogeneous aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S.C.; Benton, D.J.; Herweijer, J.C.; Sims, P.

    1990-01-01

    Three large-scale (100 m) and seven small-scale (3-7 m) multi-well aquifer tests were conducted in a heterogeneous aquifer to determine the transmissivity distribution across a one-hectare test site. Two of the large-scale tests had constant but different rates of discharge; the remaining large-scale test had a discharge that was pulsed at regulated intervals. The small-scale tests were conducted at two well clusters 20 m apart. The program WELTEST was written to analyze the data. By using the methods of non-linear least squares regression analysis and Broyden's method to solve for non-linear extrema, WELTEST automatically determines the best values of transmissivity and the storage coefficient. The test results show that order of magnitude differences in the calculated transmissivities at a well location can be realized by varying the discharge rate at the pumping well, the duration of the aquifer test, and/or the location of the pumping well. The calculated storage coefficients for the tests cover a five-order magnitude range. The data show a definite trend for the storage coefficient to increase with the distance between the pumping and the observation wells. This trend is shown to be related to the orientation of high hydraulic conductivity zones between the pumping and the observation wells. A comparison among single-well aquifer tests, geological investigations and multi-well aquifer tests indicate that the multi-well tests are poorly suited for characterizing a transmissivity field. (Author) (11 refs., 14 figs.)

  12. Flow Generated by a Partially Penetrating Well in a Leaky Two-Aquifer System with a Storative Semiconfining Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, N.; Rohrer, K.

    2008-05-01

    The permeability of the semiconfining layers of the highly productive Floridan Aquifer System may be large enough to invalidate the assumptions of the leaky aquifer theory. These layers are the intermediate confining and the middle semiconfining units. The analysis of aquifer-test data with analytical solutions of the ground-water flow equation developed with the approximation of a low hydraulic conductivity ratio between the semiconfining layer and the aquifer may lead to inaccurate hydraulic parameters. An analytical solution is presented here for the flow in a confined leaky aquifer, the overlying storative semiconfining layer, and the unconfined aquifer, generated by a partially penetrating well in a two-aquifer system, and allowing vertical and lateral flow components to occur in the semiconfining layer. The equations describing flow caused by a partially penetrating production well are solved analytically to provide a method to accurately determine the hydraulic parameters in the confined aquifer, semiconfining layer, and unconfined aquifer from aquifer-test data. Analysis of the drawdown data from an aquifer test performed in central Florida showed that the flow solution presented here for the semiconfining layer provides a better match and a more unique identification of the hydraulic parameters than an analytical solution that considers only vertical flow in the semiconfining layer.

  13. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of drinking water for a given aquifer service area; that is, an aquifer which is needed to supply 50% or more of the drinking water for the area and for which there are no reasonable alternative sources should the aquifer become contaminated.The aquifers were defined by a EPA hydrogeologist. Aquifer boundaries were then drafted by EPA onto 1:24000 USGS quadrangles. For the coastal sole source aquifers the shoreline as it appeared on the quadrangle was used as a boundary. Delineated boundaries were then digitized into ARC/INFO.

  14. Integration of facility modeling capabilities for nuclear nonproliferation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, Tom; Gorensek, M.B.; Krebs, John; Kress, Reid L.; Lamberti, Vincent; Schoenwald, David; Ward, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclearnonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facilitymodeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facilitymodeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facilitymodelingcapabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferationanalysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facilitymodeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facilitymodelingcapabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  15. Hydrogeologic characterization of a fractured granitic rock aquifer, Raymond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Andrew J.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The hydrogeologic properties of a shallow, fractured granitic rock aquifer in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California were investigated via the analysis of borehole geophysical logs and pumping tests. The drawdowns produced during these tests are not indicative of any simple conceptual aquifer model, and borehole logs show that the granite is intensely fractured. These observations are suggestive of a complex fracture-flow geometry which is extremely difficult to decipher. However, through the measurement of orientations of individual subsurface fractures from acoustic televiewer logs, and correlation between particular fractures and electrical resistivity and thermal-pulse flowmeter logs, it was found that the aquifer is, in general, comprised of two subhorizontal and nearly parallel zones of unloading fractures. Downhole flowmeter measurements taken in several wells provide further evidence for the inferred dual-layer structure of the aquifer, as well as yield quantitative measures of the contribution of flow from each zone. Analysis of drawdowns in pumped wells reveals that there are zones of relatively high transmissivity immediately around them. It was found that these properties, as well as a nearby zone of lower transmissivity, can account for their observed drawdowns. A numerical model was constructed to test whether these major heterogeneities could also account for the drawdowns in observation wells. This stepwise analysis of both the geophysical and hydrological data resulted in the formulation of a conceptual model of the aquifer which is consistent with observations, and which can account for its behavior when subjected to pumping.

  16. Integrated situational awareness for cyber attack detection, analysis, and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi; Sagduyu, Yalin; Deng, Julia; Li, Jason; Liu, Peng

    2012-06-01

    Real-time cyberspace situational awareness is critical for securing and protecting today's enterprise networks from various cyber threats. When a security incident occurs, network administrators and security analysts need to know what exactly has happened in the network, why it happened, and what actions or countermeasures should be taken to quickly mitigate the potential impacts. In this paper, we propose an integrated cyberspace situational awareness system for efficient cyber attack detection, analysis and mitigation in large-scale enterprise networks. Essentially, a cyberspace common operational picture will be developed, which is a multi-layer graphical model and can efficiently capture and represent the statuses, relationships, and interdependencies of various entities and elements within and among different levels of a network. Once shared among authorized users, this cyberspace common operational picture can provide an integrated view of the logical, physical, and cyber domains, and a unique visualization of disparate data sets to support decision makers. In addition, advanced analyses, such as Bayesian Network analysis, will be explored to address the information uncertainty, dynamic and complex cyber attack detection, and optimal impact mitigation issues. All the developed technologies will be further integrated into an automatic software toolkit to achieve near real-time cyberspace situational awareness and impact mitigation in large-scale computer networks.

  17. Measure and integral an introduction to real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeden, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Now considered a classic text on the topic, Measure and Integral: An Introduction to Real Analysis provides an introduction to real analysis by first developing the theory of measure and integration in the simple setting of Euclidean space, and then presenting a more general treatment based on abstract notions characterized by axioms and with less geometric content.Published nearly forty years after the first edition, this long-awaited Second Edition also:Studies the Fourier transform of functions in the spaces L1, L2, and Lp, 1 p Shows the Hilbert transform to be a bounded operator on L2, as an application of the L2 theory of the Fourier transform in the one-dimensional caseCovers fractional integration and some topics related to mean oscillation properties of functions, such as the classes of Hölder continuous functions and the space of functions of bounded mean oscillationDerives a subrepresentation formula, which in higher dimensions plays a role roughly similar to the one played by the fundamental theor...

  18. Integrative Analysis of Cancer Diagnosis Studies with Composite Penalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Ma, Shuangge

    2013-01-01

    Summary In cancer diagnosis studies, high-throughput gene profiling has been extensively conducted, searching for genes whose expressions may serve as markers. Data generated from such studies have the “large d, small n” feature, with the number of genes profiled much larger than the sample size. Penalization has been extensively adopted for simultaneous estimation and marker selection. Because of small sample sizes, markers identified from the analysis of single datasets can be unsatisfactory. A cost-effective remedy is to conduct integrative analysis of multiple heterogeneous datasets. In this article, we investigate composite penalization methods for estimation and marker selection in integrative analysis. The proposed methods use the minimax concave penalty (MCP) as the outer penalty. Under the homogeneity model, the ridge penalty is adopted as the inner penalty. Under the heterogeneity model, the Lasso penalty and MCP are adopted as the inner penalty. Effective computational algorithms based on coordinate descent are developed. Numerical studies, including simulation and analysis of practical cancer datasets, show satisfactory performance of the proposed methods. PMID:24578589

  19. Methodology for dimensional variation analysis of ITER integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, F. Javier; Trouvé, Vincent; Cordier, Jean-Jacques; Reich, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tokamak dimensional management methodology, based on 3D variation analysis, is presented. • Dimensional Variation Model implementation workflow is described. • Methodology phases are described in detail. The application of this methodology to the tolerance analysis of ITER Vacuum Vessel is presented. • Dimensional studies are a valuable tool for the assessment of Tokamak PCR (Project Change Requests), DR (Deviation Requests) and NCR (Non-Conformance Reports). - Abstract: The ITER machine consists of a large number of complex systems highly integrated, with critical functional requirements and reduced design clearances to minimize the impact in cost and performances. Tolerances and assembly accuracies in critical areas could have a serious impact in the final performances, compromising the machine assembly and plasma operation. The management of tolerances allocated to part manufacture and assembly processes, as well as the control of potential deviations and early mitigation of non-compliances with the technical requirements, is a critical activity on the project life cycle. A 3D tolerance simulation analysis of ITER Tokamak machine has been developed based on 3DCS dedicated software. This integrated dimensional variation model is representative of Tokamak manufacturing functional tolerances and assembly processes, predicting accurate values for the amount of variation on critical areas. This paper describes the detailed methodology to implement and update the Tokamak Dimensional Variation Model. The model is managed at system level. The methodology phases are illustrated by its application to the Vacuum Vessel (VV), considering the status of maturity of VV dimensional variation model. The following topics are described in this paper: • Model description and constraints. • Model implementation workflow. • Management of input and output data. • Statistical analysis and risk assessment. The management of the integration studies based on

  20. Methodology for dimensional variation analysis of ITER integrated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, F. Javier, E-mail: FranciscoJavier.Fuentes@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon—CS 90046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Trouvé, Vincent [Assystem Engineering & Operation Services, rue J-M Jacquard CS 60117, 84120 Pertuis (France); Cordier, Jean-Jacques; Reich, Jens [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon—CS 90046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Tokamak dimensional management methodology, based on 3D variation analysis, is presented. • Dimensional Variation Model implementation workflow is described. • Methodology phases are described in detail. The application of this methodology to the tolerance analysis of ITER Vacuum Vessel is presented. • Dimensional studies are a valuable tool for the assessment of Tokamak PCR (Project Change Requests), DR (Deviation Requests) and NCR (Non-Conformance Reports). - Abstract: The ITER machine consists of a large number of complex systems highly integrated, with critical functional requirements and reduced design clearances to minimize the impact in cost and performances. Tolerances and assembly accuracies in critical areas could have a serious impact in the final performances, compromising the machine assembly and plasma operation. The management of tolerances allocated to part manufacture and assembly processes, as well as the control of potential deviations and early mitigation of non-compliances with the technical requirements, is a critical activity on the project life cycle. A 3D tolerance simulation analysis of ITER Tokamak machine has been developed based on 3DCS dedicated software. This integrated dimensional variation model is representative of Tokamak manufacturing functional tolerances and assembly processes, predicting accurate values for the amount of variation on critical areas. This paper describes the detailed methodology to implement and update the Tokamak Dimensional Variation Model. The model is managed at system level. The methodology phases are illustrated by its application to the Vacuum Vessel (VV), considering the status of maturity of VV dimensional variation model. The following topics are described in this paper: • Model description and constraints. • Model implementation workflow. • Management of input and output data. • Statistical analysis and risk assessment. The management of the integration studies based on

  1. Technology integrated teaching in Malaysian schools: GIS, a SWOT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibah Lateh, vasugiammai muniandy

    2011-08-01

    , articles and proceeding papers. Researches had been continuously done in integrating GIS into Geography syllabus. Thus, this article describes and discusses the barriers and opportunities of implementing GIS in schools with a deep focus of how GIS could enhance the process of teaching and learning geography. The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of GIS in enhancing students’ interest towards the subject. Barriers that might limit the implementation of GIS in schools also briefly discussedin this article. The capabilities of GIS in schools and teaching with GIS is also a part of this article. SWOT analysis is used to find the strength, threaten, opportunities and weakness of GIS to be integrated in Malaysian schools. A content analysis was performed using articles from local and abroad publications regarding technology integration and GIS. Conference proceedings were also analyzed. This content analysis included 35 articles selected from ICT and GIS publication in Malaysia and abroad. The content analysis was done in order to identify the barriers of trying GIS in schools in Malaysia. Thus, this article discusses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threatens. The future of GIS in Malaysian Schools has been added into the conclusion.

  2. Analysis on working pressure selection of ACME integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lian; Chang Huajian; Li Yuquan; Ye Zishen; Qin Benke

    2011-01-01

    An integral effects test facility, advanced core cooling mechanism experiment facility (ACME) was designed to verify the performance of the passive safety system and validate its safety analysis codes of a pressurized water reactor power plant. Three test facilities for AP1000 design were introduced and review was given. The problems resulted from the different working pressures of its test facilities were analyzed. Then a detailed description was presented on the working pressure selection of ACME facility as well as its characteristics. And the approach of establishing desired testing initial condition was discussed. The selected 9.3 MPa working pressure covered almost all important passive safety system enables the ACME to simulate the LOCAs with the same pressure and property similitude as the prototype. It's expected that the ACME design would be an advanced core cooling integral test facility design. (authors)

  3. Application of symplectic integrator to numerical fluid analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuatsu

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on application of the symplectic integrator to numerical fluid analysis. For the purpose, we introduce Hamiltonian particle dynamics to simulate fluid behavior. The method is based on both the Hamiltonian formulation of a system and the particle methods, and is therefore called Hamiltonian Particle Dynamics (HPD). In this paper, an example of HPD applications, namely the behavior of incompressible inviscid fluid, is solved. In order to improve accuracy of HPD with respect to space, CIVA, which is a highly accurate interpolation method, is combined, but the combined method is subject to problems in that the invariants of the system are not conserved in a long-time computation. For solving the problems, symplectic time integrators are introduced and the effectiveness is confirmed by numerical analyses. (author)

  4. Statistical analysis and mapping of water levels in the Biscayne aquifer, water conservation areas, and Everglades National Park, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2000–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2016-02-25

    Statistical analyses and maps representing mean, high, and low water-level conditions in the surface water and groundwater of Miami-Dade County were made by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade County Department of Regulatory and Economic Resources, to help inform decisions necessary for urban planning and development. Sixteen maps were created that show contours of (1) the mean of daily water levels at each site during October and May for the 2000–2009 water years; (2) the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of the daily water levels at each site during October and May and for all months during 2000–2009; and (3) the differences between mean October and May water levels, as well as the differences in the percentiles of water levels for all months, between 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. The 80th, 90th, and 96th percentiles of the annual maximums of daily groundwater levels during 1974–2009 (a 35-year period) were computed to provide an indication of unusually high groundwater-level conditions. These maps and statistics provide a generalized understanding of the variations of water levels in the aquifer, rather than a survey of concurrent water levels. Water-level measurements from 473 sites in Miami-Dade County and surrounding counties were analyzed to generate statistical analyses. The monitored water levels included surface-water levels in canals and wetland areas and groundwater levels in the Biscayne aquifer.

  5. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  6. Estimating Groundwater Mounding in Sloping Aquifers for Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Vitaly A; Kacimov, Anvar; Al-Maktoumi, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Design of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) for augmentation of groundwater resources often lacks detailed data, and simple diagnostic tools for evaluation of the water table in a broad range of parameters are needed. In many large-scale MAR projects, the effect of a regional aquifer base dip cannot be ignored due to the scale of recharge sources (e.g., wadis, streams, reservoirs). However, Hantush's (1967) solution for a horizontal aquifer base is commonly used. To address sloping aquifers, a new closed-form analytical solution for water table mound accounts for the geometry and orientation of recharge sources at the land surface with respect to the aquifer base dip. The solution, based on the Dupiuit-Forchheimer approximation, Green's function method, and coordinate transformations is convenient for computing. This solution reveals important MAR traits in variance with Hantush's solution: mounding is limited in time and space; elevation of the mound is strongly affected by the dip angle; and the peak of the mound moves over time. These findings have important practical implications for assessment of various MAR scenarios, including waterlogging potential and determining proper rates of recharge. Computations are illustrated for several characteristic MAR settings. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Conceptualization of flow and transport in a limestone aquifer by multiple dedicated hydraulic and tracer tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Brauns, Bentje; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann

    2018-01-01

    Limestone aquifers are of great interest as a drinking water resource in many countries. They often have a complex crushed and fractured geology, which makes the analysis and description of flow and transport processes in such aquifers a challenging task. In this study, the solute transport behav...

  8. Three-Dimensional Flow Generated by a Partially Penetrating Well in a Two-Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, N.

    2007-12-01

    An analytical solution is presented for three-dimensional (3D) flow in a confined aquifer and the overlying storative semiconfining layer and unconfined aquifer. The equation describing flow caused by a partially penetrating production well is solved analytically to provide a method to accurately determine the hydraulic parameters in the confined aquifer, semiconfining layer, and unconfined aquifer from aquifer-test data. Previous solutions for a partially penetrating well did not account for 3D flow or storativity in the semiconfining unit. The 3D and two- dimensional (2D) flow solutions in the semiconfining layer are compared for various hydraulic conductivity ratios between the aquifer and the semiconfining layer. Analysis of the drawdown data from an aquifer test in central Florida showed that the 3D solution in the semiconfining layer provides a more unique identification of the hydraulic parameters than the 2D solution. The analytical solution could be used to analyze, with higher accuracy, the effect that pumping water from the lower aquifer in a two-aquifer system has on wetlands.

  9. Conceptual and numerical modeling approach of the Guarani Aquifer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In large aquifers, relevant for their considerable size, regional groundwater modeling remains challenging given geologic complexity and data scarcity in space and time. Yet, it may be conjectured that regional scale groundwater flow models can help in understanding the flow system functioning and the relative magnitude of water budget components, which are important for aquifer management. The Guaraní Aquifer System is the largest transboundary aquifer in South America. It contains an enormous volume of water; however, it is not well known, being difficult to assess the impact of exploitation currently used to supply over 25 million inhabitants. This is a sensitive issue because the aquifer is shared by four countries. Moreover, an integrated groundwater model, and therefore a global water balance, were not available. In this work, a transient regional scale model for the entire aquifer based upon five simplified, equally plausible conceptual models represented by different hydraulic conductivity parametrizations is used to analyze the flow system and water balance components. Combining an increasing number of hydraulic conductivity zones and an appropriate set of boundary conditions, the hypothesis of a continuous sedimentary unit yielded errors within the calibration target in a regional sense. The magnitude of the water budget terms resulted very similar for all parametrizations. Recharge and stream/aquifer fluxes were the dominant components representing, on average, 84.2% of total inflows and 61.4% of total outflows, respectively. However, leakage was small compared to stream discharges of main rivers. For instance, the simulated average leakage for the Uruguay River was 8 m3 s−1 while the observed absolute minimum discharge was 382 m3 s−1. Streams located in heavily pumped regions switched from a gaining condition in early years to a losing condition over time. Water is discharged through

  10. Conceptual and numerical modeling approach of the Guarani Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L.; Vives, L.; Gomez, A.

    2013-01-01

    In large aquifers, relevant for their considerable size, regional groundwater modeling remains challenging given geologic complexity and data scarcity in space and time. Yet, it may be conjectured that regional scale groundwater flow models can help in understanding the flow system functioning and the relative magnitude of water budget components, which are important for aquifer management. The Guaraní Aquifer System is the largest transboundary aquifer in South America. It contains an enormous volume of water; however, it is not well known, being difficult to assess the impact of exploitation currently used to supply over 25 million inhabitants. This is a sensitive issue because the aquifer is shared by four countries. Moreover, an integrated groundwater model, and therefore a global water balance, were not available. In this work, a transient regional scale model for the entire aquifer based upon five simplified, equally plausible conceptual models represented by different hydraulic conductivity parametrizations is used to analyze the flow system and water balance components. Combining an increasing number of hydraulic conductivity zones and an appropriate set of boundary conditions, the hypothesis of a continuous sedimentary unit yielded errors within the calibration target in a regional sense. The magnitude of the water budget terms resulted very similar for all parametrizations. Recharge and stream/aquifer fluxes were the dominant components representing, on average, 84.2% of total inflows and 61.4% of total outflows, respectively. However, leakage was small compared to stream discharges of main rivers. For instance, the simulated average leakage for the Uruguay River was 8 m3 s-1 while the observed absolute minimum discharge was 382 m3 s-1. Streams located in heavily pumped regions switched from a gaining condition in early years to a losing condition over time. Water is discharged through the aquifer boundaries, except at the eastern boundary. On average

  11. Integrated information system for analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.

    1994-01-01

    Performing complicated engineering analyses of a nuclear power plant requires storage and manipulation of a large amount of information, both data and knowledge. This information is characterized by its multidisciplinary nature, complexity, and diversity. The problems caused by inefficient and lengthy manual operations involving the data flow management within the frame-work of the safety-related analysis of a power plant can be solved by applying the computer aided engineering principles. These principles are the basis of the design of an integrated information storage system (IRIS). The basic idea is to create a computerized environment, which includes both database and functional capabilities. Consideration and analysis of the data types and required data manipulation capabilities as well as operational requirements, resulted in the choice of an object-oriented data-base management system (OODBMS) as a development platform for solving the software engineering problems. Several advantages of OODBMSs over conventional relations database systems were found of crucial importance, especially providing the necessary flexibility for different data types and extensibility potential. A detailed design of a data model is produced for the plant technical data and for the storage of analysis results. The overall system architecture was designed to assure the feasibility of integrating database capabilities with procedures and functions written in conventional algorithmic programming languages

  12. Vertically integrated analysis of human DNA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, M.

    1997-10-01

    This project has been oriented toward improving the vertical integration of the sequential steps associated with the large-scale analysis of human DNA. The central focus has been on an approach to the preparation of {open_quotes}sequence-ready{close_quotes} maps, which is referred to as multiple-complete-digest (MCD) mapping, primarily directed at cosmid clones. MCD mapping relies on simple experimental steps, supported by advanced image-analysis and map-assembly software, to produce extremely accurate restriction-site and clone-overlap maps. We believe that MCD mapping is one of the few high-resolution mapping systems that has the potential for high-level automation. Successful automation of this process would be a landmark event in genome analysis. Once other higher organisms, paving the way for cost-effective sequencing of these genomes. Critically, MCD mapping has the potential to provide built-in quality control for sequencing accuracy and to make possible a highly integrated end product even if there are large numbers of discontinuities in the actual sequence.

  13. DESIGN ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES THROUGH INTEGRATED NUMERICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAVIND C.V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An integrated design platform for the newer type of machines is presented in this work. The machine parameters are evaluated out using developed modelling tool. With the machine parameters, the machine is modelled using computer aided tool. The designed machine is brought to simulation tool to perform electromagnetic and electromechanical analysis. In the simulation, conditions setting are performed to setup the materials, meshes, rotational speed and the excitation circuit. Electromagnetic analysis is carried out to predict the behavior of the machine based on the movement of flux in the machines. Besides, electromechanical analysis is carried out to analyse the speed-torque characteristic, the current-torque characteristic and the phase angle-torque characteristic. After all the results are analysed, the designed machine is used to generate S block function that is compatible with MATLAB/SIMULINK tool for the dynamic operational characteristics. This allows the integration of existing drive system into the new machines designed in the modelling tool. An example of the machine design is presented to validate the usage of such a tool.

  14. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  15. A correction for Dupuit-Forchheimer interface flow models of seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koussis, Antonis D.; Mazi, Katerina; Riou, Fabien; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    Interface flow models that use the Dupuit-Forchheimer (DF) approximation for assessing the freshwater lens and the seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers lack representation of the gap through which fresh groundwater discharges to the sea. In these models, the interface outcrops unrealistically at the same point as the free surface, is too shallow and intersects the aquifer base too far inland, thus overestimating an intruding seawater front. To correct this shortcoming of DF-type interface solutions for unconfined aquifers, we here adapt the outflow gap estimate of an analytical 2-D interface solution for infinitely thick aquifers to fit the 50%-salinity contour of variable-density solutions for finite-depth aquifers. We further improve the accuracy of the interface toe location predicted with depth-integrated DF interface solutions by ∼20% (relative to the 50%-salinity contour of variable-density solutions) by combining the outflow-gap adjusted aquifer depth at the sea with a transverse-dispersion adjusted density ratio (Pool and Carrera, 2011), appropriately modified for unconfined flow. The effectiveness of the combined correction is exemplified for two regional Mediterranean aquifers, the Israel Coastal and Nile Delta aquifers.

  16. An Integrated Analysis of Changes in Water Stress in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichs, T.; Lehner, B.; Alcamo, J.

    2002-01-01

    Future changes in water availability with climate change and changes in water use due to socio-economic development are to occur in parallel. In an integrated analysis we bring together these aspects of global change in a consistent manner, and analyse the water stress situation in Europe. We find...... that today high water stress exists in one-fifth of European river basin area. Under a scenario projection, increases in water use throughout Eastern Europe are accompanied by decreases in water availability in most of Southern Europe--combining these trends leads to a marked increase in water stress...

  17. Case for integral core-disruptive accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, L.B.; Bell, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Integral analysis is an approach used at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to cope with the broad multiplicity of accident paths and complex phenomena that characterize the transition phase of core-disruptive accident progression in a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor. The approach is based on the combination of a reference calculation, which is intended to represent a band of similar accident paths, and associated system- and separate-effect studies, which are designed to determine the effect of uncertainties. Results are interpreted in the context of a probabilistic framework. The approach was applied successfully in two studies; illustrations from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor licensing assessment are included

  18. Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil; Wolff, Anders

    2003-01-01

    A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar....... The emphasis of this paper is on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection and its relation to the sensitivity. Two absorbance cells with an optical path length of 100 μm and 1000 μm were characterized and compared in terms of sensitivity, limit of detection and effective path length for measurements...

  19. Onset of density-driven instabilities in fractured aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Raad, Seyed Mostafa; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Linear stability analysis is conducted to study the onset of density-driven convection involved in solubility trapping of C O2 in fractured aquifers. The effect of physical properties of a fracture network on the stability of a diffusive boundary layer in a saturated fractured porous media is investigated using the dual porosity concept. Linear stability analysis results show that both fracture interporosity flow and fracture storativity play an important role in the stability behavior of the system. It is shown that a diffusive boundary layer under the gravity field in fractured porous media with lower fracture storativity and/or higher fracture interporosity flow coefficient is more stable. We present scaling relations for the onset of convective instability in fractured aquifers with single and variable matrix block size distribution. These findings improve our understanding of density-driven flow in fractured aquifers and are important in the estimation of potential storage capacity, risk assessment, and storage site characterization and screening.

  20. Integrated Modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project: Structural Analysis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John; Mosier, Mark; Howard, Joe; Hyde, Tupper; Parrish, Keith; Ha, Kong; Liu, Frank; McGinnis, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs about structural analysis activities and integrated modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The topics include: 1) JWST Overview; 2) Observatory Structural Models; 3) Integrated Performance Analysis; and 4) Future Work and Challenges.

  1. Integrated omics analysis of specialized metabolism in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2017-05-01

    Medicinal plants are a rich source of highly diverse specialized metabolites with important pharmacological properties. Until recently, plant biologists were limited in their ability to explore the biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites, mainly due to the scarcity of plant genomics resources. However, recent advances in high-throughput large-scale analytical methods have enabled plant biologists to discover biosynthetic pathways for important plant-based medicinal metabolites. The reduced cost of generating omics datasets and the development of computational tools for their analysis and integration have led to the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of several bioactive metabolites of plant origin. These discoveries have inspired synthetic biology approaches to develop microbial systems to produce bioactive metabolites originating from plants, an alternative sustainable source of medicinally important chemicals. Since the demand for medicinal compounds are increasing with the world's population, understanding the complete biosynthesis of specialized metabolites becomes important to identify or develop reliable sources in the future. Here, we review the contributions of major omics approaches and their integration to our understanding of the biosynthetic pathways of bioactive metabolites. We briefly discuss different approaches for integrating omics datasets to extract biologically relevant knowledge and the application of omics datasets in the construction and reconstruction of metabolic models. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Integrative analysis of the mitochondrial proteome in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Prokisch

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study yeast mitochondria were used as a model system to apply, evaluate, and integrate different genomic approaches to define the proteins of an organelle. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry applied to purified mitochondria identified 546 proteins. By expression analysis and comparison to other proteome studies, we demonstrate that the proteomic approach identifies primarily highly abundant proteins. By expanding our evaluation to other types of genomic approaches, including systematic deletion phenotype screening, expression profiling, subcellular localization studies, protein interaction analyses, and computational predictions, we show that an integration of approaches moves beyond the limitations of any single approach. We report the success of each approach by benchmarking it against a reference set of known mitochondrial proteins, and predict approximately 700 proteins associated with the mitochondrial organelle from the integration of 22 datasets. We show that a combination of complementary approaches like deletion phenotype screening and mass spectrometry can identify over 75% of the known mitochondrial proteome. These findings have implications for choosing optimal genome-wide approaches for the study of other cellular systems, including organelles and pathways in various species. Furthermore, our systematic identification of genes involved in mitochondrial function and biogenesis in yeast expands the candidate genes available for mapping Mendelian and complex mitochondrial disorders in humans.

  3. Aquifers Characterization and Productivity in Ellala Catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Aquifers Characterization and Productivity in Ellala Catchment, Tigray, ... using geological and hydrogeological methods in Ellala catchment (296.5km. 2. ) ... Current estimates put the available groundwater ... Aquifer characterization takes into.

  4. Integrated intelligent instruments using supercritical fluid technology for soil analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, S.A.; Phillips, C.; Fitzgerald, W.; Levy, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    Contaminated soils pose a significant challenge for characterization and remediation programs that require rapid, accurate and comprehensive data in the field or laboratory. Environmental analyzers based on supercritical fluid (SF) technology have been designed and developed for meeting these global needs. The analyzers are designated the CHAMP Systems (Chemical Hazards Automated Multimedia Processors). The prototype instrumentation features SF extraction (SFE) and on-line capillary gas chromatographic (GC) analysis with chromatographic and/or spectral identification detectors, such as ultra-violet, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometers. Illustrations are given for a highly automated SFE-capillary GC/flame ionization (FID) configuration to provide validated screening analysis for total extractable hydrocarbons within ca. 5--10 min, as well as a full qualitative/quantitative analysis in 25--30 min. Data analysis using optional expert system and neural networks software is demonstrated for test gasoline and diesel oil mixtures in this integrated intelligent instrument approach to trace organic analysis of soils and sediments

  5. Integrative Analysis of Prognosis Data on Multiple Cancer Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Yawei; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    Summary In cancer research, profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for genes/SNPs associated with prognosis. Cancer is diverse. Examining the similarity and difference in the genetic basis of multiple subtypes of the same cancer can lead to a better understanding of their connections and distinctions. Classic meta-analysis methods analyze each subtype separately and then compare analysis results across subtypes. Integrative analysis methods, in contrast, analyze the raw data on multiple subtypes simultaneously and can outperform meta-analysis methods. In this study, prognosis data on multiple subtypes of the same cancer are analyzed. An AFT (accelerated failure time) model is adopted to describe survival. The genetic basis of multiple subtypes is described using the heterogeneity model, which allows a gene/SNP to be associated with prognosis of some subtypes but not others. A compound penalization method is developed to identify genes that contain important SNPs associated with prognosis. The proposed method has an intuitive formulation and is realized using an iterative algorithm. Asymptotic properties are rigorously established. Simulation shows that the proposed method has satisfactory performance and outperforms a penalization-based meta-analysis method and a regularized thresholding method. An NHL (non-Hodgkin lymphoma) prognosis study with SNP measurements is analyzed. Genes associated with the three major subtypes, namely DLBCL, FL, and CLL/SLL, are identified. The proposed method identifies genes that are different from alternatives and have important implications and satisfactory prediction performance. PMID:24766212

  6. Integrated Data Analysis (IDCA) Program - PETN Class 4 Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of PETN Class 4. The PETN was found to have: 1) an impact sensitivity (DH50) range of 6 to 12 cm, 2) a BAM friction sensitivity (F50) range 7 to 11 kg, TIL (0/10) of 3.7 to 7.2 kg, 3) a ABL friction sensitivity threshold of 5 or less psig at 8 fps, 4) an ABL ESD sensitivity threshold of 0.031 to 0.326 j/g, and 5) a thermal sensitivity of an endothermic feature with Tmin = ~ 141 °C, and a exothermic feature with a Tmax = ~205°C.

  7. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program — Ammonium Nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Redstone Arsenal, AL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-05-17

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of ammonium nitrate (AN). AN was tested, in most cases, as both received from manufacturer and dried/sieved. The participants found the AN to be: 1) insensitive in Type 12A impact testing (although with a wide range of values), 2) completely insensitive in BAM friction testing, 3) less sensitive than the RDX standard in ABL friction testing, 4) less sensitive than RDX in ABL ESD testing, and 5) less sensitive than RDX and PETN in DSC thermal analyses.

  8. An integrated economic and distributional analysis of energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labandeira, Xavier; Labeaga, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Most public policies, particularly those in the energy sphere, have not only efficiency but also distributional effects. However, there is a trade-off between modelling approaches suitable for calculating those impacts on the economy. For the former most of the studies have been conducted with general equilibrium models, whereas partial equilibrium models represent the main approach for distributional analysis. This paper proposes a methodology to simultaneously carry out an analysis of the distributional and efficiency consequences of changes in energy taxation. In order to do so, we have integrated a microeconomic household demand model and a computable general equilibrium model for the Spanish economy. We illustrate the advantages of this approach by simulating a revenue-neutral reform in Spanish indirect taxation, with a large increase of energy taxes that serve an environmental purpose. The results show that the reforms bring about significant efficiency and distributional effects, in some cases counterintuitive, and demonstrate the academic and social utility of this approximation. (author)

  9. An integrated economic and distributional analysis of energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labandeira, Xavier [Facultade de CC. Economicas, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Labeaga, Jose M. [Instituto de Estudios Fiscales, Avda. Cardenal Herrera Oria 378, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, Miguel [Facultade de CC. Empresariais e Turismo, University of Vigo, 32004 Ourense (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Most public policies, particularly those in the energy sphere, have not only efficiency but also distributional effects. However, there is a trade-off between modelling approaches suitable for calculating those impacts on the economy. For the former most of the studies have been conducted with general equilibrium models, whereas partial equilibrium models represent the main approach for distributional analysis. This paper proposes a methodology to simultaneously carry out an analysis of the distributional and efficiency consequences of changes in energy taxation. In order to do so, we have integrated a microeconomic household demand model and a computable general equilibrium model for the Spanish economy. We illustrate the advantages of this approach by simulating a revenue-neutral reform in Spanish indirect taxation, with a large increase of energy taxes that serve an environmental purpose. The results show that the reforms bring about significant efficiency and distributional effects, in some cases counterintuitive, and demonstrate the academic and social utility of this approximation. (author)

  10. Simulation analysis for integrated evaluation of technical and commercial risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutleber, D.S.; Heiberger, E.M.; Morris, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    Decisions to invest in oil- and gasfield acquisitions or participating interests often are based on the perceived ability to enhance the economic value of the underlying asset. A multidisciplinary approach integrating reservoir engineering, operations and drilling, and deal structuring with Monte Carlo simulation modeling can overcome weaknesses of deterministic analysis and significantly enhance investment decisions. This paper discusses the use of spreadsheets and Monte Carlo simulation to generate probabilistic outcomes for key technical and economic parameters for ultimate identification of the economic volatility and value of potential deal concepts for a significant opportunity. The approach differs from a simple risk analysis for an individual well by incorporating detailed, full-field simulations that vary the reservoir parameters, capital and operating cost assumptions, and schedules on timing in the framework of various deal structures

  11. Multi-isotope (carbon and chlorine) analysis for fingerprinting and site characterization at a fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by chlorinated ethenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palau, Jordi; Marchesi, Massimo; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    2014-01-01

    is located in Spain with contamination resulting in groundwater concentrations of up to 50 mg/L of trichloroethene (TCE), the most abundant chlorinated ethene, and 7 mg/L of tetrachloroethene (PCE). The potential sources of contamination including abandoned barrels, an underground tank, and a disposal lagoon......, showed a wide range in δ13C values from − 15.6 to − 40.5‰ for TCE and from − 18.5 to − 32.4‰ for PCE, allowing the use of isotope fingerprinting for tracing of the origin and migration of these contaminants in the aquifer. In contrast, there is no difference between the δ37Cl values for TCE...

  12. Integrating Pavement Crack Detection and Analysis Using Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-27

    INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE...protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-195 INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-195 INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of the Integrated Medical Model for ISS Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenow, D. A.; Myers, J. G.; Arellano, J.; Boley, L.; Garcia, Y.; Saile, L.; Walton, M.; Kerstman, E.; Reyes, D.; Young, M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis estimates the relative contribution of the uncertainty in input values to the uncertainty of model outputs. Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient (PRCC) and Standardized Rank Regression Coefficient (SRRC) are methods of conducting sensitivity analysis on nonlinear simulation models like the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The PRCC method estimates the sensitivity using partial correlation of the ranks of the generated input values to each generated output value. The partial part is so named because adjustments are made for the linear effects of all the other input values in the calculation of correlation between a particular input and each output. In SRRC, standardized regression-based coefficients measure the sensitivity of each input, adjusted for all the other inputs, on each output. Because the relative ranking of each of the inputs and outputs is used, as opposed to the values themselves, both methods accommodate the nonlinear relationship of the underlying model. As part of the IMM v4.0 validation study, simulations are available that predict 33 person-missions on ISS and 111 person-missions on STS. These simulated data predictions feed the sensitivity analysis procedures. The inputs to the sensitivity procedures include the number occurrences of each of the one hundred IMM medical conditions generated over the simulations and the associated IMM outputs: total quality time lost (QTL), number of evacuations (EVAC), and number of loss of crew lives (LOCL). The IMM team will report the results of using PRCC and SRRC on IMM v4.0 predictions of the ISS and STS missions created as part of the external validation study. Tornado plots will assist in the visualization of the condition-related input sensitivities to each of the main outcomes. The outcomes of this sensitivity analysis will drive review focus by identifying conditions where changes in uncertainty could drive changes in overall model output uncertainty. These efforts are an integral

  14. Multi - band Persistent Scatterer Interferometry data integration for landslide analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Silvia; Mateos, Rosa; Mora, Oscar; García, Inma; Sánchez, Ciscu; Sanabria, Margarita; López, Maite; Mulas, Joaquin; Hernández, Mario; Herrera, Gerardo

    2013-04-01

    We present a methodology to perform a geomorphological assessment of ground movements over wide areas, by improving Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) analysis for landslide studies. The procedure relies on the integrated use of multi-band EO data acquired by different satellite sensors in different time intervals, to provide a detailed investigation of ground displacements. The methodology, throughout the cross-comparison and integration of PS data in different microwave bands (ALOS in L-band, ERS1/2 and ENVISAT in C-band, COSMOSKY-MED in X-band), is applied on the Tramontana Range in the northwestern part of Mallorca island (Spain), extensively affected by mass movements across time, especially during the last years. We increase the confidence degree of the available interferometric data and we homogenize all PS targets by implementing and classifying them through common criteria. Therefore, PSI results are combined with geo-thematic data and pre-existing landslide inventories of the study area, in order to improve the landslide database, providing additional information on the detected ground displacements. The results of this methodology are used to elaborate landslide activity maps, permitting to jointly exploit heterogeneous PS data for analyzing landslides at regional scale. Moreover, from a geomorphological perspective, the proposed approach exploits the implemented PS data to achieve a reliable spatial analysis of movement rates, whatever referred to certain landslide phenomena or to other natural processes, in order to perform ground motion activity maps within a wide area.

  15. Integrated severe accident containment analysis with the CONTAIN computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Williams, D.C.; Rexroth, P.E.; Tills, J.L.

    1985-12-01

    Analysis of physical and radiological conditions iunside the containment building during a severe (core-melt) nuclear reactor accident requires quantitative evaluation of numerous highly disparate yet coupled phenomenologies. These include two-phase thermodynamics and thermal-hydraulics, aerosol physics, fission product phenomena, core-concrete interactions, the formation and combustion of flammable gases, and performance of engineered safety features. In the past, this complexity has meant that a complete containment analysis would require application of suites of separate computer codes each of which would treat only a narrower subset of these phenomena, e.g., a thermal-hydraulics code, an aerosol code, a core-concrete interaction code, etc. In this paper, we describe the development and some recent applications of the CONTAIN code, which offers an integrated treatment of the dominant containment phenomena and the interactions among them. We describe the results of a series of containment phenomenology studies, based upon realistic accident sequence analyses in actual plants. These calculations highlight various phenomenological effects that have potentially important implications for source term and/or containment loading issues, and which are difficult or impossible to treat using a less integrated code suite

  16. Integrative analysis to select cancer candidate biomarkers to targeted validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Henry; Domingues, Romênia R.; Granato, Daniela C.; Yokoo, Sami; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Winck, Flavia V.; Ribeiro, Ana Carolina P.; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Filgueiras, Paulo R.; Cruz, Karen S. P.; Barbuto, José Alexandre; Poppi, Ronei J.; Minghim, Rosane; Telles, Guilherme P.; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Fox, Jay W.; Santos-Silva, Alan R.; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted proteomics has flourished as the method of choice for prospecting for and validating potential candidate biomarkers in many diseases. However, challenges still remain due to the lack of standardized routines that can prioritize a limited number of proteins to be further validated in human samples. To help researchers identify candidate biomarkers that best characterize their samples under study, a well-designed integrative analysis pipeline, comprising MS-based discovery, feature selection methods, clustering techniques, bioinformatic analyses and targeted approaches was performed using discovery-based proteomic data from the secretomes of three classes of human cell lines (carcinoma, melanoma and non-cancerous). Three feature selection algorithms, namely, Beta-binomial, Nearest Shrunken Centroids (NSC), and Support Vector Machine-Recursive Features Elimination (SVM-RFE), indicated a panel of 137 candidate biomarkers for carcinoma and 271 for melanoma, which were differentially abundant between the tumor classes. We further tested the strength of the pipeline in selecting candidate biomarkers by immunoblotting, human tissue microarrays, label-free targeted MS and functional experiments. In conclusion, the proposed integrative analysis was able to pre-qualify and prioritize candidate biomarkers from discovery-based proteomics to targeted MS. PMID:26540631

  17. Integrated modeling and analysis methodology for precision pointing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Homero L.

    2002-07-01

    Space-based optical systems that perform tasks such as laser communications, Earth imaging, and astronomical observations require precise line-of-sight (LOS) pointing. A general approach is described for integrated modeling and analysis of these types of systems within the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The approach can be applied during all stages of program development, from early conceptual design studies to hardware implementation phases. The main objective is to predict the dynamic pointing performance subject to anticipated disturbances and noise sources. Secondary objectives include assessing the control stability, levying subsystem requirements, supporting pointing error budgets, and performing trade studies. The integrated model resides in Simulink, and several MATLAB graphical user interfaces (GUI"s) allow the user to configure the model, select analysis options, run analyses, and process the results. A convenient parameter naming and storage scheme, as well as model conditioning and reduction tools and run-time enhancements, are incorporated into the framework. This enables the proposed architecture to accommodate models of realistic complexity.

  18. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : installation manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  19. The practical implementation of integrated safety management for nuclear safety analysis and fire hazards analysis documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COLLOPY, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 Mr. Joseph DiNunno of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued an approach to describe the concept of an integrated safety management program which incorporates hazard and safety analysis to address a multitude of hazards affecting the public, worker, property, and the environment. Since then the U S . Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted a policy to systematically integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions can be completed while protecting the public, worker, and the environment. While the DOE and its contractors possessed a variety of processes for analyzing fire hazards at a facility, activity, and job; the outcome and assumptions of these processes have not always been consistent for similar types of hazards within the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis. Although the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis are driven by different DOE Orders and requirements, these analyses should not be entirely independent and their preparation should be integrated to ensure consistency of assumptions, consequences, design considerations, and other controls. Under the DOE policy to implement an integrated safety management system, identification of hazards must be evaluated and agreed upon to ensure that the public. the workers. and the environment are protected from adverse consequences. The DOE program and contractor management need a uniform, up-to-date reference with which to plan. budget, and manage nuclear programs. It is crucial that DOE understand the hazards and risks necessarily to authorize the work needed to be performed. If integrated safety management is not incorporated into the preparation of the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis, inconsistencies between assumptions, consequences, design considerations, and controls may occur that affect safety. Furthermore, confusion created by inconsistencies may occur in the DOE process to grant authorization of the work. In accordance with

  20. A Simplified Methodology For Risk Assessment of The Oolitic Limestone Aquifer, West of Alexandria Coastal Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, M.A.; Hussein, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater risk analysis helps to assess the effects of contaminants reach to specific position in groundwater system after introduction at some location above the uppermost aquifer. This provides a basis for initiating protective and mitigation measures for important groundwater resources. An attempt has been made in the present study to assess the risk of diffuse groundwater pollution at the north western coast of Alexandria against landfill waste disposal as well as agricultural pollutants leachates which are the main land use in the studied area. A simplified weighing/ rating approach have been functioned for this purpose, Slovene methodology, which is relevant for fissured carbonate aquifers that characterize the studied area. This method is based on an origin-pathway-target model, which applies for both resource and source protection. Conservative values for the intrinsic geological, hydrogeological, geo morphological and climatological parameters have been reviewed and determined for assessment of the source and resource vulnerability, hazards and risk (lithology, texture and structure of soil zone, lithology and thickness of the unsaturated zone and aquifer conditions, morphological features, slope and vegetation cover, average annual stormy days, travel time and karst network , the fertilizers and pesticide used for agriculture, the volume of unlined waste disposal site). The methodology applied in the present study emphasizes how the physical properties of the hydrological system can be integrated in an index that reflects the level of risk of a diffuse pollution to groundwater. This aligns with the prospective of site safety evaluation around risky installations such as a nuclear power plants or waste disposal facilities where assurance should be done that the risk to the public and environment is acceptably low. According to the functioned methodology, the fissured limestone under study is low vulnerable and highly protectable against surface diffuse

  1. Regional-scale analysis of karst underground flow deduced from tracing experiments: examples from carbonate aquifers in Malaga province, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Andreo, B.; De la Torre, B.

    2018-02-01

    Tracer concentration data from field experiments conducted in several carbonate aquifers (Malaga province, southern Spain) were analyzed following a dual approach based on the graphical evaluation method (GEM) and solute transport modeling to decipher flow mechanisms in karst systems at regional scale. The results show that conduit system geometry and flow conditions are the principal factors influencing tracer migration through the examined karst flow routes. Solute transport is mainly controlled by longitudinal advection and dispersion throughout the conduit length, but also by flow partitioning between mobile and immobile fluid phases, while the matrix diffusion process appears to be less relevant. The simulation of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) suggests that diffuse and concentrated flow through the unsaturated zone can have equivalent transport properties under extreme recharge, with high flow velocities and efficient mixing due to the high hydraulic gradients generated. Tracer mobilization within the saturated zone under low flow conditions mainly depends on the hydrodynamics (rather than on the karst conduit development), which promote a lower longitudinal advection and retardation in the tracer migration, resulting in a marked tailing effect of BTCs. The analytical advection-dispersion equation better approximates the effective flow velocity and longitudinal dispersion estimations provided by the GEM, while the non-equilibrium transport model achieves a better adjustment of most asymmetric and long-tailed BTCs. The assessment of karst underground flow properties from tracing tests at regional scale can aid design of groundwater management and protection strategies, particularly in large hydrogeological systems (i.e. transboundary carbonate aquifers) and/or in poorly investigated ones.

  2. A method to investigate inter-aquifer leakage using hydraulics and multiple environmental tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Stacey; Love, Andrew; Wohling, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Shand, Paul; Kipfer, Rolf; Tyroller, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Informed aquifer management decisions regarding sustainable yields or potential exploitation require an understanding of the groundwater system (Alley et al. 2002, Cherry and Parker 2004). Recently, the increase in coal seam gas (CSG) or shale gas production has highlighted the need for a better understanding of inter-aquifer leakage and contaminant migration. In most groundwater systems, the quantity or location of inter-aquifer leakage is unknown. Not taking into account leakage rates in the analysis of large scale flow systems can also lead to significant errors in the estimates of groundwater flow rates in aquifers (Love et al. 1993, Toth 2009). There is an urgent need for robust methods to investigate inter-aquifer leakage at a regional scale. This study builds on previous groundwater flow and inter-aquifer leakage studies to provide a methodology to investigate inter-aquifer leakage in a regional sedimentary basin using hydraulics and a multi-tracer approach. The methodology incorporates geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical information in the basin to determine the likelihood and location of inter-aquifer leakage. Of particular benefit is the analysis of hydraulic heads and environmental tracers at nested piezometers, or where these are unavailable bore couplets comprising bores above and below the aquitard of interest within a localised geographical area. The proposed methodology has been successful in investigating inter-aquifer leakage in the Arckaringa Basin, South Australia. The suite of environmental tracers and isotopes used to analyse inter-aquifer leakage included the stable isotopes of water, radiocarbon, chloride-36, 87Sr/86Sr and helium isotopes. There is evidence for inter-aquifer leakage in the centre of the basin ~40 km along the regional flow path. This inter-aquifer leakage has been identified by a slight draw-down in the upper aquifer during pumping in the lower aquifer, overlap in Sr isotopes, δ2H, δ18O and chloride

  3. Developing Methods For Linking Surficial Aquifers With Localized Rainfall Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenz, W. B.; van Gaalen, J. F.

    2008-12-01

    Water level hydrographs of the surficial aquifer can be evaluated to identify both the cause and consequence of water supply development. Rainfall, as a source of direct recharge and as a source of delayed or compounded recharge, is often the largest influence on surficial aquifer water level responses. It is clear that proximity of the rain gauge to the observation well is a factor in the degree of correlation, but in central Florida, USA, rainfall patterns change seasonally, with latitude, and with distance from the coast . Thus, for a location in central Florida, correlation of rain events with observed hydrograph responses depends on both distance and direction from an observation well to a rain gauge. In this study, we examine the use of extreme value analysis as a method of selecting the best rainfall data set for describing a given surficial aquifer monitor well. A surficial aquifer monitor well with a substantial suite of data is compared to a series of rainfall data sets from gauges ranging from meters to tens of kilometers in distance from the monitor well. The gauges vary in a wide range of directions from the monitor well in an attempt to identify both a method for rainfall gauge selection to be associated with the monitor well. Each rainfall gauge is described by a correlation coefficient with respect to the surficial aquifer water level data.

  4. Tubular wells perforation manual for investigation and training of Guarani Aquifer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Environmental protection and sustainable development of the Aquifer Guarani System project is a initiative by Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay with the aim to raise the knowledge, legal and institutional sustainable management from 2003-2008 period. The Guarani consortium integrated by Tahal Engineers Ltda.(Israel), SEINCO SRL. (Uruguay), Hidrocontrol S:A:(Paraguay), Arcadis Hidroambiente S.A. (Argentina) have shown in Tubular wells perforation for investigation and training of Guarani Aquifer System manual their first product. This Manual includes technical especifications focused in Guarani Aquifer System harmessing building

  5. Flow to partially penetrating wells in unconfined heterogeneous aquifers: Mean head and interpretation of pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, G.; Lessoff, S. C.

    2011-06-01

    A partially penetrating well of length Lw and radius Rw starts to pump at constant discharge Qw at t = 0 from an unconfined aquifer of thickness D. The aquifer is of random and stationary conductivity characterized by KG (geometric mean), σY2 (log conductivity variance), and I and Iv (the horizontal and vertical integral scales). The flow problem is solved under a few simplifying assumptions commonly adopted in the literature for homogeneous media: Rw/Lw ≪ 1, linearization of the free surface condition, and constant drainable porosity n. Additionally, it is assumed that Rw/I well boundary conditions) and that a first-order approximation in σY2 (extended to finite σY2 on a conjectural basis) is adopted. The solution is obtained for the mean head field and the associated water table equation. The main result of the analysis is that the flow domain can be divided into three zones for : (1) the neighborhood of the well R ≪ I, where = (Qw/LwKA)h0(R, z, tKefuv/nD), with h0 being the zero-order solution pertaining to a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer, KA being the conductivity arithmetic mean, and Kefuv being the effective vertical conductivity in mean uniform flow, (2) an exterior zone R ⪆ I in which ?H? = (Qw/LwKefuh)h0(R?, z, tKefuv/nD), with Kefuh being the horizontal effective conductivity, and (3) an intermediate zone in which the solution requires a few numerical quadratures, not carried out here. The application to pumping tests reveals that identification of the aquifer parameters for homogeneous and anisotropic aquifers by commonly used methods can be applied for the drawdown measured in an observation well of length Low?Iv (to ensure exchange of space and ensemble head averages) in the second zone in order to identify Kefuh, Kefuv, and n. In contrast, the use of the drawdown in the well (first zone) leads to an overestimation of Kefuh by the factor KA/Kefuh.

  6. Integrated Software Environment for Pressurized Thermal Shock Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Araneo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the main features and an application to a real Nuclear Power Plant (NPP of an Integrated Software Environment (in the following referred to as “platform” developed at University of Pisa (UNIPI to perform Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS analysis. The platform is written in Java for the portability and it implements all the steps foreseen in the methodology developed at UNIPI for the deterministic analysis of PTS scenarios. The methodology starts with the thermal hydraulic analysis of the NPP with a system code (such as Relap5-3D and Cathare2, during a selected transient scenario. The results so obtained are then processed to provide boundary conditions for the next step, that is, a CFD calculation. Once the system pressure and the RPV wall temperature are known, the stresses inside the RPV wall can be calculated by mean a Finite Element (FE code. The last step of the methodology is the Fracture Mechanics (FM analysis, using weight functions, aimed at evaluating the stress intensity factor (KI at crack tip to be compared with the critical stress intensity factor KIc. The platform automates all these steps foreseen in the methodology once the user specifies a number of boundary conditions at the beginning of the simulation.

  7. SEURAT: visual analytics for the integrated analysis of microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribov, Alexander; Sill, Martin; Lück, Sonja; Rücker, Frank; Döhner, Konstanze; Bullinger, Lars; Benner, Axel; Unwin, Antony

    2010-06-03

    In translational cancer research, gene expression data is collected together with clinical data and genomic data arising from other chip based high throughput technologies. Software tools for the joint analysis of such high dimensional data sets together with clinical data are required. We have developed an open source software tool which provides interactive visualization capability for the integrated analysis of high-dimensional gene expression data together with associated clinical data, array CGH data and SNP array data. The different data types are organized by a comprehensive data manager. Interactive tools are provided for all graphics: heatmaps, dendrograms, barcharts, histograms, eventcharts and a chromosome browser, which displays genetic variations along the genome. All graphics are dynamic and fully linked so that any object selected in a graphic will be highlighted in all other graphics. For exploratory data analysis the software provides unsupervised data analytics like clustering, seriation algorithms and biclustering algorithms. The SEURAT software meets the growing needs of researchers to perform joint analysis of gene expression, genomical and clinical data.

  8. SEURAT: Visual analytics for the integrated analysis of microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullinger Lars

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In translational cancer research, gene expression data is collected together with clinical data and genomic data arising from other chip based high throughput technologies. Software tools for the joint analysis of such high dimensional data sets together with clinical data are required. Results We have developed an open source software tool which provides interactive visualization capability for the integrated analysis of high-dimensional gene expression data together with associated clinical data, array CGH data and SNP array data. The different data types are organized by a comprehensive data manager. Interactive tools are provided for all graphics: heatmaps, dendrograms, barcharts, histograms, eventcharts and a chromosome browser, which displays genetic variations along the genome. All graphics are dynamic and fully linked so that any object selected in a graphic will be highlighted in all other graphics. For exploratory data analysis the software provides unsupervised data analytics like clustering, seriation algorithms and biclustering algorithms. Conclusions The SEURAT software meets the growing needs of researchers to perform joint analysis of gene expression, genomical and clinical data.

  9. Transient flow analysis of integrated valve opening process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xinming; Qin, Benke; Bo, Hanliang, E-mail: bohl@tsinghua.edu.cn; Xu, Xingxing

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • The control rod hydraulic driving system (CRHDS) is a new type of built-in control rod drive technology and the integrated valve (IV) is the key control component. • The transient flow experiment induced by IV is conducted and the test results are analyzed to get its working mechanism. • The theoretical model of IV opening process is established and applied to get the changing rule of the transient flow characteristic parameters. - Abstract: The control rod hydraulic driving system (CRHDS) is a new type of built-in control rod drive technology and the IV is the key control component. The working principle of integrated valve (IV) is analyzed and the IV hydraulic experiment is conducted. There is transient flow phenomenon in the valve opening process. The theoretical model of IV opening process is established by the loop system control equations and boundary conditions. The valve opening boundary condition equation is established based on the IV three dimensional flow field analysis results and the dynamic analysis of the valve core movement. The model calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. On this basis, the model is used to analyze the transient flow under high temperature condition. The peak pressure head is consistent with the one under room temperature and the pressure fluctuation period is longer than the one under room temperature. Furthermore, the changing rule of pressure transients with the fluid and loop structure parameters is analyzed. The peak pressure increases with the flow rate and the peak pressure decreases with the increase of the valve opening time. The pressure fluctuation period increases with the loop pipe length and the fluctuation amplitude remains largely unchanged under different equilibrium pressure conditions. The research results lay the base for the vibration reduction analysis of the CRHDS.

  10. Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Integrated System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemska, E.

    2009-01-01

    The present commercial photovoltaic solar cells (PV) converts solar energy into electricity with a relatively low efficiency, less than 20%. More than 80% of the absorbed solar energy is dumped to the surroundings again after photovoltaic conversion. Hybrid PV/T systems consist of PV modules coupled with the heat extraction devices. The PV/T collectors generate electric power and heat simultaneously. Stabilizing temperature of photovoltaic modules at low level is highly desirable to obtain efficiency increase. The total efficiency of 60-80% can be achieved with the whole PV/T system provided that the T system is operated near ambient temperature. The value of the low-T heat energy is typically much smaller than the value of the PV electricity. The PV/T systems can exist in many designs, but the most common models are with the use of water or air as a working fuid. Efficiency is the most valuable parameter for the economic analysis. It has substantial meaning in the case of installations with great nominal power, as air-cooled Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems (BIPV). In this paper the performance analysis of a hybrid PV/T system is presented: an energetic analysis as well as an exergetic analysis. Exergy is always destroyed when a process involves a temperature change. This destruction is proportional to the entropy increase of the system together with its surroundings the destroyed exergy has been called energy. Exergy analysis identifies the location, the magnitude, and the sources of thermodynamic inefficiencies in a system. This information, which cannot be provided by other means (e.g., an energy analysis), is very useful for the improvement and cost-effectiveness of the system. Calculations were carried out for the tested water-cooled ASE-100-DGL-SM Solar watt module.

  11. Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Integrated System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Radziemska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present commercial photovoltaic solar cells (PV converts solar energy into electricity with a relatively low efficiency, less than 20%. More than 80% of the absorbed solar energy is dumped to the surroundings again after photovoltaic conversion. Hybrid PV/T systems consist of PV modules coupled with the heat extraction devices. The PV/T collectors generate electric power and heat simultaneously. Stabilizing temperature of photovoltaic modules at low level is higly desirable to obtain efficiency increase. The total efficiency of 60–80% can be achieved with the whole PV/T system provided that the T system is operated near ambient temperature. The value of the low-T heat energy is typically much smaller than the value of the PV electricity. The PV/T systems can exist in many designs, but the most common models are with the use of water or air as a working fuid. Efficiency is the most valuable parameter for the economic analysis. It has substantial meaning in the case of installations with great nominal power, as air-cooled Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems (BIPV. In this paper the performance analysis of a hybrid PV/T system is presented: an energetic analysis as well as an exergetic analysis. Exergy is always destroyed when a process involves a temperature change. This destruction is proportional to the entropy increase of the system together with its surroundings—the destroyed exergy has been called anergy. Exergy analysis identifies the location, the magnitude, and the sources of thermodynamic inefficiences in a system. This information, which cannot be provided by other means (e.g., an energy analysis, is very useful for the improvement and cost-effictiveness of the system. Calculations were carried out for the tested water-cooled ASE-100-DGL-SM Solarwatt module.

  12. PEA: an integrated R toolkit for plant epitranscriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jingjing; Song, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Tang, Yunjia; Ma, Chuang

    2018-05-29

    The epitranscriptome, also known as chemical modifications of RNA (CMRs), is a newly discovered layer of gene regulation, the biological importance of which emerged through analysis of only a small fraction of CMRs detected by high-throughput sequencing technologies. Understanding of the epitranscriptome is hampered by the absence of computational tools for the systematic analysis of epitranscriptome sequencing data. In addition, no tools have yet been designed for accurate prediction of CMRs in plants, or to extend epitranscriptome analysis from a fraction of the transcriptome to its entirety. Here, we introduce PEA, an integrated R toolkit to facilitate the analysis of plant epitranscriptome data. The PEA toolkit contains a comprehensive collection of functions required for read mapping, CMR calling, motif scanning and discovery, and gene functional enrichment analysis. PEA also takes advantage of machine learning technologies for transcriptome-scale CMR prediction, with high prediction accuracy, using the Positive Samples Only Learning algorithm, which addresses the two-class classification problem by using only positive samples (CMRs), in the absence of negative samples (non-CMRs). Hence PEA is a versatile epitranscriptome analysis pipeline covering CMR calling, prediction, and annotation, and we describe its application to predict N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana. Experimental results demonstrate that the toolkit achieved 71.6% sensitivity and 73.7% specificity, which is superior to existing m6A predictors. PEA is potentially broadly applicable to the in-depth study of epitranscriptomics. PEA Docker image is available at https://hub.docker.com/r/malab/pea, source codes and user manual are available at https://github.com/cma2015/PEA. chuangma2006@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Geothermal reservoir simulation of hot sedimentary aquifer system using FEFLOW®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hidayat, Hardi; Gala Permana, Maximillian

    2017-12-01

    The study presents the simulation of hot sedimentary aquifer for geothermal utilization. Hot sedimentary aquifer (HSA) is a conduction-dominated hydrothermal play type utilizing deep aquifer, which is heated by near normal heat flow. One of the examples of HSA is Bavarian Molasse Basin in South Germany. This system typically uses doublet wells: an injection and production well. The simulation was run for 3650 days of simulation time. The technical feasibility and performance are analysed in regards to the extracted energy from this concept. Several parameters are compared to determine the model performance. Parameters such as reservoir characteristics, temperature information and well information are defined. Several assumptions are also defined to simplify the simulation process. The main results of the simulation are heat period budget or total extracted heat energy, and heat rate budget or heat production rate. Qualitative approaches for sensitivity analysis are conducted by using five parameters in which assigned lower and higher value scenarios.

  14. HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

    2010-10-01

    As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per da