WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrate mt activities

  1. Spatial attention enhances the selective integration of activity from area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Nicolas Y; Herrington, Todd M; Cook, Erik P

    2012-09-01

    Distinguishing which of the many proposed neural mechanisms of spatial attention actually underlies behavioral improvements in visually guided tasks has been difficult. One attractive hypothesis is that attention allows downstream neural circuits to selectively integrate responses from the most informative sensory neurons. This would allow behavioral performance to be based on the highest-quality signals available in visual cortex. We examined this hypothesis by asking how spatial attention affects both the stimulus sensitivity of middle temporal (MT) neurons and their corresponding correlation with behavior. Analyzing a data set pooled from two experiments involving four monkeys, we found that spatial attention did not appreciably affect either the stimulus sensitivity of the neurons or the correlation between their activity and behavior. However, for those sessions in which there was a robust behavioral effect of attention, focusing attention inside the neuron's receptive field significantly increased the correlation between these two metrics, an indication of selective integration. These results suggest that, similar to mechanisms proposed for the neural basis of perceptual learning, the behavioral benefits of focusing spatial attention are attributable to selective integration of neural activity from visual cortical areas by their downstream targets.

  2. TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES an active seismic and passive seismic experiment at Mt. Etna volcano. An integrated marine and onland geophysical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Jesus. M.; Patane, Domenico; Puglisi, Guisseppe; Zuccarello, Lucciano; Bianco, Francesca; Luehr, Birger; Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Prudencio, Janire; Koulakov, Ivan; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Cocina, Ornella; Coltelli, Mauro; Scarfi, Lucciano; De Gori, Pascuale; Carrion, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    An active seismic experiment to study the internal structure of Etna Volcano is going to carried out on Sicily and Aeolian islands. The main objective of the TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES experiment, beginning in summer 2014, is to perform a high resolution seismic tomography, in velocity and attenuation, in Southern Italy, by using active and passive seismic data, in an area encompassing outstanding volcanoes as Mt. Etna, and Aeolian volcanoes. The achievement of this objective is based on the integration and sharing of the in-situ marine and land experiments and observations and on the implementation of new instruments and monitoring systems. For the purpose, onshore and offshore seismic stations and passive and active seismic data generated both in marine and terrestrial environment will be used. Additionally, other geophysical data, mainly magnetic and gravimetric data will be considered to obtain a joint Upper Mantle-Crust structure that could permit to make progress in the understanding of the dynamic of the region. This multinational experiment which involves institutions from Spain, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Portugal, Russia, USA and Mexico. During the experiment more than 6.600 air gun shots performed by the Spanish Oceanographic vessel "Sarmiento de Gamboa" will be recorder on a dense local seismic network consisting of 100 on land non-permanent stations, 70 on land permanent stations and 20-25 OBSs. Contemporaneously other marine geophysical measures will be performed using a marine Gravimeter LaCoste&Romberg Air-Sea Gravity System II and a Marine Magnetometer SeaSPY. The experiments will provide a unique data set in terms of data quantity and quality, and it will provide a detailed velocity and attenuation structural image of volcano edifice. The results will be essential in the development and interpretation of future volcanic models. It is noteworthy that this project is fully transversal, multidisciplinary and crosses several

  3. Active Holiday in Mt. Zlatibor County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Plavša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Active holiday presents a new stream in tourism development of Serbia. The most interesting types of active holiday in Serbia are: free and mountain biking, rafting, hiking, mountaineering, free climbing, orienteering, fishing, sailing, rowing, paragliding, cave exploring, skiing, survival in nature, zorbing, horse riding, etc. Zlatibor district is almost perfect area for developing active holiday, due to the nature beauties and diversity of landscape. The most atractive parts for developing active holiday in Zlatibor district are: Tara Mountain and Drina River Gorge, Zlatibor Mountain, Uvac River Gorge and Zlatar Mountain, Lim River Valley and Pester Highlands.

  4. Practical Examples of an Integrated Field Study Program at Mt. Fuji: Geosciences and the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Kamikuri, S. I.; Otsuji, H.; Kataguchi, N.; Maruyama, H.; Hashiura, H.

    2017-12-01

    Mt. Fuji is a symbol of existence for the Japanese and it also has been a religiously revered subject. In addition, as represented by the ukiyo-e of Hokusai and Hiroshige, it is a subject of paintings, as well as of various types of literary expression such as waka, haiku and novels. Historically, there was a time when Mt. Fuji was used as a symbol of the integration of the country; and it has long reflected the culture, life and thoughts of the Japanese. On another level, from the Earth scientific point of view, Mt. Fuji is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. Teacher training colleges in Japan have created educational programs for all subjects taught at school. However, as there is no effective linkage among these subjects, students may have different opinions on them according to their curriculum. In this study, we adopted a multifaceted learning approach toward that most symbolic icon of our country. In FY2014 and FY2016, a course created by the College of Education at Ibaraki University, called "Fieldwork on Geology," was conducted at and around Mt. Fuji. In addition to conducting fieldwork from the viewpoint of earth science, it also had abundant artistic content. Academics in the fields of earth science, art and pedagogy worked closely together from the planning stage and participated in a field study with 25 university students. Specifically, we focused on how the experience of sketching a landscape affects field observations by broadening the viewpoint and deepening the understanding of students. To ascertain the bidirectional educational effects between earth sciences and art, students were asked: 1) to express an image of Mt. Fuji, and 2) to appreciate paintings of Mt. Fuji and express the information they garnered from the paintings, before and after the fieldwork. These two exercises are considered as providing insights into how the students' understanding had changed. In addition, reports and impressions submitted by the students were used as

  5. Therapeutic Targeting of the Mitochondria Initiates Excessive Superoxide Production and Mitochondrial Depolarization Causing Decreased mtDNA Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrzywinski, Kaytee L; Biel, Thomas G; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Rao, V Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysregulation is closely associated with excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Altered redox homeostasis has been implicated in the onset of several diseases including cancer. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and proteins are particularly sensitive to ROS as they are in close proximity to the respiratory chain (RC). Mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondria-targeted redox agent, selectively damages breast cancer cells possibly through damage induced via enhanced ROS production. However, the effects of MitoQ and other triphenylphosphonium (TPP+) conjugated agents on cancer mitochondrial homeostasis remain unknown. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of mitochondria-targeted agent [(MTAs) conjugated to TPP+: mitoTEMPOL, mitoquinone and mitochromanol-acetate] on mitochondrial physiology and mtDNA integrity in breast (MDA-MB-231) and lung (H23) cancer cells. The integrity of the mtDNA was assessed by quantifying the degree of mtDNA fragmentation and copy number, as well as by measuring mitochondrial proteins essential to mtDNA stability and maintenance (TFAM, SSBP1, TWINKLE, POLG and POLRMT). Mitochondrial status was evaluated by measuring superoxide production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxygen consumption, extracellular acidification and mRNA or protein levels of the RC complexes along with TCA cycle activity. In this study, we demonstrated that all investigated MTAs impair mitochondrial health and decrease mtDNA integrity in MDA-MB-231 and H23 cells. However, differences in the degree of mitochondrial damage and mtDNA degradation suggest unique properties among each MTA that may be cell line, dose and time dependent. Collectively, our study indicates the potential for TPP+ conjugated molecules to impair breast and lung cancer cells by targeting mitochondrial homeostasis.

  6. The amount and integrity of mtDNA in maize decline with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Delene J; Kumar, Rachana A; Bendich, Arnold J

    2013-02-01

    In maize and other grasses there is a developmental gradient from the meristematic cells at the base of the stalk to the differentiated cells at the leaf tip. This gradient presents an opportunity to investigate changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that accompany growth under light and dark conditions, as done previously for plastid DNA. Maize mtDNA was analyzed by DAPI-DNA staining of individual mitochondria, gel electrophoresis/blot hybridization, and real-time qPCR. Both the amount and integrity of the mtDNA were found to decline with development. There was a 20-fold decline in mtDNA copy number per cell from the embryo to the light-grown leaf blade. The amount of DNA per mitochondrial particle was greater in dark-grown leaf blade (24 copies, on average) than in the light (2 copies), with some mitochondria lacking any detectable DNA. Three factors that influence the demise of mtDNA during development are considered: (1) the decision to either repair or degrade mtDNA molecules that are damaged by the reactive oxygen species produced as byproducts of respiration; (2) the generation of ATP by photophosphorylation in chloroplasts, reducing the need for respiratory-competent mitochondria; and (3) the shift in mitochondrial function from energy-generating respiration to photorespiration during the transition from non-green to green tissue.

  7. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Juliana A; Kinote, Andrezza; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia M; de Araújo, Thiago M; Razolli, Daniela S; Doneda, Diego L; Paschoal, Lívia B; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Bertolini, Gisele L; Velloso, Lício A; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F

    2013-07-15

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT) antagonist, or an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anesthetized rats were subjected to pyruvate tolerance test to estimate in vivo glucose clearance after pyruvate load and in situ liver perfusion to assess hepatic gluconeogenesis. The hypothalamus was removed to determine Akt phosphorylation. Melatonin injections in the central nervous system suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hypothalamic Akt phosphorylation. These effects of melatonin were suppressed either by icv injections of PI3K inhibitors and MT antagonists and by ip injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. We conclude that melatonin activates hypothalamus-liver communication that may contribute to circadian adjustments of gluconeogenesis. These data further suggest a physiopathological relationship between the circadian disruptions in metabolism and reduced levels of melatonin found in type 2 diabetes patients.

  8. Ultrastructural and Molecular Analyses Reveal Enhanced Nucleolar Activity in Medicago truncatula Cells Overexpressing the MtTdp2α Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macovei, Anca; Faè, Matteo; Biggiogera, Marco; de Sousa Araújo, Susana; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2018-01-01

    The role of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2) involved in the repair of 5′-end-blocking DNA lesions is still poorly explored in plants. To gain novel insights, Medicago truncatula suspension cultures overexpressing the MtTdp2α gene (Tdp2α-13C and Tdp2α-28 lines, respectively) and a control (CTRL) line carrying the empty vector were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed enlarged nucleoli (up to 44% expansion of the area, compared to CTRL), the presence of nucleolar vacuoles, increased frequency of multinucleolate cells (up to 4.3-fold compared to CTRL) and reduced number of ring-shaped nucleoli in Tdp2α-13C and Tdp2α-28 lines. Ultrastructural data suggesting for enhanced nucleolar activity in MtTdp2α-overexpressing lines were integrated with results from bromouridine incorporation. The latter revealed an increase of labeled transcripts in both Tdp2α-13C and Tdp2α-28 cells, within the nucleolus and in the extra-nucleolar region. MtTdp2α-overexpressing cells showed tolerance to etoposide, a selective inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II, as evidenced by DNA diffusion assay. TEM analysis revealed etoposide-induced rearrangements within the nucleolus, resembling the nucleolar caps observed in animal cells under transcription impairment. Based on these findings it is evident that MtTdp2α-overexpression enhances nucleolar activity in plant cells. PMID:29868059

  9. Ultrastructural and Molecular Analyses Reveal Enhanced Nucleolar Activity in Medicago truncatula Cells Overexpressing the MtTdp2α Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Macovei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2 involved in the repair of 5′-end-blocking DNA lesions is still poorly explored in plants. To gain novel insights, Medicago truncatula suspension cultures overexpressing the MtTdp2α gene (Tdp2α-13C and Tdp2α-28 lines, respectively and a control (CTRL line carrying the empty vector were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed enlarged nucleoli (up to 44% expansion of the area, compared to CTRL, the presence of nucleolar vacuoles, increased frequency of multinucleolate cells (up to 4.3-fold compared to CTRL and reduced number of ring-shaped nucleoli in Tdp2α-13C and Tdp2α-28 lines. Ultrastructural data suggesting for enhanced nucleolar activity in MtTdp2α-overexpressing lines were integrated with results from bromouridine incorporation. The latter revealed an increase of labeled transcripts in both Tdp2α-13C and Tdp2α-28 cells, within the nucleolus and in the extra-nucleolar region. MtTdp2α-overexpressing cells showed tolerance to etoposide, a selective inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II, as evidenced by DNA diffusion assay. TEM analysis revealed etoposide-induced rearrangements within the nucleolus, resembling the nucleolar caps observed in animal cells under transcription impairment. Based on these findings it is evident that MtTdp2α-overexpression enhances nucleolar activity in plant cells.

  10. Peculiar Active-Tectonic Landscape Within the Sanctuary of Zeus at Mt. Lykaion (Peloponnese, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    The Sanctuary of Zeus (Mt. Lykaion) lies in the Peloponnese within the Pindos fold and thrust belt. It is the object of investigation of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey (http://lykaionexcavation.org/). Mt. Lykaion is a thrust klippe, on the summit of which is an upper sanctuary marked by an ash altar, temenos, and column bases. Earliest objects recovered from the ash altar go back to 3000 BCE, leading Dr. David Romano (University of Pennsylvania), a principal leader of the project, to conclude that worship of divinities on the summit is ancient. Detailed structural geological mapping reveals one dimension of the "power" of the site. Crisscrossing the upper sanctuary are scree bands that mark the traces of active normal faults, which are expressions of tectonic stretching of the Aegean region. The scree bands, composed of cinder-block-sized limestone blocks, range up to 10 m in outcrop breadth, 100 m in length, and 5 m in thickness. Though discontinuous, most of the scree bands lie precisely on the traces of through-going faults, which cut and displace the sedimentary formations of the Pindos group. Some cut the thrust fault, whose elliptical trace defines the Lykaion klippe. What makes the scree bands of this active-tectonic landscape "peculiar" is that there are no cliffs from which the scree descends. Rather, the bands of scree occur along flanks of smooth, rounded hillslopes and ridges. The scree bands coincide with modest steps in the topography, ranging from tens of centimeters to several tens of meters. The specific bedrock formation where the bands are best developed is an Upper Cretaceous limestone whose average platy-bedding thickness (approximately 20 cm) matches closely the average joint spacing. The limestone has little mechanical integrity. It cannot support itself as a scarp footwall and instead collapses into a pile of scree, whose upper-surface inclination conforms to a stable angle of repose. Evidence of the contemporary nature of this

  11. Controls on Magmatic and Hydrothermal Processes at Yellowstone Supervolcano: The Wideband Magnetotelluric Component of an Integrated MT/Seismic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Bennington, N. L.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Imamura, N.; Cronin, R. A.; Miller, D. J.; Hart, L.; Gurrola, R. M.; Neal, B. A.; Scholz, K.; Fry, B.; Carbonari, R.

    2017-12-01

    Previous seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) studies beneath Yellowstone (YS) have provided insight into the origin and migration of magmatic fluids within the volcanic system. However, important questions remain concerning the generation of magmatism at YS, the migration and storage of these magmatic fluids, as well as their relationships to hydrothermal expressions. Analysis of regional-scale EarthScope MT data collected previously suggests a relative absence of continuity in crustal partial melt accumulations directly beneath YS. This is in contrast to some seismic interpretations, although such long-period MT data have limited resolving power in the upper-to-mid crustal section. A wideband MT experiment was designed as a component of an integrated MT/seismic project to examine: the origin and location of magmatic fluids at upper mantle/lower crustal depths, the preferred path of migration for these magmatic fluids into the mid- to upper-crust, the resulting distribution of the magma reservoir, the composition of the magma reservoir, and implications for future volcanism at YS. A high-resolution wideband MT survey was carried out in the YS region in the summer of 2017, with more than forty-five wideband stations installed within and immediately surrounding the YS National Park boundary. These data provided nearly six decades of bandwidth ( 10-3 Hz -to- 103 Hz). Extraordinary permitting restrictions prevented us from using conventional installation methods at many of our sites, and an innovative "no-dig" subaerial method of wideband MT was developed and used successfully. Using these new data along with existing MT datasets, we are inverting for the 3D resistivity structure at upper crustal through upper mantle scales at YS. Complementary to this MT work, a joint inversion for the 3D crustal velocity structure is being carried out using both ambient noise and earthquake travel time data. Taken together, these data should better constrain the crustal velocity

  12. Human area MT+ shows load-dependent activation during working memory maintenance with continuously morphing stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galashan, Daniela; Fehr, Thorsten; Kreiter, Andreas K; Herrmann, Manfred

    2014-07-11

    Initially, human area MT+ was considered a visual area solely processing motion information but further research has shown that it is also involved in various different cognitive operations, such as working memory tasks requiring motion-related information to be maintained or cognitive tasks with implied or expected motion.In the present fMRI study in humans, we focused on MT+ modulation during working memory maintenance using a dynamic shape-tracking working memory task with no motion-related working memory content. Working memory load was systematically varied using complex and simple stimulus material and parametrically increasing retention periods. Activation patterns for the difference between retention of complex and simple memorized stimuli were examined in order to preclude that the reported effects are caused by differences in retrieval. Conjunction analysis over all delay durations for the maintenance of complex versus simple stimuli demonstrated a wide-spread activation pattern. Percent signal change (PSC) in area MT+ revealed a pattern with higher values for the maintenance of complex shapes compared to the retention of a simple circle and with higher values for increasing delay durations. The present data extend previous knowledge by demonstrating that visual area MT+ presents a brain activity pattern usually found in brain regions that are actively involved in working memory maintenance.

  13. A monoclonal antibody interferes with TIMP-2 binding and incapacitates the MMP-2-activating function of multifunctional, pro-tumorigenic MMP-14/MT1-MMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiryaev, S A; Remacle, A G; Golubkov, V S

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and, especially membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP/MMP-14, are promising drug targets in malignancies. In contrast with multiple small-molecule and protein pan-inhibitors of MT1-MMP cleavage activity, the murine 9E8 monoclonal antibody targets the MMP-2-activating function...... of cellular MT1-MMP alone, rather than the general proteolytic activity and the pro-migratory function of MT1-MMP. Furthermore, the antibody does not interact in any detectable manner with other members of the membrane type (MT)-MMP family. The mechanism of this selectivity remained unknown. Using mutagenesis......, binding and activity assays, and modeling in silico, we have demonstrated that the 9E8 antibody recognizes the MT-loop structure, an eight residue insertion that is specific for MT-MMPs and that is distant from the MT1-MMP active site. The binding of the 9E8 antibody to the MT-loop, however, prevents...

  14. Soil radon concentration and volcanic activity of Mt. Etna before and after the 2002 eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imme, G.; La Delfa, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Morelli, D.; Patane, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soil radon investigation, using a continuous measurement device, has been performed on Mt. Etna in order to observe possible anomalies due to seismic and/or volcanic activity. In October 2002 an eruptive event occurred. Measurements, performed on the NE flank, have shown a possible correlation between eruptive activity of the volcano and soil radon concentration anomaly. The study of the seismic activity recorded in the same flank has, also, allowed to characterize the volcano dynamics and to correlate it with the variations of radon. The obtained results seem to indicate a possible dependence on volcanic activity of the radon concentration

  15. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the viability of EAC cells after direct treatment of the said compounds. In in vivo study, MT81 and its structural analogue were administered (i.p. at the two different doses (5, 7 mg MT81; 8.93, 11.48 mg Aa-MT81/kg body weight for 7 days after 24 hrs. of tumor inoculation. The activities were assessed using mean survival time (MST, increased life span (ILS, tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, peritoneal cell count, protein percentage and hematological parameters. Antioxidant status was determined by malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH content, and by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CA T. MT81 and its structural analogues increased the mean survival time, normal peritoneal cell count. They decreased the tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, hemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume. Differential counts of WBC, total counts of RBC & WBC that altered by EAC inoculation, were restored in a dose-dependent manner. Increased MDA and decreased GSH content and reduced activity of SOD, and catalase in EAC bearing mice were returned towards normal after the treatment of MT81 and its structural analogue. Being less toxic than parent toxin MT81, the structural analogue showed more prominent antineoplastic activities against EAC cells compared to MT81. At the same time, both compounds exhibit to some extent antioxidant potential for the EAC-bearing mice.

  16. Phthalimide neovascular factor 1 (PNF1) modulates MT1-MMP activity in human microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieghaus, Kristen A; Gianchandani, Erwin P; Neal, Rebekah A; Paige, Mikell A; Brown, Milton L; Papin, Jason A; Botchwey, Edward A

    2009-07-01

    We are creating synthetic pharmaceuticals with angiogenic activity and potential to promote vascular invasion. We previously demonstrated that one of these molecules, phthalimide neovascular factor 1 (PNF1), significantly expands microvascular networks in vivo following sustained release from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) films. In addition, to probe PNF1 mode of action, we recently applied a novel pathway-based compendium analysis to a multi-timepoint, controlled microarray data set of PNF1-treated (vs. control) human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), and we identified induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and, subsequently, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling networks by PNF1. Here we validate this microarray data set with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Subsequently, we probe this data set and identify three specific TGF-beta-induced genes with regulation by PNF1 conserved over multiple timepoints-amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP), early growth response 1 (EGR-1), and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14 or MT1-MMP)-that are also implicated in angiogenesis. We further focus on MMP14 given its unique role in angiogenesis, and we validate MT1-MMP modulation by PNF1 with an in vitro fluorescence assay that demonstrates the direct effects that PNF1 exerts on functional metalloproteinase activity. We also utilize endothelial cord formation in collagen gels to show that PNF1-induced stimulation of endothelial cord network formation in vitro is in some way MT1-MMP-dependent. Ultimately, this new network analysis of our transcriptional footprint characterizing PNF1 activity 1-48 h post-supplementation in HMVECs coupled with corresponding validating experiments suggests a key set of a few specific targets that are involved in PNF1 mode of action and important for successful promotion of the neovascularization that we have observed by the drug in vivo.

  17. Integrating ambient noise with GIS for a new perspective on volcano imaging and monitoring: The case study of Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardo, R.; De Siena, L.

    2017-11-01

    The timely estimation of short- and long-term volcanic hazard relies on the availability of detailed 3D geophysical images of volcanic structures. High-resolution seismic models of the absorbing uppermost conduit systems and highly-heterogeneous shallowest volcanic layers, while particularly challenging to obtain, provide important data to locate feasible eruptive centres and forecast flank collapses and lava ascending paths. Here, we model the volcanic structures of Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) and its outskirts using the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio method, generally applied to industrial and engineering settings. The integration of this technique with Web-based Geographic Information System improves precision during the acquisition phase. It also integrates geological and geophysical visualization of 3D surface and subsurface structures in a queryable environment representing their exact three-dimensional geographic position, enhancing interpretation. The results show high-resolution 3D images of the shallowest volcanic and feeding systems, which complement (1) deeper seismic tomography imaging and (2) the results of recent remote sensing imaging. The study recovers a vertical structure that divides the pre-existing volcanic complexes of Ellittico and Cuvigghiuni. This could be interpreted as a transitional phase between the two systems. A comparison with recent remote sensing and geological results, however, shows that anomalies are generally related to volcano-tectonic structures active during the last 17 years. We infer that seismic noise measurements from miniaturized instruments, when combined with remote sensing techniques, represent an important resource to monitor volcanoes in unrest, reducing the risk of loss of human lives and instrumentation.

  18. DEBRIS FLOW DISASTER MITIGATION THROUGH COMMUNITY-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT (BEST PRACTICE IN MT. MERAPI AREA, INDONESIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Otani, Kazuhiko; Suharyanto, Suharyanto

    2015-01-01

    Mt. Merapi is one of many active volcanoes in Indonesia which erupts frequently. The small eruption occurred nearly every year, whereas the big ones occurred at approximately once every five years. The eruption often produces impacts at both positive and negative view points, such as production of sediment as construction material and damage on infrastructures due to debris flow occurrences respectively. The eruption produces two types of disasters, i.e. primary disaster (such as ash fall, py...

  19. Co-ordinated expression of MMP-2 and its putative activator, MT1-MMP, in human placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn, S F; Hastrup, N; Lund, L R; Danø, K; Larsen, J F; Pyke, C

    1997-08-01

    The spatial expression of mRNA for matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), its putative activator, the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), and the MMP-2 substrate type IV collagen was investigated in human placentas of both normal and tubal ectopic pregnancies and in cyclic endometrium using in-situ hybridization. Cytokeratin staining applied to adjacent sections was used to identify epithelial and trophoblast cells. In both normal and tubal pregnancies MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and type IV collagen mRNA were highly expressed and co-localized in the extravillous cytotrophoblasts of anchoring villi, in cytotrophoblasts that had penatrated into the placental bed and in cytotrophoblastic cell islands. In addition, the decidual cells of normal pregnancies in some areas co-expressed MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNA, with moderate signals for both components. Fibroblast-like stromal cells in tubal pregnancies were positive for MMP-2 mRNA but generally negative for MT1-MMP mRNA. The consistent co-localization of MT1-MMP with MMP-2 and type IV collagen in the same subset of cytotrophoblasts strongly suggests that all three components co-operate in the tightly regulated fetal invasion process. The co-expression of MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNA in some of the decidual cells indicates that these cells are also actively involved in the placentation process.

  20. Rheological control on the dynamics of explosive activity in the 2000 summit eruption of Mt. Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Giordano

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the period from January to June 2000 Mt. Etna exhibited an exceptional explosive activity characterized by a succession of 64 Strombolian and fire-fountaining episodes from the summit South-East Crater. Textural analysis of the eruptive products reveals that the magma associated with the Strombolian phases had a much larger crystal content (>55 vol% with respect to the magma discharged during the fire-fountain phases (~35 vol%. Rheological modelling shows that the crystal-rich magma falls in a region beyond a critical crystal content where small addition of solid particles causes an exponential increase of the effective magma viscosity. When implemented into the modeling of steady magma ascent dynamics (as assumed for the fire-fountain activity, a large crystal content as the one found for products of Strombolian eruption phases results in a one order of magnitude decrease of mass flow-rate, and in the onset of conditions where small heterogeneities in the solid fraction carried by the magma translate into highly unsteady eruption dynamics. We argue that crystallization on top of the magmatic column during the intermediate phases when magma was not discharged favoured conditions corresponding to Strombolian activity, with fire-fountain activity resuming after removal of the highly crystalline top. The numerical simulations also provide a consistent interpretation of the association between fire-fountain activity and emergence of lava flows from the crater flanks.

  1. The Qartaba Structure: An Active Backthrust In Central Mt-Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ata Richard

    2016-04-01

    The Qartaba structure in central Mt-Lebanon is a 15x5km box fold running parallel to the restraining bend of the sinsitral Yammouneh Fault, the main fault of the central segment of the Dead Sea Transform. The Qartaba structure has long been described as a "horst" and associated with Mesozoic normal faulting. However, the Qartaba anticline is suitably oriented with the direction of maximum compression along the restraining bend. Jurassic carbonate rocks form the core of this anticline culminating at ~1953m asl to the east, of the highest structural elevation of the Mt-Lebanon range indicating important tectonic uplift rate. The fold is asymmetric. The western limb is steep and bordered by the Lebanese Flexure, a prominent continuous monocline of Upper Jurassic to Mid Cretaceous rocks, running along the western flank of Mt-Lebanon. The eastern limb of the anticline has a very steep dip, and forms a 200m high cliff well marked in the topography. Its Jurassic layers are almost vertical and end up overhanging Lower Cretaceous beds. Our study suggest that the Qartaba structure is a growing anticline, built by active thrusting over a west dipping thrust fault that cuts the surface at the base of the eastern limb of the anticline. The fault plane can be seen dipping 30-35 degrees to the west. At depth, this thrust is likely to connect with the blind thrust ramp of the Mt-Lebanon Flexure. The Qartaba backthrust with a dip to the west, is opposite to the general vergence of similar structures in the area. On some of the segments of the steep cliff forming the faulted eastern limb, a fresh scarp with smooth and polished surfaces bearing vertical slickensides can be followed over ~700m along the base of the cliff. It corresponds with the location of the thrust fault tip. Talus accumulation over the steep eastern limb covers most of the cliff base, and may be masking further extent of this scarp. We interpret this scarp as the freeface of a co-seismic rupture on the underlying

  2. Multiparametric approach to unravel the mechanism of Strombolian activity at a multivent system: Mt. Etna case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Andrea; Del Bello, Elisabetta; Kueppers, Ulrich; Privitera, Eugenio; Ricci, Tullio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Sciotto, Mariangela; Spina, Laura; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Pena Fernandez, Juan Jose; Sesterhenn, Joern

    2016-04-01

    On 5th July 2014 an eruptive fissure (hereafter referred to as EF) opened at the base of North-East Crater (NEC) of Mt. Etna. EF produced both Strombolian explosions and lava effusion. Thanks to the multiparametric experiment planned in the framework of MEDSUV project, we had the chance to acquire geophysical and volcanological data, in order to investigate the ongoing volcanic activity at EF. Temporary instruments (2 broadband seismometers, 2 microphones, 3-microphone arrays, a high-speed video camera and a thermal-camera) were deployed near the active vents during 15-16 July 2014 and were integrated with the data recorded by the permanent networks. Several kinds of studies are currently in progress, such as: frequency analysis by Fourier Transform and Short Time Fourier Transform to evaluate the spectral content of both seismic and acoustic signals; partitioning of seismic and acoustic energies, whose time variations could reflect changes in the volcanic dynamics; investigation on the intertimes between explosions to investigate their recurrence behaviour; classification of the waveforms of infrasound events. Furthermore, joint analysis of video signals and seismic-acoustic wavefields outlined relationships between pyroclasts ejection velocity, total erupted mass, peak explosion pressure, and air-ground motion coupling. This multiparametric approach allowed distinguishing and characterizing individually the behavior of the two vents active along the eruptive fissure via their thermal, visible and infrasonic signatures and shed light in the eruptive dynamics.

  3. MT1-MMP promotes cell growth and ERK activation through c-Src and paxillin in three-dimensional collagen matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takino, Takahisa; Tsuge, Hisashi; Ozawa, Terumasa; Sato, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is essential for tumor invasion and growth. We show here that MT1-MMP induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in cancer cells cultured in collagen gel, which is indispensable for their proliferation. Inhibition of MT1-MMP by MMP inhibitor or small interfering RNA suppressed activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ERK in MT1-MMP-expressing cancer cells, which resulted in up-regulation of p21 WAF1 and suppression of cell growth in collagen gel. Cell proliferation was also abrogated by the inhibitor against ERK pathway without affecting FAK phosphorylation. MT1-MMP and integrin α v β 3 were shown to be involved in c-Src activation, which induced FAK and ERK activation in collagen gel. These MT1-MMP-mediated signal transductions were paxillin dependent, as knockdown of paxillin reduced cell growth and ERK activation, and co-expression of MT1-MMP with paxillin induced ERK activation. The results suggest that MT1-MMP contributes to proliferation of cancer cells in the extracellular matrix by activating ERK through c-Src and paxillin.

  4. Volcanic Gases and Hot Spring Water to Evaluate the Volcanic Activity of the Mt. Baekdusan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Lee, S.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    This study performed the analysis on the volcanic gases and hot spring waters from the Julong hot spring at Mt. Baekdu, also known as Changbaishan on the North Korea(DPRK)-China border, during the period from July 2015 to August 2016. Also, we confirmed the errors that HCO3- concentrations of hot spring waters in the previous study (Lee et al. 2014) and tried to improve the problem. Dissolved CO2 in hot spring waters was analyzed using gas chromatograph in Lee et al.(2014). Improving this, from 2015, we used TOC-IC to analysis dissolved CO2. Also, we analyzed the Na2CO3 standard solutions of different concentrations using GC, and confirmed the correlation between the analytical concentrations and the real concentrations. However, because the analytical results of the Julong hot spring water were in discord with the estimated values based on this correlation, we can't estimate the HCO3-concentrations of 2014 samples. During the period of study, CO2/CH4 ratios in volcanic gases are gradually decreased, and this can be interpreted in two different ways. The first interpretation is that the conditions inside the volcanic edifice are changing into more reduction condition, and carbon in volcanic gases become more favorable to distribute into CH4 or CO than CO2. The second interpretation is that the interaction between volcanic gases and water becomes greater than past, and the concentrations of CO2which have much higher solubility in water decreased, relatively. In general, the effect of scrubbing of volcanic gas is strengthened during the quiet periods of volcanic activity rather than active periods. Meanwhile, the analysis of hot spring waters was done on the anion of acidic gases species, the major cations, and some trace elements (As, Cd, Re).This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-3060.

  5. Dimerization of endogenous MT1-MMP is a regulatory step in the activation of the 72-kDa gelatinase MMP-2 on fibroblasts and fibrosarcoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsen, Signe; Madsen, Daniel H.; Hillig, Thore

    2008-01-01

    The secreted gelatinase matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) and the membrane-anchored matrix metalloprotease MT1-MMP (MMP-14), are central players in pericellular proteolysis in extracellular matrix degradation. In addition to possessing a direct collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity......, these enzymes take part in a cascade pathway in which MT1-MMP activates the MMP-2 proenzyme. This reaction occurs in an interplay with the matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, TIMP-2, and the proposed mechanism involves two molecules of MT1-MMP in complex with one TIMP-2 molecule. We provide positive evidence...... that proMMP-2 activation is governed by dimerization of MT1-MMP on the surface of fibroblasts and fibrosarcoma cells. Even in the absence of transfection and overexpression, dimerization of MT1-MMP markedly stimulated the formation of active MMP-2 products. The effect demonstrated here was brought about...

  6. DsbA-L prevents obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance by suppressing the mtDNA release-activated cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Juli; Cervantes, Christopher; Liu, Juan; He, Sijia; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Bilin; Cai, Huan; Yin, Dongqing; Hu, Derong; Li, Zhi; Chen, Hongzhi; Gao, Xiaoli; Wang, Fang; O'Connor, Jason C; Xu, Yong; Liu, Meilian; Dong, Lily Q; Liu, Feng

    2017-11-14

    Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue plays a key role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying obesity-induced inflammation remain elusive. Here we show that obesity promotes mtDNA release into the cytosol, where it triggers inflammatory responses by activating the DNA-sensing cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway. Fat-specific knockout of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a chaperone-like protein originally identified in the mitochondrial matrix, impaired mitochondrial function and promoted mtDNA release, leading to activation of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway and inflammatory responses. Conversely, fat-specific overexpression of DsbA-L protected mice against high-fat diet-induced activation of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway and inflammation. Taken together, we identify DsbA-L as a key molecule that maintains mitochondrial integrity. DsbA-L deficiency promotes inflammation and insulin resistance by activating the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway. Our study also reveals that, in addition to its well-characterized roles in innate immune surveillance, the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway plays an important role in mediating obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction.

  7. Integration of mtDNA pseudogenes into the nuclear genome coincides with speciation of the human genus. A hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunbin, Konstantin; Peshkin, Leonid; Popadin, Konstantin; Annis, Sofia; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Khrapko, Konstantin

    2017-05-01

    Fragments of mitochondrial DNA are known to get inserted into nuclear DNA to form NUMTs, i.e. nuclear pseudogenes of the mtDNA. The insertion of a NUMT is a rare event. Hundreds of pseudogenes have been cataloged in the human genome. NUMTs are, in essence, a special type of mutation with their own internal timer, which is synchronized with an established molecular clock, the mtDNA. Thus insertion of NUMTs can be timed with respect to evolution milestones such as the emergence of new species. We asked whether NUMTs were inserted uniformly over time or preferentially during certain periods of evolution, as implied by the "punctuated evolution" model. To our surprise, the NUMT insertion times do appear nonrandom with at least one cluster positioned at around 2.8 million years ago (Ma). Interestingly, 2.8Ma closely corresponds to the time of emergence of the genus Homo, and to a well-documented period of major climate change ca. 2.9-2.5Ma. It is tempting to hypothesize that the insertion of NUMTs is related to the speciation process. NUMTs could be either "riders", i.e., their insertion could be facilitated by the overall higher genome rearrangement activity during speciation, or "drivers", i.e. they may more readily get fixed in the population due to positive selection associated with speciation. If correct, the hypothesis would support the idea that evolution of our genus may have happened in a rapid, punctuated manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Amplitude and Recurrence Time of LP activity at Mt. Etna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchie, Léna; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Bean, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    , similar for both families, differ instead significantly from the Gutenberg-Richter law, and the inter-event times distributions don't follow a typical Gamma-law. In order to compare these results with a catalogue for which the source mechanism is well-established, we applied the same analysis procedure to a dataset from Stromboli Volcano, where LP activity is closely related to VLP (Very-Long-Period) pulses, in turn associated with the summit explosions. Again, catalogues of thousands of LP events were achieved over one month of seismic records (July 2011). Our results indicate a similar behaviour in terms of both amplitude and inter-event time distributions, with respect to what observed at Mt. Etna. This suggests that the Etna's LP data are likely related with a degassing process occurring at depth. Nonetheless, further studies are needed in order to quantify the time recurrence and amplitude distribution of brittle failure in viscous, stressed magmas. Hopefully, these steps will lead to an improved understanding of LP activity in different volcanic contexts, in turn clarifying its significance in terms of eruption forecasting.

  9. DEBRIS FLOW DISASTER MITIGATION THROUGH COMMUNITY-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT (BEST PRACTICE IN MT. MERAPI AREA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Otani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Merapi is one of many active volcanoes in Indonesia which erupts frequently. The small eruption occurred nearly every year, whereas the big ones occurred at approximately once every five years. The eruption often produces impacts at both positive and negative view points, such as production of sediment as construction material and damage on infrastructures due to debris flow occurrences respectively. The eruption produces two types of disasters, i.e. primary disaster (such as ash fall, pyroclastic flow, and lava flow, and secondary disaster such as debris flow. This paper presents the long term effort on the development of community participation in the sand mining management as one of strategic disaster mitigation activities. The raising awareness of the community on the necessity of conducting proper sand mining management and its effect on reducing the risk due to debris flow disaster has shown the effectives of the approach being introduced. The local government acceptance on the presence of the community participation in the whole system of sediment management may involve further collaboration between the local government authority and community society in the future.

  10. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model--Documentation of the SEAWAT-2000 Version with the Variable-Density Flow Process (VDF) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process (IMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Guo, Weixing

    2003-01-01

    SEAWAT-2000 is the latest release of the SEAWAT computer program for simulation of three-dimensional, variable-density, transient ground-water flow in porous media. SEAWAT-2000 was designed by combining a modified version of MODFLOW-2000 and MT3DMS into a single computer program. The code was developed using the MODFLOW-2000 concept of a process, which is defined as ?part of the code that solves a fundamental equation by a specified numerical method.? SEAWAT-2000 contains all of the processes distributed with MODFLOW-2000 and also includes the Variable-Density Flow Process (as an alternative to the constant-density Ground-Water Flow Process) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process. Processes may be active or inactive, depending on simulation objectives; however, not all processes are compatible. For example, the Sensitivity and Parameter Estimation Processes are not compatible with the Variable-Density Flow and Integrated MT3DMS Transport Processes. The SEAWAT-2000 computer code was tested with the common variable-density benchmark problems and also with problems representing evaporation from a salt lake and rotation of immiscible fluids.

  11. Integrating passive seismicity with Web-Based GIS for a new perspective on volcano imaging and monitoring: the case study of Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardo, Roberto; De Siena, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The timely estimation of short- and long-term volcanic hazard relies on the existence of detailed 3D geophysical images of volcanic structures. High-resolution seismic models of the absorbing uppermost conduit systems and highly-heterogeneous shallowest volcanic layers, while particularly challenging to obtain, provide important data to locate feasible eruptive centers and forecast flank collapses and lava ascending paths. Here, we model the volcanic structures of Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) and its outskirts using the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio method, generally applied to industrial and engineering settings. The integration of this technique with Web-based Geographic Information System improves precision during the acquisition phase. It also integrates geological and geophysical visualization of 3D surface and subsurface structures in a queryable environment representing their exact three-dimensional geographic position, enhancing interpretation. The results show high-resolution 3D images of the shallowest volcanic and feeding systems, which complement (1) deeper seismic tomography imaging and (2) the results of recent remote sensing imaging. The main novelty with respect to previous model is the presence of a vertical structure that divides the pre-existing volcanic complexes of Ellittico and Cuvigghiuni. This could be interpreted as a transitional phase between the two systems. A comparison with recent remote sensing and geological results, however, shows clear connections between the anomaly and dynamic active during the last 15 years. We infer that seismic noise measurements from miniaturized instruments, when combined with remote sensing techniques, represent an important resource when monitoring volcanic media and eruptions, reducing the risk of loss of human lives and instrumentation.

  12. Activation of melatonin receptor (MT1/2) promotes P-gp transporter in methamphetamine-induced toxicity on primary rat brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumnongprakhon, Pichaya; Sivasinprasasn, Sivanan; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Tocharus, Chainarong; Tocharus, Jiraporn

    2017-06-01

    Melatonin has been known as a neuroprotective agent for the central nervous system (CNS) and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is the primary structure that comes into contact with several neurotoxins including methamphetamine (METH). Previous studies have reported that the activation of melatonin receptors (MT1/2) by melatonin could protect against METH-induced toxicity in brain endothelial cells via several mechanisms. However, its effects on the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter, the active efflux pump involved in cell homeostasis, are still unclear. Thus, this study investigated the role of melatonin and its receptors on the METH-impaired P-gp transporter in primary rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs). The results showed that METH impaired the function of the P-gp transporter, significantly decreasing the efflux of Rho123 and P-gp expression, which caused a significant increase in the intracellular accumulation of Rho123, and these responses were reversed by the interaction of melatonin with its receptors. Blockade of the P-gp transporter by verapamil caused oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell integrity impairment after METH treatment, and these effects could be reversed by melatonin. Our results, together with previous findings, suggest that the interaction of melatonin with its receptors protects against the effects of the METH-impaired P-gp transporter and that the protective role in METH-induced toxicity was at least partially mediated by the regulation of the P-gp transporter. Thus, melatonin and its receptors (MT1/2) are essential for protecting against BBB impairment caused by METH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seismic Activity Related to the 2002-2003 Mt. Etna Volcano Eruption (Italy): Fault Plane Solutions and Stress Tensor Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberi, G.; Cammarata, L.; Cocina, O.; Maiolino, V.; Musumeci, C.; Privitera, E.

    2003-04-01

    Late on the night of October 26, 2002, a bi-lateral eruption started on both the eastern and the southeastern flanks of Mt. Etna. The opening of the eruptive fracture system on the NE sector and the reactivation of the 2001 fracture system, on the S sector, were accompanied by a strong seismic swarm recorded between October 26 and 28 and by sharp increase of volcanic tremor amplitude. After this initial phase, on October 29 another seismogenetic zone became active in the SE sector of the volcano. At present (January 2003) the eruption is still in evolution. During the whole period a total of 862 earthquakes (Md≫1) was recorded by the local permanent seismic network run by INGV - Sezione di Catania. The maximum magnitude observed was Md=4.4. We focus our attention on 55 earthquakes with magnitude Md≫ 3.0. The dataset consists of accurate digital pickings of P- and S-phases including first-motion polarities. Firstly earthquakes were located using a 1D velocity model (Hirn et alii, 1991), then events were relocated by using two different 3D velocity models (Aloisi et alii, 2002; Patane et alii, 2002). Results indicate that most of earthquakes are located to the east of the Summit Craters and to northeast of them. Fault plane solutions (FPS) obtained show prevalent strike-slip rupture mechanisms. The suitable FPSs were considered for the application of Gephart and Forsyth`s algorithm in order to evaluate seismic stress field characteristics. Taking into account the preliminary results we propose a kinematic model of the eastern flank eastward movement in response of the intrusion processes in the central part of the volcano. References Aloisi M., Cocina O., Neri G., Orecchio B., Privitera E. (2002). Seismic tomography of the crust underneath the Etna volcano, Sicily. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 4154, pp. 1-17 Hirn A., Nercessian A., Sapin M., Ferrucci F., Wittlinger G. (1991). Seismic heterogeneity of Mt. Etna: structure and activity. Geophys. J

  14. The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Emiko; Yana, Ikuo; Fujita, Chisato; Irifune, Aiko; Takeda, Maki; Madachi, Ayako; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-01-01

    The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression remains to be elucidated in spite of many reports on MT1-MMP. Using a human fibrosarcoma cell, HT1080 and a human gastric cancer cell, TMK-1, endogenous expression of MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP was suppressed by siRNA induction to examine the influence of cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. In HT1080 cells, positive both in MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, the migration as well as the invasion was impaired by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression. Also cell proliferation in three dimensional (3D) condition was inhibited by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression and tumor growth in the nude mice transplanted with tumor cells were reduced either MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression with a prolongation of survival time in vivo. MT2-MMP suppression induces more inhibitory effects on 3D proliferation and in vivo tumor growth than MT1-MMP. On the other hand, TMK-1 cells, negative in MT1-MMP and MMP-2 but positive in MT2-MMP, all the migratory, invasive, and 3D proliferative activities in TMK-1 are decreased only by MT2-MMP suppression. These results indicate MT2-MMP might be involved in the cancer progression more than or equal to MT1-MMP independently of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP.

  15. DsbA-L prevents obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance by suppressing the mtDNA release-activated cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue plays a key role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying obesity-induced inflammation remain elusive. Here we show that obesity promotes mtDNA release into the cytosol, where it triggers inflammatory responses by activating the...

  16. Activity-Centred Tool Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with integration of heterogeneous tools for system development. We argue that such tools should support concrete activities (e.g., programming, unit testing, conducting workshops) in contrast to abstract concerns (e.g., analysis, design, implementation). A consequence of t...... of this is that tools — or components —that support activities well should be integrated in ad-hoc, dynamic, and heterogeneous ways. We present a peer-to-peer architecture for this based on type-based publish subscribe and give an example of its use....

  17. Spatial distribution of soil radon as a tool to recognize active faulting on an active volcano: the example of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Marco, E-mail: marco.neri@ct.ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Piazza Roma, 2 - 95123 Catania (Italy); Giammanco, Salvatore [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Piazza Roma, 2 - 95123 Catania (Italy); Ferrera, Elisabetta; Patane, Giuseppe [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dip. Scienze della Terra, Corso Italia, 52 - 95129 Catania (Italy); Zanon, Vittorio [Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliacao de Riscos Geologicos - Universidade dos Acores, Rua Mae de Deus, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    This study concerns measurements of radon and thoron emissions from soil carried out in 2004 on the eastern flank of Mt. Etna, in a zone characterized by the presence of numerous seismogenic and aseismic faults. The statistical treatment of the geochemical data allowed recognizing anomaly thresholds for both parameters and producing distribution maps that highlighted a significant spatial correlation between soil gas anomalies and tectonic lineaments. The seismic activity occurring in and around the study area during 2004 was analyzed, producing maps of hypocentral depth and released seismic energy. Both radon and thoron anomalies were located in areas affected by relatively deep (5-10 km depth) seismic activity, while less evident correlation was found between soil gas anomalies and the released seismic energy. This study confirms that mapping the distribution of radon and thoron in soil gas can reveal hidden faults buried by recent soil cover or faults that are not clearly visible at the surface. The correlation between soil gas data and earthquakes depth and intensity can give some hints on the source of gas and/or on fault dynamics. - Highlights: > We performed measurements of radon from soil carried out on Mt. Etna. > The sampled zone is characterized by the presence of numerous active faults. > Radon mapping reveal dangerous hidden faults buried by recent soil cover. > Our study gives some hints on the source of gas and on fault dynamics. > We recognized areas where radon activity represents a hazard to the population.

  18. Pattern Matching for Volcano Status Assessment: what monitoring data alone can say about Mt. Etna activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavo, F.; Cannata, A.; Cassisi, C.

    2017-12-01

    The importance of assessing the ongoing status of active volcanoes is crucial not only for exposures to the local population but due to possible presence of tephra also for airline traffic. Adequately monitoring of active volcanoes, hence, plays a key role for civil protection purposes. In last decades, in order to properly monitor possible threats, continuous measuring networks have been designed and deployed on most of potentially hazardous volcanos. Nevertheless, at the present, volcano real-time surveillance is basically delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology, who interpret data coming from different kind of monitoring networks using their experience and non-measurable information (e.g. information from the field) to infer the volcano status. In some cases, raw data are used in some models to obtain more clues on the ongoing activity. In the last decades, with the development of volcano monitoring networks, huge amount of data of different geophysical, geochemical and volcanological types have been collected and stored in large databases. Having such big data sets with many examples of volcanic activity allows us to study volcano monitoring from a machine learning perspective. Thus, exploiting opportunities offered by the abundance of volcano monitoring time-series data we can try to address the following questions: Are the monitored parameters sufficient to discriminate the volcano status? Is it possible to infer/distinguish the volcano status only from the multivariate patterns of measurements? Are all the kind of measurements in the pattern equally useful for status assessment? How accurate would be an automatic system of status inference based only on pattern recognition of data? Here we present preliminary results of the data analysis we performed on a set of data and activity covering the period 2011-2017 at Mount Etna (Italy). In the considered period, we had 52 events of lava fountaining and long periods of Strombolian activity. We

  19. Innovations at the MT 25 microtron aimed at applications in photon activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krist, Pavel; Horák, Zbyněk; Mizera, Jiří; Chvátil, David; Vognar, Miroslav; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 304, č. 1 (2015), s. 183-188 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-27885S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : microtron * electron accelerator * photon activation analysis * IPAA * short-lived radionuclides * pneumatic tube delivery system Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2015

  20. Three decades of seismic activity at Mt. Vesuvius: 1972-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Kuznetzov, Igor; Kronrod, Tanya; Peresan, Antonella; Sarao, Angela; Panza, Gluliano F.

    2002-06-01

    We analyse the seismic catalogue of the local earthquakes which occurred at Somma- Vesuvius volcano in the past three decades (1972-2000). The seismicity in this period can be described as composed by a background level, characterised by a low and rather uniform rate of energy release and by sporadic periods of increased seismic activity. Such relatively intense seismicity periods are characterised by energy rates and magnitudes progressively increasing in the critical periods. The analyses of the b value in the whole period evidences a well defined pattern, with values of b progressively decreasing, from about 1.8, at the beginning of the considered period, to about 1.0 at present. This steady variation indicates an increasing dynamics in the volcanic system. Within this general trend it is possible to identity a sub-structure in the time sequence of the seismic events, formed by the alternating episodes of quiescence and activity. The analysis of the source moment tensor of the largest earthquakes shows that the processes at the seismic source are generally not consistent with simple double-couples, but that they are compatible with large isotropic components, mostly indicating volumetric expansion. These components are shown to be statistically significant for almost all the analysed events. Such focal mechanisms can be interpreted as the effect of explosion phenomena, possibly related to volatile exsolution from the crystallising magma. The availability of a reduced amount of high quality data necessary for the inversion of the source moment tensor, the still limited period of systematic observation of Vesuvius micro- earthquakes and, above all, the absence of eruptive events during such interval of time, cannot obviously permit to outline any formal premonitory signal. Nevertheless, the analysis reported in this paper indicates a progressively evolving dynamics, characterised by a general increasing trend in the seismic activity in the volcanic system and by a

  1. The mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFASII) pathway is capable of mediating nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk through the PPAR system of transcriptional activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parl, Angelika; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Clay, Hayley B.; Reiss, Sara; Li, Zhen; Murdock, Deborah G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The function of the mitochondria fatty acid synthesis pathway is partially unknown. •Overexpression of the pathway causes transcriptional activation through PPARs. •Knock down of the pathway attenuates that activation. •The last enzyme in the pathway regulates its own transcription. •Products of the mtFASII pathway are able to drive nuclear transcription. -- Abstract: Mammalian cells contain two fatty acid synthesis pathways, the cytosolic FASI pathway, and the mitochondrial FASII pathway. The selection behind the conservation of the mitochondrial pathway is not completely understood, given the presence of the cytosolic FAS pathway. In this study, we show through heterologous gene reporter systems and PCR-based arrays that overexpression of MECR, the last step in the mtFASII pathway, causes modulation of gene expression through the PPAR pathway. Electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrate that overexpression of MECR causes increased binding of PPARs to DNA, while cell fractionation and imaging studies show that MECR remains localized to the mitochondria. Interestingly, knock down of the mtFASII pathway lessens the effect of MECR on this transcriptional modulation. Our data are most consistent with MECR-mediated transcriptional activation through products of the mtFASII pathway, although we cannot rule out MECR acting as a coactivator. Further investigation into the physiological relevance of this communication will be necessary to better understand some of the phenotypic consequences of deficits in this pathway observed in animal models and human disease

  2. The mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFASII) pathway is capable of mediating nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk through the PPAR system of transcriptional activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parl, Angelika; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Clay, Hayley B.; Reiss, Sara; Li, Zhen; Murdock, Deborah G., E-mail: deborah.murdock@vanderbilt.edu

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The function of the mitochondria fatty acid synthesis pathway is partially unknown. •Overexpression of the pathway causes transcriptional activation through PPARs. •Knock down of the pathway attenuates that activation. •The last enzyme in the pathway regulates its own transcription. •Products of the mtFASII pathway are able to drive nuclear transcription. -- Abstract: Mammalian cells contain two fatty acid synthesis pathways, the cytosolic FASI pathway, and the mitochondrial FASII pathway. The selection behind the conservation of the mitochondrial pathway is not completely understood, given the presence of the cytosolic FAS pathway. In this study, we show through heterologous gene reporter systems and PCR-based arrays that overexpression of MECR, the last step in the mtFASII pathway, causes modulation of gene expression through the PPAR pathway. Electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrate that overexpression of MECR causes increased binding of PPARs to DNA, while cell fractionation and imaging studies show that MECR remains localized to the mitochondria. Interestingly, knock down of the mtFASII pathway lessens the effect of MECR on this transcriptional modulation. Our data are most consistent with MECR-mediated transcriptional activation through products of the mtFASII pathway, although we cannot rule out MECR acting as a coactivator. Further investigation into the physiological relevance of this communication will be necessary to better understand some of the phenotypic consequences of deficits in this pathway observed in animal models and human disease.

  3. Fault kinematics and active tectonics of the Sabah margin: Insights from the 2015, Mw 6.0, Mt. Kinabalu earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, S.; Tapponnier, P.; WANG, X.; Lindsey, E.; Sieh, K.

    2016-12-01

    A gravity-driven "Mega-Landslide" model has been evoked to explain the shortening seen offshore Sabah and Brunei in oil-company seismic data. Although this model is considered to account simultaneously for recent folding at the edge of the submarine NW Sabah trough and normal faulting on the Sabah shelf, such a gravity-driven model is not consistent with geodetic data or critical examination of extant structural restorations. The rupture that produced the 2015 Mw6.0 Mt. Kinabalu earthquake is also inconsistent with the gravity-driven model. Our teleseismic analysis shows that the centroid depth of that earthquake's mainshock was 13 to 14 km, and its favored fault-plane solution is a 60° NW-dipping normal fault. Our finite-rupture model exhibits major fault slip between 5 and 15 km depth, in keeping with our InSAR analysis, which shows no appreciable surface deformation. Both the hypocentral depth and the depth of principal slip are far too deep to be explained by gravity-driven failure, as such a model would predict a listric normal fault connecting at a much shallower depth with a very gentle detachment. Our regional mapping of tectonic landforms also suggests the recent rupture is part of a 200-km long system of narrowly distributed active extension in northern Sabah. Taken together, the nature of the 2015 rupture, the belt of active normal faults, and structural consideration indicate that active tectonic shortening plays the leading role in controlling the overall deformation of northern Sabah and that deep-seated, onland normal faulting likely results from an abrupt change in the dip-angle of the collision interface beneath the Sabah accretionary prism.

  4. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize...... the putative differences between the rat brain MT isoforms, namely MT-I+II and MT-III, in the freeze lesion model of brain damage, and for developing an ELISA for MT-III suitable for brain samples. In the normal rat brain, MT-III was mostly present primarily in astrocytes. However, lectin staining indicated...

  5. Integrative Potential of Architectural Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    The architectural activity integrative potential is considered through the combination as well as the organization of necessary universal human and professional, artificial and natural, social and individual architectural activities in the multidimensional unity of its components reflecting and influencing the public thinking with the artistic-figurative language of international communication using experimental form-building, interactive presentations, theatrical and gaming expressiveness to organize an easier contact with the consumer, methods of design and advertising. The methodology is used to reflect the mutual influence of personal and social problems through globalization and identification of their problem in the public, to study the existing methods of the problem solving, to analyze their effectiveness, to search for actual problems and new solutions to them using the latest achievements of technological progress, artistic patterns, creation of a holistic architectural image reflecting the author’s worldview in the general picture of the modern world with its inherent tendencies “Surah” and “entertainment”. The operative communication means in the chain of social experience are developed - the teacher - the trainee - the new educational result used to transmit the updated information in a generalized form, the current and final control through the use of feedback sheets, supporting summaries, info cards, its decisions. The paper considers the study time efficiency due to the organization of the research activity which allows students to obtain a theoretical generalized information (the creator’s limitation) in the process of filling or compiling informative and diagnostic maps that provide the theoretical framework for the creative activity through gaming activity that turns into a work activity which has a diagnosed result.

  6. Integration through a Card-Sort Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kris; Ricca, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to compute integrals via the various techniques of integration (e.g., integration by parts, partial fractions, etc.) is difficult for many students. Here, we look at how students in a college level Calculus II course develop the ability to categorize integrals and the difficulties they encounter using a card sort-resort activity. Analysis…

  7. Identification of 2-aminothiazole-4-carboxylate derivatives active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and the beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase mtFabH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qosay Al-Balas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a disease which kills two million people every year and infects approximately over one-third of the world's population. The difficulty in managing tuberculosis is the prolonged treatment duration, the emergence of drug resistance and co-infection with HIV/AIDS. Tuberculosis control requires new drugs that act at novel drug targets to help combat resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and reduce treatment duration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our approach was to modify the naturally occurring and synthetically challenging antibiotic thiolactomycin (TLM to the more tractable 2-aminothiazole-4-carboxylate scaffold to generate compounds that mimic TLM's novel mode of action. We report here the identification of a series of compounds possessing excellent activity against M. tuberculosis H(37R(v and, dissociatively, against the beta-ketoacyl synthase enzyme mtFabH which is targeted by TLM. Specifically, methyl 2-amino-5-benzylthiazole-4-carboxylate was found to inhibit M. tuberculosis H(37R(v with an MIC of 0.06 microg/ml (240 nM, but showed no activity against mtFabH, whereas methyl 2-(2-bromoacetamido-5-(3-chlorophenylthiazole-4-carboxylate inhibited mtFabH with an IC(50 of 0.95+/-0.05 microg/ml (2.43+/-0.13 microM but was not active against the whole cell organism. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings clearly identify the 2-aminothiazole-4-carboxylate scaffold as a promising new template towards the discovery of a new class of anti-tubercular agents.

  8. Beyond visual, aural and haptic movement perception: hMT+ is activated by electrotactile motion stimulation of the tongue in sighted and in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteau, Isabelle; Kupers, Ron; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2010-01-01

    imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain responses in eight congenitally blind and nine sighted volunteers who had been trained to use the tongue display unit (TDU), a sensory substitution device which converts visual information into electrotactile pulses delivered to the tongue, to resolve a tactile motion...... discrimination task. Stimuli consisted of either static dots, dots moving coherently or dots moving in random directions. Both groups learned the task at the same rate and activated the hMT+ complex during tactile motion discrimination, although at different anatomical locations. Furthermore, the congenitally...

  9. Seismic activity and thermal regime of low temperature fumaroles at Mt. Vesuvius in 2004-2011: distinguishing among seismic, volcanic and hydrological signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cusano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seismological, soil temperature and hydrological data from Mt. Vesuvius are collected to characterize the present-day activity of the volcanic/hydrothermal system and to detect possible unrest-related phenomena. We present patterns of seismicity and soil temperature in the crater area during the period February 2004-December 2011. The temporal distribution of number and depth of Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes and the energy release are considered. Hourly data of soil temperature have been acquired since January 2004 in different locations along the rim and within the crater. The observed changes of temperature are studied to establish a temporal-based correlation with the volcanic activity and/or with external forcing, as variations of the regional and local stress field acting on the volcano or meteorological phenomena. The comparison between seismic activity and temperature data highlights significant variations possibly related to changes in fluid circulation in the hydrothermal system of the volcano. The common continuous observations start just before a very shallow earthquake occurred in August 2005, which was preceded by a thermal anomaly. This coincidence has been interpreted as related to fluid-driven rock fracturing, as observed in other volcanoes. For the successive temporal patterns, the seismicity rate and energy release are characterized by slight variations accompanied by changes in temperature. This evidence of reactivity of the fumarole thermal field to seismic strain can be used to discriminate between tectonic and volcanic signals at Mt. Vesuvius.

  10. eCOMPAGT integrates mtDNA: import, validation and export of mitochondrial DNA profiles for population genetics, tumour dynamics and genotype-phenotype association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Specht Günther

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is widely being used for population genetics, forensic DNA fingerprinting and clinical disease association studies. The recent past has uncovered severe problems with mtDNA genotyping, not only due to the genotyping method itself, but mainly to the post-lab transcription, storage and report of mtDNA genotypes. Description eCOMPAGT, a system to store, administer and connect phenotype data to all kinds of genotype data is now enhanced by the possibility of storing mtDNA profiles and allowing their validation, linking to phenotypes and export as numerous formats. mtDNA profiles can be imported from different sequence evaluation programs, compared between evaluations and their haplogroup affiliations stored. Furthermore, eCOMPAGT has been improved in its sophisticated transparency (support of MySQL and Oracle, security aspects (by using database technology and the option to import, manage and store genotypes derived from various genotyping methods (SNPlex, TaqMan, and STRs. It is a software solution designed for project management, laboratory work and the evaluation process all-in-one. Conclusions The extended mtDNA version of eCOMPAGT was designed to enable error-free post-laboratory data handling of human mtDNA profiles. This software is suited for small to medium-sized human genetic, forensic and clinical genetic laboratories. The direct support of MySQL and the improved database security options render eCOMPAGT a powerful tool to build an automated workflow architecture for several genotyping methods. eCOMPAGT is freely available at http://dbis-informatik.uibk.ac.at/ecompagt.

  11. eCOMPAGT integrates mtDNA: import, validation and export of mitochondrial DNA profiles for population genetics, tumour dynamics and genotype-phenotype association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissensteiner, Hansi; Schönherr, Sebastian; Specht, Günther; Kronenberg, Florian; Brandstätter, Anita

    2010-03-09

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is widely being used for population genetics, forensic DNA fingerprinting and clinical disease association studies. The recent past has uncovered severe problems with mtDNA genotyping, not only due to the genotyping method itself, but mainly to the post-lab transcription, storage and report of mtDNA genotypes. eCOMPAGT, a system to store, administer and connect phenotype data to all kinds of genotype data is now enhanced by the possibility of storing mtDNA profiles and allowing their validation, linking to phenotypes and export as numerous formats. mtDNA profiles can be imported from different sequence evaluation programs, compared between evaluations and their haplogroup affiliations stored. Furthermore, eCOMPAGT has been improved in its sophisticated transparency (support of MySQL and Oracle), security aspects (by using database technology) and the option to import, manage and store genotypes derived from various genotyping methods (SNPlex, TaqMan, and STRs). It is a software solution designed for project management, laboratory work and the evaluation process all-in-one. The extended mtDNA version of eCOMPAGT was designed to enable error-free post-laboratory data handling of human mtDNA profiles. This software is suited for small to medium-sized human genetic, forensic and clinical genetic laboratories. The direct support of MySQL and the improved database security options render eCOMPAGT a powerful tool to build an automated workflow architecture for several genotyping methods. eCOMPAGT is freely available at http://dbis-informatik.uibk.ac.at/ecompagt.

  12. Strengthening MT6D Defenses with LXC-Based Honeypot Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Basam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving Target IPv6 Defense (MT6D imparts radio-frequency hopping behavior to IPv6 networks by having participating nodes periodically hop onto new addresses while giving up old addresses. Our previous research efforts implemented a solution to identify and acquire these old addresses that are being discarded by MT6D hosts on a local network besides being able to monitor and visualize the incoming traffic on these addresses. This was essentially equivalent to forming a darknet out of the discarded MT6D addresses, but the solution presented in the previous research effort did not include database integration for it to scale and be extended. This paper presents a solution with a new architecture that not only extends the previous solution in terms of automation and database integration but also demonstrates the ability to deploy a honeypot on a virtual LXC (Linux Container on-demand based on any interesting traffic pattern observed on a discarded address. The proposed architecture also allows an MT6D host to query the solution database for network activity on its relinquished addresses as a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON object. This allows an MT6D host to identify suspicious activity on its discarded addresses and strengthen the MT6D scheme parameters accordingly. We have built a proof-of-concept for the proposed solution and analyzed the solution’s feasibility and scalability.

  13. Melatonin disturbs SUMOylation mediated crosstalk between c-Myc and Nestin via MT1 activation and promotes the sensitivity of Paclitaxel in brain cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyemin; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Ji Hoon; Shin, Eun Ah; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2018-04-14

    Here the underlying antitumor mechanism of melatonin and its potency as a sensitizer of Paclitaxel was investigated in X02 cancer stem cells. Melatonin suppressed sphere formation and induced G2/M arrest in X02 cells expressing Nestin, CD133, CXCR4 and SOX-2 as biomarkers of stemness. Furthermore, melatonin reduced the expression of CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and c-Myc and upregulated cyclin B1 in X02 cells. Notably, genes of c-Myc related mRNAs were differentially expressed in melatonin treated X02 cells by microarray analysis. Consistently, melatonin reduced the expression of c-Myc at mRNA and protein levels, which was blocked by MG132. Of note, overexpression of c-Myc increased the expression of Nestin, while overexpression of Nestin enhanced c-Myc through crosstalk despite different locations, nucleus and cytoplasm. Interestingly, melatonin attenuated small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) more than SUMO-2 or SUMO-3 and disturbed nuclear translocation of Nestin for direct binding to c-Myc by SUMOylation of SUMO-1 protein by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation. Also, melatonin reduced trimethylated histone H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 more than dimethylation in X02 cells by Western blotting and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Notably, melatonin upregulated MT1, not MT2, in X02 cells and melatonin receptor inhibitor Luzindole blocked the ability of melatonin to decrease the expression of Nestin, p-c-Myc(S62) and c-Myc. Furthermore, melatonin promoted cytotoxicity, sub G1 accumulation and apoptotic body formation by Paclitaxcel in X02 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that melatonin inhibits stemness via suppression of c-Myc, Nestin, and histone methylation via MT1 activation and promotes anticancer effect of Paclitaxcel in brain cancer stem cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Active components for integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasavin, A.V.; Bolger, P.M.; Zayats, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides.......We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides....

  15. The Current State and Historico-geographical Background of Mt. Chirisan Region Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the historico-geographical background and current state of immigrants in the area designated as the “Mt. Chirisan Region,” their characteristics, and related integration issues. This article defines the Mt. Chirisan Region as the 7 cities/kuns of Namwŏn-si, Changsu-kun, Koksŏng-kun, Kurye-kun, Hadong-kun, Sanchŏng-kun, and Hamyang-kun. As the Mt. Chirisan Region mainly consists of mountainous and agricultural areas, the immigrant induction effect socio-economically was low relative to urban and industrial areas. It was also noted that, as the percentage of marriage immigration in Mt. Chirisan was high relative to urban or industrial areas, the female foreigner ratio was higher than that of male foreigners. In regard to the home countries of immigrants, women from South-East Asia and North-East Asia accounted for the majority. Also, this article examines the current situation of support programs of 7 local Multicultural Family Support Centers in the Mt. Chirisan Region, their problems, and probably solutions. Based on the historical development of the region and recent social changes, our society and government need to actively develop a higher level of social integration and employment education support programs, and carry out policies that will protect the diverse cultural identities of immigrants. In addition, differentiated multicultural family support programs appropriate for Mt. Chirisan, an inland mountain region, need to be developed.

  16. Active and passive silica waveguide integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    2001-01-01

    . The increasing complexity and functionality of optical networks prompts a demand for highly integrated optical circuits. On-board optical amplifiers, monolithically integrated with functionalities like switching or multiplexing/demultiplexing will allow flexible incorporation of optical integrated circuits...... in existing and future networks without affecting the power budget of the system. Silica on silicon technology offers a unique possibility to selectively dope sections of the integrated circuit with erbium where amplification is desired. Some techniques for active/passive integration are reviewed and a silica......Integrated optical amplifiers are currently regaining interest. Stand-alone single integrated amplifiers offer only limited advantage over current erbium doped fiber amplifiers, whereas arrays of integrated amplifiers are very attractive due to miniaturization and the possibility of mass production...

  17. Perceptual learning of motion direction discrimination with suppressed and unsuppressed MT in humans: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thompson

    Full Text Available The middle temporal area of the extrastriate visual cortex (area MT is integral to motion perception and is thought to play a key role in the perceptual learning of motion tasks. We have previously found, however, that perceptual learning of a motion discrimination task is possible even when the training stimulus contains locally balanced, motion opponent signals that putatively suppress the response of MT. Assuming at least partial suppression of MT, possible explanations for this learning are that 1 training made MT more responsive by reducing motion opponency, 2 MT remained suppressed and alternative visual areas such as V1 enabled learning and/or 3 suppression of MT increased with training, possibly to reduce noise. Here we used fMRI to test these possibilities. We first confirmed that the motion opponent stimulus did indeed suppress the BOLD response within hMT+ compared to an almost identical stimulus without locally balanced motion signals. We then trained participants on motion opponent or non-opponent stimuli. Training with the motion opponent stimulus reduced the BOLD response within hMT+ and greater reductions in BOLD response were correlated with greater amounts of learning. The opposite relationship between BOLD and behaviour was found at V1 for the group trained on the motion-opponent stimulus and at both V1 and hMT+ for the group trained on the non-opponent motion stimulus. As the average response of many cells within MT to motion opponent stimuli is the same as their response to non-directional flickering noise, the reduced activation of hMT+ after training may reflect noise reduction.

  18. Control of Brain Activity in hMT+/V5 at Three Response Levels Using fMRI-Based Neurofeedback/BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Teresa; Direito, Bruno; Lima, João; Ferreira, Carlos; Nunes, Urbano; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in brain-computer interface (BCI) research is to increase the number of command classes and levels of control. BCI studies often use binary control level approaches (level 0 and 1 of brain activation for each class of control). Different classes may often be achieved but not different levels of activation for the same class. The increase in the number of levels of control in BCI applications may allow for larger efficiency in neurofeedback applications. In this work we test the hypothesis whether more than two modulation levels can be achieved in a single brain region, the hMT+/V5 complex. Participants performed three distinct imagery tasks during neurofeedback training: imagery of a stationary dot, imagery of a dot with two opposing motions in the vertical axis and imagery of a dot with four opposing motions in vertical or horizontal axes (imagery of 2 or 4 motion directions). The larger the number of motion alternations, the higher the expected hMT+/V5 response. A substantial number (17 of 20) of participants achieved successful binary level of control and 12 were able to reach even 3 significant levels of control within the same session, confirming the whole group effects at the individual level. With this simple approach we suggest that it is possible to design a parametric system of control based on activity modulation of a specific brain region with at least 3 different levels. Furthermore, we show that particular imagery task instructions, based on different number of motion alternations, provide feasible achievement of different control levels in BCI and/or neurofeedback applications.

  19. Contrasting expression of membrane metalloproteinases, MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP, suggests distinct functions in skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maozhou; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhang, Liang; Gibson, Gary

    2008-07-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is the most ubiquitous and widely studied of the membrane-type metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs). It was thus surprising to find no published data on chicken MT1-MMP. We report here the characterization of the chicken gene. Its low sequence identity with the MT1-MMP genes of other species, high GC content, and divergent catalytic domain explains the absence of data and our difficulties in characterizing the gene. The absence of structural features in the chicken gene that have been suggested to be critical for the activation of MMP-2 by MT1-MMP; for the effect of MT1-MMP on cell migration and for the recycling of MT1-MMP suggest these features are either not essential or that MT1-MMP does not perform these functions in chickens. Comparison of the expression of chicken MT1-MMP with MT3-MMP and with MMP-2 and MMP-13 has confirmed the previously recognized co-expression of MT1-MMP with MMP-2 and MMP-13 in fibrous and vascular tissues, particularly those surrounding the developing long bones in other species. By contrast, MT3-MMP expression differs markedly from that of MT1-MMP and of both MMP-2 and MMP-13. MT3-MMP is expressed by chondrocytes of the developing articular surface. Similar expression patterns of this group of MT-MMPs and MMPs have been observed in mouse embryos and suggest distinct and specific functions for MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP in skeletal development.

  20. Evaluation on changes caused by volcanic activities in the groundwater environment as a natural barrier for the HLW disposal. Literature survey and groundwater observation conducted at Mt. Iwate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahara, Yasunori; Nakata, Eiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2000-01-01

    It is very important in the site characterization for the HLW disposal to understand changes in geochemical performances caused by volcanic activities in the groundwater environment as the natural barrier. The various effects and its magnitude of changes were listed up and were filed from literature surveys of the correlation between volcanic activities and hydrological can geochemical changes (e.g. water temperature, water pressure, water level, dissolved gas concentration of He and Rn, isotopic ratio of He, and chloride concentration) in volcanic aquifer. However, it is difficult to evaluate the magnitude of impacts, which volcanic activities will give to the groundwater environment in the natural barrier, through only the literature surveys. We have started monitoring of groundwater level and changes in groundwater quality, since volcanic activities have enhanced at Mt. Iwate from June in 1998. Judging from variation of isotopic ratio of dissolved He in groundwater, a prompt and sharp signals indicating volcanic activities will easily be found in shallow groundwater and discharged ponds. On the other hands, geochemical conditions in deep groundwater surroundings from some 100 m to 1000 m deep will be very stable, if the area being more than 5 km apart from the volcanic active center. Consequently, our observed results suggest that the groundwater environment which is not directly disturbed by the underground magmatic activities spreads under the area that is connected to trench side of the volcanic front. (author)

  1. GU81, a VEGFR2 antagonist peptoid, enhances the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin in the murine MMTV-PyMT transgenic model of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, Kristi D; Udugamasooriya, D Gomika; Roland, Christina L; Castrillon, Diego H; Kodadek, Thomas J; Brekken, Rolf A

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a primary stimulant of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. Anti-VEGF therapy is a clinically proven strategy for the treatment of a variety of cancers including colon, breast, lung, and renal cell carcinoma. Since VEGFR2 is the dominant angiogenic signaling receptor, it has become an important target in the development of novel anti-angiogenic therapies. We have reported previously the development of an antagonistic VEGFR2 peptoid (GU40C4) that has promising anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we utilize a derivative of GU40C4, termed GU81 in therapy studies. GU81 was tested alone or in combination with doxorubicin for in vivo efficacy in the MMTV-PyMT transgenic model of breast cancer. The derivative GU81 has increased in vitro efficacy compared to GU40C4. Single agent therapy (doxorubicin or GU81 alone) had no effect on tumor weight, histology, tumor fat content, or tumor growth index. However, GU81 is able to significantly to reduce total vascular area as a single agent. GU81 used in combination with doxorubicin significantly reduced tumor weight and growth index compared to all other treatment groups. Furthermore, treatment with combination therapy significantly arrested tumor progression at the premalignant stage, resulting in increased tumor fat content. Interestingly, treatment with GU81 alone increased tumor-VEGF levels and macrophage infiltration, an effect that was abrogated when used in combination with doxorubicin. This study demonstrates the VEGFR2 antagonist peptoid, GU81, enhances the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin in spontaneous murine MMTV-PyMT breast tumors

  2. Quantitative assessment of integrated phrenic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2016-06-01

    Integrated electrical activity in the phrenic nerve is commonly used to assess within-animal changes in phrenic motor output. Because of concerns regarding the consistency of nerve recordings, activity is most often expressed as a percent change from baseline values. However, absolute values of nerve activity are necessary to assess the impact of neural injury or disease on phrenic motor output. To date, no systematic evaluations of the repeatability/reliability have been made among animals when phrenic recordings are performed by an experienced investigator using standardized methods. We performed a meta-analysis of studies reporting integrated phrenic nerve activity in many rat groups by the same experienced investigator; comparisons were made during baseline and maximal chemoreceptor stimulation in 14 wild-type Harlan and 14 Taconic Sprague Dawley groups, and in 3 pre-symptomatic and 11 end-stage SOD1(G93A) Taconic rat groups (an ALS model). Meta-analysis results indicate: (1) consistent measurements of integrated phrenic activity in each sub-strain of wild-type rats; (2) with bilateral nerve recordings, left-to-right integrated phrenic activity ratios are ∼1.0; and (3) consistently reduced activity in end-stage SOD1(G93A) rats. Thus, with appropriate precautions, integrated phrenic nerve activity enables robust, quantitative comparisons among nerves or experimental groups, including differences caused by neuromuscular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of Na+/K+ pump in fine modulation of bursting activity of the snail Br neuron by 10 mT static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Ljiljana; Todorović, Nataša; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Stanić, Marina; Rauš, Snežana; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Janać, Branka

    2012-07-01

    The spontaneously active Br neuron from the brain-subesophageal ganglion complex of the garden snail Helix pomatia rhythmically generates regular bursts of action potentials with quiescent intervals accompanied by slow oscillations of membrane potential. We examined the involvement of the Na(+)/K(+) pump in modulating its bursting activity by applying a static magnetic field. Whole snail brains and Br neuron were exposed to the 10-mT static magnetic field for 15 min. Biochemical data showed that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased almost twofold after exposure of snail brains to the static magnetic field. Similarly, (31)P NMR data revealed a trend of increasing ATP consumption and increase in intracellular pH mediated by the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger in snail brains exposed to the static magnetic field. Importantly, current clamp recordings from the Br neuron confirmed the increase in activity of the Na(+)/K(+) pump after exposure to the static magnetic field, as the magnitude of ouabain's effect measured on the membrane resting potential, action potential, and interspike interval duration was higher in neurons exposed to the magnetic field. Metabolic pathways through which the magnetic field influenced the Na(+)/K(+) pump could involve phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, as blocking these processes abolished the effect of the static magnetic field.

  4. Active Trimming of Hybrid Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Németh, P.; Krémer, P.

    1984-01-01

    One of the more important fields of the microelectronics industry is the manufacturing of hybrid integrated circuits.An important part of the manufacturing process is concerned with the trimming of the hybrid integratedl circuits. This article deals with the basic principles of active trimming and introduces a microprocessor controlled trimming machine. By comparing active trimming with passive techniques, it can be shown that the active system has some advantages. This article outlines these...

  5. Patterns in Seismicity at Mt St Helens and Mt Unzen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Oliver; De Angelis, Silvio; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Cyclic behaviour on a range of timescales is a well-documented feature of many dome-forming volcanoes. Previous work on Soufrière Hills volcano (Montserrat) and Volcán de Colima (Mexico) revealed broad-scale similarities in behaviour implying the potential to develop general physical models of sub-surface processes [1]. Using volcano-seismic data from Mt St Helens (USA) and Mt Unzen (Japan) this study explores parallels in long-term behaviour of seismicity at two dome-forming systems. Within the last twenty years both systems underwent extended dome-forming episodes accompanied by large Vulcanian explosions or dome collapses. This study uses a suite of quantitative and analytical techniques which can highlight differences or similarities in volcano seismic behaviour, and compare the behaviour to changes in activity during the eruptive episodes. Seismic events were automatically detected and characterized on a single short-period seismometer station located 1.5km from the 2004-2008 vent at Mt St Helens. A total of 714 826 individual events were identified from continuous recording of seismic data from 22 October 2004 to 28 February 2006 (average 60.2 events per hour) using a short-term/long-term average algorithm. An equivalent count will be produced from seismometer recordings over the later stages of the 1991-1995 eruption at MT Unzen. The event count time-series from Mt St Helens is then analysed using Multi-taper Method and the Short-Term Fourier Transform to explore temporal variations in activity. Preliminary analysis of seismicity from Mt St Helens suggests cyclic behaviour of subannual timescale, similar to that described at Volcán de Colima and Soufrière Hills volcano [1]. Frequency Index and waveform correlation tools will be implemented to analyse changes in the frequency content of the seismicity and to explore their relations to different phases of activity at the volcano. A single station approach is used to gain a fine-scale view of variations in

  6. mtDNA, Metastasis, and the Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response (UPRmt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Timothy C; Germain, Doris

    2017-01-01

    While several studies have confirmed a link between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and cancer cell metastasis, much debate remains regarding the nature of the alternations in mtDNA leading to this effect. Meanwhile, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR mt ) has gained much attention in recent years, with most studies of this pathway focusing on its role in aging. However, the UPR mt has also been studied in the context of cancer. More recent work suggests that rather than a single mutation or alternation, specific combinatorial mtDNA landscapes able to activate the UPR mt may be those that are selected by metastatic cells, while mtDNA landscapes unable to activate the UPR mt do not. This review aims at offering an overview of the confusing literature on mtDNA mutations and metastasis and the more recent work on the UPR mt in this setting.

  7. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human

  8. Special report: Mt. St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mt. St Helens Volcano, Cascade Range, Southern Washington, USA (46.20°N, 122.18°W.) All times are local (GMT - 7 h through October 24, GMT - 8 h thereafter. Lava extrusion that probably began October 30 added a new lobe to the composite dome in the crater of Mt. St. Helens. After lava extrusion ended September 10 (see September 22 Eos), rates of deformation in the crater remained low for several weeks, as they had after earlier extrusion episodes. Sulfur dioxide emission ranged from 70 to 190 tons per day between October 9 and 24, but showed no particular trends. Inflation of the dome has caused small thrust faults to form in the surrounding crater floor. In early October the most active thrust, south of the dome, was moving at about 1.5 cm/d, and stations on the north crater rampart showed outward movement of about 0.5 cm/d. By October 24 these rates had increased to 14.5 and 3.5-4 cm/d, respectively, and leveling profiles perpendicular to the dome showed that crater floor tilt rates had reached 400-500 μrad/d, prompting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to issue an advisory prediction of renewed lava extrusion within the next two weeks.

  9. Integration of active and passive polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a wafer scale fabrication process for integration of active and passive polymer optics: Polymer DFB lasers and waveguides. Polymer dye DFB lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP). The CNP fabrication relies on an UV transparent stamp with nm sized...... wavelength from temperature and refractive index changes in the surroundings is investigated, pointing towards the use of the described fabrication method for on-chip polymer sensor systems....

  10. Continuous magma recharge at Mt. Etna during the 2011-2013 period controls the style of volcanic activity and compositions of erupted lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Calcagno, Rosario; Garozzo, Ileana; Giuffrida, Marisa; Nicotra, Eugenio

    2015-02-01

    Volcanic rocks erupted during the January 2011 - April 2013 paroxysmal sequence at Mt. Etna volcano have been investigated through in situ microanalysis of mineral phases and whole rock geochemistry. These products have been also considered within the framework of the post-2001 record, evidencing that magmas feeding the 2011-2013 paroxysmal activity inherited deep signature comparable to that of the 2007-2009 volcanic rocks for what concerns their trace element concentration. Analysis performed on plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, which are sensitive to differentiation processes, show respectively fluctuations of the An, Mg# and Fo contents during the considered period. Also major and trace elements measured on the whole rock provide evidence of the evolutionary degree variations through time. Simulations by MELTS at fixed chemical-physical parameters allowed the definition of feeding system dynamics controlling the geochemical variability of magmas during the 2011-2013 period. Specifically, compositional changes have been interpreted as due to superimposition of fractional crystallization and mixing in variable proportions with more basic magma ascending from intermediate to shallower levels of the plumbing system. Composition of the recharging end-member is compatible with that of the most basic magmas emitted during the 2007 and the early paroxysmal eruptions of 2012. Analysis of the erupted volumes of magma combined with its petrologic evolution through time support the idea that large volumes of magma are continuously intruded and stored in the intermediate plumbing system after major recharging phases in the deepest levels of it. Transient recharge from the intermediate to the shallow levels is then responsible for the paroxysmal eruptions.

  11. Pivotal role of hMT+ in long-range disambiguation of interhemispheric bistable surface motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João Valente; Costa, Gabriel Nascimento; Martins, Ricardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    It remains an open question whether long-range disambiguation of ambiguous surface motion can be achieved in early visual cortex or instead in higher level regions, which concerns object/surface segmentation/integration mechanisms. We used a bistable moving stimulus that can be perceived as a pattern comprehending both visual hemi-fields moving coherently downward or as two widely segregated nonoverlapping component objects (in each visual hemi-field) moving separately inward. This paradigm requires long-range integration across the vertical meridian leading to interhemispheric binding. Our fMRI study (n = 30) revealed a close relation between activity in hMT+ and perceptual switches involving interhemispheric segregation/integration of motion signals, crucially under nonlocal conditions where components do not overlap and belong to distinct hemispheres. Higher signal changes were found in hMT+ in response to spatially segregated component (incoherent) percepts than to pattern (coherent) percepts. This did not occur in early visual cortex, unlike apparent motion, which does not entail surface segmentation. We also identified a role for top-down mechanisms in state transitions. Deconvolution analysis of switch-related changes revealed prefrontal, insula, and cingulate areas, with the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) being particularly involved. We observed that directed influences could emerge either from left or right hMT+ during bistable motion integration/segregation. SPL also exhibited significant directed functional connectivity with hMT+, during perceptual state maintenance (Granger causality analysis). Our results suggest that long-range interhemispheric binding of ambiguous motion representations mainly reflect bottom-up processes from hMT+ during perceptual state maintenance. In contrast, state transitions maybe influenced by high-level regions such as the SPL. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4882-4897, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  12. Targeted transgenic overexpression of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) alters mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial polypeptide abundance: transgenic TK2, mtDNA, and antiretrovirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed H; Kohler, James J; Haase, Chad P; Tioleco, Nina; Stuart, Tami; Keebaugh, Erin; Ludaway, Tomika; Russ, Rodney; Green, Elgin; Long, Robert; Wang, Liya; Eriksson, Staffan; Lewis, William

    2007-03-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity limits nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. NRTI triphosphates, the active moieties, inhibit human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA polymerase pol-gamma. NRTI phosphorylation seems to correlate with mitochondrial toxicity, but experimental evidence is lacking. Transgenic mice (TGs) with cardiac overexpression of thymidine kinase isoforms (mitochondrial TK2 and cytoplasmic TK1) were used to study NRTI mitochondrial toxicity. Echocardiography and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging defined cardiac performance and structure. TK gene copy and enzyme activity, mitochondrial (mt) DNA and polypeptide abundance, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry, and electron microscopy correlated with transgenesis, mitochondrial structure, and biogenesis. Antiretroviral combinations simulated therapy. Untreated hTK1 or TK2 TGs exhibited normal left ventricle mass. In TK2 TGs, cardiac TK2 gene copy doubled, activity increased 300-fold, and mtDNA abundance doubled. Abundance of the 17-kd subunit of complex I, succinate dehydrogenase histochemical activity, and cristae density increased. NRTIs increased left ventricle mass 20% in TK2 TGs. TK activity increased 3 logs in hTK1 TGs, but no cardiac phenotype resulted. NRTIs abrogated functional effects of transgenically increased TK2 activity but had no effect on TK2 mtDNA abundance. Thus, NRTI mitochondrial phosphorylation by TK2 is integral to clinical NRTI mitochondrial toxicity.

  13. Genetic integrity of the Dark European honey bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) from protected populations: a genome-wide assessment using SNPs and mtDNA sequence data

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M. Alice; Henriques, Dora; Chavez-Galarza, Julio; Kryger, Per; Garnery, Lionel; Zee, Romée van der; Dahle, Bjørn; Soland-Reckeweg, Gabriele; De la Rúa, Pilar; Dall’ Olio, Raffaele; Carreck, Norman L.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2014-01-01

    The recognition that the Dark European honey bee, Apis mellifera mellifera, is increasingly threatened in its native range has led to the establishment of conservation programmes and protected areas throughout western Europe. Previous molecular surveys showed that, despite management strategies to preserve the genetic integrity of A. m. mellifera, protected populations had a measurable component of their gene pool derived from commercial C-lineage honey bees. Here we used both sequence data f...

  14. Global design of an active integrated antenna for millimeter wave

    OpenAIRE

    Marzolf, Eric; Drissi, M’hamed

    2001-01-01

    An active integrated antenna working in the millimeter wave has been realized in a monolithic process. The concept of active integrated antenna is first introduced, then the design of the integrated circuit based on a global approach, following electromagnetic and circuit simulations, is presented. The obtained performances of the active antenna are discussed and compared to a passive one.

  15. Comparison between different methodologies for detecting radon in soil along an active fault: The case of the Pernicana fault system, Mt. Etna (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giammanco, S.; Imme, G.; Mangano, G.; Morelli, D.; Neri, M.

    2009-01-01

    Three different methodologies were used to measure Radon ( 222 Rn) in soil, based on both passive and active detection system. The first technique consisted of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), CR-39 type, and allowed integrated measurements. The second one consisted of a portable device for short time measurements. The last consisted of a continuous measurement device for extended monitoring, placed in selected sites. Soil 222 Rn activity was measured together with soil Thoron ( 220 Rn) and soil carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) efflux, and it was compared with the content of radionuclides in the rocks. Two different soil-gas horizontal transects were investigated across the Pernicana fault system (NE flank of Mount Etna), from November 2006 to April 2007. The results obtained with the three methodologies are in a general agreement with each other and reflect the tectonic settings of the investigated study area. The lowest 222 Rn values were recorded just on the fault plane, and relatively higher values were recorded a few tens of meters from the fault axis on both of its sides. This pattern could be explained as a dilution effect resulting from high rates of soil CO 2 efflux. Time variations of 222 Rn activity were mostly linked to atmospheric influences, whereas no significant correlation with the volcanic activity was observed. In order to further investigate regional radon distributions, spot measurements were made to identify sites having high Rn emissions that could subsequently be monitored for temporal radon variations. SSNTD measurements allow for extended-duration monitoring of a relatively large number of sites, although with some loss of temporal resolution due to their long integration time. Continuous monitoring probes are optimal for detailed time monitoring, but because of their expense, they can best be used to complement the information acquired with SSNTD in a network of monitored sites

  16. Influence of Integrated Use of Inorganic fertiliser and Organic manures on Bacterial Wilt Incidence (WI) and Tuber Yield in Potato Production Systems in Southern Slopes of Mt. Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mriithi, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most damaging of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Kenya and worldwide. In Kenya Potato tuber yield losses due to BW infection are estimated at 50-100%. Low soil fertility is also one of the most important constraints limiting potato production in central Kenya highlands. Farmers tackle this problem through use of inorganic fertilisers and organic manures, both of which amend the soil environment to influence bacterial wilt development. Undecomposed organic manures can also introduce the pathogen into a clean field. Between short rains 1999 and 2000, 10 on-farm researcher/farmer-designed and farmer-managed trials were done at Kianjuki catchment in Embu District. The objective was to use farmers' participatory research approach and select the most suitable organic and inorganic fertiliser combination(s) with lowest BWI and acceptable usable tuber yields. And also demonstrate use of some components of integrated disease management methods in reduction of disease incidence and spread. Seven treatments were proposed, presented to the farmers for discussion and the most relevant four were selected for evaluation . A newly released potato variety 'Asante' was planted during the short-rains 1999 and long rains 2000. BWI didn't;t result in significant differences between treatments but the tuber yields were significantly different in short-rains 1999 and 2000. During short-rains 2000, both BWI and tuber yields and unusable tubers differed significantly between treatments. The results confirmed that use of well-decomposed manures or manures from pathogen-free areas can be used in combination with inorganic fertilisers to improve soil fertility and potato tuber yields in smallholder farm without influencing BWI. Use of certified seed tubers in pathogen free fields and following recommendation field sanitation measures, resulted in apparently bacterial wilt free crop

  17. Linking Physical Activity with Academics: Strategies for Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for physical activity-integrated lessons for classroom teachers, provide strategies for effective integration, and encourage physical education teachers to be an additional

  18. Regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by Medicago truncatula bHLH transcription factor MtTT8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Chen, Beibei; Zhang, Gaoyang; Chen, Longxiang; Dong, Qiang; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The MYB- basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes regulating anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in plants are not fully understood. Here Medicago truncatula bHLH MtTT8 was characterized as a central component of these ternary complexes that control anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis. Mttt8 mutant seeds have a transparent testa phenotype with reduced PAs and anthocyanins. MtTT8 restores PA and anthocyanin productions in Arabidopsis tt8 mutant. Ectopic expression of MtTT8 restores anthocyanins and PAs in mttt8 plant and hairy roots and further enhances both productions in wild-type hairy roots. Transcriptomic analyses and metabolite profiling of mttt8 mutant seeds and M. truncatula hairy roots (mttt8 mutant, mttt8 mutant complemented with MtTT8, or MtTT8 overexpression lines) indicate that MtTT8 regulates a subset of genes involved in PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis. MtTT8 is genetically regulated by MtLAP1, MtPAR and MtWD40-1. Combinations of MtPAR, MtLAP1, MtTT8 and MtWD40-1 activate MtTT8 promoter in yeast assay. MtTT8 interacts with these transcription factors to form regulatory complexes. MtTT8, MtWD40-1 and an MYB factor, MtPAR or MtLAP1, interacted and activated promoters of anthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin synthase to regulate PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively. Our results provide new insights into the complex regulation of PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis in M. truncatula. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Social cohesion and integration: Learning active citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, T.J.M.; Chioncel, N.E.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article starts from a conceptual clarification of the notions social integration and social cohesion as a prerequisite for the reorientation of citizenship education. Turning away from uncritically reproduced assumptions represented in mainstream `deficiency discourse', the article first

  20. Palmitoylation at Cys574 is essential for MT1-MMP to promote cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anilkumar, Narayanapanicker; Uekita, Takamasa; Couchman, John R

    2005-01-01

    of the palmitoylated cysteine relative to LLY573, a motif that interacts with mu2 subunit of adaptor protein 2, is critical for the cell motility-promoting activity of MT1-MMP and its clathrin-mediated internalization. Taken together, palmitoylation of MT1-MMP is one of the key posttranslational modifications......MT1-MMP is a type I transmembrane proteinase that promotes cell migration and invasion. Here, we report that MT1-MMP is palmitoylated at Cys574 in the cytoplasmic domain, and this lipid modification is critical for its promotion of cell migration and clathrin-mediated internalization...... that determines MT1-MMP-dependent cell migration....

  1. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    point scale evaluate the sentence from the point of view of the post-editor. The post-editor profile defined by the LSP is based on the experiences of introducing MT in the LSP workflow. The relation between the Translation Edit Rate (TER) scores and “Usability” scores is tested. We find TER a candidate......The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three...

  2. Checklist of flora along tourist trails to Mt. Lamongan, East Java (Indonesia: misconception of restoration and ecotourism programs in mountain region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchman Hakim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the diversity of plant species along the tourist trails to Mt. Lamongan and combat any misconceptions about ecosystem restoration and the ecotourism development program in Mt. Lamongan. A floristic survey was done through flora identification along the hiking trail from the gate of Mt. Lamongan nature recreation area in Papringan Village to the slopes of Mt. Lamongan. The identified species were listed and their taxonomic status analyzed using information from the GRIN website. This study found that exotic plant species are abundant along the tourist tract. Human activities were identified as contributing to the introduction and establishment of exotic plant species. Result of the research indicate that restoration knowledge and techniques do not exist in the Mt. Lamongan region. A comprehensive evaluation of flora should be implemented to enhance the restoration program and protect forest area, especially the tourist corridor to the peak of Mt. Lamongan. Integrated actions to enhance restoration and promote tourism are needed. It encompasses strengthening the restoration concept and technology, eradication of exotic plant species, and establishing a proper tourism interpretive tract.

  3. An Integrative Approach for Defining Plinian and Sub-Plinian Eruptive Scenarios at Andesitic Volcanoes: Event-Lithostratigraphy, Eruptive Parameters and Pyroclast Textural Variations of the Largest Late-Holocene Eruptions of Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Orozco, R.; Cronin, S. J.; Damaschke, M.; Kosik, S.; Pardo, N.

    2016-12-01

    Three eruptive scenarios were determined based on the event-lithostratigraphic reconstruction of the largest late-Holocene eruptions of the andesitic Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand: a) sustained dome-effusion followed by sudden stepwise collapse and unroofing of gas-rich magma; b) repeated plug and burst events generated by transient open-/closed-vent conditions; and c) open-vent conditions of more mafic magmas erupting from a satellite vent. Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are the most frequent outcome in every scenario. They can be produced in any/every eruption phase by formation and either repetitive-partial or total gravity-driven collapse of lava domes in the summit crater (block-and-ash flows), frequently followed by sudden magma decompression and violent, highly unsteady to quasi-steady lateral expansion (blast-like PDCs); by collapse or single-pulse fall-back of unsteady eruption columns (pyroclastic flow- and surge-type currents); or during highly unsteady and explosive hydromagmatic phases (wet surges). Fall deposits are produced during the climatic phase of each eruptive scenario by the emplacement of (i) high, sustained and steady, (ii) sustained and height-oscillating, (iii) quasi-steady and pulsating, or (iv) unsteady and totally collapsing eruption columns. Volumes, column heights and mass- and volume-eruption rates indicate that these scenarios correspond to VEI 4-5 plinian and sub-plinian multi-phase and style-shifting episodes, similar or larger than the most recent 1655 AD activity, and comparable to plinian eruptions of e.g. Apoyeque, Colima, Merapi and Tarawera volcanoes. Whole-rock chemistry, textural reconstructions and density-porosity determinations suggest that the different eruptive scenarios are mainly driven by variations in the density structure of magma in the upper conduit. Assuming a simple single conduit model, the style transitions can be explained by differing proportions of alternating gas-poor/degassed and gas-rich magma.

  4. Deep underground multiple muons at the Mt. Blanc station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamasco, L; Bilokon, H; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Castagnoli, C; Picchi, P [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale)

    1979-12-29

    Results on multiple events recorded at the Mt. Blanc station in the last 3 years are presented. The integral energy spectrum of muons is obtained for Esub(..mu..)>1 TeV in the size range 10/sup 6/ - 10/sup 7/ which favours a multiplicity law for hadronic interactions of the form eta approximately Esup(1/4).

  5. Integration of Active Video Games in Extracurricular Activity at Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…

  6. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  7. Small Spacecraft Integrated Power System with Active Thermal Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop an integrated power generation and energy storage system with an active thermal management system. Carbon fiber solar panels will contain...

  8. Turkish Preschool Teachers' Beliefs on Integrated Curriculum: Integration of Visual Arts with Other Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Elif; Erden, Feyza Tantekin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates preschool teachers' beliefs about integrated curriculum and, more specifically, their beliefs about integration of visual arts with other activities. The participants of this study consisted of 255 female preschool teachers who are employed in preschools in Ankara, Turkey. For the study, teachers were asked to complete…

  9. Mitochondrial DNA copy number threshold in mtDNA depletion myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S E; Bonilla, E; Samuels, D C; DiMauro, S; Chinnery, P F

    2005-08-09

    The authors measured the absolute amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within single muscle fibers from two patients with thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency and two healthy controls. TK2 deficient fibers containing more than 0.01 mtDNA/microm3 had residual cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. This defines the minimum amount of wild-type mtDNA molecules required to maintain COX activity in skeletal muscle and provides an explanation for the mosaic histochemical pattern seen in patients with mtDNA depletion syndrome.

  10. Integration of geophysical datasets by a conjoint probability tomography approach: application to Italian active volcanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We expand the theory of probability tomography to the integration of different geophysical datasets. The aim of the new method is to improve the information quality using a conjoint occurrence probability function addressed to highlight the existence of common sources of anomalies. The new method is tested on gravity, magnetic and self-potential datasets collected in the volcanic area of Mt. Vesuvius (Naples, and on gravity and dipole geoelectrical datasets collected in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna (Sicily. The application demonstrates that, from a probabilistic point of view, the integrated analysis can delineate the signature of some important volcanic targets better than the analysis of the tomographic image of each dataset considered separately.

  11. Targeted Transgenic Overexpression of Mitochondrial Thymidine Kinase (TK2) Alters Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Mitochondrial Polypeptide Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed H.; Kohler, James J.; Haase, Chad P.; Tioleco, Nina; Stuart, Tami; Keebaugh, Erin; Ludaway, Tomika; Russ, Rodney; Green, Elgin; Long, Robert; Wang, Liya; Eriksson, Staffan; Lewis, William

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity limits nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. NRTI triphosphates, the active moieties, inhibit human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA polymerase pol-γ. NRTI phosphorylation seems to correlate with mitochondrial toxicity, but experimental evidence is lacking. Transgenic mice (TGs) with cardiac overexpression of thymidine kinase isoforms (mitochondrial TK2 and cytoplasmic TK1) were used to study NRTI mitochondrial toxicity. Echocardiography and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging defined cardiac performance and structure. TK gene copy and enzyme activity, mitochondrial (mt) DNA and polypeptide abundance, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry, and electron microscopy correlated with transgenesis, mitochondrial structure, and biogenesis. Antiretroviral combinations simulated therapy. Untreated hTK1 or TK2 TGs exhibited normal left ventricle mass. In TK2 TGs, cardiac TK2 gene copy doubled, activity increased 300-fold, and mtDNA abundance doubled. Abundance of the 17-kd subunit of complex I, succinate dehydrogenase histochemical activity, and cristae density increased. NRTIs increased left ventricle mass 20% in TK2 TGs. TK activity increased 3 logs in hTK1 TGs, but no cardiac phenotype resulted. NRTIs abrogated functional effects of transgenically increased TK2 activity but had no effect on TK2 mtDNA abundance. Thus, NRTI mitochondrial phosphorylation by TK2 is integral to clinical NRTI mitochondrial toxicity. PMID:17322372

  12. Machine translation (MT): qualità, produttività, customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fellet, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the impact of recent technological developments in machine translation (MT) in the language industry. The objectives are: 1. To define the value of MT in terms of suitability and convenience in meeting expressed requirements in those cases where MT is demanded; 2. To examine the potential increase in productivity through a conscious use of the tool; 3. To analyse those activities aimed at satisfying the customer’s explicit and impli...

  13. Expression of melatonin receptor MT1 in cells of human invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Karolina; Pula, Bartosz; Zemla, Agata; Owczarek, Tomasz; Wojnar, Andrzej; Rys, Janusz; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Ugorski, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    In humans, two main types of membrane melatonin receptors have been identified, MT1 and MT2. Expression of MT1 in neoplastic cells seems to increase the efficacy of melatonin's oncostatic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and the intensity of MT1 expression in breast cancer cells and to correlate it with clinicopathological factors. Immunohistochemical studies (IHC) were conducted on 190 cases of invasive ductal breast carcinomas (IDC) and molecular studies were performed on 29 cases of frozen tumor fragments and selected breast cancer cell lines. Most of the studied tumors manifested a membranous/cytoplasmic IHC expression of MT1. In IDC, the MT1 expression was higher than in fibrocystic breast disease. MT1 expression was higher in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and HER2 positive (HER2+) tumors. Triple negative tumors (TN) manifested the lowest MT1 expression level. The lowest MT1 protein expression level was noted in the TN breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 compared with ER+ cell lines MCF-7 and SK-BR-3. MT1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with the malignancy grade of the studied IDC cases. Moreover, higher MT1 expression was associated with patients' longer overall survival (OS) in the group of ER+ breast cancers and treated with tamoxifen. Multivariate analysis indicated that MT1 was an independent prognostic factor in the ER+ tumors for OS and event-free survival in the ER+ tumors. The results of this study may point to a potential prognostic and therapeutic significance of MT1 in IDC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Melanesian mtDNA complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Friedlaender

    Full Text Available Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2 from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more isolated inland Papuan-speaking groups on the largest islands have the greatest distinctions, while shore dwelling populations are considerably less diverse (at the same time, within-group haplotype diversity is less in the most isolated groups. Persistent differences between shore and inland groups in effective population sizes and marital migration rates probably cause these differences. We also add 16 whole sequences to the Melanesian mtDNA phylogenies. We identify the likely origins of a number of the haplogroups and ancient branches in specific islands, point to some ancient mtDNA connections between Near Oceania and Australia, and show additional Holocene connections between Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan and Island Melanesia with branches of haplogroup E. Coalescence estimates based on synonymous transitions in the coding region suggest an initial settlement and expansion in the region at approximately 30-50,000 years before present (YBP, and a second important expansion from Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan during the interval approximately 3,500-8,000 YBP. However, there are some important variance components in molecular dating that have been overlooked, and the specific nature of ancestral (maternal Austronesian influence in this region remains unresolved.

  15. The seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Orazi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world. Its activity is currently characterized by moderate seismicity, with hypocenters located beneath the crater zone with depth rarely exceeding 5 km and magnitudes generally less than 3. The current configuration of the seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius consists of 18 seismic stations and 7 infrasound microphones. During the period 2006-2010 a seismic array with 48 channels was also operative. The station distribution provides appropriate coverage of the area around the volcanic edifice. The current development of the network and its geometry, under conditions of low seismic noise, allows locating seismic events with M<1. Remote instruments continuously transmit data to the main acquisition center in Naples. Data transmission is realized using different technological solutions based on UHF, Wi-Fi radio links, and TCP/IP client-server applications. Data are collected in the monitoring center of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples section, which is equipped with systems for displaying and analyzing signals, using both real-time automatic and manual procedures. 24-hour surveillance allows to immediately communicate any significant anomaly to the Civil Protection authorities.

  16. Exercise Intolerance and Myoglobinuria Associated with a Novel Maternally Inherited MT-ND1 Mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Jabin; Duno, Morten; Østergaard, Elsebet

    2016-01-01

    The most common clinical phenotype caused by a mtDNA mutation in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. We report a family with a novel maternally inherited homoplasmic mtDNA m.4087A>G mutation in the ND1 gene (MT-ND1) associated with isolated...... myopathy, recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria, and rhabdomyolysis. DNA from blood in seven family members and muscle from four family members were PCR amplified and sequenced directly and assessed for the m.4087A>G variation in MT-ND1. Mitochondrial enzyme activity in all muscle biopsies was measured. PCR...... myoglobinuria is a rare phenotype of mitochondrial myopathies. We report this phenotype in a family affected by a novel homoplasmic mutation in MT-ND1. It is the first time such a phenotype has been associated with complex I gene mutations and a homoplasmic mutation of mtDNA....

  17. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform a......) that perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  18. Report on Integrating Activities and Models for Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Ryberg, Thomas

    This report is the deliverable for work package (WP) 28.3 “Integrated network and activities for the exchange of and collaboration between Master students, PhD students and professors” of the European Research Team (ERT) on Conditions for Productive Networked Learning Environments. The objective...... of WP28.3 is to build up an integrated network and activities for the exchange and collaboration between Master students, professional masters, PhD students and professors and to establish a virtual community around the research area of conditions for productive learning in networked learning...

  19. Conflicting Values: Spirituality and Wilderness at Mt. Shasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Fernandez-Gimenez; Lynn Huntsinger; Catherine Phillips; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    1992-01-01

    Many people from a variety of backgrounds believe that Mt. Shasta is a major spiritual center. Although these "spiritual users" value the area's natural features, their spiritual and social activities, including construction of sweat lodges, medicine wheels, altars, meditation pads, trails, and campsites, are leading to rapid ecological degradation. This...

  20. Membrane-type-3 matrix metalloproteinase (MT3-MMP functions as a matrix composition-dependent effector of melanoma cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tatti

    Full Text Available In primary human melanoma, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, MT3-MMP, is overexpressed in the most aggressive nodular-type tumors. Unlike MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, which promote cell invasion through basement membranes and collagen type I-rich tissues, the function of MT3-MMP in tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MT3-MMP inhibits MT1-MMP-driven melanoma cell invasion in three-dimensional collagen, while yielding an altered, yet MT1-MMP-dependent, form of expansive growth behavior that phenocopies the formation of nodular cell colonies. In melanoma cell lines originating from advanced primary or metastatic lesions, endogenous MT3-MMP expression was associated with limited collagen-invasive potential. In the cell lines with highest MT3-MMP expression relative to MT1-MMP, collagen-invasive activity was increased following stable MT3-MMP gene silencing. Consistently, MT3-MMP overexpression in cells derived from less advanced superficially spreading melanoma lesions, or in the MT3-MMP knockdown cells, reduced MT1-MMP-dependent collagen invasion. Rather than altering MT1-MMP transcription, MT3-MMP interacted with MT1-MMP in membrane complexes and reduced its cell surface expression. By contrast, as a potent fibrinolytic enzyme, MT3-MMP induced efficient invasion of the cells in fibrin, a provisional matrix component frequently found at tumor-host tissue interfaces and perivascular spaces of melanoma. Since MT3-MMP was significantly upregulated in biopsies of human melanoma metastases, these results identify MT3-MMP as a matrix-dependent modifier of the invasive tumor cell functions during melanoma progression.

  1. The TOMO-ETNA experiment: an imaging active campaign at Mt. Etna volcano. Context, main objectives, working-plans and involved research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Ibáñez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The TOMO-ETNA experiment was devised to image of the crust underlying the volcanic edifice and, possibly, its plumbing system by using passive and active refraction/reflection seismic methods. This experiment included activities both on-land and offshore with the main objective of obtaining a new high-resolution seismic tomography to improve the knowledge of the crustal structures existing beneath the Etna volcano and northeast Sicily up to Aeolian Islands. The TOMO ETNA experiment was divided in two phases. The first phase started on June 15, 2014 and finalized on July 24, 2014, with the withdrawal of two removable seismic networks (a Short Period Network and a Broadband network composed by 80 and 20 stations respectively deployed at Etna volcano and surrounding areas. During this first phase the oceanographic research vessel “Sarmiento de Gamboa” and the hydro-oceanographic vessel “Galatea” performed the offshore activities, which includes the deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS, air-gun shooting for Wide Angle Seismic refraction (WAS, Multi-Channel Seismic (MCS reflection surveys, magnetic surveys and ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle dives. This phase finished with the recovery of the short period seismic network. In the second phase the Broadband seismic network remained operative until October 28, 2014, and the R/V “Aegaeo” performed additional MCS surveys during November 19-27, 2014. Overall, the information deriving from TOMO-ETNA experiment could provide the answer to many uncertainties that have arisen while exploiting the large amount of data provided by the cutting-edge monitoring systems of Etna volcano and seismogenic area of eastern Sicily.

  2. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on-Si active photonics materials and devices for photon detection, modulation, and generation. We first discuss the band engineering of Ge using tensile strain, n-type doping, Sn alloying, and separate confinement of Γ vs. L electrons in quantum well (QW structures to transform the material towards a direct band gap semiconductor for enhancing optoelectronic properties. We then give a brief overview of epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials growth, followed by a summary of recent investigations towards low-temperature, direct growth of high crystallinity Ge and GeSn alloys on dielectric layers for 3D photonic integration. Finally, we review the most recent studies on waveguide-integrated Ge-on-Si photodetectors (PDs, electroabsorption modulators (EAMs, and laser diodes (LDs, and suggest possible future research directions for large-scale monolithic electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a Si platform.

  3. Decreased Circulating mtDNA Levels in Professional Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasi, Milena; Cristani, Alessandro; Pinti, Marcello; Lamberti, Igor; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Guazzaloca, Alessandro; Trenti, Tommaso; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise exerts various effects on the immune system, and evidence is emerging on its anti-inflammatory effects; the mechanisms on the basis of these modifications are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released from damaged cells acts as a molecule containing the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns and can trigger sterile inflammation. Indeed, high plasma levels of mtDNA are associated to several inflammatory conditions and physiological aging and longevity. The authors evaluated plasma mtDNA in professional male volleyball players during seasonal training and the possible correlation between mtDNA levels and clinical parameters, body composition, and physical performance. Plasma mtDNA was quantified by real-time PCR every 2 mo in 12 professional volleyball players (PVPs) during 2 consecutive seasons. As comparison, 20 healthy nonathlete male volunteers (NAs) were analyzed. The authors found lower levels of mtDNA in plasma of PVPs than in NAs. However, PVPs showed a decrease of circulating mtDNA only in the first season, while no appreciable variations were observed during the second season. No correlation was observed among mtDNA, hematochemical, and anthropometric parameters. Regular physical activity appeared associated with lower levels of circulating mtDNA, further confirming the protective, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.

  4. A community proposal to integrate proteomics activities in ELIXIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Walzer, Mathias; Jiménez, Rafael C.

    2017-01-01

    in computational proteomics that would complement existing activities and close gaps in the portfolio of tools and services offered by ELIXIR so far. We provide some suggestions on how these activities could be integrated into ELIXIR's existing platforms, and how it could lead to a new ELIXIR use case...... involved, and in particular with other representatives of the proteomics community, to further refine this paper....

  5. Cost analysis of electrical power from an ethanol reformer and the fuel cell in the development of productive activities in the community Pico do Amor, MT, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao

    2010-01-01

    This work has the objective to analyze the impact of the cost of from an ethane reformer / fuel cell in the family income considering the development of two productive activities selected by the community itself: the production and marketing of cassava flour and 'rapadura', a typical brazilian candy. The community energy demand was analyzed to achieve the results; estimated the energy cost from the implemented system and the money from the selling of the cassava flour and 'rapadura' produced with this electricity; the study of sensibility of the ethanol price in the electrical energy cost was done too, and the cassava flour and 'rapadura' in the family funds. From the results, it was verified that the electrical energy cost has a 16,4% impact in the family gross income and a net value around R$ 260,85/family, indicating that the community will have enough funds to pay for the energy and also will rise the amount of money for each family. Besides, the comparative analyze of the cost of the electricity from the ethanol/fuel cell reformer and photovoltaic systems shows that, considering only the maintenance and operation costs, the first one should be more attractive than the second one. (author)

  6. INTEGRAL sees IGR J17544-2619 active again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Kuulkers, Erik; Brandt, Søren

    2010-01-01

    INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations (see, e.g., ATels #438 and #1266) between UT 29 Aug 2010 22:54 and 30 Aug 2010 02:35 revealed X-ray flaring from the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) IGR J17544-2619. Its last activity was reported about 180 days ago, in March 2010 (ATel #2463...

  7. Integrity Checking and Maintenance with Active Rules in XML Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Rekouts, Maria

    2007-01-01

    While specification languages for integrity constraints for XML data have been considered in the literature, actual technologies and methodologies for checking and maintaining integrity are still in their infancy. Triggers, or active rules, which are widely used in previous technologies for the p...... updates, the method indicates trigger conditions and correctness criteria to be met by the trigger code supplied by a developer or possibly automatic methods. We show examples developed in the Sedna XML database system which provides a running implementation of XML triggers....

  8. Active Disturbance Rejection Control of a Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Kalbani, Fahad; Zhang, Jie; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    pressure. However, the control of some HiDC processesis generally difficult due to the strong control loop interaction, high purity of the components and undesired disturbances. Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is used in this paperto control a simulated HiDC for separating benzene-toluene......Heat integrated distillation column (HiDC) is the most energy efficient distillation approach making efficient utilization of internal heat integration through heat pump. The rectifying section acts as a heat source with high pressure, while the stripping section operates as a heat sink with low...

  9. Optimizing Computation of Repairs from Active Integrity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Filipe, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Active integrity constraints (AICs) are a form of integrity constraints for databases that not only identify inconsistencies, but also suggest how these can be overcome. The semantics for AICs defines different types of repairs, but deciding whether an inconsistent database can be repaired...... and finding possible repairs is a NP- or Σ2p-complete problem, depending on the type of repairs one has in mind. In this paper, we introduce two different relations on AICs: an equivalence relation of independence, allowing the search to be parallelized among the equivalence classes, and a precedence relation...

  10. Qualitative: Python Tool for MT Quality Estimation Supporting Server Mode and Hybrid MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramidis Eleftherios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the development contributions of the last two years to our Python opensource Quality Estimation tool, a tool that can function in both experiment-mode and online web-service mode. The latest version provides a new MT interface, which communicates with SMT and rule-based translation engines and supports on-the-fly sentence selection. Additionally, we present an improved Machine Learning interface allowing more efficient communication with several state-of-the-art toolkits. Additions also include a more informative training process, a Python re-implementation of QuEst baseline features, a new LM toolkit integration, an additional PCFG parser and alignments of syntactic nodes.

  11. Multisensory Integration in the Virtual Hand Illusion with Active Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the sense of immersion is one of the core issues in virtual reality. Perceptual illusions of ownership can be perceived over a virtual body in a multisensory virtual reality environment. Rubber Hand and Virtual Hand Illusions showed that body ownership can be manipulated by applying suitable visual and tactile stimulation. In this study, we investigate the effects of multisensory integration in the Virtual Hand Illusion with active movement. A virtual xylophone playing system which can interactively provide synchronous visual, tactile, and auditory stimulation was constructed. We conducted two experiments regarding different movement conditions and different sensory stimulations. Our results demonstrate that multisensory integration with free active movement can improve the sense of immersion in virtual reality.

  12. Multisensory Integration in the Virtual Hand Illusion with Active Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woong; Li, Liang; Satoh, Satoru; Hachimura, Kozaburo

    2016-01-01

    Improving the sense of immersion is one of the core issues in virtual reality. Perceptual illusions of ownership can be perceived over a virtual body in a multisensory virtual reality environment. Rubber Hand and Virtual Hand Illusions showed that body ownership can be manipulated by applying suitable visual and tactile stimulation. In this study, we investigate the effects of multisensory integration in the Virtual Hand Illusion with active movement. A virtual xylophone playing system which can interactively provide synchronous visual, tactile, and auditory stimulation was constructed. We conducted two experiments regarding different movement conditions and different sensory stimulations. Our results demonstrate that multisensory integration with free active movement can improve the sense of immersion in virtual reality.

  13. Studying the active deformation of distributed plate boundaries by integration of GNSS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Nicola; Avallone, Antonio; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Anastasio, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    In the last decade GNSS networks installed for different purposes have proliferated in Italy and now provide a large amount of data available to geophysical studies. In addition to the existing regional and nation-wide scientific GNSS networks developed by ASI (http://geodaf.mt.asi.it), INGV (http://ring.gm.ingv.it) and OGS (http://crs.inogs.it/frednet), a large number (> 400) of continuously-operating GPS stations have been installed in the framework of regional and national networks, both publicly-operated and commercial, developed to provide real-time positioning capability to surveyors. Although the quality of the data and metadata associated to these stations is generally lower with respect to the "scientific" CGPS stations, the increased density and redundancy in crustal motion information, resulting in more than 500 stations with more than 2.5 years of observations, significantly increase the knowledge of the active deformation of the Italian territory and provides a unique image of the crustal deformation field. The obtained GPS velocity field is analysed and various features ranging from the definition of strain distribution and microplate kinematics within the plate boundary, to the evaluation of tectonic strain accumulation on active faults are presented in this work. Undeforming, aseismic regions (Sardinia, Southern Apulia) provide test sites to evaluate the lower bound on the accuracy achievable to measure tectonic deformation. Integration of GNSS networks significantly improves the resolution of the strain rate field in Central Italy showing that active deformation is concentrated in a narrow belt along the crest of the Apennines, consistently with the distribution of the largest historical and recent earthquakes. Products derived from dense GPS velocity and strain rate fields include map of earthquake potential developed under the assumption that the rate of seismic moment accumulation measured from geodesy distributes into earthquake sizes that

  14. Tried And True Integrating Active And Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    from home station to work and train with experienced maintainers in the Reserve Component. Since there are no dorms or dining facilities, young... smart and experienced leadership out given limited progression. In a new test of the Integrated Wing, the Air Force proposes restructuring the Active...degree or for shorter term family reasons (i.e. to care for an elderly parent or child). I believe it will benefit only a small percentage of Airmen who

  15. INTEGRAL detects renewed activity from IGR J11435-6109

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Chenevez, J.; Sguera, V.

    2015-01-01

    During a recent INTEGRAL public observation of Musca region, performed between 2015-12-11 17:54 and 2015-12-12 12:54 (UTC), renewed activity from the transient X-ray pulsar IGR J11435-6109 has been detected. The 22-60 keV IBIS/ISGRI flux corresponds to (10+/-1) mCrab with an effective exposure time...

  16. Dielectrophoretic focusing integrated pulsed laser activated cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongfeng; Kung, Yu-Chun; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2017-08-01

    We present a pulsed laser activated cell sorter (PLACS) integrated with novel sheathless size-independent dielectrophoretic (DEP) focusing. Microfluidic fluorescence activated cell sorting (μFACS) systems aim to provide a fully enclosed environment for sterile cell sorting and integration with upstream and downstream microfluidic modules. Among them, PLACS has shown a great potential in achieving comparable performance to commercial aerosol-based FACS (>90% purity at 25,000 cells sec-1). However conventional sheath flow focusing method suffers a severe sample dilution issue. Here we demonstrate a novel dielectrophoresis-integrated pulsed laser activated cell sorter (DEP-PLACS). It consists of a microfluidic channel with 3D electrodes laid out to provide a tunnel-shaped electric field profile along a 4cmlong channel for sheathlessly focusing microparticles/cells into a single stream in high-speed microfluidic flows. All focused particles pass through the fluorescence detection zone along the same streamline regardless of their sizes and types. Upon detection of target fluorescent particles, a nanosecond laser pulse is triggered and focused in a neighboring channel to generate a rapidly expanding cavitation bubble for precise sorting. DEP-PLACS has achieved a sorting purity of 91% for polystyrene beads at a throughput of 1,500 particle/sec.

  17. A community proposal to integrate proteomics activities in ELIXIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Walzer, Mathias; Jiménez, Rafael C; Bittremieux, Wout; Bouyssié, David; Carapito, Christine; Corrales, Fernando; Ferro, Myriam; Heck, Albert J R; Horvatovich, Peter; Hubalek, Martin; Lane, Lydie; Laukens, Kris; Levander, Fredrik; Lisacek, Frederique; Novak, Petr; Palmblad, Magnus; Piovesan, Damiano; Pühler, Alfred; Schwämmle, Veit; Valkenborg, Dirk; van Rijswijk, Merlijn; Vondrasek, Jiri; Eisenacher, Martin; Martens, Lennart; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Computational approaches have been major drivers behind the progress of proteomics in recent years. The aim of this white paper is to provide a framework for integrating computational proteomics into ELIXIR in the near future, and thus to broaden the portfolio of omics technologies supported by this European distributed infrastructure. This white paper is the direct result of a strategy meeting on 'The Future of Proteomics in ELIXIR' that took place in March 2017 in Tübingen (Germany), and involved representatives of eleven ELIXIR nodes. These discussions led to a list of priority areas in computational proteomics that would complement existing activities and close gaps in the portfolio of tools and services offered by ELIXIR so far. We provide some suggestions on how these activities could be integrated into ELIXIR's existing platforms, and how it could lead to a new ELIXIR use case in proteomics. We also highlight connections to the related field of metabolomics, where similar activities are ongoing. This white paper could thus serve as a starting point for the integration of computational proteomics into ELIXIR. Over the next few months we will be working closely with all stakeholders involved, and in particular with other representatives of the proteomics community, to further refine this paper.

  18. Optimal integral force feedback for active vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Yik R.; Fleming, Andrew J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes an improvement to Integral Force Feedback (IFF), which is a popular method for active vibration control of structures and mechanical systems. Benefits of IFF include robustness, guaranteed stability and simplicity. However, the maximum damping performance is dependent on the stiffness of the system; hence, some systems cannot be adequately controlled. In this paper, an improvement to the classical force feedback control scheme is proposed. The improved method achieves arbitrary damping for any mechanical system by introducing a feed-through term. The proposed improvement is experimentally demonstrated by actively damping an objective lens assembly for a high-speed confocal microscope.

  19. Type of featural attention differentially modulates hMT+ responses to illusory motion aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Kozak, Lajos R; Formisano, Elia; Teixeira, João; Xavier, João; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-11-01

    Activity in the human motion complex (hMT(+)/V5) is related to the perception of motion, be it either real surface motion or an illusion of motion such as apparent motion (AM) or motion aftereffect (MAE). It is a long-lasting debate whether illusory motion-related activations in hMT(+) represent the motion itself or attention to it. We have asked whether hMT(+) responses to MAEs are present when shifts in arousal are suppressed and attention is focused on concurrent motion versus nonmotion features. Significant enhancement of hMT(+) activity was observed during MAEs when attention was focused either on concurrent spatial angle or color features. This observation was confirmed by direct comparison of adapting (MAE inducing) versus nonadapting conditions. In contrast, this effect was diminished when subjects had to report on concomitant speed changes of superimposed AM. The same finding was observed for concomitant orthogonal real motion (RM), suggesting that selective attention to concurrent illusory or real motion was interfering with the saliency of MAE signals in hMT(+). We conclude that MAE-related changes in the global activity of hMT(+) are present provided selective attention is not focused on an interfering feature such as concurrent motion. Accordingly, there is a genuine MAE-related motion signal in hMT(+) that is neither explained by shifts in arousal nor by selective attention.

  20. IDMT an integrated system to manage decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsiletti, M.; Mini, G.; Orlandi, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the frame of decommissioning activities Ansaldo has developed a set of Integrated Decommissioning Management Tools (IDMT) addressed to dismantling work as well as to management of the wastes. The tools MIRAD and DECOM arise from the project of dismantling Italian NPPs (e.g. Caorso) as described in this paper. MIRAD is an integration between a 3 D CAD Model of the NPP in as build configuration and a computerized database (presently an MS Access application) which stores the information related to the radiological measurements detected through in field monitoring associated to any item present in the plant. DECOM is an integration system between a 3 D CAD Model of the NPP (as minimum for the controlled zone) in as-built configuration and a computerized database (presently an MS Access application) which stores the information associated to primary and secondary wastes produced during operation, dismantling or treatment activities.The IDMT system is currently used in the following NPPs in Italy: Caorso NPP (Mark II GE Containment BWR), Garigliano NPP (Dual Cycle GE BWR) and Trino NPP (Westinghouse PWR Plant). (authors)

  1. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, Arja R.; Bertram, Maja; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures...... and the initial results of the first phase of six European countries in a five-year research project (2011-2016), REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity (REPOPA). REPOPA is programmatic research; it consists of linked studies; the first phase studied the use of evidence in 21 policies in implementation...... to learn more in depth from the policy making process and carried out 86 qualitative stakeholder interviews. The second, ongoing phase builds on the central findings of the first phase in each country; it consists of two sets of interventions: game simulations to study cross-sector collaboration...

  2. Scene recognition based on integrating active learning with dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengxi; Yin, Xueyan; Yang, Lin; Gong, Chengrong; Zheng, Caixia; Yi, Yugen

    2018-04-01

    Scene recognition is a significant topic in the field of computer vision. Most of the existing scene recognition models require a large amount of labeled training samples to achieve a good performance. However, labeling image manually is a time consuming task and often unrealistic in practice. In order to gain satisfying recognition results when labeled samples are insufficient, this paper proposed a scene recognition algorithm named Integrating Active Learning and Dictionary Leaning (IALDL). IALDL adopts projective dictionary pair learning (DPL) as classifier and introduces active learning mechanism into DPL for improving its performance. When constructing sampling criterion in active learning, IALDL considers both the uncertainty and representativeness as the sampling criteria to effectively select the useful unlabeled samples from a given sample set for expanding the training dataset. Experiment results on three standard databases demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed IALDL.

  3. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented....... The distinctive text type of patents pose special demands for machine translation and these aspects are discussed based on linguistic observations with focus on the users point of view. Two main demands are automatic pre processing of the documents and implementation of a module which in a flexible and user......-friendly manner offers the opportunity to extend the lexical coverage of the system. These demands and the comparison of the two MT strategies are discussed on the basis of proofread patents....

  4. mtDNA mutation C1494T, haplogroup A, and hearing loss in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chengye; Kong Qingpeng; Yao Yonggang; Zhang Yaping

    2006-01-01

    Mutation C1494T in mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was recently reported in two large Chinese families with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing loss (AINHL) and was claimed to be pathogenic. This mutation, however, was first reported in a sample from central China in our previous study that was aimed to reconstruct East Asian mtDNA phylogeny. All these three mtDNAs formed a subclade defined by mutation C1494T in mtDNA haplogroup A. It thus seems that mutation C1494T is a haplogroup A-associated mutation and this matrilineal background may contribute a high risk for the penetrance of mutation C1494T in Chinese with AINHL. To test this hypothesis, we first genotyped mutation C1494T in 553 unrelated individuals from three regional Chinese populations and performed an extensive search for published complete or near-complete mtDNA data sets (>3000 mtDNAs), we then screened the C1494T mutation in 111 mtDNAs with haplogroup A status that were identified from 1823 subjects across China. The search for published mtDNA data sets revealed no other mtDNA besides the above-mentioned three carrying mutation C1494T. None of the 553 randomly selected individuals and the 111 haplogroup A mtDNAs was found to bear this mutation. Therefore, our results suggest that C1494T is a very rare event. The mtDNA haplogroup A background in general is unlikely to play an active role in the penetrance of mutation C1494T in AINHL

  5. Stimulatory Effects of Melatonin on Porcine In Vitro Maturation Are Mediated by MT2 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghoon Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a multifunctional molecule with numerous biological activities. The fact that melatonin modulates the functions of porcine granulosa cells via the MT2 receptor suggests the possibility of MT2 receptor-mediation for melatonin to promote cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs. Therefore, we investigated the presence of MT2 in porcine COCs, and the effects of melatonin with or without selective MT2 antagonists (luzindole and 4-P-PDOT on this process; COCs underwent in vitro maturation culturing with six different conditions (control, melatonin, luzindole, 4-P-PDOT, melatonin + luzindole or melatonin + 4-P-PDOT. Cumulus expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, and subsequent embryo development after parthenogenetic activation (PA were evaluated. In experiment 1, MT2 was expressed in both oocytes and cumulus cells. In experiment 2, melatonin significantly increased the proportion of complete cumulus expansion (degree 4, which was inhibited by simultaneous addition of either luzindole or 4-P-PDOT. A similar pattern was observed in the expression of genes related to cumulus expansion, apoptosis, and MT2. In experiment 3, no significant difference was observed in immature, degenerate, and MII oocyte rates among the groups. In experiment 4, melatonin significantly increased blastocyst formation rates and total blastocyst cell numbers after PA, but these effects were abolished when either luzindole or 4-P-PDOT was added concomitantly. In conclusion, our results indicate that the MT2 receptor mediated the stimulatory effects of melatonin on porcine cumulus expansion and subsequent embryo development.

  6. University Outdoor Activities: an integral approach in the professional formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ofelia Armas-Álvarez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is lead to establish the theoretical foundations of the university outdoor labour from the organizational forms of the teaching process that favour the knowledge acquisition and the development of necessary skills in the students to promote culture in the different moments where they have connection with the society by means of the participation of the subjects and disciplines of the current programs that allow to organize systematic and articulated activities, appropriately planned, able to satisfy the necessities and to achieve the purpose of getting the preparation and integral cultural formation, as well as the their appropriate projection in the social environment that demands the contemporary society from the university professionals. In the work they are determined the content and skills that the student requires to promote Physical Culture in correspondence with their professional performance. It is designed a plan of activities to carry out the university outdoor labour from the organizational forms of the teaching process.

  7. Integration of active pauses and pattern of muscular activity during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Nancy; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    Submaximal isometric muscle contractions have been reported to increase variability of muscle activation during computer work; however, other types of active contractions may be more beneficial. Our objective was to determine which type of active pause vs. rest is more efficient in changing muscle activity pattern during a computer task. Asymptomatic regular computer users performed a standardised 20-min computer task four times, integrating a different type of pause: sub-maximal isometric contraction, dynamic contraction, postural exercise and rest. Surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity was recorded bilaterally from five neck/shoulder muscles. Root-mean-square decreased with isometric pauses in the cervical paraspinals, upper trapezius and middle trapezius, whereas it increased with rest. Variability in the pattern of muscular activity was not affected by any type of pause. Overall, no detrimental effects on the level of SEMG during active pauses were found suggesting that they could be implemented without a cost on activation level or variability. Practitioner Summary: We aimed to determine which type of active pause vs. rest is best in changing muscle activity pattern during a computer task. Asymptomatic computer users performed a standardised computer task integrating different types of pauses. Muscle activation decreased with isometric pauses in neck/shoulder muscles, suggesting their implementation during computer work.

  8. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and areas...

  9. MtCAS31 Aids Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Protecting the Leghemoglobin MtLb120-1 Under Drought Stress in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF in legume root nodules injects millions of tons of nitrogen into agricultural lands and provides ammonia to non-legume crops under N-deficient conditions. During plant growth and development, environmental stresses, such as drought, salt, cold, and heat stress are unavoidable. This raises an interesting question as to how the legumes cope with the environmental stress along with SNF. Under drought stress, dehydrin proteins are accumulated, which function as protein protector and osmotic substances. In this study, we found that the dehydrin MtCAS31 (cold-acclimation-specific 31 functions in SNF in Medicago truncatula during drought stress. We found that MtCAS31 is expressed in nodules and interacts with leghemoglobin MtLb120-1. The interaction between the two proteins protects MtLb120-1 from denaturation under thermal stress in vivo. Compared to wild type, cas31 mutants display a lower nitrogenase activity, a lower ATP/ADP ratio, higher expression of nodule senescence genes and higher accumulation of amyloplasts under dehydration conditions. The results suggested that MtCAS31 protects MtLb120-1 from the damage of drought stress. We identified a new function for dehydrins in SNF under drought stress, which enriches the understanding of the molecular mechanism of dehydrins.

  10. The Integral Method, a new approach to quantify bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Waldemar; Pfleiderer, Jörg; Nagl, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The bactericidal activity (BA) of antimicrobial agents is generally derived from the results of killing assays. A reliable quantitative characterization and particularly a comparison of these substances, however, are impossible with this information. We here propose a new method that takes into account the course of the complete killing curve for assaying BA and that allows a clear-cut quantitative comparison of antimicrobial agents with only one number. The new Integral Method, based on the reciprocal area below the killing curve, reliably calculates an average BA [log10 CFU/min] and, by implementation of the agent's concentration C, the average specific bactericidal activity SBA=BA/C [log10 CFU/min/mM]. Based on experimental killing data, the pertaining BA and SBA values of exemplary active halogen compounds were established, allowing quantitative assertions. N-chlorotaurine (NCT), chloramine T (CAT), monochloramine (NH2Cl), and iodine (I2) showed extremely diverging SBA values of 0.0020±0.0005, 1.11±0.15, 3.49±0.22, and 291±137log10 CFU/min/mM, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus. This immediately demonstrates an approximately 550-fold stronger activity of CAT, 1730-fold of NH2Cl, and 150,000-fold of I2 compared to NCT. The inferred quantitative assertions and conclusions prove the new method suitable for characterizing bactericidal activity. Its application comprises the effect of defined agents on various bacteria, the consequence of temperature shifts, the influence of varying drug structure, dose-effect relationships, ranking of isosteric agents, comparison of competing commercial antimicrobial formulations, and the effect of additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Directions and dilemmas in massage therapy research: a workshop report from the 2009 north american research conference on complementary and integrative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Christopher A; Dryden, Trish; Shipwright, Stacey

    2009-06-29

    Massage therapy (MT) is widely used and expanding rapidly, but systematic research on its mechanisms and effects has, in contrast with many other therapeutic fields, a short history. To take stock of the current state of MT research and to explore approaches, directions, and strategies with the potential to make the next two decades of MT research optimally productive. The 2009 North American Research Conference on Complementary and Integrative Medicine held in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Using a modified Delphi method, the study authors led an interactive workshop that aimed to identify established MT research findings, needed MT research, weaknesses and limitations in currently available MT research, and directions to pursue in the next two decades of MT research. The thirty-seven conference attendees-including MT researchers, educators, and practitioners, and other health care practitioners who already work interprofessionally with MT-actively participated in the workshop and ensured that a diversity of perspectives were represented. The MT field has made rapid and laudable progress in its short history, but at the same time this short history is probably the main reason for most of the current shortcomings in MT research. Drawing on a diversity of backgrounds, workshop participants identified many opportunities and strategies for future research. Though lost time can never be recovered, the field's late start in research should not be allowed to be a demoralizing handicap to progress. Modern scientific methods and technologies, applied to the range of directions and dilemmas highlighted in this report, can lead to impressive progress in the next twenty years of MT research.

  12. MT-CYB mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Christian M; Aidt, Frederik H; Havndrup, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a characteristic of heart failure. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA, particularly in MT-CYB coding for cytochrome B in complex III (CIII), have been associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We hypothesized that MT-CYB mutations might play an important...... and m.15482T>C; p.S246P were identified. Modeling showed that the p.C93Y mutation leads to disruption of the tertiary structure of Cytb by helix displacement, interfering with protein-heme interaction. The p.S246P mutation induces a diproline structure, which alters local secondary structure and induces...... of HCM patients. We propose that further patients with HCM should be examined for mutations in MT-CYB in order to clarify the role of these variants....

  13. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit devices for active array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R.

    1984-01-01

    Two different aspects of active antenna array design were investigated. The transition between monolithic microwave integrated circuits and rectangular waveguides was studied along with crosstalk in multiconductor transmission lines. The boundary value problem associated with a discontinuity in a microstrip line is formulated. This entailed, as a first step, the derivation of the propagating as well as evanescent modes of a microstrip line. The solution is derived to a simple discontinuity problem: change in width of the center strip. As for the multiconductor transmission line problem. A computer algorithm was developed for computing the crosstalk noise from the signal to the sense lines. The computation is based on the assumption that these lines are terminated in passive loads.

  14. Mitochondrial depolarization in yeast zygotes inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavaeva, Iuliia E; Golyshev, Sergey A; Smirnova, Ekaterina A; Sokolov, Svyatoslav S; Severin, Fedor F; Knorre, Dmitry A

    2017-04-01

    Non-identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compete with each other within a cell and the ultimate variant of mtDNA present depends on their relative replication rates. Using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as a model, we studied the effects of mitochondrial inhibitors on the competition between wild-type mtDNA and mutant selfish mtDNA in heteroplasmic zygotes. We found that decreasing mitochondrial transmembrane potential by adding uncouplers or valinomycin changes the competition outcomes in favor of the wild-type mtDNA. This effect was significantly lower in cells with disrupted mitochondria fission or repression of the autophagy-related genes ATG8 , ATG32 or ATG33 , implying that heteroplasmic zygotes activate mitochondrial degradation in response to the depolarization. Moreover, the rate of mitochondrially targeted GFP turnover was higher in zygotes treated with uncoupler than in haploid cells or untreated zygotes. Finally, we showed that vacuoles of zygotes with uncoupler-activated autophagy contained DNA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that mitochondrial depolarization inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA and this effect depends on mitochondrial fission and autophagy. These observations suggest an activation of mitochondria quality control mechanisms in heteroplasmic yeast zygotes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Geant4-MT: bringing multi-threading into Geant4 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S.; Apostolakis, J.; Cosmo, G.; Nowak, A.; Asai, M.; Brandt, D.; Dotti, A.; Coopermann, G.; Dong, X.; Jun, Soon Yung

    2013-01-01

    Geant4-MT is the multi-threaded version of the Geant4 particle transport code. The key goals for the design of Geant4-MT have been a) the need to reduce the memory footprint of the multi-threaded application compared to the use of separate jobs and processes; b) to create an easy migration of the existing applications; and c) to use efficiently many threads or cores, by scaling up to tens and potentially hundreds of workers. The first public release of a Geant4- MT prototype was made in 2011. We report on the revision of Geant4-MT for inclusion in the production-level release scheduled for end of 2013. This has involved significant re-engineering of the prototype in order to incorporate it into the main Geant4 development line, and the porting of Geant4-MT threading code to additional platforms. In order to make the porting of applications as simple as possible, refinements addressed the needs of standalone applications. Further adaptations were created to improve the fit with the frameworks of High Energy Physics experiments. We report on performances measurements on Intel Xeon TM , AMD Opteron TM the first trials of Geant4-MT on the Intel Many Integrated Cores (MIC) architecture, in the form of the Xeon Phi TM co-processor. These indicate near-linear scaling through about 200 threads on 60 cores, when holding fixed the number of events per thread. (authors)

  16. The size distribution of 210Po in the atmosphere around Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashikawa, N.; Matsuoka, N.; Takashima, Y.; Syojo, N.; Imamura, H.; Fujisaki, M.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration and size distribution of 210 Po in particulate matters in the atmosphere were measured around the active volcano, Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. The samples were collected eight times at four sampling points for the period from June 1994 to January 1996. The highest concentration of 210 Po was 2940 μBq/m 3 at Akamizu located 2 km away from the crater of Mt. Sakurajima. The 210 Po concentrations decreased with the increase of distance form Mt. Sakurajima. The size distribution curves of 210 Po in the particulate matters showed that 210 Po is usually condensed to fine particles smaller than 2 μm in diameter. In addition, it was suggested that the 210 Po concentration in particulate matters collected at Akamizu was affected by the wind direction over Mt. Sakurajima. (author)

  17. Synthetic Modeling of A Geothermal System Using Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and Magnetotelluric (MT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega Saputra, Rifki; Widodo

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia has 40% of the world’s potential geothermal resources with estimated capacity of 28,910 MW. Generally, the characteristic of the geothermal system in Indonesia is liquid-dominated systems, which driven by volcanic activities. In geothermal exploration, electromagnetic methods are used to map structures that could host potential reservoirs and source rocks. We want to know the responses of a geothermal system using synthetic data of Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and Magnetotelluric (MT). Due to frequency range, AMT and MT data can resolve the shallow and deeper structure, respectively. 1-D models have been performed using AMT and MT data. The results indicate that AMT and MT data give detailed conductivity distribution of geothermal structure.

  18. Program collaboration and service integration activities among HIV programs in 59 U.S. health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz Harris, Lauren F; Toledo, Lauren; Dunbar, Erica; Aquino, Gustavo A; Nesheim, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    We identified the level and type of program collaboration and service integration (PCSI) among HIV prevention programs in 59 CDC-funded health department jurisdictions. Annual progress reports (APRs) completed by all 59 health departments funded by CDC for HIV prevention activities were reviewed for collaborative and integrated activities reported by HIV programs for calendar year 2009. We identified associations between PCSI activities and funding, AIDS diagnosis rate, and organizational integration. HIV programs collaborated with other health department programs through data-related activities, provider training, and providing funding for sexually transmitted disease (STD) activities in 24 (41%), 31 (53%), and 16 (27%) jurisdictions, respectively. Of the 59 jurisdictions, 57 (97%) reported integrated HIV and STD testing at the same venue, 39 (66%) reported integrated HIV and tuberculosis testing, and 26 (44%) reported integrated HIV and viral hepatitis testing. Forty-five (76%) jurisdictions reported providing integrated education/outreach activities for HIV and at least one other disease. Twenty-six (44%) jurisdictions reported integrated partner services among HIV and STD programs. Overall, the level of PCSI activities was not associated with HIV funding, AIDS diagnoses, or organizational integration. HIV programs in health departments collaborate primarily with STD programs. Key PCSI activities include integrated testing, integrated education/outreach, and training. Future assessments are needed to evaluate PCSI activities and to identify the level of collaboration and integration among prevention programs.

  19. Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus MT-2: Metal Binding and Protein Folding of a True Cadmium-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Kowald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms express, as most animals, metallothioneins (MTs—small, cysteine-rich proteins that bind d10 metal ions (Zn(II, Cd(II, or Cu(I in clusters. Three MT homologues are known for Lumbricus rubellus, the common red earthworm, one of which, wMT-2, is strongly induced by exposure of worms to cadmium. This study concerns composition, metal binding affinity and metal-dependent protein folding of wMT-2 expressed recombinantly and purified in the presence of Cd(II and Zn(II. Crucially, whilst a single Cd7wMT-2 species was isolated from wMT-2-expressing E. coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II, expressions in the presence of Zn(II yielded mixtures. The average affinities of wMT-2 determined for either Cd(II or Zn(II are both within normal ranges for MTs; hence, differential behaviour cannot be explained on the basis of overall affinity. Therefore, the protein folding properties of Cd- and Zn-wMT-2 were compared by 1H NMR spectroscopy. This comparison revealed that the protein fold is better defined in the presence of cadmium than in the presence of zinc. These differences in folding and dynamics may be at the root of the differential behaviour of the cadmium- and zinc-bound protein in vitro, and may ultimately also help in distinguishing zinc and cadmium in the earthworm in vivo.

  20. Integration of biotechnology in remediation and pollution prevention activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement/North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation provides a mechanism for an international collaboration between the US, Canada, and Mexico to jointly develop, modify, or refine technologies that remediate or protect the environment. These countries have a vested interest in this type of collaboration because contaminants do not respect the boundaries of a manufacturing site, region, city, state, or country. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) consists of a diverse group of individuals who address a variety of environmental issues. ESD is involved in basic and applied research on the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants; environmental assessment; environmental engineering; and demonstrations of advanced remediation technologies. The remediation and protection of the environment includes water, air, and soils for organic, inorganic, and radioactive contaminants. In addition to remediating contaminated sites, research also focuses on life-cycle analyses of industrial processes and the production of green technologies. The author focuses this discussion on subsurface remediation and pollution prevention; however, the research activities encompass water, soil and air and many of the technologies are applicable to all environments. The discussion focuses on the integration of biotechnology with remediation activities and subsequently linking these biological processes to other remediation technologies

  1. Messenger RNA for membrane-type 2 matrix metalloproteinase, MT2-MMP, is expressed in human placenta of first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn, S F; Hastrup, N; Larsen, J F; Lund, L R; Pyke, C

    2000-01-01

    An intimately regulated cell surface activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is believed to be of critical importance for the control of trophoblast invasion. A histological investigation of the expression and localization of three different MMPs, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (MT1-MMP, MT2-MMP) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2/gelatinase A) was performed by in situ hybridization on consecutive sections from human placentae of first trimester pregnancies. Cytokeratin immunostaining identified trophoblast cells. Both normal and tubal implantation sites were studied. We observed a high degree of coexpression of MT2-MMP, MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNAs in single extravillous cytotrophoblasts that had invaded the endometrium and tubal wall. Furthermore, mRNAs for all three genes were also seen in cytotrophoblasts of cell islands. In contrast to this coexpression pattern, MT2-MMP expression was absent from cell columns and decidual cells, in which signals for MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNAs were seen. The present data on the cellular expression of MT2-MMP mRNA in placenta extend our knowledge of the proteolytic events that take place during early pregnancy. The data suggest that MT2-MMP, capable of activating MMP-2 in vitro, is involved in the invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblast, possibly related to the physiological activation of MMP-2. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  2. Ancient mtDNA genetic variants modulate mtDNA transcription and replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Suissa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the functional consequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genetic backgrounds (haplotypes, haplogroups have been demonstrated by both disease association studies and cell culture experiments, it is not clear which of the mutations within the haplogroup carry functional implications and which are "evolutionary silent hitchhikers". We set forth to study the functionality of haplogroup-defining mutations within the mtDNA transcription/replication regulatory region by in vitro transcription, hypothesizing that haplogroup-defining mutations occurring within regulatory motifs of mtDNA could affect these processes. We thus screened >2500 complete human mtDNAs representing all major populations worldwide for natural variation in experimentally established protein binding sites and regulatory regions comprising a total of 241 bp in each mtDNA. Our screen revealed 77/241 sites showing point mutations that could be divided into non-fixed (57/77, 74% and haplogroup/sub-haplogroup-defining changes (i.e., population fixed changes, 20/77, 26%. The variant defining Caucasian haplogroup J (C295T increased the binding of TFAM (Electro Mobility Shift Assay and the capacity of in vitro L-strand transcription, especially of a shorter transcript that maps immediately upstream of conserved sequence block 1 (CSB1, a region associated with RNA priming of mtDNA replication. Consistent with this finding, cybrids (i.e., cells sharing the same nuclear genetic background but differing in their mtDNA backgrounds harboring haplogroup J mtDNA had a >2 fold increase in mtDNA copy number, as compared to cybrids containing haplogroup H, with no apparent differences in steady state levels of mtDNA-encoded transcripts. Hence, a haplogroup J regulatory region mutation affects mtDNA replication or stability, which may partially account for the phenotypic impact of this haplogroup. Our analysis thus demonstrates, for the first time, the functional impact of particular mt

  3. Integration of active devices on smart polymers for neural interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano-Bolivar, Adrian Emmanuel

    The increasing ability to ever more precisely identify and measure neural interactions and other phenomena in the central and peripheral nervous systems is revolutionizing our understanding of the human body and brain. To facilitate further understanding, more sophisticated neural devices, perhaps using microelectronics processing, must be fabricated. Materials often used in these neural interfaces, while compatible with these fabrication processes, are not optimized for long-term use in the body and are often orders of magnitude stiffer than the tissue with which they interact. Using the smart polymer substrates described in this work, suitability for processing as well as chronic implantation is demonstrated. We explore how to integrate reliable circuitry onto these flexible, biocompatible substrates that can withstand the aggressive environment of the body. To increase the capabilities of these devices beyond individual channel sensing and stimulation, active electronics must also be included onto our systems. In order to add this functionality to these substrates and explore the limits of these devices, we developed a process to fabricate single organic thin film transistors with mobilities up to 0.4 cm2/Vs and threshold voltages close to 0V. A process for fabricating organic light emitting diodes on flexible substrates is also addressed. We have set a foundation and demonstrated initial feasibility for integrating multiple transistors onto thin-film flexible devices to create new applications, such as matrix addressable functionalized electrodes and organic light emitting diodes. A brief description on how to integrate waveguides for their use in optogenetics is addressed. We have built understanding about device constraints on mechanical, electrical and in vivo reliability and how various conditions affect the electronics' lifetime. We use a bi-layer gate dielectric using an inorganic material such as HfO 2 combined with organic Parylene-c. A study of

  4. Isolation and characterization of a novel cold-adapted esterase, MtEst45, from Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Suk eLee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel esterase, MtEst45, was isolated from a fosmid genomic library of Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221. The encoding gene is predicted to have a mass of 45,564 Da and encodes 495 amino acids, excluding a 21 amino acid signal peptide. MtEst45 showed a low amino acid identity (approximately 23–24% compared with other lipolytic enzymes belonging to Family III, a closely related bacterial lipolytic enzyme family. MtEst45 also showed a conserved GXSXG motif, G131IS133YG135, which was reported as active site of known lipolytic enzymes, and the putative catalytic triad composed of D237 and H265. Because these mutants of MtEst45, which was S133A, D237N, and H265L, had no activity, these catalytic triad essential for the enzyme catalysis. MtEst45 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 and purified via His-tag affinity chromatography. The optimal pH and temperature of MtEst45 were estimated to be 8.17 and 46.27°C by response surface methodology, respectively. Additionally, MtEst45 was also active between 1–15°C. The optimal hydrolysis substrate for MtEst45 among p-nitrophenyl esters (C2–C18 was p-nitrophenyl butyrate, and the Km and Vmax values were 0.0998 mM and 550 μmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. MtEst45 was strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ions; by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride; and by β-mercaptoethanol. Ca2+ did not affect the enzyme’s activity. These biochemical properties, sequence identity, and phylogenetic analysis suggest that MtEst45 represents a novel and valuable bacterial lipolytic enzyme family and is useful for biotechnological applications.

  5. b-value distribution in and around Mt. Tarumae, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, K.

    2017-12-01

    Mt. Tarumae is an active volcano located in southeastern Shikotsu caldera, Hokkaido, Japan. Recently, crustal expansion occurred in 1999-2000 and 2013 near the summit of Mt. Tarumae, with a M5.6 earthquake recorded west of the summit on 8 July 2014. In this study, I determined hypocenter distributions and then performed b-value analysis for the period between 1 August 2014 and 12 August 2016 to improve our understanding of the magma system geometry beneath the summit of Mt. Tarumae. Hypocenters are mainly distributed in two regions: 3 - 5 km west of Mt. Tarumae, and beneath the volcano. I then determined b-value distributions. Regions with relatively high b-values ( 1.3) are located at depths of -0.5 to 2.0 km beneath the summit and at depths greater than 6.0 km in the northwestern part at about 1.5 - 3.0 km from the summit, while a region with relatively low b-values ( 0.6) is located at depths of 2.0 - 6.0 km beneath the summit. Compared the b-value distributions with other geophysical observations, it was found that the high b-value region from -0.5 to 2.0 km depth corresponds to regions of lower resistivity, positive self-potential anomaly, and an inflation source observed in 1999-2000. It is thus inferred that this region is generated by crustal heterogeneity, a decrease in effective normal stress, and change of a frictional property due to the development of faults and fissures, and the circulation of hydrothermal fluids. On the other hand, the inflation source observed in 2013 was located near the boundary between the low b-value region beneath the summit and the deeper high b-value region in the northwestern part at about 1.5 - 3.0 km from the summit. Studies of other volcanoes suggest that such a high-b-value region likely corresponds to a magma chamber. From the deeper high b-value region estimated in this study, I am able to point out that the magma chamber is located to depths greater than 6.0 km in the northwestern part at about 1.5 - 3.0 km from the

  6. Cytoplasmic transfer of heritable elements other than mtDNA from SAMP1 mice into mouse tumor cells suppresses their ability to form tumors in C57BL6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Akinori; Tani, Haruna; Takibuchi, Gaku; Ishikawa, Kaori; Sakurazawa, Ryota; Inoue, Takafumi; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Nakada, Kazuto; Takenaga, Keizo; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2017-11-04

    In a previous study, we generated transmitochondrial P29mtSAMP1 cybrids, which had nuclear DNA from the C57BL6 (referred to as B6) mouse strain-derived P29 tumor cells and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exogenously-transferred from the allogeneic strain SAMP1. Because P29mtSAMP1 cybrids did not form tumors in syngeneic B6 mice, we proposed that allogeneic SAMP1 mtDNA suppressed tumor formation of P29mtSAMP1 cybrids. To test this hypothesis, current study generated P29mt(sp)B6 cybrids carrying all genomes (nuclear DNA and mtDNA) from syngeneic B6 mice by eliminating SAMP1 mtDNA from P29mtSAMP1 cybrids and reintroducing B6 mtDNA. However, the P29mt(sp)B6 cybrids did not form tumors in B6 mice, even though they had no SAMP1 mtDNA, suggesting that SAMP1 mtDNA is not involved in tumor suppression. Then, we examined another possibility of whether SAMP1 mtDNA fragments potentially integrated into the nuclear DNA of P29mtSAMP1 cybrids are responsible for tumor suppression. We generated P29 H (sp)B6 cybrids by eliminating nuclear DNA from P29mt(sp)B6 cybrids and reintroducing nuclear DNA with no integrated SAMP1 mtDNA fragment from mtDNA-less P29 cells resistant to hygromycin in selection medium containing hygromycin. However, the P29 H (sp)B6 cybrids did not form tumors in B6 mice, even though they carried neither SAMP1 mtDNA nor nuclear DNA with integrated SAMP1 mtDNA fragments. Moreover, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and bacterial infection were not involved in tumor suppression. These observations suggest that tumor suppression was caused not by mtDNA with polymorphic mutations or infection of cytozoic bacteria but by hypothetical heritable cytoplasmic elements other than mtDNA from SAMP1 mice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated Modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project: Structural Analysis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John; Mosier, Mark; Howard, Joe; Hyde, Tupper; Parrish, Keith; Ha, Kong; Liu, Frank; McGinnis, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs about structural analysis activities and integrated modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The topics include: 1) JWST Overview; 2) Observatory Structural Models; 3) Integrated Performance Analysis; and 4) Future Work and Challenges.

  8. 76 FR 17145 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation-Automated Integrated Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Collection Activities: Business Transformation--Automated Integrated Operating Environment (IOE), New... through efforts like USCIS' Business Transformation initiative. The IOE will be implemented by USCIS and... information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Business Transformation-- Automated Integrated...

  9. A Novel Control Algorithm for Integration of Active and Passive Vehicle Safety Systems in Frontal Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wallner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates an approach to integrate active and passive safety systems of passenger cars. Worldwide, the introduction of Integrated Safety Systems and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS is considered to continue the today

  10. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    2 (Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008). One of the largest sources of BC globally is biomass burning (BB). (Akagi et al., 2011; Andreae and Merlet, 2001; Bond et al., 2013; Bond et al., 2004; Reid et al., 2005b): a source that is likely to increase in the Western U.S. due to climate change (Dennison et al., 2014; Abatzoglon and Williams, 2016; Westerling et al., 2006). Given the likely increased role of BB aerosol in atmospheric forcing, we need to improve our understanding of the physical and optical properties of aged BB aerosol. During the SP2 deployment period at MBO we observed seven BB events, all of which originated from the Gap Fire in Northern California, which burned 33,867 acres in the Klamath National Forest (https://inciweb.nwcg.gov/incident/4997/). Heavy smoke plumes from this fire were transported to MBO from 8/29/2016 to 8/31/2016. We calculated back-trajectories using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, version 4 (Draxler, 1999; Draxler and Hess, 1997, 1998; Stein et al., 2015) to confirm transport from the fire locations to MBO. We identified the fire locations using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived active fire counts (Justice et al., 2002). Transport time for all of the BB events ranged from 8 to 32 hours.

  11. A Cost Model for Integrated Logistic Support Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elena Nenni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An Integrated Logistic Support (ILS service has the objective of improving a system’s efficiency and availability for the life cycle. The system constructor offers the service to the customer, and she becomes the Contractor Logistic Support (CLS. The aim of this paper is to propose an approach to support the CLS in the budget formulation. Specific goals of the model are the provision of the annual cost of ILS activities through a specific cost model and a comprehensive examination of expected benefits, costs and savings under alternative ILS strategies. A simple example derived from an industrial application is also provided to illustrate the idea. Scientific literature is lacking in the topic and documents from the military are just dealing with the issue of performance measurement. Moreover, they are obviously focused on the customer’s perspective. Other scientific papers are general and focused only on maintenance or life cycle management. The model developed in this paper approaches the problem from the perspective of the CLS, and it is specifically tailored on the main issues of an ILS service.

  12. Integrated Active and Passive Polymer Optical Components with nm to mm Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides.......We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides....

  13. Random mtDNA mutations modulate proliferation capacity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukat, Alexandra; Edgar, Daniel; Bratic, Ivana; Maiti, Priyanka; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Increased mtDNA mutations in MEFs lead to high level of spontaneous immortalization. → This process is independent of endogenous ROS production. → Aerobic glycolysis significantly contributes to spontaneous immortalization of MEFs. -- Abstract: An increase in mtDNA mutation load leads to a loss of critical cells in different tissues thereby contributing to the physiological process of organismal ageing. Additionally, the accumulation of senescent cells that display changes in metabolic function might act in an active way to further disrupt the normal tissue function. We believe that this could be the important link missing in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of premature ageing in the mtDNA mutator mice. We tested proliferation capacity of mtDNA mutator cells in vitro. When cultured in physiological levels of oxygen (3%) their proliferation capacity is somewhat lower than wild-type cells. Surprisingly, in conditions of increased oxidative stress (20% O 2 ) mtDNA mutator mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit continuous proliferation due to spontaneous immortalization, whereas the same conditions promote senescence in wild-type cells. We believe that an increase in aerobic glycolysis observed in mtDNA mutator mice is a major mechanism behind this process. We propose that glycolysis promotes proliferation and allows a fast turnover of metabolites, but also leads to energy crisis due to lower ATP production rate. This could lead to compromised replication and/or repair and therefore, in rare cases, might lead to mutations in tumor suppressor genes and spontaneous immortalization.

  14. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda; Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  15. Integrated Microelectronics and Photonics Active Cooling Technology (IMPACT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowers, John

    2003-01-01

    ...) coolers and their integration with microelectronics and photonics. The majority of our research involves the development of this new technology through nanostructured materials design and growth...

  16. The Mt Logan Holocene-late Wisconsinan isotope record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fisher, David; Osterberg, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August......Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August...

  17. Demand side integration aspects in active distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestro, Federico; Baitch, Alex; Pilo, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    will be implemented in practice? How will regulatory frameworks and connection agreements evolve to support ADSs? The present work provides some information about the closer and closer integration between network planning and Demand Side Integration that is foreseen in the future and shows the necessity to develop...

  18. 76 FR 18040 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing... the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 West Yellowstone, MT [Amended] West Yellowstone, Yellowstone Airport...

  19. Vulnerability of settlements around Mt. Cameroon volcano, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Spinetti, Claudia; Ngouanet, Chretien; Tchoudam, David; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Thierry, Pierre; Bignami, Christian; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon is exposed to a large variety of natural hazards, including volcanism. Most of the hazard are concentrated around the active volcano Mt. Cameroon which combines effusive and explosive types of activity. The threatened stakes are numerous and different exposed: people, settlements, industrial plantations, petrol refinery and many other factories and infrastructures. Until 2005, no risk management plans has been available. In 2006, the French Embassy in Cameroon, within the framework of a financial convention between Cameroon and France, put in place the GRINP (Management of Natural Risks and Civil Protection) project whose objective was to reinforce the capacity of Cameroon's civil protection department and thus, contribute to the improvement of the security of the population faced with catastrophes. The objective was to realize a Risk Prevention Plan at a local council scale, and taking into consideration the specific natural risks of each zone. The general objective of the RPP was to clearly draw land use maps for risks zones, showing the overlay of stakes with risk of different intensities. In 2008 European Commission funded the Mia-Vita project (Mitigating and Assessing Volcanic Impacts on Terrain and human Activities). The aim of the project is to improve the crisis management capabilities based on monitoring and early warning systems and secure communications; reduction of people's vulnerability and development of recovering capabilities after an event occurs for both local communities and ecological systems. Keyword: natural hazards, Mt. Cameroon, vulnerability, risk prevention plan

  20. Substrate integrated ferrite phase shifters and active frequency selective surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    There are two distinct parts to this thesis; the first investigates the use of ferrite tiles in the construction of printed phase shifting transmission lines, culminating in the design of two compact electromagnetic controlled beam steered patch and slot antenna arrays. The second part investigates the use of active frequency selective surfaces (AFSS), which are later used to cover a uPVC constructed enclosure. Field intensity measurements are taken from within the enclosure to determine the dynamic screening effectiveness. Trans Tech G-350 Ferrite is investigated to determine its application in printed microstrip and stripline phase shifting transmission lines. 50-Ohm transmission lines are constructed using the ferrite tile and interfaced to Rogers RT Duroid 5870 substrate. Scattering parameter measurements are made under the application of variable magnetic fields to the ferrite. Later, two types of planar microwave beam steering antennas are constructed. The first uses the ferrites integrated into the Duroid as microstrip lines with 3 patch antennas as the radiating elements. The second uses stripline transmission lines, with slot antennas as the radiating sources etched into the ground plane of the triplate. Beam steering is achieved by the application of an external electromagnet. An AFSS is constructed by the interposition of PIN diodes into a dipole FSS array. Transmission response measurements are then made for various angles of electromagnetic wave incidence. Two states of operation exist: when a current is passed through the diodes and when the diodes are switched off. These two states form a high pass and band stop space filter respectively. An enclosure covered with the AFSS is constructed and externally illuminated in the range 2.0 - 2.8GHz. A probe antenna inside the enclosure positioned at various locations through out the volume is used to establish the effective screening action of the AFSS in 3 dimensional space. (author)

  1. Targeting MT1-MMP as an ImmunoPET-Based Strategy for Imaging Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G de Lucas

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in the management of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM tumors is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of tumor progression in a noninvasive manner. We have identified Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP as an attractive biomarker for GBM imaging since this protein is actively involved in tumor growth and progression, correlates with tumor grade and is closely associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. Here, we report the development of an immunoPET tracer for effective detection of MT1-MMP in GBM models.An anti-human MT1-MMP monoclonal antibody (mAb, LEM2/15, was conjugated to p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (DFO-NCS for 89Zr labeling. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed in xenograft mice bearing human GBM cells (U251 expressing MT1-MMP and non-expressing breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 as negative control. Two orthotopic brain GBM models, patient-derived neurospheres (TS543 and U251 cells, with different degrees of blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption were also used for PET imaging experiments.89Zr labeling of DFO-LEM2/15 was achieved with high yield (>90% and specific activity (78.5 MBq/mg. Biodistribution experiments indicated that 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed excellent potential as a radiotracer for detection of MT1-MMP positive GBM tumors. PET imaging also indicated a specific and prominent 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 uptake in MT1-MMP+ U251 GBM tumors compared to MT1-MMP- MCF-7 breast tumors. Results obtained in orthotopic brain GBM models revealed a high dependence of a disrupted BBB for tracer penetrance into tumors. 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed much higher accumulation in TS543 tumors with a highly disrupted BBB than in U251 orthotopic model in which the BBB permeability was only partially increased. Histological analysis confirmed the specificity of the immunoconjugate in all GBM models.A new anti MT1-MMP-mAb tracer, 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15, was synthesized efficiently. In vivo validation showed high

  2. Activity in part of the neural correlates of consciousness reflects integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Integration is commonly viewed as a key process for generating conscious experiences. Accordingly, there should be increased activity within the neural correlates of consciousness when demands on integration increase. We used fMRI and "informational masking" to isolate the neural correlates of consciousness and measured how the associated brain activity changed as a function of required integration. Integration was manipulated by comparing the experience of hearing simple reoccurring tones to hearing harmonic tone triplets. The neural correlates of auditory consciousness included superior temporal gyrus, lateral and medial frontal regions, cerebellum, and also parietal cortex. Critically, only activity in left parietal cortex increased significantly as a function of increasing demands on integration. We conclude that integration can explain part of the neural activity associated with the generation conscious experiences, but that much of associated brain activity apparently reflects other processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spine growth mechanisms: friction and seismicity at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Hirose, Takehiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; De Angelis, Silvio; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Wadsworth, Fabian; Dingwell, Don; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    The final episode of dome growth during the 1991-1995 eruption of Mt. Unzen was characterised by spine extrusion accompanied by repetitive seismicity. This type of cyclic activity has been observed at several dome-building volcanoes and recent work suggests a source mechanism of brittle failure of magma in the conduit. Spine growth may proceed by densification and closure of permeable pathways within the uppermost conduit magma, leading to sealing of the dome and inflation of the edifice. Amplified stresses on the wall rock and plug cause brittle failure near the conduit wall once static friction forces are overcome, and during spine growth these fractures may propagate to the dome surface. The preservation of these features is rare, and the conduit is typically inaccessible; therefore spines, the extruded manifestation of upper conduit material, provide the opportunity to study direct evidence of brittle processes in the conduit. At Mt. Unzen the spine retains evidence for brittle deformation and slip, however mechanical constraints on the formation of these features and their potential impact on eruption dynamics have not been well constrained. Here, we conduct an investigation into the process of episodic spine growth using high velocity friction apparatus at variable shear slip rate (0.4-1.5 m.s-1) and normal stress (0.4-3.5 MPa) on dome rock from Mt. Unzen, generating frictional melt at velocity >0.4 m.s-1 and normal stress >0.7 MPa. Our results show that the presence of frictional melt causes a deviation from Byerlee's frictional rule for rock friction. Melt generation is a disequilibrium process: initial amphibole breakdown leads to melt formation, followed by chemical homogenization of the melt layer. Ultimately, the experimentally generated frictional melts have a similar final chemistry, thickness and comminuted clast size distribution, thereby facilitating the extrapolation of a single viscoelastic model to describe melt-lubricated slip events at Mt

  4. Mt. Kilimanjaro expedition in earth science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Elena; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Narita, Kenji; Brettenny, Mark; Yule, Sheila; O'Toole, Michael; Brettenny, Rogeline

    2010-05-01

    Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain is 5,895 meters above sea level and is located 330 km south of the equator in Tanzania. In 1976 glaciers covered most of Mt. Kilimanjaro's summit; however in 2000, an estimated eighty percent of the ice cap has disappeared since the last thorough survey done in 1912. There is increased scientific interest in Mt. Kilimanjaro with the increase in global and African average temperatures. A team of college and pre-college school students from Tanzania, South Africa and Kenya, teachers from South Africa and the United States, and scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks in the United States and Akita University in Japan, climbed to the summit of Mt Kilimanjaro in October 2009. They were accompanied by guides, porters, two expedition guests, and a videographer. This expedition was part of the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes Earth System Science Project and the GLOBE Africa science education initiative, exploring and contributing to climate change studies. Students learned about earth science experientially by observing their physical and biological surroundings, making soil and air temperature measurements, participating in discussions, journaling their experience, and posing research questions. The international trekkers noted the change in the biomes as the altitude, temperature and conditions changed, from cultivated lands, to rain forest, heath zone, moorland, alpine desert, and summit. They also discovered permafrost, but not at the summit as expected. Rather, it was where the mountain was not covered by a glacier and thus more exposed to low extreme temperatures. This was the first report of permafrost on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Classrooms from all over the world participated in the expedition virtually. They followed the trek through the expedition website (http://www.xpeditiononline.com/) where pictures and journals were posted, and posed their own questions which were answered by the expedition and base camp team members

  5. Natural radioactivity in volcanic ash from Mt. Pinatubo eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; De Vera, C.M.; Garcia, T.Y.; Dela Cruz, F.M.; Esguerra, L.V.; Castaneda, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    Last June 15, 1991, a major pyroclastic eruption occurred from Mt. Pinatubo volcano located in Zambales, Central Luzon. The radiological impact of this eruption was assessed based on the concentrations of the principal naturally occurring radionuclides observed in volcanic ash. The volcanic ash samples were collected from locations which are within 50-km radius of Mt. Pinatubo at various times after the eruption. The mean activity concentrations in Bq/kg wet weight of the natural radionuclides in volcanic ash were as follows: 12.6 for 238 U, 14.0 for 232 Th and 330 for 40 K. These values are significantly higher than the mean activity concentrations of these radionuclides observed in topsoil in the same provinces before the eruption. This suggests that with the deposition of large quantities of volcanic ash and lahar in Central Luzon and concomitant topographic changes, the distribution and quantities of radionuclides which gave rise to terrestrial radiation may have also changed. Outdoor radon concentrations measured three days and later after the eruption were within normal background values. (auth.). 4 refs.; 5 tabs.; 1 fig

  6. The integration of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives into business activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen

    2013-01-01

    While proponents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have suggested that CSR initiatives should be integrated into mainstream business activities as 'strategic CSR' or 'shared value', research is lacking that explores how CSR programmes are integrated in companies. This paper compares CSR...... initiatives with human resource management (HRM) activities, which have a longer tradition of being integrated into company strategy. The focus is on gender diversity and CSR in a US multinational corporation (MNC). The MNC sees gender diversity as an integral part of business activities. In contrast, the MNC...

  7. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right. Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age. Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value. Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height

  8. Recombinant human melatonin receptor MT1 isolated in mixed detergents shows pharmacology similar to that in mammalian cell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Logez

    Full Text Available The human melatonin MT1 receptor-belonging to the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs-plays a key role in circadian rhythm regulation and is notably involved in sleep disorders and depression. Structural and functional information at the molecular level are highly desired for fine characterization of this receptor; however, adequate techniques for isolating soluble MT1 material suitable for biochemical and biophysical studies remain lacking. Here we describe the evaluation of a panel of constructs and host systems for the production of recombinant human MT1 receptors, and the screening of different conditions for their solubilization and purification. Our findings resulted in the establishment of an original strategy using a mixture of Fos14 and CHAPS detergents to extract and purify a recombinant human MT1 from Pichia pastoris membranes. This procedure enabled the recovery of relatively pure, monomeric and ligand-binding active MT1 receptor in the near-milligram range. A comparative study based on extensive ligand-binding characterization highlighted a very close correlation between the pharmacological profiles of MT1 purified from yeast and the same receptor present in mammalian cell membranes. The high quality of the purified MT1 was further confirmed by its ability to activate its cognate Gαi protein partner when reconstituted in lipid discs, thus opening novel paths to investigate this receptor by biochemical and biophysical approaches.

  9. Recombinant human melatonin receptor MT1 isolated in mixed detergents shows pharmacology similar to that in mammalian cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logez, Christel; Berger, Sylvie; Legros, Céline; Banères, Jean-Louis; Cohen, William; Delagrange, Philippe; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean A; Ferry, Gilles; Simonin, Frédéric; Wagner, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    The human melatonin MT1 receptor-belonging to the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-plays a key role in circadian rhythm regulation and is notably involved in sleep disorders and depression. Structural and functional information at the molecular level are highly desired for fine characterization of this receptor; however, adequate techniques for isolating soluble MT1 material suitable for biochemical and biophysical studies remain lacking. Here we describe the evaluation of a panel of constructs and host systems for the production of recombinant human MT1 receptors, and the screening of different conditions for their solubilization and purification. Our findings resulted in the establishment of an original strategy using a mixture of Fos14 and CHAPS detergents to extract and purify a recombinant human MT1 from Pichia pastoris membranes. This procedure enabled the recovery of relatively pure, monomeric and ligand-binding active MT1 receptor in the near-milligram range. A comparative study based on extensive ligand-binding characterization highlighted a very close correlation between the pharmacological profiles of MT1 purified from yeast and the same receptor present in mammalian cell membranes. The high quality of the purified MT1 was further confirmed by its ability to activate its cognate Gαi protein partner when reconstituted in lipid discs, thus opening novel paths to investigate this receptor by biochemical and biophysical approaches.

  10. System-level integration of active silicon photonic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplatine, L.; Al'Mrayat, O.; Luan, E.; Fang, C.; Rezaiezadeh, S.; Ratner, D. M.; Cheung, K.; Dattner, Y.; Chrostowski, L.

    2017-02-01

    Biosensors based on silicon photonic integrated circuits have attracted a growing interest in recent years. The use of sub-micron silicon waveguides to propagate near-infrared light allows for the drastic reduction of the optical system size, while increasing its complexity and sensitivity. Using silicon as the propagating medium also leverages the fabrication capabilities of CMOS foundries, which offer low-cost mass production. Researchers have deeply investigated photonic sensor devices, such as ring resonators, interferometers and photonic crystals, but the practical integration of silicon photonic biochips as part of a complete system has received less attention. Herein, we present a practical system-level architecture which can be employed to integrate the aforementioned photonic biosensors. We describe a system based on 1 mm2 dies that integrate germanium photodetectors and a single light coupling device. The die are embedded into a 16x16 mm2 epoxy package to enable microfluidic and electrical integration. First, we demonstrate a simple process to mimic Fan-Out Wafer-level-Packaging, which enables low-cost mass production. We then characterize the photodetectors in the photovoltaic mode, which exhibit high sensitivity at low optical power. Finally, we present a new grating coupler concept to relax the lateral alignment tolerance down to +/- 50 μm at 1-dB (80%) power penalty, which should permit non-experts to use the biochips in a"plug-and-play" style. The system-level integration demonstrated in this study paves the way towards the mass production of low-cost and highly sensitive biosensors, and can facilitate their wide adoption for biomedical and agro-environmental applications.

  11. Payload crew activity planning integration. Task 2: Inflight operations and training for payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz, F. R.

    1976-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Payload Crew Activity Planning Integration task were to: (1) Determine feasible, cost-effective payload crew activity planning integration methods. (2) Develop an implementation plan and guidelines for payload crew activity plan (CAP) integration between the JSC Orbiter planners and the Payload Centers. Subtask objectives and study activities were defined as: (1) Determine Crew Activity Planning Interfaces. (2) Determine Crew Activity Plan Type and Content. (3) Evaluate Automated Scheduling Tools. (4) Develop a draft Implementation Plan for Crew Activity Planning Integration. The basic guidelines were to develop a plan applicable to the Shuttle operations timeframe, utilize existing center resources and expertise as much as possible, and minimize unnecessary data exchange not directly productive in the development of the end-product timelines.

  12. Water quality effects of harbour activities assessed with integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological tools were developed to study the water quality in Cochin harbour, a complex aquatic ecosystems, through the integration of microbiological monitoring (faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas species) and heavy metal contamination (lead, cadmium and mercury). One way ANOVA indicates statistically significant ...

  13. INTEGRAL spots renewed activity from H1743-322

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Brandt, Søren Kristian; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2008-01-01

    INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring (see ATels #438, #874, #1005, #1385) observations on UT 2008 Sep 23 08:51-12:34 reveal a new outburst of the Galactic black-hole candidate and X-ray transient H1743-322/IGR J17464-3213 (see ATels #132, #136, #576, #593, #1348, #1385, #1414). JEM-X and IBIS...

  14. A community proposal to integrate proteomics activities in ELIXIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Walzer, Mathias; Jiménez, Rafael C; Bittremieux, Wout; Bouyssié, David; Carapito, Christine; Corrales, Fernando; Ferro, Myriam; Heck, Albert J R; Horvatovich, Peter; Hubalek, Martin; Lane, Lydie; Laukens, Kris; Levander, Fredrik; Lisacek, Frederique; Novak, Petr; Palmblad, Magnus; Piovesan, Damiano; Pühler, Alfred; Schwämmle, Veit; Valkenborg, Dirk; van Rijswijk, Merlijn; Vondrasek, Jiri; Eisenacher, Martin; Martens, Lennart; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Computational approaches have been major drivers behind the progress of proteomics in recent years. The aim of this white paper is to provide a framework for integrating computational proteomics into ELIXIR in the near future, and thus to broaden the portfolio of omics technologies supported by this

  15. Structural integrated sensor and actuator systems for active flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Christian; Schwerter, Martin; Leester-Schädel, Monika; Wierach, Peter; Dietzel, Andreas; Sinapius, Michael

    2016-04-01

    An adaptive flow separation control system is designed and implemented as an essential part of a novel high-lift device for future aircraft. The system consists of MEMS pressure sensors to determine the flow conditions and adaptive lips to regulate the mass flow and the velocity of a wall near stream over the internally blown Coanda flap. By the oscillating lip the mass flow in the blowing slot changes dynamically, consequently the momentum exchange of the boundary layer over a high lift flap required mass flow can be reduced. These new compact and highly integrated systems provide a real-time monitoring and manipulation of the flow conditions. In this context the integration of pressure sensors into flow sensing airfoils of composite material is investigated. Mechanical and electrical properties of the integrated sensors are investigated under mechanical loads during tensile tests. The sensors contain a reference pressure chamber isolated to the ambient by a deformable membrane with integrated piezoresistors connected as a Wheatstone bridge, which outputs voltage signals depending on the ambient pressure. The composite material in which the sensors are embedded consists of 22 individual layers of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) prepreg. The results of the experiments are used for adapting the design of the sensors and the layout of the laminate to ensure an optimized flux of force in highly loaded structures primarily for future aeronautical applications. It can be shown that the pressure sensor withstands the embedding process into fiber composites with full functional capability and predictable behavior under stress.

  16. INTEGRAL non detection of renewed activity from Terzan 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vovk, I.; Kuulkers, E.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    The Globular Cluster Terzan5, was observed by the IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X instruments on-board INTEGRAL during the Galactic Bulge monitoring program (ATel #438) from 2011 October 25 at 17:15 to 2011 October 25 at 20:56 (UTC). No significant X-ray emission was detected in the direction of the Globula...

  17. Reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Damico, J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of open hole well log analyses, core analyses and pressure transient analyses was used for reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon sandstone. Characterization of the injection interval provides the basis for a geologic model to support the baseline MVA model, specify pressure design requirements of surface equipment, develop completion strategies, estimate injection rates, and project the CO2 plume distribution.The Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone overlies the Precambrian granite basement of the Illinois Basin. The Mt. Simon is relatively thick formation exceeding 800 meters in some areas of the Illinois Basin. In the deeper part of the basin where sequestration is likely to occur at depths exceeding 1000 m, horizontal core permeability ranges from less than 1 ?? 10-12 cm 2 to greater than 1 ?? 10-8 cm2. Well log and core porosity can be up to 30% in the basal Mt. Simon reservoir. For modeling purposes, reservoir characterization includes absolute horizontal and vertical permeability, effective porosity, net and gross thickness, and depth. For horizontal permeability, log porosity was correlated with core. The core porosity-permeability correlation was improved by using grain size as an indication of pore throat size. After numerous attempts to identify an appropriate log signature, the calculated cementation exponent from Archie's porosity and resistivity relationships was used to identify which porosity-permeability correlation to apply and a permeability log was made. Due to the relatively large thickness of the Mt. Simon, vertical permeability is an important attribute to understand the distribution of CO2 when the injection interval is in the lower part of the unit. Only core analyses and specifically designed pressure transient tests can yield vertical permeability. Many reservoir flow models show that 500-800 m from the injection well most of the CO2 migrates upward depending on the magnitude of the vertical permeability and CO2 injection

  18. Periodic disruptions in the MT-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoletnik, S.

    1988-11-01

    Disruptive instabilities are common phenomena in toroidal devices, especially in tokamaks. Three types can be distinguished: internal, minor and major disruptions. Periodic minor disruptions in the MT-1 tokamak were measured systematically with values of the limiter safety factor between 4 and 10. The density limit as a function of plasma current and horizontal displacement was investigated. Precursor oscillations always appear before the instability with increasing amplitude but can be observed at the density limit with quasi-stationary amplitude. Phase correlation between precursor oscillations were measured with Mirnov coils and x-ray detectors, and they show good agreement with a simple magnetic island model. (R.P.) 11 refs.; 6 figs

  19. Cost analysis of electrical power from an ethanol reformer and the fuel cell in the development of productive activities in the community Pico do Amor, MT, Brazil; Analise do custo da energia eletrica proveniente de um reformador de etanol e celula a combustivel no desenvolvimento de atividades produtivas na comunidade Pico do Amor/MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Departamento de Energia; Instituto Aqua Genesis, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Hytron, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work has the objective to analyze the impact of the cost of from an ethane reformer / fuel cell in the family income considering the development of two productive activities selected by the community itself: the production and marketing of cassava flour and 'rapadura', a typical brazilian candy. The community energy demand was analyzed to achieve the results; estimated the energy cost from the implemented system and the money from the selling of the cassava flour and 'rapadura' produced with this electricity; the study of sensibility of the ethanol price in the electrical energy cost was done too, and the cassava flour and 'rapadura' in the family funds. From the results, it was verified that the electrical energy cost has a 16,4% impact in the family gross income and a net value around R$ 260,85/family, indicating that the community will have enough funds to pay for the energy and also will rise the amount of money for each family. Besides, the comparative analyze of the cost of the electricity from the ethanol/fuel cell reformer and photovoltaic systems shows that, considering only the maintenance and operation costs, the first one should be more attractive than the second one. (author)

  20. INTEGRAL reports renewed activity from KS 1741-293

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Kuulkers, E.; Alfonso-Garzón, J.

    2010-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary and burster source KS 1741-293 has been detected during recent INTEGRAL Galactic bulge (see ATel #438) observations by the JEM-X instrument. On February 25, 2010, between UTC 13:04 and 14:08, KS 1741-293 was detected at a 3-10 keV flux of 9 +/- 4 mCrab, and an upper limi...

  1. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities - Phase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    payload, 10,300 lb gross vehicle weight. The Expanded Capacity Vehicle (ECV, 1993-present) has a 6.5 liter turbo diesel Bolt on armor required...installed by the maintenance unit. A proposed ECV2 (not currently in production) has an improved 6.5 liter turbo diesel engine, a new transmission...frame (3 piece welded), integral “A” armor with attachment points for “B” armor kit, increased cab space (14 cubic feet), enhanced 6500 turbo diesel

  2. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Brief Behavioral Activation Therapy: Theoretical and Practical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Balán, Iván C.; Lejuez, C. W.; Hoffer, Marcela; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral Activation and specifically the Brief Behavioral Activation Therapy for Depression (BATD) has a strong record of empirical support but its focus on practical out of session activation-based assignments can lead to poor levels of adherence if efforts to enhance motivation are not prioritized. Towards this end, this manuscript describes the assimilative integration of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and BATD to improve clinical outcomes by integrating MI's focus on building and mainta...

  3. The Integration of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Initiatives into Business Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen

    While proponents of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) have suggested that CSR initiatives should be integrated into mainstream business activities as ‘strategic CSR’ or ‘shared value’, research is lacking that explores how CSR initiatives are integrated in companies. This article compares CSR...... initiatives to human resource management (HRM) initiatives, which have a longer tradition of being integrated into company strategy. The focus is on gender diversity and CSR initiatives in a US multinational corporation (MNC). The MNC sees gender diversity as an integral part of business activities...

  4. Analysis of the Interaction of Dp44mT with Human Serum Albumin and Calf Thymus DNA Using Molecular Docking and Spectroscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Di-2-pyridylketone-4,4,-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT exhibits significant antitumor activity. However, the mechanism of its pharmacological interaction with human serum albumin (HSA and DNA remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to elucidate the interactions of Dp44mT with HSA and DNA using MTT assays, spectroscopic methods, and molecular docking analysis. Our results indicated that addition of HSA at a ratio of 1:1 did not alter the cytotoxicity of Dp44mT, but did affect the cytotoxicity of the Dp44mT-Cu complex. Data from fluorescence quenching and UV-VIS absorbance measurements demonstrated that Dp44mT could bind to HSA with a moderate affinity (Ka = approximately 104 M−1. CD spectra revealed that Dp44mT could slightly disrupt the secondary structure of HSA. Dp44mT could also interact with Ct-DNA, but had a moderate binding constant (KEB = approximately 104 M−1. Docking studies indicated that the IB site of HSA, but not the IIA and IIIA sites, could be favorable for Dp44mT and that binding of Dp44mT to HSA involved hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force, consistent with thermodynamic results from spectral investigations. Thus, the moderate binding affinity of Dp44mT with HSA and DNA partially contributed to its antitumor activity and may be preferable in drug design approaches.

  5. Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagaram, Uma S.; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Pandurangi, Raghoottama; Smith, Thomas J.; Shah, Dilip

    2013-12-04

    A highly conserved plant defensin MtDef4 potently inhibits the growth of a filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. MtDef4 is internalized by cells of F. graminearum. To determine its mechanism of fungal cell entry and antifungal action, NMR solution structure of MtDef4 has been determined. The analysis of its structure has revealed a positively charged patch on the surface of the protein consisting of arginine residues in its γ-core signature, a major determinant of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. Here, we report functional analysis of the RGFRRR motif of the γ-core signature of MtDef4. The replacement of RGFRRR to AAAARR or to RGFRAA not only abolishes fungal cell entry but also results in loss of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. MtDef4 binds strongly to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Mutations of RGFRRR which abolish fungal cell entry of MtDef4 also impair its binding to PA. Our results suggest that RGFRRR motif is a translocation signal for entry of MtDef4 into fungal cells and that this positively charged motif likely mediates interaction of this defensin with PA as part of its antifungal action.

  6. New Radioligands for Describing the Molecular Pharmacology of MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Nosjean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors have been studied for several decades. The low expression of the receptors in tissues led the scientific community to find a substitute for the natural hormone melatonin, the agonist 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin. Using the agonist, several hundreds of studies were conducted, including the discovery of agonists and antagonists for the receptors and minute details about their molecular behavior. Recently, we attempted to expand the panel of radioligands available for studying the melatonin receptors by using the newly discovered compounds SD6, DIV880, and S70254. These compounds were characterized for their affinities to the hMT1 and hMT2 recombinant receptors and their functionality in the classical GTPS system. SD6 is a full agonist, equilibrated between the receptor isoforms, whereas S70254 and DIV880 are only partial MT2 agonists, with Ki in the low nanomolar range while they have no affinity to MT1 receptors. These new tools will hopefully allow for additions to the current body of information on the native localization of the receptor isoforms in tissues.

  7. Digitally controlled active noise reduction with integrated speech communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, H.J.M.; Verhave, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Active noise reduction is a successful addition to passive ear-defenders for improvement of the sound attenuation at low frequencies. Design and assessment methods are discussed, focused on subjective and objective attenuation measurements, stability, and high noise level applications. Active noise

  8. Targeting a single function of the multifunctional matrix metalloprotease MT1-MMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsen, Signe; Porse, Astrid; Erpicum, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    and pathological events, has been complicated by the lack of specific inhibitors and the fact that some of the potent MMPs are multifunctional enzymes. These factors have also hampered the setup of therapeutic strategies targeting MMP activity. A tempting target is the membrane-associated MT1-MMP, which has well......-documented importance in matrix degradation but which takes part in more than one pathway in this regard. In this report, we describe the selective targeting of a single function of this enzyme by means of a specific monoclonal antibody against MT1-MMP, raised in an MT1-MMP knock-out mouse. The antibody blocks...... matrix in vitro, as well as in lymphatic vessel sprouting assayed ex vivo. This is the first example of the complete inactivation of a single function of a multifunctional MMP and the use of this strategy to pursue its role....

  9. Imidacloprid exposure cause the histopathological changes, activation of TNF-α, iNOS, 8-OHdG biomarkers, and alteration of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A, MT1 gene expression levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Selçuk; Altun, Serdar; Arslan, Harun

    2018-01-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI) is a neonicotinoid that is widely used for the protection of crops and carnivores from insects and parasites, respectively. It is well known that imidacloprid exposure has a harmful effect on several organisms. However, there is little information about imidacloprid toxicity in aquatic animals, particularly fish. Thus, in the current study, we assessed the histopathological changes; activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and TNF-α; and expression levels of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A and MT1 genes in the common carp exposed to imidacloprid. For this purpose, fish were exposed to either a low dose (140 mg/L) or a high dose (280 mg/L) of imidacloprid for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h. After IMI exposure, we detected hyperplasia of secondary lamellar cells and mucous cell hyperplasia in the gills, as well as hydropic degeneration in hepatocytes and necrosis in the liver. Moreover, 8-OHdG, iNOS and TNF-α activation was found particularly in the gills and liver but also moderately in the brain. Transcriptional analysis showed that caspase 3 expression was altered low dose and high doses of IMI for 72 h and 96 h exposure ( p   0.05) except with low and high doses of IMI for 96 h ( p <  0.05), and lastly, MT1 gene expression was up-regulated only in the brain with low doses of IMI for 96 h and high doses of IMI for 48 h, 72 h and 96 h exposure ( p <  0.05, p <  0.01). Our results indicated that acute IMI exposure moderately induce apoptosis in the brain but caused severe histopathological lesions, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the gills, liver, and brain of the common carp.

  10. The association between family and friend integration and physical activity: results from the NHIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Britta A; Strong, David; Linke, Sarah E

    2014-06-01

    Social integration predicts morbidity and mortality, but its relationships with specific health behaviors that could explain this relationship, such as physical activity, have not been established. Additionally, studies associating social integration with health have not distinguished between sources of social contact (family vs. friends), which could be differentially related to health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between social integration and physical activity and to explore differences in family and friend social integration. Data came from the 2001 wave of the National Health Interview Survey. Adult participants (N = 33,326) indicated levels of social integration by reporting whether they had seen and/or called friends and/or family in the past 2 weeks and also reported their weekly minutes of physical activity. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines (≥ 150 min/week) and odds of inactivity (0 min/week) based on levels of social integration. Greater integration predicted higher odds of meeting PA guidelines and lower odds of inactivity after controlling for sociodemographic variables. This association was stronger and dose-dependent for integration with friends, whereas moderate family contact predicted greater activity than high levels of family contact. Those who are more socially integrated, particularly with friends rather than family, are also more physically active, which could partially explain the link between social integration and morbidity and mortality. Future studies examining this association should distinguish between sources of integration and explore why and how contact with friends vs. family is differentially associated with health behaviors.

  11. Keeping mtDNA in shape between generations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Stewart

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing.

  12. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  13. The current implementation status of the integration of sports and physical activity into Dutch rehabilitation care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Hettinga, Florentina J; Alingh, Rolinde A; Duijf, Marjo; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van der Schans, Cees P

    2017-01-01

    To describe the current status of the nationwide implementation process of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme to gain insight into how sports and physical activity were integrated into Dutch rehabilitation care. The current implementation status of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme in 12 rehabilitation centres and 5 hospitals with a rehabilitation department was described by scoring fidelity and satisfaction. Seventy-one rehabilitation professionals filled out a questionnaire on how sports and physical activity, including stimulation activities, were implemented into rehabilitation care. Total fidelity scores (in %) were calculated for each organization. Professionals' satisfaction was rated on a scale from 1 to 10. In most organizations sports and physical activity were to some extent integrated during and after rehabilitation (fidelity scores: median = 54%, IQR = 23%). Physical activity stimulation was not always embedded as standard component of a rehabilitation treatment. Professionals' satisfaction rated a median value of 8.0 (IQR = 0.0) indicating high satisfaction rates. The fidelity outcome showed that activities to stimulate sports and physical activity during and after rehabilitation were integrated into rehabilitation care, but not always delivered as standardized component. These findings have emphasized the importance to focus on integrating these activities into routines of organizations. Implications for Rehabilitation Components of an evidence-based programme to stimulate sports and physical activity during and after rehabilitation can be used to measure the current status of the integration of sports and physical activity in rehabilitation care in a structural and effective way. The method described in the current study can be used to compare the content of the rehabilitation care regarding the integration of sports and physical activity among organizations both on a national and international level

  14. The mycorrhiza-dependent defensin MtDefMd1 of Medicago truncatula acts during the late restructuring stages of arbuscule-containing cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Uhe

    Full Text Available Different symbiotic and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions involve the production of cysteine-rich antimicrobial defensins. In Medicago truncatula, the expression of four MtDefMd genes, encoding arbuscular mycorrhiza-dependent defensins containing an N-terminal signal peptide and exhibiting some differences to non-symbiotic defensins, raised over the time of fungal colonization. Whereas the MtDefMd1 and MtDefMd2 promoters were inactive in cells containing young arbuscules, cells with fully developed arbuscules displayed different levels of promoter activities, indicating an up-regulation towards later stages of arbuscule formation. MtDefMd1 and MtDefMd2 expression was absent or strongly down-regulated in mycorrhized ram1-1 and pt4-2 mutants, known for defects in arbuscule branching or premature arbuscule degeneration, respectively. A ~97% knock-down of MtDefMd1/MtDefMd2 expression did not significantly affect arbuscule size. Although overexpression of MtDefMd1 in arbuscule-containing cells led to an up-regulation of MtRam1, encoding a key transcriptional regulator of arbuscule formation, no morphological changes were evident. Co-localization of an MtDefMd1-mGFP6 fusion with additional, subcellular markers revealed that this defensin is associated with arbuscules in later stages of their life-cycle. MtDefMd1-mGFP6 was detected in cells with older arbuscules about to collapse, and ultimately in vacuolar compartments. Comparisons with mycorrhized roots expressing a tonoplast marker indicated that MtDefMd1 acts during late restructuring processes of arbuscule-containing cells, upon their transition into a post-symbiotic state.

  15. Flipping the Audience Script: An Activity That Integrates Research and Audience Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chris; Hannah, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a flipped classroom activity that requires students to integrate research and audience analysis. The activity uses Twitter as a data source. In the activity, students identify a sample, collect customer tweets, and analyze the language of the tweets in an effort to construct knowledge about an audience's values, needs, and…

  16. How about integration : the impact of online activities on store satisfaction and loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerling, Marije L.

    2004-01-01

    Although there has been widespread support for the concept of integrating the Internet with other channels, relatively little empirical research has been conducted in this area. This paper examines the effects of integrated online activities on customer perceptions, i.e., satisfaction and loyalty,

  17. Are societies with a high value on the Active Ageing Index more age-integrated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); M. Fleischmann (Maria)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCombining round four data from the European Social Survey (ESS) with indicators of Active Ageing, Dykstra and Fleischmann examine conditions conducive to age integration. It uses both a behavioural and an attitudinal measure of age integration: the prevalence of cross-age friendships

  18. Are societies with a high value on the Active Ageing Index more age-integrated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); M. Fleischmann (Maria)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCombining round four data from the European Social Survey (ESS) with indicators of Active Ageing, we examine conditions conducive to age integration. We use both a behavioural and an attitudinal measure of age integration: the prevalence of cross-age friendships and low levels of ageism.

  19. Pre-Service Teachers' Perception of Quick Response (QR) Code Integration in Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nagla; Santos, Ieda M.; Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2017-01-01

    Quick Response (QR) codes have been discussed in the literature as adding value to teaching and learning. Despite their potential in education, more research is needed to inform practice and advance knowledge in this field. This paper investigated the integration of the QR code in classroom activities and the perceptions of the integration by…

  20. INTEGRATION OF GAMIFICATION AND ACTIVE LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Zepeda-Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Teachers who currently use the traditional method teacher-centered learning, are having various difficulties with the new generations of students. New learning methods are required to allow students to focus more positive attitudes towards their learning. In this paper, we show how the evaluation and activities based on Active Learning and Gamification, can be an alternative to generate a more positive attitude of students and create a more friendly environment in the classroom. This research was conducted using the qualitative research and ethnographic method as technique.

  1. An Integrative Review of In-Class Activities That Enable Active Learning in College Science Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Leilani A.; Kreager, Bailey Zo

    2017-01-01

    Engaging students in active learning is linked to positive learning outcomes. This study aims to synthesise the peer-reviewed literature about "active learning" in college science classroom settings. Using the methodology of an integrative literature review, 337 articles archived in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) are…

  2. Overexposure measurement on microtron MT-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Thanh Luong; Tran Thanh Minh

    1995-01-01

    On 11 November 1992, the Radiation accident happened at the channel of the high energy photon beam generated by stopping 15 MeV accelerated electron on the tungsten target of Microtron MT-17. One physicist has been exposed to the high energy photon beam. The purposes of this work are the determination of overexposure from backscatter and primary beams to estimate the whole body and hand doses received by the victim. It was found that the upper parts of his body may be received the dose from 1.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy per 4 min. of the exposure; the dose received by victim's hands is in interval of 30 - 50 Gy. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Visual Virtual MT: relato de una pesquisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDMILA BRANDÃO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de contribuir a la discusión acerca de las artes visuales en la sociedad contemporánea y de los dispositivos que operan la colonialidad del arte, sus mecanismos y efectos, cuya urgente desactivación nos impone enormes retos, en este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación titulada: “Artes Visuales en Mato Grosso: recopilación, difusión y crítica” encargada de crear el sitio Visual Virtual MT (VVMT. El VVMT reúne producciones aestésicas visuales de artistas individuales y colectivos que operan en diferentes soportes y medios, trabajando con una variedad de materiales que configuran, actualmente, la mayor colección catalogada y digital disponible en el Estado de Mato Grosso, en Brasil.

  4. Preliminary geothermal study of Mt. Etna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongelli, F; Morelli, C

    1964-01-01

    The geothermal status of Italy's Mt. Etna region was studied via borehole thermometry at eight experimental sites. The mathematical principles and other criteria used in borehole site and well depth selection are discussed. The soil temperature is regulated by external temperature variations to a certain depth. The minimum drilling distance which would provide accurate temperature determinations was calculated to be 30 m. The geothermal gradient was determined by the application of a Fourier series to three measurements made at different depths using resistance thermometers. The results are presented in tables and the gradients are plotted on graphs. Geothermal gradient determinations were corrected for topographic effects. Two major groups of gradients were discovered, those having linear gradients were interpreted as being due to the effect of meteoric waters. Other possible disturbances are those caused by surface temperature effects and the influence of nearby bodies of water.

  5. HMEC-1 adopt the mixed amoeboid-mesenchymal migration type during EndMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryczka, Jakub; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Bogusz, Helena; Boncela, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    The contribution of endothelial cells to scar and fibrotic tissue formation is undisputedly connected to their ability to undergo the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) towards fibroblast phenotype-resembling cells. The migration model of fibroblasts and fibroblast-resembling cells is still not fully understood. It may be either a Rho/ROCK-independent, an integrin- and MMP-correlated ECM degradation-dependent, a mesenchymal model or Rho/ROCK-dependent, integrin adhesion- and MMP activity-independent, an amoeboid model. Here, we hypothesized that microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) undergoing EndMT adopt an intermediate state of drifting migration model between the mesenchymal and amoeboid protrusive types in the early stages of fibrosis. We characterized the response of HMEC-1 to TGF-β2, a well-known mediator of EndMT within the microvasculature. We observed that TGF-β2 induces up to an intermediate mesenchymal phenotype in HMEC-1. In parallel, MMP-2 is upregulated and is responsible for most proteolytic activity. Interestingly, the migration of HMEC-1 undergoing EndMT is dependent on both ECM degradation and invadosome formation associated with MMP-2 proteolytic activity and Rho/ROCK cytoskeleton contraction. In conclusion, the transition from mesenchymal towards amoeboid movement highlights a molecular plasticity mechanism in endothelial cell migration in skin fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Shallow to intermediate resistivity features of the Colfiorito Fault System inferred by DC and MT survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade electromagnetic (EM measurements have provided new constraints on the upper-crustal structure of the major fault zones in the world, both when they act as conduit and as a barrier, due to strong sensitivity of resistivity to fluids circulation and mineralization. On the track of a high impact magnetotelluric (MT study performed across the San Andreas Fault, high resolution EM data were collected in the Colfiorito epicentral area along profiles crossing some main fault lineaments. Being the study focussed both on shallow that on intermediate resistivity distribution in the brittle upper-crust, a MT profile was integrated by several electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT. The latter were successful in locating faults even where the structures are buried by a wide covering of Quaternary deposits and in the recognition of different electrical signatures of the faults. MT resistivity model crossing Mt. Prefoglio normal fault clearly imaged the typical thrust structures of the area and a high conductive zone spatially related to the fault. Seismicity seems to be located outside such conductive area, whose behaviour suggests a fluidised and altered zone incapable of supporting significant stress internally.

  7. Integrated refuelling activity service; Servicio integrado de actividades de recarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Valcarcel, M.; Lopez Garcia, J.L.

    2010-07-01

    Refuelling outages at nuclear power plants are subject to demanding improvement criteria in each and every one of the activities scheduled. In this article, the advantages of this general service performed by UTE-TWE for Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants, and their results and learned lessons are presented. (Author)

  8. Enhanced antioxidant activity of polyolefin films integrated with grape tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Ray, Sudip; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    A natural antioxidant derived from an agro-waste of the wine industry, grape tannin, was incorporated by melt blending into three different polyolefins (high-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene and polypropylene) to introduce antioxidant functionality. Significant antioxidant activity was observed at 1% tannin inclusion in all polymer blends. The antioxidant activity was observed to increase steadily with a greater concentration of grape tannins, the highest increases being seen with polypropylene. The mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer films following antioxidant incorporation were minimally altered with up to 3% grape tannins. All of the polyolefin-grape tannin films successfully passed the leachability test following USP661 standard protocol. Superior antioxidant activity was established in polyolefin thin films by utilization of a bulk grape extract obtained from winery waste. Significant increases in antioxidant activity were seen with 1% extract inclusion. This not only demonstrates the potential for food packaging applications of the polyolefin blends, but also valorizes the agro-waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. 76 FR 63941 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation-Automated Integrated Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Activities: Business Transformation--Automated Integrated Operating Environment (IOE), New Information... Internet by federal agencies through efforts like USCIS' Business Transformation initiative. The USCIS ELIS... the USCIS Business Transformation initiative and wizard technology. The supporting statement can be...

  10. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  11. DNA methyltransferase 1 mutations and mitochondrial pathology: is mtDNA methylated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eMaresca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN and Hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSN1E are two rare, overlapping neurodegenerative syndromes that have been recently linked to allelic dominant pathogenic mutations in the DNMT1 gene, coding for DNA (cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1. DNMT1 is the enzyme responsible for maintaining the nuclear genome methylation patterns during the DNA replication and repair, thus regulating gene expression. The mutations responsible for ADCA-DN and HSN1E affect the replication foci targeting sequence domain, which regulates DNMT1 binding to chromatin. DNMT1 dysfunction is anticipated to lead to a global alteration of the DNA methylation pattern with predictable downstream consequences on gene expression. Interestingly, ADCA-DN and HSN1E phenotypes share some clinical features typical of mitochondrial diseases, such as optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy and deafness, and some biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. The recent discovery of a mitochondrial isoform of DNMT1 and its proposed role in methylating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA suggests that DNMT1 mutations may directly affect mtDNA and mitochondrial physiology. On the basis of this latter finding the link between DNMT1 abnormal activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in ADCA-DN and HSN1E appears intuitive, however mtDNA methylation remains highly debated. In the last years several groups demonstrated the presence of 5-methylcytosine in mtDNA by different approaches, but, on the other end, the opposite evidence that mtDNA is not methylated has also been published. Since over 1500 mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome, the altered methylation of these genes may well have a critical role in leading to the mitochondrial impairment observed in ADCA-DN and HSN1E. Thus, many open questions still remain unanswered, such as why mtDNA should be methylated, and how this process is

  12. Episodic weakness due to mitochondrial DNA MT-ATP6/8 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auré, Karine; Dubourg, Odile; Jardel, Claude; Clarysse, Lucie; Sternberg, Damien; Fournier, Emmanuel; Laforêt, Pascal; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Petiot, Philippe; Gervais-Bernard, Hélène; Vial, Christophe; Bedat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Vandier, Christophe; Fontaine, Bertrand; Lombès, Anne

    2013-11-19

    To report that homoplasmic deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA MT-ATP6/8 genes may be responsible for acute episodes of limb weakness mimicking periodic paralysis due to channelopathies and dramatically responding to acetazolamide. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing and restriction PCR, oxidative phosphorylation functional assays, reactive oxygen species metabolism, and patch-clamp technique in cultured skin fibroblasts. Occurrence of a typical MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) syndrome in a single member of a large pedigree with episodic weakness associated with a later-onset distal motor neuropathy led to the disclosure of 2 deleterious mitochondrial DNA mutations. The MT-ATP6 m.9185T>C p.Leu220Pro mutation, previously associated with Leigh syndrome, was present in all family members, while the MT-TL1 m.3271T>C mutation, a known cause of MELAS syndrome, was observed in the sole patient with MELAS presentation. Significant defect of complexes V and I as well as oxidative stress were observed in both primary fibroblasts and cybrid cells with 100% m.9185T>C mutation. Permanent plasma membrane depolarization and altered permeability to K(+) in fibroblasts provided a link with the paralysis episodes. Screening of 9 patients, based on their clinical phenotype, identified 4 patients with similar deleterious MT-ATP6 mutations (twice m.9185T>C and once m.9176T>C or m.8893T>C). A fifth patient presented with an original potentially deleterious MT-ATP8 mutation (m.8403T>C). All mutations were associated with almost-normal complex V activity but significant oxidative stress and permanent plasma membrane depolarization. Homoplasmic mutations in the MT-ATP6/8 genes may cause episodic weakness responding to acetazolamide treatment.

  13. Activity-Based Information Integrating the operations strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto da Rocha de Araujo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world, companies seek for new operations strategies to ensure world corporate success. This article analyzes how the cost management models – both traditional and activity-based, aid the planning and management of corporate globalized operations. The efficacy of the models application depends on their alignment with the competitive strategy. Companies must evaluate the nature of the competition and its competitive priorities; they should then define the necessary and sufficient dependence level on costs information. In this article, three dependence levels are presented: operational, decision support and strategic control. The result of the research shows the importance of alignment between the cost management model and the competitive strategy for corporate success, and confirms the adequacy of the activity-based costing model as a supporting tool for decision taking in a global strategy. Case studies in world class companies in Brazil are presented.

  14. Integrated Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Active Cooling With Piezoelectric Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    prepreg epoxy. Individual FR-4 lamina were mechanically machined to pattern each layer. The layers were aligned, stacked, and laminated to form the...The cooler substrate is a laminated multilayer FR-4 substrate. Individual layers are patterned to support the active element, form a resonant... laminated with 70/30 copper-nickel alloy or 80/20 nickel-chrome alloy and patterned by means of photolithographic techniques and wet etching in a ferric

  15. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-11-05

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0-60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems.

  16. Comprehensive Assessment of Integration Activity of Business Structures in Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Gennad’evna Karelina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic sanctions and growing international isolation, the research into regional differences in integration development acquires special relevance for Russia; this fact determines the need for a comprehensive assessment of integration activity of business structures in Russian regions. The diversity of approaches to the study of problems and prospects of economic integration and the current debate about the role of integration processes in the development of regional economies determined a comprehensive approach to the concepts of “integration” and “integration activity” in order to create objective prerequisites for analyzing integration activity of business structures in the regions of Russia. The information base of the research is the data of Russian information and analytical agencies. The tools used in the research include methods for analyzing structural changes, methods for analyzing economic differentiation and concentration, nonparametric statistics methods, and econometric analysis methods. The first part of the paper shows that socio-economic development in constituent entities of Russia is closely connected with the operation of integrated business structures located on their territory. Having studied the structure and dynamics of integration activity, we reveal the growing heterogeneity of integration activity of business structures in Russian regions. The hypothesis about significant divergence of mergers and acquisitions for corporate structures in Russian regions was confirmed by high values of the Gini coefficient, the Herfindahl index and the decile differentiation coefficient. The second part of the paper contains a comparative analysis and proposes an econometric approach to the measurement of integration activity of business structures in subjects of the Russian Federation on the basis of integral synthetic categories. The approach we propose focuses on the development of a system of indicators

  17. Digoxin reveals a functional connection between HIV-1 integration preference and T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Melamed, Anat; Anderson, Ian; Planas, Delphine; Lee, Chen-Hsuin; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Ketteler, Robin; Merritt, Andy; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela; Bangham, Charles R M; Fassati, Ariberto

    2017-07-01

    HIV-1 integrates more frequently into transcribed genes, however the biological significance of HIV-1 integration targeting has remained elusive. Using a selective high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that the cardiac glycoside digoxin inhibits wild-type HIV-1 infection more potently than HIV-1 bearing a single point mutation (N74D) in the capsid protein. We confirmed that digoxin repressed viral gene expression by targeting the cellular Na+/K+ ATPase, but this did not explain its selectivity. Parallel RNAseq and integration mapping in infected cells demonstrated that digoxin inhibited expression of genes involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Analysis of >400,000 unique integration sites showed that WT virus integrated more frequently than N74D mutant within or near genes susceptible to repression by digoxin and involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Two main gene networks down-regulated by the drug were CD40L and CD38. Blocking CD40L by neutralizing antibodies selectively inhibited WT virus infection, phenocopying digoxin. Thus the selectivity of digoxin depends on a combination of integration targeting and repression of specific gene networks. The drug unmasked a functional connection between HIV-1 integration and T-cell activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 evolved integration site selection to couple its early gene expression with the status of target CD4+ T-cells, which may affect latency and viral reactivation.

  18. Digoxin reveals a functional connection between HIV-1 integration preference and T-cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zhyvoloup

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 integrates more frequently into transcribed genes, however the biological significance of HIV-1 integration targeting has remained elusive. Using a selective high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that the cardiac glycoside digoxin inhibits wild-type HIV-1 infection more potently than HIV-1 bearing a single point mutation (N74D in the capsid protein. We confirmed that digoxin repressed viral gene expression by targeting the cellular Na+/K+ ATPase, but this did not explain its selectivity. Parallel RNAseq and integration mapping in infected cells demonstrated that digoxin inhibited expression of genes involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Analysis of >400,000 unique integration sites showed that WT virus integrated more frequently than N74D mutant within or near genes susceptible to repression by digoxin and involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Two main gene networks down-regulated by the drug were CD40L and CD38. Blocking CD40L by neutralizing antibodies selectively inhibited WT virus infection, phenocopying digoxin. Thus the selectivity of digoxin depends on a combination of integration targeting and repression of specific gene networks. The drug unmasked a functional connection between HIV-1 integration and T-cell activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 evolved integration site selection to couple its early gene expression with the status of target CD4+ T-cells, which may affect latency and viral reactivation.

  19. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveying in the Kakkonda geothermal area; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki deno MT ho tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y; Takakura, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Uchida, T [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes the MT surveying conducted at the vicinity of a deep well (WD-1) in the Kakkonda geothermal area. For the MT surveying, the interval between measuring points was 300 m. Electric field dipole with a length of 300 m was given in the direction of traverse line, and that with a length of 50 m was given in the direction perpendicular to the line. Three components of magnetic field were measured using induction coil. Frequency band of the data was between 0.0005 Hz and 300 Hz. Characteristics of specific resistance model obtained from the MT surveying were illustrated. Low specific resistance zone less than 30 ohm-m was observed in the shallow zone below the altitude 0 m. This zone was comparable to the distribution of montmorillonite. High specific resistance anomaly was analyzed at the western half of the traverse line in the altitude between 0 m and -2000 m, which corresponded to the collective part of focuses. The bottom surface of the anomaly agreed well with the upper surface of neo-granite, i.e., the lower limits of earthquakes. Low specific resistance was observed in the altitude below -2000 m. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Basis of integrated approach to sports and recreational activities of students of special medical groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Zaharova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to prove the superiority of techniques integrated approach to sports and recreational activities of students of special medical groups in the educational institution. Material / methods : the annual pedagogical experiment conducted on three groups that have been formed based on the results of preliminary studies based on diagnosis. Learning process based on the principle of improving training. Results : the advantages of an integrated approach to sports and recreational activities of students with disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Recommended approaches to increase physical and functional training. Also - the formation of a stable demand of motor activity, leading healthy lifestyles, in the acquisition of social status in the educational activity. Conclusions : the integrated approach will meet the educational needs of students to form a cultural competence of the individual in the preservation and conservation of health, ability to adapt and successfully implement their professional activities.

  1. Medicago truncatula copper transporter 1 (MtCOPT1) delivers copper for symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, Marta; Castro-Rodríguez, Rosario; Abreu, Isidro; Escudero, Viviana; Kryvoruchko, Igor; Udvardi, Michael K; Imperial, Juan; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    Copper is an essential nutrient for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This element is delivered by the host plant to the nodule, where membrane copper (Cu) transporter would introduce it into the cell to synthesize cupro-proteins. COPT family members in the model legume Medicago truncatula were identified and their expression determined. Yeast complementation assays, confocal microscopy and phenotypical characterization of a Tnt1 insertional mutant line were carried out in the nodule-specific M. truncatula COPT family member. Medicago truncatula genome encodes eight COPT transporters. MtCOPT1 (Medtr4g019870) is the only nodule-specific COPT gene. It is located in the plasma membrane of the differentiation, interzone and early fixation zones. Loss of MtCOPT1 function results in a Cu-mitigated reduction of biomass production when the plant obtains its nitrogen exclusively from symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Mutation of MtCOPT1 results in diminished nitrogenase activity in nodules, likely an indirect effect from the loss of a Cu-dependent function, such as cytochrome oxidase activity in copt1-1 bacteroids. These data are consistent with a model in which MtCOPT1 transports Cu from the apoplast into nodule cells to provide Cu for essential metabolic processes associated with symbiotic nitrogen fixation. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Construct Validity of the MMPI-2 College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlow, Deanna L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; McNulty, John L

    2004-01-01

    The construct validity of the MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale was examined using 376 student clients at a university psychological clinic. A principal components analysis and correlations of Mt scale scores with clients' and therapists' ratings of symptoms and functioning showed that the Mt…

  3. Imaging with radiolabelled anti-membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) antibody: potentials for characterizing atherosclerotic plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuge, Yuji [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Hokkaido University, Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan); Takai, Nozomi; Ogawa, Yuki; Temma, Takashi; Nishigori, Kantaro; Ishino, Seigo; Kamihashi, Junko; Saji, Hideo [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Zhao, Yan [Hokkaido University, Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Kiyono, Yasushi [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui (Japan); Shiomi, Masashi [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Institute for Experimental Animals, Kobe (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) activates pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-13 to their active forms and plays important roles in the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. This study sought to determine the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled monoclonal antibody (mAb), recognizing MT1-MMP, for imaging atherosclerosis in a rabbit model (WHHLMI rabbits). Anti-MT1-MMP monoclonal IgG{sub 3} and negative control IgG{sub 3} were radiolabelled with {sup 99m}Tc after derivatization with 6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC) to yield {sup 99m}Tc-MT1-MMP mAb and {sup 99m}Tc-IgG{sub 3}, respectively. WHHLMI and control rabbits were injected with these radio-probes. The aorta was removed and radioactivity was measured at 24 h after the injection. Autoradiography and histological studies were performed. {sup 99m}Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation in WHHLMI rabbit aortas was 5.4-fold higher than that of control rabbits. Regional {sup 99m}Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation was positively correlated with MT1-MMP expression (r = 0.59, p < 0.0001), while {sup 99m}Tc-IgG{sub 3} accumulation was independent of MT1-MMP expression (r = 0.03, p = NS). The highest {sup 99m}Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation was found in atheromatous lesions (4.8 {+-} 1.9, %ID x BW/mm{sup 2} x 10{sup 2}), followed in decreasing order by fibroatheromatous (1.8 {+-} 1.3), collagen-rich (1.6 {+-} 1.0) and neointimal lesions (1.5 {+-} 1.5). In contrast, {sup 99m}Tc-IgG{sub 3} accumulation was almost independent of the histological grade of lesions. Higher {sup 99m}Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation in grade IV atheroma was shown in comparison with neointimal lesions or other more stable lesions. Nuclear imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-MT1-MMP mAb, in combination with CT and MRI, could provide new diagnostic imaging capabilities for detecting vulnerable plaques, although further investigations to improve target to blood ratios are strongly required. (orig.)

  4. Imaging with radiolabelled anti-membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) antibody: potentials for characterizing atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, Yuji; Takai, Nozomi; Ogawa, Yuki; Temma, Takashi; Nishigori, Kantaro; Ishino, Seigo; Kamihashi, Junko; Saji, Hideo; Zhao, Yan; Kiyono, Yasushi; Shiomi, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) activates pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-13 to their active forms and plays important roles in the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. This study sought to determine the usefulness of 99m Tc-labelled monoclonal antibody (mAb), recognizing MT1-MMP, for imaging atherosclerosis in a rabbit model (WHHLMI rabbits). Anti-MT1-MMP monoclonal IgG 3 and negative control IgG 3 were radiolabelled with 99m Tc after derivatization with 6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC) to yield 99m Tc-MT1-MMP mAb and 99m Tc-IgG 3 , respectively. WHHLMI and control rabbits were injected with these radio-probes. The aorta was removed and radioactivity was measured at 24 h after the injection. Autoradiography and histological studies were performed. 99m Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation in WHHLMI rabbit aortas was 5.4-fold higher than that of control rabbits. Regional 99m Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation was positively correlated with MT1-MMP expression (r = 0.59, p 99m Tc-IgG 3 accumulation was independent of MT1-MMP expression (r = 0.03, p = NS). The highest 99m Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation was found in atheromatous lesions (4.8 ± 1.9, %ID x BW/mm 2 x 10 2 ), followed in decreasing order by fibroatheromatous (1.8 ± 1.3), collagen-rich (1.6 ± 1.0) and neointimal lesions (1.5 ± 1.5). In contrast, 99m Tc-IgG 3 accumulation was almost independent of the histological grade of lesions. Higher 99m Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation in grade IV atheroma was shown in comparison with neointimal lesions or other more stable lesions. Nuclear imaging with 99m Tc-MT1-MMP mAb, in combination with CT and MRI, could provide new diagnostic imaging capabilities for detecting vulnerable plaques, although further investigations to improve target to blood ratios are strongly required. (orig.)

  5. The Transuranic Waste Program's integration and planning activities and the contributions of the TRU partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, T.C.; O'Neal, W.; Petersen, C.A.; McDonald, C.E.

    1994-02-01

    The Technical Support Division, EM-351 manages the integration and planning activities of the Transuranic Waste Program. The Transuranic Waste Program manager provides transuranic waste policy, guidance, and issue resolution to Headquarters and the Operations Offices. In addition, the program manager is responsible for developing and implementing an integrated, long-range waste management plan for the transuranic waste system. A steering committee, a core group of support contractors, and numerous interface working groups support the efforts of the program manager. This paper provides an overview of the US Department of Energy's transuranic waste integration activities and a long-range planning process that includes internal and external stakeholder participation. It discusses the contributions and benefits provided by the Transuranic Partnership, most significantly, the integration activities and the body of data collected and assembled by the Partnership

  6. MT6415CA: a 640×512-15µm CTIA ROIC for SWIR InGaAs detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Isikhan, Murat; Bayhan, Nusret; Gulden, M. Ali; Incedere, O. Samet; Soyer, S. Tuncer; Kocak, Serhat; Yilmaz, Gokhan S.; Akin, Tayfun

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new low-noise CTIA ROIC (MT6415CA) suitable for SWIR InGaAs detector arrays for low-light imaging applications. MT6415CA is the second product in the MT6400 series ROICs from Mikro-Tasarim Ltd., which is a fabless IC design house specialized in the development of monolithic imaging sensors and ROICs for hybrid imaging sensors. MT6415CA is a low-noise snapshot CTIA ROIC, has a format of 640 × 512 and pixel pitch of 15 µm, and has been developed with the system-on-chip architecture in mind, where all the timing and biasing for this ROIC are generated on-chip without requiring any external inputs. MT6415CA is a highly configurable ROIC, where many of its features can be programmed through a 3-wire serial interface allowing on-the-fly configuration of many ROIC features. It performs snapshot operation both using Integrate-Then-Read (ITR) and Integrate-While-Read (IWR) modes. The CTIA type pixel input circuitry has three gain modes with programmable full-well-capacity (FWC) values of 10.000 e-, 20.000 e-, and 350.000 e- in the very high gain (VHG), high-gain (HG), and low-gain (LG) modes, respectively. MT6415CA has an input referred noise level of less than 5 e- in the very high gain (VHG) mode, suitable for very low-noise SWIR imaging applications. MT6415CA has 8 analog video outputs that can be programmed in 8, 4, or 2-output modes with a selectable analog reference for pseudo-differential operation. The ROIC runs at 10 MHz and supports frame rate values up to 200 fps in the 8-output mode. The integration time can be programmed up to 1s in steps of 0.1 µs. The ROIC uses 3.3 V and 1.8V supply voltages and dissipates less than 150 mW in the 4-output mode. MT6415CA is fabricated using a modern mixed-signal CMOS process on 200 mm CMOS wafers, and tested parts are available at wafer or die levels with test reports and wafer maps. A compact USB 3.0 camera and imaging software have been developed to demonstrate the imaging

  7. Integrating mindfulness training in school health education to promote healthy behaviors in adolescents: Feasibility and preliminary effects on exercise and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Druker, Susan; Frisard, Christine; Dunsiger, Shira I; Crawford, Sybil; Meleo-Meyer, Florence; Bock, Beth; Pbert, Lori

    2018-03-01

    Whether mindfulness training (MT) could improve healthy behaviors is unknown. This study sought to determine feasibility and acceptability of integrating MT into school-based health education (primary outcomes) and to explore its possible effects on healthy behaviors (exploratory outcomes). Two high schools in Massachusetts (2014-2015) were randomized to health education plus MT (HE-MT) (one session/week for 8 weeks) or to health education plus attention control (HE-AC). Dietary habits (24-h dietary recalls) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA/7-day recalls) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (EOT), and 6 months thereafter. Quantile regression and linear mixed models were used, respectively, to estimate effects on MVPA and dietary outcomes adjusting for confounders. We recruited 53 9th graders (30 HEM, 23 HEAC; average age 14.5, 60% white, 59% female). Retention was 100% (EOT) and 96% (6 months); attendance was 96% (both conditions), with moderate-to-high satisfaction ratings. Among students with higher MVPA at baseline, MVPA was higher in HE-MT vs. HE-AC at both EOT (median difference = 81 min/week, p  = 0.005) and at 6 months ( p  = 0.004). Among males, median MVPA was higher (median difference = 99 min/week) in HE-MT vs. HEAC at both EOT ( p  = 0.056) and at 6 months ( p  = 0.04). No differences were noted in dietary habits. In sum, integrating school-based MT into health education was feasible and acceptable and had promising effects on MVPA among male and more active adolescents. These findings suggest that MT may improve healthy behaviors in adolescents and deserve to be reproduced in larger, rigorous studies.

  8. 75 FR 43556 - TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel, MT; TA-W-73,381C, Livingston, MT; TA-W-73... Helena, Montana. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,381 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of...

  9. Extraversion and behavioral activation: integrating the components of approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; DeYoung, Colin G; Oakman, Jonathan M; Bagby, R Michael

    2014-01-01

    This investigation evaluates the structure and correlates of lower order traits related to approach, specifically, facets of extraversion and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity. A 3-factor structure of approach was derived in community and clinical samples: assertiveness, enthusiasm, and sensation seeking. All factors were positively associated with Openness/Intellect scores. Enthusiasm and assertiveness were both negatively associated with Neuroticism scores, but were distinguished by associations with Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Sensation seeking was negatively associated with Conscientiousness scores. The 3 factors demonstrated a unique profile of association with components of impulsivity. Enthusiasm and assertiveness were negatively related to psychopathological symptoms, whereas sensation seeking was largely independent of psychopathology. Results suggest that approach is associated with 3 subfactors, which differ in their pattern or magnitude of associations with other variables, thus underscoring the importance of distinguishing among them. Further, results support the construct validity of the Assertiveness and Enthusiasm aspect scales of the Big Five Aspect Scales to assess traits at this level of the personality hierarchy.

  10. Developing Clinical Competency in Crisis Event Management: An Integrated Simulation Problem-Based Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, S. Y.; Chen, F. G.; Klainin, P.; Brammer, J.; O'Brien, A.; Samarasekera, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the integration of a simulation based learning activity on nursing students' clinical crisis management performance in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. It was hypothesized that the clinical performance of first year nursing students who participated in a simulated learning activity during the PBL session…

  11. Utility of Acculturation in Physical Activity Research in Latina Adults: An Integrative Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Tanya J.; Dodgson, Joan E.; Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Latina adults in the United States have a disproportionately higher prevalence of chronic diseases related to low physical activity levels than non-Hispanic women. Literature indicates that acculturation may be a contributing factor to being physically active, but the extent of this association remains unclear. An integrative review of literature…

  12. Integrating the Use of Interdisciplinary Learning Activity Task in Creating Students' Mathematical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanin, Hajah Umisuzimah Haji; Shahrill, Masitah; Tan, Abby; Mahadi, Mar Aswandi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the use of interdisciplinary learning activity task to construct students' knowledge in Mathematics, specifically on the topic of scale drawing application. The learning activity task involved more than one academic discipline, which is Mathematics, English Language, Art, Geography and integrating the Brunei Darussalam…

  13. The current implementation status of the integration of sports and physical activity into Dutch rehabilitation care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Hettinga, Florentina J; Alingh, Rolinde A; Duijf, Marjo; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van der Schans, Cees P

    PURPOSE: To describe the current status of the nationwide implementation process of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme to gain insight into how sports and physical activity were integrated into Dutch rehabilitation care. METHODS: The current implementation status of a sports and

  14. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making-REPOPA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.R.; Bertram, M.; Hamalainen, R.-M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Skovgaard, T.; Valente, A.; Castellani, T.; Chereches, R.; Edwards, N.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures and the initial

  15. Discovery Channel Telescope active optics system early integration and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetiou, Alexander J.; Bida, Thomas A.

    2012-09-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.3-meter telescope with a thin meniscus primary mirror (M1) and a honeycomb secondary mirror (M2). The optical design is an f/6.1 Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) with an unvignetted 0.5° Field of View (FoV) at the Cassegrain focus. We describe the design, implementation and performance of the DCT active optics system (AOS). The DCT AOS maintains collimation and controls the figure of the mirror to provide seeing-limited images across the focal plane. To minimize observing overhead, rapid settling times are achieved using a combination of feed-forward and low-bandwidth feedback control using a wavefront sensing system. In 2011, we mounted a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor at the prime focus of M1, the Prime Focus Test Assembly (PFTA), to test the AOS with the wavefront sensor, and the feedback loop. The incoming wavefront is decomposed using Zernike polynomials, and the mirror figure is corrected with a set of bending modes. Components of the system that we tested and tuned included the Zernike to Bending Mode transformations. We also started open-loop feed-forward coefficients determination. In early 2012, the PFTA was replaced by M2, and the wavefront sensor moved to its normal location on the Cassegrain instrument assembly. We present early open loop wavefront test results with the full optical system and instrument cube, along with refinements to the overall control loop operating at RC Cassegrain focus.

  16. Accumulation of long-term transcriptionally active integrated retroviral vectors in active promoters and enhancers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šenigl, Filip; Miklík, Dalibor; Auxt, Miroslav; Hejnar, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 22 (2017), s. 12752-12765 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-34873S; GA MŠk LO1419 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : human-immunodeficiency-virus * dna methylation * site selection * human genome * avian-sarcoma * morphological reversion * hiv-1 integration * mlv integration * gene-expression * leukosis virus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 10.162, year: 2016

  17. Endurance exercise rescues progeroid aging and induces systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation in mtDNA mutator mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Adeel; Bourgeois, Jacqueline M.; Ogborn, Daniel I.; Little, Jonathan P.; Hettinga, Bart P.; Akhtar, Mahmood; Thompson, James E.; Melov, Simon; Mocellin, Nicholas J.; Kujoth, Gregory C.; Prolla, Tomas A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    A causal role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis in mammalian aging is supported by recent studies demonstrating that the mtDNA mutator mouse, harboring a defect in the proofreading-exonuclease activity of mitochondrial polymerase gamma, exhibits accelerated aging phenotypes characteristic of human aging, systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, multisystem pathology, and reduced lifespan. Epidemiologic studies in humans have demonstrated that endurance training reduces the risk of chronic diseases and extends life expectancy. Whether endurance exercise can attenuate the cumulative systemic decline observed in aging remains elusive. Here we show that 5 mo of endurance exercise induced systemic mitochondrial biogenesis, prevented mtDNA depletion and mutations, increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and respiratory chain assembly, restored mitochondrial morphology, and blunted pathological levels of apoptosis in multiple tissues of mtDNA mutator mice. These adaptations conferred complete phenotypic protection, reduced multisystem pathology, and prevented premature mortality in these mice. The systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation through endurance exercise promises to be an effective therapeutic approach to mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and related comorbidities. PMID:21368114

  18. Regulation of MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis in human placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent ZL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Zoë L Vincent,1,2 Murray D Mitchell,l,3 Anna P Ponnampalam1,2 1Liggins Institute, 2Gravida: National Centre for Growth and Development, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and specific endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs mediate rupture of the fetal membranes in both physiological and pathological conditions. MMPs and TIMPs are subject to regulation by DNA methylation in human malignancies and pre-eclampsia. To determine if membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP, MMP2, and TIMP2 are regulated by DNA methylation in human placentas, we employed an in vitro model where human placental tissues were collected at term gestation and cultured with methylation inhibiting agent 5-aza-2′deoxycytidine (AZA and lipopolysaccharide. The results suggest that DNA methylation is not directly involved in the regulation of MT1-MMP in placental tissue; however, remodeling of chromatin by a pharmacologic agent such as AZA potentiates an infection-related increase in MT1-MMP. MT1-MMP is a powerful activator of MMP2 and this action, coupled with either no change or a decrease in TIMP2 concentrations, favors a gelatinolytic state leading to extracellular matrix degradation, which could predispose fetal membranes to rupture prematurely during inflammation. Keywords: placenta, epigenetic regulation, DNA methylation, MMPs, labor

  19. Propagation of dikes at Vesuvio (Italy) and the effect of Mt. Somma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, V.; Porreca, M.; Neri, M.; Massimi, E.; Mattei, M.

    2006-04-01

    Dikes provide crucial information on how magma propagates within volcanoes. Somma-Vesuvio (Italy) consists of the active Vesuvio cone, partly bordered by the older Mt. Somma edifice. Historical chronicles on the fissure eruptions in 1694-1944 are matched with an analytical solution to define the propagation path of the related dikes and to study any control of the Mt. Somma relief. The fissures always consisted of the downslope migration of vents from an open summit conduit, indicating lateral propagation as the predominant mechanism for shallow dike emplacement. No fissure emplaced beyond Mt. Somma, suggesting that its buttressing hinders the propagation of the radial dikes. An analytical solution is defined to describe the mechanism of formation of the laterally propagating dikes and to evaluate the effect of topography. The application to Somma-Vesuvio suggests that, under ordinary excess magmatic pressures, the dikes should not propagate laterally at depths >240-480 m below the surface, as the increased lithostatic pressure requires magmatic pressures higher than average. This implies that, when the conduit is open, the lateral emplacement of dikes is expectable on the S, W and E slopes. The lack of fissures N of Mt. Somma is explained by its buttressing, which hinders dike propagation.

  20. mtDNA depletion myopathy: elucidation of the tissue specificity in the mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada, Ann; Shaag, Avraham; Elpeleg, Orly

    2003-05-01

    Decreased mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) activity is associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and respiratory chain dysfunction and is manifested by isolated, fatal skeletal myopathy. Other tissues such as liver, brain, heart, and skin remain unaffected throughout the patients' life. In order to elucidate the mechanism of tissue specificity in the disease we have investigated the expression of the mitochondrial deoxynucleotide carrier, the mtDNA content and the activity of TK2 in mitochondria of various tissues. Our results suggest that low basal TK2 activity combined with a high requirement for mitochondrial encoded proteins in muscle predispose this tissue to the devastating effect of TK2 deficiency.

  1. An integrative review of in-class activities that enable active learning in college science classroom settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Leilani A.; Kreager, Bailey Zo

    2017-10-01

    Engaging students in active learning is linked to positive learning outcomes. This study aims to synthesise the peer-reviewed literature about 'active learning' in college science classroom settings. Using the methodology of an integrative literature review, 337 articles archived in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) are examined. Four categories of in-class activities emerge: (i) individual non-polling activities, (ii) in-class polling activities, (iii) whole-class discussion or activities, and (iv) in-class group activities. Examining the collection of identified in-class activities through the lens of a theoretical framework informed by constructivism and social interdependence theory, we synthesise the reviewed literature to propose the active learning strategies (ALSs) model and the instructional decisions to enable active learning (IDEAL) theory. The ALS model characterises in-class activities in terms of the degrees to which they are designed to promote (i) peer interaction and (ii) social interdependence. The IDEAL theory includes the ALS model and provides a framework for conceptualising different levels of the general concept 'active learning' and how these levels connect to instructional decision-making about using in-class activities. The proposed ALS model and IDEAL theory can be utilised to inform instructional decision-making and future research about active learning in college science courses.

  2. MT3DMS: Model use, calibration, and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Hill, Mary C.; Cao, G.; Ma, R.

    2012-01-01

    MT3DMS is a three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model for solving advection, dispersion, and chemical reactions of contaminants in saturated groundwater flow systems. MT3DMS interfaces directly with the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW for the flow solution and supports the hydrologic and discretization features of MODFLOW. MT3DMS contains multiple transport solution techniques in one code, which can often be important, including in model calibration. Since its first release in 1990 as MT3D for single-species mass transport modeling, MT3DMS has been widely used in research projects and practical field applications. This article provides a brief introduction to MT3DMS and presents recommendations about calibration and validation procedures for field applications of MT3DMS. The examples presented suggest the need to consider alternative processes as models are calibrated and suggest opportunities and difficulties associated with using groundwater age in transport model calibration.

  3. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  4. How about integration: the impact of online activities on store satisfaction and loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Teerling, Marije L.

    2004-01-01

    Although there has been widespread support for the concept of integrating the Internet with other channels, relatively little empirical research has been conducted in this area. This paper examines the effects of integrated online activities on customer perceptions, i.e., satisfaction and loyalty, as well as customer behavior, i.e., purchases. As this study focuses on a nontransaction site, the purchases only take place in the store. Through structural equation modeling, we test a model that ...

  5. A High Power Density Integrated Charger for Electric Vehicles with Active Ripple Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Liwen; Zhang, Chengning

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a high power density on-board integrated charger with active ripple compensation circuit for electric vehicles. To obtain a high power density and high efficiency, silicon carbide devices are reported to meet the requirement of high-switching-frequency operation. An integrated bidirectional converter is proposed to function as AC/DC battery charger and to transfer energy between battery pack and motor drive of the traction system. In addition, the conventional H-bridge cir...

  6. 1-L-MT, an IDO inhibitor, prevented colitis-associated cancer by inducing CDC20 inhibition-mediated mitotic death of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuting; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Yang; Du, Qianming; Hu, Rong

    2018-04-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), known as IDO, catabolizes tryptophan through kynurenine pathway, whose activity is correlated with impaired clinical outcome of colorectal cancer. Here we showed that 1-L-MT, a canonical IDO inhibitor, suppressed proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells through inducing mitotic death. Our results showed that inhibition of IDO decreased the transcription of CDC20, which resulted in G2/M cycle arrest of HCT-116 and HT-29. Furthermore, 1-L-MT induced mitochondria injuries and caused apoptotic cancer cells. Importantly, 1-L-MT protected mice from azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis, with reduced mortality, tumor number and size. What is more, IDO1-/- mice exhibited fewer tumor burdens and reduced proliferation in the neoplastic epithelium, while, 1-L-MT did not exhibit any further protective effects on IDO-/- mice, confirming the critical role of IDO and the protective effect of 1-L-MT-mediated IDO inhibition in CRC. Furthermore, 1-L-MT also alleviated CRC in Rag1-/- mice, demonstrating the modulatory effects of IDO independent of its role in modulating adaptive immunity. Taken together, our findings validated that the anti-proliferation effect of 1-L-MT in vitro and the prevention of CRC in vivo were through IDO-induced cell cycle disaster of colon cancer cells. Our results identified 1-L-MT as a promising candidate for the chemoprevention of CRC. © 2018 UICC.

  7. Geophysical and geochemical methods applied to investigate fissure-related hydrothermal systems on the summit area of Mt. Etna volcano (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucourant, Samuel; Giammanco, Salvatore; Greco, Filippo; Dorizon, Sophie; Del Negro, Ciro

    2014-06-01

    A multidisciplinary approach integrating self-potential, soil temperature, heat flux, CO2 efflux and gravity gradiometry signals was used to investigate a relatively small fissure-related hydrothermal system near the summit of Mt. Etna volcano (Italy). Measurements were performed through two different surveys carried out at the beginning and at the end of July 2009, right after the end of the long-lived 2008-2009 flank eruption and in coincidence with an increase in diffuse flank degassing related to a reactivation of the volcano, leading to the opening of a new summit vent (NSEC). The main goal was to use a multidisciplinary approach to the detection of hidden fractures in an area of evident near-surface hydrothermal activity. Despite the different methodologies used and the different geometry of the sampling grid between the surveys, all parameters concurred in confirming that the study area is crossed by faults related with the main fracture systems of the south flank of the volcano, where a continuous hydrothermal circulation is established. Results also highlighted that hydrothermal activity in this area changed both in space and in time. These changes were a clear response to variations in the magmatic system, notably to migration of magma at various depth within the main feeder system of the volcano. The results suggest that this specific area, initially chosen as the optimal test-site for the proposed approach, can be useful in order to get information on the potential reactivation of the summit craters of Mt. Etna.

  8. Viscosity controlled magma-carbonate interaction: a comparison of Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) and Mt. Merapi (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, L. S.; Misiti, V.; Masotta, M.; Taddeucci, J.; Freda, C.; Troll, V. R.; Deegan, F. M.; Jolis, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    Magma-carbonate interaction is increasingly seen as a viable and extremely important cause of magma contamination, and the generation of a crustally sourced CO2 phase (Goff et al., 2001; Freda et al., 2010). Even though the process is well recognized at certain volcanoes e.g. Popocatépetl, (Mexico); Merapi, (Indonesia); and Colli Albani, (Italy) (Goff et al., 2001; Deegan et al., 2010; Freda et al., 2010), neither the kinetics of carbonate assimilation nor its consequences for controlling the explosivity of eruptions have been constrained. Here we show the results of magma-carbonate interaction experiments conducted at 1200 °C and 0.5 GPa for varying durations (0 s, 60 s, 90 s and 300 s) for the Mt. Merapi (Indonesia) and Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) volcanic systems. We performed experiments using glassy starting materials specific to each volcano (shoshonite for Mt. Vesuvius, basaltic-andesite for Mt. Merapi) with different degrees of hydration (anhydrous vs hydration with ~ 2 wt % water) and using carbonate fragments of local origin; see Deegan et al., (2010) and Jolis et al., (2011). Experimental products include a gas phase (CO2-rich) and two melt phases, one pristine (Ca-normal) and one contaminated (Ca-rich) separated by a 'contamination front' which propagates outwards from the carbonate clast. Vesicles appear to nucleate in the contaminated glass and then migrate into the pristine one. Both contamination front propagation and bubble migration away from the carbonate are slower in anhydrous basaltic-andesite (Merapi anhydrous series) than in hydrated basaltic-andesite and shoshonite (Merapi and Vesuvius hydrated series), suggesting that assimilation speed is strongly controlled by the degree of hydration and the SiO2 content, both of which influence melt viscosity and hence diffusivity. As the carbonate dissolution proceeds in our experiments, initially dissolved and eventually exsolved CO2 builds up in the contaminated Ca-rich melt phase. Once melt volatile

  9. Measurement and Evaluation of the Activation Resonance Integral of 146Nd, 148Nd and 150Nd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricabarra, M. D.; Turjanski, R.; Ricabarra, G. H.

    2012-01-01

    Values of the ratio of the reduced activation resonance integral to the thermal cross section, I'/σ 0 of 146 Nd, 148 Nd and 150 Nd were determined relative to gold by measuring cadmium ratios. A lithium-drifted germanium gamma ray spectrometer was used to resolve the activities of the irradiated samples. The results are for 146 Nd I'/σ 0 = 1.42±0.1 0 and with an assumed σ 0 = 1.4 barn, I' = 1 .99±0.20; for 148 Nd I'/ σ 0 = 4.22±0.1 4 and with an assumed σ 0 = 2.5 barn, I' = 10.5±0. 9 barn, and for 150 Nd I'/σ 0 = 13.7±0. 8 and with an assumed σ 0 = 1.2 barn, I' = 16.4±2.8. The resolved and unresolved epithermal integrals of 146 Nd, 148 Nd and 150 Nd were calculated. Values of the spectral correction factor were also calculated, so the resonance integral could be obtained from the epithermal integral data measured in our reactor spectrum in this experiment. Epithermal integral and spectral correction factors are listed in the text. The most important result of this investigation is that the 148 Nd activation reduced resonance integral is about half of the previously recommended value and consequently the radiative width for 148 Nd is also about half of the previously accepted value. (author)

  10. Effects of a sex-ratio distorting endosymbiont on mtDNA variation in a global insect pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook James M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of mtDNA variation within a species reflect long-term population structure, but may also be influenced by maternally inherited endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia. These bacteria often alter host reproductive biology and can drive particular mtDNA haplotypes through populations. We investigated the impacts of Wolbachia infection and geography on mtDNA variation in the diamondback moth, a major global pest whose geographic distribution reflects both natural processes and transport via human agricultural activities. Results The mtDNA phylogeny of 95 individuals sampled from 10 countries on four continents revealed two major clades. One contained only Wolbachia-infected individuals from Malaysia and Kenya, while the other contained only uninfected individuals, from all countries including Malaysia and Kenya. Within the uninfected group was a further clade containing all individuals from Australasia and displaying very limited sequence variation. In contrast, a biparental nuclear gene phylogeny did not have infected and uninfected clades, supporting the notion that maternally-inherited Wolbachia are responsible for the mtDNA pattern. Only about 5% (15/306 of our global sample of individuals was infected with the plutWB1 isolate and even within infected local populations, many insects were uninfected. Comparisons of infected and uninfected isofemale lines revealed that plutWB1 is associated with sex ratio distortion. Uninfected lines have a 1:1 sex ratio, while infected ones show a 2:1 female bias. Conclusion The main correlate of mtDNA variation in P. xylostella is presence or absence of the plutWB1 infection. This is associated with substantial sex ratio distortion and the underlying mechanisms deserve further study. In contrast, geographic origin is a poor predictor of moth mtDNA sequences, reflecting human activity in moving the insects around the globe. The exception is a clade of Australasian individuals, which may

  11. The Music Therapy Session Assessment Scale (MT-SAS): Validation of a new tool for music therapy process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo; Gnesi, Marco; Monti, Maria Cristina; Oasi, Osmano; Gianotti, Marta; Attardo, Lapo; Gontero, Giulia; Morotti, Lara; Boffelli, Sara; Imbriani, Chiara; Montomoli, Cristina; Imbriani, Marcello

    2017-11-01

    Music therapy (MT) interventions are aimed at creating and developing a relationship between patient and therapist. However, there is a lack of validated observational instruments to consistently evaluate the MT process. The purpose of this study was the validation of Music Therapy Session Assessment Scale (MT-SAS), designed to assess the relationship between therapist and patient during active MT sessions. Videotapes of a single 30-min session per patient were considered. A pilot study on the videotapes of 10 patients was carried out to help refine the items, define the scoring system and improve inter-rater reliability among the five raters. Then, a validation study on 100 patients with different clinical conditions was carried out. The Italian MT-SAS was used throughout the process, although we also provide an English translation. The final scale consisted of 7 binary items accounting for eye contact, countenance, and nonverbal and sound-music communication. In the pilot study, raters were found to share an acceptable level of agreement in their assessments. Explorative factorial analysis disclosed a single homogeneous factor including 6 items (thus supporting an ordinal total score), with only the item about eye contact being unrelated to the others. Moreover, the existence of 2 different archetypal profiles of attuned and disattuned behaviours was highlighted through multiple correspondence analysis. As suggested by the consistent results of 2 different analyses, MT-SAS is a reliable tool that globally evaluates sonorous-musical and nonverbal behaviours related to emotional attunement and empathetic relationship between patient and therapist during active MT sessions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis l,d-Transpeptidase LdtMt1 by Carbapenems and Cephalosporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubée, Vincent; Triboulet, Sébastien; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Ethève-Quelquejeu, Mélanie; Gutmann, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Dubost, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    The structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptidoglycan is atypical since it contains a majority of 3→3 cross-links synthesized by l,d-transpeptidases that replace 4→3 cross-links formed by the d,d-transpeptidase activity of classical penicillin-binding proteins. Carbapenems inactivate these l,d-transpeptidases, and meropenem combined with clavulanic acid is bactericidal against extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. Here, we used mass spectrometry and stopped-flow fluorimetry to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of inactivation of the prototypic M. tuberculosis l,d-transpeptidase LdtMt1 by carbapenems (meropenem, doripenem, imipenem, and ertapenem) and cephalosporins (cefotaxime, cephalothin, and ceftriaxone). Inactivation proceeded through noncovalent drug binding and acylation of the catalytic Cys of LdtMt1, which was eventually followed by hydrolysis of the resulting acylenzyme. Meropenem rapidly inhibited LdtMt1, with a binding rate constant of 0.08 μM−1 min−1. The enzyme was unable to recover from this initial binding step since the dissociation rate constant of the noncovalent complex was low (carbapenem side chains affected both the binding and acylation steps, ertapenem being the most efficient LdtMt1 inactivator. Cephalosporins also formed covalent adducts with LdtMt1, although the acylation reaction was 7- to 1,000-fold slower and led to elimination of one of the drug side chains. Comparison of kinetic constants for drug binding, acylation, and acylenzyme hydrolysis indicates that carbapenems and cephems can both be tailored to optimize peptidoglycan synthesis inhibition in M. tuberculosis. PMID:22615283

  13. Effect of feature-selective attention on neuronal responses in macaque area MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Hoffmann, K.-P.; Albright, T. D.

    2012-01-01

    Attention influences visual processing in striate and extrastriate cortex, which has been extensively studied for spatial-, object-, and feature-based attention. Most studies exploring neural signatures of feature-based attention have trained animals to attend to an object identified by a certain feature and ignore objects/displays identified by a different feature. Little is known about the effects of feature-selective attention, where subjects attend to one stimulus feature domain (e.g., color) of an object while features from different domains (e.g., direction of motion) of the same object are ignored. To study this type of feature-selective attention in area MT in the middle temporal sulcus, we trained macaque monkeys to either attend to and report the direction of motion of a moving sine wave grating (a feature for which MT neurons display strong selectivity) or attend to and report its color (a feature for which MT neurons have very limited selectivity). We hypothesized that neurons would upregulate their firing rate during attend-direction conditions compared with attend-color conditions. We found that feature-selective attention significantly affected 22% of MT neurons. Contrary to our hypothesis, these neurons did not necessarily increase firing rate when animals attended to direction of motion but fell into one of two classes. In one class, attention to color increased the gain of stimulus-induced responses compared with attend-direction conditions. The other class displayed the opposite effects. Feature-selective activity modulations occurred earlier in neurons modulated by attention to color compared with neurons modulated by attention to motion direction. Thus feature-selective attention influences neuronal processing in macaque area MT but often exhibited a mismatch between the preferred stimulus dimension (direction of motion) and the preferred attention dimension (attention to color). PMID:22170961

  14. Mitochondrial mosaics in the liver of 3 infants with mtDNA defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalais Emmanuel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In muscle cytochrome oxidase (COX negative fibers (mitochondrial mosaics have often been visualized. Methods COX activity staining of liver for light and electron microscopy, muscle stains, blue native gel electrophoresis and activity assays of respiratory chain proteins, their immunolocalisation, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis. Results Three unrelated infants showed a mitochondrial mosaic in the liver after staining for COX activity, i.e. hepatocytes with strongly reactive mitochondria were found adjacent to cells with many negative, or barely reactive, mitochondria. Deficiency was most severe in the patient diagnosed with Pearson syndrome. Ragged-red fibers were absent in muscle biopsies of all patients. Enzyme biochemistry was not diagnostic in muscle, fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Blue native gel electrophoresis of liver tissue, but not of muscle, demonstrated a decreased activity of complex IV; in both muscle and liver subcomplexes of complex V were seen. Immunocytochemistry of complex IV confirmed the mosaic pattern in two livers, but not in fibroblasts. MRI of the brain revealed severe white matter cavitation in the Pearson case, but only slight cortical atrophy in the Alpers-Huttenlocher patient, and a normal image in the 3rd. MtDNA in leucocytes showed a common deletion in 50% of the mtDNA molecules of the Pearson patient. In the patient diagnosed with Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome, mtDNA was depleted for 60% in muscle. In the 3rd patient muscular and hepatic mtDNA was depleted for more than 70%. Mutations in the nuclear encoded gene of POLG were subsequently found in both the 2nd and 3rd patients. Conclusion Histoenzymatic COX staining of a liver biopsy is fast and yields crucial data about the pathogenesis; it indicates whether mtDNA should be assayed. Each time a mitochondrial disorder is suspected and muscle data are non-diagnostic, a liver biopsy should be recommended. Mosaics are probably more frequent

  15. Overexpression of mtDNA-associated AtWhy2 compromises mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Rached Charbel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background StWhy1, a member of the plant-specific Whirly single-stranded DNA-binding protein family, was first characterized as a transcription factor involved in the activation of the nuclear PR-10a gene following defense-related stress in potato. In Arabidopsis thaliana, Whirlies have recently been shown to be primarily localized in organelles. Two representatives of the family, AtWhy1 and AtWhy3 are imported into plastids while AtWhy2 localizes to mitochondria. Their function in organelles is currently unknown. Results To understand the role of mitochondrial Whirlies in higher plants, we produced A. thaliana lines with altered expression of the atwhy2 gene. Organellar DNA immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that AtWhy2 binds to mitochondrial DNA. Overexpression of atwhy2 in plants perturbs mitochondrial function by causing a diminution in transcript levels and mtDNA content which translates into a low activity level of respiratory chain complexes containing mtDNA-encoded subunits. This lowered activity of mitochondria yielded plants that were reduced in size and had distorted leaves that exhibited accelerated senescence. Overexpression of atwhy2 also led to early accumulation of senescence marker transcripts in mature leaves. Inactivation of the atwhy2 gene did not affect plant development and had no detectable effect on mitochondrial morphology, activity of respiratory chain complexes, transcription or the amount of mtDNA present. This lack of phenotype upon abrogation of atwhy2 expression suggests the presence of functional homologues of the Whirlies or the activation of compensating mechanisms in mitochondria. Conclusion AtWhy2 is associated with mtDNA and its overexpression results in the production of dysfunctional mitochondria. This report constitutes the first evidence of a function for the Whirlies in organelles. We propose that they could play a role in the regulation of the gene expression machinery of organelles.

  16. Porous aerosol in degassing plumes of Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shcherbakov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols of the volcanic degassing plumes from Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli were probed with in situ instruments on board the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt research aircraft Falcon during the contrail, volcano, and cirrus experiment CONCERT in September 2011. Aerosol properties were analyzed using angular-scattering intensities and particle size distributions measured simultaneously with the Polar Nephelometer and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer probes (FSSP series 100 and 300, respectively. Aerosols of degassing plumes are characterized by low values of the asymmetry parameter (between 0.6 and 0.75; the effective diameter was within the range of 1.5–2.8 µm and the maximal diameter was lower than 20 µm. A principal component analysis applied to the Polar Nephelometer data indicates that scattering features of volcanic aerosols of different crater origins are clearly distinctive from angular-scattering intensities of cirrus and contrails. Retrievals of aerosol properties revealed that the particles were "optically spherical" and the estimated values of the real part of the refractive index are within the interval from 1.35 to 1.38. The interpretation of these results leads to the conclusion that the degassing plume aerosols were porous with air voids. Our estimates suggest that aerosol particles contained about 18 to 35 % of air voids in terms of the total volume.

  17. Two-dimensional inversion of MT (magnetotelluric) data; MT ho no nijigen inversion kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S; Okuno, M; Ushijima, K; Mizunaga, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    A program has been developed to conduct inversion analysis of two-dimensional model using MT data, accurately. For the developed program, finite element method (FEM) was applied to the section of sequential analysis. A method in which Jacobian matrix is calculated only one first time and is inversely analyzed by fixing this during the repetition, and a method in which Jacobian matrix is corrected at each repetition of inversion analysis, were compared mutually. As a result of the numerical simulation, it was revealed that the Jacobian correction method provided more stable convergence for the simple 2D model, and that the calculation time is almost same as that of the Jacobian fixation method. To confirm the applicability of this program to actually measured data, results obtained from this program were compared with those from the Schlumberger method analysis by using MT data obtained in the Hatchobara geothermal area. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the both are well coincided mutually. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  18. A participatory assessment of IS integration needs in maternity clinics using activity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Heidi; Korpela, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    The design and development of information systems should focus on a wider context than merely one user group or organization. This is particularly the case with systems integration. A tentative description of the activity network, information needs, and user requirements should be acquired before any major changes are planned. Relatively rapid yet participatory methods are needed at this preliminary stage. In this article, we claim that activity theory offers a suitable framework for this. Subsequently, we present a qualitative study in which this approach was used, with focus on the practices of the information management within a maternity care activity network. The first aim was to elicit the most important integration needs in the existing information systems of Finnish maternity clinics. Secondly, we wanted to introduce a participatory approach to be utilized by the service-providing organizations themselves, rather than software companies or quality consultants. Data were collected in multi-professional group interviews. The results include information needs and communication problems as well as outlines for solutions in the systems integration of maternity clinics. Various tools of information management do not meet the concrete needs of health care work. Integration is needed on many levels, and it has to be adapted to the needs of numerous stakeholders. The applied activity-theoretical framework proved useful in describing such a multi-faceted system of information and its users. More research is needed on its wider applicability, particularly in situations where researchers are not active participants.

  19. 76 FR 35967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ..., Gallatin Field Airport, Bozeman, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing System (ILS... 6005 Class E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth...

  20. MT Lajpatrai blow-out studies at Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    The area around the tanker MT Lajpatrai was monitored for oil pollution studies. Measurements were carried out on the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in water and sediment samples along with visual observations on oil slicks...

  1. [MT-45--a dangerous and potentially ototoxic internet drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Erik; Bäckberg, Matilda; Personne, Mark; Helander, Anders

    2014-09-11

    During the last years several synthetic opioids have been introduced on Internet sites selling new psychoactive substances (NPS). One of these, called MT-45, a piperazine derivative originally synthesized as a therapeutic drug candidate in the 1970s, has recently been detected in 21 deaths, according to unpublished data from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. We present clinical data from 12 analytically confirmed hospital cases of MT-45 poisoning. The cases demonstrate that MT-45, like other opioids, can induce potentially life threatening respiratory depression and loss of consciousness in users and that symptoms are usually reversed by standard doses of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Significant auditory symptoms with transient tinnitus and hearing loss occurred in two cases and a pronounced sensorineural hearing loss still present at two weeks follow-up in one case. This indicates that MT-45 may be an ototoxic substance, illustrating the ubiquitous risk of unintended adverse effects NPSs pose to users.

  2. Empirical Analysis of the Integration Activity of Business Structures in the Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gennadyevna Karelina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the integration activity of business structures in the regions of Russia. A wide variety of approaches to the study of the problems and prospects of economic integration and the current dispute on the role of integration processes in the regional economic development have determined the complexity of the concepts “integration” and “integration activities” in order to develop the objective conditions to analyse the integration activity of business structures in the Russian regions. The monitoring of the current legal system of the Russian Federation carried out in the area of statistics and compiling statistical databases on mergers and acquisitions has showed the absence of the formal executive authority dealing with the compiling and collections of information on the integration activity at the regional level. In this connection, the data of Russian information and analytical agencies are made from the information and analytical base. As the research tools, the methods of analysis of structural changes, methods of analysis of economic differentiation and concentration, methods of non-parametric statistics are used. The article shows the close relationship between the social and economic development of the subjects of Russia and the integrated business structures functioning on its territory. An investigation of the integration activity structure and dynamics in the subjects of the Russian Federation based on the statistical data for the period from 2003 to 2012 has revealed the increasing heterogeneity of the integration activity of business structures in the regions of Russia. The hypothesis of a substantial divergence of mergers and acquisitions of corporate structures in the Russian regions was confirmed by the high values of the Gini coefficient, the Herfindahl index, and the decile coefficient of differentiation. The research results are of practical importance since they can be used to improve the existing

  3. Resonant passive–active vibration absorber with integrated force feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L; Krenk, Steen

    2016-01-01

    A general format of a two-terminal vibration absorber is constructed by placing a passive unit in series with a hybrid unit, composed of an active actuator in parallel with a second passive element. The displacement of the active actuator is controlled by an integrated feedback control with the difference in force between the two passive elements as input. This format allows passive and active contributions to be combined arbitrarily within the hybrid unit, which results in a versatile absorber format with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This is demonstrated for resonant absorbers with inertia realized passively by a mechanical inerter or actively by the integrated force feedback. Accurate calibration formulae are presented for two particular absorber configurations and the performance is subsequently demonstrated with respect to both equal modal damping and effective response reduction. (technical note)

  4. α -decay chains of superheavy Mt-279265 isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Nithya, C.

    2017-10-01

    The α -decay chains of the isotopes Mt-279265 are predicted by comparing the α half-lives calculated within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei of Santhosh et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 850, 34 (2011)], 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.12.002 with the spontaneous fission half-lives using the shell-effect-dependent formula of Santhosh and Nithya [Phys. Rev. C 94, 054621 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.94.054621. α half-lives also are calculated using different theoretical formalisms for comparison. The predicted half-lives and decay modes match well with the experimental results. The use of four different mass tables for calculating the α - decay energies indicates that the mass table of Wang et al. [Chin. Phys. C 41, 030003 (2017)], 10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030003, which is based on the AME2016 atomic mass evaluation, is in better agreement with experimental results. The paper predicts long α chains from 265,267-269,271-273MT with half-lives within experimental limits. The isotopes 274-276,278Mt exhibit 2α chains followed by spontaneous fission. The 2α chain of 266Mt and the 4α chain of 270Mt end with electron capture. The isotopes Mt,279277 decay via spontaneous fission. We hope that the paper will open up new areas in this field.

  5. Visual integration enhances associative memory equally for young and older adults without reducing hippocampal encoding activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memel, Molly; Ryan, Lee

    2017-06-01

    The ability to remember associations between previously unrelated pieces of information is often impaired in older adults (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000). Unitization, the process of creating a perceptually or semantically integrated representation that includes both items in an associative pair, attenuates age-related associative deficits (Bastin et al., 2013; Ahmad et al., 2015; Zheng et al., 2015). Compared to non-unitized pairs, unitized pairs may rely less on hippocampally-mediated binding associated with recollection, and more on familiarity-based processes mediated by perirhinal cortex (PRC) and parahippocampal cortex (PHC). While unitization of verbal materials improves associative memory in older adults, less is known about the impact of visual integration. The present study determined whether visual integration improves associative memory in older adults by minimizing the need for hippocampal (HC) recruitment and shifting encoding to non-hippocampal medial temporal structures, such as the PRC and PHC. Young and older adults were presented with a series of objects paired with naturalistic scenes while undergoing fMRI scanning, and were later given an associative memory test. Visual integration was varied by presenting the object either next to the scene (Separated condition) or visually integrated within the scene (Combined condition). Visual integration improved associative memory among young and older adults to a similar degree by increasing the hit rate for intact pairs, but without increasing false alarms for recombined pairs, suggesting enhanced recollection rather than increased reliance on familiarity. Also contrary to expectations, visual integration resulted in increased hippocampal activation in both age groups, along with increases in PRC and PHC activation. Activation in all three MTL regions predicted discrimination performance during the Separated condition in young adults, while only a marginal relationship between PRC activation and performance was

  6. Road identification for its-integrated systems of automotive active safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ivanov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses several aspects of active safety control for automotive application. Particular emphasis is placed on the fuzzy logic determination of friction properties of a tyre-road contact. An example of vehicle control systems equipped with off-board sensors of road roughness, temperature, moisture and rain intensity demonstrates the implementation of this approach. The paper proposes conceptual solutions for preventive active safety control applied to vehicles which are integrated in an intelligent transportation system.

  7. Involving Your Child or Teen with ASD in Integrated Community Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Participating in outside activities and community-based endeavors can be tricky for people with special needs, like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Families meet more than a few obstacles attempting to integrate their children or teens who have special needs like ASD. Most typical children are highly involved in sports, clubs and camps. If a…

  8. Parenting Practices and Children's Physical Activity: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Amy; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to analyze the state of science concerning the influence of parenting practices on children's physical activity (PA) levels. A total of 38 studies met the inclusion criteria after full-text review. The body of research is limited in experimental designs with only three studies measuring the influence of…

  9. Teacher Perspectives on Technology Integration Professional Development: Formal, Informal, and Independent Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Monty; Dexter, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the technology integration learning activities of four teachers throughout one year using weekly quantitative surveys and a series of three qualitative individual interviews. Through the teachers' own voices an illustration of their learning processes is presented, and the gap between what is supported by their…

  10. Sink or Swim: Learning by Doing in a Supply Chain Integration Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnowo, Akhadian S.; Calhoun, Mikelle A.; Monteiro, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that supply chain integration (SCI) is important to organizations. This article describes an activity that places students in the middle of an SCI scenario. The highly interactive hands-on simulation requires only 50 to 60 minutes of classroom time, may be used with 18 to about 36 students, and involves minimal instructor preparation.…

  11. Active integration of electric vehicles in the distribution network - theory, modelling and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina

    an attractive asset for the distribution system operator (DSO). This thesis investigates how EVs can mitigate the self-induced adverse effects and actively help the distribution grid operation, either autonomously or in coordination, e.g., with an EV aggregator. The general framework for EV integration...

  12. Agricultural Awareness Activities and Their Integration into the Curriculum as Perceived by Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Neil A.; Martin, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 281 of 689 elementary teachers indicated they had positive perceptions of the agriculture industry and integration of agriculture into the curriculum. Over 80% used agriculture activities, especially the study of animals, plants, food, nutrition, environment, wildlife, and insects. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

  13. Increase of mitochondrial DNA content and transcripts in early bovine embryogenesis associated with upregulation of mtTFA and NRF1 transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyman Yvan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has shown that mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial functions are critical determinants of embryonic development. However, the expression of the factors controlling mitochondrial biogenesis in early embryogenesis has received little attention so far. Methods We used real-time quantitative PCR to quantify mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in bovine oocytes and in various stages of in vitro produced embryos. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the replication and the transcriptional activation of mtDNA, we quantified the mRNA corresponding to the mtDNA-encoded cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX1, and two nuclear-encoded factors, i.e. the Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1 (NRF1, and the nuclear-encoded Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A (mtTFA. Results Unlike findings reported in mouse embryos, the mtDNA content was not constant during early bovine embryogenesis. We found a sharp, 60% decrease in mtDNA content between the 2-cell and the 4/8-cell stages. COX1 mRNA was constant until the morula stage after which it increased dramatically. mtTFA mRNA was undetectable in oocytes and remained so until the 8/16-cell stage; it began to appear only at the morula stage, suggesting de novo synthesis. In contrast, NRF1 mRNA was detectable in oocytes and the quantity remained constant until the morula stage. Conclusion Our results revealed a reduction of mtDNA content in early bovine embryos suggesting an active process of mitochondrial DNA degradation. In addition, de novo mtTFA expression associated with mitochondrial biogenesis activation and high levels of NRF1 mRNA from the oocyte stage onwards argue for the essential function of these factors during the first steps of bovine embryogenesis.

  14. Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastana Sarabjit

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in the understanding of the maternal and paternal heritage of south and southwest Asian populations have highlighted their role in the colonization of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. Further understanding requires a deeper insight into the topology of the branches of the Indian mtDNA phylogenetic tree, which should be contextualized within the phylogeography of the neighboring regional mtDNA variation. Accordingly, we have analyzed mtDNA control and coding region variation in 796 Indian (including both tribal and caste populations from different parts of India and 436 Iranian mtDNAs. The results were integrated and analyzed together with published data from South, Southeast Asia and West Eurasia. Results Four new Indian-specific haplogroup M sub-clades were defined. These, in combination with two previously described haplogroups, encompass approximately one third of the haplogroup M mtDNAs in India. Their phylogeography and spread among different linguistic phyla and social strata was investigated in detail. Furthermore, the analysis of the Iranian mtDNA pool revealed patterns of limited reciprocal gene flow between Iran and the Indian sub-continent and allowed the identification of different assemblies of shared mtDNA sub-clades. Conclusions Since the initial peopling of South and West Asia by anatomically modern humans, when this region may well have provided the initial settlers who colonized much of the rest of Eurasia, the gene flow in and out of India of the maternally transmitted mtDNA has been surprisingly limited. Specifically, our analysis of the mtDNA haplogroups, which are shared between Indian and Iranian populations and exhibit coalescence ages corresponding to around the early Upper Paleolithic, indicates that they are present in India largely as Indian-specific sub-lineages. In contrast, other ancient Indian-specific variants of M and R are very rare outside the sub-continent.

  15. The performance of integrated active fiber composites in carbon fiber laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnykowycz, M; Brunner, A J

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric elements integrated into fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix laminates can provide various functions in the resulting adaptive or smart composite. Active fiber composites (AFC) composed of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers can be used as a component in a smart material system, and can be easily integrated into woven composites. However, the impact of integration on the device and its functionality has not been fully investigated. The current work focuses on the integration and performance of AFC integrated into carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates, focusing on the strain sensor performance of the AFC–CFRP laminate under tensile loading conditions. AFC were integrated into cross-ply CFRP laminates using simple insertion and interlacing of the CFRP plies, with the AFC always placed in the 90° ply cutout area. Test specimens were strained to different strain levels and then cycled with a 0.01% strain amplitude, and the resulting signal from the AFC was monitored. Acoustic emission monitoring was performed during tensile testing to provide insight to the failure characteristics of the PZT fibers. The results were compared to those from past studies on AFC integration; the strain signal of AFC integrated into CFRP was much lower than that for AFC integrated into woven glass fiber laminates. However, the profiles of the degradations of the AFC signal resulting from the strain were nearly identical, showing that the PZT fibers fragmented in a similar manner for a given global strain. The sensor performance recovered upon unloading, which is attributed to the closure of cracks between PZT fiber fragments

  16. Differences in the epigenetic regulation of MT-3 gene expression between parental and Cd+2 or As+3 transformed human urothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajjimaporn Amornpan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that metallothionein 3 (MT-3 is not expressed in normal urothelium or in the UROtsa cell line, but is expressed in urothelial cancer and in tumors generated from the UROtsa cells that have been transformed by cadmium (Cd+2 or arsenite (As+3.The present study had two major goals. One, to determine if epigenetic modifications control urothelial MT-3 gene expression and if regulation is altered by malignant transformation by Cd+2 or As+3. Two, to determine if MT-3 expression might translate clinically as a biomarker for malignant urothelial cells released into the urine. Results The histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 induced MT-3 mRNA expression in both parental UROtsa cells and their transformed counterparts. The demethylating agent, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZC had no effect on MT-3 mRNA expression. ChIP analysis showed that metal-responsive transformation factor-1 (MTF-1 binding to metal response elements (MRE elements of the MT-3 promoter was restricted in parental UROtsa cells, but MTF-1 binding to the MREs was unrestricted in the transformed cell lines. Histone modifications at acetyl H4, trimethyl H3K4, trimethyl H3K27, and trimethyl H3K9 were compared between the parental and transformed cell lines in the presence and absence of MS-275. The pattern of histone modifications suggested that the MT-3 promoter in the Cd+2 and As+3 transformed cells has gained bivalent chromatin structure, having elements of being "transcriptionally repressed" and "transcription ready", when compared to parental cells. An analysis of MT-3 staining in urinary cytologies showed that a subset of both active and non-active patients with urothelial cancer shed positive cells in their urine, but that control patients only rarely shed MT-3 positive cells. Conclusion The MT-3 gene is silenced in non-transformed urothelial cells by a mechanism involving histone modification of the MT-3 promoter. In contrast, transformation of the

  17. Integrative Student Learning: An Effective Team Learning Activity in a Learner-Centered Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi, RPh, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven “closing the loop” feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer‘s drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams’ impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators’ interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation.

  18. Integrative Student Learning: An Effective Team Learning Activity in a Learner-Centered Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven "closing the loop" feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer's drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams' impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators' interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation.   Type: Case Study

  19. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  20. Integrated farm sustainability assessment for the environmental management of rural activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachetii Rodrigues, Geraldo; Aparecida Rodrigues, Izilda; Almeida Buschinelli, Claudio Cesar de; Barros, Inacio de

    2010-01-01

    Farmers have been increasingly called upon to respond to an ongoing redefinition in consumers' demands, having as a converging theme the search for sustainable production practices. In order to satisfy this objective, instruments for the environmental management of agricultural activities have been sought out. Environmental impact assessment methods are appropriate tools to address the choice of technologies and management practices to minimize negative effects of agricultural development, while maximizing productive efficiency, sound usage of natural resources, conservation of ecological assets and equitable access to wealth generation means. The 'system for weighted environmental impact assessment of rural activities' (APOIA-NovoRural) presented in this paper is organized to provide integrated farm sustainability assessment according to quantitative environmental standards and defined socio-economic benchmarks. The system integrates sixty-two objective indicators in five sustainability dimensions - (i) Landscape ecology, (ii) Environmental quality (atmosphere, water and soil), (iii) Sociocultural values, (iv) Economic values, and (v) Management and administration. Impact indices are expressed in three integration levels: (i) specific indicators, that offer a diagnostic and managerial tool for farmers and rural administrators, by pointing out particular attributes of the rural activities that may be failing to comply with defined environmental performance objectives; (ii) integrated sustainability dimensions, that show decision-makers the major contributions of the rural activities toward local sustainable development, facilitating the definition of control actions and promotion measures; and (iii) aggregated sustainability index, that can be considered a yardstick for eco-certification purposes. Nine fully documented case studies carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, focusing on different scales, diverse rural activities/farming systems, and contrasting

  1. Environmental integrated impact assessment for waste treatment activity: methodology and case-study application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonati, G.; Panzeri, A.

    2008-01-01

    A literature method for the environmental integrated impact assessment, according to the IPPC Directive, has been critically analysed and adjusted in order to be used for the environmental performance assessment of waste treatment activities. The assessment parameters, sorted in eight treatment and combined pollution categories, have been partly redefined and re balanced. The adjusted methodology has been applied to a real case-study, a chemical- physical waste treatment plant, in order to calculate the current performance (Actual Integrated Index) and the ideal performance (Actual Integrated Index) achievable by technical and operational improvements. The adjusted methodology has also been used as a decision support system, in order to estimate the value of the expected environmental performances improvement after the execution achievable from the introduction of a single one or a set of improvement actions. The valuation of the Integrated Index percentage reduction, along with the action achievable, made the best actions able to be identified, both in comparative way and in the cost-effective one. The results, 50 as Effective Integrated Index and 42 as Ideal Integrated Index, in a 10-100 scale, show a medium impact level and point out an appreciable improvement margin on all the environmental performances, especially in air emission control and water consumption [it

  2. Dependency of {gamma}-secretase complex activity on the structural integrity of the bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hua, E-mail: hzhou2@lbl.gov [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zhou, Shuxia; Walian, Peter J.; Jap, Bing K. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Partial solubilization of membranes with CHAPSO can increase {gamma}-secretase activity. {yields} Completely solubilized {gamma}-secretase is inactive. {yields} Purified {gamma}-secretase regains activity after reconstitution into lipid bilayers. {yields} A broad range of detergents can be used to successfully reconstitute {gamma}-secretase. -- Abstract: {gamma}-secretase is a membrane protein complex associated with the production of A{beta} peptides that are pathogenic in Alzheimer's disease. We have characterized the activity of {gamma}-secretase complexes under a variety of detergent solubilization and reconstitution conditions, and the structural state of proteoliposomes by electron microscopy. We found that {gamma}-secretase activity is highly dependent on the physical state or integrity of the membrane bilayer - partial solubilization may increase activity while complete solubilization will abolish it. The activity of well-solubilized {gamma}-secretase can be restored to near native levels when properly reconstituted into a lipid bilayer environment.

  3. Integrating cultural community psychology: activity settings and the shared meanings of intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Clifford R; Tharp, Roland G

    2012-03-01

    Cultural and community psychology share a common emphasis on context, yet their leading journals rarely cite each other's articles. Greater integration of the concepts of culture and community within and across their disciplines would enrich and facilitate the viability of cultural community psychology. The contextual theory of activity settings is proposed as one means to integrate the concepts of culture and community in cultural community psychology. Through shared activities, participants develop common experiences that affect their psychological being, including their cognitions, emotions, and behavioral development. The psychological result of these experiences is intersubjectivity. Culture is defined as the shared meanings that people develop through their common historic, linguistic, social, economic, and political experiences. The shared meanings of culture arise through the intersubjectivity developed in activity settings. Cultural community psychology presents formidable epistemological challenges, but overcoming these challenges could contribute to the transformation and advancement of community psychology.

  4. Organizational factors and collaboration and integration activities in criminal justice and drug abuse treatment agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Wayne E K; Fletcher, Bennett W; Wexler, Harry K; Melnick, Gerald

    2009-08-01

    Despite strong interest in improving collaborations between correctional and substance abuse treatment organizations, there is a lack of empirical data describing the existing practices. The current study used a national survey of correctional administrators to examine organizational factors related to cross-agency collaboration and integration activities between corrections and substance abuse treatment organizations. Using a measure of collaboration that scaled cross-agency activities from less structured, informal networking and coordination to more structured and formalized levels of cooperation and collaboration, we found that different correctional settings (e.g., community corrections, jails, prisons) differed significantly in terms of their collaborative activities with substance abuse treatment agencies. We also found that the organizational characteristics that were associated with different levels of collaboration and integration differed across the correctional settings. Further research is needed to better understand how and why correctional agencies decide to formalize collaborative arrangements with treatment agencies and whether these efforts lead to more favorable outcomes.

  5. Scandinavian exceptionalism? Civic integration and labour market activation for newly arrived immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidahl, Karen N

    2017-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, a wide range of so-called new civic integration policies aimed at civilizing or disciplining newcomers have been introduced. Consequently, migration scholars have discussed whether a converging restrictive 'civic turn' has taken place in Western Europe or whether national models have been resilient: Based on an in-depth historical and comparative analysis of labour market activation policies targeting newly arrived immigrants in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark since the early 1990s, the article contributes to the overall question: To what extent do the institutional pathways of the Scandinavian welfare states prevail when confronted with newcomers? Activation policies targeting newly arrived immigrants exemplifies how the ambition of states to promote functional, individual autonomy is also an important, ongoing process in diverse policy areas of the welfare state and not restricted to early integration instruments. While the Scandinavian welfare states differ on a number of counts with respect to immigration control, national integration philosophies and citizenship policies, the article outlines how activation policies aimed at newly arrived immigrants share several features. One of the key factors in this turn involves path dependency from, among others, a lengthy tradition for strong state involvement and norms about employment. Another factor in this turn involves transnational policy learning. On some points, national versions of these policies are also found due to country-specific citizenship traditions, integration philosophies and party political constellations.

  6. A High Power Density Integrated Charger for Electric Vehicles with Active Ripple Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a high power density on-board integrated charger with active ripple compensation circuit for electric vehicles. To obtain a high power density and high efficiency, silicon carbide devices are reported to meet the requirement of high-switching-frequency operation. An integrated bidirectional converter is proposed to function as AC/DC battery charger and to transfer energy between battery pack and motor drive of the traction system. In addition, the conventional H-bridge circuit suffers from ripple power pulsating at second-order line frequency, and a scheme of active ripple compensation circuit has been explored to solve this second-order ripple problem, in which a pair of power switches shared traction mode, a ripple energy storage capacitor, and an energy transfer inductor. Simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink validated the eligibility of the proposed topology. The integrated charger can work as a 70 kW motor drive circuit or a converter with an active ripple compensation circuit for 3 kW charging the battery. The impact of the proposed topology and control strategy on the integrated charger power losses, efficiency, power density, and thermal performance has also been analysed and simulated.

  7. Novel roles for metallothionein-I + II (MT-I + II) in defense responses, neurogenesis, and tissue restoration after traumatic brain injury: insights from global gene expression profiling in wild-type and MT-I + II knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Cáceres, Mario; Borup, Rehannah

    2006-01-01

    of the somatosensorial cortex and killed at 0, 1, 4, 8, and 16 days postlesion (dpl) using Affymetrix genechips/oligonucleotide arrays interrogating approximately 10,000 different murine genes (MG_U74Av2). Hierarchical clustering analysis of these genes readily shows an orderly pattern of gene responses at specific...... and opened new avenues that were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Data in KO, MT-I-overexpressing, and MT-II-injected mice strongly suggest a role of these proteins in postlesional activation of neural stem cells....

  8. Extracurricular Sport Activities and their Importance in Children Socialization and Integration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomohaci Marcel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of sports activities nowadays is showing their effects on the future development of children, extracurricular activities come in the help of the physical education teacher with benefits on children's development. Our study focuses on revealing the importance of extracurricular sports activities in the process of children's socialization and integration. The research sample was formed from two different groups, the experimental group was formed by 25 students (age 10 ± 2.1 years, 13 boys, and 12 girls, that practiced 2 hours a week physical education and other 2 hours a week extracurricular activities like basketball and volleyball; and the sample group formed by 24 students (age 10 ± 1.8 years, 12 boys and 12 girls, that practiced 2 hours a week classic physical education. The results showed us that extracurricular activities have a good impact on children's socialization and integration, the experimental group improved their coefficient of group cohesion from 0.04 at the initial testing to 0.06 at the final test, and the index of cohesion from 0.02 at the initial test to 0.05 at the final testing. Significant differences were found within the experimental group both in the initial and in the final tests (p < 0.05, also significant differences were discovered between the experimental and the sample group in the final measurement (p < 0.05. Conclusions of this research presented that the experimental group had good improvements of cohesion and social integration of children, showing that extracurricular sport activities have a positive impact on improving socialization, developing cohesion and integrate the marginalized children in the social group.

  9. What propels sexual murderers: a proposed integrated theory of social learning and routine activities theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Beauregard, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Despite the great interest in the study of sexual homicide, little is known about the processes involved in an individual's becoming motivated to sexually kill, deciding to sexually kill, and acting on that desire, intention, and opportunity. To date, no comprehensive model of sexual murdering from the offending perspective has been proposed in the criminological literature. This article incorporates the works of Akers and Cohen and Felson regarding their social learning theory and routine activities theory, respectively, to construct an integrated conceptual offending framework in sexual homicide. This integrated model produces a stronger and more comprehensive explanation of sexual murder than any single theory currently available.

  10. Low-cost sensor integrators for measuring the transmissivity of complex canopies to photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    A system has been designed, tested and evaluated for measuring the transmissivities of complex canopies to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The system consists of filtered silicon photocells in cosine corrected mounts with outputs integrated by the use of chemical coulometers. The reading accumulated by the coulometers was taken electronically by the use of microcomputers. The low-cost sensor integrators, which do not require batteries, performed as expected and proved ideal for the study of agroforestry systems in remote areas. Information on the PAR transmissivity of a temperate agroforestry system in the form of an intercropped orchard is also presented. (author)

  11. Exploring integral controllers in actively-lubricated tilting-pad journal bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    investigation of integral controllers for feedback-controlled lubrication with the aim of: a) presetting the static journal center and consequently exploring the changes of bearing dynamic properties; b) obtaining an integral controller capable of re-positioning the static journal eccentricity for matching......Active tilting-pad journal bearings with radial oil injection combine good stability properties of conventional tilting-pad journal bearings with the capability of improving their dynamic properties even more by control techniques. The main contribution of this work is the experimental...

  12. A 128 x 128 CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensor for Highly Integrated Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Sunetra K.; Kemeny, Sabrina E.; Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    A new CMOS-based image sensor that is intrinsically compatible with on-chip CMOS circuitry is reported. The new CMOS active pixel image sensor achieves low noise, high sensitivity, X-Y addressability, and has simple timing requirements. The image sensor was fabricated using a 2 micrometer p-well CMOS process, and consists of a 128 x 128 array of 40 micrometer x 40 micrometer pixels. The CMOS image sensor technology enables highly integrated smart image sensors, and makes the design, incorporation and fabrication of such sensors widely accessible to the integrated circuit community.

  13. Quantitative radiological characterization of waste. Integration of gamma spectrometry and passive/active neutron assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Gianluca; Mauro, Egidio; Gagliardi, Filippo; Gorello, Edoardo [Nucleco S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    The radiological characterization of drums through Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) techniques commonly relies on gamma spectrometry. This paper introduces the procedure developed in Nucleco for the NDA radiological characterization of drums when the presence of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) is expected/observed. The procedure is based on the integration of a gamma spectrometry in SGS mode (Segmented Gamma Scanner) and a passive/active neutron assay. The application of this procedure is discussed on a real case of drums. The extension of the integration procedure to other gamma spectrometry systems is also discussed.

  14. Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Harri; Barker, Abigail K; Troll, Valentin R

    2016-10-07

    Mt. Cameroon is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa and poses a possible threat to about half a million people in the area, yet knowledge of the volcano's underlying magma supply system is sparse. To characterize Mt. Cameroon's magma plumbing system, we employed mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry on the products of the volcano's two most recent eruptions of 1999 and 2000. Our results suggest pre-eruptive magma storage between 20 and 39 km beneath Mt. Cameroon, which corresponds to the Moho level and below. Additionally, the 1999 eruption products reveal several shallow magma pockets between 3 and 12 km depth, which are not detected in the 2000 lavas. This implies that small-volume magma batches actively migrate through the plumbing system during repose intervals. Evolving and migrating magma parcels potentially cause temporary unrest and short-lived explosive outbursts, and may be remobilized during major eruptions that are fed from sub-Moho magma reservoirs.

  15. A defect in the thymidine kinase 2 gene causing isolated mitochondrial myopathy without mtDNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshinsky-Silver, E; Michelson, M; Cohen, S; Ginsberg, M; Sadeh, M; Barash, V; Lerman-Sagie, T; Lev, D

    2008-07-01

    Isolated mitochondrial myopathies (IMM) are either due to primary defects in mtDNA, in nuclear genes that control mtDNA abundance and structure such as thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), or due to CoQ deficiency. Defects in the TK2 gene have been found to be associated with mtDNA depletion attributed to a depleted mitochondrial dNTP pool in non-dividing cells. We report an unusual case of IMM, homozygous for the H90N mutation in the TK2 gene but unlike other cases with the same mutation, does not demonstrate mtDNA depletion. The patient's clinical course is relatively mild and a muscle biopsy showed ragged red muscle fibers with a mild decrease in complexes I and an increase in complexes IV and II activities. This report extends the phenotypic expression of TK2 defects and suggests that all patients who present with an IMM even with normal quantities of mtDNA should be screened for TK2 mutations.

  16. Brain activity patterns uniquely supporting visual feature integration after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali eRaja Beharelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI patients typically respond more slowly and with more variability than controls during tasks of attention requiring speeded reaction time. These behavioral changes are attributable, at least in part, to diffuse axonal injury (DAI, which affects integrated processing in distributed systems. Here we use a multivariate method sensitive to distributed neural activity to compare brain activity patterns of patients with chronic phase moderate-to-severe TBI to those of controls during performance on a visual feature-integration task assessing complex attentional processes that has previously shown sensitivity to TBI. The TBI patients were carefully screened to be free of large focal lesions that can affect performance and brain activation independently of DAI. The task required subjects to hold either one or three features of a target in mind while suppressing responses to distracting information. In controls, the multi-feature condition activated a distributed network including limbic, prefrontal, and medial temporal structures. TBI patients engaged this same network in the single-feature and baseline conditions. In multi-feature presentations, TBI patients alone activated additional frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These results are consistent with neuroimaging studies using tasks assessing different cognitive domains, where increased spread of brain activity changes was associated with TBI. Our results also extend previous findings that brain activity for relatively moderate task demands in TBI patients is similar to that associated with of high task demands in controls.

  17. ATLAS : magnet industrial production Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    With overall dimensions of 26 meters in length and 20 meters in diameter, the ATLAS magnet system is the largest integrated superconducting magnet ever built. The system is made up of four super-conducting magnets, a power supply, cryogenics, vacuum, control, and safety systems. The coils are built with Aluminum stabilized NbTi/Cu superconductor indirectly cooled at 4.5 K by liquid Helium forced flow.

  18. Sex hormone activity in alcohol addiction: integrating organizational and activational effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Bernd; Müller, Christian P; Stoessel, Christina; Sperling, Wolfgang; Biermann, Teresa; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    There are well-known sex differences in the epidemiology and etiopathology of alcohol dependence. Male gender is a crucial risk factor for the onset of alcohol addiction. A directly modifying role of testosterone in alcohol addiction-related behavior is well established. Sex hormones exert both permanent (organizational) and transient (activational) effects on the human brain. The sensitive period for these effects lasts throughout life. In this article, we present a novel early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction. We propose that early exposure to sex hormones triggers structural (organizational) neuroadaptations. These neuroadaptations affect cellular and behavioral responses to adult sex hormones, sensitize the brain's reward system to the reinforcing properties of alcohol and modulate alcohol addictive behavior later in life. This review outlines clinical findings related to the early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction (handedness, the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio, and the androgen receptor and aromatase) and includes clinical and preclinical literature regarding the activational effects of sex hormones in alcohol drinking behavior. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes and the opioid system in mediating the relationship between sex hormone activity and alcohol dependence. We conclude that a combination of exposure to sex hormones in utero and during early development contributes to the risk of alcohol addiction later in life. The early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of a non-hypercalcemic vitamin-D2 derived anti-cancer agent (MT19c and inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in an ovarian cancer xenograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous vitamin-D analogs exhibited poor response rates, high systemic toxicities and hypercalcemia in human trials to treat cancer. We identified the first non-hypercalcemic anti-cancer vitamin D analog MT19c by altering the A-ring of ergocalciferol. This study describes the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of MT19c in both in vitro and in vivo models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Antitumor efficacy of MT19c was evaluated in ovarian cancer cell (SKOV-3 xenografts in nude mice and a syngenic rat ovarian cancer model. Serum calcium levels of MT19c or calcitriol treated animals were measured. In-silico molecular docking simulation and a cell based VDR reporter assay revealed MT19c-VDR interaction. Genomewide mRNA analysis of MT19c treated tumors identified drug targets which were verified by immunoblotting and microscopy. Quantification of cellular malonyl CoA was carried out by HPLC-MS. A binding study with PPAR-Y receptor was performed. MT19c reduced ovarian cancer growth in xenograft and syngeneic animal models without causing hypercalcemia or acute toxicity. MT19c is a weak vitamin-D receptor (VDR antagonist that disrupted the interaction between VDR and coactivator SRC2-3. Genome-wide mRNA analysis and western blot and microscopy of MT19c treated xenograft tumors showed inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN activity. MT19c reduced cellular levels of malonyl CoA in SKOV-3 cells and inhibited EGFR/phosphoinositol-3kinase (PI-3K activity independently of PPAR-gamma protein. SIGNIFICANCE: Antitumor effects of non-hypercalcemic agent MT19c provide a new approach to the design of vitamin-D based anticancer molecules and a rationale for developing MT19c as a therapeutic agent for malignant ovarian tumors by targeting oncogenic de novo lipogenesis.

  20. Molecular radiotherapy: The NUKFIT software for calculating the time-integrated activity coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kletting, P.; Schimmel, S.; Luster, M. [Klinik für Nuklearmedizin, Universität Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Kestler, H. A. [Research Group Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Institut für Neuroinformatik, Universität Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Lassmann, M. [Klinik für Nuklearmedizin, Universität Würzburg, Würzburg 97080 (Germany); Bröer, J. H.; Nosske, D. [Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit, Oberschleißheim 85764 (Germany); Glatting, G. [Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim 68167 (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Calculation of the time-integrated activity coefficient (residence time) is a crucial step in dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy. However, available software is deficient in that it is either not tailored for the use in molecular radiotherapy and/or does not include all required estimation methods. The aim of this work was therefore the development and programming of an algorithm which allows for an objective and reproducible determination of the time-integrated activity coefficient and its standard error.Methods: The algorithm includes the selection of a set of fitting functions from predefined sums of exponentials and the choice of an error model for the used data. To estimate the values of the adjustable parameters an objective function, depending on the data, the parameters of the error model, the fitting function and (if required and available) Bayesian information, is minimized. To increase reproducibility and user-friendliness the starting values are automatically determined using a combination of curve stripping and random search. Visual inspection, the coefficient of determination, the standard error of the fitted parameters, and the correlation matrix are provided to evaluate the quality of the fit. The functions which are most supported by the data are determined using the corrected Akaike information criterion. The time-integrated activity coefficient is estimated by analytically integrating the fitted functions. Its standard error is determined assuming Gaussian error propagation. The software was implemented using MATLAB.Results: To validate the proper implementation of the objective function and the fit functions, the results of NUKFIT and SAAM numerical, a commercially available software tool, were compared. The automatic search for starting values was successfully tested for reproducibility. The quality criteria applied in conjunction with the Akaike information criterion allowed the selection of suitable functions. Function fit

  1. Integration of Multiple Data Sources for predicting the Engagement of Students in Practical Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llanos Tobarra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the integration of an automatic assessment system for virtual/remote laboratories and the institutional Learning Management System (LMS, in order to analyze the students’ progress and their collaborative learning in virtual/remote laboratories. As a result of this integration, it is feasible to extract useful information for the characterization of the students’ learning process and detecting the students’ engagement with the practical activities of our subjects. From this integration, a dashboard has been created to graphically present to lecturers the analyzed results. Thanks to this, faculty can use the analyzed information in order to guide the learning/teaching process of each student. As an example, a subject focused on the configuration of network services has been chosen to implement our proposal.

  2. A school excursion to a museum can promote physical activity in children by integrating movement into curricular activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Lærke; Kryger, Tine; Sidenius, Gry

    2017-01-01

    Since children spend a large proportion of their time in institutional settings such as schools, health promotion researchers have identified this as an important setting to promote physical activity (PA). Apart from physical education, PA could be integrated into the school curriculum in other...... consisted of an excursion day to a museum. While an increase in light physical activity and reduction in the amount of sedentary time was observed, students did not spend more time in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during the visit to the museum than on a regular school day. However, over the full excursion...... day, the students accumulated more MVPA. One school used active transportation to and from the museum, which contributed to significantly more MVPA compared to the other schools. An excursion to a museum significantly reduced sedentary time, but was in itself not sufficient to increase MVPA....

  3. A school excursion to a museum can promote physical activity in children by integrating movement into curricular activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Lærke; Kryger, Tine B; Sidenius, Gry

    2018-01-01

    day, the students accumulated more MVPA. One school used active transportation to and from the museum, which contributed to significantly more MVPA compared to the other schools. An excursion to a museum significantly reduced sedentary time, but was in itself not sufficient to increase MVPA.......Since children spend a large proportion of their time in institutional settings such as schools, health promotion researchers have identified this as an important setting to promote physical activity (PA). Apart from physical education, PA could be integrated into the school curriculum in other...... consisted of an excursion day to a museum. While an increase in light physical activity and reduction in the amount of sedentary time was observed, students did not spend more time in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during the visit to the museum than on a regular school day. However, over the full excursion...

  4. Integrating nanotubes into microsystems with electron beam lithography and in situ catalytically activated growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerde, Kjetil; Fornés-Mora, Marc; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    Integration of freestanding wire-like structures such as multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into microsystems has many potential applications. Devices such as AFM tips or improved electrodes for conductivity measurements are obvious candidates. Catalytically activated growth opens up the possi......Integration of freestanding wire-like structures such as multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into microsystems has many potential applications. Devices such as AFM tips or improved electrodes for conductivity measurements are obvious candidates. Catalytically activated growth opens up...... the possibility of waferscale fabrication of such devices. We combine conventional microfabrication techniques with state of the art electron beam lithography (EBL) to precisely position catalyst nanoparticles with sub 100 nm diameter into the microsystems. In particular, we have explored two main approaches...

  5. MT3825BA: a 384×288-25µm ROIC for uncooled microbolometer FPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Gulden, M. Ali; Bayhan, Nusret; Incedere, O. Samet; Soyer, S. Tuncer; Ustundag, Cem M. B.; Isikhan, Murat; Kocak, Serhat; Turan, Ozge; Yalcin, Cem; Akin, Tayfun

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new microbolometer Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) called MT3825BA. It has a format of 384 × 288 and a pixel pitch of 25μm. MT3825BA is Mikro-Tasarim's second microbolometer ROIC product, which is developed specifically for resistive surface micro-machined microbolometer detector arrays using high-TCR pixel materials, such as VOx and a-Si. MT3825BA has a system-on-chip architecture, where all the timing, biasing, and pixel non-uniformity correction (NUC) operations in the ROIC are applied using on-chip circuitry simplifying the use and system integration of this ROIC. The ROIC is designed to support pixel resistance values ranging from 30 KΩ to 100 KΩ. MT3825BA is operated using conventional row based readout method, where pixels in the array are read out in a row-by-row basis, where the applied bias for each pixel in a given row is updated at the beginning of each line period according to the applied line based NUC data. The NUC data is applied continuously in a row-by-row basis using the serial programming interface, which is also used to program user configurable features of the ROIC, such as readout gain, integration time, and number of analog video outputs. MT3825BA has a total of 4 analog video outputs and 2 analog reference outputs, placed at the top and bottom of the ROIC, which can be programmed to operate in the 1, 2, and 4-output modes, supporting frames rates well above 60 fps at a 3 MHz pixel output rate. The pixels in the array are read out with respect to reference pixels implemented above and below actual array pixels. The bias voltage of the pixels can be programmed over a 1.0 V range to compensate for the changes in the detector resistance values due to the variations coming from the manufacturing process or changes in the operating temperature. The ROIC has an on-chip integrated temperature sensor with a sensitivity of better than 5 mV / K, and the output of the temperature sensor can be read out the

  6. Deep sequencing shows that oocytes are not prone to accumulate mtDNA heteroplasmic mutations during ovarian ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucret, L; Bris, C; Seegers, V; Goudenège, D; Desquiret-Dumas, V; Domin-Bernhard, M; Ferré-L'Hotellier, V; Bouet, P E; Descamps, P; Reynier, P; Procaccio, V; May-Panloup, P

    2017-10-01

    Does ovarian ageing increase the number of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations in oocytes? Our results suggest that oocytes are not subject to the accumulation of mtDNA point mutations during ovarian ageing. Ageing is associated with the alteration of mtDNA integrity in various tissues. Primary oocytes, present in the ovary since embryonic life, may accumulate mtDNA mutations during the process of ovarian ageing. This was an observational study of 53 immature oocyte-cumulus complexes retrieved from 35 women undergoing IVF at the University Hospital of Angers, France, from March 2013 to March 2014. The women were classified in two groups, one including 19 women showing signs of ovarian ageing objectified by a diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), and the other, including 16 women with a normal ovarian reserve (NOR), which served as a control group. mtDNA was extracted from isolated oocytes, and from their corresponding cumulus cells (CCs) considered as a somatic cell compartment. The average mtDNA content of each sample was assessed by using a quantitative real-time PCR technique. Deep sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Proton for Next-Generation Sequencing. Signal processing and base calling were done by the embedded pre-processing pipeline and the variants were analyzed using an in-house workflow. The distribution of the different variants between DOR and NOR patients, on one hand, and oocyte and CCs, on the other, was analyzed with the generalized mixed linear model to take into account the cluster of cells belonging to a given mother. There were no significant differences between the numbers of mtDNA variants between the DOR and the NOR patients, either in the oocytes (P = 0.867) or in the surrounding CCs (P = 0.154). There were also no differences in terms of variants with potential functional consequences. De-novo mtDNA variants were found in 28% of the oocytes and in 66% of the CCs with the mean number of variants being

  7. Activity Theory as a Framework for Investigating District-Classroom System Interactions and Their Influences on Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Anika Ball

    2012-01-01

    Technology implementation research indicates that teachers' beliefs and knowledge, as well as a host of institutional factors, can influence technology integration. Drawing on third-generation activity theory, this article conceptualizes technology implementation as a network of planning and integration activities carried out by technology…

  8. Linking hydrology of traditional irrigation canals and socio-economic aspects of agricultural water use around Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaro, Jerome; Scharsich, Valeska; Huwe, Bernd; Bogner, Christina

    2017-04-01

    for 8 big gravity pipe water projects for urban areas, for example. This abstraction of water amplifies several conflicts over water use between smallholder farmers, smallholder farmers and large irrigation schemes and between farmers and non-agricultural water users downstream. Furthermore, encroachments in the Mt. Kilimanjaro National Park were reported. In particular, forest communities adjacent to the park are involved in illegal activities like logging, grazing, cultivation and cutting firewood. Since most irrigation furrow start in the park, ongoing forest disturbances could have direct impact on their hydrology. We attribute those encroachments to poverty, low environmental awareness, poor land tenure system and a lack of an effective forest patrol. To resolve water use conflicts around Mt. Kilimanjaro, good governance practices including improved water distribution and resource management is required. This could be achieved through an integrated water resources management approach where both traditional and formal management institutions should work synergetically.

  9. Nuclear collapse observed during the eruption of Mt. Usu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Taka-aki

    2002-01-01

    Mt. Usu which was located about 70 km southwest from Sapporo in Hokkaido (the north island of Japan) began to erupt on March 31 in 2000. A nuclear emulsion was placed on a foot of Mt. Usu to catch small atomic clusters which were expected to be emitted during the eruption. Curious atomic clusters and their reaction products were successfully observed on surfaces of the nuclear emulsion. By comparing them with similar products which were obtained in previous experiments of discharge and electrolysis, it was concluded that micro Ball Lightning was really emitted during the eruption of Mt. Usu and that explosive reactions by nuclear collapse could have been involved to contribute to energy of the eruption. (author)

  10. Integrating Values in the Care Giving Activity from the Professional Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Delgado-Antolín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nurses trained more and more on scientific evidence, often focus their actions based fundamentally on scientific fact, leaving aside other important knowledge that intervene in the care giving relation: communication, personal relationships, respect in the relationship, and knowing all the values implied in said relationship. It is about these values and on their importance within care upon which the author reflects in this article, until concluding on how we can integrate values to the care giving activity.

  11. Integrating values in the care giving activity from the professional point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Antolín, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Nurses trained more and more on scientific evidence, often focus their actions based fundamentally on scientific fact, leaving aside other important knowledge that intervene in the care giving relation: communication, personal relationships, respect in the relationship, and knowing all the values implied in said relationship. It is about these values and on their importance within care upon which the author reflects in this article, until concluding on how we can integrate values to the care giving activity.

  12. Integration aspects of the system of resources’ provision for innovation activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Asmolova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Russian economy cannot be separated from the world tendencies. The research conducted by foreign and Russian scientists form the essential basis for further comprehensive analysis. The presence of individual features in the Russian economy determines the importance of ongoing scientific work, both from the theoretical and practical points of view. Meanwhile, there is a lack of methodological writings. This fact determines the necessity to study the integration aspects using methodological approaches. The foundation of the methods that implement the functions of the state for the support of innovation activity made it possible to substantiate the role of innovative resources such as knowledge and information in the formation of the environment of innovation. In this regard, we formulated the strategies of resources’ provision for innovation activity, analyzed them and specified the problems of modern Russian economy that influence the integration engagement of the economic entities. The obtained findings determine the number of conditions for the renewal of economic and social systems and allow us to draw a number of conclusions. The effectiveness of the internalization of knowledge for the commercialization of innovations and the development of the integration processes of the system of resources’ provision for innovation activity is determined by the evolutionary and informational factors. The synergy of such processes will be seen in the increase of management efficiency in the system of resources’ provision for innovation activities at the subregion level and the rise of weight of innovative resources into the economic growth of the country's innovative economy. The evaluation of the current processes will be more reliable if a private innovative strategy is chosen, considering as well the integration engagement of the economic entities and the nature of globalization in the modern economy. These conclusions

  13. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, H.M.; Brdar, R.D.

    1996-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports the commercialization of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems. This overview briefly describes the supporting RD&D activities and the IGCC projects selected for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program.

  14. A community proposal to integrate proteomics activities in ELIXIR [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Vizcaíno

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational approaches have been major drivers behind the progress of proteomics in recent years. The aim of this white paper is to provide a framework for integrating computational proteomics into ELIXIR in the near future, and thus to broaden the portfolio of omics technologies supported by this European distributed infrastructure. This white paper is the direct result of a strategy meeting on ‘The Future of Proteomics in ELIXIR’ that took place in March 2017 in Tübingen (Germany, and involved representatives of eleven ELIXIR nodes.   These discussions led to a list of priority areas in computational proteomics that would complement existing activities and close gaps in the portfolio of tools and services offered by ELIXIR so far. We provide some suggestions on how these activities could be integrated into ELIXIR’s existing platforms, and how it could lead to a new ELIXIR use case in proteomics. We also highlight connections to the related field of metabolomics, where similar activities are ongoing. This white paper could thus serve as a starting point for the integration of computational proteomics into ELIXIR. Over the next few months we will be working closely with all stakeholders involved, and in particular with other representatives of the proteomics community, to further refine this paper.

  15. Design of a New Integrated Structure of the Active Suspension System and Emergency Lane Change Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-bo; Liu, Hai-mei; Zhang, Lan-chun; Bei, Shao-yi

    2017-09-01

    An integrated structure of the active suspension system was proposed in order to solve the problem of the individual control of the height of the body or the adjustable damping of the active suspension system of the electric vehicle, which improve the vibration reduction performance of the vehicle. The air bag was used to replace the traditional spiral spring, and the traditional shock absorber was replaced by the damping adjustable shock absorber, and the control module received the body acceleration sensor and the horizontal height sensor signal. The system controlled adjustable damping coefficient of shock absorber through the height of the car body the output of the air pump relay and the height control valve and the output of the electromagnetic valve of the adjustable damping shock absorber, and the emergency lane change test was carried out under different modes of speed of 60km/h. The experimental results indicated that the damping value was greater, average roll angle, yaw angle and average vehicle lateral acceleration were small when vehicle body was in the state of emergency lane change, which verified the feasibility of the integrated control strategy and structure design of the active suspension system. The research has important theoretical research value and engineering application prospect for designing and controlling strategy of vehicle chassis integrated control system.

  16. High-power fiber optic cable with integrated active sensors for live process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomster, Ola; Blomqvist, Mats; Bergstrand, Hans; Pålsson, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    In industrial applications using high-brilliance lasers at power levels up to and exceeding 20 kW and similarly direct diode lasers of 10 kW, there is an increasing demand to continuously monitor component status even in passive components such as fiber-optic cables. With fiber-optic cables designed according to the European Automotive Industry fiber standard interface there is room for integrating active sensors inside the connectors. In this paper we present the integrated active sensors in the new Optoskand QD fiber-optic cable designed to handle extreme levels of power losses, and how these sensors can be employed in industrial manufacturing. The sensors include photo diodes for detection of scattered light inside the fiber connector, absolute temperature of the fiber connector, difference in temperature of incoming and outgoing cooling water, and humidity measurement inside the fiber connector. All these sensors are connected to the fiber interlock system, where interlock break enable functions can be activated when measured signals are higher than threshold levels. It is a very fast interlock break system as the control of the signals is integrated in the electronics inside the fiber connector. Also, since all signals can be logged it is possible to evaluate what happened inside the connector before the interlock break instance. The communication to the fiber-optic connectors is via a CAN interface. Thus it is straightforward to develop the existing laser host control to also control the CAN-messages from the QD sensors.

  17. Integrating Online and Active Learning in a Computer-Assisted Translation Workbench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabau, Vicent; González-Rubio, Jésus; Ortíz-Martínez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study with a computed-assisted translation workbench aiming at testing the integration of online and active learning features. We investigate the effect of these features on translation productivity, using interactive translation prediction (ITP) as a baseline. User...... activity data were collected from five beta testers using key-logging and eye-tracking. User feedback was also collected at the end of the experiments in the form of retrospective think-aloud protocols. We found that OL performs better than ITP, especially in terms of translation speed. In addition, AL...

  18. Potentiated antibodies to mu-opiate receptors: effect on integrative activity of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiko, V V; Vorob'eva, T M; Berchenko, O G; Epstein, O I

    2003-01-01

    The effect of homeopathically potentiated antibodies to mu-receptors (10(-100) wt %) on integrative activity of rat brain was studied using the models of self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus and convulsions produced by electric current. Electric current was delivered through electrodes implanted into the ventromedial hypothalamus. Single treatment with potentiated antibodies to mu-receptors increased the rate of self-stimulation and decreased the threshold of convulsive seizures. Administration of these antibodies for 7 days led to further activation of the positive reinforcement system and decrease in seizure thresholds. Distilled water did not change the rate of self-stimulation and seizure threshold.

  19. MT Post-editing: A Text Repair Experience for the Foreign Language Class.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Niño

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Communication also means having to sort out the problems involved in learning a foreign language, especially with regards to production rather than reception. These learning strategies or skills can also be applied to translation teaching methodology, where students put in practice their risk taking, avoidance, reduction and/ or compensatory strategies in getting the message across. We acknowledge translation as a writing task constrained by the source text. In addition, the translation and the writing cycles have in common a generation stage and a revision stage where grammatical, lexical and stylistic correctness is assessed. Somewhere in the middle between translation and writing skills lies MT (Machine Translation post-editing that involves correcting the raw MT output with the aim of providing a quality text according to the intended purpose. Our research is intended to test the suitability of MT post-editing as an activity to promote error correction and, subsequently, to enhance written production in second and foreign language teaching.

  20. Radon measurements in the SE and NE flank of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Delfa, S.; Imme, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Morelli, D.; Patane, G.; Vizzini, F.

    2007-01-01

    Soil Radon has been monitored at two fixed sites located in the northeastern and southeastern flank of Mt. Etna. In this study we report the comparison between in-soil Radon concentration trend recorded in the SE flank and that one recorded in the NE one, where an in-soil Radon detection system is operating since 2001. The aim of this work was to implement the investigation area finding a suitable radon detection site, in the south-east flank of Mt. Etna, in order to better understand possible links between Radon anomalies and volcano dynamic. Radon data collected in NE and SE sites were compared with the volcanic tremor, frequency of occurrence of earthquakes and seismic strain-release recorded at a fixed 3D digital seismic station placed in the NE site. Same general in-soil Radon trends and anomalies were found in both sites. These results have confirmed the suitability of the chosen southeastern site for the in-soil Radon monitoring at Mt. Etna. The comparison of the recorded Radon concentration anomalies with seismicity and volcanic tremor trends, has also verified a possible link with the volcanic activity, as observed in our previous published studies

  1. Joint TEM and MT aquifer study in the Atacama Desert, North Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthsatz, Alexander D.; Sarmiento Flores, Alvaro; Diaz, Daniel; Reinoso, Pablo Salazar; Herrera, Cristian; Brasse, Heinrich

    2018-06-01

    The Atacama Desert represents one of the driest regions on earth, and despite the absence of sustainable clean water reserves the demand has increased drastically since 1970 as a result of growing population and expanding mining activities. Magnetotelluric (MT) and Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) measurements were carried out for groundwater exploration in late 2015 in the area of the Profeta Basin at the western margin of the Chilean Precordillera. Both methods complement each other: While MT in general attains larger penetration depths, TEM allows better resolution of near surface layers; furthermore TEM is free from galvanic distortion. Data were collected along three profiles, enabling a continuous resistivity image from the surface to at least several hundred meters depth. TEM data were inverted in a 1-D manner, consistently yielding a poorly conductive near-surface layer with a thickness of approximately 30 m and below a well-conducting layer which we interpret as the aquifer with resistivities around 10 Ωm. At marginal sites of the main SW-NE-profile the resistive basement was found in 150 m. These depths are confirmed by interpretation of the MT soundings. Those were firstly inverted with a 2-D approach and then by 3-D inversion as clear indications of three-dimensionality exist. Several modeling runs were performed with different combinations of transfer functions and smoothing parameters. Generally, MT and TEM results agree reasonably well and an overall image of the resistivity structures in the Profeta Basin could be achieved. The aquifer reaches depths of more than 500 m in parts and, by applying Archie's law, resistivities of 1 Ωm can be assumed, indicating highly saline fluids from the source region of the surrounding high Andes under persisting arid conditions.

  2. Alterations in mtDNA, gastric carcinogenesis and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Antunes, S; Borges, B N

    2018-05-26

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Due to this, efforts are being made to improve the diagnosis of this neoplasm and the search for molecular markers that may be involved in its genesis. Within this perspective, the mitochondrial DNA is considered as a potential candidate, since it has several well documented changes and is readily accessible. However, numerous alterations have been reported in mtDNA, not facilitating the visualization of which alterations and molecular markers are truly involved with gastric carcinogenesis. This review presents a compilation of the main known changes relating mtDNA to gastric cancer and their clinical significance.

  3. Integrative exercise and lifestyle intervention increases leisure-time activity in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, Soraya; Hojman, Pernille; Cubedo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been demonstrated to increase survival in breast cancer patients, but few breast cancer patients meet the general recommendations for physical activity. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if a supervised integrated counseling and group-based exercise...... program could increase leisure-time activity in women with breast cancer. METHODS: This pilot project, designed as a single-arm study with pre-post testing, consisted of 24 classes of combined aerobic and strength exercise training as well as classes on dietary and health behavior. A total of 48 women...... with breast cancer who were undergoing or had recently completed anticancer treatment completed the study. Leisure-time physical activity, grip strength, functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), and depression were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at the 12-week follow-up after intervention...

  4. Activating chronic kidney disease patients and family members through the Internet to promote integration of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Trisolini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the potential role of the Internet as a vehicle for improving integration of care through activating chronic kidney disease patients and their family members. Also, to describe how that potential is being developed through a website sponsored by the Medicare program in the United States. Background: The Internet is expanding at a rapid rate, and health-related websites are one of its most popular features. Efforts to promote integration of care have focused mainly on providers up to now, and more emphasis is needed on the potential roles of patients. Chronically ill patients have particular needs for improved education about their conditions and enhanced involvement in care planning and treatment decisions. Medicare developed the Dialysis Facility Compare website to serve those goals for people with chronic kidney disease. Methods: We conducted qualitative research with 140 chronic kidney disease patients and family members, and 130 renal care professionals to evaluate and improve the Dialysis Facility Compare website. A series of 19 focus groups, 13 triads (small focus groups, and 56 individual interviews were conducted in four regions of the United States and by telephone. Results: We found that the Dialysis Facility Compare website has the potential to improve integration of care for people with chronic kidney disease in at least three ways. First: by expanding the roles of patients as members of the multi-disciplinary team of caregivers treating their disease. Second: through better integration of the informal care provided in the home and community with the formal care provided by health professionals. Third: by improving coordination of between care provided in the pre-dialysis and dialysis phases of the disease. Discussion: We developed recommendations for revising and enhancing the Dialysis Facility Compare website in a number of ways to better promote patient activation and integration of care. The unique features

  5. Molecular radiotherapy: the NUKFIT software for calculating the time-integrated activity coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletting, P; Schimmel, S; Kestler, H A; Hänscheid, H; Luster, M; Fernández, M; Bröer, J H; Nosske, D; Lassmann, M; Glatting, G

    2013-10-01

    Calculation of the time-integrated activity coefficient (residence time) is a crucial step in dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy. However, available software is deficient in that it is either not tailored for the use in molecular radiotherapy and/or does not include all required estimation methods. The aim of this work was therefore the development and programming of an algorithm which allows for an objective and reproducible determination of the time-integrated activity coefficient and its standard error. The algorithm includes the selection of a set of fitting functions from predefined sums of exponentials and the choice of an error model for the used data. To estimate the values of the adjustable parameters an objective function, depending on the data, the parameters of the error model, the fitting function and (if required and available) Bayesian information, is minimized. To increase reproducibility and user-friendliness the starting values are automatically determined using a combination of curve stripping and random search. Visual inspection, the coefficient of determination, the standard error of the fitted parameters, and the correlation matrix are provided to evaluate the quality of the fit. The functions which are most supported by the data are determined using the corrected Akaike information criterion. The time-integrated activity coefficient is estimated by analytically integrating the fitted functions. Its standard error is determined assuming Gaussian error propagation. The software was implemented using MATLAB. To validate the proper implementation of the objective function and the fit functions, the results of NUKFIT and SAAM numerical, a commercially available software tool, were compared. The automatic search for starting values was successfully tested for reproducibility. The quality criteria applied in conjunction with the Akaike information criterion allowed the selection of suitable functions. Function fit parameters and their standard

  6. Role of Integrated Outreach Activities in Improving Nutritional Status among Under-Five Children in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mudhwahi, Ali A

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to review the feasibility of scaling-up nutrition activities through integrated outreach activities to respond to development challenges. Evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of current packages of outreach services during the period of 2006-2014 is the aim of this review for better access to basic and social services and economic opportunities in Yemen. The two components of health system performance are related to: (i) the levels of coverage for health interventions; and (ii) financial risk protection, with a focus on equity. In this sense, Yemen's intervention coverage indicators of the health-related MDGs, such as immunization, integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI), reproductive health (RH) and disease control including non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have shown good progress. Yet, malnutrition is still highly prevalent among under-five children in the country. Coverage indicators of the outreach approach in Yemen, which started in 2006, indicate a strong role of the integrated services in reaching under-five children of the most vulnerable communities with basic health services including preventive and curative ones. As well, these activities respond to the financial risk protection challenges with enhancing efficiency in the provision of health services. Considering that nutrition is part of the package of integrated outreach services, inter-related measures of universal coverage in Yemen are to be addressed together with setting the impact indicators for essential health services coverage targeting the neediest populations. Coverage of health services encompasses the full targeted population in the most malnutrition-affected areas, especially the west coast of the country, for intervention and for the age group these services are directed to.

  7. Measurement of the top quark mass in the dileptonic ttbar decay channel using the mass observables Mbl, MT2, and Mblv in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-04-20

    A measurement of the top quark mass (M[t]) in the dileptonic ttbar decay channel is performed using data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data was recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 +/- 0.5 inverse femtobarns. Events are selected with two oppositely charged leptons (l = e, mu) and two jets identified as originating from b quarks. The analysis is based on three kinematic observables whose distributions are sensitive to the value of M[t]. An invariant mass observable, M[b l], and a `stransverse mass' observable, M[T2], are employed in a simultaneous fit to determine the value of M[t] and an overall jet energy scale factor (JSF). A complementary approach is used to construct an invariant mass observable, M[b l nu], that is combined with M[T2] to measure M[t]. The shapes of the observables, along with their evolutions in M[t] and JSF, are modeled by a nonparametric Gaussian process regression technique. The sensitivity of the observables to the value of M[t] is investigated using a Fisher information density method. The top quark mass is measured to be 172.22 +/- 0.18 (stat) +0.89/-0.93 (syst) GeV.

  8. Expression of the MT1 Melatonin Receptor in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jablonska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer (OC is the leading cause of death among women with genital tract disorders. Melatonin exhibits oncostatic properties which it may effect through binding to its membrane receptor, MT1. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MT1 in OC cells and to correlate this with clinical and pathological data. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 84 cases of OC. Normal ovarian epithelial (IOSE 364 and OC (SK-OV-3, OVCAR-3 cell lines were used to examine the MT1 expression at protein level using the western blot and immunofluorescence technique. The expression of MT1 was observed as cytoplasmic-membrane (MT1CM and membrane (MT1M reactions. A positive correlation between MT1CM and MT1M was found in all the studied cases. There were no significant differences between the expression of MT1CM, MT1M, and histological type, staging, grading, presence of residual disease, or overall survival time. Immunofluorescence showed both MT1M and MT1CM expression in all the tested cell lines. Western blot illustrated the highest protein level of MT1 in IOSE 364 and the lowest in the OVCAR-3. The results indicate the limited prognostic significance of MT1 in OC cells.

  9. A novel mutation MT-COIII m.9267G>C and MT-COI m.5913G>A mutation in mitochondrial genes in a Tunisian family with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) associated with sever nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabebi, Mouna; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Mnif, Mouna; Kallabi, Fakhri; Ben Mahmoud, Afif; Ben Saad, Wafa; Charfi, Nadia; Keskes-Ammar, Leila; Kamoun, Hassen; Abid, Mohamed; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial diabetes (MD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by a chronic hyperglycemia, maternal transmission and its association with a bilateral hearing impairment. Several studies reported mutations in mitochondrial genes as potentially pathogenic for diabetes, since mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation plays an important role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta cells. In the present report, we studied a Tunisian family with mitochondrial diabetes (MD) and deafness associated with nephropathy. The mutational analysis screening revealed the presence of a novel heteroplasmic mutation m.9276G>C in the mitochondrial COIII gene, detected in mtDNA extracted from leukocytes of a mother and her two daughters indicating that this mutation is maternally transmitted and suggest its implication in the observed phenotype. Bioinformatic tools showed that m.9267G>C mutation (p.A21P) is « deleterious » and it can modify the function and the stability of the MT-COIII protein by affecting the assembly of mitochondrial COX subunits and the translocation of protons then reducing the activity of the respective OXPHOS complexes of ATP synthesis. The nonsynonymous mutation (p.A21P) has not been reported before, it is the first mutation described in the COXIII gene which is related to insulin dependent mitochondrial diabetes and deafness and could be specific to the Tunisian population. The m.9267G>C mutation was present with a nonsynonymous inherited mitochondrial homoplasmic variation MT-COI m.5913 G>A (D4N) responsible of high blood pressure, a clinical feature detected in all explored patients. - Highlights: • MT-COX3 m.9267G>C (p.A21P), heteroplasmic substitution, is not reported in any database. • m.9267G>C can be responsible of the MIDD associated with nephropaty. • This substitution can modify the function and the stability of the MT-CO3 protein. • This substitution can modify MT-CO3 structure (2D and 3D). • MT-COX3 m.9267G>C is associated

  10. A novel mutation MT-COIII m.9267G>C and MT-COI m.5913G>A mutation in mitochondrial genes in a Tunisian family with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) associated with sever nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabebi, Mouna, E-mail: mouna.biologiste@yahoo.com [Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Faculté de Médecine de Sfax, Université de Sfax (Tunisia); Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna [Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Faculté de Médecine de Sfax, Université de Sfax (Tunisia); Mnif, Mouna [Service d' endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Kallabi, Fakhri; Ben Mahmoud, Afif [Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Faculté de Médecine de Sfax, Université de Sfax (Tunisia); Ben Saad, Wafa; Charfi, Nadia [Service d' endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Keskes-Ammar, Leila; Kamoun, Hassen [Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Faculté de Médecine de Sfax, Université de Sfax (Tunisia); Abid, Mohamed [Service d' endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Fakhfakh, Faiza, E-mail: faiza.fakhfakh@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Faculté de Médecine de Sfax, Université de Sfax (Tunisia)

    2015-04-10

    Mitochondrial diabetes (MD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by a chronic hyperglycemia, maternal transmission and its association with a bilateral hearing impairment. Several studies reported mutations in mitochondrial genes as potentially pathogenic for diabetes, since mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation plays an important role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta cells. In the present report, we studied a Tunisian family with mitochondrial diabetes (MD) and deafness associated with nephropathy. The mutational analysis screening revealed the presence of a novel heteroplasmic mutation m.9276G>C in the mitochondrial COIII gene, detected in mtDNA extracted from leukocytes of a mother and her two daughters indicating that this mutation is maternally transmitted and suggest its implication in the observed phenotype. Bioinformatic tools showed that m.9267G>C mutation (p.A21P) is « deleterious » and it can modify the function and the stability of the MT-COIII protein by affecting the assembly of mitochondrial COX subunits and the translocation of protons then reducing the activity of the respective OXPHOS complexes of ATP synthesis. The nonsynonymous mutation (p.A21P) has not been reported before, it is the first mutation described in the COXIII gene which is related to insulin dependent mitochondrial diabetes and deafness and could be specific to the Tunisian population. The m.9267G>C mutation was present with a nonsynonymous inherited mitochondrial homoplasmic variation MT-COI m.5913 G>A (D4N) responsible of high blood pressure, a clinical feature detected in all explored patients. - Highlights: • MT-COX3 m.9267G>C (p.A21P), heteroplasmic substitution, is not reported in any database. • m.9267G>C can be responsible of the MIDD associated with nephropaty. • This substitution can modify the function and the stability of the MT-CO3 protein. • This substitution can modify MT-CO3 structure (2D and 3D). • MT-COX3 m.9267G>C is associated

  11. Integrated modulation of phorbol ester-induced Raf activation in EL4 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shujie; Meier, Kathryn E

    2009-05-01

    The EL4 murine lymphoma cell line exists in variant phenotypes that differ with respect to responses to the tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA1). Previous work showed that "PMA-sensitive" cells, characterized by a high magnitude of PMA-induced Erk activation, express RasGRP, a phorbol ester receptor that directly activates Ras. In "PMA-resistant" and "intermediate" EL4 cell lines, PMA induces Erk activation to lesser extents, but with a greater response in intermediate cells. In the current study, these cell lines were used to examine mechanisms of Raf-1 modulation. Phospho-specific antibodies were utilized to define patterns and kinetics of Raf-1 phosphorylation on several sites. Further studies showed that Akt is constitutively activated to a greater extent in PMA-resistant than in PMA-sensitive cells, and also to a greater extent in resistant than intermediate cells. Akt negatively regulates Raf-1 activation (Ser259), partially explaining the difference between resistant and intermediate cells. Erk activation exerts negative feedback on Raf-1 (Ser289/296/301), thus resulting in earlier termination of the signal in cells with a higher level of Erk activation. RKIP, a Raf inhibitory protein, is expressed at higher levels in resistant cells than in sensitive or intermediate cells. Knockdown of RKIP increases Erk activation and also negative feedback. In conclusion, this study delineates Raf-1 phosphorylation events occurring in response to PMA in cell lines with different extents of Erk activation. Variations in the levels of expression and activation of multiple signaling proteins work in an integrated fashion to modulate the extent and duration of Erk activation.

  12. A biomolecular proportional integral controller based on feedback regulations of protein level and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairet, Francis

    2018-02-01

    Homeostasis is the capacity of living organisms to keep internal conditions regulated at a constant level, despite environmental fluctuations. Integral feedback control is known to play a key role in this behaviour. Here, I show that a feedback system involving transcriptional and post-translational regulations of the same executor protein acts as a proportional integral (PI) controller, leading to enhanced transient performances in comparison with a classical integral loop. Such a biomolecular controller-which I call a level and activity-PI controller (LA-PI)-is involved in the regulation of ammonium uptake by Escherichia coli through the transporter AmtB. The P II molecules, which reflect the nitrogen status of the cell, inhibit both the production of AmtB and its activity (via the NtrB-NtrC system and the formation of a complex with GlnK, respectively). Other examples of LA-PI controller include copper and zinc transporters, and the redox regulation in photosynthesis. This scheme has thus emerged through evolution in many biological systems, surely because of the benefits it offers in terms of performances (rapid and perfect adaptation) and economy (protein production according to needs).

  13. Integrator element as a promoter of active learning in engineering teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo C.; Oliveira, Cristina G.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a teaching proposal used in an Introductory Physics course to civil engineering students from Porto's Engineering Institute/Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (ISEP). The proposal was born from the need to change students' perception and motivation for learning physics. It consists in the use of an integrator element, called the physics elevator project. This integrator element allows us to use, in a single project, all the content taught in the course and uses several active learning strategies. In this paper, we analyse this project as: (i) a clarifying element of the contents covered in the course; (ii) a promoter element of motivation and active participation in class and finally and (iii) a link between the contents covered in the course and the 'real world'. The data were collected by a questionnaire and interviews to students. From the data collected, it seems that the integrator element improves students' motivation towards physics and develops several skills that they consider to be important to their professional future. It also acts as a clarifying element and makes the connection between the physics that is taught and the 'real world'.

  14. Ezra Pound and Du Fu: Gazing at Mt. Tai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Su

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Confined to a six-by-six-foot outdoor steel cage, Ezra Pound saw a series of mountain hills from a few miles to the east of Pisa. The poet compared one of these small 800-metre hills to the sacred Chinese Mt. Tai, which becomes the most common geographical name in The Pisan Cantos. Pound’s poetic summoning of this particular mountain is related to the fact that Mt. Tai is historically and culturally connected to the philosophy of Confucius, who personally ascended the mountain several times. Pound, as a devout Confucian disciple, closely follows the philosophical doctrines and attempts to mentally trace the footsteps of Confucius. This paper will argue how Pound’s poetic evocation of the mountain shares a striking similarity to an eighth-century Chinese poem called “Gazing at Mt. Tai,” which was written by the famous literatus - Du Fu 杜甫(712 – 770 . In spite of living in two completely different eras and countries, Pound’s and Du Fu’s reference to Mt. Tai demonstrates the confluence of their poetic spirits. Neither of them ascended mountain personally. They instead made use of their poetic imagination to follow the paths of Confucius and perceived the mountain as an earthly paradise, one which represents tranquillity and serenity away from the moral and physical corruption of the external world.

  15. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by sabaots of Mt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... medicinal plant species used to manage human ailments at Kopsiro Division Mt. ... The whole plant (1.8%), seed (1.2%), fruit (1.2%), sap (1.2%), flower (0.6%) ... as to maximize the sustainable use of these vital resources in the study area.

  16. 77 FR 44120 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Association (NBAA). The NBAA comments recommended that the FAA lower some of the adjacent Class E airspace...-0274; Airspace Docket No. 12-ANM-4] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace...

  17. MtDNA T4216C variation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    MtDNA T4216C variation has frequently been investigated in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients; nonetheless, controversy has existed about the evidence of association of this variation with susceptibility to MS. The present systematic review and meta-analysis converge the results of the preceding pu...

  18. 78 FR 67024 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... aid, Glasgow, MT. A favorable comment from the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) was.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History The FAA published a final rule in the Federal Register establishing Class E..., pursuant to the authority delegated to me, the description under the History heading, as published in the...

  19. 77 FR 55690 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dillon, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... Airport, Dillon, MT, to accommodate IFR aircraft executing new RNAV (GPS) standard instrument approach.... Steven L. Vale, Acting Manager, Operations Support Group, Western Service Center. [FR Doc. 2012-22269...

  20. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... fleet. Also, the location of the current maintenance shop impedes traffic flow and removes potential... new Sunrise Vehicle Maintenance Shop on the north side of the Sunrise parking lot. DATES: Comments... increasing parking capacity and improving traffic flow in at Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort. Parking capacity...

  1. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-224; MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  2. 76 FR 27914 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619, DA 11-750] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). [[Page 27915

  3. Integration of short bouts of physical activity into organizational routine a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; AuYoung, Mona; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Glenn, Beth A; Yancey, Antronette K

    2011-01-01

    Recommended daily physical activity accumulated in short intervals (e.g., organizational routine as part of the regular "conduct of business." PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases were searched in August 2009 (updated search in February and July 2010) to identify relevant, peer-reviewed journal articles and abstracts on school-, worksite-, and faith-based interventions of short, structurally integrated physical activity breaks. The majority of interventions implemented daily physical activity bouts of 10-15 minutes in length. Schools were the most common settings among the 40 published articles included in this review. The rigor of the studies varied by setting, with more than 75% of worksite versus 25% of school studies utilizing RCT designs. Studies focused on a broad range of outcomes, including academic/work performance indicators, mental health outcomes, and clinical disease risk indicators, in addition to physical activity level. Physical activity was the most commonly assessed outcome in school-based studies, with more than half of studies assessing and observing improvements in physical activity outcomes following the intervention. About a quarter of worksite-based studies assessed physical activity, and the majority found a positive effect of the intervention on physical activity levels. About half of studies also observed improvements in other relevant outcomes such as academic and work performance indicators (e.g., academic achievement, cognitive performance, work productivity); psychosocial factors (e.g., stress, mood); and clinical disease risk indicators (e.g., blood pressure, BMI). The average study duration was more than 1 year, and several reported outcomes at 3-6 years. Interventions integrating physical activity into organizational routine during everyday life have demonstrated modest but consistent benefits, particularly for physical activity, and these are promising avenues of investigation. The proportionately longer-term outcomes

  4. Interactive Whiteboard Integration in Classrooms: Active Teachers Understanding about Their Training Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Meritxell Cortada; Quintana, Maria Graciela Badilla; Romaní, Jordi Riera

    With the incorporation in education of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), especially the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB), emerges the need for a proper teacher training process due to adequate the integration and the didactic use of this tool in the classroom. This article discusses the teachers' perception on the training process for ICT integration. Its main aim is to contribute to the unification of minimum criteria for effective ICT implementation in any training process for active teachers. This case study begins from the development of a training model called Eduticom which was putted into practice in 4 schools in Catalonia, Spain. Findings indicated different teachers' needs such as an appropriate infrastructure, a proper management and a flexible training model which essentially addresses methodological and didactic aspects of IWB uses in the classroom.

  5. Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) types in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, L.H.; Koh, C.L.; Lim, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    Each human cell contains hundreds of mitochondria and thousands of double-stranded circular mtDNA. The delineation of human mtDNA variation and genetics over the past decade has provided unique and often startling insights into human evolution, degenerative diseases, and aging. Each mtDNA of 16,569 base pairs, encodes 13 polypeptides essential to the enzymes of the mitochondrial energy generating pathway, plus the necessary tRNAs and rRNAs. The highly polymorphic noncoding D-(displacement) loop region, also called the control region, is approximately 1.2 kb long. It contains two well-characterized hypervariable (HV-) regions, HV1 and HV2. MtDNA identification is usually based on these sequence differences. According to the TWTGDAM (Technical Working Group for DNA Analysis Methods), the minimum requirement for a mtDNA database for HV1 is from positions 16024 to 16365 and for HV2, from positions 00073 to 00340. The targeted Malaysian population subgroups for this study were mainly the Malays, Chinese, Indians, and indigenous Ibans, Bidayuhs, Kadazan-Dusuns, and Bajaus. Research methodologies undertaken included DNA extraction of samples from unrelated individuals, amplification of the specific regions via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and preparation of template DNA for sequencing by using an automated DNA sequencer. Sufficient nucleotide sequence data were generated from the mtDNA analysis. When the sequences were analyzed, sequence variations were found to be caused by nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Of the three causes of the sequence variations, nucleotide substitutions (86.1%) accounted for the vast majority of polymorphism. It is noted that transitions (83.5%) were predominant when compared to the significantly lower frequencies of transversions (2.6%). Insertions (0.9%) and deletions (13.0%) were rather rare and found only in HV2. The data generated will also form the basis of a Malaysian DNA sequence database of mtDNA D

  6. Early auditory processing in area V5/MT+ of the congenitally blind brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Kate E; Shakespeare, Timothy J; O'Donoghue, M Clare; Alexander, Iona; Ragge, Nicola; Cowey, Alan; Bridge, Holly

    2013-11-13

    Previous imaging studies of congenital blindness have studied individuals with heterogeneous causes of blindness, which may influence the nature and extent of cross-modal plasticity. Here, we scanned a homogeneous group of blind people with bilateral congenital anophthalmia, a condition in which both eyes fail to develop, and, as a result, the visual pathway is not stimulated by either light or retinal waves. This model of congenital blindness presents an opportunity to investigate the effects of very early visual deafferentation on the functional organization of the brain. In anophthalmic animals, the occipital cortex receives direct subcortical auditory input. We hypothesized that this pattern of subcortical reorganization ought to result in a topographic mapping of auditory frequency information in the occipital cortex of anophthalmic people. Using functional MRI, we examined auditory-evoked activity to pure tones of high, medium, and low frequencies. Activity in the superior temporal cortex was significantly reduced in anophthalmic compared with sighted participants. In the occipital cortex, a region corresponding to the cytoarchitectural area V5/MT+ was activated in the anophthalmic participants but not in sighted controls. Whereas previous studies in the blind indicate that this cortical area is activated to auditory motion, our data show it is also active for trains of pure tone stimuli and in some anophthalmic participants shows a topographic mapping (tonotopy). Therefore, this region appears to be performing early sensory processing, possibly served by direct subcortical input from the pulvinar to V5/MT+.

  7. INTEGRATED IMAGING APPROACHES SUPPORTING THE EXCAVATION ACTIVITIES. MULTI-SCALE GEOSPATIAL DOCUMENTATION IN HIERAPOLIS (TK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spanò

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the exploration of the suitability and the discretization of applicability issues about advanced surveying integrated techniques, mainly based on image-based approaches compared and integrated to range-based ones that have been developed with the use of the cutting-edge solutions tested on field. The investigated techniques integrate both technological devices for 3D data acquisition and thus editing and management systems to handle metric models and multi-dimensional data in a geospatial perspective, in order to innovate and speed up the extraction of information during the archaeological excavation activities. These factors, have been experienced in the outstanding site of the Hierapolis of Phrygia ancient city (Turkey, downstream the 2017 surveying missions, in order to produce high-scale metric deliverables in terms of high-detailed Digital Surface Models (DSM, 3D continuous surface models and high-resolution orthoimages products. In particular, the potentialities in the use of UAV platforms for low altitude acquisitions in aerial photogrammetric approach, together with terrestrial panoramic acquisitions (Trimble V10 imaging rover, have been investigated with a comparison toward consolidated Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS measurements. One of the main purposes of the paper is to evaluate the results offered by the technologies used independently and using integrated approaches. A section of the study in fact, is specifically dedicated to experimenting the union of different sensor dense clouds: both dense clouds derived from UAV have been integrated with terrestrial Lidar clouds, to evaluate their fusion. Different test cases have been considered, representing typical situations that can be encountered in archaeological sites.

  8. Role of Active Versus Passive Complementary and Integrative Health Approaches in Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, David; Lin, Erica

    2018-01-01

    A general conclusion about the treatment of chronic, noncancer pain is that the results from traditional, passive modalities are disheartening. Perhaps this may be due to the propensity of patients to seek out passive versus active treatments. In pain management, active treatments should be the primary focus, with passive interventions as an adjunct. The current study tested the hypotheses that Veterans would report a greater significant increase in active versus transitional and active versus passive complementary and integrative health (CIH) utilization after completing a formal pain education program. The current study is a secondary analysis of existing data from an original study. The current study used a quasi-experimental, 1-group, pre-/posttest design. One hundred three Veterans completed a 12-week, "Pain Education School" program at a Midwestern VA Medical Center between November 4, 2011, and October 26, 2012. As part of the introduction and conclusion of the program, all Veterans completed a pre- and posteducation assessment which included an adaptation of the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire©, SECTION A: Use of Alternative Health Care Providers measure. Significant differences were found between the pre- and posttest measures of use of active ( P  = .000) ( p pain education program also seems to be aligned with the goal of pain self-management, which is to utilize more active interventions as a primary therapy.

  9. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W.; Weng, Timothy B.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the Default Mode Network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. PMID:26493108

  11. Sixty minutes of what? A developing brain perspective for activating children with an integrative exercise approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Edwards, Nicholas M; Clark, Joseph F; Best, Thomas M; Sallis, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    Current recommendations for physical activity in children overlook the critical importance of motor skill acquisition early in life. Instead, they focus on the quantitative aspects of physical activity (eg, accumulate 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity) and selected health-related components of physical fitness (eg, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition). This focus on exercise quantity in youth may limit considerations of qualitative aspects of programme design which include (1) skill development, (2) socialisation and (3) enjoyment of exercise. The timing of brain development and associated neuroplasticity for motor skill learning makes the preadolescence period a critical time to develop and reinforce fundamental movement skills in boys and girls. Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) challenge current dogma that is currently focused on the quantitative rather than qualitative aspects of physical activity recommendations for youth and (2) synthesise the latest evidence regarding the brain and motor control that will provide the foundation for integrative exercise programming that provide a framework sustainable activity for life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Managing Active Learning Processes in Large First Year Physics Classes: The Advantages of an Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Drinkwater

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Turning lectures into interactive, student-led question and answer sessions is known to increase learning, but enabling interaction in a large class seems aninsurmountable task. This can discourage adoption of this new approach – who has time to individualize responses, address questions from over 200 students and encourage active participation in class? An approach adopted by a teaching team in large first-year classes at a research-intensive university appears to provide a means to do so. We describe the implementation of active learning strategies in a large first-year undergraduate physics unit of study, replacing traditional, content-heavy lectures with an integrated approach to question-driven learning. A key feature of our approach is that it facilitates intensive in-class discussions by requiring students to engage in preparatory reading and answer short written quizzes before every class. The lecturer uses software to rapidly analyze the student responses and identify the main issues faced by the students before the start of each class. We report the success of the integration of student preparation with this analysis and feedback framework, and the impact on the in-class discussions. We also address some of the difficulties commonly experienced by staff preparing for active learning classes.

  13. Integral Public Activities as a Support to the Site Selection Process for LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.

    2008-01-01

    The first site selection process for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository took place between 1990 and 1993 in Slovenia was stopped unsuccessfully with very strong public opposition at local level, followed by political withdrawal on national level. As one of the consequences ARAO started to develop new approach to the site selection based also on the findings from sociology, psychology and other human sciences. The recommendations on public involvement and transparency were so strong that ARAO started with first limited public relation (PR) activities which later grew to the PR process which supports all technical activities in ARAO. Presently the PR process covers communication, information and research activities and assures careful planning, prompt responds and involvement of the highest responsible persons at ARAO. Integral public relation activities are divided in several parts. Majority of activities support the on-going site selection process where activities are presently focused on functioning of local partnerships developed as a basic communication tool to involve as much citizens and public as possible on local level. Presently two local partnerships are working in Krsko and Brezice community with clear role to enhance public involvement according to Aarchus convention. Each of the partnerships is organized in a specific way adjusted to the local needs. Communication activities are organized also for different other projects and are preparing the necessary basis for the work with different groups of stake holders and in different situations. As a foundation very broad information material, such as books, leaflets, reports, magazines, video cassettes, CD and DVD on the radioactive waste management is prepared and used for different purposes. We also try to be proactive with web pages and have a well organized visitors' center. Improvement of public relation process is achieved through constant survey and feed-back information

  14. Integration of Active and Passive Safety Technologies--A Method to Study and Estimate Field Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Flannagan, Carol A; Bao, Shan; McCoy, Robert W; Siasoco, Kevin M; Barbat, Saeed

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a method that uses a combination of field data analysis, naturalistic driving data analysis, and computational simulations to explore the potential injury reduction capabilities of integrating passive and active safety systems in frontal impact conditions. For the purposes of this study, the active safety system is actually a driver assist (DA) feature that has the potential to reduce delta-V prior to a crash, in frontal or other crash scenarios. A field data analysis was first conducted to estimate the delta-V distribution change based on an assumption of 20% crash avoidance resulting from a pre-crash braking DA feature. Analysis of changes in driver head location during 470 hard braking events in a naturalistic driving study found that drivers' head positions were mostly in the center position before the braking onset, while the percentage of time drivers leaning forward or backward increased significantly after the braking onset. Parametric studies with a total of 4800 MADYMO simulations showed that both delta-V and occupant pre-crash posture had pronounced effects on occupant injury risks and on the optimal restraint designs. By combining the results for the delta-V and head position distribution changes, a weighted average of injury risk reduction of 17% and 48% was predicted by the 50th percentile Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) model and human body model, respectively, with the assumption that the restraint system can adapt to the specific delta-V and pre-crash posture. This study demonstrated the potential for further reducing occupant injury risk in frontal crashes by the integration of a passive safety system with a DA feature. Future analyses considering more vehicle models, various crash conditions, and variations of occupant characteristics, such as age, gender, weight, and height, are necessary to further investigate the potential capability of integrating passive and DA or active safety systems.

  15. THE ACTIVE INTEGRATED CIRCULAR PROCESS – EXPRESSION OF MAXIMUM SYNTHESIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Done Ioan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available "The accelerated pace of economic growth, prompted by the need to ensure reducing disparities between the various countries, has imposed in the last two decades the adoption of sustainable development principles, particularly as a result of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992 and the UNESCO Declaration in the fall of 1997. In specific literature, in essence, sustainable development is considered "an economic and social process that is characterized by a simultaneous and concerted action at global, regional and local level. Its objective is to provide living conditions both for the present and forth future. Sustainable development “encompasses the economic, ecological, social and political aspects, linked through cultural and spiritual relationships."(Coşea, 2007In Romania, achieving sustainable development is a major, difficult objective, because it must be done in terms of convergence to the demands of the economic, social, cultural and political context of the EU, and in terms of the completion of the transition to a functioning and competitive market economy. In this context, it is imposed the economic competitiveness through reindustrialization and not least, by harnessing the active integrated circular process. Gross value added and profit chain in the structures of active integrated circular process must reflect the interests of the forces involved(employers, employees and the statethereby forming the basis of respect for the correlation between sustainable development, economic growth and increasing national wealth. The elimination or marginalization of certain links in the value chain and profit causes major disruptions or bankruptcy, with direct implications for recognizing and rewarding performance. Essentially, the building of active integrated circular process will determine the maximization of the profit – the foundation of satisfying all economic interests.

  16. Multiscale sampling model for motion integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbakov, Lena; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2013-09-30

    Biologically plausible strategies for visual scene integration across spatial and temporal domains continues to be a challenging topic. The fundamental question we address is whether classical problems in motion integration, such as the aperture problem, can be solved in a model that samples the visual scene at multiple spatial and temporal scales in parallel. We hypothesize that fast interareal connections that allow feedback of information between cortical layers are the key processes that disambiguate motion direction. We developed a neural model showing how the aperture problem can be solved using different spatial sampling scales between LGN, V1 layer 4, V1 layer 6, and area MT. Our results suggest that multiscale sampling, rather than feedback explicitly, is the key process that gives rise to end-stopped cells in V1 and enables area MT to solve the aperture problem without the need for calculating intersecting constraints or crafting intricate patterns of spatiotemporal receptive fields. Furthermore, the model explains why end-stopped cells no longer emerge in the absence of V1 layer 6 activity (Bolz & Gilbert, 1986), why V1 layer 4 cells are significantly more end-stopped than V1 layer 6 cells (Pack, Livingstone, Duffy, & Born, 2003), and how it is possible to have a solution to the aperture problem in area MT with no solution in V1 in the presence of driving feedback. In summary, while much research in the field focuses on how a laminar architecture can give rise to complicated spatiotemporal receptive fields to solve problems in the motion domain, we show that one can reframe motion integration as an emergent property of multiscale sampling achieved concurrently within lamina and across multiple visual areas.

  17. Baroreflex and neurovascular responses to skeletal muscle mechanoreflex activation in humans: an exercise in integrative physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Rachel C

    2017-12-01

    Cardiovascular adjustments to exercise resulting in increased blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) occur in response to activation of several neural mechanisms: the exercise pressor reflex, central command, and the arterial baroreflex. Neural inputs from these feedback and feedforward mechanisms integrate in the cardiovascular control centers in the brain stem and modulate sympathetic and parasympathetic neural outflow, resulting in the increased BP and HR observed during exercise. Another specific consequence of the central neural integration of these inputs during exercise is increased sympathetic neural outflow directed to the kidneys, causing renal vasoconstriction, a key reflex mechanism involved in blood flow redistribution during increased skeletal muscle work. Studies in humans have shown that muscle mechanoreflex activation inhibits cardiac vagal outflow, decreasing the sensitivity of baroreflex control of HR. Metabolite sensitization of muscle mechanoreceptors can lead to reduced sensitivity of baroreflex control of HR, with thromboxane being one of the metabolites involved, via greater inhibition of cardiac vagal outflow without affecting baroreflex control of BP or baroreflex resetting. Muscle mechanoreflex activation appears to play a predominant role in causing renal vasoconstriction, both in isolation and in the presence of local metabolites. Limited investigations in older adults and patients with cardiovascular-related disease have provided some insight into how the influence of muscle mechanoreflex activation on baroreflex function and renal vasoconstriction is altered in these populations. However, future research is warranted to better elucidate the specific effect of muscle mechanoreflex activation on baroreflex and neurovascular responses with aging and cardiovascular-related disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. INTEGRAL/JEM-X reports enhanced activity from the HMXB 4U 1036-56

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.

    2015-01-01

    During the Galactic Plane Scanning performed by INTEGRAL on December 11th, 2015, the X-ray monitor JEM-X has detected enhanced activity from the high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) 4U 1036-56, aka RX J1037.5-5647. The position of the source was covered by the JEM-X field of view two times between UTC 6...... 1036-56 is a Be X-ray pulsar (e.g. Torres et al. 2012, ApJ 761, 49), whose last outburst was reported by Swift in February 2012 (Krimm et al. ATel #3936)....

  19. Data Mining in the Context of Monitoring Mt Etna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Marco; Cassisi, Carmelo; D'Agostino, Marcello; Falsaperla, Susanna; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Langer, Horst; Messina, Alfio; Montalto, Placido; Reitano, Danilo; Spampinato, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    The persistent volcanic activity of Mt Etna makes the continuous monitoring of multidisciplinary data a first-class issue. Indeed, the monitoring systems rapidly accumulate huge quantity of data, arising specific problems of andling and interpretation. In order to respond to these problems, the INGV staff has developed a number of software tools for data mining. These tools have the scope of identifying structures in the data that can be related to volcanic activity, furnishing criteria for the identification of precursory scenarios. In particular, we use methods of clustering and classification in which data are divided into groups according to a-priori-defined measures of similarity or distance. Data groups may assume various shapes, such as convex clouds or complex concave bodies.The "KKAnalysis" software package is a basket of clustering methods. Currently, it is one of the key techniques of the tremor-based automatic alarm systems of INGV Osservatorio Etneo. It exploits both Self-Organizing Maps and Fuzzy Clustering. Beside seismic data, the software has been applied to the geochemical composition of eruptive products as well as a combined analysis of gas-emission (radon) and seismic data. The "DBSCAN" package exploits a concept based on density-based clustering. This method allows discovering clusters with arbitrary shape. Clusters are defined as dense regions of objects in the data space separated by regions of low density. In DBSCAN a cluster grows as long as the density within a group of objects exceeds some threshold. In the context of volcano monitoring, the method is particularly promising in the recognition of ash particles as they have a rather irregular shape. The "MOTIF" software allows us to identify typical waveforms in time series, outperforming methods like cross-correlation that entail a high computational effort. MOTIF can recognize the non-imilarity of two patterns on a small number of data points without going through the whole length of

  20. A comparison of cross-country mountain destination importance performance as perceived by international and domestic tourists: a cast study of Mt. Huang (China and Mt. Seorak (South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Newpaney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine visitor’s importance and destination performance with respect to tourist attractions such as the environment, adventure, social culture, accessibility and relaxation of participants at Mt. Huang and Mt. Seorak respectively. This study identified the demographic characteristics of visitors to both mountain destinations. The researchers used the Importance Performed Analysis (IPA method to identify the importance and satisfaction levels of various attributes of both Mt. Huang and Mt. Seorak. They identified that the most important attributes sought after related to the natural environment, mountaineering, knowledge and information sharing, value of money and escape from a mundane daily job routine, while the least important would relate to mountain sports and the localities' inviting ambience for both mountain destinations. Using a simple questionnaire sample procedure, 247 visitors were considered in order to determine what the visitor’s deemed to be important, and what was satisfying from a destination performance perspective. SPSS 17 was used to analyze the data in different stages and pilot testing was conducted. The finding of this study can be helpful for tourist decision-makers in the public and private sectors. It is also useful to improve tourism services and to develop strategies for greater tourism promotion to the two destinations. Furthermore, this study can be a powerful source of input for destination promotion and positioning activities.

  1. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in the European haplogroups HV, JT, and U do not have a major role in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrell, Helena; Salas, Antonio; Abasolo, Nerea; Morén, Constanza; Garrabou, Glòria; Valero, Joaquín; Alonso, Yolanda; Vilella, Elisabet; Costas, Javier; Martorell, Lourdes

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that certain genetic factors involved in schizophrenia could be located in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Therefore, we hypothesized that mtDNA mutations and/or variants would be present in schizophrenia patients and may be related to schizophrenia characteristics and mitochondrial function. This study was performed in three steps: (1) identification of pathogenic mutations and variants in 14 schizophrenia patients with an apparent maternal inheritance of the disease by sequencing the entire mtDNA; (2) case-control association study of 23 variants identified in step 1 (16 missense, 3 rRNA, and 4 tRNA variants) in 495 patients and 615 controls, and (3) analyses of the associated variants according to the clinical, psychopathological, and neuropsychological characteristics and according to the oxidative and enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We did not identify pathogenic mtDNA mutations in the 14 sequenced patients. Two known variants were nominally associated with schizophrenia and were further studied. The MT-RNR2 1811A > G variant likely does not play a major role in schizophrenia, as it was not associated with clinical, psychopathological, or neuropsychological variables, and the MT-ATP6 9110T > C p.Ile195Thr variant did not result in differences in the oxidative and enzymatic functions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The patients with apparent maternal inheritance of schizophrenia did not exhibit any mutations in their mtDNA. The variants nominally associated with schizophrenia in the present study were not related either to phenotypic characteristics or to mitochondrial function. We did not find evidence pointing to a role for mtDNA sequence variation in schizophrenia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Sagaram

    Full Text Available MtDef4 is a 47-amino acid cysteine-rich evolutionary conserved defensin from a model legume Medicago truncatula. It is an apoplast-localized plant defense protein that inhibits the growth of the ascomycetous fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum in vitro at micromolar concentrations. Little is known about the mechanisms by which MtDef4 mediates its antifungal activity. In this study, we show that MtDef4 rapidly permeabilizes fungal plasma membrane and is internalized by the fungal cells where it accumulates in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, analysis of the structure of MtDef4 reveals the presence of a positively charged γ-core motif composed of β2 and β3 strands connected by a positively charged RGFRRR loop. Replacement of the RGFRRR sequence with AAAARR or RGFRAA abolishes the ability of MtDef4 to enter fungal cells, suggesting that the RGFRRR loop is a translocation signal required for the internalization of the protein. MtDef4 binds to phosphatidic acid (PA, a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Amino acid substitutions in the RGFRRR sequence which abolish the ability of MtDef4 to enter fungal cells also impair its ability to bind PA. These findings suggest that MtDef4 is a novel antifungal plant defensin capable of entering into fungal cells and affecting intracellular targets and that these processes are mediated by the highly conserved cationic RGFRRR loop via its interaction with PA.

  4. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants. PMID:21718548

  5. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Controls Vascular Integrity by Regulating VE-Cadherin Trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Daniel

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, a serine protease inhibitor, is expressed and secreted by endothelial cells. Patients with PAI-1 deficiency show a mild to moderate bleeding diathesis, which has been exclusively ascribed to the function of PAI-1 in down-regulating fibrinolysis. We tested the hypothesis that PAI-1 function plays a direct role in controlling vascular integrity and permeability by keeping endothelial cell-cell junctions intact.We utilized PAI-039, a specific small molecule inhibitor of PAI-1, to investigate the role of PAI-1 in protecting endothelial integrity. In vivo inhibition of PAI-1 resulted in vascular leakage from intersegmental vessels and in the hindbrain of zebrafish embryos. In addition PAI-1 inhibition in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers leads to a marked decrease of transendothelial resistance and disrupted endothelial junctions. The total level of the endothelial junction regulator VE-cadherin was reduced, whereas surface VE-cadherin expression was unaltered. Moreover, PAI-1 inhibition reduced the shedding of VE-cadherin. Finally, we detected an accumulation of VE-cadherin at the Golgi apparatus.Our findings indicate that PAI-1 function is important for the maintenance of endothelial monolayer and vascular integrity by controlling VE-cadherin trafficking to and from the plasma membrane. Our data further suggest that therapies using PAI-1 antagonists like PAI-039 ought to be used with caution to avoid disruption of the vessel wall.

  6. Targeting of Breast Cancer through MT1-MMP/Tetraspanin Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    182, 765-776. Gordon- Alonso , M., Yanez-Mo, M., Barreiro, O., Alvarez, S., Munoz- Fernandez , M. A., Valenzuela- Fernandez , A. and Sanchez-Madrid, F...Diaz, R., Megias, D., Genis, L., Garcia -Grande, A., Garcia , M. A., Arroyo, A. G., and Montoya, M. C. (2007). MT1-MMP proinvasive activity is regulated by...metalloproteinases as drug targets and anti-targets for cancer therapy. Nat. Rev. Cancer 6, 227–239. Penas, P. F., Garcia -Diez, A., Sanchez-Madrid, F

  7. Soil radon monitoring in the NE flank of Mt. Etna (Sicily)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imme, G.; La Delfa, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Morelli, D.; Patane, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soil radon has been monitored at a fixed location on the northeastern flank of Mt. Etna, a high-risk volcano in Sicily. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the recent volcanic activity on soil radon concentration. Continuous radon measurements have been performed since July 2001. While comparison between the trend in in-soil radon concentration and the acquired meteorological series (temperature, humidity and pressure) appear to confirm a general seasonal correlation, nevertheless particular anomalies suggest a possible dependence of the radon concentration on volcanic dynamics

  8. The Teaching of Listening as an Integral Part of an Oral Activity: An Examination of Public-Speaking Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. Clifton; Cox, E. Sam

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a content analysis of 10 current public-speaking textbooks to determine the nature and extent to which they teach listening in an integrated approach with public speaking as an oral activity. Lewis and Nichols (1965) predicted that listening would increasingly be taught especially in an integrated approach with…

  9. The effectiveness of integration of virtual patients in a collaborative learning activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hesham F; Donkers, Jeroen; Van Merrienboer, Jeroen J G

    2018-05-07

    Virtual patients (VPs) have been recently integrated within different learning activities. To compare between the effect of using VPs in a collaborative learning activity and using VPs in an independent learning activity on students' knowledge acquisition, retention and transfer. For two different topics, respectively 82 and 76 dental students participated in teaching, learning and assessment sessions with VPs. Students from a female campus and from a male campus have been randomly assigned to condition (collaborative and independent), yielding four experimental groups. Each group received a lecture followed by a learning session using two VPs per topic. Students were administrated immediate and delayed written tests as well as transfer tests using two VPs to assess their knowledge in diagnosis and treatment. For the treatment items of the immediate and delayed written tests, females outperformed males in the collaborative VP group but not in the independent VP group. On the female campus, the use of VPs in a collaborative learning activity is more effective than its use as an independent learning activity in enhancing students' knowledge acquisition and retention. However, the collaborative use of VPs by itself is not enough to produce consistent results across different groups of students and attention should be given to all the factors that would affect students' interaction.

  10. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  11. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  12. A new integrative model of cerebral activation, deactivation and default mode function in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermke, Marc; Sorg, Christian; Wohlschlaeger, Afra M.; Drzezga, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Functional imaging methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allow in vivo assessment of cerebral metabolism at rest and cerebral responses to cognitive stimuli. Activation studies with different cognitive tasks have deepened the understanding of underlying pathology leading to Alzheimer disease (AD) and how the brain reacts to and potentially compensates the imposed damage inflicted by this disease. The aim of this manuscript study was to summarize current findings of activation studies in healthy people at risk for AD, in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a possible progenitor of AD and finally in patients with manifest AD, adding recent results about impaired deactivation abilities and default mode function in AD. A new comprehensive model will be introduced integrating these heterogeneous findings and explaining their impact on cognitive performance. (orig.)

  13. Active and Passive Technology Integration: A Novel Approach for Managing Technology's Influence on Learning Experiences in Context-Aware Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Teemu H.; Nygren, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    Technology integration is the process of overcoming different barriers that hinder efficient utilisation of learning technologies. The authors divide technology integration into two components based on technology's role in the integration process. In active integration, the technology integrates learning resources into a learning space, making it…

  14. Drug Repositioning by Kernel-Based Integration of Molecular Structure, Molecular Activity, and Phenotype Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongcui; Chen, Shilong; Deng, Naiyang; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Computational inference of novel therapeutic values for existing drugs, i.e., drug repositioning, offers the great prospect for faster and low-risk drug development. Previous researches have indicated that chemical structures, target proteins, and side-effects could provide rich information in drug similarity assessment and further disease similarity. However, each single data source is important in its own way and data integration holds the great promise to reposition drug more accurately. Here, we propose a new method for drug repositioning, PreDR (Predict Drug Repositioning), to integrate molecular structure, molecular activity, and phenotype data. Specifically, we characterize drug by profiling in chemical structure, target protein, and side-effects space, and define a kernel function to correlate drugs with diseases. Then we train a support vector machine (SVM) to computationally predict novel drug-disease interactions. PreDR is validated on a well-established drug-disease network with 1,933 interactions among 593 drugs and 313 diseases. By cross-validation, we find that chemical structure, drug target, and side-effects information are all predictive for drug-disease relationships. More experimentally observed drug-disease interactions can be revealed by integrating these three data sources. Comparison with existing methods demonstrates that PreDR is competitive both in accuracy and coverage. Follow-up database search and pathway analysis indicate that our new predictions are worthy of further experimental validation. Particularly several novel predictions are supported by clinical trials databases and this shows the significant prospects of PreDR in future drug treatment. In conclusion, our new method, PreDR, can serve as a useful tool in drug discovery to efficiently identify novel drug-disease interactions. In addition, our heterogeneous data integration framework can be applied to other problems. PMID:24244318

  15. 76 FR 19281 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. The... extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 Bozeman, MT...

  16. Effects of active conductance distribution over dendrites on the synaptic integration in an identified nonspiking interneuron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Takashima

    Full Text Available The synaptic integration in individual central neuron is critically affected by how active conductances are distributed over dendrites. It has been well known that the dendrites of central neurons are richly endowed with voltage- and ligand-regulated ion conductances. Nonspiking interneurons (NSIs, almost exclusively characteristic to arthropod central nervous systems, do not generate action potentials and hence lack voltage-regulated sodium channels, yet having a variety of voltage-regulated potassium conductances on their dendritic membrane including the one similar to the delayed-rectifier type potassium conductance. It remains unknown, however, how the active conductances are distributed over dendrites and how the synaptic integration is affected by those conductances in NSIs and other invertebrate neurons where the cell body is not included in the signal pathway from input synapses to output sites. In the present study, we quantitatively investigated the functional significance of active conductance distribution pattern in the spatio-temporal spread of synaptic potentials over dendrites of an identified NSI in the crayfish central nervous system by computer simulation. We systematically changed the distribution pattern of active conductances in the neuron's multicompartment model and examined how the synaptic potential waveform was affected by each distribution pattern. It was revealed that specific patterns of nonuniform distribution of potassium conductances were consistent, while other patterns were not, with the waveform of compound synaptic potentials recorded physiologically in the major input-output pathway of the cell, suggesting that the possibility of nonuniform distribution of potassium conductances over the dendrite cannot be excluded as well as the possibility of uniform distribution. Local synaptic circuits involving input and output synapses on the same branch or on the same side were found to be potentially affected under

  17. Transcription factor CgMTF-1 regulates CgZnT1 and CgMT expression in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under zinc stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Jie; Zhang, Linlin [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); Li, Li, E-mail: lili@qdio.ac.cn [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); Li, Chunyan; Wang, Ting [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Guofan, E-mail: gfzhang@qdio.ac.cn [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CgMTF-1 and CgZnT1 were first identified in oysters. • CgMTF-1 localized in cell nucleus under unstressed conditions. • CgMTF-1 proteins could bind with the typical MRE motif. • CgMTF-1 activated CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoters and regulated their expressions under zinc exposure. - Abstract: Oysters accumulate zinc at high tissue concentrations, and the metal response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor (MTF) functions as the cellular zinc sensor that coordinates the expression of genes involved in zinc efflux and storage, as well as those that protect against metal toxicity. In this study, we cloned MTF-1 in oysters and examined its regulation mechanism for its classic target genes, including MTs and ZnT1 under zinc exposure conditions. We cloned CgMTF-1 and determined the subcellular locations of its protein product in HEK293 cells. CgMTF-1 has a 2826 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted polypeptide with 707 amino acid residues, showing six well-conserved zinc finger domains that are required for metal binding. In HEK293 cell lines, CgMTF-1 primarily localizes in the cell nucleus under unstressed conditions and nuclear translocation was not critical for the activation of this gene. We searched for CgMTF-1-regulated genes in oysters using RNA interference. Decreased expression levels of CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 were observed after CgMTF-1 interference (>70% inhibition) under zinc exposure, indicating the critical role of CgMTF-1 in the regulation of these genes. We searched for a direct regulation mechanism involving CgMTF-1 for CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 in vitro. EMSA experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 can bind with the MREs found in the CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoter regions. Additionally, luciferase reporter gene experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 could activate the CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 promoters. Overall, our results suggest that CgMTF-1 directly coordinates the regulation of CgMTs and CgZnT1 expression and plays

  18. Transcription factor CgMTF-1 regulates CgZnT1 and CgMT expression in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under zinc stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jie; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Li; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CgMTF-1 and CgZnT1 were first identified in oysters. • CgMTF-1 localized in cell nucleus under unstressed conditions. • CgMTF-1 proteins could bind with the typical MRE motif. • CgMTF-1 activated CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoters and regulated their expressions under zinc exposure. - Abstract: Oysters accumulate zinc at high tissue concentrations, and the metal response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor (MTF) functions as the cellular zinc sensor that coordinates the expression of genes involved in zinc efflux and storage, as well as those that protect against metal toxicity. In this study, we cloned MTF-1 in oysters and examined its regulation mechanism for its classic target genes, including MTs and ZnT1 under zinc exposure conditions. We cloned CgMTF-1 and determined the subcellular locations of its protein product in HEK293 cells. CgMTF-1 has a 2826 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted polypeptide with 707 amino acid residues, showing six well-conserved zinc finger domains that are required for metal binding. In HEK293 cell lines, CgMTF-1 primarily localizes in the cell nucleus under unstressed conditions and nuclear translocation was not critical for the activation of this gene. We searched for CgMTF-1-regulated genes in oysters using RNA interference. Decreased expression levels of CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 were observed after CgMTF-1 interference (>70% inhibition) under zinc exposure, indicating the critical role of CgMTF-1 in the regulation of these genes. We searched for a direct regulation mechanism involving CgMTF-1 for CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 in vitro. EMSA experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 can bind with the MREs found in the CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoter regions. Additionally, luciferase reporter gene experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 could activate the CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 promoters. Overall, our results suggest that CgMTF-1 directly coordinates the regulation of CgMTs and CgZnT1 expression and plays

  19. Information management systems for integrating the technical data and regulatory requirements of environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffen, C.A.; Garrett, B.A.; Walter, M.B.

    1990-03-01

    Current environmental regulations require that comprehensive planning be conducted before remediating a hazardous waste site to characterize the nature and extent of site contamination, calculate the risk to the public, and assess the effectiveness of various remediation technologies. Remediation of Department of Energy (DOE) sites contaminated with hazardous or mixed wastes will require the effective integration of scientific and engineering data with regulatory and institutional requirements. The information management challenge presented by waste site cleanup activities goes beyond merely dealing with the large quantity of data that will be generated. The information must be stored, managed, and presented in a way that provides some consistency in approach across sites, avoids duplication of effort, and facilitates responses to requests for information from the regulators and the public. This paper provides background information on the regulatory requirements for data gathering and analysis for environmental restoration activities, and outlines the data and information management requirements for completing the pre-remediation phases of an environmental restoration project. Information management systems for integrating the regulatory and institutional requirements of the environmental restoration process with the technical data and analysis requirements are also described. 7 refs

  20. Integration of complex-wide mixed low-level waste activities for program acceleration and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a contractor-led effort to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives which would allow the Environmental Management program to accomplish its mission objectives in an accelerated fashion and at a reduced cost. These alternatives, or opportunities, could then be evaluated by DOE and stakeholders for possible implementation, given precursor requirements (regulatory changes, etc.) could be met and benefits to the Complex realized. This contractor effort initially focused on six waste types, one of which was Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). Many opportunities were identified by the contractor team for integrating MLLW activities across the DOE Complex. These opportunities were further narrowed to six that had the most promise for implementation and savings to the DOE Complex. The opportunities include six items: (1) the consolidation of individual site analytical services procurement efforts, (2) the consolidation of individual site MLLW treatment services procurement efforts, (3) establishment of ''de minimus'' radioactivity levels, (4) standardization of characterization requirements, (5) increased utilization of existing DOE treatment facilities, and (6) using a combination of DOE and commercial MLLW disposal capacity. The results of the integration effort showed that by managing MLLW activities across the DOE Complex as a cohesive unit rather than as independent site efforts, the DOE could improve the rate of progress toward meeting its objectives and reduce its overall MLLW program costs. Savings potential for MLLW, if the identified opportunities could be implemented, could total $224 million or more. Implementation of the opportunities also could result in the acceleration of the MLLW ''work off schedule'' across the DOE Complex by five years

  1. Integrating circadian activity and gene expression profiles to predict chronotoxicity of Drosophila suzukii response to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Kelly A; Kwok, Rosanna S; Zalom, Frank G; Chiu, Joanna C

    2013-01-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a recent invader that infests intact ripe and ripening fruit, leading to significant crop losses in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Since current D. suzukii management strategies rely heavily on insecticide usage and insecticide detoxification gene expression is under circadian regulation in the closely related Drosophila melanogaster, we set out to determine if integrative analysis of daily activity patterns and detoxification gene expression can predict chronotoxicity of D. suzukii to insecticides. Locomotor assays were performed under conditions that approximate a typical summer or winter day in Watsonville, California, where D. suzukii was first detected in North America. As expected, daily activity patterns of D. suzukii appeared quite different between 'summer' and 'winter' conditions due to differences in photoperiod and temperature. In the 'summer', D. suzukii assumed a more bimodal activity pattern, with maximum activity occurring at dawn and dusk. In the 'winter', activity was unimodal and restricted to the warmest part of the circadian cycle. Expression analysis of six detoxification genes and acute contact bioassays were performed at multiple circadian times, but only in conditions approximating Watsonville summer, the cropping season, when most insecticide applications occur. Five of the genes tested exhibited rhythmic expression, with the majority showing peak expression at dawn (ZT0, 6am). We observed significant differences in the chronotoxicity of D. suzukii towards malathion, with highest susceptibility at ZT0 (6am), corresponding to peak expression of cytochrome P450s that may be involved in bioactivation of malathion. High activity levels were not found to correlate with high insecticide susceptibility as initially hypothesized. Chronobiology and chronotoxicity of D. suzukii provide valuable insights for monitoring and control efforts, because insect activity as well as insecticide timing

  2. Holistic Analysis For The Interpretation of The Structure of Mt. Somma - Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, G.; Tizzani, P.; Solaro, G.

    The aim of this research is to define a unitary structural model of Mount Somma U Vesuvius, by holistic interpretation of geophysical and geological data. Surface structures pattern shows two different geometrical distribution, radial and horse-shoe shaped. Generally the radial distribution of fractures are due to stress field produced by an active magmatic pressure source; some of them resemble to the regional tec- tonics ones. These fractures are interpreted by an active circular hole model. Instead the collapse structures observed on the Southern side of volcano have been associated to the loading of volcanic edifice. The regional heat flow (100-110 mW/m2) and the hypocentral distribution of the seismicity data let us to obtain the local crust rheolog- ical stratification. In our case the brittle U ductile transition below the volcano is at depth of about 5 km. The loading of the volcanic edifice produces a deviatoric stress of 30 MPa in unconfined weight condition. This stress field can generate the present seismicity at Mt. Vesuvius. Moreover an overpressure acts along the Southern side of the volcano due to the dipping of the carbonate basement toward Tyrrhenian sea, according to the gravimetric Bouguer anomalies. From above considerations we have performed that the Mt. Somma U Vesuvius deformation is due to the spreading of the volcanic edifice togheter carbonate basement. This deformation is characterized by a displacement component in SW of Southern sector of the volcano.direction due to the basement dipping. Finally is reasonable to suppose that the unrest of Mt.Vesuvius may be the result of the basement tectonics and loading of volcanic edifice. In this interpretation the ascent of magma could be the consequence of this process. Ground deformation and seismicity monitoring could provide informations on the instability of Southern sector of the volcano.

  3. Depletion of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury by plant uptake at Mt. Changbai, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There exists observational evidence that gaseous elemental mercury (GEM can be readily removed from the atmosphere via chemical oxidation followed by deposition in the polar and sub-polar regions, free troposphere, lower stratosphere, and marine boundary layer under specific environmental conditions. Here we report GEM depletions in a temperate mixed forest at Mt. Changbai, Northeast China. The strong depletions occurred predominantly at night during the leaf-growing season and in the absence of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM enrichment (GOM  <  3 pg m−3. Vertical gradients of decreasing GEM concentrations from layers above to under forest canopy suggest in situ loss of GEM to forest canopy at Mt. Changbai. Foliar GEM flux measurements showed that the foliage of two predominant tree species is a net sink of GEM at night, with a mean flux of −1.8 ± 0.3 ng m2 h−1 over Fraxinus mandshurica (deciduous tree species and −0.1 ± 0.2 ng m2 h−1 over Pinus Koraiensis (evergreen tree species. Daily integrated GEM δ202Hg, Δ199Hg, and Δ200Hg at Mt. Changbai during 8–18 July 2013 ranged from −0.34 to 0.91 ‰, from −0.11 to −0.04 ‰ and from −0.06 to 0.01 ‰, respectively. A large positive shift in GEM δ202Hg occurred during the strong GEM depletion events, whereas Δ199Hg and Δ200Hg remained essentially unchanged. The observational findings and box model results show that uptake of GEM by forest canopy plays a predominant role in the GEM depletion at Mt. Changbai forest. Such depletion events of GEM are likely to be a widespread phenomenon, suggesting that the forest ecosystem represents one of the largest sinks ( ∼ 1930 Mg of atmospheric Hg on a global scale.

  4. Near-real time 3D probabilistic earthquakes locations at Mt. Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberi, G.; D'Agostino, M.; Mostaccio, A.; Patane', D.; Tuve', T.

    2012-04-01

    Automatic procedure for locating earthquake in quasi-real time must provide a good estimation of earthquakes location within a few seconds after the event is first detected and is strongly needed for seismic warning system. The reliability of an automatic location algorithm is influenced by several factors such as errors in picking seismic phases, network geometry, and velocity model uncertainties. On Mt. Etna, the seismic network is managed by INGV and the quasi-real time earthquakes locations are performed by using an automatic-picking algorithm based on short-term-average to long-term-average ratios (STA/LTA) calculated from an approximate squared envelope function of the seismogram, which furnish a list of P-wave arrival times, and the location algorithm Hypoellipse, with a 1D velocity model. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the performances of a different automatic procedure to improve the quasi-real time earthquakes locations. In fact, as the automatic data processing may be affected by outliers (wrong picks), the use of a traditional earthquake location techniques based on a least-square misfit function (L2-norm) often yield unstable and unreliable solutions. Moreover, on Mt. Etna, the 1D model is often unable to represent the complex structure of the volcano (in particular the strong lateral heterogeneities), whereas the increasing accuracy in the 3D velocity models at Mt. Etna during recent years allows their use today in routine earthquake locations. Therefore, we selected, as reference locations, all the events occurred on Mt. Etna in the last year (2011) which was automatically detected and located by means of the Hypoellipse code. By using this dataset (more than 300 events), we applied a nonlinear probabilistic earthquake location algorithm using the Equal Differential Time (EDT) likelihood function, (Font et al., 2004; Lomax, 2005) which is much more robust in the presence of outliers in the data. Successively, by using a probabilistic

  5. Cloud chemistry in eastern China: Observations from Mt. Tai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, J. L.; Shen, X.; Lee, T.; Wang, X.; Li, Y.; Wang, W.; Wang, T.

    2010-07-01

    Until recently, studies of fog and cloud chemistry in China have been rare - even though the fate of China’s large sulfur dioxide emissions depends, in part, on the ability of regional clouds to support rapid aqueous oxidation to sulfate. Sulfur dioxide oxidized in regional clouds is more likely to be removed by wet deposition while sulfur dioxide that undergoes slower gas phase oxidation is expected to survive longer in the atmosphere and be transported over a much broader spatial scale. Two 2008 field campaigns conducted at Mt. Tai, an isolated peak on the NE China plain, provide insight into the chemical composition of regional clouds and the importance of various aqueous phase sulfur oxidation pathways. Single and two-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collectors were used to collect bulk and drop size-resolved samples of cloudwater. Collected cloudwater was analyzed for key species that influence in-cloud sulfate production, including pH, S(IV), H2O2, Fe and Mn. Other major cloud solutes, including inorganic ions, total organic carbon (TOC), formaldehyde, and organic acids were also analyzed, as were gas phase concentrations of SO2, O3, and H2O2. A wide range of cloud pH was observed, from below 3 to above 6. High concentrations of cloudwater sulfate were consistent with abundant sulfur dioxide emissions in the region. Sampled clouds were also found to contain high concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and organic carbon. Peak TOC concentrations reached approximately 200 ppmC, among the highest concentrations ever measured in cloudwater. Hydrogen peroxide was found to be the dominant aqueous phase S(IV) oxidant when cloud pH was less than approximately 5.4. Despite its fast reaction with sulfur dioxide in cloud droplets, high concentrations of residual hydrogen peroxide were measured in some clouds implying a substantial additional capacity for sulfate production. Ozone was found to be an important S(IV) oxidant when cloud pH was high. Oxidation of S

  6. Detecting hidden volcanic explosions from Mt. Cleveland Volcano, Alaska with infrasound and ground-couples airwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Slivio; Fee, David; Haney, Matthew; Schneider, David

    2012-01-01

    In Alaska, where many active volcanoes exist without ground-based instrumentation, the use of techniques suitable for distant monitoring is pivotal. In this study we report regional-scale seismic and infrasound observations of volcanic activity at Mt. Cleveland between December 2011 and August 2012. During this period, twenty explosions were detected by infrasound sensors as far away as 1827 km from the active vent, and ground-coupled acoustic waves were recorded at seismic stations across the Aleutian Arc. Several events resulting from the explosive disruption of small lava domes within the summit crater were confirmed by analysis of satellite remote sensing data. However, many explosions eluded initial, automated, analyses of satellite data due to poor weather conditions. Infrasound and seismic monitoring provided effective means for detecting these hidden events. We present results from the implementation of automatic infrasound and seismo-acoustic eruption detection algorithms, and review the challenges of real-time volcano monitoring operations in remote regions. We also model acoustic propagation in the Northern Pacific, showing how tropospheric ducting effects allow infrasound to travel long distances across the Aleutian Arc. The successful results of our investigation provide motivation for expanded efforts in infrasound monitoring across the Aleutians and contributes to our knowledge of the number and style of vulcanian eruptions at Mt. Cleveland.

  7. Ecological and Socio-Economic Contribution of Mt. Elgon Forest Park, Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyinza Mukadasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ecological and socio-economic contribution of Mt. Elgon forest park, eastern Uganda. An effort was taken to evaluate the importance of Mt. Elgon forest park resources to the local people by using the local plant knowledge to value the forest park resources. An integrated approach of participatory rural appraisal (PRA, Participatory Resource Valuation (PRV, household survey, group discussions and forest walks were conducted during the months of June to December, 2008 in Mutushet and Kortek Parishes, Kapchorwa District. Using random sampling methods, 120 respondents were selected and interviewed. Ten forest uses were identified with the highest dependence being in the supply of timber for income and domestic building poles, the latter having the highest average annual household value of UGx. 67919 (US$37. The forest use most valued in both Mutushet and Koterk was medicine with an average annual household value of UGx. 60,371 (US$ 33 and UGx. 75,464 (US$ 42 respectively. The forest provision of medicine, domestic building materials, soil conservation, bush meat, charcoal and timber was more valued in Koterk, while provision of firewood, honey and pasture were more valued in Mutushet. The forest’s provision of food was valued equally in the two areas with an average annual value of UGx. 30,186 per household. Forest park resources accounted for 55% of the household income. Participatory valuation approaches are ecommended for estimation of forest park resources’ value in a non-cash economy.

  8. 2014-2016 Mt. Etna Ground deformation imaged by SISTEM approach using GPS and SENTINEL-1A/1B TOPSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    In the frame of the EC FP7 MED-SUV project (call FP7 ENV.2012.6.4-2), and thanks to the GEO-GSNL initiative, GPS data and SENTINEL 1A/1B TOPSAR acquired on Mt. Etna between October 2014 and November 2016 were analyzed. The SENTINEL data were used in order to combine and integrate them with GPS, and detail the ground deformation recorded by GPS on Mt. Etna, during the last two-year's volcanic activity. The Sentinel data were processed by GAMMA software, using a spectral diversity method and a procedure able to co-register the SENTINEL pairs with extremely high precision (processing, a new software architecture based on the hypervisor virtualization technology for the x64 versions of Windows has been implemented. The DInSAR results are analysed and successively used as input for the time series analysis using the StaMPS package. On December 28, 2014 eruptive activity resumed at Mt. Etna with a fire fountain activity feeding two lava flows spreading on the eastern and south-western upper flanks of the volcano, producing evident deformation at the summit of the volcano. GPS displacements and Sentinel-1A ascending interferogram were calculated in order to image the ground deformation pattern accompanying the eruption. The ground deformation pattern has been perfectly depicted by the GPS network, mainly affecting the uppermost part of the volcano edifice, with a strong decay of the deformation, according to a very shallow and strong dyke intrusion. The Sentinel 1A SAR data, covering the similar time spanning, confirmed that most of displacements are related to the dike intrusion, and evidenced a local gravity-driven motion of the western wall of the Valle del Bove, probably related to the dike intrusion. To monitor the temporal successive evolution of ground deformation, we performed an A-DInSAR SENTINEL analysis using the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) approach included with the StaMPS processing package. The April 2015-December 2015, SBAS Time series, shown a volcano

  9. MT-ADRES: Multithreading on Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Kanstein, Andreas; Madsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture ADRES (Architecture for Dynamically Reconfigurable Embedded Systems) and its compiler offer high instruction-level parallelism (ILP) to applications by means of a sparsely interconnected array of functional units and register files. As high-ILP archi......The coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture ADRES (Architecture for Dynamically Reconfigurable Embedded Systems) and its compiler offer high instruction-level parallelism (ILP) to applications by means of a sparsely interconnected array of functional units and register files. As high......-ILP architectures achieve only low parallelism when executing partially sequential code segments, which is also known as Amdahl’s law, this paper proposes to extend ADRES to MT-ADRES (Multi-Threaded ADRES) to also exploit thread-level parallelism. On MT-ADRES architectures, the array can be partitioned in multiple...

  10. Integrated Detection and Prediction of Influenza Activity for Real-Time Surveillance: Algorithm Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreco, Armin; Eriksson, Olle; Dahlström, Örjan; Cowling, Benjamin John; Timpka, Toomas

    2017-06-15

    Influenza is a viral respiratory disease capable of causing epidemics that represent a threat to communities worldwide. The rapidly growing availability of electronic "big data" from diagnostic and prediagnostic sources in health care and public health settings permits advance of a new generation of methods for local detection and prediction of winter influenza seasons and influenza pandemics. The aim of this study was to present a method for integrated detection and prediction of influenza virus activity in local settings using electronically available surveillance data and to evaluate its performance by retrospective application on authentic data from a Swedish county. An integrated detection and prediction method was formally defined based on a design rationale for influenza detection and prediction methods adapted for local surveillance. The novel method was retrospectively applied on data from the winter influenza season 2008-09 in a Swedish county (population 445,000). Outcome data represented individuals who met a clinical case definition for influenza (based on International Classification of Diseases version 10 [ICD-10] codes) from an electronic health data repository. Information from calls to a telenursing service in the county was used as syndromic data source. The novel integrated detection and prediction method is based on nonmechanistic statistical models and is designed for integration in local health information systems. The method is divided into separate modules for detection and prediction of local influenza virus activity. The function of the detection module is to alert for an upcoming period of increased load of influenza cases on local health care (using influenza-diagnosis data), whereas the function of the prediction module is to predict the timing of the activity peak (using syndromic data) and its intensity (using influenza-diagnosis data). For detection modeling, exponential regression was used based on the assumption that the beginning

  11. Integrating IS and HCI Using Activity Theory as a Philosophical and Theoretical Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hasan

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The fields of Information Systems (IS and Human Computer Interaction (HCI are both multidisciplinary in nature and each is searching for an identity as a legitimate discipline in its own right, with a firm theoretical basis. Activity Theory offers a set of concepts, structures and terms which are eminently suited to both fields. It has its origins in the cultural historical psychology of Russia, and avoids the dichotomies between thought and action, and between individuals and society, that are prevalent in western thinking. This paper describes the basic principles of Activity Theory as they apply to IS and HCI, with particular emphasis on those systems which provide knowledge about the progress of their organisation to senior managers. Activity Theory principles will be used in a longitudinal case study to analyse an extensive project which attempted, with limited success, to produce management support systems in an organisation. The Activity Theory analysis indicates that an integrated IS and HCI approach would have improved the outcomes of this project.

  12. 77 FR 41939 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ...-0379; Airspace Docket No. 12-ANM-7 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT... System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT...

  13. Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar-like Seq in mt Genome Data detail Data name Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome DOI 10...e Site Policy | Contact Us Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive ... ...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RMG Nucle

  14. Exchangeable cations in some soils of Mt. Stara planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belanović Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use in forest and pasture ecosystems requires the respecting of ecological and economic interactions between the individual components of these ecosystems. The content of nutrition elements in the soil solution depends on soil types, climate conditions and vegetation species, i.e., it is conditioned by their cycling in the ecosystem. This paper studies the cation exchange capacity in pasture and forest soils of Mt. Stara Planina.

  15. MT survey in the Minaminoshiro oil field; Minaminoshiro chiiki ni okeru MT ho ni yoru sekiyu tanko (sanjigen MT ho chosa no kento). 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, K; Minegishi, M [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Preliminary experiment, investigation, and study are conducted prior to an experimental 3-D MT (magnetotelluric) survey planned to be carried out in the Minaminoshiro district, Akita Prefecture. In the preliminary investigation, MT measurements were performed at nine locations. It was anticipated that national highways, waste treatment plants, high-voltage power lines, and railways in presence in the district would act as noise sources. Although the impact of such noise was detected in the single site treatment result, yet it was found that it would be mostly eliminated by use of the remote reference treatment. It was learned that the resistivity structure in this district was quite low in contrast or 1 ohm/m against 30 ohm/m, but the result of 3-D model calculation indicated that a sufficient analysis would be possible even in such a low contrast case. Furthermore, as the result of the study of the density of observation stations in the magnetic field, it was found that changes in the response of magnetic field to the resistivity structure would be approximately 2% at the maximum and that the ill effect on the result of measurement would be of the negligible magnitude even when a single magnetic field observation station is deployed against plural electric field observation stations. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Development of a specific affinity-matured exosite inhibitor to MT1-MMP that efficiently inhibits tumor cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botkjaer, Kenneth A; Kwok, Hang Fai; Terp, Mikkel G

    2016-01-01

    therapeutic target. Here, we report the identification of antibody fragments to MT1-MMP that potently and specifically inhibit its cell surface functions. Lead antibody clones displayed inhibitory activity towards pro-MMP-2 activation, collagen-film degradation and gelatin-film degradation, and were shown......The membrane-associated matrix metalloproteinase-14, MT1-MMP, has been implicated in pericellular proteolysis with an important role in cellular invasion of collagenous tissues. It is substantially upregulated in various cancers and rheumatoid arthritis, and has been considered as a potential...... to bind to the MT1-MMP catalytic domain outside the active site cleft, inhibiting binding to triple helical collagen. Affinity maturation using CDR3 randomization created a second generation of antibody fragments with dissociation constants down to 0.11 nM, corresponding to an improved affinity of 332...

  17. Faculty and second-year medical student perceptions of active learning in an integrated curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Alexander; Harris, David M

    2016-12-01

    Patients expect physicians to be lifelong learners who are able to interpret and evaluate diagnostic tests, and most medical schools list the development of lifelong learning in their program objectives. However, lecture is the most often utilized form of teaching in the first two years and is considered passive learning. The current generation of medical students has many characteristics that should support active learning pedagogies. The purpose of this study was to analyze student and faculty perceptions of active learning in an integrated medical curriculum at the second-year mark, where students have been exposed to multiple educational pedagogies. The first hypothesis of the study was that faculty would favor active learning methods. The second hypothesis was that Millennial medical students would favor active learning due to their characteristics. Primary faculty for years 1 and 2 and second-year medical students were recruited for an e-mail survey consisting of 12 questions about active learning and lecture. Students perceived that lecture and passive pedagogies were more effective for learning, whereas faculty felt active and collaborative learning was more effective. Students believed that more content should be covered by lecture than faculty. There were also significant differences in perceptions of what makes a good teacher. Students and faculty both felt that lack of time in the curriculum and preparation time were barriers for faculty. The data suggest that students are not familiar with the process of learning and that more time may be needed to help students develop lifelong learning skills. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  18. Integrating Field-Centered, Project Based Activities with Academic Year Coursework: A Curriculum Wide Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Based upon constructivist principles and the recognition that many students are motivated by hands-on activities and field experiences, we designed a new undergraduate curriculum at Lake Superior State University. One of our major goals was to develop stand-alone field projects in most of the academic year courses. Examples of courses impacted include structural geology, geophysics, and geotectonics, Students learn geophysical concepts in the context of near surface field-based geophysical studies while students in structural geology learn about structural processes through outcrop study of fractures, folds and faults. In geotectonics students learn about collisional and rifting processes through on-site field studies of specific geologic provinces. Another goal was to integrate data and samples collected by students in our sophomore level introductory field course along with stand-alone field projects in our clastic systems and sequence stratigraphy courses. Our emphasis on active learning helps students develop a meaningful geoscience knowledge base and complex reasoning skills in authentic contexts. We simulate the activities of practicing geoscientists by engaging students in all aspects of a project, for example: field-oriented project planning and design; acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting data; incorporating supplemental material and background data; and preparing oral and written project reports. We find through anecdotal evidence including student comments and personal observation that the projects stimulate interest, provide motivation for learning new concepts, integrate skill and concept acquisition vertically through the curriculum, apply concepts from multiple geoscience subdisiplines, and develop soft skills such as team work, problem solving, critical thinking and communication skills. Through this projected-centered Lake Superior State University geology curriculum students practice our motto of "learn geology by doing geology."

  19. Report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity for the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    This report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) has been prepared in response to a recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board that, ''Given the complex nature of the fusion effort, an integrated program planning process is an absolute necessity.'' We, therefore, undertook this activity in order to integrate the various elements of the program, to improve communication and performance accountability across the program, and to show the inter-connectedness and inter-dependency of the diverse parts of the national fusion energy sciences program. This report is based on the September 1999 Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's (FESAC) report ''Priorities and Balance within the Fusion Energy Sciences Program''. In its December 5,2000, letter to the Director of the Office of Science, the FESAC has reaffirmed the validity of the September 1999 report and stated that the IPPA presents a framework and process to guide the achievement of the 5-year goals listed in the 1999 report. The National Research Council's (NRC) Fusion Assessment Committee draft final report ''An Assessment of the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Program'', reviewing the quality of the science in the program, was made available after the IPPA report had been completed. The IPPA report is, nevertheless, consistent with the recommendations in the NRC report. In addition to program goals and the related 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year objectives, this report elaborates on the scientific issues associated with each of these objectives. The report also makes clear the relationships among the various program elements, and cites these relationships as the reason why integrated program planning is essential. In particular, while focusing on the science conducted by the program, the report addresses the important balances between the science and energy goals of the program, between the MFE and IFE approaches, and between the domestic and international aspects

  20. The European radioecology alliance: encouraging the coordination and integration of research activities in radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); European Radioecology Alliance Association, French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, 31 Avenue de la Division Leclerc, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Currivan, Lorraine [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland - RPII (Ireland); Gariel, Jean-Christophe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Hardeman, Frank [SCK.CEN (Belgium); Howard, Brenda [Natural Environment Research Council - NERC, UK (United Kingdom); Lukashenko, Sergey [Kazakhstan Republic Institute of Nuclear Physics - NNCRK (Kazakhstan); Lund, Ingemar [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority - SSM (Sweden); Sabatier, Laure [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France); Sachs, Susanne [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf - HZDR (Germany); Salomaa, Sisko [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Smith, James [University of Portsmouth - UoP (United Kingdom); Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Strand, Per [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Tschiersch, Jochen [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - HMGU (Germany); Hinton, Thomas [Strategy for Allied Radioecology - STAR Coordinator, IRSN (France); Vandenhove, Hildegarde [COordination and iMplementation of a pan-European instrumenT for radioecology - COMET Coordinator, SCK.CEN (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The European Radioecology Alliance was established in 2009 with a firm conviction from its eight founding European organizations that joining forces would enhance the competence of radioecology science in Europe. The main objective of the Radioecology Alliance is to progressively strengthen the coordination and integration of research in the field of radioecology at national, European and international level. The integration of the European radioecology community will be a key aspect facing the upcoming EURATOM Horizon 2020 framework programme. In 2012, the Radioecology Alliance was officially constituted as an Association, and in June 2013 grew from 8 to 14 members from 10 different countries (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Norway, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Within the framework of the Radioecology Alliance, a Network of Excellence in Radioecology STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) was created in 2011 with financial support of the EC FP7. More recently, the project COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) has been also funded by the EC to strengthen the pan-European research initiative on the radiation impact on man and the environment by facilitating the integration of the Research and Development activities in radioecology. The Radioecology Alliance, in close collaboration with STAR in the first phase, and more recently with COMET, has developed for the first time a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) on Radioecology. The SRA identifies three challenges: (1) To predict human and wildlife exposure more robustly by quantifying the key processes that most influence radionuclide transfers; (2) To determine ecological consequences under realistic exposure conditions and (3) To improve human and environmental protection by integrating radioecology. Within these 3 challenges, 15 research lines have been identified. After a consultation process which included not only the scientific community

  1. Insensitivity of Tree-Ring Growth to Temperature and Precipitation Sharpens the Puzzle of Enhanced Pre-Eruption NDVI on Mt. Etna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ruedi; Kirchner, James W; Krusic, Paul J; Tognetti, Roberto; Houlié, Nicolas; Andronico, Daniele; Cullotta, Sebastiano; Egli, Markus; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Cherubini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    On Mt. Etna (Italy), an enhanced Normalized Difference in Vegetation Index (NDVI) signature was detected in the summers of 2001 and 2002 along a distinct line where, in November 2002, a flank eruption subsequently occurred. These observations suggest that pre-eruptive volcanic activity may have enhanced photosynthesis along the future eruptive fissure. If a direct relation between NDVI and future volcanic eruptions could be established, it would provide a straightforward and low-cost method for early detection of upcoming eruptions. However, it is unclear if, or to what extent, the observed enhancement of NDVI can be attributed to volcanic activity prior to the subsequent eruption. We consequently aimed at determining whether an increase in ambient temperature or additional water availability owing to the rise of magma and degassing of water vapour prior to the eruption could have increased photosynthesis of Mt. Etna's trees. Using dendro-climatic analyses we quantified the sensitivity of tree ring widths to temperature and precipitation at high elevation stands on Mt. Etna. Our findings suggest that tree growth at high elevation on Mt. Etna is weakly influenced by climate, and that neither an increase in water availability nor an increase in temperature induced by pre-eruptive activity is a plausible mechanism for enhanced photosynthesis before the 2002/2003 flank eruption. Our findings thus imply that other, yet unknown, factors must be sought as causes of the pre-eruption enhancement of NDVI on Mt. Etna.

  2. The mediating role of integration of safety by activity versus operator between organizational culture and safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzoult, Laurent; Gangloff, Bernard

    2018-04-20

    In this study, we analyse the impact of the organizational culture and introduce a new variable, the integration of safety, which relates to the modalities for the implementation and adoption of safety in the work process, either through the activity or by the operator. One hundred and eighty employees replied to a questionnaire measuring the organizational climate, the safety climate and the integration of safety. We expected that implementation centred on the activity or on the operator would mediate the relationship between the organizational culture and the safety climate. The results support our assumptions. A regression analysis highlights the positive impact on the safety climate of organizational values of the 'rule' and 'support' type, as well as of integration by the operator and activity. Moreover, integration mediates the relation between these variables. The results suggest to take into account organizational culture and to introduce different implementation modalities to improve the safety climate.

  3. Mathematical Practices and Arts Integration in an Activity-Based Projective Geometry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Jessica Brooke

    It is a general assumption that the mathematical activity of students in school should, at least to some degree, parallel the practices of professional mathematicians (Brown, Collins, Duguid, 1989; Moschkovich, 2013). This assumption is reflected in the Common Core State Standards (CCSSI, 2010) and National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000) standards documents. However, the practices included in these standards documents, while developed to reflect the practices of professional mathematicians, may be idealized versions of what mathematicians actually do (Moschkovich, 2013). This might lead us to question then: "What is it that mathematicians do, and what practices are not being represented in the standards documents?" In general, the creative work of mathematicians is absent from the standards and, in turn, from school mathematics curricula, much to the dismay of some mathematicians and researchers (Lockhart, 2009; Rogers, 1999). As a result, creativity is not typically being fostered in mathematics students. As a response to this lack of focus on fostering creativity (in each of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines--the STEM disciplines), a movement to integrate the arts emerged. This movement, called the STEAM movement--introducing the letter A into the acronym STEM to signify incorporating the arts--has been gaining momentum, yet limited research has been carried out on the efficacy of integrating the arts into mathematics courses. My experiences as the co-instructor for an activity-based course focused on projective geometry led me to consider the course as a setting for investigating both mathematical practices and arts integration. In this work, I explored the mathematical practices in which students engaged while working to develop an understanding of projective geometry through group activities. Furthermore, I explored the way in which students' learning experiences were enriched through artistic engagement in the

  4. Building capacity in local government for integrated planning to increase physical activity: evaluation of the VicHealth MetroACTIVE program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M M; Hodge, W; Smith, B J

    2009-12-01

    Integrated planning is a holistic approach to addressing the needs of local communities built on partnerships between those responsible for development, environmental quality and service provision. This study investigated the extent and key influences on the use of integrated planning to promote physical activity among six metropolitan councils in Melbourne Australia, which took part in the MetroACTIVE Project funded by the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation from 2005 to 2007. The evaluation entailed interviews conducted at the mid-term (N = 67) and completion (N = 50) of the project, and the review of relevant documents. Respondents included elected councillors, chief executive officers, officers from different council divisions and the project staff employed in each council. Three councils showed evidence of integrated planning for physical activity, whereas the remainder focused on the delivery of community participation programs. Leadership from senior management and an organizational culture that supported collaboration across council departments were prerequisites for integrated planning. Employment of a dedicated project officer with skills for engaging management and building partnerships within the organization was important. Barriers to integrated planning were a complex organization structure, high demands on the council due to a growing residential population and a poor climate among staff. Overall, integrated planning was found to be a viable approach for developing a coordinated approach to this issue involving the range of council services and functions. Ongoing strategies are needed to facilitate senior management commitment and organizational capacity for integrated planning, with leadership provided by departments responsible for infrastructure or corporate planning.

  5. Evolution of the feruloyl esterase MtFae1a from Myceliophthora thermophila towards improved catalysts for antioxidants synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varriale, Simona; Cerullo, Gabriella; Antonopoulou, Io; Christakopoulos, Paul; Rova, Ulrika; Tron, Thierry; Fauré, Régis; Jütten, Peter; Piechot, Alexander; Brás, Joana L A; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Faraco, Vincenza

    2018-04-23

    The chemical syntheses currently employed for industrial purposes, including in the manufacture of cosmetics, present limitations such as unwanted side reactions and the need for harsh chemical reaction conditions. In order to overcome these drawbacks, novel enzymes are developed to catalyze the targeted bioconversions. In the present study, a methodology for the construction and the automated screening of evolved variants library of a Type B feruloyl esterase from Myceliophthora thermophila (MtFae1a) was developed and applied to generation of 30,000 mutants and their screening for selecting the variants with higher activity than the wild-type enzyme. The library was generated by error-prone PCR of mtfae1a cDNA and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening for extracellular enzymatic activity towards 4-nitrocatechol-1-yl ferulate, a new substrate developed ad hoc for high-throughput assays of feruloyl esterases, led to the selection of 30 improved enzyme variants. The best four variants and the wild-type MtFae1a were investigated in docking experiments with hydroxycinnamic acid esters using a model of 3D structure of MtFae1a. These variants were also used as biocatalysts in transesterification reactions leading to different target products in detergentless microemulsions and showed enhanced synthetic activities, although the screening strategy had been based on improved hydrolytic activity.

  6. Evaluating the B-cell density with various activation functions using White Noise Path Integral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aban, C. J. G.; Bacolod, R. O.; Confesor, M. N. P.

    2015-06-01

    A The White Noise Path Integral Approach is used in evaluating the B-cell density or the number of B-cell per unit volume for a basic type of immune system response based on the modeling done by Perelson and Wiegel. From the scaling principles of Perelson [1], the B- cell density is obtained where antigens and antibodies mutates and activation function f(|S-SA|) is defined describing the interaction between a specific antigen and a B-cell. If the activation function f(|S-SA|) is held constant, the major form of the B-cell density evaluated using white noise analysis is similar to the form of the B-cell density obtained by Perelson and Wiegel using a differential approach.A piecewise linear functionis also used to describe the activation f(|S-SA|). If f(|S-SA|) is zero, the density decreases exponentially. If f(|S-SA|) = S-SA-SB, the B- cell density increases exponentially until it reaches a certain maximum value. For f(|S-SA|) = 2SA-SB-S, the behavior of B-cell density is oscillating and remains to be in small values.

  7. Active wing design with integrated flight control using piezoelectric macro fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, Rolf; Ciresa, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric macro fiber composites (MFCs) have been implemented as actuators into an active composite wing. The goal of the project was the design of a wing for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a thin profile and integrated roll control with piezoelectric elements. The design and its optimization were based on a fully coupled structural fluid dynamics model that implemented constraints from available materials and manufacturing. A scaled prototype wing was manufactured. The design model was validated with static and preliminary dynamic tests of the prototype wing. The qualitative agreement between the numerical model and experiments was good. Dynamic tests were also performed on a sandwich wing of the same size with conventional aileron control for comparison. Even though the roll moment generated by the active wing was lower, it proved sufficient for the intended roll control of the UAV. The active wing with piezoelectric flight control constitutes one of the first examples where such a design has been optimized and the numerical model has been validated in experiments

  8. A periodic piezoelectric smart structure with the integrated passive/active vibration-reduction performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxi; Niu, Shengkai; Hu, Yuantai

    2017-06-01

    The paper proposes a new piezoelectric smart structure with the integrated passive/active vibration-reduction performances, which is made of a series of periodic structural units. Every structural unit is made of two layers, one is an array of piezoelectric bimorphs (PBs) and one is an array of metal beams (MBs), both are connected as a whole by a metal plate. Analyses show that such a periodic smart structure possesses two aspects of vibration-reduction performance: one comes from its phonon crystal characteristics which can isolate those vibrations with the driving frequency inside the band gap(s). The other one comes from the electromechanical conversion of bent PBs, which is actively aimed at those vibrations with the driving frequency outside the band gap(s). By adjusting external inductance, the equivalent circuit of the proposed structure can be forced into parallel resonance such that most of the vibration energy is converted into electrical energy for dissipation by a resistance. Thus, an external circuit under the parallel resonance state is equivalent to a strong damping to the interrelated vibrating structure, which is just the action mechanism of the active vibration reduction performance of the proposed smart structure.

  9. Long-term student outcomes of the Integrated Nutrition and Physical Activity Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Jini; Romaniello, Catherine; Crane, Lori; Scarbro, Sharon; Belansky, Elaine; Marshall, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    To examine the long-term effects of the Integrated Nutrition and Physical Activity Program (INPAP), a school-based nutrition education program. Quasi-experimental design comparing intervention and comparison cohorts at 3-6 years after delivery of the INPAP intervention on nutrition- and physical activity-related outcomes. This study was conducted in 1 school district in a low-income rural county of ∼15,000 residents in south-central Colorado. In second grade, intervention and comparison cohorts included 173 (fall 2000) and 190 (fall 1999) students, respectively. Approximately 60% of these students completed assessments in eighth grade. INPAP is an experiential school-based nutrition education program, grounded in social cognitive theory and Piaget's cognitive development theory and adapted for use in a rural setting. Nutrition and physical activity knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors, body mass index. Wilcoxon signed rank test, chi-square test for proportions, and t test for means. Long-term effects were observed in nutrition-related knowledge and attitudes but not self-efficacy or behavior change. The effects that did occur were attenuated over time. This study found that INPAP implemented in elementary school had limited lasting effects by the end of middle school, a time when students have increased autonomy to make food choices. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Metallothionein Gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii Confers Cd2+ Tolerance in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boru Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress.

  11. The metallothionein gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii confers Cd2+ tolerance in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Boru; Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Shengji; Wang, Xinwang; Jiang, Tingbo

    2014-06-10

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys)-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress.

  12. Evaluation of asbestos exposures during firewood-harvesting simulations in Libby, MT, USA--preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Julie F; Ward, Tony J; Spear, Terry M; Crispen, Kelly; Zolnikov, Tara R

    2007-11-01

    Research was conducted in order to assess potential exposure to asbestos while harvesting firewood from amphibole-contaminated trees near Libby, MT, USA. Three firewood-harvesting simulations took place in the summer and fall of 2006 in the Kootenai Forest inside the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restricted zone surrounding the former W.R. Grace vermiculite mine. Another simulation was conducted near Missoula, MT, USA, which served as the control. The work practices following each simulation were consistent throughout each trial. Personal breathing zone (PBZ) asbestos concentrations were measured by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface wipe samples of personal protective clothing were measured by TEM. The mean (n = 12) PBZ PCM sample time-weighted average (TWA) concentration was 0.29 fibers per milliliter, standard deviation (SD = 0.54). A substantial portion (more than five fibers per sample) of non-asbestos fibers (cellulose) was reported on all PBZ samples (excluding field blanks) when analyzed by TEM. The mean (n = 12) PBZ TEM sample TWA concentration for amphibole fibers 5-microm long was 0.07 fibers per milliliter (SD = 0.08). Substantial amphibole fiber concentrations were revealed on Tyvek clothing wipe samples. The mean concentration (n = 12) was 29 826 fibers per square centimeter (SD = 37 555), with 91% (27 192 fibers per square centimeter) comprised fibers firewood-harvesting activities in asbestos-contaminated areas and that the potential for exposure exists during such activities.

  13. Historical center interpretive route Cáceres/MT, for tourism and patrimonial education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Almeida Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective develop an interpretative route to the historic center of Cáceres/MT, which can serve as a tourist product, as well as didactic resource for activities related to heritage education. Bibliographical research was used, field, with documentary and photographic record and collect geographic coordinates with DGPS. The data obtained in the field were espacializados, and associated with textual information, enabled the generation of products: letter-image, map and theme folder. For validation of the course of this visitation was held three times, with visitors (tourism event and public school, and at the end of the route visitors have rated the path travelled, as well as the relevance of historical and cultural information of twelve locations of stops, the contributions offered by these in the assessment were incorporated into the suggestion. With regard to the assessments made by the proposal targets segments it was concluded that the elaborate product contributes in the development of tourist and educational activities, highlighting the fundamental role that Cáceres played for the demarcation and protection of border between Portugal and Spain colonies, 1778. The product was generated in order to meet one of the stages of extensionists action entitled "geographical tourist information system of Cáceres/MT: subsidies for planning and local development", financed by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Mato Grosso-FAPEMAT.

  14. MMS exposure promotes increased MtDNA mutagenesis in the presence of replication-defective disease-associated DNA polymerase γ variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Jeffrey D; Copeland, William C

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes proteins essential for ATP production. Mutant variants of the mtDNA polymerase cause mutagenesis that contributes to aging, genetic diseases, and sensitivity to environmental agents. We interrogated mtDNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with disease-associated mutations affecting conserved regions of the mtDNA polymerase, Mip1, in the presence of the wild type Mip1. Mutant frequency arising from mtDNA base substitutions that confer erythromycin resistance and deletions between 21-nucleotide direct repeats was determined. Previously, increased mutagenesis was observed in strains encoding mutant variants that were insufficient to maintain mtDNA and that were not expected to reduce polymerase fidelity or exonuclease proofreading. Increased mutagenesis could be explained by mutant variants stalling the replication fork, thereby predisposing the template DNA to irreparable damage that is bypassed with poor fidelity. This hypothesis suggests that the exogenous base-alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), would further increase mtDNA mutagenesis. Mitochondrial mutagenesis associated with MMS exposure was increased up to 30-fold in mip1 mutants containing disease-associated alterations that affect polymerase activity. Disrupting exonuclease activity of mutant variants was not associated with increased spontaneous mutagenesis compared with exonuclease-proficient alleles, suggesting that most or all of the mtDNA was replicated by wild type Mip1. A novel subset of C to G transversions was responsible for about half of the mutants arising after MMS exposure implicating error-prone bypass of methylated cytosines as the predominant mutational mechanism. Exposure to MMS does not disrupt exonuclease activity that suppresses deletions between 21-nucleotide direct repeats, suggesting the MMS-induce mutagenesis is not explained by inactivated exonuclease activity. Further, trace amounts of CdCl2 inhibit mtDNA replication but

  15. Estimating Losses from Volcanic Ash in case of a Mt. Baekdu Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Yoon, Seong-Min; Kim, Sung-Wook; Choi, Eun-Kyeong

    2014-05-01

    We will present the preliminary result of economic losses in South Korea in case of a Mt. Baedu eruption. The Korean peninsula has Mt. Baekdu in North Korea, which will soon enter an active phase, according to volcanologists. The anticipated eruption will be explosive given the viscous and grassy silica-rich magma, and is expected to be one of the largest in recent millennia. We aim to assess the impacts of this eruption to South Korea and help government prepare for the volcanic disasters. In particular, the economic impact from volcanic ash is estimated given the distance from Mt. Baedu to South Korea. In order to scientifically estimate losses from volcanic ash, we need volcanic ash thickness, inventory database, and damage functions between ash thickness and damage ratios for each inventory item. We use the volcanic ash thickness calculated by other research groups in Korea, and they estimated the ash thickness for each eruption scenario using average wind fields. Damage functions are built using the historical damage data in the world, and inventory database is obtained from available digital maps in Korea. According to the preliminary results, the economic impact from volcanic ash is not significant because the ash is rarely deposited in South Korea under general weather conditions. However, the ash can impact human health and environment. Also worst case scenarios can have the significant economic impacts in Korea, and may result in global issues. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-1-3] from the Volcanic Disaster Preparedness Research Center sponsored by National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.

  16. A longitudinal investigation of older adults' physical activity: Testing an integrated dual-process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautovska, Urska; Fleig, Lena; O'Callaghan, Frances; Hamilton, Kyra

    2017-02-01

    To assess the effects of conscious and non-conscious processes for prediction of older adults' physical activity (PA), we tested a dual-process model that integrated motivational (behavioural intention) and volitional (action planning and coping planning) processes with non-conscious, automatic processes (habit). Participants (N = 215) comprised community-dwelling older adults (M = 73.8 years). A longitudinal design was adopted to investigate direct and indirect effects of intentions, habit strength (Time 1), and action planning and coping planning (Time 2) on PA behaviour (Time 3). Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the model. The model provided a good fit to the data, accounting for 44% of the variance in PA behaviour at Time 3. PA was predicted by intentions, action planning, and habit strength, with action planning mediating the intention-behaviour relationship. An effect of sex was also found where males used fewer planning strategies and engaged in more PA than females. By investigating an integration of conscious and non-conscious processes, this study provides a novel understanding of older adults' PA. Interventions aiming to promote PA behaviour of older adults should target the combination of psychological processes.

  17. Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO{sub 2} selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelodun, Adedeji Adebukola; Jo, Young-Min, E-mail: ymjo@khu.ac.kr

    2013-12-01

    We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO{sub 2} selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO{sub 2} capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO{sub 2} adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO{sub 2} capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO{sub 2} chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents’ surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} levels.

  18. Integrated analysis of particle interactions at hadron colliders Report of research activities in 2010-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadolsky, Pavel M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The report summarizes research activities of the project ”Integrated analysis of particle interactions” at Southern Methodist University, funded by 2010 DOE Early Career Research Award DE-SC0003870. The goal of the project is to provide state-of-the-art predictions in quantum chromodynamics in order to achieve objectives of the LHC program for studies of electroweak symmetry breaking and new physics searches. We published 19 journal papers focusing on in-depth studies of proton structure and integration of advanced calculations from different areas of particle phenomenology: multi-loop calculations, accurate long-distance hadronic functions, and precise numerical programs. Methods for factorization of QCD cross sections were advanced in order to develop new generations of CTEQ parton distribution functions (PDFs), CT10 and CT14. These distributions provide the core theoretical input for multi-loop perturbative calculations by LHC experimental collaborations. A novel ”PDF meta-analysis” technique was invented to streamline applications of PDFs in numerous LHC simulations and to combine PDFs from various groups using multivariate stochastic sampling of PDF parameters. The meta-analysis will help to bring the LHC perturbative calculations to the new level of accuracy, while reducing computational efforts. The work on parton distributions was complemented by development of advanced perturbative techniques to predict observables dependent on several momentum scales, including production of massive quarks and transverse momentum resummation at the next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD.

  19. Temporal integration of sequential auditory events: silent period in sound pattern activates human planum temporale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustovic, Henrietta; Scheffler, Klaus; Di Salle, Francesco; Esposito, Fabrizio; Neuhoff, John G; Hennig, Jürgen; Seifritz, Erich

    2003-09-01

    Temporal integration is a fundamental process that the brain carries out to construct coherent percepts from serial sensory events. This process critically depends on the formation of memory traces reconciling past with present events and is particularly important in the auditory domain where sensory information is received both serially and in parallel. It has been suggested that buffers for transient auditory memory traces reside in the auditory cortex. However, previous studies investigating "echoic memory" did not distinguish between brain response to novel auditory stimulus characteristics on the level of basic sound processing and a higher level involving matching of present with stored information. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with a regular pattern of sounds repeated every 100 ms and deviant interspersed stimuli of 100-ms duration, which were either brief presentations of louder sounds or brief periods of silence, to probe the formation of auditory memory traces. To avoid interaction with scanner noise, the auditory stimulation sequence was implemented into the image acquisition scheme. Compared to increased loudness events, silent periods produced specific neural activation in the right planum temporale and temporoparietal junction. Our findings suggest that this area posterior to the auditory cortex plays a critical role in integrating sequential auditory events and is involved in the formation of short-term auditory memory traces. This function of the planum temporale appears to be fundamental in the segregation of simultaneous sound sources.

  20. Protocol: An updated integrated methodology for analysis of metabolites and enzyme activities of ethylene biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeraerd Annemie H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foundations for ethylene research were laid many years ago by researchers such as Lizada, Yang and Hoffman. Nowadays, most of the methods developed by them are still being used. Technological developments since then have led to small but significant improvements, contributing to a more efficient workflow. Despite this, many of these improvements have never been properly documented. Results This article provides an updated, integrated set of protocols suitable for the assembly of a complete picture of ethylene biosynthesis, including the measurement of ethylene itself. The original protocols for the metabolites 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and 1-(malonylaminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid have been updated and downscaled, while protocols to determine in vitro activities of the key enzymes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase have been optimised for efficiency, repeatability and accuracy. All the protocols described were optimised for apple fruit, but have been proven to be suitable for the analysis of tomato fruit as well. Conclusions This work collates an integrated set of detailed protocols for the measurement of components of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, starting from well-established methods. These protocols have been optimised for smaller sample volumes, increased efficiency, repeatability and accuracy. The detailed protocol allows other scientists to rapidly implement these methods in their own laboratories in a consistent and efficient way.

  1. Imagery of a moving object: the role of occipital cortex and human MT/V5+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Amanda; Weigelt, Sarah; Roebroeck, Alard; Kohler, Axel; Muckli, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Visual imagery--similar to visual perception--activates feature-specific and category-specific visual areas. This is frequently observed in experiments where the instruction is to imagine stimuli that have been shown immediately before the imagery task. Hence, feature-specific activation could be related to the short-term memory retrieval of previously presented sensory information. Here, we investigated mental imagery of stimuli that subjects had not seen before, eliminating the effects of short-term memory. We recorded brain activation using fMRI while subjects performed a behaviourally controlled guided imagery task in predefined retinotopic coordinates to optimize sensitivity in early visual areas. Whole brain analyses revealed activation in a parieto-frontal network and lateral-occipital cortex. Region of interest (ROI) based analyses showed activation in left hMT/V5+. Granger causality mapping taking left hMT/V5+ as source revealed an imagery-specific directed influence from the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Interestingly, we observed a negative BOLD response in V1-3 during imagery, modulated by the retinotopic location of the imagined motion trace. Our results indicate that rule-based motion imagery can activate higher-order visual areas involved in motion perception, with a role for top-down directed influences originating in IPL. Lower-order visual areas (V1, V2 and V3) were down-regulated during this type of imagery, possibly reflecting inhibition to avoid visual input from interfering with the imagery construction. This suggests that the activation in early visual areas observed in previous studies might be related to short- or long-term memory retrieval of specific sensory experiences.

  2. The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-Associated Protein SWIB5 Influences mtDNA Architecture and Homologous Recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Blomme, Jonas

    2017-04-19

    In addition to the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells also contain genomes. Efficient DNA repair pathways are crucial in these organelles to fix damage resulting from endogenous and exogenous factors. Plant organellar genomes are complex compared with their animal counterparts, and although several plant-specific mediators of organelle DNA repair have been reported, many regulators remain to be identified. Here, we show that a mitochondrial SWI/SNF (nucleosome remodeling) complex B protein, SWIB5, is capable of associating with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gainand loss-of-function mutants provided evidence for a role of SWIB5 in influencing mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination at specific intermediate-sized repeats both under normal and genotoxic conditions. SWIB5 interacts with other mitochondrial SWIB proteins. Gene expression and mutant phenotypic analysis of SWIB5 and SWIB family members suggests a link between organellar genome maintenance and cell proliferation. Taken together, our work presents a protein family that influences mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination in plants and suggests a link between organelle functioning and plant development.

  3. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Inoue, J; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Use of Germanium as comparator and integral monitor of neutron flux in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnari, Juan C.; Cohen, Isaac M.; Arribere, Maria A.; Kestelman, Abraham J.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of using germanium as monitor of the thermal and epithermal components of the neutron flux, and comparator in parametric activation analysis, is discussed. The advantages and drawbacks associated to the use of this element are commented on, and the comparison with zirconium, in terms of the determination relative error, is performed. The utilisation of germanium as integral flux monitor, including the fast component of the neutron spectrum, is also discussed. Data corresponding to measurements of k 0 factor for the most relevant gamma transitions from Ge-75 and Be-77 are presented, as well as the results of the reference material analysis, employing germanium as flux monitor and comparator in a simultaneous way. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. INTEGRAL/IBIS detects renewed activity from H 1417-624

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Sguera, A.; Sidoli, L.

    2014-01-01

    During a recent INTEGRAL Galactic Plane Scanning observation (PI: A. Bazzano), started on 2014 January 19 at 07:51 UTC, IBIS/ISGRI detected renewed activity from the transient system H 1417-624. The source H 1417-624 was detected at about 10 sigma in the IBIS map 18-40 keV, with a flux of 14....... H 1417-624 is a Be X-ray Transient (Apparao et al. 1980, A&A 89, 249; Grindlay et al. 1984, ApJ 276, 621) showing a neutron star spin period of 17.54 s and an orbital period of 42.12 days (Finger et al. 1996, A&A Supp. Ser. 120, 209). It was previously detected in 1994 and 1995 (during a strong type...

  6. Development of an integrated decision support system to aid cognitive activities of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    As digital and computer technologies have grown, Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) have evolved. In safety-critical systems, especially in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), HMIs are important for reducing operational costs, the number of necessary operators, and the probability of accident occurrence. Efforts have been made to improve Main Control Room (MCR) interface design and to develop automated or decision support systems to ensure convenient operation and maintenance. In this paper, an integrated decision support system to aid operator cognitive processes is proposed for advanced MCRs of future NPPs. This work suggests the design concept of a decision support system which accounts for an operator's cognitive processes. The proposed system supports not only a particular task, but also the entire operation process based on a human cognitive process model. In this paper, the operator's operation processes are analyzed according to a human cognitive process model and appropriate support systems that support each cognitive process activity are suggested

  7. INTEGRAL observation of renewed activity from 4U 1608-522

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishibashi, W.; Ferrigno, C.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.

    2010-01-01

    On 3 March 2010 SuperAGILE detected an X-ray burst from the LMXB 4U 1608-522 (Atel #2461). Confirmation of the renewed activity of this transient source was reported by MAXI/GSC (Atel #2462). 4U1608-522 was in the IBIS/ISGRI and JEMX field of view during several observations between 2010-Feb-23 06......, the source was not detected by IBIS/ISGRI. We derive an upper limit (5-sigma) on the X-ray flux of 5-10 mCrab in the 20-40 keV band. INTEGRAL is currently observing the field of GX 339-4 (March 4th-6th) and will continue monitoring of the inner Galactic Disk until the end of March. 4U 1608...

  8. Static and Dynamic Studies of Electro-Active Polymer Actuators and Integration in a Demonstrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Poncet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the haptic effect is used and developed for many applications—particularly in the automotive industry, where the mechanical feedback induced by a haptic system enables the user to receive information while their attention is kept on the road and on driving. This article presents the development of a vibrotactile button based on printed piezoelectric polymer actuation. Firstly, the characterization of the electro-active polymer used as the actuator and the development of a model able to predict the electromechanical behavior of this device are summarized. Then, the design of circular membranes and their dynamic characterization are presented. Finally, this work is concluded with the construction of a fully functional demonstrator, integrating haptic buttons leading to a clear haptic sensation for the user.

  9. Integrated fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and VIKOR method in the prioritization of pavement maintenance activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Babashamsi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance activities and pavement rehabilitation require the allocation of massive finances. Yet due to budget shortfalls, stakeholders and decision-makers must prioritize projects in maintenance and rehabilitation. This article addresses the prioritization of pavement maintenance alternatives by integrating the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP with the VIKOR method (which stands for ‘VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje,’ meaning multi-criteria optimization and compromise solution for the process of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA by considering various pavement network indices. The indices selected include the pavement condition index (PCI, traffic congestion, pavement width, improvement and maintenance costs, and the time required to operate. In order to determine the weights of the indices, the fuzzy AHP is used. Subsequently, the alternatives’ priorities are ranked according to the indices weighted with the VIKOR model. The choice of these two independent methods was motivated by the fact that integrating fuzzy AHP with the VIKOR model can assist decision makers with solving MCDA problems. The case study was conducted on a pavement network within the same particular region in Tehran; three main streets were chosen that have an empirically higher maintenance demand. The most significant factors were evaluated and the project with the highest priority was selected for urgent maintenance. By comparing the index values of the alternative priorities, Delavaran Blvd. was revealed to have higher priority over the other streets in terms of maintenance and rehabilitation activities. Keywords: Maintenance and rehabilitation prioritization, Fuzzy analysis hierarchy process, VIKOR model, Pavement condition index, Multi-criteria decision analysis

  10. Integral activation experiment of fusion reactor materials with d-Li neutrons up to 55 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Moellendorff, Ulrich von [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wada, Masayuki [Business Automation Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    An integral activation experiment of fusion reactor materials with a deuteron-lithium neutron source was performed. Since the maximum energy of neutrons produced was 55 MeV, the experiment with associated analysis was one of the first attempts for extending the energy range beyond 20 MeV. The following keywords represent the present study: d-Li neutrons, 55 MeV, dosimetry, SAND-II, spectrum adjustment, LA-150, MCNP, McDeLi, IFMIF, fusion reactor materials, integral activation experiment, low-activation, F82H, vanadium-alloy, IEAF, ALARA, and sequential charged particle reaction. (author)

  11. Search for new physics in the all-hadronic final state with the MT2 variable

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for new physics is performed using events with jets and a large transverse momentum imbalance, as measured through the $M_{T2}$ variable. The results are based on a sample of proton-proton collisions collected in 2016 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the CMS detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $35.9~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. No excess above the standard model background is observed. The results are interpreted as limits on the masses of potential new particles in a variety of simplified models of R-parity conserving supersymmetry. Depending on the details of the model, $95\\%$ CL lower limits on the gluino and light-flavor squark masses are placed up to $2025$ and $1550~\\mathrm{GeV}$, respectively. In the case of top (bottom) squarks, the mass limits are as high as $1070~(1175)~\\mathrm{GeV}$.

  12. Integrity management and optimization of planning activities from results of the ILI run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinas, Jaime [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2009-07-01

    Transierra owns and operates the Yacuiba - Rio Grande pipeline (GASYRG), 432 kilometers in length and 32 inches in diameter, which transports natural gas from the fields of San Alberto and San Antonio (southern Bolivia) to the Rio Grande compression station (Santa Cruz), and is part of the gas export system to Brazil. This pipeline system has a sustained capacity to transport 17,6 million of cubic meter per day. Within the Integrity Management Program (IMP) has been developing and implementing activities and techniques that seeking to ensure the technical integrity of the pipeline, from the good practices of the industry, which also get an optimization for the use of resources for inspection, operation and maintenance activities. In response to that goal at the beginning of 2008, it was concluded the baseline of the GASYRG ILI runs, getting a very good stage of both the internal and external condition of the pipeline, found some stables anomalies (manufacturing and construction) which do not affect the safe operation status of the pipeline, in this way, it was appropriate to re-planning the maintenance programs of all facilities and main elements, in order to achieve a balance between safety operation condition of the pipeline and the resources used for these purposes, which means that there is a 'before' and an 'after' regarding to planning and maintenance activities are concerned. All of this re-planning gives us a cost optimization for the main activities in the order of 30%. Additionally there has been a very particular approach to care for and prevent threats related to corrosion, maintaining a stable cathodic protection system, taking into account the presence of interfering elements (crossing with pipelines, power lines, railroads, etc.). Also important steps have been taken regarding to the changing dynamic to the action of third parties, it is part of a specific program for strengthening contingency plans. Concluding the above, the

  13. A High-Performance Deformable Mirror with Integrated Driver ASIC for Space Based Active Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Chris

    Direct imaging of exoplanets is key to fully understanding these systems through spectroscopy and astrometry. The primary impediment to direct imaging of exoplanets is the extremely high brightness ratio between the planet and its parent star. Direct imaging requires a technique for contrast suppression, which include coronagraphs, and nulling interferometers. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are essential to both of these techniques. With space missions in mind, Microscale is developing a novel DM with direct integration of DM and its electronic control functions in a single small envelope. The Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is key to the shrinking of the electronic control functions to a size compatible with direct integration with the DM. Through a NASA SBIR project, Microscale, with JPL oversight, has successfully demonstrated a unique deformable mirror (DM) driver ASIC prototype based on an ultra-low power switch architecture. Microscale calls this the Switch-Mode ASIC, or SM-ASIC, and has characterized it for a key set of performance parameters, and has tested its operation with a variety of actuator loads, such as piezo stack and unimorph, and over a wide temperature range. These tests show the SM-ASIC's capability of supporting active optics in correcting aberrations of a telescope in space. Microscale has also developed DMs to go with the SM-ASIC driver. The latest DM version produced uses small piezo stack elements in an 8x8 array, bonded to a novel silicon facesheet structure fabricated monolithically into a polished mirror on one side and mechanical linkage posts that connect to the piezoelectric stack actuators on the other. In this Supporting Technology proposal we propose to further develop the ASIC-DM and have assembled a very capable team to do so. It will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in Adaptive Optics systems, with high-contrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions, and with designing DM driver

  14. Assessment of eruption intensity using infrasound waveform inversion at Mt. Etna, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Moreno, A.; Iezzi, A. M.; Lamb, O. D.; Zuccarello, L.; Fee, D.; De Angelis, S.

    2017-12-01

    Mt. Etna, Italy, a 3,330 m stratovolcano, is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. It is topped by five craters: Voragine, Bocca Nuova, the North-East, South-East, and New South-East Crater. Its activity during the past decade can be separated into two main types: i) nearly-continuous degassing interspersed by mild-to-vigorous Strombolian activity within the summit craters, and ii) effusive flank eruptions. In June 2017, we deployed a large temporary network of 14 infrasound sensors (Chaparral UHP60) and 12 broadband seismometers (Guralp EX-120s). We also recorded Thermal Infrared (TIR) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle images of activity at the summit vents. Our primary objective is to quantify the intensity and mechanisms of infrasound sources at Mt. Etna, and use these results to improve models of volcanic plumes. From June 2017 until the time of writing, the infrasound network detected signals associated with nearly-continuous degassing and discrete small-to-moderate explosions originating at two distinct locations within the Voragine Crater and the New South-East Crater, respectively. During periods of increased explosive activity, we recorded 20-30 discrete events/day with infrasonic amplitudes of up to 7.5 Pa at 1 km distance from the active vent. The explosions exhibited sinusoidal acoustic waveforms, often with similar characteristics, durations of 1-3 s, and a 2 Hz peak frequency. Due to the relatively dense station coverage and the azimuthal distribution of the network, our deployment offers an opportunity to characterize, with unprecedented resolution, infrasound sources at Mt. Etna. Here we present preliminary results of 3D acoustic wave-field simulations, using a Finite Difference Time Domain modelling scheme, and a preliminary assessment of volumetric eruption rates through acoustic waveform inversion. We investigate the effects of local topography and atmospheric winds on the propagation of the acoustic wavefield, and discuss the implications for

  15. The Microtron MT-25 facility in Cuba. A contribution to the regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Guibert, R.; Zuniga, J.F.; Guzman, F.; Montero, M.E.; Rizo, O.D.; Ciminos, L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the main difficulties to develop nuclear application research is the lack of nuclear facilities. Different approaches and initiatives have been raised looking for more comprehensive exchanges. However, it is still necessary to strengthen regional cooperation in nuclear applications, in particular in the common use of accelerators and other nuclear facilities, based on a cooperative scheme in which each country contributes with its own facilities. The Microtron MT-25 Project in Cuba is proposed to deal with this kind of scheme. The construction of an electron accelerator up to 25 MeV, called Microtron MT-25, was finished in 1990 for Cuba, as a result of the collaboration of Cuban and Russian physicists in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The Microtron MT-25 is an electron cycle-accelerator which allows electrons, gamma rays and neutrons to be obtained. The principal characteristics of the accelerator and radiation are described in the paper. The Microtron-Havana facility is conceived for fundamental and applied research. The fundamental research topics of interest are photonuclear reaction studies, Nuclear Astrophysics reactions and photofission reactions. The applied research program involved in the Microtron Project consists of Gamma and Neutron Activation Analysis applied in Environment, Agriculture, Geology, Minerals, as well as materials science. Production of radioactive sources and radioisotopes. Medical and biological applications.To develop the research program, interested institutions need to form a User's Club. It will be formed, among others, by Brazil (Institute of Physics, Univ. Sao Paulo, Linear Accelerator Lab.), Argentina (Tandem Accelerator, called Tandar), Mexico (Institute of Physic, UNAM, Experimental Physics Department), Cuba (ISCTN, CEADEN, Isotopes Center, and IMRE from Havana University.) The participation of the members in the program exploitation will be based on projects in which the financial matters and

  16. MT3250BA: a 320×256-50µm snapshot microbolometer ROIC for high-resistance detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Akin, Tayfun

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new microbolometer readout integrated circuit (MT3250BA) designed for high-resistance detector arrays. MT3250BA is the first microbolometer readout integrated circuit (ROIC) product from Mikro-Tasarim Ltd., which is a fabless IC design house specialized in the development of monolithic CMOS imaging sensors and ROICs for hybrid photonic imaging sensors and microbolometers. MT3250BA has a format of 320 × 256 and a pixel pitch of 50 µm, developed with a system-on-chip architecture in mind, where all the timing and biasing for this ROIC are generated on-chip without requiring any external inputs. MT3250BA is a highly configurable ROIC, where many of its features can be programmed through a 3-wire serial interface allowing on-the-fly configuration of many ROIC features. MT3250BA has 2 analog video outputs and 1 analog reference output for pseudo-differential operation, and the ROIC can be programmed to operate in the 1 or 2-output modes. A unique feature of MT3250BA is that it performs snapshot readout operation; therefore, the image quality will only be limited by the thermal time constant of the detector pixels, but not by the scanning speed of the ROIC, as commonly found in the conventional microbolometer ROICs performing line-by-line (rolling-line) readout operation. The signal integration is performed at the pixel level in parallel for the whole array, and signal integration time can be programmed from 0.1 µs up to 100 ms in steps of 0.1 µs. The ROIC is designed to work with high-resistance detector arrays with pixel resistance values higher than 250 kΩ. The detector bias voltage can be programmed on-chip over a 2 V range with a resolution of 1 mV. The ROIC has a measured input referred noise of 260 µV rms at 300 K. The ROIC can be used to build a microbolometer infrared sensor with an NETD value below 100 mK using a microbolometer detector array fabrication technology with a high detector resistance value (≥ 250 K

  17. A reduced number of mtSNPs saturates mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity of worldwide population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Amigo, Jorge

    2010-05-03

    The high levels of variation characterising the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule are due ultimately to its high average mutation rate; moreover, mtDNA variation is deeply structured in different populations and ethnic groups. There is growing interest in selecting a reduced number of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) that account for the maximum level of discrimination power in a given population. Applications of the selected mtSNP panel range from anthropologic and medical studies to forensic genetic casework. This study proposes a new simulation-based method that explores the ability of different mtSNP panels to yield the maximum levels of discrimination power. The method explores subsets of mtSNPs of different sizes randomly chosen from a preselected panel of mtSNPs based on frequency. More than 2,000 complete genomes representing three main continental human population groups (Africa, Europe, and Asia) and two admixed populations ("African-Americans" and "Hispanics") were collected from GenBank and the literature, and were used as training sets. Haplotype diversity was measured for each combination of mtSNP and compared with existing mtSNP panels available in the literature. The data indicates that only a reduced number of mtSNPs ranging from six to 22 are needed to account for 95% of the maximum haplotype diversity of a given population sample. However, only a small proportion of the best mtSNPs are shared between populations, indicating that there is not a perfect set of "universal" mtSNPs suitable for all population contexts. The discrimination power provided by these mtSNPs is much higher than the power of the mtSNP panels proposed in the literature to date. Some mtSNP combinations also yield high diversity values in admixed populations. The proposed computational approach for exploring combinations of mtSNPs that optimise the discrimination power of a given set of mtSNPs is more efficient than previous empirical approaches. In contrast to

  18. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and forty-two studies (twenty-seven qualitative, fourteen quantitative, one mixed method) published since 1990 (range 1998-2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women.

  19. Costing improvement of remanufacturing crankshaft by integrating Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and Activity based Costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, M. Y.; Nor, E. E. Mohd; Rahman, M. S. Abd

    2018-04-01

    Integration between quality and costing system is very crucial in order to achieve an accurate product cost and profit. Current practice by most of remanufacturers, there are still lacking on optimization during the remanufacturing process which contributed to incorrect variables consideration to the costing system. Meanwhile, traditional costing accounting being practice has distortion in the cost unit which lead to inaccurate cost of product. The aim of this work is to identify the critical and non-critical variables during remanufacturing process using Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and simultaneously estimate the cost using Activity Based Costing method. The orthogonal array was applied to indicate the contribution of variables in the factorial effect graph and the critical variables were considered with overhead costs that are actually demanding the activities. This work improved the quality inspection together with costing system to produce an accurate profitability information. As a result, the cost per unit of remanufactured crankshaft of MAN engine model with 5 critical crankpins is MYR609.50 while Detroit engine model with 4 critical crankpins is MYR1254.80. The significant of output demonstrated through promoting green by reducing re-melting process of damaged parts to ensure consistent benefit of return cores.

  20. Wearable Internet of Things - from human activity tracking to clinical integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Poonam; Lopez-Benitez, Miguel; Gyu Myoung Lee; Tae-Seong Kim; Minhas, Atul S

    2017-07-01

    Wearable devices for human activity tracking have been emerging rapidly. Most of them are capable of sending health statistics to smartphones, smartwatches or smart bands. However, they only provide the data for individual analysis and their data is not integrated into clinical practice. Leveraging on the Internet of Things (IoT), edge and cloud computing technologies, we propose an architecture which is capable of providing cloud based clinical services using human activity data. Such services could supplement the shortage of staff in primary healthcare centers thereby reducing the burden on healthcare service providers. The enormous amount of data created from such services could also be utilized for planning future therapies by studying recovery cycles of existing patients. We provide a prototype based on our architecture and discuss its salient features. We also provide use cases of our system in personalized and home based healthcare services. We propose an International Telecommunication Union based standardization (ITU-T) for our design and discuss future directions in wearable IoT.

  1. The relationship between solar activity and the H and K line cores in integrated sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebsen, D.E.; Mitchell, W.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the authors present and analyze new data on the cores of the H and K lines of ionized calcium in the spectrum of integrated sunlight. The intensities of the components Hsub(2γ), H 3 , Hsub(2r), Ksub(2γ), K 3 , and Ksub(2r) in the line cores were measured in terms of the continuum intensity at 4000 A during a solar rotation in September 1969. Other data on these components, obtained at or close to the time of solar minimum (September 1964) and solar maximum (September 1968), were also included. The intensities of these features are compared with two indices of solar activity: the Ca II plage index and the 2800 MHZ signal. The average correlation coefficients between the intensities of the measured features and those indices were 0.69 and 0.64, respectively. The results are consistent with those of Bumba and Ruzickova-Topolova (1967) for a solar rotation period in 1965. The method and results should provide a detailed quantitative basis for the study of the activity cycles and rotation periods of solar-type stars. (Auth.)

  2. Participation of MT3 melatonin receptors in the synergistic effect of melatonin on cytotoxic and apoptotic actions evoked by chemotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariente, Roberto; Bejarano, Ignacio; Espino, Javier; Rodríguez, Ana B; Pariente, José A

    2017-11-01

    Melatonin has antitumor activity via several mechanisms including its antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in addition to its potent antioxidant actions. Therefore, melatonin may be useful in the treatment of tumors in association with chemotherapy drugs. This study was performed to study the role of melatonin receptors on the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agents cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in two tumor cell lines, such as human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells and cervical cancer HeLa cells. We found that both melatonin and the two chemotherapeutic agents tested induced a decrease in HT-29 and HeLa cell viability. Furthermore, melatonin significantly increased the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents, particularly, in 5-fluorouracil-challenged cells. Stimulation of cells with either of the two chemotherapeutic agents in the presence of melatonin further increased caspase-3 activation. Concomitant treatments with melatonin and chemotherapeutic agents augmented the population of apoptotic cells compared to the treatments with chemotherapeutics alone. Blockade of MT1 and/or MT2 receptors with luzindole or 4-P-PDOT was unable to reverse the enhancing effects of melatonin on both cytotoxicity, caspase-3 activation and the amount of apoptotic cells evoked by the chemotherapeutic agents, whereas when MT3 receptors were blocked with prazosin, the synergistic effect of melatonin with chemotherapy on cytotoxicity and apoptosis was reversed. Our findings provided evidence that in vitro melatonin strongly enhances chemotherapeutic-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in two tumor cell lines, namely HT-29 and HeLa cells and, this potentiating effect of melatonin is mediated by MT3 receptor stimulation.

  3. DNA Barcoding the Medusozoa using mtCOI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortman, Brian D.; Bucklin, Ann; Pagès, Francesc; Youngbluth, Marsh

    2010-12-01

    The Medusozoa are a clade within the Cnidaria comprising the classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Cubozoa. Identification of medusozoan species is challenging, even for taxonomic experts, due to their fragile forms and complex, morphologically-distinct life history stages. In this study 231 sequences for a portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (mtCOI) gene were obtained from 95 species of Medusozoans including; 84 hydrozoans (61 siphonophores, eight anthomedusae, four leptomedusae, seven trachymedusae, and four narcomedusae), 10 scyphozoans (three coronatae, four semaeostomae, two rhizostomae, and one stauromedusae), and one cubozoan. This region of mtCOI has been used as a DNA barcode (i.e., a molecular character for species recognition and discrimination) for a diverse array of taxa, including some Cnidaria. Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) genetic distances between sequence variants within species ranged from 0 to 0.057 (mean 0.013). Within the 13 genera for which multiple species were available, K2P distance between congeneric species ranged from 0.056 to 0.381. A cluster diagram generated by Neighbor Joining (NJ) using K2P distances reliably clustered all barcodes of the same species with ≥99% bootstrap support, ensuring accurate identification of species. Intra- and inter-specific variation of the mtCOI gene for the Medusozoa are appropriate for this gene to be used as a DNA barcode for species-level identification, but not for phylogenetic analysis or taxonomic classification of unknown sequences at higher taxonomic levels. This study provides a set of molecular tools that can be used to address questions of speciation, biodiversity, life-history, and population boundaries in the Medusozoa.

  4. Changes in heat released by hydrothermal circulation monitored during an eruptive cycle at Mt. Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, I. S.; Gagliano Candela, E.; Morici, S.; Pecoraino, G.; Bellomo, S.; Bitetto, M.; Longo, M.

    2018-04-01

    The shallow vertical temperature profile has been measured in the proximity of an eruptive fissure far about 4 km north-northeast from Mt. Etna central craters. The monitoring site was a steam-heated soil lying between a group of flank fractures on the upper northeast flank of Mt. Etna (Italy), i.e., on the northeast rift. We chose this area because it was close to an eruptive fissure, that opened in 2002 and extended from about 2500 to about 1500 m a.s.l., with our aim being to determine a connection between this fracture system and the ongoing volcanic activity. Heat flux anomalies from the ground from September 2009 to September 2012 were evaluated. Changes in the hydrothermal release—which can be related to variations in volcanic activity—are discussed and compared to the published geophysical data. The heat flux ranges varied during the pre-eruptive (from about 7 to 38 W × m-2), syn-eruptive (from about 3 to 49 W × m-2), and post-eruptive phases, with the heat released being lowest at the latter phase (from about 1 to 20 W × m-2). Moreover, the heat flux time variation was strongly correlated with the eruption rate from the new southeast crater between January 2011 and April 2012. The migration of magma through active conduits acts as a changing heating source for steam-heated soils located above the active fractures. Our findings suggest that tracking the heat flux above active fractures constitutes a useful investigation field for low-cost thermal monitoring of volcanic activity. Time variations in their emissions could highlight the relationship between a hydrothermal circuit and the local network of fractures, possibly indicating variation in the structural weakness of a volcanic edifice. Continuous monitoring of heat flux, combined with a realistic model, would contribute to multidisciplinary investigations aimed at evaluating changes in volcano dynamics.

  5. III-V/Active-Silicon Integration for Low-Cost High-Performance Concentrator Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringel, Steven [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlin, John A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Grassman, Tyler [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-04-17

    This FPACE project was motivated by the need to establish the foundational pathway to achieve concentrator solar cell efficiencies greater than 50%. At such an efficiency, DOE modeling projected that a III-V CPV module cost of $0.50/W or better could be achieved. Therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate, develop and advance a III-V/Si mulitjunction (MJ) CPV technology that can simultaneously address the primary cost barrier for III-V MJ solar cells while enabling nearly ideal MJ bandgap profiles that can yield efficiencies in excess of 50% under concentrated sunlight. The proposed methodology was based on use of our recently developed GaAsP metamorphic graded buffer as a pathway to integrate unique GaAsP and Ga-rich GaInP middle and top junctions having bandgaps that are adjustable between 1.45 – 1.65 eV and 1.9 – 2.1 eV, respectively, with an underlying, 1.1 eV active Si subcell/substrate. With this design, the Si can be an active component sub-cell due to the semi-transparent nature of the GaAsP buffer with respect to Si as well as a low-cost alternative substrate that is amenable to scaling with existing Si foundry infrastructure, providing a reduction in materials cost and a low cost path to manufacturing at scale. By backside bonding of a SiGe, a path to exceed 50% efficiency is possible. Throughout the course of this effort, an expansive range of new understanding was achieved that has stimulated worldwide efforts in III-V/Si PV R&D that spanned materials development, metamorphic device optimization, and complete III-V/Si monolithic integration. Highlights include the demonstration of the first ideal GaP/Si interfaces grown by industry-standard MOCVD processes, the first high performance metamorphic tunnel junctions designed for III-V/Si integration, record performance of specific metamorphic sub-cell designs, the first fully integrated GaInP/GaAsP/Si double (1.7 eV/1.1 eV) and triple (1.95 eV/1.5 eV/1.1 eV) junction solar cells, the first

  6. Work station learning activities: a flexible and scalable instrument for integrating across basic subjects in biomedical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Soltero, Rocío; Learte, Ana Isabel R; Sánchez, Ana Mª; Gal, Beatriz

    2017-11-29

    Establishing innovative teaching programs in biomedical education involves dealing with several national and supra-national (i.e. European) regulations as well as with new pedagogical and demographic demands. We aimed to develop and validate a suitable instrument to integrate activities across preclinical years in all Health Science Degrees while meeting requirements of national quality agencies. The new approach was conceived at two different levels: first, we identified potentially integrative units from different fields according to national learning goals established for each preclinical year (national quality agency regulations). Secondly, we implemented a new instrument that combines active methodologies in Work Station Learning Activities (WSLA), using clinical scenarios as a guiding common thread to instruct students from an integrated perspective. We evaluated students' perception through a Likert-type survey of a total of 118 students enrolled in the first year of the Bachelor's Degree in Medicine. Our model of integrated activities through WSLA is feasible, scalable and manageable with large groups of students and a minimum number of instructors, two major limitations in many medical schools. Students' perception of WSLA was positive in overall terms. Seventy nine percent of participants stated that WSLA sessions were more useful than non-integrated activities. Eighty three percent confirmed that the WSLA methodology was effective at integrating concepts covered by different subjects. The WSLA approach is a flexible and scalable instrument for moving towards integrated curricula, and it can be successfully adapted to teach basic subjects in preclinical years of Health Science degrees. WSLA can be applied to large groups of students in a variety of contexts or environments using clinical cases as connecting threads.

  7. MT-ND5 Mutation Exhibits Highly Variable Neurological Manifestations at Low Mutant Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shiau Ng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the m.13094T>C MT-ND5 gene have been previously described in three cases of Leigh Syndrome (LS. In this retrospective, international cohort study we identified 20 clinically affected individuals (13 families and four asymptomatic carriers. Ten patients were deceased at the time of analysis (median age of death was 10 years (range: 5·4 months−37 years, IQR = 17·9 years. Nine patients manifested with LS, one with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS, and one with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. The remaining nine patients presented with either overlapping syndromes or isolated neurological symptoms. Mitochondrial respiratory chain activity analysis was normal in five out of ten muscle biopsies. We confirmed maternal inheritance in six families, and demonstrated marked variability in tissue segregation, and phenotypic expression at relatively low blood mutant loads. Neuropathological studies of two patients manifesting with LS/MELAS showed prominent capillary proliferation, microvacuolation and severe neuronal cell loss in the brainstem and cerebellum, with conspicuous absence of basal ganglia involvement. These findings suggest that whole mtDNA genome sequencing should be considered in patients with suspected mitochondrial disease presenting with complex neurological manifestations, which would identify over 300 known pathogenic variants including the m.13094T>C. Keywords: Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, Lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS, Leigh syndrome (LS, Mitochondrial DNA, Heteroplasmy, Neuropathology

  8. Mt. Apo geothermal project : a learning experience in sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ote, Leonardo M.; De Jesus, Agnes C.

    1997-01-01

    The Mt. Apo geothermal project, a critical component of the Philippine energy program met stiff opposition from 1988-1991. Seemingly unresolvable legal, environmental and cultural issues between the government developer, the Philippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC) and various affected sectors delayed the project for two years. The paper discusses the efforts undertaken by the developer to resolve these conflicts through a series of initiatives that transformed the project into a legally, environmentally and socially acceptable project. Lastly, the PNOC-EDC experience has evolved a new set of procedures for the environmental evaluation of development project in the Philippines. (author)

  9. Sidereal anisotropy of small air showers observed at Mt. Norikura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujii, Z.; Ueno, H.; Kondo, I.

    1977-01-01

    Observation of small air showers has been continued from August 1970, using a part of the multidirectional cosmic ray telescope at Mt. Norikura. Most significant result obtained from this observation was a sidereal diurnal anisotropy of amplitude 0.051 +- 0.004% with maximum at 1.0 +- 0.5 h, which showed a persistent trend over six years. Based on the results of the observation together with those obtained by Gombosi et al. and Fenton et al., a tentative model of sidereal anisotropies is presented. (author)

  10. Evidence Integration in Natural Acoustic Textures during Active and Passive Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Urszula; Rupp, Andre; Boubenec, Yves; Celikel, Tansu; Englitz, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Many natural sounds can be well described on a statistical level, for example, wind, rain, or applause. Even though the spectro-temporal profile of these acoustic textures is highly dynamic, changes in their statistics are indicative of relevant changes in the environment. Here, we investigated the neural representation of change detection in natural textures in humans, and specifically addressed whether active task engagement is required for the neural representation of this change in statistics. Subjects listened to natural textures whose spectro-temporal statistics were modified at variable times by a variable amount. Subjects were instructed to either report the detection of changes (active) or to passively listen to the stimuli. A subset of passive subjects had performed the active task before (passive-aware vs passive-naive). Psychophysically, longer exposure to pre-change statistics was correlated with faster reaction times and better discrimination performance. EEG recordings revealed that the build-up rate and size of parieto-occipital (PO) potentials reflected change size and change time. Reduced effects were observed in the passive conditions. While P2 responses were comparable across conditions, slope and height of PO potentials scaled with task involvement. Neural source localization identified a parietal source as the main contributor of change-specific potentials, in addition to more limited contributions from auditory and frontal sources. In summary, the detection of statistical changes in natural acoustic textures is predominantly reflected in parietal locations both on the skull and source level. The scaling in magnitude across different levels of task involvement suggests a context-dependent degree of evidence integration.

  11. Design and performance of an integrated ground and space sensor web for monitoring active volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahusen, Richard; Song, Wenzhan; Kedar, Sharon; Shirazi, Behrooz; Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Davies, Ashley; Webb, Frank; Dzurisin, Dan; Pallister, John

    2010-05-01

    An interdisciplinary team of computer, earth and space scientists collaborated to develop a sensor web system for rapid deployment at active volcanoes. The primary goals of this Optimized Autonomous Space In situ Sensorweb (OASIS) are to: 1) integrate complementary space and in situ (ground-based) elements into an interactive, autonomous sensor web; 2) advance sensor web power and communication resource management technology; and 3) enable scalability for seamless addition sensors and other satellites into the sensor web. This three-year project began with a rigorous multidisciplinary interchange that resulted in definition of system requirements to guide the design of the OASIS network and to achieve the stated project goals. Based on those guidelines, we have developed fully self-contained in situ nodes that integrate GPS, seismic, infrasonic and lightning (ash) detection sensors. The nodes in the wireless sensor network are linked to the ground control center through a mesh network that is highly optimized for remote geophysical monitoring. OASIS also features an autonomous bidirectional interaction between ground nodes and instruments on the EO-1 space platform through continuous analysis and messaging capabilities at the command and control center. Data from both the in situ sensors and satellite-borne hyperspectral imaging sensors stream into a common database for real-time visualization and analysis by earth scientists. We have successfully completed a field deployment of 15 nodes within the crater and on the flanks of Mount St. Helens, Washington. The demonstration that sensor web technology facilitates rapid network deployments and that we can achieve real-time continuous data acquisition. We are now optimizing component performance and improving user interaction for additional deployments at erupting volcanoes in 2010.

  12. WMO's activities in gender mainstreaming in geosciences, with a special focus on integrated flood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaenkova, Elena; Caponi, Claudio; Alexieva, Assia; Poissonnier, Maud; Tripathi, Ramesh

    2017-04-01

    Statistics show that women represent a minority in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). They are significantly underrepresented in governance, management and international negotiations. They further comprise only a third of the global workforce at National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and only one out of five senior managers is a woman. This paper presents historical trends and statistics on the participation of women and men in all structures and activities of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). It explores the root causes of women's underrepresentation in the meteorological, hydrological and climatological profession as well as analyzes its adverse effects in terms of the scarcity of role models for young female professionals and the lack of gender considerations in the provision of weather, hydrological and climate services. The paper presents WMO's approach to addressing these issues through the adoption of a WMO Gender Equality Policy, a comprehensive Gender Action Plan, targeted leadership training, a series of awareness raising campaigns, and specific recommendations on how to make weather, hydrological and climate services more gender-sensitive. As a specific example, the Associated Programme on Flood Management (APFM) of WMO and the Global Water Partnership (GWP) is in the process of developing a training manual for gender mainstreaming in integrated flood management. This generic, instructive, at the same time informative training manual and facilitator's guide will strive to fill gaps in practical knowledge, decision-making and further provide assistance in gender sensitive approaches for both local policy makers and communities affected by floods. The format and contents of the manual are particularly focused on every phase of the flood management cycle, incorporating gender based needs, strategies and actions/approaches. The facilitator or training instructor is encouraged to adapt the materials with local case

  13. Renewed Activity from the X-Ray Transient SAXJ 1810.8-2609 with Integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, M.; Natalucci, L.; Chenevez, J.; Bazzano, A.; Tarana, A.; Ubertini, P.; Brandt, S.; Beckmann, V.; Federici, M.; Galis, R.; Hudec, R.

    2009-03-01

    We report on the results of International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary SAX J1810.8-2609 during its latest active phase in 2007 August. The current outburst is the first one since 1998 and the derived luminosity is 1.1-2.6 ×1036 erg s-1 in the 20-100 keV energy range. This low outburst luminosity and the long-term time-average accretion rate of ~5 × 10-12 M sun yr-1 suggest that SAX J1810.8-2609 is a faint soft X-ray transient. During the flux increase, spectra are consistent with a thermal Comptonization model with a temperature plasma of kT e~ 23-30 keV and an optical depth of τ~ 1.2-1.5, independent of the luminosity of the system. This is a typical low hard spectral state for which the X-ray emission is attributed to the upscattering of soft seed photons by a hot, optically thin electron plasma. During the decay, spectra have a different shape, the high energy tail being compatible with a single power law. This confirm similar behavior observed by BeppoSAX during the previous outburst, with the absence of visible cutoff in the hard X-ray spectrum. INTEGRAL/JEM-X instrument observed four X-ray bursts in Fall 2007. The first one has the highest peak flux (≈3.5 crab in 3-25 keV) giving an upper limit to the distance of the source of about 5.7 kpc, for a L Edd ≈ 3.8 × 1038 erg s-1. The observed recurrence time of ~ 1.2 days and the ratio of the total energy emitted in the persistent flux to that emitted in the bursts (α~ 73) allow us to conclude that the burst fuel was composed by mixed hydrogen and helium with X >= 0.4. INTEGRAL is an ESA project with Instruments and Science Data Center funded by ESA member states, especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain; Czech Republic and Poland; and with the participation of Russia and USA.

  14. Cellular variability of RpoS expression underlies subpopulation activation of an integrative and conjugative element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Conjugative transfer of the integrative and conjugative element ICEclc in the bacterium Pseudomonas knackmussii is the consequence of a bistable decision taken in some 3% of cells in a population during stationary phase. Here we study the possible control exerted by the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS on the bistability decision. The gene for RpoS in P. knackmussii B13 was characterized, and a loss-of-function mutant was produced and complemented. We found that, in absence of RpoS, ICEclc transfer rates and activation of two key ICEclc promoters (P(int and P(inR decrease significantly in cells during stationary phase. Microarray and gene reporter analysis indicated that the most direct effect of RpoS is on P(inR, whereas one of the gene products from the P(inR-controlled operon (InrR transmits activation to P(int and other ICEclc core genes. Addition of a second rpoS copy under control of its native promoter resulted in an increase of the proportion of cells expressing the P(int and P(inR promoters to 18%. Strains in which rpoS was replaced by an rpoS-mcherry fusion showed high mCherry fluorescence of individual cells that had activated P(int and P(inR, whereas a double-copy rpoS-mcherry-containing strain displayed twice as much mCherry fluorescence. This suggested that high RpoS levels are a prerequisite for an individual cell to activate P(inR and thus ICEclc transfer. Double promoter-reporter fusions confirmed that expression of P(inR is dominated by extrinsic noise, such as being the result of cellular variability in RpoS. In contrast, expression from P(int is dominated by intrinsic noise, indicating it is specific to the ICEclc transmission cascade. Our results demonstrate how stochastic noise levels of global transcription factors can be transduced to a precise signaling cascade in a subpopulation of cells leading to ICE activation.

  15. Food-induced reinforcement is abrogated by the genetic deletion of the MT1 or MT2 melatonin receptor in C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Shannon J; Hudson, Randall L; Dubocovich, Margarita L

    2018-05-02

    Palatable food is known for its ability to enhance reinforcing responses. Studies have suggested a circadian variation in both drug and natural reinforcement, with each following its own time course. The goal of this study was to determine the role of the MT 1 and MT 2 melatonin receptors in palatable snack food-induced reinforcement, as measured by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm during the light and dark phases. C3H/HeN wild-type mice were trained for snack food-induced CPP at either ZT 6 - 8 (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT 0 = lights on), when endogenous melatonin levels are low, or ZT 19 - 21, when melatonin levels are high. These time points also correspond to the high and low points for expression of the circadian gene Period1, respectively. The amount of snack food (chow, Cheetos®, Froot Loops® and Oreos®) consumed was of similar magnitude at both times, however only C3H/HeN mice conditioned to snack food at ZT 6 - 8 developed a place preference. C3H/HeN mice with a genetic deletion of either the MT 1 (MT 1 KO) or MT 2 (MT 2 KO) receptor tested at ZT 6 - 8 did not develop a place preference for snack food. Although the MT 2 KO mice showed a similar amount of snack food consumed when compared to wild-type mice, the MT 1 KO mice consumed significantly less than either genotype. We conclude that in our mouse model snack food-induced CPP is dependent on time of day and the presence of the MT 1 or MT 2 receptors, suggesting a role for melatonin and its receptors in snack food-induced reinforcement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. EGI-EUDAT integration activity - Pair data and high-throughput computing resources together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardaci, Diego; Viljoen, Matthew; Vitlacil, Dejan; Fiameni, Giuseppe; Chen, Yin; sipos, Gergely; Ferrari, Tiziana

    2016-04-01

    EGI (www.egi.eu) is a publicly funded e-infrastructure put together to give scientists access to more than 530,000 logical CPUs, 200 PB of disk capacity and 300 PB of tape storage to drive research and innovation in Europe. The infrastructure provides both high throughput computing and cloud compute/storage capabilities. Resources are provided by about 350 resource centres which are distributed across 56 countries in Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, Canada and Latin America. EUDAT (www.eudat.eu) is a collaborative Pan-European infrastructure providing research data services, training and consultancy for researchers, research communities, research infrastructures and data centres. EUDAT's vision is to enable European researchers and practitioners from any research discipline to preserve, find, access, and process data in a trusted environment, as part of a Collaborative Data Infrastructure (CDI) conceived as a network of collaborating, cooperating centres, combining the richness of numerous community-specific data repositories with the permanence and persistence of some of Europe's largest scientific data centres. EGI and EUDAT, in the context of their flagship projects, EGI-Engage and EUDAT2020, started in March 2015 a collaboration to harmonise the two infrastructures, including technical interoperability, authentication, authorisation and identity management, policy and operations. The main objective of this work is to provide end-users with a seamless access to an integrated infrastructure offering both EGI and EUDAT services and, then, pairing data and high-throughput computing resources together. To define the roadmap of this collaboration, EGI and EUDAT selected a set of relevant user communities, already collaborating with both infrastructures, which could bring requirements and help to assign the right priorities to each of them. In this way, from the beginning, this activity has been really driven by the end users. The identified user communities are

  17. Bromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giuffrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a 3-yr period, from 2006 to 2009, frequent scattered sunlight DOAS measurements were conducted at Mt. Etna at a distance of around 6 km downwind from the summit craters. During the same period and in addition to these measurements, volcanic observations were made by regularly visiting various parts of Mt. Etna. Here, results from these measurements and observations are presented and their relation is discussed. The focus of the investigation is the bromine monoxide/sulphur dioxide (BrO / SO2 ratio, and its variability in relation to volcanic processes. That the halogen/sulphur ratio can serve as a precursor or indicator for the onset of eruptive activity was already proposed by earlier works (e.g. Noguchi and Kamiya 1963; Menyailov, 1975; Pennisi and Cloarec, 1998; Aiuppa et al., 2002. However, there is still a limited understanding today because of the complexity with which halogens are released, depending on magma composition and degassing conditions. Our understanding of these processes is far from complete, for example of the rate and mechanism of bubble nucleation, growth and ascent in silicate melts (Carroll and Holloway, 1994, the halogen vapour-melt partitioning and the volatile diffusivity in the melt (Aiuppa et al., 2009. With this study we aim to add one more piece to the puzzle of what halogen/sulphur ratios might tell about volcanic activities. Our data set shows an increase of the BrO / SO2 ratio several weeks prior to an eruption, followed by a decline before and during the initial phase of eruptive activities. Towards the end of activity or shortly thereafter, the ratio increases to baseline values again and remains more or less constant during quiet phases. To explain the observed evolution of the BrO / SO2 ratio, a first empirical model is proposed. This model suggests that bromine, unlike chlorine and fluorine, is less soluble in the magmatic melt than sulphur. By using the DOAS method to determine SO2, we actually

  18. The impact of the natural environment on the promotion of active living: an integrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogiuri, Giovanna; Chroni, Stiliani

    2014-08-24

    An understanding of how the living environment influences physical activity (PA) is of great importance for health promotion. Researchers have reported increased PA when there is a greater availability of nature within people's living environment. However, little has been said about underlying motivational processes. The aim of this study was to review the existing literature on the relationship between the natural environment (NE) and PA, integrating it into a conceptual model that depicts the motivational process underlying this relationship. Through a systematic literature search in line with PRISMA guidelines, peer-reviewed articles were sought using PubMed (search updated to October 2013) and scrutiny of reference lists. In addition, we contacted experts within our network. We reviewed papers in which the research question(s) concerned: 1) Effects of PA in NE on individuals' feelings and beliefs; 2) Relationships between PA and availability of NEs; and 3) Motivational processes underlying visits to NEs in association with PA. Analysis and integration of the 90 selected studies were performed using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). People's experiences in using the NE can enhance attitudes toward PA and perceived behavioural control via positive psychological states and stress-relieving effects, which lead to firmer intentions to engage in PA. Individual and environmental barriers, as expressions of social support and actual behavioural control, impact the process via subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Instrumental beliefs such as a desire to enjoy nature and the expected health benefits also influence the process via attitudes. Different patterns have been identified for neighbourhood-based PA and outdoor recreations that take place in a NE. The availability of a NE and attractive views of nature within an individual's living environment are important contributors to PA, yet attention should focus on personal characteristics and

  19. 78 FR 33047 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe-Atoma Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe--Atoma Area Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... the effects of a proposal from Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe (Mt. Rose) to expand its lift and terrain network. The project is located approximately 12 miles west of the intersection of Mt. Rose Highway (Nevada...

  20. The Iron Chelator, Dp44mT, Effectively Inhibits Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Growth in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehn-Chuan Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is a common malignancy with a growing worldwide incidence and prevalence. The N-myc downstream regulated gene (NDRG family of NDRG1, 2, 3, and mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin gene are well-known modulators in the neoplasia process. Current research has considered iron chelators as new anti-cancer agents; however, the anticancer activities of iron chelators and their target genes in OSCC have not been well investigated. We showed that iron chelators (Dp44mT, desferrioxamine (DFO, and deferasirox all significantly inhibit SAS cell growth. Flow cytometry further indicated that Dp44mT inhibition of SAS cells growth was partly due to induction of G1 cell cycle arrest. Iron chelators enhanced expressions of NDRG1 and NDRG3 while repressing cyclin D1 expression in OSCC cells. The in vivo antitumor effect on OSCC and safety of Dp44mT were further confirmed through a xenograft animal model. The Dp44mT treatment also increased Maspin protein levels in SAS and OECM-1 cells. NDRG3 knockdown enhanced the growth of OECM-1 cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that NDRG3 is a tumor suppressor gene in OSCC cells, and Dp44mT could be a promising therapeutic agent for OSCC treatment.

  1. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  2. Detection and location of OP-degrading activity: A model to integrate education and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa; Smith, Kevin; Kudrle, Bill; Leon, Alex

    2015-06-25

    The Environmental Sampling Research Module (ESRM) is an investigative/discovery module that provides undergraduate research experiences for students as part of an interdisciplinary research-based biotechnology curriculum at the University of Houston campus. As part of the ESRM, students collect soil samples from various locations to test for the presence of organophosphorous (OP) degrading bacteria. At the end of this research project students submit a research paper on their field and laboratory activities and discuss their experimental data and observations. Students also record the date, location of collection, and the results of testing the sample for the degradation of two pesticides, methyl parathion or paraoxon, in an electronic laboratory notebook (ELN). Each collection site is recorded on a Google Maps module and the data from student research activities is made available to other undergraduate students. This data is then used to generate a microorganism database of pesticide degrading activity and promote reading, critical thinking, and analytical skills as part of the curriculum. Our sampling of agricultural sites and wastewater within and around the city of Houston has identified seven distinct genera of OP degrading organisms, including Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Exiguobacterium, Delftia, Agrobacterium, Aeromonas, and Rhizobium. Collected strains exhibit phosphotriesterase-like enzymatic activity with isolates of Pseudomonas putida and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia capable of degrading both the phosphotriester paraoxon and the phosphorothioate methyl parathion. Using this collection of OP-degrading microorganisms, undergraduate students have evaluated their potential for enhancing the removal of harmful organophosphates and their toxic metabolites from contaminated agricultural soil and adjacent bodies of water. This analytical data can potentially be utilized for environmental and industrial applications in bioremediation and ecology providing an

  3. Active flow control insight gained from a modified integral boundary layer equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Avraham

    2016-11-01

    Active Flow Control (AFC) can alter the development of boundary layers with applications (e.g., reducing drag by separation delay or separating the boundary layers and enhancing vortex shedding to increase drag). Historically, significant effects of steady AFC methods were observed. Unsteady actuation is significantly more efficient than steady. Full-scale AFC tests were conducted with varying levels of success. While clearly relevant to industry, AFC implementation relies on expert knowledge with proven intuition and or costly and lengthy computational efforts. This situation hinders the use of AFC while simple, quick and reliable design method is absent. An updated form of the unsteady integral boundary layer (UIBL) equations, that include AFC terms (unsteady wall transpiration and body forces) can be used to assist in AFC analysis and design. With these equations and given a family of suitable velocity profiles, the momentum thickness can be calculated and matched with an outer, potential flow solution in 2D and 3D manner to create an AFC design tool, parallel to proven tools for airfoil design. Limiting cases of the UIBL equation can be used to analyze candidate AFC concepts in terms of their capability to modify the boundary layers development and system performance.

  4. Integrated Modelling on Flow and Water Quality Under the Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHI, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on flooding in the UK, inducing more intense and prolonged storms. Frequent flooding due to climate change already exacerbates catchment water quality. Land use is another contributing factor to poor water quality. For example, the move to intensive farming could cause an increase in faecal coliforms entering the water courses. In an effort to understand better the effects on water quality from land use and climate change, the hydrological and estuarine processes are being modelled using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), linked to a 2-D hydrodynamic model DIVAST(Depth Integrated Velocity and Solute Transport). The coupled model is able to quantify how much of each pollutant from the catchment reaches the harbour and the impact on water quality within the harbour. The work is focused on the transportation and decay of faecal coliforms from agricultural runoff into the rivers Frome and Piddle in the UK. The impact from the agricultural land use and activities on the catchment river hydrology and water quality are evaluated. The coupled model calibration and validation showed the good model performance on flow and faecal coliform in the watershed and estuary.

  5. Active surveillance for influenza vaccine adverse events: the integrated vaccine surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Greece, Jacey; Bozeman, Sam; Walker, Deborah Klein; Lewis, Faith; Gidudu, Jane

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a pilot study of the Integrated Vaccine Surveillance System (IVSS), a novel active surveillance system for monitoring influenza vaccine adverse events that could be used in mass vaccination settings. We recruited 605 adult vaccinees from a convenience sample of 12 influenza vaccine clinics conducted by public health departments of two U.S. metropolitan regions. Vaccinees provided daily reports on adverse reactions following immunization (AEFI) using an interactive voice response system (IVR) or the internet for 14 consecutive days following immunization. Followup with nonrespondents was conducted through computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). Data on vaccinee reports were available real-time through a dedicated secure website. 90% (545) of vaccinees made at least one daily report and 49% (299) reported consecutively for the full 14-day period. 58% (315) used internet, 20% (110) IVR, 6% (31) CATI, and 16% (89) used a combination for daily reports. Of the 545 reporters, 339 (62%) reported one or more AEFI, for a total of 594 AEFIs reported. The majority (505 or 85%) of these AEFIs were mild symptoms. It is feasible to develop a system to obtain real-time data on vaccine adverse events. Vaccinees are willing to provide daily reports for a considerable time post vaccination. Offering multiple modes of reporting encourages high response rates. Study findings on AEFIs showed that the IVSS was able to exhibit the emerging safety profile of the 2008 seasonal influenza vaccine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plants with anti-Leishmania activity: Integrative review from 2000 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ana Maria G; Dos Santos, Derivaldo; Rodrigues, Sheyla A; Brito, Renan G; Xavier-Filho, Lauro

    2013-01-01

    The search for more effective new drugs to treat Leishmaniasis is undoubtedly relevant. Our objective in this study was to investigate research publications addressing plants with anti-Leishmaniasis activity. An integrative review of the literature from 2000 to 2011 was carried out in the databases such as Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). In the initial search, 150 articles were found, with 25 based in LILACS, 68 in SciELO, and 46 in MEDLINE. From these data, after reading the abstracts that were available online, we excluded 12 from LILACS, 39 from SciELO, and 28 from MEDLINE for presenting article duplications. This left 61 articles to be read; however, only 18 of them answered the research questions and determined the final sample of this review. The results showed that research involving the search for new drugs against Leishmaniasis should be intensified, especially for the amastigote form, and studies with in vivo tests could become a great strategy for successfully finding new treatments for Leishmaniasis. It is believed that it is extremely important and urgent to conduct more trials in search of new effective drugs against Leishmaniasis that possess minimal adverse effects and that are easily accessible to the public.

  7. Modelling of the activity system - development of an evaluation method for integrated system validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norros, Leena; Savioja, Paula

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent research which focuses on creating an evaluation method for human-system interfaces of complex systems. The method is aimed for use in the validation of modernised nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms, and other complex systems with high reliability requirements. The task in validation is to determine whether the human-system functions safely and effectively. This question can be operationalized to the selection of relevant operational features and their appropriate acceptance criteria. Thus, there is a need to ensure that the results of the evaluation can be generalized so that they serve the purpose of integrated system validation. The definition of the appropriate acceptance criteria provides basis for the judgement of the appropriateness of the performance of the system. We propose that the operational situations and the acceptance criteria should be defined based on modelling of the NPP operation that is comprehended as an activity system. We developed a new core-tasks modelling framework. It is a formative modelling approach that combines causal, functional and understanding explanations of system performance. In this paper we reason how modelling can be used as a medium to determine the validity of the emerging control room system. (Author)

  8. Particle Filter with Integrated Voice Activity Detection for Acoustic Source Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders M. Johansson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In noisy and reverberant environments, the problem of acoustic source localisation and tracking (ASLT using an array of microphones presents a number of challenging difficulties. One of the main issues when considering real-world situations involving human speakers is the temporally discontinuous nature of speech signals: the presence of silence gaps in the speech can easily misguide the tracking algorithm, even in practical environments with low to moderate noise and reverberation levels. A natural extension of currently available sound source tracking algorithms is the integration of a voice activity detection (VAD scheme. We describe a new ASLT algorithm based on a particle filtering (PF approach, where VAD measurements are fused within the statistical framework of the PF implementation. Tracking accuracy results for the proposed method is presented on the basis of synthetic audio samples generated with the image method, whereas performance results obtained with a real-time implementation of the algorithm, and using real audio data recorded in a reverberant room, are published elsewhere. Compared to a previously proposed PF algorithm, the experimental results demonstrate the improved robustness of the method described in this work when tracking sources emitting real-world speech signals, which typically involve significant silence gaps between utterances.

  9. Improvement of Fibrinolytic Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 by Integration of a Fibrinolytic Gene into the Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seon-Ju; Park, Ji Yeong; Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Kang Wook; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Gyoung Min; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2015-11-01

    Fibrinolytic enzyme genes (aprE2, aprE176, and aprE179) were introduced into the Bacillus subtilis 168 chromosome without any antibiotic resistance gene. An integration vector, pDG1662, was used to deliver the genes into the amyE site of B. subtilis 168. Integrants, SJ3-5nc, SJ176nc, and SJ179nc, were obtained after two successive homologous recombinations. The integration of each fibrinolytic gene into the middle of the amyE site was confirmed by phenotypes (Amy(-), Spec(S)) and colony PCR results for these strains. The fibrinolytic activities of the integrants were higher than that of B. subtilis 168 by at least 3.2-fold when grown in LB broth. Cheonggukjang was prepared by inoculating each of B. subtilis 168, SJ3-5nc, SJ176nc, and SJ179nc, and the fibrinolytic activity of cheonggukjang was 4.6 ± 0.7, 10.8 ± 0.9, 7.0 ± 0.6, and 8.0 ± 0.2 (U/g of cheonggukjang), respectively at 72 h. These results showed that construction of B. subtilis strains with enhanced fibrinolytic activities is possible by integration of a strong fibrinolytic gene via a marker-free manner.

  10. Myopathic mtDNA Depletion Syndrome Due to Mutation in TK2 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, Elena; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Rodríguez-García, María Elena; Rivera, Henry; Hernández-Laín, Aurelio; Coca-Robinot, David; Fernández-Toral, Joaquín; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel A; Martínez-Azorín, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify the disease gene(s) in a Spanish girl with failure to thrive, muscle weakness, mild facial weakness, elevated creatine kinase, deficiency of mitochondrial complex III and depletion of mtDNA. With whole-exome sequencing data, it was possible to get the whole mtDNA sequencing and discard any pathogenic variant in this genome. The analysis of whole exome uncovered a homozygous pathogenic mutation in thymidine kinase 2 gene ( TK2; NM_004614.4:c.323 C>T, p.T108M). TK2 mutations have been identified mainly in patients with the myopathic form of mtDNA depletion syndromes. This patient presents an atypical TK2-related myopathic form of mtDNA depletion syndromes, because despite having a very low content of mtDNA (TK2 gene in mtDNA depletion syndromes and expanded the phenotypic spectrum.

  11. Genetic dysfunction of MT-ATP6 causes axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pitceathly, Robert D S

    2012-09-11

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, affecting 1 in 2,500 individuals. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are not generally considered within the differential diagnosis of patients with uncomplicated inherited neuropathy, despite the essential requirement of ATP for axonal function. We identified the mtDNA mutation m.9185T>C in MT-ATP6, encoding the ATP6 subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase (OXPHOS complex V), at homoplasmic levels in a family with mitochondrial disease in whom a severe motor axonal neuropathy was a striking feature. This led us to hypothesize that mutations in the 2 mtDNA complex V subunit encoding genes, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8, might be an unrecognized cause of isolated axonal CMT and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN).

  12. An innovative strategy to clone positive modifier genes of defects caused by mtDNA mutations: MRPS18C as suppressor gene of m.3946G>A mutation in MT-ND1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, María Elena; Cotrina-Vinagre, Francisco Javier; Carnicero-Rodríguez, Patricia; Martínez-Azorín, Francisco

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a new functional complementation approach to clone modifier genes which overexpression is able to suppress the biochemical defects caused by mtDNA mutations (suppressor genes). This strategy consists in transferring human genes into respiratory chain-deficient fibroblasts, followed by a metabolic selection in a highly selective medium. We used a normalized expression cDNA library in an episomal vector (pREP4) to transfect the fibroblasts, and a medium with glutamine and devoid of any carbohydrate source to select metabolically. Growing the patient's fibroblasts in this selective medium, the deficient cells rapidly disappear unless they are rescued by the cDNA of a suppressor gene. The use of an episomal vector allows us to carry out several rounds of transfection/selection (cyclical phenotypic rescue) to enrich the rescue with true clones of suppressor genes. Using fibroblasts from a patient with epileptic encephalopathy with the m.3946G>A (p.E214K) mutation in the MT-ND1 gene, several candidate genes were identified and one of them was characterized functionally. Thus, overexpression of MRPS18C gene (that encode for bS18m protein) suppressed the molecular defects produced by this mtDNA mutation, recovering the complex I activity and reducing the ROS produced by this complex to normal levels. We suggest that modulation of bS18m expression may be an effective therapeutic strategy for the patients with this mutation.

  13. Visual motion imagery neurofeedback based on the hMT+/V5 complex: evidence for a feedback-specific neural circuit involving neocortical and cerebellar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banca, Paula; Sousa, Teresa; Catarina Duarte, Isabel; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Current approaches in neurofeedback/brain-computer interface research often focus on identifying, on a subject-by-subject basis, the neural regions that are best suited for self-driven modulation. It is known that the hMT+/V5 complex, an early visual cortical region, is recruited during explicit and implicit motion imagery, in addition to real motion perception. This study tests the feasibility of training healthy volunteers to regulate the level of activation in their hMT+/V5 complex using real-time fMRI neurofeedback and visual motion imagery strategies. Approach. We functionally localized the hMT+/V5 complex to further use as a target region for neurofeedback. An uniform strategy based on motion imagery was used to guide subjects to neuromodulate hMT+/V5. Main results. We found that 15/20 participants achieved successful neurofeedback. This modulation led to the recruitment of a specific network as further assessed by psychophysiological interaction analysis. This specific circuit, including hMT+/V5, putative V6 and medial cerebellum was activated for successful neurofeedback runs. The putamen and anterior insula were recruited for both successful and non-successful runs. Significance. Our findings indicate that hMT+/V5 is a region that can be modulated by focused imagery and that a specific cortico-cerebellar circuit is recruited during visual motion imagery leading to successful neurofeedback. These findings contribute to the debate on the relative potential of extrinsic (sensory) versus intrinsic (default-mode) brain regions in the clinical application of neurofeedback paradigms. This novel circuit might be a good target for future neurofeedback approaches that aim, for example, the training of focused attention in disorders such as ADHD.

  14. Melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and nitro-oxidative stress in testis of golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: An age-dependent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-09-01

    Age-dependent decline in melatonin level induces nitro-oxidative stress that compromises physiological homeostasis including reproduction. However, less information exist regarding the age-dependent variation in local melatonin (lMel) concentration and MT1R expression in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Therefore, we evaluated lMel level along with MT1R expression and its possible interaction with steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in testes of young (6weeks), adult (15weeks) and old (2years) aged hamsters. Further, we injected the old hamsters with melatonin to address whether age-related decline in lMel and MT1R is responsible for the reduction in testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Increased expression of steroidogenic markers suggests increased testicular steroidogenesis in adult hamsters that declined in old hamsters. An age-dependent elevation in the level of NOX, TBARS, corticosterone and the expression of iNOS and GR with a concomitant decrease in enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX indicate increased nitro-oxidative stress in testes. Data suggest that reproductive senescence in male hamsters might be a consequence of declined lMel concentration with MT1R expression inducing nitro-oxidative stress resulting in diminished testicular steroidogenesis. However, administration of Mel in old-aged hamsters significantly increased steroidogenesis and antioxidant status without a significant variation in lMel concentration and MT1R expression in testes. Therefore, decreased lMel and MT1R might not be the causative factor underlying the age-associated decrease in antioxidant defence and steroidogenesis in testes. In conclusion, Mel induced amelioration of testicular oxidative insult and elevation of steroidogenic activity suggests a potential role of increased nitro-oxidative stress underlying the age-dependent decrease in steroidogenesis. Copyright

  15. Soil gases and SAR measurements reveal hidden faults on the sliding flank of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Federico, Cinzia; Giammanco, Salvatore; Guglielmino, Francesco; Liuzzo, Marco; Neri, Marco

    2013-02-01

    From October 2008 to November 2009, soil CO2, radon and structural field surveys were performed on Mt. Etna, in order to acquire insights into active tectonic structures in a densely populated sector of the south-eastern flank of the volcano, which is involved in the flank dynamics, as highlighted by satellite data (InSAR). The studied area extends about 150 km2, in a sector of the volcano where InSAR results detected several lineaments that were not well-defined from previous geological surveys. In order to validate and better constrain these features with ground data evidences, soil CO2 and soil radon measurements were performed along transects roughly orthogonal to the newly detected faults, with measurement points spaced about 100 m. In each transect, the highest CO2 values were found very close to the lineaments evidenced by InSAR observations. Anomalous soil CO2 and radon values were also measured at old eruptive fractures. In some portions of the investigated area soil gas anomalies were rather broad over transects, probably suggesting a complex structural framework consisting of several parallel volcano-tectonic structures, instead of a single one. Soil gas measurements proved particularly useful in areas at higher altitude on Mt. Etna (i.e. above 900 m asl), where InSAR results are not very informative/are fairly limited, and allowed recognizing the prolongation of some tectonic lineaments towards the summit of the volcano. At a lower altitude on the volcanic edifice, soil gas anomalies define the active structures indicated by InSAR results prominently, down to almost the coastline and through the northern periphery of the city of Catania. Coupling InSAR with soil gas prospecting methods has thus proved to be a powerful tool in detecting hidden active structures that do not show significant field evidences.

  16. Mt. Graham: optical turbulence vertical distribution with standard and high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Elena; Stoesz, Jeff; Hagelin, Susanna; Lascaux, Franck

    2010-07-01

    A characterization of the optical turbulence vertical distribution and all the main integrated astroclimatic parameters derived from the C2N and the wind speed profiles above Mt. Graham is presented. The statistic includes measurements related to 43 nights done with a Generalized Scidar (GS) used in standard configuration with a vertical resolution of ~1 km on the whole 20-22 km and with the new technique (HVR-GS) in the first kilometer. The latter achieves a resolution of ~ 20-30 m in this region of the atmosphere. Measurements done in different periods of the year permit us to provide a seasonal variation analysis of the C2N. A discretized distribution of the typical C2N profiles useful for the Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) simulations is provided and a specific analysis for the LBT Laser Guide Star system ARGOS case is done including the calculation of the 'gray zones' for J, H and K bands. Mt. Graham confirms to be an excellent site with median values of the seeing without dome contribution equal to 0.72", the isoplanatic angle equal to 2.5" and the wavefront coherence time equal to 4.8 msec. We provide a cumulative distribution of the percentage of turbulence developed below H* where H* is included in the (0,1 km) range. We find that 50% of the whole turbulence develops in the first 80 m from the ground. The turbulence decreasing rate is very similar to what has been observed above Mauna Kea.

  17. Cognate xenoliths in Mt. Etna lavas: witnesses of the high-velocity body beneath the volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Rotolo, Silvio Giuseppe; Cocina, Ornella; Tumbarello, Gianvito

    2014-01-01

    Various xenoliths have been found in lavas of the 1763 ("La Montagnola"), 2001, and 2002-03 eruptions at Mt. Etna whose petrographic evidence and mineral chemistry exclude a mantle origin and clearly point to a cognate nature. Consequently, cognate xenoliths might represent a proxy to infer the nature of the high-velocity body (HVB) imaged beneath the volcano by seismic tomography. Petrography allows us to group the cognate xenoliths as follows: i) gabbros with amphibole and amphibole-bearing mela-gabbros, ii) olivine-bearing leuco-gabbros, iii) leuco-gabbros with amphibole, and iv) Plg-rich leuco gabbros. Geobarometry estimates the crystallization pressure of the cognate xenoliths between 1.9 and 4.1 kbar. The bulk density of the cognate xenoliths varies from 2.6 to 3.0 g/cm3. P wave velocities (V P ), calculated in relation to xenolith density, range from 4.9 to 6.1 km/s. The integration of mineralogical, compositional, geobarometric data, and density-dependent V P with recent literature data on 3D V P seismic tomography enabled us to formulate the first hypothesis about the nature of the HVB which, in the depth range of 3-13 km b.s.l., is likely made of intrusive gabbroic rocks. These are believed to have formed at the "solidification front", a marginal zone that encompasses a deep region (>5 km b.s.l.) of Mt. Etna's plumbing system, within which magma crystallization takes place. The intrusive rocks were afterwards fragmented and transported as cognate xenoliths by the volatile-rich and fast-ascending magmas of the 1763 "La Montagnola", 2001 and 2002-03 eruptions.

  18. Nonlinear reset integrator control design: Application to the active suspension control of vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Acho Zuppa, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    We present an unexampled reset integrator control design based on the Clegg integrator system. Using an appropriate mathematical model of our Clegg integrator controller, stability proof of the closed-loop system applied to the vibration control problem of a second-order system is shown without invoking hybrid system theory. Furthermore, we illustrate the pplicability of our controller, from the numerical experiment point of view, to the suspension vibration control of vehicles.

  19. Characterization of pancreatic lesions from MT-tgf alpha, Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc single and double transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dezhong Joshua; Wang, Yong; Wu, Jiusheng; Adsay, Nazmi Volkan; Grignon, David; Khanani, Fayyaz; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2006-07-05

    In order to identify good animal models for investigating therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer, we analyzed pancreatic lesions from several transgenic models and made a series of novel findings. Female MT-tgf alpha mice of the MT100 line developed pancreatic proliferation, acinar-ductal metaplasia, multilocular cystic neoplasms, ductal adenocarcinomas and prominent fibrosis, while the lesions in males were less severe. MT-tgf alpha-ES transgenic lines of both sexes developed slowly progressing lesions that were similar to what was seen in MT100 males. In both MT100 and MT-tgf alpha-ES lines, TGF alpha transgene was expressed mainly in proliferating ductal cells. Ela-myc transgenic mice with a mixed C57BL/6, SJL and FVB genetic background developed pancreatic tumors at 2-7 months of age, and half of the tumors were ductal adenocarcinomas, similar to what was reported originally by Sandgren et al 1. However, in 20% of the mice, the tumors metastasized to the liver. MT100/Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha-ES/Ela-myc double transgenic mice developed not only acinar carcinomas and mixed carcinomas as previously reported but also various ductal-originated lesions, including multilocular cystic neoplasms and ductal adenocarcinomas. The double transgenic tumors were more malignant and metastasized to the liver at a higher frequency (33%) compared with the Ela-myc tumors. Sequencing of the coding region of p16ink4, k-ras and Rb cDNA in small numbers of pancreatic tumors did not identify mutations. The short latency for tumor development, the variety of tumor morphology and the liver metastases seen in Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc mice make these animals good models for investigating new therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer.

  20. The use of an empirical correlation between surface activity and integrated radon exposure in a retrospective radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauwels, P.; Poffijn, A.