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Sample records for integral gamma-ray observatory

  1. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    more strange than the energetic radiation coming from the centre of distant galaxies are flashes of extremely powerful radiation that suddenly appear somewhere on the gamma-sky and disappear again after a short time. These gamma-bursts seem to be the biggest observed explosions in the Universe. But nobody knows their source. Integral will help to solve this long-standing mystery. ESA, the pioneer in gamma-ray astronomy The satellite as it can now be seen at ESA's test centre is five meters high and weighs more than four tonnes. Two main instruments observe the gamma-rays. An imager will give the sharpest gamma-ray images. It is provided by a consortium led by an Italian scientist. Gamma-rays ignore lenses and mirror, so INTEGRAL makes its images with so-called coded-masks. A coded-mask telescope is basically a pinhole camera, but with a larger aperture, i.e. many pinholes. A spectrometer will gauge gamma-ray energies extremely precisely. It is developed by a team of scientists under joint French-German leadership and will be a 100 times more sensitive than the previous high spectral resolution space instrument. It is made of a high-purity Germanium detector that has to be cooled down to minus 188 degree Celsius. These two gamma-ray-instruments are supported by two monitor instruments that play a crucial role in the detection and identification of the gamma-ray sources. An X-ray monitor developed in Denmark will observe X-rays, still powerful but less energetic than gamma-rays. An optical telescope provided by Spain will observe the visible light emitted by the energetic objects. Switzerland will host the Integral Science Data Centre which will preprocess and distribute the scientific data. The mission is conceived as an observatory led by ESA with Russia contributing the launcher and NASA providing tracking support with its Deep Space Network. Alenia Aerospazio in Turin, Italy is ESA's prime contractor for building INTEGRAL. Launch by a Russian Proton rocket from

  2. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  3. GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and

  4. Characteristics of the telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Rolfe, J.; Johansson, A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray telescope selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  5. Gamma ray observatory dynamics simulator in Ada (GRODY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This experiment involved the parallel development of dynamics simulators for the Gamma Ray Observatory in both FORTRAN and Ada for the purpose of evaluating the applicability of Ada to the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's flight dynamics environment. The experiment successfully demonstrated that Ada is a viable, valuable technology for use in this environment. In addition to building a simulator, the Ada team evaluated training approaches, developed an Ada methodology appropriate to the flight dynamics environment, and established a baseline for evaluating future Ada projects

  6. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    5 August 2004 A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, but also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed... Gamma ray burst model hi-res Size hi-res: 22 KB Credits: CXC/M. Weiss Artist impression of a low-energy gamma-ray burst This illustration describes a model for a gamma-ray burst, like the one detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 (GRB 031203). A jet of high-energy particles from a rapidly rotating black hole interacts with surrounding matter. Observations with Integral on 3 December 2003 and data on its afterglow, collected afterwards with XMM-Newton, Chandra and the Very Large Array telescope, show that GRB 031203 radiated only a fraction of the energy of normal gamma-ray bursts. Like supernovae, gamma-ray bursts are thought to be produced by the collapse of the core of a massive star. However, while the process leading to supernovae is relatively well understood, astronomers still do not know what happens when a core collapses to form a black hole. The discovery of 'under-energetic' gamma-ray bursts, like GRB 031203, should provide valuable clues as to links between supernovae, black holes and gamma-ray bursts. Lo-res JPG (22 Kb) Hi-res TIFF (5800 Kb) Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs

  7. The 2HWC HAWC Observatory Gamma-Ray Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Barber, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Albert, A. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alfaro, R.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Alvarez, C.; Arceo, R.; Caballero-Mora, K. S. [Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Álvarez, J. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Solares, H. A. Ayala; Brisbois, C. [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Baughman, B.; Berley, D. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bautista-Elivar, N. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Gonzalez, J. Becerra [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); BenZvi, S. Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Bernal, A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Braun, J., E-mail: riviere@umdgrb.umd.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); and others

    2017-07-01

    We present the first catalog of TeV gamma-ray sources realized with data from the newly completed High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC). It is the most sensitive wide field-of-view TeV telescope currently in operation, with a one-year survey sensitivity of ∼5%–10% of the flux of the Crab Nebula. With an instantaneous field of view >1.5 sr and >90% duty cycle, it continuously surveys and monitors the sky for gamma-ray energies between hundreds of GeV and tens of TeV. HAWC is located in Mexico, at a latitude of 19° N, and was completed in 2015 March. Here, we present the 2HWC catalog, which is the result of the first source search performed with the complete HAWC detector. Realized with 507 days of data, it represents the most sensitive TeV survey to date for such a large fraction of the sky. A total of 39 sources were detected, with an expected number of false detections of 0.5 due to background fluctuation. Out of these sources, 19 are new sources that are not associated with previously known TeV sources (association criteria: <0.°5 away). The source list, including the position measurement, spectrum measurement, and uncertainties, is reported, then each source is briefly discussed. Of the 2HWC associated sources, 10 are reported in TeVCat as PWN or SNR: 2 as blazars and the remaining eight as unidentified.

  8. GRODY - GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY DYNAMICS SIMULATOR IN ADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, M.

    1994-01-01

    Analysts use a dynamics simulator to test the attitude control system algorithms used by a satellite. The simulator must simulate the hardware, dynamics, and environment of the particular spacecraft and provide user services which enable the analyst to conduct experiments. Researchers at Goddard's Flight Dynamics Division developed GRODY alongside GROSS (GSC-13147), a FORTRAN simulator which performs the same functions, in a case study to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the Ada programming language for flight dynamics software development. They used popular object-oriented design techniques to link the simulator's design with its function. GRODY is designed for analysts familiar with spacecraft attitude analysis. The program supports maneuver planning as well as analytical testing and evaluation of the attitude determination and control system used on board the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) satellite. GRODY simulates the GRO on-board computer and Control Processor Electronics. The analyst/user sets up and controls the simulation. GRODY allows the analyst to check and update parameter values and ground commands, obtain simulation status displays, interrupt the simulation, analyze previous runs, and obtain printed output of simulation runs. The video terminal screen display allows visibility of command sequences, full-screen display and modification of parameters using input fields, and verification of all input data. Data input available for modification includes alignment and performance parameters for all attitude hardware, simulation control parameters which determine simulation scheduling and simulator output, initial conditions, and on-board computer commands. GRODY generates eight types of output: simulation results data set, analysis report, parameter report, simulation report, status display, plots, diagnostic output (which helps the user trace any problems that have occurred during a simulation), and a permanent log of all runs and errors. The

  9. SEARCH FOR GAMMA-RAYS FROM THE UNUSUALLY BRIGHT GRB 130427A WITH THE HAWC GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysekara, A. U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Alfaro, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D. F. (Mexico); Alvarez, C.; Arceo, R. [CEFyMAP, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Álvarez, J. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Cotti, U.; De León, C. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Solares, H. A. Ayala [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Barber, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Baughman, B. M.; Braun, J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bautista-Elivar, N. [Universidad Politécnica de Pachuca, Municipio de Zempoala, Hidalgo (Mexico); BenZvi, S. Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Rosales, M. Bonilla; Carramiñana, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Caballero-Mora, K. S. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. (Mexico); Castillo, M.; Cotzomi, J. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla (Mexico); De la Fuente, E., E-mail: dirk.lennarz@gatech.edu [Departamento de Física, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara (Mexico); Collaboration: HAWC collaboration; and others

    2015-02-20

    The first limits on the prompt emission from the long gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A in the >100 GeV energy band are reported. GRB 130427A was the most powerful burst ever detected with a redshift z ≲ 0.5 and featured the longest lasting emission above 100 MeV. The energy spectrum extends at least up to 95 GeV, clearly in the range observable by the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory, a new extensive air shower detector currently under construction in central Mexico. The burst occurred under unfavorable observation conditions, low in the sky and when HAWC was running 10% of the final detector. Based on the observed light curve at MeV-GeV energies, eight different time periods have been searched for prompt and delayed emission from this GRB. In all cases, no statistically significant excess of counts has been found and upper limits have been placed. It is shown that a similar GRB close to zenith would be easily detected by the full HAWC detector, which will be completed soon. The detection rate of the full HAWC detector may be as high as one to two GRBs per year. A detection could provide important information regarding the high energy processes at work and the observation of a possible cut-off beyond the Fermi Large Area Telescope energy range could be the signature of gamma-ray absorption, either in the GRB or along the line of sight due to the extragalactic background light.

  10. Gamma-Ray Burst Arrival Time Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, and Ulysses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laros, J.G.; Hurley, K.C.; Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Briggs, M.S.; Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M.L.; Fishman, G.J.; Meegan, C.A.; Cline, T.L.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.

    1998-01-01

    Between the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) launch in 1991 April and the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) demise in 1992 October, concurrent coverage by CGRO, PVO, and Ulysses was obtained for several hundred gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the PVO and Ulysses thresholds, 37 were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to ∼2 degree accuracy by the CGRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), and three were also localized by COMPTEL. We computed arrival-time error boxes, whose larger dimensions range from about 2' to several degrees and whose smaller dimensions are in the arcminute range. Twelve have areas less than 10 arcmin 2 , and only four have areas greater than 1 deg 2 . The area of the smallest box is 0.44 arcmin 2 . We find that the overall BATSE localization accuracy for these events is consistent with the most recent stated uncertainties. This work indicates that the ROSAT soft X-ray source found within a preliminary IPN error box for GB920501 (Trig 1576) (Hurley et al.) is less likely to be the GRB counterpart than previously reported. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  11. Properties of a large NaI(Tl) spectrometer for the energy measurement of high-energy gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.B.; Finman, L.C.; Hofstadter, R.; Lepetich, J.E.; Lin, Y.C.; Mattox, J.R.; Nolan, P.L.; Parks, R.; Walker, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    A large NaI(T1) spectrometer is expected to play a crucial role in the measurement of the energy spectra from an all-sky survey of high-energy celestial gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory. The crystal size and requirements of space flight have resulted in a novel crystal-packaging and optics combination. The structure of this spectrometer and the operating characteristics determined in a test program using high energy positrons are described

  12. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I H; Brandt, Søren; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2013-01-01

    One of the least documented and understood aspects of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the rise phase of the optical light curve. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is an effort to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of space missions including a small s...

  13. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (uffo) for Observation of Early Photons from Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I. H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the least documented and understood aspects of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) is the rise phase of the optical light curve. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is an effort to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of space missions including a small sp...

  14. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory for observation of early photons from gamma ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I. H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the space project of Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) which will observe early optical photons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a sub-second optical response, for the first time. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs, opening a completely new frontier in GRB and trans...

  15. Ada training evaluation and recommendations from the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada Development Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The Ada training experiences of the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada development team are related, and recommendations are made concerning future Ada training for software developers. Training methods are evaluated, deficiencies in the training program are noted, and a recommended approach, including course outline, time allocation, and reference materials, is offered

  16. AGIS: A Next-generation TeV Gamma-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Justin

    2010-05-01

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a next-generation array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for gamma-ray astronomy in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV band. TeV astronomy has flourished in the last few years. Together with the extremely successful first year of the Fermi LAT telescope for GeV gamma-ray astronomy, we are now in a golden age of gamma-ray astronomy. AGIS seeks to continue the success of gamma-ray astronomy by discovering hundreds of new TeV sources and improving our understanding of known sources, as well as searching for signals from dark matter annihilation. AGIS will feature 36 Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) telescopes spanning 1 km2. The two-mirror SC design allows a wide field of view (8 deg diameter) and high-resolution (0.05 deg diameter) pixellation. I will present the science capabilities of the AGIS observatory as well as the technical design and current status of the project.

  17. Search for very-high-energy emission from Gamma-ray Bursts using the first 18 months of data from the HAWC Gamma-ray Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    The HAWC collaboration; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Rojas, D. Avila; Solares, H. A. Ayala; Barber, A. S.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Bernal, A.; Braun, J.

    2017-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-ray Observatory is an extensive air shower detector operating in central Mexico, which has recently completed its first two years of full operations. If for a burst like GRB 130427A at a redshift of 0.34 and a high-energy component following a power law with index -1.66, the high-energy component is extended to higher energies with no cut-off other than from extragalactic background light attenuation, HAWC would observe gamma rays with a peak ene...

  18. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations of the weak gamma-ray burst GRB 030227

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mereghetti, S.; Gotz, D.; Tiengo, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present International Gamma-Ray Astrophysical Laboratory ( INTEGRAL) and XMM-Newton observations of the prompt gamma-ray emission and the X-ray afterglow of GRB 030227, the first gamma-ray burst for which the quick localization obtained with the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System has led...

  19. Integrated neutron/gamma-ray portal monitors for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation monitoring is one nuclear-safeguards measure used to protect against the theft of special nuclear materials (SNM) by pedestrians departing from SNM access areas. The integrated neutron/gamma-ray portal monitor is an ideal radiation monitor for the task when the SNM is plutonium. It achieves high sensitivity for detecting both bare and shielded plutonium by combining two types of radiation detector. One type is a neutron-chamber detector, comprising a large, hollow, neutron moderator that contains a single thermal-neutron proportional counter. The entrance wall of each chamber is thin to admit slow neutrons from plutonium contained in a moderating shield, while the other walls are thick to moderate fast neutrons from bare or lead-shielded plutonium so that they can be detected. The other type of detector is a plastic scintillator that is primarily for detecting gamma rays from small amounts of unshielded plutonium. The two types of detector are easily integrated by making scintillators part of the thick back wall of each neutron chamber or by inserting them into each chamber void. The authors compared the influence of the two methods of integration on detecting neutrons and gamma rays, and they examined the effectiveness of other design factors and the methods for signal detection as well

  20. Gamma-Ray Peak Integration: Accuracy and Precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard M. Lindstrom

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of singlet gamma-ray peak areas obtained by a peak analysis program is immaterial. If the same algorithm is used for sample measurement as for calibration and if the peak shapes are similar, then biases in the integration method cancel. Reproducibility is the only important issue. Even the uncertainty of the areas computed by the program is trivial because the true standard uncertainty can be experimentally assessed by repeated measurements of the same source. Reproducible peak integration was important in a recent standard reference material certification task. The primary tool used for spectrum analysis was SUM, a National Institute of Standards and Technology interactive program to sum peaks and subtract a linear background, using the same channels to integrate all 20 spectra. For comparison, this work examines other peak integration programs. Unlike some published comparisons of peak performance in which synthetic spectra were used, this experiment used spectra collected for a real (though exacting) analytical project, analyzed by conventional software used in routine ways. Because both components of the 559- to 564-keV doublet are from 76 As, they were integrated together with SUM. The other programs, however, deconvoluted the peaks. A sensitive test of the fitting algorithm is the ratio of reported peak areas. In almost all the cases, this ratio was much more variable than expected from the reported uncertainties reported by the program. Other comparisons to be reported indicate that peak integration is still an imperfect tool in the analysis of gamma-ray spectra

  1. INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.

    2017-01-01

    We report the INTernational Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) detection of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A (discovered by Fermi-GBM) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.6, and, for the first time, its association with the gravitational waves (GWs) from binary neutron star (BNS......) merging event GW170817 detected by the LIGO and Virgo observatories. The significance of association between the gamma-ray burst observed by INTEGRAL and GW170817 is 3.2σ, while the association between the Fermi-GBM and INTEGRAL detections is 4.2σ. GRB 170817A was detected by the SPI-ACS instrument about...

  2. Integral's first look at the gamma-ray Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    The high-energy Universe is a violent place of exploding stars and their collapsed remnants such as the ultra-compressed neutron stars and, at the most extreme, all-consuming black holes. These celestial objects create X-rays and gamma rays that are many times more powerful than the optical radiation we can see with our eyes and optical telescopes. Integral’s Principal Investigators - the scientists responsible for the instruments on board - explain the crucial role that high-energy missions like Integral play in astronomy. “X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy is a pathfinder to unusual objects. At optical wavelengths, the number of stars is staggering. At X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths, there are fewer objects, but the ones that remain are the really peculiar ones.” As a first test, Integral observed the Cygnus region of the sky, looking particularly at that enigmatic object, Cygnus X-1. Since the 1960s, we have known this object to be a constant generator of high-energy radiation. Most scientists believe that Cygnus X-1 is the site of a black hole, containing around five times the mass of our Sun and devouring a nearby star. Observing Cygnus X-1, which is relatively close by in our own Galaxy - ‘only’ 10 000 light years from us - is a very important step towards understanding black holes. This will also help understand the monstrous black hole - three million times the mass of our Sun - at the centre of our Galaxy. During the initial investigations, scientists had a pleasant surprise when Integral captured its first gamma-ray burst. These extraordinary celestial explosions are unpredictable, occurring from random directions about twice a day. Their precise origin is contentious: they could be the result of massive stars collapsing in the distant Universe or alternatively the result of a collision between two neutron stars. Integral promises to provide vital clues to solving this particular celestial mystery. To study these peculiarities, Integral carries two

  3. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory: Fast Response Space Missions for Early Time Phase of Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small space missions. The UFFO...

  4. INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Bozzo, E.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L. [ISDC, Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d’Écogia, 16 CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Kuulkers, E. [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.; Rodi, J. [INAF-Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133-Rome (Italy); Brandt, S.; Chenevez, J. [DTU Space, National Space Institute Elektrovej, Building 327 DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Diehl, R.; Von Kienlin, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Domingo, A. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB-CSIC/INTA, ESAC Campus), Camino bajo del Castillo S/N, E-28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Hanlon, L.; Martin-Carrillo, A. [Space Science Group, School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Jourdain, E. [IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, CNES, 9 Av. Roche, F-31028 Toulouse (France); Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 rue Alice Domont et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Lutovinov, A. [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mereghetti, S. [INAF, IASF-Milano, via E.Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2017-10-20

    We report the INTernational Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory ( INTEGRAL ) detection of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A (discovered by Fermi -GBM) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.6, and, for the first time, its association with the gravitational waves (GWs) from binary neutron star (BNS) merging event GW170817 detected by the LIGO and Virgo observatories. The significance of association between the gamma-ray burst observed by INTEGRAL and GW170817 is 3.2σ, while the association between the Fermi -GBM and INTEGRAL detections is 4.2σ. GRB 170817A was detected by the SPI-ACS instrument about 2 s after the end of the GW event. We measure a fluence of (1.4 ± 0.4 ± 0.6) × 10{sup −7} erg cm{sup −2} (75–2000 keV), where, respectively, the statistical error is given at the 1σ confidence level, and the systematic error corresponds to the uncertainty in the spectral model and instrument response. We also report on the pointed follow-up observations carried out by INTEGRAL , starting 19.5 hr after the event, and lasting for 5.4 days. We provide a stringent upper limit on any electromagnetic signal in a very broad energy range, from 3 keV to 8 MeV, constraining the soft gamma-ray afterglow flux to <7.1 × 10{sup −11} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (80–300 keV). Exploiting the unique capabilities of INTEGRAL , we constrained the gamma-ray line emission from radioactive decays that are expected to be the principal source of the energy behind a kilonova event following a BNS coalescence. Finally, we put a stringent upper limit on any delayed bursting activity, for example, from a newly formed magnetar.

  5. Data acquisition architecture and online processing system for the HAWC gamma-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Baughman, B. M.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Bonilla Rosales, M.; Braun, J.; Caballero-Lopez, R. A.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carramiñana, A.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; de la Fuente, E.; De León, C.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Cruz, J.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; Galindo, A.; Garfias, F.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Grabski, V.; Gussert, M.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Imran, A.; Iriarte, A.; Karn, P.; Kieda, D.; Kunde, G. J.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linares, E. C.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longo Proper, M.; Luna-García, R.; Malone, K.; Marinelli, A.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, O.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Martínez-Huerta, H.; Matthews, J. A. J.; McEnery, J.; Mendoza Torres, E.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Oceguera-Becerra, T.; Patricelli, B.; Pelayo, R.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Pretz, J.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Ryan, J.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Sanchez, F. E.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Silich, S.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Sparks Woodle, K.; Springer, R. W.; Taboada, I.; Toale, P. A.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wisher, I. G.; Wood, J.; Yapici, T.; Yodh, G. B.; Younk, P. W.; Zaborov, D.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.

    2018-04-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory (HAWC) is an air shower array devised for TeV gamma-ray astronomy. HAWC is located at an altitude of 4100 m a.s.l. in Sierra Negra, Mexico. HAWC consists of 300 Water Cherenkov Detectors, each instrumented with 4 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). HAWC re-uses the Front-End Boards from the Milagro experiment to receive the PMT signals. These boards are used in combination with Time to Digital Converters (TDCs) to record the time and the amount of light in each PMT hit (light flash). A set of VME TDC modules (128 channels each) is operated in a continuous (dead time free) mode. The TDCs are read out via the VME bus by Single-Board Computers (SBCs), which in turn are connected to a gigabit Ethernet network. The complete system produces ≈500 MB/s of raw data. A high-throughput data processing system has been designed and built to enable real-time data analysis. The system relies on off-the-shelf hardware components, an open-source software technology for data transfers (ZeroMQ) and a custom software framework for data analysis (AERIE). Multiple trigger and reconstruction algorithms can be combined and run on blocks of data in a parallel fashion, producing a set of output data streams which can be analyzed in real time with minimal latency (system and the real-time data processing system. The performance of these systems is also discussed.

  6. INTEGRAL Upper Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission Associated with the Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Natalucci, L.

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we place upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, discovered by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration. The omnidirectional view of the INTEGRAL...... MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy Eγ/EGW gravitational wave...

  7. The INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory: INTEGRAL Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.ubertini@iaps.inaf.it; Bazzano, Angela

    2014-04-01

    The INTEGRAL Space Observatory was selected as the second Medium size mission (M2) of the ESAs Horizon 2000 vision programme. INTEGRAL is the first high angular and spectral resolution hard X-ray and soft γ-ray observatory with a wide band spectral response ranging from 3 keV up to 10 MeV energy band. This capability is supplemented by an unprecedented sensitivity enhanced by the 3 days orbit allowing long and uninterrupted observations over very wide field of view (up to ∼1000 squared degrees to zero response) and sub-ms time resolution. Part of the observatory success is due to its capability to link the high energy sky with the lower energy band. The complementarity and synergy with pointing soft X-ray missions such as XMM-Newton and CHANDRA and more recently with NuSTAR is a strategic feature to link the “thermal” and the “non-thermal” Universe observed at higher energies by space missions such as Fermi and AGILE and ground based TeV observatories sensitive to extremely high energies. INTEGRAL was launched on 17 October 2002 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakistan) aboard a Proton rocket as part of the Russian contribution to the mission, and has successfully spent almost 11 years in orbit. In view of its successful science outcome the ESA Space Programme Committee haw recently approved its scientific operation till the end of 2016. To date the spacecraft, ground segment and scientific payload are in excellent state-of-health, and INTEGRAL is continuing its scientific operations, originally planned for a 5-year technical design and scientific nominal operation plan. This paper summarizes the current INTEGRAL scientific achievements and future prospects, with particular regard to the high energy domain.

  8. INTEGRAL gamma-ray upper limits on FRB180309

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Panessa, F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, E. Kuulkers, P.; Keane, E.

    2018-03-01

    A very high signal-to-noise fast radio burst has been detected at the Parkes Telescope on 2018-03-09 at 02:49:32.99 UTC (ATeL #11385). The INTEGRAL observatory was taking data on a field centered at RA=87.04, Dec=19.32, 130 degrees from the approximate FRB arrival direction (RA=321.2 Dec=-33.8).

  9. INTEGRAL gamma-ray upper limits on FRB180311

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Panessa, F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, E.; Kuulkers, P.; Keane, E.

    2018-03-01

    A fast radio burst has been detected at the Parkes Telescope on 2018-03-11 at 04:11:54.80 UTC (ATeL #11396). The INTEGRAL observatory was taking data on a field centered at RA=260.177, Dec=-40.105, 43.0 degrees from the approximate FRB arrival direction (RA=21:31:33.42 Dec=-57:44:26.7).

  10. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teegarden, B.J

    1999-02-11

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world.

  11. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world

  12. The sample of INTEGRAL SPI-ACS gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, A.; Kienlin, A. von; Licht, G.G.; Hurley, K.

    2005-01-01

    The anti-coincidence system of the spectrometer on board INTEGRAL is operated as a nearly omni directional gamma-ray burst detector above ∼ 75 KeV. During the elapsed mission time 324 burst candidates were detected. As part of the 3rd Interplanetary Network of gamma-ray detectors the cosmic origin of 115 burst was confirmed. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the SPI-ACS gamma-ray burst sample. In particular we discuss the origin of a significant population of short events (duration < 0.2 s) and a possible method for a flux calibration of the data

  13. INTEGRAL Upper Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission Associated with the Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Mereghetti, S.

    2016-01-01

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we place upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, which was discovered by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration. The omnidirectional view...... in the 75 keV-2 MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy Eγ/EGW ... of the gravitational wave source, based on the available predictions for prompt electromagnetic emission....

  14. Observing with a space-borne gamma-ray telescope: selected results from INTEGRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanne, Stephane

    2006-01-01

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, i.e. the INTEGRAL satellite of ESA, in orbit since about 3 years, performs gamma-ray observations of the sky in the 15 keV to 8 MeV energy range. Thanks to its imager IBIS, and in particular the ISGRI detection plane based on 16384 CdTe pixels, it achieves an excellent angular resolution (12 arcmin) for point source studies with good continuum spectrum sensitivity. Thanks to its spectrometer SPI, based on 19 germanium detectors maintained at 85 K by a cryogenic system, located inside an active BGO veto shield, it achieves excellent spectral resolution of about 2 keV for 1 MeV photons, which permits astrophysical gamma-ray line studies with good narrow-line sensitivity. In this paper we review some goals of gamma-ray astronomy from space and present the INTEGRAL satellite, in particular its instruments ISGRI and SPI. Ground and in-flight calibration results from SPI are presented, before presenting some selected astrophysical results from INTEGRAL. In particular results on point source searches are presented, followed by results on nuclear astrophysics, exemplified by the study of the 1809 keV gamma-ray line from radioactive 26 Al nuclei produced by the ongoing stellar nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. Finally a review on the study of the positron-electron annihilation in the Galactic center region, producing 511 keV gamma-rays, is presented

  15. Ultra-fast flash observatory for detecting the early photons from gamma-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, H.; Jeong, S.; Ahn, K.-B.

    ) for the fast measurement of the UV-optical photons from GRBs, and a gamma-ray monitor for energy measurement. The triggering is done by the UFFO burst Alert & Trigger telescope (UBAT) using the hard X-ray from GRBs and the UV/optical Trigger Assistant Telescope (UTAT) using the UV/optical photons from GRBs...

  16. Search for Galactic PeV gamma rays with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohaichuk, S.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Clevermann, F.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray induced air showers are notable for their lack of muons, compared to hadronic showers. Hence, air shower arrays with large underground muon detectors can select a sample greatly enriched in photon showers by rejecting showers containing muons. IceCube is sensitive to muons with energies

  17. Use of water-Cherenkov detectors to detect Gamma Ray Bursts at the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Alvarez, C.; Asorey, H.; Barros, H.; Bertou, X.; Burgoa, O.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Martinez, O.; Miranda Loza, P.; Murrieta, T.; Perez, G.; Rivera, H.; Rovero, A.; Saavedra, O.; Salazar, H.; Tello, J.C.; Ticona Peralda, R.; Velarde, A.; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) project aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique in ground-based water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on detector calibration and operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 4 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst

  18. Use of water-Cherenkov detectors to detect Gamma Ray Bursts at the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D. [APC, CNRS et Universite Paris 7 (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Alvarez, C. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Asorey, H. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Barros, H. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina)], E-mail: bertou@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Burgoa, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Gomez Berisso, M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Martinez, O. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Miranda Loza, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Murrieta, T.; Perez, G. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Rivera, H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Rovero, A. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (Argentina); Saavedra, O. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale and INFN, Torino (Italy); Salazar, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Tello, J.C. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ticona Peralda, R.; Velarde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Villasenor, L. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad de Michoacan (Mexico)

    2008-09-21

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) project aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique in ground-based water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on detector calibration and operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 4 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  19. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    The first certain detection of celestial high energy gamma rays came from a satellite experiment flown on the third Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-111). A Gamma ray spark chamber telescope with substantively greater sensitivity and angular resolution (a few degrees) flown on the second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-II) has now provided a better picture of the gamma ray sky, and particularly the galactic plane and pulsars. This paper will summarize the present picture of gamma ray astronomy as it has developed at this conference from measurements made with experiments carried out on balloons, those remaining on the ground, and ones flown on satellites. (orig.) [de

  20. Prospects for rapid gamma-ray burst localization with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mereghetti, S.; Jennings, D.; Pedersen, H.

    1999-01-01

    The SPI and IRIS instruments on INTEGRAL will detect greater than or similar to 1 GRB/month within their large fields of view. The accuracy of localization with IBIS will be a few arcminutes, hence adequate for follow-up studies at large, ground-based telescopes. We report on the current studies ...... and simulation activities aimed at designing at the ISDC an effective INTEGRAL Burst Alert System (IBAS) aisle to automatically distribute the positions of GRBs within a few tens of seconds from the event occurrence....

  1. Observations of the Crab Nebula with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory During the Gamma-Ray Flare of 2011 April

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, using the AGILE and Fermi satellites, gamma-ray flares have been discovered from the direction of the Crab Nebula (Tavani et al. 2011, Abdo et al. 2011). We have been using the Chandra X-Ray observatory to monitor the Crab on a monthly cadence since just after the 2010 September gamma-ray flare. We were fortunate to trigger series of pre-planned target of opportunity observations during the 2011 April flare. We present the results of these observations and address some implications both for now and for the future.

  2. An all-sky, three-flavor search for neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts with the icecube neutrino observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellauer, Robert Eugene, III

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), defined by energy greater than 10. 18 eV, have been observed for decades, but their sources remain unknown. Protons and heavy ions, which comprise cosmic rays, interact with galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields and, consequently, do not point back to their sources upon measurement. Neutrinos, which are inevitably produced in photohadronic interactions, travel unimpeded through the universe and disclose the directions of their sources. Among the most plausible candidates for the origins of UHECRs is a class of astrophysical phenomena known as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRBs are the most violent and energetic events witnessed in the observable universe. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, located in the glacial ice 1450 m to 2450 m below the South Pole surface, is the largest neutrino detector in operation. IceCube detects charged particles, such as those emitted in high energy neutrino interactions in the ice, by the Cherenkov light radiated by these particles. The measurement of neutrinos of 100 TeV energy or greater in IceCube correlated with gamma-ray photons from GRBs, measured by spacecraft detectors, would provide evidence of hadronic interaction in these powerful phenomena and confirm their role in ultra high energy cosmic ray production. This work presents the first IceCube GRB-neutrino coincidence search optimized for charged-current interactions of electron and tau neutrinos as well as neutral-current interactions of all neutrino flavors, which produce nearly spherical Cherenkov light showers in the ice. These results for three years of data are combined with the results of previous searches over four years of data optimized for charged-current muon neutrino interactions, which produce extended Cherenkov light tracks. Several low significance events correlated with GRBs were detected, but are consistent with the background expectation from atmospheric muons and neutrinos. The combined results produce limits that

  3. Lunar based gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymes, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy represents the study of the universe on the basis of the electromagnetic radiation with the highest energy. Gamma ray astronomy provides a crucial tool for the understanding of astronomical phenomena, taking into account nucleosynthesis in supernovae, black holes, active galaxies, quasars, the sources of cosmic rays, neutron stars, and matter-antimatter annihilation. Difficulties concerning the conduction of studies by gamma ray astronomy are related to the necessity to perform such studies far from earth because the atmosphere is a source of gamma rays. Studies involving the use of gamma ray instruments in earth orbit have been conducted, and more gamma ray astronomy observations are planned for the future. Imperfections of studies conducted in low earth orbit could be overcome by estalishing an observatory on the moon which represents a satellite orbiting at 60 earth radii. Details concerning such an observatory are discussed. 5 references

  4. Studies of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the sensitivity of gamma-ray observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Maria

    2011-02-01

    Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be a ground-based high energy gamma radiation detector. This radiation is detected by the measurement of particle showers in the atmosphere. The questions of the origin of the cosmic radiation, the functional principle of cosmic particle accelerators in the area of black holes or the nature of the dark matter are in the scientific goals of CTA. At the moment the instrument is in the planning phase and first results will probably be in 2014. The site of the instrument has an immediate influence on the sensitivity e.g. due to the weather, the height above sea level. Several possible sites for CTA are being considered at the moment including Namibia, Argentina, Canary Islands and Mexico. The geomagnetic field affects the development of showers and distorts the images of the air shower in the telescope. The aim of this work is to quantify the influence of the strength and the direction of the geomagnetic field at the different possible locations on the sensitivity of CTA using Monte Carlo simulations of particle showers. Firstly, we simulated the lateral distribution at the twelve sites. The geomagnetic field of the sites was obtained from the National Geographic Data Center (NGDC). To study the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, we held the altitude of the sites constant at 2000 m. Hence, we could choose two sites per hemisphere which could be potential candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: BeaufortWest (South Africa), El Leoncito (Argentina), La Palma (Canary Islands) and San Pedro Martir (Mexico). To compare the results with a site which is already known, we chose the observatory H.E.S.S. in Namibia. After the study of the energy thresholds and the effective areas we decided in favour of two sites, one in the southern and one in the northern hemisphere. Considering the influence of the geomagnetic field on the predictions, the southern observatory should be in Beaufort West in South Africa. The northern array of CTA

  5. Studies of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the sensitivity of gamma-ray observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Maria

    2011-02-15

    Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be a ground-based high energy gamma radiation detector. This radiation is detected by the measurement of particle showers in the atmosphere. The questions of the origin of the cosmic radiation, the functional principle of cosmic particle accelerators in the area of black holes or the nature of the dark matter are in the scientific goals of CTA. At the moment the instrument is in the planning phase and first results will probably be in 2014. The site of the instrument has an immediate influence on the sensitivity e.g. due to the weather, the height above sea level. Several possible sites for CTA are being considered at the moment including Namibia, Argentina, Canary Islands and Mexico. The geomagnetic field affects the development of showers and distorts the images of the air shower in the telescope. The aim of this work is to quantify the influence of the strength and the direction of the geomagnetic field at the different possible locations on the sensitivity of CTA using Monte Carlo simulations of particle showers. Firstly, we simulated the lateral distribution at the twelve sites. The geomagnetic field of the sites was obtained from the National Geographic Data Center (NGDC). To study the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, we held the altitude of the sites constant at 2000 m. Hence, we could choose two sites per hemisphere which could be potential candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: BeaufortWest (South Africa), El Leoncito (Argentina), La Palma (Canary Islands) and San Pedro Martir (Mexico). To compare the results with a site which is already known, we chose the observatory H.E.S.S. in Namibia. After the study of the energy thresholds and the effective areas we decided in favour of two sites, one in the southern and one in the northern hemisphere. Considering the influence of the geomagnetic field on the predictions, the southern observatory should be in Beaufort West in South Africa. The northern array

  6. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear gamma astronomy is presented, in particular the Gamma Ray Observatory, an enormous eight tonnes machine fitted with gamma telescopes, scheduled for launching around 1985. It is thereby hoped to study the natural nuclear reactions which occur when stars explode [fr

  7. The integral first collision kernel method for gamma-ray skyshine analysis[Skyshine; Gamma-ray; First collision kernel; Monte Carlo calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, R.-D.; Chui, C.-S.; Jiang, S.-H. E-mail: shjiang@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2003-12-01

    A simplified method, based on the integral of the first collision kernel, is presented for performing gamma-ray skyshine calculations for the collimated sources. The first collision kernels were calculated in air for a reference air density by use of the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. These kernels can be applied to other air densities by applying density corrections. The integral first collision kernel (IFCK) method has been used to calculate two of the ANSI/ANS skyshine benchmark problems and the results were compared with a number of other commonly used codes. Our results were generally in good agreement with others but only spend a small fraction of the computation time required by the Monte Carlo calculations. The scheme of the IFCK method for dealing with lots of source collimation geometry is also presented in this study.

  8. THE IBIS SOFT GAMMA-RAY SKY AFTER 1000 INTEGRAL ORBITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, A. J.; Hill, A. B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Bazzano, A.; Fiocchi, M.; Ubertini, P. [IAPS/INAF (Italy); Malizia, A.; Sguera, V.; Bassani, L. [IASF/INAF, Bologna (Italy); Winkler, C. [ESA-ESTEC, Research and Scientific Support Dept., Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    Here we report an all-sky soft gamma-ray source catalog based on IBIS observations performed during the first 1000 orbits of INTEGRAL. The database for the construction of the source list consists of all good-quality data available, from the launch in 2002, up to the end of 2010. This corresponds to ∼110 Ms of scientific public observations, with a concentrated coverage on the Galactic Plane and extragalactic deep exposures. This new catalog includes 939 sources above a 4.5σ significance threshold detected in the 17–100 keV energy band, of which 120 sources represent previously undiscovered soft gamma-ray emitters. The source positions are determined, mean fluxes are provided in two main energy bands, and these are both reported together with the overall source exposure. Indicative levels of variability are provided, and outburst times and durations are given for transient sources. A comparison is made with previous IBIS catalogs and catalogs from other similar missions.

  9. The Gamma-Ray Imager GRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderer, Cornelia B.; GRI Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. ESA's INTEGRAL observatory currently provides the astronomical community with a unique tool to investigate the sky up to MeV energies and hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes have been discovered. NASA's GLAST mission will similarly take the next step in surveying the high-energy ( GeV) sky, and NuSTAR will pioneer focusing observations at hard X-ray energies (to 80 keV). There will be clearly a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources in the 100-keV to MeV regime. Recent technological advances in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques have paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow the study of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

  10. A high energy gamma ray astronomy experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstadter, R.

    1988-01-01

    The author describes work involving NASA's Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). GRO exemplifies the near zero principle because it investigates new gamma ray phenomena by relying on the space program to take us into the region of zero interference above the earth's atmosphere. In its present form GRO has four experiments

  11. Searching for Short GRBs in Soft Gamma Rays with INTEGRAL/PICsIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodi, James; Bazzano, Angela; Ubertini, Pietro; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Savchenko, V.; Kuulkers, E.; Ferrigno, Carlo; Bozzo, Enrico; Brandt, Soren; Chenevez, Jerome; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Diehl, R.; Domingo, A.; Hanlon, L.; Jourdain, E.; von Kienlin, A.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Lutovinov, A.; Martin-Carrillo, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Roques, J.-P.; Sunyaev, R.

    2018-01-01

    With gravitational wave (GW) detections by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration over the past several years, there is heightened interest in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), especially “short” GRBs (T90 soft gamma-ray, all-sky monitor for impulsive events, such as SGRBs. Because SGRBs typically have hard spectra with peak energies of a few hundred keV, PICsIT with its ~ 3000 cm2 collecting area is able to provide spectral information about these sources at soft gamma-ray energies.We have begun a study of PICsIT data for faint SGRBs similar to the one associated with the binary neutron star (BNS) merger GW 170817, and also are preparing for future GW triggers by developing a real-time burst analysis for PICsIT. Searching the PICsIT data for significant excesses during ~30 min-long pointings containing times of SGRBs, we have been able to differentiate between SGRBs and spurious events. Also, this work allows us to assess what fraction of reported SGRBs have been detected by PICsIT, which can be used to provide an estimate of the number of GW BNS events seen by PICsIT during the next LIGO/Virgo observing run starting in Fall 2018.

  12. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  13. Gamma ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  14. Capability of the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory for the Indirect Detection of Ultrahigh-Energy Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes León Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos, with energies in the PeV range or above, is a topic of great interest in modern astroparticle physics. The importance comes from the fact that these neutrinos point back to the most energetic particle accelerators in the Universe and provide information about their underlying acceleration mechanisms. Atmospheric neutrinos are a background for these challenging measurements, but their rate is expected to be negligible above ≈1 PeV. In this work we describe the feasibility to study ultrahigh-energy neutrinos based on the Earth-skimming technique, by detecting the charged leptons produced in neutrino-nucleon interactions in a high mass target. We propose to detect the charged leptons, or their decay products, with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC observatory and use as a large-mass target for the neutrino interactions the Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico. In this work we develop an estimate of the detection rate using a geometrical model to calculate the effective area of the observatory. Our results show that it may be feasible to perform measurements of the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux from cosmic origin during the expected lifetime of the HAWC observatory.

  15. Searching for Short GRBs in Soft Gamma Rays with INTEGRAL/PICsIT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodi, James; Bazzano, Angela; Ubertini, Pietro

    spectral information about these sources at soft gamma-ray energies.We have begun a study of PICsIT data for faint SGRB ssimilar to the one associated with the binary neutron star (BNS) merger GW170817, and also are preparing for future GW triggers by developing a realtime burst analysis for PICs......IT. Searching the PICsIT data for significant excesses during ~30 min-long pointings containing times of SGRBs, we have been able to differentiate between SGRBs and spurious events. Also, this work allows us to assess what fraction of reported SGRBs have been detected by PICsIT, which can be used to provide...

  16. Egret observations of the extragalactic gamma-ray emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreekumar, P.; Bertsch, D.L.; Dingus, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    The all-sky survey in high-energy gamma rays (E > 30 MeV) carried out by EGRET aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory provides a unique opportunity to examine in detail the diffuse gamma-ray emission. The observed diffuse emission has a Galactic component arising from cosmic-ray interactions wi...

  17. AGILE: A gamma-ray mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavani, M.; Caraveo, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Perotti, F.; Vercellone, S.; Barbiellini, G.; Budini, G.; Longo, F.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.; Cocco, V.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Pittori, C.; Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Lapshov, I.; Morelli, E.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.

    2000-01-01

    AGILE is an innovative, cost-effective gamma-ray mission selected by the Italian Space Agency for a Program of Small Scientific Missions. The AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector (GRID, made of a Silicon tracker and CsI Mini-Calorimeter) is designed to detect and image photons in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy band with good sensitivity and very large field of view (FOV ∼3 sr). The X-ray detector, Super-AGILE, sensitive in the 10-40 keV band and integrated on top of the GRID gamma-ray tracker will provide imaging (1-3 arcmin) and moderate spectroscopy. For selected sky areas, AGILE might achieve a flux sensitivity (above 100 MeV) better than 5x10 -8 ph cm 2 s -1 at the completion of its scientific program. AGILE will operate as an Observatory open to the international community and is planned to be operational during the year 2002 for a nominal 2-year mission. It will be an ideal 'bridge' between EGRET and GLAST, and the only mission entirely dedicated to high-energy astrophysics above 30 MeV during that period

  18. Can past gamma-ray bursts explain both INTEGRAL and ATIC/PAMELA/Fermi anomalies simultaneously?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvez, Antoine; Kusenko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been invoked to explain both the 511 keV emission from the Galactic bulge and the high-energy positron excess inferred from the ATIC, PAMELA, and Fermi data. While independent explanations can be responsible for these phenomena, we explore the possibility of their common GRB-related origin by modeling the GRB distribution and estimating the rates. For an expected Milky Way long GRB rate, neither of the two signals is generic; the local excess requires a 2% coincidence while the signal from the Galactic center requires a 20% coincidence with respect to the timing of the latest GRB. The simultaneous explanation requires a 0.4% coincidence. Considering the large number of statistical 'trials' created by multiple searches for new physics, the coincidences of a few percent cannot be dismissed as unlikely. Alternatively, both phenomena can be explained by GRB if the Galactic rate is higher than expected. We also show that a similar result is difficult to obtain assuming a simplified short GRB distribution.

  19. An X-ray perspective on a gamma-ray mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The most recent astrophysics mission of ESA is INTEGRAL, a mission dedicated to gamma-ray astronomy (Winkler et al. 2003). INTEGRAL carries two gamma-ray instruments: the imager, IBIS, and the spectrometer, SPI, and in addition an optical monitor, OMC, and an X-ray monitor, JEM-X. INTEGRAL is an ...... is an observatory mission with 70% of the observation time available to the general astronomical community through a peer-reviewed selection process. This paper describes the INTEGRAL mission primarily as seen from the JEM-X perspective....

  20. Future prospects for. gamma. -ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichtel, C [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1981-06-30

    As ..gamma..-ray astronomy moves from the discovery to the exploratory phase, the promise of ..gamma..-ray astrophysics noted by theorists in the late 1940s and 1950s is beginning to be realized. In the future, satellites should carry instruments that will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far, and, for at least some portions of the ..gamma..-ray energy range, these detectors will also have substantially improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance our knowledge of several astrophysical phenomena including the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects, astrophysical nucleosynthesis, solar particle acceleration, the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the Solar System, the structure of our Galaxy, the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays, high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies especially active ones, and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the Universe. The ..gamma..-ray results of the forthcoming programs such as Gamma-I, the Gamma Ray Observatory, the ..gamma..-ray burst network, Solar Polar, and very high energy ..gamma..-ray telescopes on the ground will almost certainly provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the Space Platform currently under study by N.A.S.A.

  1. A compact sup 3 H(p,gamma) sup 4 He 19.8 MeV gamma-ray source for energy calibration at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Poon, A W P; Waltham, C E; Browne, M C; Robertson, R G H; Kherani, N P; Mak, H B

    2000-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a new 1000-t D sub 2 O Cherenkov solar neutrino detector. A high-energy gamma-ray source is needed to calibrate SNO beyond the sup 8 B solar neutrino endpoint of 15 MeV. This paper describes the design and construction of a source that generates 19.8 MeV gamma rays using the sup 3 H(p,gamma) sup 4 He reaction (''pT''), and demonstrates that the source meets all the physical, operational and lifetime requirements for calibrating SNO. An ion source was built into this unit to generate and to accelerate protons up to 30 keV, and a high-purity scandium tritide target with a scandium-tritium atomic ratio of 1 : 2.0+-0.2 was included. This pT source is the first self-contained, compact, and portable high-energy gamma-ray source (E subgamma>10 MeV). (authors)

  2. INTEGRAL as a Virtual Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubánek, K.; Hudec, René

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 166, - (2007), s. 294-296 ISSN 0920-5632. [International Conference on Particle and Fundamental Physics in Space /3./. Beijing, 19.04.2007-21.04.2007] Grant - others:EU(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : gamma-rays * gamma-ray astronomy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2005

  3. Gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsen, W.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of the celestial gamma-ray fine-scale structure based on over half of the data which may ultimately be available from the COS-B satellite. A catalogue consisting of 25 gamma-ray sources measured at energies above 100 MeV is presented. (Auth.)

  4. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The book reviews the development of gamma ray astronomy over the past twenty five years. A large section of the book is devoted to the problems of background radiation and the design of detectors. Gamma rays from the sun, the galactic disc, the galaxy, and extra galactic sources; are also discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Whipple Observatory High Resolution Camera will be used in a vigorous program of observations to search for new sources of very-high-energy gamma rays. In addition, a search for antimatter using the moon-earth system as an ion spectrometer will be begun. The first phase of GRANITE, the new 37-element 11-m camera, will be concluded with first light scheduled for September, 1991. The two cameras will operate in support of the Gamma Ray Observatory mission in the winter of 1991/2

  6. Comparisons of peak-search and photopeak-integration methods in the computer analysis of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baedecker, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    Myriad methods have been devised for extracting quantitative information from gamma-ray spectra by means of a computer, and a critical evaluation of the relative merits of the various programs that have been written would represent a Herculean, if not an impossible, task. The results from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) intercomparison, which may represent the most straightforward approach to making such an evaluation, showed a wide range in the quality of the results - even among laboratories where similar methods were used. The most clear-cut way of differentiating between programs is by the method used to evaluate peak areas: by the iterative fitting of the spectral features to an often complex model, or by a simple summation procedure. Previous comparisons have shown that relatively simple algorithms can compete favorably with fitting procedures, although fitting holds the greatest promise for the detection and measurement of complex peaks. However, fitting algorithms, which are generally complex and time consuming, are often ruled out by practical limitations based on the type of computing equipment available, cost limitations, the number of spectra to be processed in a given time period, and the ultimate goal of the analysis. Comparisons of methods can be useful, however, in helping to illustrate the limitations of the various algorithms that have been devised. This paper presents a limited review of some of the more common peak-search and peak-integration methods, along with Peak-search procedures

  7. Total integrated dose testing of solid-state scientific CD4011, CD4013, and CD4060 devices by irradiation with CO-60 gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, A. R. V.; Gauthier, M. K.; Coss, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The total integrated dose response of three CMOS devices manufactured by Solid State Scientific has been measured using CO-60 gamma rays. Key parameter measurements were made and compared for each device type. The data show that the CD4011, CD4013, and CD4060 produced by this manufacturers should not be used in any environments where radiation levels might exceed 1,000 rad(Si).

  8. Localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts Using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M.S.; Goldstein, A.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Preece, R.D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.; Gibby, M.H.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R.M.; Pelassa, V.; Xiong, S.; Yu, H-F.; Bhat, P.N.; Burgess, J.M.; Byrne, D.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Giles, M.M.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A.J.; von Kienlin, A.; McBreen, S.; McGlynn, S.; Tierney, D.; Zhang, B..B.

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected over 1400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) since it began science operations in 2008 July. We use a subset of over 300 GRBs localized by instruments such as Swift, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, INTEGRAL, and MAXI, or through triangulations from the

  9. Basics of Gamma Ray Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venkataraman, Ram [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this training is to explain the origin of x-rays and gamma rays, gamma ray interactions with matter, detectors and electronics used in gamma ray-spectrometry, and features of a gamma-ray spectrum for nuclear material that is safeguarded.

  10. Review of GRANAT observations of gamma-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terekhov, O.; Denissenko, D.; Sunyaev, R.

    1995-01-01

    The GRANAT observatory was launched into a high apogee orbit on 1 December, 1989. Three instruments onboard GRANAT - PHEBUS, WATCH and SIGMA are able to detect gamma-ray bursts in a very broad energy range from 6 keV up to 100 MeV. Over 250 gamma-ray bursts were detected. We discuss the results...... of the observations of the time histories and spectral evolution of the detected events provided by the different instruments in different energy ranges. Short Gamma-Ray Bursts ( 2 s) events. Evidence of the existence...... of four differently behaving componenents in gamma-ray burst spectra is discussed. Statistical properties of the gamma-ray burst sources based on the 5 years of observations with (∼ 10−6 erg/cm2) sensitivity as well as the results of high sensitivity (∼ 10−8 erg/cm2) search for Gamma-Ray Bursts within...

  11. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Simulation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, G.; Collaboration, for the AGIS

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory being planned in the U.S. The anticipated sensitivity of AGIS is about one order of magnitude better than the sensitivity of current observatories, allowing it to measure gammaray emmission from a large number of Galactic and extra-galactic sources. We present here results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance - collect...

  12. Fuzzy correlations of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, D.H.; Linder, E.V.; Blumenthal, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of gamma-ray bursts is not known, both in the sense of the nature of the source emitting the radiation and literally, the position of the burst on the sky. Lacking unambiguously identified counterparts in any wavelength band studied to date, statistical approaches are required to determine the burster distance scale. Angular correlation analysis is one of the most powerful tools in this regard. However, poor detector resolution gives large localization errors, effectively beam smearing the positions. The resulting fuzzy angular correlation function is investigated and the generic isotropization that smearing induces on any intrinsic clustering is discussed. In particular, the extent to which gamma-ray burst observations by the BATSE detector aboard the Gamma-Ray Observatory might recover an intrinsic source correlation is investigated. 16 refs

  13. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From the Millisecond Pulsar J0030+0451 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, M.; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, Thompson H.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second millisecond pulsar to be detected in gamma-rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The spin-down power (dot E) = 3.5 x 10 33 ergs s -1 is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, respectively 0.07 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 wide, separated by 0.44 ± 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 ± 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cut-off power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 ± 1.05 ± 1.35) x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 with cut-off energy (1.7 ± 0.4 ± 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 ± 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L γ /(dot E) ≅ 15% for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  14. PULSED GAMMA RAYS FROM THE MILLISECOND PULSAR J0030+0451 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Battelino, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second MSP to be detected in gamma rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The spin-down power E-dot=3.5x10 33 erg s -1 is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, 0.07 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 wide, respectively, separated by 0.44 ± 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 ± 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cutoff power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 ± 1.05 ± 1.35) x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 with cutoff energy (1.7 ± 0.4 ± 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 ± 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L γ /E-dot≅15 percent for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  15. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From the Millisecond Pulsar J0030+0451 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Battelino, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /LPCE, Orleans /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U.; /more authors..

    2011-11-17

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second millisecond pulsar to be detected in gamma-rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The spin-down power {dot E} = 3.5 x 10{sup 33} ergs s{sup -1} is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, respectively 0.07 {+-} 0.01 and 0.08 {+-} 0.02 wide, separated by 0.44 {+-} 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 {+-} 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cut-off power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 {+-} 1.05 {+-} 1.35) x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with cut-off energy (1.7 {+-} 0.4 {+-} 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 {+-} 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L{sub {gamma}}/{dot E} {approx_equal} 15% for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  16. CAMAC gamma ray scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible gamma-ray scanning system, based on a LeCroy 3500 multichannel analyzer and CAMAC modules, is described. The system is designed for making simultaneous passive and active scans of objects of interest to nuclear safeguards. The scanner is a stepping-motor-driven carriage; the detectors, a bismuth-germanate scintillator and a high-purity germanium detector. A total of sixteen peaks in the two detector-produced spectra can be integrated simultaneously, and any scan can be viewed during data acquisition. For active scanning, the 2615-keV gamma-ray line from a 232 U source and the 4439-keV gamma-ray line from 9 Be(α,n) 12 C were selected. The system can be easily reconfigured to accommodate up to seven detectors because it is based on CAMAC modules and FORTRAN. The system is designed for field use and is easily transported. Examples of passive and active scans are presented

  17. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizza, L. J.

    Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest transient sources in the gamma-ray sky. Since their discovery in the late 1960s, the investigation of the astrophysical sys- tems in which these phenomena take place, and the physical mechanisms that drive them, has become a vast and prolific area of modern astrophysics. In this work I will briefly describe the most relevant observations of these sources, and the models that describe their nature, emphasizing on the in- vestigations about the progenitor astrophysical systems. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  19. Gamma ray calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.; Flaherty, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is in the field of gamma ray inspection devices for tubular products and the like employing an improved calibrating block which prevents the sensing system from being overloaded when no tubular product is present, and also provides the operator with a means for visually detecting the presence of wall thicknesses which are less than a required minimum. (author)

  20. Analysis of hard X-ray emission from selected very high energy {gamma}-ray sources observed with INTEGRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Agnes Irene Dorothee

    2009-11-13

    A few years ago, the era of very high energy {gamma}-ray astronomy started, when the latest generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) like H.E.S.S. began to operate and to resolve the sources of TeV emission. Identifications via multi-wavelength studies reveal that the detected sources are supernova remnants and active galactic nuclei, but also pulsar wind nebulae and a few binaries. One widely discussed open question is, how these sources are able to accelerate particles to such high energies. The understanding of the underlying particle distribution, the acceleration processes taking place, and the knowledge of the radiation processes which produce the observed emission, is, therefore, of crucial interest. Observations in the hard X-ray domain can be a key to get information on these particle distributions and processes. Important for this thesis are the TeV and the hard X-ray range. The two instruments, H.E.S.S. and INTEGRAL, whose data were used, are, therefore, described in detail. The main part of this thesis is focused on the X-ray binary system LS 5039/RX J1826.2-1450. It was observed in several energy ranges. The nature of the compact object is still not known, and it was proposed either to be a microquasar system or a non-accreting pulsar system. The observed TeV emission is modulated with the orbital cycle. Several explanations for this variability have been discussed in recent years. The observations with INTEGRAL presented in this thesis have provided new information to solve this question. Therefore, a search for a detection in the hard X-ray range and for its orbital dependence was worthwhile. Since LS 5039 is a faint source and the sky region where it is located is crowded, a very careful, non-standard handling of the INTEGRAL data was necessary, and a cross-checking with other analysis methods was essential to provide reliable results. We found that LS 5039 is emitting in the hard X-ray energy range. A flux rate and an upper

  1. Measurement of collision integral cross-sections of double-photon Compton effect using a single gamma ray detector: A response matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddi, M.B.; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The collision integral cross-sections of double-photon Compton process are measured experimentally for 662 keV incident gamma photons. The measurements are successfully carried out using a single gamma ray detector, and do not require the complicated slow-fast coincidence technique used till now for observing this higher order quantum electrodynamics (QED) process. The energy spectra of one of the two final photons, originating in this process, in direction of the gamma ray detector are observed as a long tail to the single-photon Compton line on lower side of the full energy peak in the observed spectra. An inverse response matrix converts the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to a true photon spectrum. This also results in extraction of events originating from double-photon Compton interactions. The present measured values of collision integral cross-section, although of same magnitude, deviate from the corresponding values obtained from the theory. In view of the magnitude of deviations, in addition to small value of probability of occurrence of this process, the agreement of measured values with theory is reasonably acceptable

  2. Multiwavelength Study of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Larionov, V. M.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Troitskii, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate total intensity radio images of 6 gamma-ray bright blazars (BL Lac, 3C 279, 3C 273, W Com, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A) and their optical and gamma-ray light curves to study connections between gamma-ray and optical brightness variations and changes in the parsec-scale radio structure. We use high-resolution maps obtained by the BU group at 43 GHz with the VLBA, optical light curves constructed by the St.Petersburg State U. (Russia) team using measurements with the 0.4 m telescope of St.Petersburg State U. (LX200) and the 0.7 m telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (AZT-8), and gamma-ray light curves, which we have constructed with data provided by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Over the period from August 2008 to November 2009, superluminal motion is found in all 6 objects with apparent speed ranging from 2c to 40c. The blazars with faster apparent speeds, 3C 273, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A, exhibit stronger variability of the gamma-ray emission. There is a tendency for sources with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares to have faster jet speed than sources with gamma-ray light curves with no sharp peaks. Gamma-ray light curves with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares possess a stronger gamma-ray/optical correlations. The research at St.Petersburg State U. was funded by the Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (state contract N#P123). The research at BU was funded in part by NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant NNX08AV65G and by NSF grant AST-0907893. The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  3. Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woosley, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have fascinated scientists and the public alike since their discovery in the late 1960s. Their story is told here by some of the scientists who participated in their discovery and, after many decades of false starts, solved the problem of their origin. Fourteen chapters by active researchers in the field present a detailed history of the discovery, a comprehensive theoretical description of GRB central engine and emission models, a discussion of GRB host galaxies and a guide to how GRBs can be used as cosmological tools. Observations are grouped into three sets from the satellites CGRO, BeppoSAX and Swift, and followed by a discussion of multi-wavelength observations. This is the first edited volume on GRB astrophysics that presents a fully comprehensive review of the subject. Utilizing the latest research, Gamma-ray Bursts is an essential desktop companion for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

  4. Gamma ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-H.; Robbins, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    An Anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the Anger camera. The image intensifier tube has a negatively charged flat scintillator screen, a flat photocathode layer, and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen, all of which have the same dimension to maintain unit image magnification; all components are contained within a grounded metallic tube, with a metallic, inwardly curved input window between the scintillator screen and a collimator. The display screen can be viewed by an array of photomultipliers or solid state detectors. There are two photocathodes and two phosphor screens to give a two stage intensification, the two stages being optically coupled by a light guide. (author)

  5. Nature of gamma-ray burst sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, J.

    1983-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that gamma ray bursts have a local galactic origin involving neutron stars. In this light we make a critical review of physics of the thermonuclear runaway model placing emphasis on self-consistency. We further show that some of the proposed models can be observationally excluded in the light of existing data from the Einstein Observatory. The possibility of gamma bursts arising in low mass binaries is finally discussed in the light of evolutionary scenarios leading to low luminosity systems

  6. A next generation Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO-100) for IR/optical observations of the rise phase of gamma-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossan, B.; Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2012-01-01

    generation of rapid-response space observatory instruments. We list science topics motivating ourinstruments, those that require rapid optical-IR GRB response, including: A survey of GRB rise shapes/times,measurements of optical bulk Lorentz factors, investigation of magnetic dominated (vs. non-magnetic) jet...... for a next generation space observatory as a secondinstrument on a low-earth orbit spacecraft, with a 120 kg instrument mass budget. Restricted to relatively modest mass,power, and launch resources, we find that a coded mask X-ray camera with 1024 cm2 of detector area could rapidlylocate about 64...

  7. Gamma ray astronomy and search for antimatter in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1989-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy provides a powerful tool for searching antimatter in the universe; it probably provides the only means to determine, if the universe has baryon symmetry. Presently existing gamma-ray observations can be interpreted without postulating the existence of antimatter. However, the measurements are not precise enough to definitely exclude the possibility of its existence. The search for antimatter belongs to one of the main scientific objectives of the Gamma Ray Observatory GRO of NASA, which will be launched in 1990 by the Space Shuttle. (orig.)

  8. Swift: A gamma ray burst MIDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Swift is a first of its kind multiwavelength transient observatory for gamma-ray burst astronomy. It has the optimum capabilities for the next breakthroughs in determining the origin of gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows as well as using bursts to probe the early Universe. Swift will also perform the first sensitive hard X-ray survey of the sky. The mission is being developed by an international collaboration and consists of three instruments, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), the X-ray Telescope (XRT), and the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT). The BAT, a wide-field gamma-ray detector, will detect ∼1 gamma-ray burst per day with a sensitivity 5 times that of BATSE. The sensitive narrow-field XRT and UVOT will be autonomously slewed to the burst location in 20 to 70 seconds to determine 0.3-5.0 arcsec positions and perform optical, UV, and X-ray spectrophotometry. On-board measurements of redshift will also be done for hundreds of bursts. Swift will incorporate superb, low-cost instruments using existing flight-spare hardware and designs. Strong education/public outreach and follow-up programs will help to engage the public and astronomical community. Swift has been selected by NASA for development and launch in late 2003

  9. Gamma ray emission from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Massaro, E.

    1978-01-01

    A model for the production of gamma rays in a pulsar environment is presented, together with numerical computations fitted to the observations of PSR 0833-45. It is assumed that the primary particles are accelerated close to the star surface and then injected along the open field lines, which cause them to emit curvature radiation. The equation describing the particles' braking is integrated exactly up to the first order in the pulsar rotational frequency, and the transfer problem for the curvature photons is solved with the aberration, the Doppler shif, and the pair production absorption being taken into account. The latter effect is due not only to the transverse component of the magnetic field, but also to the electric field induced by the rotation. The synchrotron radiation emitted by the secondary particles is also included, subject to the 'on-the-spot' approximation. It is found that the observed gamma rays originate in the innermost regions of the magnetosphere, where the open lines' bundle is narrow and the geometrical beaming is effective. As shown by the computed pulse profiles, the duty cycle turns out to be equal to a few percent, comparable to the one of PSR 0833-45. The averaged spectra indicate that a substantial fraction of the primary photons do outlive the interaction with the magnetisphere; furthermore, the agreement in shape with the observational curves suggests that the acceleration output is fiarly close to a monoenergetic beam of particles. (orig.) [de

  10. Technology Needs for Gamma Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is currently in an exciting period of multiple missions and a wealth of data. Results from INTEGRAL, Fermi, AGILE, Suzaku and Swift are making large contributions to our knowledge of high energy processes in the universe. The advances are due to new detector and imaging technologies. The steps to date have been from scintillators to solid state detectors for sensors and from light buckets to coded aperture masks and pair telescopes for imagers. A key direction for the future is toward focusing telescopes pushing into the hard X-ray regime and Compton telescopes and pair telescopes with fine spatial resolution for medium and high energy gamma rays. These technologies will provide finer imaging of gamma-ray sources. Importantly, they will also enable large steps forward in sensitivity by reducing background.

  11. Gamma ray beam transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, K.; Li, D.; Miyamoto, S.; Amano, S.; Motizuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a new approach to nuclear transmutation by a gamma ray beam of Compton scattered laser photon. We obtained 20 MeV gamma ray in this way to obtain transmutation rates with the giant resonance of 1 97Au and 1 29Iodine. The rate of the transmutation agreed with the theoretical calculation. Experiments on energy spectrum of positron, electron and neutron from targets were performed for the energy balance and design of the system scheme. The reaction rate was about 1.5∼4% for appropriate photon energies and neutron production rate was up to 4% in the measurements. We had stored laser photon more than 5000 times in a small cavity which implied for a significant improvement of system efficiency. Using these technologies, we have designed an actual transmutation system for 1 29Iodine which has a 16 million year's activity. In my presentation, I will address the properties of this scheme, experiments results and transmutation system for iodine transmutation

  12. Results of search for the point superhigh-energy gamma ray sources carried out in the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in the years 1969-1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanyan, A.A.; Vladimirskij, B.M.; Neshpor, Yu.I.; Fomin, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    Astrophysical objects possessing high density of ultrahigh energy γ-particles are observed. The observations have been carried out in the Crimean astrophysical observatory of the AN SSSR for the period of 1969-1973. 43 celestial objects have been chosen for observation, among them are both the supposed and well-known sources of hard electromaanetic radiation (x-ray or γ-radiation with the energy of quanta up to 10 -8 eV). Regular observations of celestial bodies are followed by recording Cherenkov bursts by method of scanning with two groups of detectors, each consisting of two parallel-directed light detectors switched on to coincidences. Criteria for selecting the material are described. Paricular attention is paid to stability of the equipment parameters, permanent atmospheric transparency, presence of such atmospheric phenomena as meteors, summer lightings, and so on. As the objects under observation the authors involve x-ray sources, pulsars, supernovae, novae, supernovae remnants, radiogalaxies, point γ-sources. The data obtained and also those of other authors are summarized in a catalog including 72 objects from the Northern part of the celestial sphere

  13. Very high energy gamma ray astronomy from Hanle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, Varsha R.

    2015-01-01

    Over a past decade very high energy (VHE) gamma ray astronomy has emerged as a major astronomical discipline. In India, we have a long tradition of experiments in this field. Few years ago, multi-institutional Himalayan Gamma Ray Observatory (HiGRO) collaboration was formed to set up VHE gamma rays experiments at Hanle, a high altitude location in Himalayas. HAGAR, the first phase of this collaboration is operational since 2008. HAGAR has successfully detected VHE gamma ray emission from some of the extragalactic objects like Mrk 421, Mrk 501 as well as galactic sources including Crab nebula/pulsar. Details of HAGAR telescope system and results obtained will be discussed. HiGRO is now gearing up for the next phase, i.e. 21 m diameter MACE telescope, which is being installed at Hanle at present. Details of MACE telescope system and future plans will be discussed. (author)

  14. The Fram Strait integrated ocean observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrbach, E.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Rettig, S.; Rohardt, G.; Sagen, H.; Sandven, S.; Hansen, E.

    2012-04-01

    A long-term oceanographic moored array has been operated since 1997 to measure the ocean water column properties and oceanic advective fluxes through Fram Strait. While the mooring line along 78°50'N is devoted to monitoring variability of the physical environment, the AWI Hausgarten observatory, located north of it, focuses on ecosystem properties and benthic biology. Under the EU DAMOCLES and ACOBAR projects, the oceanographic observatory has been extended towards the innovative integrated observing system, combining the deep ocean moorings, multipurpose acoustic system and a network of gliders. The main aim of this system is long-term environmental monitoring in Fram Strait, combining satellite data, acoustic tomography, oceanographic measurements at moorings and glider sections with high-resolution ice-ocean circulation models through data assimilation. In future perspective, a cable connection between the Hausgarten observatory and a land base on Svalbard is planned as the implementation of the ESONET Arctic node. To take advantage of the planned cabled node, different technologies for the underwater data transmission were reviewed and partially tested under the ESONET DM AOEM. The main focus was to design and evaluate available technical solutions for collecting data from different components of the Fram Strait ocean observing system, and an integration of available data streams for the optimal delivery to the future cabled node. The main components of the Fram Strait integrated observing system will be presented and the current status of available technologies for underwater data transfer will be reviewed. On the long term, an initiative of Helmholtz observatories foresees the interdisciplinary Earth-Observing-System FRAM which combines observatories such as the long term deep-sea ecological observatory HAUSGARTEN, the oceanographic Fram Strait integrated observing system and the Svalbard coastal stations maintained by the Norwegian ARCTOS network. A vision

  15. Radar, geologic, airborne gamma ray and Landsat TM digital data integration for geological mapping of the Estrela granite complex (Para State)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Edson Ricardo Soares Pereira da

    2002-01-01

    This work is focused on the geotectonic context of the Carajas Mineral Province, Amazon Craton, which represents the most important Brazilian Mineral Province and hosts iron, cooper, gold, manganese and nickel deposits. At the end of Archean age, during the techno-metamorphic evolution, moderated alkaline granitoids were generated, such as, Estrela Granite Complex (EGC). This work has used digital integration products with the purpose of study the granite suite, its host rock, and the surrounded area. The digital integrated data were gamma-ray and geological data with satellite images (SAR-SAREX e TM-Landsat). The geophysics data, originally in 32 bits and grid format, were interpolated and converted to 8 bits images. The geological data (facies map) was digitalized and converted to a raster format. The remote sensing images were geometrically corrected to guarantee an accuracy on the geological mapping. On the data processing phase, SAR images were digital integrated with gamma-ray data, TM-Landsat image and the raster facies map. The IHS transformation was used as the technique to integrate the multi-source data. On the photogeological interpretation, SAR data were extremely important to permit the extraction of the main tectonic lineaments which occur on the following directions: +/- N45W, +/- N70W, +/- NS, +/- N20E, +/- N45E e +/- N75E. This procedure was done both in analogic and automatic form, being the automatic process more useful to complement information in the extracting process. Among the digital products generated, SAR/GAMA products (uranium, thorium and total count) were the ones that give the most important contribution. The interpretation of the SAR/GAMA's products added to the field campaign have allowed to map the limits of units that occur in the region and four facies of the Estrela Granite Complex were detected. The origin of the granite suite might be related to a magmatic differentiation or to distinct intrusion pulses. The use of the

  16. Technology Development for AGIS (Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krennrich, Frank

    2008-04-01

    Next-generation arrays of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes are at the conceptual planning stage and each could consist of on the order of 100 telescopes. The two currently-discussed projects AGIS in the US and CTA in Europe, have the potential to achieve an order of magnitude better sensitivity for Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations over state-to-the-art observatories. These projects require a substantial increase in scale from existing 4-telescope arrays such as VERITAS and HESS. The optimization of a large array requires exploring cost reduction and research and development for the individual elements while maximizing their performance as an array. In this context, the technology development program for AGIS will be discussed. This includes developing new optical designs, evaluating new types of photodetectors, developing fast trigger systems, integrating fast digitizers into highly-pixilated cameras, and reliability engineering of the individual components.

  17. Apparatus for gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Oga, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    This is the standard of Japan Non-Destructive Inspection Society, NDIS 1101-79, which stipulates on the design, construction and testing method of the apparatuses for gamma ray radiography used for taking industrial radiograms. The gamma ray apparatuses stipulated in this standard are those containing sealed radioactive isotopes exceeding 100 μCi, which emit gamma ray. The gamma ray apparatuses are classified into three groups according to their movability. The general design conditions, the irradiation dose rate and the sealed radiation sources for the gamma ray apparatuses are stipulated. The construction of the gamma ray apparatuses must be in accordance with the notification No. 52 of the Ministry of Labor, and safety devices and collimators must be equipped. The main bodies of the gamma ray apparatuses must pass the vibration test, penetration test, impact test and shielding efficiency test. The method of each test is described. The attached equipments must be also tested. The tests according to this standard are carried out by the makers of the apparatuses. The test records must be made when the apparatuses have passed the tests, and the test certificates are attached. The limit of guarantee by the endurance test must be clearly shown. The items to be shown on the apparatuses are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  18. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Whipple Observatory's atmospheric Cerenkov camera has detected TeV radiation from four galactic sources: the Crab Nebula, Cygnus X-3, Hercules X-1, and 4U0115+63. Recent simulations encourage the view that unwanted cosmic-ray background showers may be suppressed by a large factor. Emphasis in the coming year will be on determining optimum selection criteria for enhancing gamma-ray signals and in developing a prototype camera with finer angular resolution as a first step towards implementation of the HERCULES concept

  19. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  20. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes

  1. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  2. Japanese VLBI Network Observations of a Gamma-Ray Narrow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2014) 35, 215–218 c Indian Academy of Sciences. Japanese VLBI Network Observations of a Gamma-Ray. Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0323+342. Kiyoaki Wajima1,∗. , Kenta Fujisawa2, Masaaki Hayashida3. & Naoki Isobe4. 1Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences,.

  3. Two years of INTEGRAL monitoring of the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1806-20: from quiescence to frenzy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotz, D.; Mereghetti, S.; Molkov, S.

    2006-01-01

    SGR 1806-20 has been observed for more than 2 years with the INTEGRAL satellite. In this period the source went from a quiescent state into a very active one culminating in a giant flare on December 27, 2004. Here we report on the properties of all the short bursts detected with INTEGRAL before t...

  4. Integration and evaluation of a position sensor with continuous read-out for use with the Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling Gamma Ray Spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, R.A.; Lockwood, G.J.; Williams, C.V.; Selph, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The EMWD-GRS technology was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration consisted of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation-producing contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled waste retention basin. These boreholes passed near previously sampled locations where concentrations of contaminant levels of cesium had been measured. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling were compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples. The results show general agreement between the soil sampling and EMWD-GRS techniques for Cs-137. The EMWD-GRS system has been improved by the integration of an orientation sensor package for position sensing (PS) (EMWD-GRS/PS). This added feature gives the capability of calculating position, which is tied directly to EMWD-GRS sensor data obtained while drilling. The EMWD-GRS/PS system is described and the results of the field tests are presented

  5. Guidelines for radioelement mapping using gamma ray spectrometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide an up-to-date review on the use of gamma ray spectrometry for radioelement mapping and, where appropriate, provide guidelines on the correct application of the method. It is a useful training guide for those new to the method. It gives a broad coverage of all aspects of the gamma ray method and provides a comprehensive list of references. The report gives an overview of the theoretical background to radioactivity and the gamma ray spectrometric method followed by a review of the application of the method to mapping the radiation environment. A brief outline is presented of the principles of radioactivity, the interaction of gamma rays with matter, instrumentation applied to the measurement of gamma rays, and the quantities and units in contemporary use in gamma ray spectrometry. This is followed by a review of the fundamentals of gamma ray spectrometry, and its application to ground and airborne mapping. Covered are also all aspects of the calibration and data processing procedures required for estimating the ground concentrations of the radioelements. The procedures required for the recovery of older survey data are also presented as well as an overview of data presentation and integration for mapping applications

  6. GCN CIRCULAR 21507, LIGO/Virgo G298048: INTEGRAL detection of a prompt gamma-ray counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Mereghetti, S.; Ferrigno, C.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated serendipitous INTEGRAL observations carried out at thetime of the LIGO/Virgo burst candidate G298048. The satellite was covering a fraction of the probability of the LIGO-Virgo localization. The best sensitivity depends on the source location. We investigated the SPI-ACS light...... analysis is ongoing, and will be reported in the coming circulars....

  7. An INTEGRAL/IBIS view of young Galactic SNRs through the 44Ti gamma-ray lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, M.; Vink, J.; Decourchelle, A.; Lebrun, F.; Terrier, R.; Ballet, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present preliminary results of INTEGRAL/IBIS observations on Cas A, Tycho and Vela Junior supernova remnants in the line emission of 44Ti. This radioactive nucleus is thought to be exclusively produced in supernovae during the first stages of the explosion. It has a lifetime of about 87 yr and is

  8. Cosmic gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takamasa

    1985-01-01

    Ballon experiments for searching gamma-ray burst were carried out by employing rotating-cross modulation collimators. From a very long observation of total 315 hours during 1975 to 1979, three gamma-ray intensity anomalies were observed which were speculated as a gamma-ray burst. As for the first gamma-ray intensity anomaly observed in 1975, the burst source could be located precisely but the source, heavenly body, could not be specified. Gamma-ray burst source estimation was made by analyzing distribution of burst source in the celestial sphere, burst size distribution, and burst peak. Using the above-mentioned data together with previously published ones, apparent inconsistency was found between the observed results and the adopted theory that the source was in the Galaxy, and this inconsistency was found due to the different time profiles of the burst observed with instruments of different efficiency. It was concluded by these analysis results that employment of logN - logP (relation between burst frequency and burst count) was better than that of logN - logS (burst size) in the examination of gamma-ray burst because the former was less uncertain than the latter. Analyzing the author's observed gamma-ray burst data and the related published data, it was clarified that the burst distribution was almost P -312 for the burst peak value larger than 10 -6 erg/cm 2 .sec. The author could indicate that the calculated celestial distribution of burst source was consistent with the observed results by the derivation using the logN - logP relationship and that the burst larger than 10 -6 erg/cm 2 .sec happens about one thousand times a year, about ten times of the previous value. (Takagi, S.)

  9. Advances in gamma-ray burst astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, T.L.; Desai, U.D.

    1976-01-01

    Work at Goddard is presently being carried out in three major areas of gamma-ray burst research: (1) A pair of simultaneously operating 0.8-m 2 burst detectors were successfully balloon-borne at locations 800 miles apart on 9 May, 1975, each to atmospheric depths of 3 to 4 g cm -2 , for a 20-h period of coincident data coverage. This experiment investigates the size spectrum of bursts in the 10 -7 to 10 -6 erg cm -2 size region where dozens of events per day are expected on a -1.5 index integral power-law extrapolation. Considerable separation in latitude was used to avoid possible atmospheric and auroral secondary effects. Its results are not yet available. (2) A deep-space burst detector, the first spacecraft instrument built specifically for gamma-ray burst studies, was recently successfully integrated into the Helios-B space probe. Its use at distances of up to 2 AU will make possible the first high-resolution directional study of gamma-ray burst source locations. Similar modifications to several other space vehicles are also being prepared. (3) The gamma-ray instrument on the IMP-7 satellite is presently the most sensitive burst detector still operating in orbit. Its results have shown that all measured event-average energy spectra are consistent with being alike. Using this characteristic spectrum to select IMP-7 candidate events of smaller size than those detected using other spacecraft in coincidence, a size spectrum is constructed which fits the -1.5 index power law down to 2.5 x 10 -5 erg cm -2 per event, at an occurrence rate of about once per month. (Auth.)

  10. Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, various classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei have been established as sources of high-energy radiation extending over a very broad range from soft gamma-rays (photon energies E~MeV) up to very-high-energy gamma-rays (E>100 GeV). These include blazars of different types, as well as young and evolved radio galaxies. The observed gamma-ray emission from such implies efficient particle acceleration processes taking place in highly magnetized and relativistic jets produced by supermassive black holes, processes that have yet to be identified and properly understood. In addition, nearby starforming and starburst galaxies, some of which host radio-quiet Seyfert-type nuclei, have been detected in the gamma-ray range as well. In their cases, the observed gamma-ray emission is due to non-thermal activity in the interstellar medium, possibly including also a contribution from accretion disks and nuclear outflows. Finally, the high-energy emission from clusters of galaxies remains elusive...

  11. Secondary gamma-ray data for shielding calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Sunichi

    1979-01-01

    In deep penetration transport calculations, the integral design parameters is determined mainly by secondary particles which are produced by interactions of the primary radiation with materials. The shield thickness and the biological dose rate at a given point of a bulk shield are determined from the contribution from secondary gamma rays. The heat generation and the radiation damage in the structural and shield materials depend strongly on the secondary gamma rays. In this paper, the status of the secondary gamma ray data and its further problems are described from the viewpoint of shield design. The secondary gamma-ray data in ENDF/B-IV and POPOP4 are also discussed based on the test calculations made for several shield assemblies. (author)

  12. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  13. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  14. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  15. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events

  16. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components....... By knowing the spectral components and their amplitudes in each of the measured spectra one is able to extract more information from the data than possible with the methods used otherwise....

  17. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

    2006-10-05

    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  18. Gamma-ray pulsars: Emission zones and viewing geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Yadigaroglu, I.-A.

    1995-01-01

    There are now a half-dozen young pulsars detected in high-energy photons by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), showing a variety of emission efficiencies and pulse profiles. We present here a calculation of the pattern of high-energy emission on the sky in a model which posits gamma-ray production by charge-depleted gaps in the outer magnetosphere. This model accounts for the radio to gamma-ray pulse offsets of the known pulsars, as well as the shape of the high-energy pulse profiles. We also show that about one-third of emitting young radio pulsars will not be detected due to beaming effects, while approximately 2.5 times the number of radio-selected gamma-ray pulsars will be viewed only high energies. Finally we compute the polarization angle variation and find that the previously misunderstood optical polarization sweep of the Crab pulsar arises naturally in this picture. These results strongly support an outer magnetosphere location for the gamma-ray emission.

  19. Optical observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Fynbo, J.P.U.

    2004-01-01

    We briefly review the status and recent progress in the field of optical observations of gamma-ray burst afterglows. We will focus on the fundamental observational evidence for the relationship between gamma-ray bursts and the final evolutionary phases of massive stars. In particular, we will address (i) gamma-ray burst host galaxies, (ii) optically dark gamma-ray burst afterglows, (iii) the gamma-ray burst-supernova connection, and (iv) the relation between X-ray flashes, gamma-ray bursts, and supernovae

  20. Equipment for x- and gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following topics related to the equipment for x - and gamma ray radiography are discussed in this chapter. The topics are x-ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of x-ray, generation of x-ray, mechanism of x-ray production, x-ray equipment, power supply, distribution of x-ray intensity along the tube: gamma ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of gamma rays, gamma ray sources, gamma ray projectors on cameras, source changing. Care of Radiographic Equipments: Merits and Demerits of x and Gamma Rays

  1. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1990-02-01

    Our scientific goal is to discover and study by means of gamma-ray astronomy those regions of the universe where particles are accelerated to extreme energies. The atmospheric Cherenkov technique provides a unique and potentially sensitive window in the region of 10 11 to approximately 10 14 eV for this purpose. The Whipple Observatory Collaboration is currently engaged in the development of a Cherenkov camera which has the ultimate capability of distinguishing gamma-ray showers from the numerous cosmic-ray background showers by imaging the Cherenkov light from each shower. We have recently demonstrated the potential of the imaging technique with our 18 sigma detection of TeV photons from the Crab Nebula using a camera of 10 elements, pixel spacing 0.25 degrees. This detection represents a factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity compared to a non-imaging detector. The next step in the development of the detector is to obtain a second large reflector, similar to the present 10 meter instrument, for stereoscopic viewing of showers. This project, named GRANITE, is now approved by DOE. With GRANITE it should be possible to probe more deeply in space by a factor of 7, and to fully investigate the possibility of new physics which has been suggested by reports of anomalous radiation from Hercules X-1. 18 refs

  2. Gamma rays from pulsar outer gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, J.; Romani, R.W.; Cheng Ho

    1993-01-01

    We describe a gamma ray pulsar code which computes the high energy photon emissivities from vacuum gaps in the outer magnetosphere, after the model outlined by Cheng, Ho and Ruderman (1986) and Ho (1989). Pair-production due to photon-photon interactions and radiation processes including curvature, synchrotron and inverse Compton processes are computed with an iterative scheme which converges to self-consistent photon and particle distributions for a sampling of locations in the outer magnetosphere. We follow the photons from these distributions as they propagate through the pulsar magnetosphere toward a distant observer. We include the effects of relativistic aberration, time-of-flight delays and reabsorption by photon-photon pair-production to determine an intensity map of the high energy pulsar emission on the sky. Using data from radio and optical observations to constrain the geometry of the magnetosphere as well as the possible observer viewing angles, we derive light curves and phase dependent spectra which can be directly compared to data from the Compton Observatory. Observations for Crab, Vela and the recently identified gamma ray pulsars Geminga, PSR1706-44 aNd PSR 1509-58 will provide important tests of our model calculations, help us to improve our picture of the relevant physics at work in pulsar magnetospheres and allow us to comment on the implications for future pulsar discoveries

  3. The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  4. Large-scale anisotropy in the extragalactic gamma-ray background as a probe for cosmological antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi-Tian; Stecker, Floyd W.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Cline, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Intrinsic anisotropies in the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB), which should be detectable with the forthcoming Gamma Ray Observatory, can be used to examine some of the mechanisms proposed to explain its origin, one of which, the baryon-symmetric big bang (BSBB) model, is investigated here. In this simulation, large domains containing matter and antimatter galaxies produce gamma rays by annihilation at the domain boundaries. This mechanism can produce mountain-chain-shaped angular fluctuations in the EGB flux.

  5. Multifrequency Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, J.

    1995-01-01

    Neither a flaring nor a quiescent counterpart to a gamma-ray burst has yet been convincingly identified at any wavelength region. The present status of the search for counterparts of classical gamma-ray bursts is given. Particular emphasis is put on the search for flaring counterparts, i.e. emission during or shortly after the gamma-ray emission.

  6. Stellar Sources of Gamma-ray Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Luchkov, B. I.

    2011-01-01

    Correlation analysis of Swift gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby star locations (catalog Gliese) reveals 4 coincidences with good angular accuracy. The random probability is 4\\times 10^{-5}, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. Some additional search of stellar gamma-ray bursts is discussed.

  7. Gamma-rays from deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    My objective in this talk is to consider the question: 'What can be learned about deep inelastic collisions (DIC) from studying the associated gamma-rays'. First, I discuss the origin and nature of the gamma-rays from DIC, then the kinds of information gamma-ray spectra contain, and finally come to the combination of these two subjects. (orig./HSI)

  8. Gamma-ray multiplicity distribution in ternary fission of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kliman, J [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Krupa, L [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Morhac, M [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hamilton, J H [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Kormicki, J [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Ramayya, A V [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Hwang, J K [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Luo, Y X [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Fong, D [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Gore, P [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Akopian, G M Ter; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Rodin, A M; Fomichev, A S; Popeko, G S; Daniel, A V [Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Rasmussen, J O; Macchiavelli, A O [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Stoyer, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Donangelo, R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cole, J D [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2002-12-01

    From multiparameter data obtained at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the integral characteristics of the prompt {gamma}-ray emission were extracted for tripartition of {sup 252}Cf with He, Be and C being the third light charged particle. We used multifold {gamma}-ray coincidence spectra for the determination of {gamma}-ray multiplicities assuming a Gaussian distribution for {gamma}-ray multiplicity. The multiplicity distribution characteristics, i.e. mean multiplicity and its dispersion were obtained by minimizing with respect to the calculated values of probabilities of multifold {gamma}-ray coincidences using a combinatoric method. Comparison with the known experimental data from binary fission was made. Further, we investigated dependencies of the mean {gamma}-ray multiplicity on the kinetic energy of the light charged particle. The mean {gamma}-ray multiplicity for He ternary fission is found to increase rapidly with increasing kinetic energy of He in the region less than 11 MeV and then decrease slowly with increasing kinetic energy of He. The anomalous behaviour of {gamma}-ray emission is discussed. The mean {gamma}-ray multiplicity was determined for the first time for Be and C ternary fission. For Be, the {gamma}-ray multiplicity as a function of kinetic energy was obtained as well.

  9. LAT Onboard Science: Gamma-Ray Burst Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Frederick; Hughes, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Winer, Brian; Bonnell, Jerry; Norris, Jay; Ritz, Steven; Russell, James

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard science program is to provide quick identification and localization of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) onboard the LAT for follow-up observations by other observatories. The GRB identification and localization algorithm will provide celestial coordinates with an error region that will be distributed via the Gamma ray burst Coordinate Network (GCN). We present results that show our sensitivity to bursts as characterized using Monte Carlo simulations of the GLAST observatory. We describe and characterize the method of onboard track determination and the GRB identification and localization algorithm. Onboard track determination is considerably different than in the on-ground case, resulting in a substantially altered point spread function. The algorithm contains tunable parameters which may be adjusted after launch when real bursts characteristics at very high energies have been identified

  10. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  12. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.

    1983-01-01

    A model is proposed for pulsar optical and gamma-ray emission where relativistic electrons beams: (i) scatter the blackbody photons from the polar cap surface giving inverse Compton gamma-rays and (ii) produce synchrotron optical photons in the light cylinder region which are then inverse Compton scattered giving other gamma-rays. The model is applied to the Vela pulsar, explaining the first gamma-ray pulse by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons near the light cylinder and the second gamma-ray pulse partly by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons and partly by inverse Compton scattering of the thermal blackbody photons near the star surface. (author)

  13. Gamma ray burst source locations with the Ulysses/Compton/PVO Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, T.L.; Hurley, K.C.; Boer, M.; Sommer, M.; Niel, M.; Fishman, G.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Wilson, R.B.; Laros, J.G.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The new interplanetary gamma-ray burst network will determine source fields with unprecedented accuracy. The baseline of the Ulysses mission and the locations of Pioneer-Venus Orbiter and of Mars Observer will ensure precision to a few tens of arc seconds. Combined with the event phenomenologies of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on Compton Observatory, the source locations to be achieved with this network may provide a basic new understanding of the puzzle of gamma ray bursts

  14. Miniature gamma-ray camera for tumor localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J.C.; Olsen, R.W.; James, R.B.; Cross, E.

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this LDRD project was to develop technology for a miniature gamma-ray camera for use in nuclear medicine. The camera will meet a need of the medical community for an improved means to image radio-pharmaceuticals in the body. In addition, this technology-with only slight modifications-should prove useful in applications requiring the monitoring and verification of special nuclear materials (SNMs). Utilization of the good energy resolution of mercuric iodide and cadmium zinc telluride detectors provides a means for rejecting scattered gamma-rays and improving the isotopic selectivity in gamma-ray images. The first year of this project involved fabrication and testing of a monolithic mercuric iodide and cadmium zinc telluride detector arrays and appropriate collimators/apertures. The second year of the program involved integration of the front-end detector module, pulse processing electronics, computer, software, and display

  15. Coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is often the technique of choice in an environmental radioactivity laboratory. When measuring environmental samples associated activities are usually low so an important parameter that describes the performance of the spectrometer...... for a nuclide of interest is the minimum detectable activity (MDA). There are many ways for lowering the MDAs in gamma spectrometry. Recently, developments of fast and compact digital acquisition systems have led to growing number of multiple HPGe detector spectrometers. In these applications all detected...

  16. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the essential aspects of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenon, with emphasis on the more recent results. GRBs are introduced by their time histories, which provide some evidence for a compact object origin. The energy spectra of bursts are presented and they are seen to demonstrate practically unambiguously that the origin of some GRBs involves neutron stars. Counterpart searches are reviewed briefly and the statistical properties of bursters treated. This paper presents a review of the three known repeating bursters (the Soft Gamma Repeaters). Extragalactic and galactic models are discussed and future prospects are assessed

  17. Gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Tatehiro; Murakami, Toshio; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Gunji, Shuichi; Kubo, Shin

    2013-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP: GAmma-ray burst Polarimeter), which had been almost handcrafted by scientists, has succeeded in working normally in interplanetary space, and in detecting the polarization of the gamma-ray from a mysterious astronomical object 'gamma-ray burst'. It is the first result of the detectors in the world exclusively aiming at detecting gamma-ray polarization. We mainly describe the hardware of our GAP equipment and show the method of preparing equipment to work in the cosmic space with a tight budget. The mechanical structure, the electronic circuits, the software on the equipment, the data analysis on the earth, and the scientific results gained by the observation just over one year, are presented after explaining the principle of gamma-ray polarization detection. Our design to protect equipment against mechanical shock and cosmic radiation may provide useful information for future preparation of compact satellite. (J.P.N.)

  18. Gamma-Ray Astronomy Technology Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades gamma-ray observations have become a valuable tool for studying the universe. Progress made in diverse 8re1lS such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), nucleosynthesis, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has complimented and enriched our astrophysical understanding in many ways. We present an overview of current and future planned space y-ray missions and discussion technology needs for- the next generation of space gamma-ray instruments.

  19. Gamma-ray burst models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew

    2007-05-15

    I consider various possibilities for making gamma-ray bursts, particularly from close binaries. In addition to the much-studied neutron star+neutron star and black hole+neutron star cases usually considered good candidates for short-duration bursts, there are also other possibilities. In particular, neutron star+massive white dwarf has several desirable features. These systems are likely to produce long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), in some cases definitely without an accompanying supernova, as observed recently. This class of burst would have a strong correlation with star formation and occur close to the host galaxy. However, rare members of the class need not be near star-forming regions and could have any type of host galaxy. Thus, a long-duration burst far from any star-forming region would also be a signature of this class. Estimates based on the existence of a known progenitor suggest that this type of GRB may be quite common, in agreement with the fact that the absence of a supernova can only be established in nearby bursts.

  20. Dark gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia

    2017-03-01

    Many theories of dark matter (DM) predict that DM particles can be captured by stars via scattering on ordinary matter. They subsequently condense into a DM core close to the center of the star and eventually annihilate. In this work, we trace DM capture and annihilation rates throughout the life of a massive star and show that this evolution culminates in an intense annihilation burst coincident with the death of the star in a core collapse supernova. The reason is that, along with the stellar interior, also its DM core heats up and contracts, so that the DM density increases rapidly during the final stages of stellar evolution. We argue that, counterintuitively, the annihilation burst is more intense if DM annihilation is a p -wave process than for s -wave annihilation because in the former case, more DM particles survive until the supernova. If among the DM annihilation products are particles like dark photons that can escape the exploding star and decay to standard model particles later, the annihilation burst results in a flash of gamma rays accompanying the supernova. For a galactic supernova, this "dark gamma-ray burst" may be observable in the Čerenkov Telescope Array.

  1. Relativistic motion in gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolik, J.H.; Pier, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Three fundamental problems affect models of gamma-ray bursts, i.e., the energy source, the ability of high-energy photons to escape the radiation region, and the comparative weakness of X-ray emission. It is indicated that relativistic bulk motion of the gamma-ray-emitting plasma generically provides a solution to all three of these problems. Results show that, if the plasma that produces gamma-ray bursts has a bulk relativistic velocity with Lorentz factor gamma of about 10, several of the most troubling problems having to do with gamma-ray bursts are solved. 42 refs

  2. Radio Observations of Gamma-ray Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin D.; Chomiuk, L.; Ribeiro, V.; project, E.-Nova

    2014-01-01

    Recent detection of gamma-ray emission from classical novae by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope surprised many in the astronomical community. We present results from radio observations, obtained using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of three gamma-ray novae: Mon2012, Sco2012, and Del2013. Radio observations allow for the calculation of ejecta masses, place limits on the distances, and provide information about the gamma-ray emission mechanism for these sources.

  3. Dose Rate Determination from Airborne Gamma-ray Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim

    1996-01-01

    The standard method for determination of ground level dose rates from airborne gamma-ray is the integral count rate which for a constant flying altitude is assumed proportional to the dose rate. The method gives reasonably results for natural radioactivity which almost always has the same energy...

  4. GRAB - WRS system module number 60221 for calculating gamma-ray penetration in slab shields by the method of kernel integration with build-up factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the gamma-ray flux, dose, or heating rate in a slab shield using the build-up factor method. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  5. Astronomical Data Integration Beyond the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemson, G.; Laurino, O.

    2015-09-01

    "Data integration" generally refers to the process of combining data from different source data bases into a unified view. Much work has been devoted in this area by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), allowing users to discover and access databases through standard protocols. However, different archives present their data through their own schemas and users must still select, filter, and combine data for each archive individually. An important reason for this is that the creation of common data models that satisfy all sub-disciplines is fraught with difficulties. Furthermore it requires a substantial amount of work for data providers to present their data according to some standard representation. We will argue that existing standards allow us to build a data integration framework that works around these problems. The particular framework requires the implementation of the IVOA Table Access Protocol (TAP) only. It uses the newly developed VO data modelling language (VO-DML) specification, which allows one to define extensible object-oriented data models using a subset of UML concepts through a simple XML serialization language. A rich mapping language allows one to describe how instances of VO-DML data models are represented by the TAP service, bridging the possible mismatch between a local archive's schema and some agreed-upon representation of the astronomical domain. In this so called local-as-view approach to data integration, “mediators" use the mapping prescriptions to translate queries phrased in terms of the common schema to the underlying TAP service. This mapping language has a graphical representation, which we expose through a web based graphical “drag-and-drop-and-connect" interface. This service allows any user to map the holdings of any TAP service to the data model(s) of choice. The mappings are defined and stored outside of the data sources themselves, which allows the interface to be used in a kind of crowd-sourcing effort

  6. Photodetectors for the Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert G.; Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System AGIS Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory. Design goals include an order of magnitude better sensitivity, better angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a camera that detects and records the Cherenkov-light flashes from air showers. The camera is comprised of a pixelated focal plane of blue sensitive and fast (nanosecond) photon detectors that detect the photon signal and convert it into an electrical one. Given the scale of AGIS, the camera must be reliable and cost effective. The Schwarzschild-Couder optical design yields a smaller plate scale than present-day Cherenkov telescopes, enabling the use of more compact, multi-pixel devices, including multianode photomultipliers or Geiger avalanche photodiodes. We present the conceptual design of the focal plane for the camera and results from testing candidate! focal plane sensors.

  7. Gravitational Waves versus X and Gamma Ray Emission in a Short Gamma-Ray Burst

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, F. G.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2012-01-01

    The recent progress in the understanding the physical nature of neutron star equilibrium configurations and the first observational evidence of a genuinely short gamma-ray burst, GRB 090227B, allows to give an estimate of the gravitational waves versus the X and Gamma-ray emission in a short gamma-ray burst.

  8. The life and death of massive stars revealed by the observation of nuclear gamma-ray lines with the Integral/SPI spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this research thesis is to bring up observational constraints on the mechanisms which govern life and death of massive stars, i.e. stars having an initial mass greater than eight times the Sun's mass, and smaller than 120 to 150 solar masses. Thus, it aims at detecting the vestiges of recent and close supernovae in order to find out the traces of the dynamics of their first instants. The author has explored the radiation of three radio-isotopes accessible to the nuclear gamma astronomy ( 44 Ti, 60 Fe, 26 Al) using observations performed with high resolution gamma spectrometer (SPI) on the INTEGRAL international observatory. After an overview of the present knowledge on the massive star explosion mechanism, the author presents the specificities and potential of the investigated radio-isotopes. He describes the data treatment methods and a population synthesis programme for the prediction of decay gamma streaks, and then reports its work on the inner dynamics of Cassiopeia A explosion, the stellar activity of the galaxy revealed by the radioisotope observation, the nucleo-synthetic activity of the Swan region

  9. Handbook on Mobile Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing......Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing...

  10. Gamma-Ray Interactions for Reachback Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-02

    This presentation is a part of the DHS LSS spectroscopy training course and presents an overview of the following concepts: identification and measurement of gamma rays; use of gamma counts and energies in research. Understanding the basic physics of how gamma rays interact with matter can clarify how certain features in a spectrum were produced.

  11. Gamma ray astronomy from satellites and balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of gamma ray astronomy topics presented at the Cosmic Ray Conference. The major conclusions at the Cosmic Ray Conference in the field of gamma ray astronomy are given. (1) MeV-emission of gamma-ray bursts is a common feature. Variations in duration and energy spectra from burst to burst may explain the discrepancy between the measured log N - log S dependence and the observed isotropy of bursts. (2) The gamma-ray line at 1.809 MeV from Al(26) is the first detected line from a radioactive nucleosynthesis product. In order to understand its origin it will be necessary to measure its longitude distribution in the Milky Way. (3) The indications of a gamma-ray excess found from the direction of Loop I is consistent with the picture that the bulk of cosmic rays below 100 GeV is produced in galactic supernova remnants. (4) The interpretation of the large scale distribution of gamma rays in the Milky Way is controversial. At present an extragalactic origin of the cosmic ray nuclei in the GeV-range cannot be excluded from the gamma ray data. (5) The detection of MeV-emission from Cen A is a promising step towards the interesting field of extragalactic gamma ray astronomy

  12. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  13. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  14. Intercomparison of gamma ray analysis software packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The IAEA undertook an intercomparison exercise to review available software for gamma ray spectra analysis. This document describes the methods used in the intercomparison exercise, characterizes the software packages reviewed and presents the results obtained. Only direct results are given without any recommendation for a particular software or method for gamma ray spectra analysis

  15. CALET UPPER LIMITS ON X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY COUNTERPARTS OF GW151226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G. [University of Florence, Via Sansone, 1, I-50019 Sesto, Fiorentino (Italy); Akaike, Y. [Universities Space Research Association, 7178 Columbia Gateway Drive, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Asano, K. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Asaoka, Y. [JEM Mission Operations and Integration Center, Human Spaceflight Technology Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Bonechi, S.; Brogi, P.; Felice, V. Di [National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Piazza dei Caprettari, 70, I-00186 Rome (Italy); Binns, W. R.; Buckley, J. H. [Department of Physics, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 (United States); Cannady, N.; Cherry, M. L.; Guzik, T. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Checchia, C.; Collazuol, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Via Marzolo, 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Ebisawa, K.; Fuke, H., E-mail: nakahira@crab.riken.jp, E-mail: yoichi.asaoka@aoni.waseda.jp, E-mail: tsakamoto@phys.aoyama.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-20

    We present upper limits in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray bands at the time of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) gravitational-wave event GW151226 derived from the CALorimetric Electron Telescope ( CALET ) observation. The main instrument of CALET , CALorimeter (CAL), observes gamma-rays from ∼1 GeV up to 10 TeV with a field of view of ∼2 sr. The CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM) views ∼3 sr and ∼2 π sr of the sky in the 7 keV–1 MeV and the 40 keV–20 MeV bands, respectively, by using two different scintillator-based instruments. The CGBM covered 32.5% and 49.1% of the GW151226 sky localization probability in the 7 keV–1 MeV and 40 keV–20 MeV bands respectively. We place a 90% upper limit of 2 × 10{sup −7} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the 1–100 GeV band where CAL reaches 15% of the integrated LIGO probability (∼1.1 sr). The CGBM 7 σ upper limits are 1.0 × 10{sup −6} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (7–500 keV) and 1.8 × 10{sup −6} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (50–1000 keV) for a 1 s exposure. Those upper limits correspond to the luminosity of 3–5 × 10{sup 49} erg s{sup −1}, which is significantly lower than typical short GRBs.

  16. DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM CTA 1 BY VERITAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aune, T.; Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dwarkadas, V. V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: muk@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: smcarthur@ulysses.uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2013-02-10

    We report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission coincident with the shell-type radio supernova remnant (SNR) CTA 1 using the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory. The source, VER J0006+729, was detected as a 6.5 standard deviation excess over background and shows an extended morphology, approximated by a two-dimensional Gaussian of semimajor (semiminor) axis 0. Degree-Sign 30 (0. Degree-Sign 24) and a centroid 5' from the Fermi gamma-ray pulsar PSR J0007+7303 and its X-ray pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The photon spectrum is well described by a power-law dN/dE = N {sub 0}(E/3 TeV){sup -{Gamma}}, with a differential spectral index of {Gamma} = 2.2 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys}, and normalization N {sub 0} = (9.1 {+-} 1.3{sub stat} {+-} 1.7{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}. The integral flux, F {sub {gamma}} = 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 1 TeV, corresponds to 0.2% of the pulsar spin-down power at 1.4 kpc. The energetics, colocation with the SNR, and the relatively small extent of the TeV emission strongly argue for the PWN origin of the TeV photons. We consider the origin of the TeV emission in CTA 1.

  17. Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Paula M

    2007-05-15

    Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized.

  18. Observations of the highest energy gamma-rays from gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingus, Brenda L.

    2001-01-01

    EGRET has extended the highest energy observations of gamma-ray bursts to GeV gamma rays. Such high energies imply the fireball that is radiating the gamma-rays has a bulk Lorentz factor of several hundred. However, EGRET only detected a few gamma-ray bursts. GLAST will likely detect several hundred bursts and may extend the maximum energy to a few 100 GeV. Meanwhile new ground based detectors with sensitivity to gamma-ray bursts are beginning operation, and one recently reported evidence for TeV emission from a burst

  19. Light Dawns on Dark Gamma-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most energetic events in the Universe, but some appear curiously faint in visible light. The biggest study to date of these so-called dark gamma-ray bursts, using the GROND instrument on the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla in Chile, has found that these gigantic explosions don't require exotic explanations. Their faintness is now fully explained by a combination of causes, the most important of which is the presence of dust between the Earth and the explosion. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fleeting events that last from less than a second to several minutes, are detected by orbiting observatories that can pick up their high energy radiation. Thirteen years ago, however, astronomers discovered a longer-lasting stream of less energetic radiation coming from these violent outbursts, which can last for weeks or even years after the initial explosion. Astronomers call this the burst's afterglow. While all gamma-ray bursts [1] have afterglows that give off X-rays, only about half of them were found to give off visible light, with the rest remaining mysteriously dark. Some astronomers suspected that these dark afterglows could be examples of a whole new class of gamma-ray bursts, while others thought that they might all be at very great distances. Previous studies had suggested that obscuring dust between the burst and us might also explain why they were so dim. "Studying afterglows is vital to further our understanding of the objects that become gamma-ray bursts and what they tell us about star formation in the early Universe," says the study's lead author Jochen Greiner from the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching bei München, Germany. NASA launched the Swift satellite at the end of 2004. From its orbit above the Earth's atmosphere it can detect gamma-ray bursts and immediately relay their positions to other observatories so that the afterglows could be studied. In the new study, astronomers combined Swift

  20. DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION TOWARD SUPERNOVA REMNANT SNR G78.2+2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T.; Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bradbury, S. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C., E-mail: amandajw@iastate.edu [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); and others

    2013-06-20

    We report the discovery of an unidentified, extended source of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission, VER J2019+407, within the radio shell of the supernova remnant SNR G78.2+2.1, using 21.4 hr of data taken by the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory in 2009. These data confirm the preliminary indications of gamma-ray emission previously seen in a two-year (2007-2009) blind survey of the Cygnus region by VERITAS. VER J2019+407, which is detected at a post-trials significance of 7.5 standard deviations in the 2009 data, is localized to the northwestern rim of the remnant in a region of enhanced radio and X-ray emission. It has an intrinsic extent of 0.23 Degree-Sign .23 {+-} 0. Degree-Sign 03{sub stat-0 Degree-Sign .02sys}{sup +0 Degree-Sign .04} and its spectrum is well-characterized by a differential power law (dN/dE = N{sub 0} Multiplication-Sign (E/TeV){sup -{Gamma}}) with a photon index of {Gamma} = 2.37 {+-} 0.14{sub stat} {+-} 0.20{sub sys} and a flux normalization of N{sub 0} = 1.5 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.4{sub sys} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} photon TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. This yields an integral flux of 5.2 {+-} 0.8{sub stat} {+-} 1.4{sub sys} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} photon cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 320 GeV, corresponding to 3.7% of the Crab Nebula flux. We consider the relationship of the TeV gamma-ray emission with the GeV gamma-ray emission seen from SNR G78.2+2.1 as well as that seen from a nearby cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays. Multiple scenarios are considered as possible origins for the TeV gamma-ray emission, including hadronic particle acceleration at the SNR shock.

  1. Calculation of the flux density of gamma rays above the surface of Venus and the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surkov, Yu.A.; Manvelyan, O.S.

    1987-01-01

    In this article the authors present the results of calculating the flux density of unscattered gamma rays as a function of height above the surfaces of Venus and the Earth. At each height they calculate the areas which will collect a certain fraction of the gamma rays. The authors calculate the spectra of scattered gamma rays, as well as their integrated fluxes at various heights above the surface of Venus. They consider how the atmosphere will affect the recording of gamma rays. Their results enable them to evaluate the optimal conditions for measuring the gamma-ray fields above the surfaces of Venus and the Earth and to determine the area of the planet which can be investigated in this way. These results are also necessary if they are to determine the elemental composition of the rock from the characteristic recorded spectrum of gamma radiation

  2. Fermi LAT Search for Dark Matter in Gamma-Ray Lines and the Inclusive Photon Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic gamma-ray lines and contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray background. Flux upper limits are presented for gamma-ray spectral lines from 7 to 200 GeV and for the diffuse gamma-ray background from 4.8 GeV to 264 GeV obtained from two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data integrated over most of the sky. We give cross section upper limits and decay lifetime lower limits for dark matter models that produce gamma-ray lines or contribute to the diffuse spectrum, including models proposed as explanations of the PAMELA and Fermi cosmic-ray data.

  3. An optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre, F.; Rios M, C.; Ruvalcaba A, M. G.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J. L., E-mail: fta777@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Centro Regional de Estudis Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    This work aims to obtain an optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectroscopy by means of Genie 2000 (Canberra). Twenty different analysis sequences were customized using different peak area percentages and different algorithms for: 1) peak finding, and 2) peak area determination, and with or without the use of a library -based on evaluated nuclear data- of common gamma-ray emitters in environmental samples. The use of an optimum analysis sequence with certified nuclear information avoids the problems originated by the significant variations in out-of-date nuclear parameters of commercial software libraries. Interference-free gamma ray energies with absolute emission probabilities greater than 3.75% were included in the customized library. The gamma-ray spectroscopy system (based on a Ge Re-3522 Canberra detector) was calibrated both in energy and shape by means of the IAEA-2002 reference spectra for software intercomparison. To test the performance of the analysis sequences, the IAEA-2002 reference spectrum was used. The z-score and the reduced {chi}{sup 2} criteria were used to determine the optimum analysis sequence. The results show an appreciable variation in the peak area determinations and their corresponding uncertainties. Particularly, the combination of second derivative peak locate with simple peak area integration algorithms provides the greater accuracy. Lower accuracy comes from the combination of library directed peak locate algorithm and Genie's Gamma-M peak area determination. (Author)

  4. An optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Torre, F.; Rios M, C.; Ruvalcaba A, M. G.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J. L.

    2010-10-01

    This work aims to obtain an optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectroscopy by means of Genie 2000 (Canberra). Twenty different analysis sequences were customized using different peak area percentages and different algorithms for: 1) peak finding, and 2) peak area determination, and with or without the use of a library -based on evaluated nuclear data- of common gamma-ray emitters in environmental samples. The use of an optimum analysis sequence with certified nuclear information avoids the problems originated by the significant variations in out-of-date nuclear parameters of commercial software libraries. Interference-free gamma ray energies with absolute emission probabilities greater than 3.75% were included in the customized library. The gamma-ray spectroscopy system (based on a Ge Re-3522 Canberra detector) was calibrated both in energy and shape by means of the IAEA-2002 reference spectra for software intercomparison. To test the performance of the analysis sequences, the IAEA-2002 reference spectrum was used. The z-score and the reduced χ 2 criteria were used to determine the optimum analysis sequence. The results show an appreciable variation in the peak area determinations and their corresponding uncertainties. Particularly, the combination of second derivative peak locate with simple peak area integration algorithms provides the greater accuracy. Lower accuracy comes from the combination of library directed peak locate algorithm and Genie's Gamma-M peak area determination. (Author)

  5. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries by the Swift Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. The NASA swift mission is an innovative new multiwavelength observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. Swift is now in orbit since November 20, 2004 and all hardware is performing well. A new-technology wide-field gamma-ray camera is detecting a hundred bursts per year. sensitive narrow-field X-ray and uv/optical telescopes, built in collaboration with UK and Italian partners, are pointed at the burst location in 50-100 sec by an autonomously controlled "swift" spacecraft. For each burst, arcsec positions are determined and optical/UV/X-ray/gamma-ray spectrophotometry performed. Information is also rapidly sent to the ground to a team of more than 50 observers at telescopes around the world. The first year of findings from the mission will be presented. There has been a break-through in the longstanding mystery of short GRBs; they appear to be caused by merging neutron stars. High redshift bursts have been detected leading to a better understanding of star formation rates and distant galaxy environments. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow.

  6. Gamma Ray Bursts and the Birth of Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Black holes have been predicted since the 1940's from solutions of Einstein's general relativity field equation. There is strong evidence of their existence from astronomical observations, but their origin has remained an open question of great interest. Gamma-ray bursts may the clue. They are powerful explosions, visible to high redshift, and appear to be the birth cries of black holes. The Swift and Fermi missions are two powerful NASA observatories currently in orbit that are discovering how gamma-ray bursts work. Evidence is building that the long and short duration subcategories of GRBs have very different origins: massive star core collapse to a black hole for long bursts and binary neutron star coalescence to a black hole for short bursts. The similarity to Type II and Ia supernovae originating from young and old stellar progenitors is striking. Bursts are tremendously luminous and are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. One Swift burst at z=8.3 is the most distant object known in the universe. The talk will present the latest gamma-ray burst results from Swift and Fermi and will highlight what they are teaching us about black holes and jet outflows.

  7. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries by the Swift Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-04-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. The NASA Swift mission is an innovative new multiwavelength observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. Swift is now in orbit since November 20, 2004 and all hardware is performing well. A new-technology wide-field gamma-ray camera is detecting a hundred bursts per year. Sensitive narrow-field X-ray and UV/optical telescopes, built in collaboration with UK and Italian partners, are pointed at the burst location in 50-100 sec by an autonomously controlled ``swift'' spacecraft. For each burst, arcsec positions are determined and optical/UV/X-ray/gamma-ray spectrophotometry performed. Information is also rapidly sent to the ground to a team of more than 50 observers at telescopes around the world. The first year of findings from the mission will be presented. There has been a break-through in the long-standing mystery of short GRBs; they appear to be caused by merging neutron stars. High redshift bursts have been detected leading to a better understanding of star formation rates and distant galaxy environments. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow.

  8. Optical imaging of gamma-ray bursts with the LONEOS telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.M.; Bowell, E.; Koehn, B.W.; Cook, K.H.; Howell, S.B.; Shrader, C.R.; Starrfield, S.G.; Stubbs, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    The optical identification of gamma-ray bursts discovered and localized by BACODINE/LOCBURST using the Lowell Observatory Near-Earth Object Search (LONEOS) 58-cm Schmidt-type telescope and mosaic CCD camera is described. In its final form, LONEOS images 10 square degrees of the sky (3.2 degree x3.2 degree) to ∼22nd mag (2σ) in a 5 minute integration. Identification of optical transients will be based on variability by comparison with subsequent images or previous scans of the region. To date, optical images have been obtained of three BATSE triggers processed by LOCBURST for development and evaluation purposes. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  9. Observe gamma rays to find out how the universe works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia, R.

    2015-01-01

    Each hemisphere of the Earth will host one of the two venues of the future network of telescopes Cherenkov (cta, Cherenkov telescope array) designed with the aim of covering all outer space and in stereo, a technique that allows us to reconstruct efficiently the properties of spatial events. Thanks to telescopes with which will be equipped with - greater sensitivity than the current - will be possible to study in detail one of the most powerful radiation of the Universe, gamma rays. Spain has been chosen to host the North Observatory on roque of the boys, on the island of Palma, facilities that will be form das by 20 telescopes. (Author)

  10. Modeling of Pulses in Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts originating from the Earth's atmosphere that are associated with lightning activities. After their discovery in 1994 by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994], this phenomenon has been further observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010] and the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010]. Photon spectra corresponding to the mechanism of relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) usually provide a very good agreement with satellite observations [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005]. On the other hand, Celestin and Pasko [JGR, 116, A03315, 2011] have shown theoretically that the large flux of thermal runaway electrons generated by streamers during the negative corona flash stage of stepping lightning leaders in intracloud lightning flashes could be responsible for TGFs. Recently, based on analysis of the temporal profiles of 278 TGF events observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor, Foley et al. [JGR, 119, 5931, 2014] have suggested that 67% of TGF pulses detected are asymmetric and these asymmetric pulses are consistent with the production mechanism of TGFs by relativistic feedback discharges. In the present work, we employ a Monte Carlo model to study the temporal distribution of photons at low-orbit satellite altitudes during TGF events. Using the pulse fitting method described in [Foley et al., 2014], we further investigate the characteristics of TGF pulses. We mainly focus on the effects of Compton scattering on the symmetry properties and the rise and fall times of TGF pulses.

  11. Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with the Fermi-Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor: The First Hundred TGFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G J.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Bhat, P. N.

    2010-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory (Fermi) is now detecting 2.1 TGFs per week. At this rate, nearly a hundred TGFs will have been detected by the time of this Meeting. This rate has increased by a factor of 8 since new flight software was uploaded to the spacecraft in November 2009 in order to increase the sensitivity of GBM to TGFs. The high time resolution (2 microseconds) allows temporal features to be resolved so that some insight may be gained on the origin and transport of the gamma-ray photons through the atmosphere. The absolute time of the TGFs, known to several microseconds, also allows accurate correlations of TGFs with lightning networks and other lightning-related phenomena. The thick bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors of the GBM system have observed photon energies from TGFs at energies above 40 MeV. New results on the some temporal aspects of TGFs will be presented.

  12. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with the Fermi-Gamma-ray Burst Monitor: Temporal and Spectral Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, W.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Bhat, P. N.

    2010-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory (Fermi) was detecting 2.1 TGFs per week. This rate has increased by a factor of 8 since new flight software was uploaded to the spacecraft in November 2009 in order to increase the sensitivity of GBM to TGFs. Further upgrades to Fermi-GBM to allow observations of weaker TGFs are in progress. The high time resolution (2 s) allows temporal features to be resolved so that some insight may be gained on the origin and transport of the gamma-ray photons through the atmosphere. The absolute time of the TGFs, known to several microseconds, also allows accurate correlations of TGFs with lightning networks and other lightning-related phenomena. The thick bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors of the GBM system have observed photon energies from TGFs at energies above 40 MeV. New results on the some temporal aspects of TGFs will be presented along with spectral characteristics and properties of several electron-positron TGF events that have been identified.

  13. Integration and Evaluation of a Position Sensor with Continuous Read-Out for use with the Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling Gamma Ray Spectrometer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Selph, M.M.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The EMWD-GRS technology was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration consisted of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation-producing contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled waste retention basin. These boreholes passed near previously sampled locations where concentrations of contaminant levels of cesium had been measured. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling were compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples. The demonstration of the EMWD-GRS was a complete success. The results show general agreement between the soil sampling and EMWD-GRS techniques for CS-137. It was recognized that the EMWD-GRS tool would better satisfy our customers' needs if the instrument location could be continuously monitored. During the demonstration at SRS, an electromagnetic beacon with a walkover monitor (Subsitereg s ign) was used to measure bit location at depth. To use a beacon locator drilling must be stopped, thus it is normally only used when a new section of pipe was added. The location of contamination could only be estimated based on the position of the EMED-GRS package and the distance between locator beacon readings. A continuous location system that would allow us to know the location of each spectrum as it is obtained is needed

  14. On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Remo; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; Chardonnet, Pascal; Cherubini, Christian; Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Fraschetti, Federico; Geralico, Andrea; Guida, Roberto; Patricelli, Barbara; Rotondo, Michael; Hernandez, Jorge Armando Rueda; Vereshchagin, Gregory; Xue, She-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    (Shortened) We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the...

  15. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with the Swift Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Tueller, Jack

    2007-01-01

    There is a great synergy between the Swift and INTEGRAL missions. Swift provides wide-field hard x-ray monitoring and sensitive x-ray and UV/optical observations. INTEGRAL provides optical through gamma-ray coverage with emphasis on hard xray imaging and gamma-ray spectroscopy. For hard x-ray survey studies, the BAT and IBIS instruments are complementary with BAT covering the full sky every day and IBIS scanning the galactic plane. For GRBs, Swift follows up bursts detected by INTEGRAL. X-ray and optical observations give arcsecond positions and afterglow lightcurves. For IGR sources, X-ray observations identify counterparts. The joint BAT and IBIS survey data are giving the most complete picture of the hard x-ray sky ever obtained. This talk will review Swift capabilities and discuss joint observations that are taking place and planned

  16. A study of gamma-ray bursts and a new detector for gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.N.

    1979-09-01

    Three gamma-ray experiments flown on balloons between August 1975 and August 1976 are described in detail. The successful Transatlantic balloon flight enabled a rate of 3 bursts year -1 with energies > 7 x 10 -7 ergs cm -2 to be established. This result is discussed in the light of other work. The choice of γ-ray detector for optimum sensitivity is presented. In addition various techniques for determining the arrival direction of gamma-ray bursts are compared. A new balloon borne γ-ray burst telescope is proposed. The design, testing and results of the beam calibration of a new drift chamber detector system for high energy (> 50 MeV) γ-rays are presented. A projected angular resolution of 0.8 0 was obtained at 300 MeV. Techniques for the measurement of γ-ray energies are discussed in relation to this instrument. Finally the use of drift chambers in an integrated free flying satellite is illustrated, and the expected performance is presented. (author)

  17. LOCALIZATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS USING THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Burgess, J. M. [CSPAR and Physics Department, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Goldstein, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A. [Astrophysics Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Meegan, C. A.; Jenke, P.; Pelassa, V.; Xiong, S.; Bhat, P. N. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Paciesas, W. S. [Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL (United States); Preece, R. D. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Gibby, M. H. [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); Greiner, J.; Yu, H.-F. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gruber, D. [Planetarium Südtirol, Gummer 5, I-39053 Karneid (Italy); Kippen, R. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States); Byrne, D.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S., E-mail: valerie@nasa.gov [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); and others

    2015-02-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected over 1400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) since it began science operations in 2008 July. We use a subset of over 300 GRBs localized by instruments such as Swift, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, INTEGRAL, and MAXI, or through triangulations from the InterPlanetary Network, to analyze the accuracy of GBM GRB localizations. We find that the reported statistical uncertainties on GBM localizations, which can be as small as 1°, underestimate the distance of the GBM positions to the true GRB locations and we attribute this to systematic uncertainties. The distribution of systematic uncertainties is well represented (68% confidence level) by a 3.°7 Gaussian with a non-Gaussian tail that contains about 10% of GBM-detected GRBs and extends to approximately 14°. A more complex model suggests that there is a dependence of the systematic uncertainty on the position of the GRB in spacecraft coordinates, with GRBs in the quadrants on the Y axis better localized than those on the X axis.

  18. Search for Gravitational Waves Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts during the First Advanced LIGO Observing Run and Implications for the Origin of GRB 150906B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Belgin, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dalya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Galiana, A. Fernandez; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kaermer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGrath Hoareau, C.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Castro-Perez, J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Szolgyen, A.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tippens, T.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Aptekar, R. L.; Frederiks, D. D.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Golovin, D. V.; Hurley, K.; Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Rau, A.; Sanin, A. B.; Svinkin, D. S.; von Kienlin, A.; Zhang, X.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of the search for gravitational waves (GWs) associated with gamma-ray bursts detected during the first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). We find no evidence of a GW signal for any of the 41 gamma-ray bursts for which LIGO

  19. Neutron detection gamma ray sensitivity criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Mace, Emily K.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2011-01-01

    The shortage of 3 He has triggered the search for effective alternative neutron detection technologies for national security and safeguards applications. Any new detection technology must satisfy two basic criteria: (1) it must meet a neutron detection efficiency requirement, and (2) it must be insensitive to gamma-ray interference at a prescribed level, while still meeting the neutron detection requirement. It is the purpose of this paper to define measureable gamma ray sensitivity criteria for neutron detectors. Quantitative requirements are specified for: intrinsic gamma ray detection efficiency and gamma ray absolute rejection. The gamma absolute rejection ratio for neutrons (GARRn) is defined, and it is proposed that the requirement for neutron detection be 0.9 3 He based neutron detector is provided showing that this technology can meet the stated requirements. Results from tests of some alternative technologies are also reported.

  20. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies With GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.J.; /NASA, Goddard

    2011-11-23

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  1. Processing of gamma-ray spectrometric logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umiastowski, K.; Dumesnil, P.

    1984-10-01

    CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) has developped a gamma-ray spectrometric tool, containing an analog-to-digital converter. This new tool permits to perform very precise uranium logs (natural gamma-ray spectrometry), neutron activation logs and litho-density logs (gamma-gamma spectrometric logs). Specific processing methods were developped to treate the particular problems of down-hole gamma-ray spectrometry. Extraction of the characteristic gamma-ray peak, even if they are superposed on the background radiation of very high intensity, is possible. This processing methode enables also to obtain geological informations contained in the continuous background of the spectrum. Computer programs are written in high level language for SIRIUS (VICTOR) and APOLLO computers. Exemples of uranium and neutron activation logs treatment are presented [fr

  2. Gamma ray astronomy with COS-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanenburg, B.N.

    1981-01-01

    Observational results in the field of gamma-ray astronomy that have been obtained to date with the COS-B satellite are discussed and questions raised by these observations are summarized. Following a brief review of the instrumental characteristics of COS-B and the extent of COS-B gamma-ray coverage of the sky, particular attention is given to the questions raised by the discovery of many unidentified gamma-ray sources with no apparent optical, X-ray or radio counterparts and the detection of high-energy gamma radiation from the quasar 3C 273, which suggests the role of gamma-ray emission in the creation of other radiation

  3. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuli, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,α), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,#betta#) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide

  4. Gamma ray auto absorption correction evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugiu, Daniela; Roth, Csaba; Ghinescu, Alecse

    2010-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a well established nuclear technique, suited to investigate the microstructural or elemental composition and can be applied to studies of a large variety of samples. The work with large samples involves, beside the development of large irradiation devices with well know neutron field characteristics, the knowledge of perturbing phenomena and adequate evaluation of correction factors like: neutron self shielding, extended source correction, gamma ray auto absorption. The objective of the works presented in this paper is to validate an appropriate methodology for gamma ray auto absorption correction evaluation for large inhomogeneous samples. For this purpose a benchmark experiment has been defined - a simple gamma ray transmission experiment, easy to be reproduced. The gamma ray attenuation in pottery samples has been measured and computed using MCNP5 code. The results show a good agreement between the computed and measured values, proving that the proposed methodology is able to evaluate the correction factors. (authors)

  5. Observations of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, I.B.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Evans, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Observational data on gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Information is grouped into temporal properties, energy fluxes and spectral properties, and directions and distributions of the sources in space. (BJG)

  6. Gamma-rays from decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, G. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. d' Astrophysique; Buchmueller, W.; Covi, L.; Ibarra, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We study the prospects for detecting gamma-rays from decaying Dark Matter (DM), focusing in particular on gravitino DM in R-parity breaking vacua. Given the substantially different angular distribution of the predicted gamma-ray signal with respect to the case of annihilating DM, and the relatively poor (of order 0.1 ) angular resolution of gamma-ray detectors, the best strategy for detection is in this case to look for an exotic contribution to the gamma-ray flux at high galactic latitudes, where the decaying DM contribution would resemble an astrophysical extragalactic component, similar to the one inferred by EGRET observations. Upcoming experiments such as GLAST and AMS-02 may identify this exotic contribution and discriminate it from astrophysical sources, or place significant constraints on the mass and lifetime of DM particles. (orig.)

  7. NRAO Teams With NASA Gamma-Ray Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is teaming with NASA's upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) to allow astronomers to use both the orbiting facility and ground-based radio telescopes to maximize their scientific payoff. Under the new, streamlined process, astronomers can compete for coordinated observing time and support from both GLAST and NRAO's radio telescopes. GLAST satellite Artist's rendering of the GLAST spacecraft in orbit above the Earth. CREDIT: General Dynamics C4 Systems Click on Image for Larger File Images of NRAO Telescopes Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope Very Long Baseline Array Very Large Array Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array GLAST is scheduled for launch no earlier than December 14. It will perform a survey of the entire sky at gamma-ray wavelengths every 3 hours using its primary instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT). NRAO operates the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico, the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), and the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The NRAO is a research facility of the National Science Foundation (NSF). "Coordinated gamma-ray and radio observations of celestial objects will greatly enhance the ability to fully understand those objects. Astronomy today requires such multiwavelength studies, and this agreement paves the way for exciting, cutting-edge research," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. GLAST will be vastly more capable than previous gamma-ray satellites, and will carry an instrument, the GLAST Burst Monitor, specifically designed to detect gamma-ray bursts. GLAST observers will study objects such as active galaxies, pulsars, and supernova remnants, which are also readily studied with radio telescopes. By working together, NASA's GLAST mission and NSF's NRAO facilities can study flares from blazars over the widest possible range of energies, which is crucial to understanding how black holes, notorious for drawing matter in, can

  8. Possible galactic origin of. gamma. -ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchanda, R K; Ramsden, D [Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics

    1977-03-31

    It is stated that extragalactic models for the origin of non-solar ..gamma..-ray bursts include supernova bursts in remote galaxies, and the collapse of the cores of active stars, whilst galactic models are based on flare stars, thermonuclear explosions in neutron stars and the sudden accretion of cometary gas on to neutron stars. The acceptability of any of these models may be tested by the observed size spectrum of the ..gamma..-ray bursts. The extragalactic models predict a power law spectrum with number index -1.5, whilst for the galactic models the number index will be -1. Experimental data on ..gamma..-ray bursts is, however, still meagre, and so far only 44 confirmed events have been recorded by satellite-borne instruments. The number spectrum of the observed ..gamma..-ray bursts indicates that the observed distribution for events with an energy < 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/ is flat; this makes the choice of any model completely arbitrary. An analysis of the observed ..gamma..-ray events is here presented that suggests very interesting possibilities for their origin. There appears to be a preferred mean energy for ..gamma..-ray bursts; some 90% of the recorded events show a mean energy between 5 x 10/sup -5/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/, contrary to the predicted characteristics of the number spectrum of various models. A remarkable similarity is found between the distribution of ..gamma..-ray bursts and that of supernova remnants, suggesting a genetic relationship between the two and the galactic origin of the ..gamma..-ray bursts, and the burst source could be identified with completely run down neutron stars, formed during supernova explosions.

  9. Magic gamma rays, extra-atmospheric source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolufer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Without the atmospheric layer, the cosmos radiation would kill every living, our planet would be like the moon. The cosmic gamma ray to collide with gases in land cover, as it is disintegrated. They are harmless, they form a cone of light that points to the cosmic source comes from. On April 25, 2009 was born on the island of Palma Magic II and Magic I the best observer of atmospheric gamma rays of low intensity. (Author)

  10. Organization of a multichannel analyzer for gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinet, Genevieve

    1988-06-01

    This report describes the software organization of a medium scale multichannel analyzer for qualitative and quantitative measurements of the gamma rays emitted by radioactive samples. The first part reminds basis of radioactivity, principle of gamma ray detection, and data processing used for interpretation of a nuclear spectrum. The second part describes first the general organization of the software and then gives some details on interactivity, multidetector capabilites, and integration of complex algorithms for peak search and nuclide identification;problems encountered during the design phase are mentioned and solutions are given. Basic ideas are presented for further developments, such as expert system which should improve interpretation of the results. This present software has been integrated in a manufactured multichannel analyzer named 'POLYGAM NU416'. [fr

  11. International spring school observing the X-and gamma-ray sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J; Longair, M; Von Ballmoos, P; Daigne, F; Baring, M; Gudel, M; King, A; Dotani, T; Arnaud, M; Gudel, M; Malzac, J; Servillat, M; Soldi, S; Corbel, S; Beckmann, V; Rodriguez, J; Erlund, M; Bodaghee, A; Graham, J; Ruiz, A; Corbel, S; Fabian, A; Tagger, M; Grenier, I; Bernard, R; Jackson, N; Eckart, A; Grenier, I; Belloni, T; Stella, L; Vink, J; KnodLseder, J; Hermsen, W; Ferrando, Ph; Ibragimov, A

    2006-07-01

    This school, dedicated to young researchers, will clarify our present knowledge of the X-ray sky and give the opportunity to learn about the observatories and tools which are available. The contributions have been organized into 3 issues: -) fundamental physics, -) X-ray and Gamma-ray instruments and analysis techniques, and -) astrophysical objects. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  12. International spring school observing the X-and gamma-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.; Longair, M.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Daigne, F.; Baring, M.; Gudel, M.; King, A.; Dotani, T.; Arnaud, M.; Gudel, M.; Malzac, J.; Servillat, M.; Soldi, S.; Corbel, S.; Beckmann, V.; Rodriguez, J.; Erlund, M.; Bodaghee, A.; Graham, J.; Ruiz, A.; Corbel, S.; Fabian, A.; Tagger, M.; Grenier, I.; Bernard, R.; Jackson, N.; Eckart, A.; Grenier, I.; Belloni, T.; Stella, L.; Vink, J.; KnodLseder, J.; Hermsen, W.; Ferrando, Ph.; Ibragimov, A.

    2006-01-01

    This school, dedicated to young researchers, will clarify our present knowledge of the X-ray sky and give the opportunity to learn about the observatories and tools which are available. The contributions have been organized into 3 issues: -) fundamental physics, -) X-ray and Gamma-ray instruments and analysis techniques, and -) astrophysical objects. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  13. Gamma-ray-burst beaming and gravitational-wave observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    Using the observed rate of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) it is possible to make predictions for the detectable rate of compact binary coalescences in gravitational-wave detectors. We show that the nondetection of mergers in the existing LIGO/Virgo data constrains the beaming angles and progenitor masses of gamma-ray bursts, although these limits are fully consistent with existing expectations. We make predictions for the rate of events in future networks of gravitational-wave observatories, finding that the first detection of a neutron-star-neutron-star binary coalescence associated with the progenitors of short GRBs is likely to happen within the first 16 months of observation, even in the case of only two observatories (e.g., LIGO-Hanford and LIGO-Livingston) operating at intermediate sensitivities (e.g., advanced LIGO design sensitivity, but without signal recycling mirrors), and assuming a conservative distribution of beaming angles (e.g., all GRBs beamed within θ(j) = 30°). Less conservative assumptions reduce the waiting time until first detection to a period of weeks to months, with an event detection rate of >/~10/yr. Alternatively, the compact binary coalescence model of short GRBs can be ruled out if a binary is not seen within the first two years of operation of a LIGO-Hanford, LIGO-Livingston, and Virgo network at advanced design sensitivity. We also demonstrate that the gravitational wave detection rate of GRB triggered sources (i.e., those seen first in gamma rays) is lower than the rate of untriggered events (i.e., those seen only in gravitational waves) if θ(j)≲30°, independent of the noise curve, network configuration, and observed GRB rate. The first detection in gravitational waves of a binary GRB progenitor is therefore unlikely to be associated with the observation of a GRB.

  14. Gamma Ray Bursts-Afterglows and Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J

    1998-01-01

    Several breakthrough discoveries were made last year of x-ray, optical and radio afterglows and counterparts to gamma-ray bursts, and a redshift has been associated with at least one of these. These discoveries were made possible by the fast, accurate gamma-ray burst locations of the BeppoSAX satellite. It is now generally believed that the burst sources are at cosmological distances and that they represent the most powerful explosions in the Universe. These observations also open new possibilities for the study of early star formation, the physics of extreme conditions and perhaps even cosmology. This session will concentrate on recent x-ray, optical and radio afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts, associated redshift measurements, and counterpart observations. Several review and theory talks will also be presented, along with a summary of the astrophysical implications of the observations. There will be additional poster contributions on observations of gamma-ray burst source locations at wavelengths other than gamma rays. Posters are also solicited that describe new observational capabilities for rapid follow-up observations of gamma-ray bursts.

  15. Scene data fusion: Real-time standoff volumetric gamma-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnowski, Ross [Department of Nuclear Engineering, UC Berkeley, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States of America (United States); Haefner, Andrew; Mihailescu, Lucian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab - Applied Nuclear Physics, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States of America (United States); Vetter, Kai [Department of Nuclear Engineering, UC Berkeley, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States of America (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab - Applied Nuclear Physics, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States of America (United States)

    2015-11-11

    An approach to gamma-ray imaging has been developed that enables near real-time volumetric (3D) imaging of unknown environments thus improving the utility of gamma-ray imaging for source-search and radiation mapping applications. The approach, herein dubbed scene data fusion (SDF), is based on integrating mobile radiation imagers with real-time tracking and scene reconstruction algorithms to enable a mobile mode of operation and 3D localization of gamma-ray sources. A 3D model of the scene, provided in real-time by a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm, is incorporated into the image reconstruction reducing the reconstruction time and improving imaging performance. The SDF concept is demonstrated in this work with a Microsoft Kinect RGB-D sensor, a real-time SLAM solver, and a cart-based Compton imaging platform comprised of two 3D position-sensitive high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. An iterative algorithm based on Compton kinematics is used to reconstruct the gamma-ray source distribution in all three spatial dimensions. SDF advances the real-world applicability of gamma-ray imaging for many search, mapping, and verification scenarios by improving the tractiblity of the gamma-ray image reconstruction and providing context for the 3D localization of gamma-ray sources within the environment in real-time.

  16. Gamma-ray burst observations with the Compton/Ulysses/Pioneer-Venus network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, T.L.; Hurley, K.C.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Fishman, G.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Wilson, R.B.; Fenimore, E.E.; Laros, J.G.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The third and latest interplanetary network for the precise directional analysis of gamma ray bursts consists of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and instruments on Pioneer-Venus Orbiter and the deep-space mission Ulysses. The unsurpassed resolution of the BATSE instrument, the use of refined analysis techniques, and Ulysses' distance of up to 6 AU all contribute to a potential for greater precision than had been achieved with former networks. Also, the departure of Ulysses from the ecliptic plane in 1992 avoids any positional alignment of the three instruments that would lessen the source directional accuracy

  17. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS)-Simulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a US-led concept for a next-generation instrument in ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The most important design requirement for AGIS is a sensitivity of about 10 times greater than current observatories like Veritas, H.E.S.S or MAGIC. We present results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance, collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity are discussed.

  18. Particle transport simulation for spaceborne, NaI gamma-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, C.S.; Truscott, P.R.; Sims, A.J.; Comber, C.; Hammond, N.D.A.

    1988-11-01

    Radioactivity induced in detectors by protons and secondary neutrons limits the sensitivity of spaceborne gamma-ray spectrometers. Three dimensional Monte Carlo transport codes have been employed to simulate particle transport of cosmic rays and inner-belt protons in various representations of the Gamma Ray Observatory Spacecraft and the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment. Results are used to accurately quantify the contributions to the radioactive background, assess shielding options and examine the effect of detector and space-craft orientation in anisotropic trapped proton fluxes. (author)

  19. Search for Very High-energy Gamma Rays from the Northern Fermi Bubble Region with HAWC

    OpenAIRE

    Abeysekara, AU; Albert, A; Alfaro, R; Alvarez, C; Alvarez, JD; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, JC; Ayala Solares, HA; Barber, AS; Bautista-Elivar, N; Becerril, A; Belmont-Moreno, E; BenZvi, SY; Berley, D; Braun, J

    2017-01-01

    © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present a search for very high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Northern Fermi Bubble region using data collected with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov gamma-ray observatory. The size of the data set is 290 days. No significant excess is observed in the Northern Fermi Bubble region, so upper limits above 1 TeV are calculated. The upper limits are between and . The upper limits disfavor a proton injection spectrum that exten...

  20. SN 1987A gamma-ray line profiles and fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Burrows, A.; The, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    Results for the time dependence of the line profiles and integrated fluxes for the 0.847 and 1.238 MeV gamma rays from the decay of cobalt to excited states of iron are presented for several models of the ejectum of SN 1987A. The relatively early detection of these lines has led several workers to propose that some degree of mixing has brought the cobalt closer to the electron-scattering photosphere than standard models predict. Constraints on the amount of mixing from recent observations are discussed using calculations of the energy-integrated line fluxes as a function of time since the explosion. Implications for the line profiles at various times are considered, and it is found that they show strong time dependences and are quite sensitive to the degree of mixing. The two primary effects are Doppler broadening due to the presence of radioactive material at higher velocities and a strong blueshift at early times resulting from optical depth effects. These results have important implications for gamma-ray observations, especially with high-resolution germanium instruments. Finally, the consequences of the fragmentation of the debris for the early emergence of the gamma-ray lines are considered. 32 refs

  1. Gamma-Ray Lenses for Astrophysics-and the Gamma-Ray Imager Mission GRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunderer, C. B.; Ballmoos, P. V.; Barriere, N.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are acc...

  2. An array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors and a front-end application-specific integrated circuit for large-area position-sensitive gamma-ray cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, A. E., E-mail: bolotnik@bnl.gov; Ackley, K.; Camarda, G. S.; Cherches, C.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G.; Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; Mahler, G.; Maritato, M.; Roy, U.; Salwen, C.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; James, R. B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11793 (United States); Hodges, D. [University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Lee, W. [Korea University, Seoul 136-855 (Korea, Republic of); Petryk, M. [SUNY Binghamton, Vestal, New York 13902 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    We developed a robust and low-cost array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors coupled to a front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays. The array operates as a self-reliant detector module. It is comprised of 36 close-packed 6 × 6 × 15 mm{sup 3} detectors grouped into 3 × 3 sub-arrays of 2 × 2 detectors with the common cathodes. The front-end analog ASIC accommodates up to 36 anode and 9 cathode inputs. Several detector modules can be integrated into a single- or multi-layer unit operating as a Compton or a coded-aperture camera. We present the results from testing two fully assembled modules and readout electronics. The further enhancement of the arrays’ performance and reduction of their cost are possible by using position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, which allow for accurate corrections of the response of material non-uniformities caused by crystal defects.

  3. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  4. Fermi observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 080916C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Burrows, D; Busetto, G; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, A; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Deklotz, M; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, J; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hernando Morat, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knödlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S-H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, S; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Mészáros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, V; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Preece, R; Rainò, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Reyes, L C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgrò, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, J-L; Stecker, F W; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tagliaferri, G; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-03-27

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  5. The future of high energy gamma ray astronomy and its potential astrophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Future satellites should carry instruments having over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far as well as improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance knowledge of: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies; and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The relevant aspects of extragalactic gamma ray phenomena are emphasized along with the instruments planned. The high energy gamma ray results of forthcoming programs such as GAMMA-1 and the Gamma Ray Observatory should justify even more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the space station currently being considered by NASA.

  6. Fermi Observations of high-energy gamma-ray emissions from GRB 080916C

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, Guido; Baring, Matthew G; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, Elliott D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, Thompson H; Burrows, David N; Busetto, Giovanni; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, Annalisa; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C.C.Teddy; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Cominsky, Lynn R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; DeKlotz, M; Dermer, C D; De Angelis, Alessandro; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto e Silva, Eduardo; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, Justin D; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, Thomas Lynn; Godfrey, Gary L; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M H; Grove, J.Eric; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, Alice K; Hayashida, M; Hays, Elizabeth A; Hernando Morata, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knodlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, Frederick Gabriel Ivar; Kuss, Michael; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, Pasquale; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, Sheila; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Miszaros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, Igor Vladimirovich; Murgia, Simona; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okumura, Akira; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, Vahe; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, Troy A; Preece, R; Rainr, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, Soebur; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, Thierry; Reyes, Luis C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Parkinson, P.M.Saz; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgro, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, Jean-Luc; Stecker, Floyd William; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, Daniel J; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, Diego F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  7. Prompt Gamma Ray Spectroscopy for process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoller, W.H.; Holmes, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Spectroscopy (PGRS) is a very powerful analytical technique able to measure many metallic, contamination problem elements. The technique involves measurement of gamma rays that are emitted by nuclei upon capturing a neutron. This method is sensitive not only to the target element but also to the particular isotope of that element. PGRS is capable of measuring dissolved metal ions in a flowing system. In the field, isotopic neutron sources are used to produce the desired neutron flux ( 252 Cf can produce neutron flux of the order of 10 8 neutrons/cm 2 --sec.). Due to high penetrating power of gamma radiation, high efficiency gamma ray detectors can be placed in an appropriate geometry to maximize sensitivity, providing real-time monitoring with low detection level capabilities

  8. Librarian driven analysis of gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashov, V.; Petersone, I.

    2002-01-01

    For a set of a priori given radionuclides extracted from a general nuclide data library, the authors use median estimates of the gamma-peak areas and estimates of their errors to produce a list of possible radionuclides matching gamma ray line(s). The identification of a given radionuclide is obtained by searching for a match with the energy information of a database. This procedure is performed in an interactive graphic mode by markers that superimpose, on the spectral data, the energy information and yields provided by a general gamma ray data library. This library of experimental data includes approximately 17,000 gamma ray energy lines related to 756 known gamma emitter radionuclides listed by the ICRP. (author)

  9. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Current interest in gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 100 GeV comes from the identification of Cygnus X-3 and other X-ray binaries as sources. In addition there are reports of emission from radio pulsars and a variety of other objects. The statistical significance of many of the observations is not high and many reported effects await confirmation, but there are a sufficient number of independent reports that very high energy gamma-ray astronomy must now be considered to have an observational basis. The observations are summarized with particular emphasis on those reported since 1980. The techniques used - the detection of small air showers using the secondary photons and particles at ground level - are unusual and are described. Future prospects for the field are discussed in relation to new ground-based experiments, satellite gamma-ray studies and proposed neutrino astronomy experiments. (orig.) With 296 refs

  10. Evaluation of gamma-ray intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Inoue, Hikaru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Yosei.

    1980-04-01

    Relative intensities and intensities per decay of gamma rays were evaluated for 16 nuclides, 22 Na, 24 Na, 46 Sc, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 95 Nb, sup(108m)Ag, 134 Cs, 133 Ba, 139 Ce, sup(180m)Hf, 198 Au, 203 Hg and 207 Bi. For most of these nuclides disintegration rates can be determined by means of β-γ or X-γ coincidence method. Since decay schemes of these nuclides are established, intensities per decay of strong gamma rays were accurately evaluated by using weak beta-ray branching ratios, relative gamma-ray intensities and internal conversion coefficients. Half-lives of the nuclides were also evaluated. Use of the nuclides, therefore, are recommended for precision intensity calibration of the detectors. (author)

  11. The beginning of gamma-ray astronomy with Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paneque, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Fermi observatory is designed to perform gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range 20 MeV to 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 10 keV to 30 MeV. Fermi was successfully launched on June 11 (2008) from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral. The main instrument of Fermi is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), which provides break-through high-energy measurements using techniques typically used in particle detectors for collider experiments. The LAT consists of 16 identical towers in a four-by-four grid, each one containing a pair conversion tracker and a hodoscopic crystal calorimeter, all covered by a segmented plastic scintillator anti-coincidence shield. The LAT is currently monitoring the GeV gamma-ray sky with rather uniform exposure (covering 20% of the sky at any instant and the entire sky on a timescale of a few hours) and a sensitivity ∼ 30 times better than its predecessor, EGRET. The large performance improvement of LAT opens a new and important window on a wide variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena, as well as potential to discover/study non-conventional physics. In the talk I will report the instrument performance, the mission status and science opportunities and will present some results derived from the first months of operation, which includes astronomical telegrams on AGN flares, 2 GCN circulars on LAT-detected GRBs and the monitoring of some selected sources (22 blazars and 1 high mass X-ray Binary). (author)

  12. The high energy astronomy observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, A. K.; Doolittle, R. F.; Halpers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The forthcoming NASA project of orbiting High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO's) designed to probe the universe by tracing celestial radiations and particles is outlined. Solutions to engineering problems concerning HEAO's which are integrated, yet built to function independently are discussed, including the onboard digital processor, mirror assembly and the thermal shield. The principle of maximal efficiency with minimal cost and the potential capability of the project to provide explanations to black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts are also stressed. The first satellite is scheduled for launch in April 1977.

  13. gamma. -ray. Present status and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okudaira, K [Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1975-01-01

    As ..gamma..-ray advances straightly through space, the study on cosmic ..gamma..-ray will give the information concerning the origin directly. However, the intensity is weak, and the avoidance of background is a serious problem. The wide-spread components were studied by OSO-3. The intensity of the galactic disc component around 100 MeV was reported as (3.4+-1.0)x10/sup -5/ photons (cm/sup 2/, radian, sec)/sup -1/ by OSO-3 and 0.2x10/sup -4/ photons (cm/sup 2/, radian sec)/sup -1/ by SAS-2, and corresponds to the calculated ..gamma.. yield from ..pi../sup 0/. The strong disc component, so-called galactic center region, has been observed, and is due to the mixture of ..gamma..-ray from ..pi../sup 0/ and inverse Compton ..gamma..-ray. A peak at 476+-24 KeV was found as well as the continuous component. Special care must be taken for the observation of isotropic component, since it is hardly distinguished from the background. It is considered that the isotropic component is due to the inverse Compton scattering of 3/sup 0/K radiation in super-galactic space and the contribution from outer galaxy. The nearest point source of ..gamma..-ray is the sun. Among the other point sources, the crab nebula is the most reliable one. The energy flux of pulse component showed the spectrum of E/sup -1/. ..gamma..-ray bursts were observed by man-made satellites Vela-5 and 6. Theoretical explanation is still incomplete regarding the bursts. (Kato, T.).

  14. Gamma-ray standards for detector calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1985-10-01

    The proceeedings are reported of a Consultants' Meeting on Gamma-ray Standards for Detector Calibration, held at the CEN, Grenoble in France, from 30-31 May 1985. The meeting provided a forum to assess the requirements for a suitable file to be used internationally for the calibration of X- and gamma-ray detectors. A provisional list of nuclides was drawn up, and an initial assessment of the status of the required data was agreed to be performed by the participants before the end of 1985. (author)

  15. Gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, William R; Policke, Timothy A

    2017-05-16

    The present invention relates generally to the field of gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring and a system for accomplishing same to monitor one or more aspects of various isotope production processes. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a monitoring system, and method of utilizing same, for monitoring one or more aspects of an isotope production process where the monitoring system comprises: (A) at least one sample cell; (B) at least one measuring port; (C) at least one adjustable collimator device; (D) at least one shutter; and (E) at least one high resolution gamma ray spectrometer.

  16. Gamma ray energy tracking in GRETINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I. Y.

    2011-10-01

    The next generation of stable and exotic beam accelerators will provide physics opportunities to study nuclei farther away from the line of stability. However, these experiments will be more demanding on instrumentation performance. These come from the lower production rate for more exotic beams, worse beam impurities, and large beam velocity from the fragmentation and inverse reactions. Gamma-ray spectroscopy will be one of the most effective tools to study exotic nuclei. However, to fully exploit the physics reach provided by these new facilities, better gamma-ray detector will be needed. In the last 10 years, a new concept, gamma-ray energy tracking array, was developed. Tracking arrays will increase the detection sensitivity by factors of several hundred compared to current arrays used in nuclear physics research. Particularly, the capability of reconstructing the position of the interaction with millimeters resolution is needed to correct the Doppler broadening of gamma rays emitted from high velocity nuclei. GRETINA is a gamma-ray tracking array which uses 28 Ge crystals, each with 36 segments, to cover ¼ of the 4 π of the 4 π solid angle. The gamma ray tracking technique requires detailed pulse shape information from each of the segments. These pulses are digitized using 14-bit 100 MHz flash ADCs, and digital signal analysis algorithms implemented in the on-board FPGAs provides energy, time and selection of pulse traces. A digital trigger system, provided flexible trigger functions including a fast trigger output, and also allows complicated trigger decisions to be made up to 20 microseconds. Further analyzed, carried out in a computer cluster, determine the energy, time, and three-dimensional positions of all gamma-ray interactions in the array. This information is then utilized, together with the characteristics of Compton scattering and pair-production processes, to track the scattering sequences of the gamma rays. GRETINA construction is completed in

  17. VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-01-22

    Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

  18. Gamma-ray lasers or grasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.V.H.; George, E.P.; Hora, H.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the emission and direction of gamma rays from excited nuclei contained in a sample source of suitable geometry having its major axis parallel to the proposed direction of gamma ray emission, comprising subjecting said sample source to thermal or dynamic polarization at temperatures approaching absolute zero in the presence of a strong magnetic field, and when a pulse of coherent gamma radiation is required along said major axis rotating the active nuclei through 90 0 by employing a short pulse of radio frequency oscillations in an auxilliary coil around the sample source

  19. Nuclear Forensics using Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of George Dracoulis’s research career was devoted to utilising gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the last several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  20. Gamma-ray surveys in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report is intended to provide newcomers to uranium exploration with an up-to-date statement of the principal factors to be considered in planning and using gamma-ray surveys. Since the report incorporates the results of recent research, and since its preparation was influenced by the cumulative experience of its contributors, it should also be useful to those who already have some knowledge of radioactivity surveys and methods. The intention is that the information and explanations given in the report will make it possible for gamma-ray surveys to be used in the most efficient way for a given exploration task

  1. Detection Techniques of Microsecond Gamma-Ray Bursts Using Ground-based Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krennrich, F.; Le Bohec, S.; Weekes, T. C.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray observations above 200 MeV are conventionally made by satellite-based detectors. The EGRET detector on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory has provided good sensitivity for the detection of bursts lasting for more than 200 ms. Theoretical predictions of high-energy gamma-ray bursts produced by quantum mechanical decay of primordial black holes (Hawking) suggest the emission of bursts on shorter timescales. The final stage of a primordial black hole results in a burst of gamma rays, peaking around 250 MeV and lasting for 1/10 of a microsecond or longer depending on particle physics. In this work we show that there is an observational window using ground-based imaging Cerenkov detectors to measure gamma-ray burst emission at energies E>200 MeV. This technique, with a sensitivity for bursts lasting nanoseconds to several microseconds, is based on the detection of multiphoton-initiated air showers. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society

  2. Open high-level data formats and software for gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deil, Christoph; Boisson, Catherine; Kosack, Karl; Perkins, Jeremy; King, Johannes; Eger, Peter; Mayer, Michael; Wood, Matthew; Zabalza, Victor; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Hassan, Tarek; Mohrmann, Lars; Ziegler, Alexander; Khelifi, Bruno; Dorner, Daniela; Maier, Gernot; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Rosado, Jaime; Contreras, José Luis; Lefaucheur, Julien; Brügge, Kai; Servillat, Mathieu; Terrier, Régis; Walter, Roland; Lombardi, Saverio

    2017-01-01

    In gamma-ray astronomy, a variety of data formats and proprietary software have been traditionally used, often developed for one specific mission or experiment. Especially for ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs), data and software are mostly private to the collaborations operating the telescopes. However, there is a general movement in science towards the use of open data and software. In addition, the next-generation IACT instrument, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), will be operated as an open observatory. We have created a Github organisation at https://github.com/open-gamma-ray-astro where we are developing high-level data format specifications. A public mailing list was set up at https://lists.nasa.gov/mailman/listinfo/open-gamma-ray-astro and a first face-to-face meeting on the IACT high-level data model and formats took place in April 2016 in Meudon (France). This open multi-mission effort will help to accelerate the development of open data formats and open-source software for gamma-ray astronomy, leading to synergies in the development of analysis codes and eventually better scientific results (reproducible, multi-mission). This write-up presents this effort for the first time, explaining the motivation and context, the available resources and process we use, as well as the status and planned next steps for the data format specifications. We hope that it will stimulate feedback and future contributions from the gamma-ray astronomy community.

  3. ICIT contribution to JET gamma-ray diagnostics enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soare, S.; Curuia, M.; Zoita, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma-ray emission of tokamak plasmas is the result of the interaction of fast ions (fusion reaction products, including alpha particles, NBI ions, ICRH-accelerated ions) with main plasma impurities (e.g., carbon, beryllium). Gamma-ray diagnostics involve both gamma-ray imaging (cameras) and gamma-ray spectrometry (spectrometers). For the JET tokamak, gamma-ray diagnostics have been used to provide information on the characteristics of the fast ion population in plasmas. Two gamma-ray diagnostics enhancements project have been launched by JET and the MEdC/EURATOM Association has agreed to lead both of them with ICIT as projects leader. (authors)

  4. Found: A Galaxy's Missing Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Recent reanalysis of data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has resulted in the first detection of high-energy gamma rays emitted from a nearby galaxy. This discovery reveals more about how supernovae interact with their environments.Colliding Supernova RemnantAfter a stellar explosion, the supernovas ejecta expand, eventually encountering the ambient interstellar medium. According to models, this generates a strong shock, and a fraction of the kinetic energy of the ejecta is transferred into cosmic rays high-energy radiation composed primarily of protons and atomic nuclei. Much is still unknown about this process, however. One open question is: what fraction of the supernovas explosion power goes into accelerating these cosmic rays?In theory, one way to answer this is by looking for gamma rays. In a starburst galaxy, the collision of the supernova-accelerated cosmic rays with the dense interstellar medium is predicted to produce high-energy gamma rays. That radiation should then escape the galaxy and be visible to us.Pass 8 to the RescueObservational tests of this model, however, have beenstumped by Arp 220. This nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy is the product of a galaxy merger ~700 million years ago that fueled a frenzy of starbirth. Due to its dusty interior and extreme levels of star formation, Arp 220 has long been predicted to emit the gamma rays produced by supernova-accelerated cosmic rays. But though weve looked, gamma-ray emission has never been detected from this galaxy until now.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Fang-Kun Peng (Nanjing University) reprocessed 7.5 years of Fermi observations using the new Pass 8 analysis software. The resulting increase in resolution revealed the first detection of GeV emission from Arp 220!Acceleration EfficiencyGamma-ray luminosity vs. total infrared luminosity for LAT-detected star-forming galaxies and Seyferts. Arp 220s luminosities are consistent with the scaling relation. [Peng et al. 2016

  5. Some aspects of ultra high energy gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, O.C.

    1983-11-01

    A short review of ultra high energy (UHE) gamma ray astronomy (10 11 14 eV) as well as a description of a planned experiment to be erected at Potchefstroom is given in the introduction. This experiment will be the first and only one in the Southern Hemisphere and as such may play an important role in this new field of astronomy and astrophysics. In the first part the necessary infrastructure for astronomical observations of known celestial objects is developed. This embodies the special physical, mechanical and astronomical constraints in this type of astronomy, such as the definition of the various astronomical coordinate systems and transformations between them, the effect of precession and nutation on the source position etc. This leads to automatic observation schedules for the various applicable techniques of observation. In the second part the various effects which may influence the arrival time of a gamma ray at the telescope is investigated. It is found that dispersion and relativistic effects are negligible, given the special type of analysis used in this low counting rate system. The classic Doppler effect due to the motion of Earth as well as the configuration of the telescope does have a major effect and must be taken into consideration when analysing the data. A simple method, depending only on the movement of Earth around the sun, is developed to simplify the identification of pulsars at the planned observatory where computing facilities are limited

  6. SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL MODELING OF THE GAMMA-RAY DISTRIBUTION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foreman, Gary; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert; Fields, Brian; Ricker, Paul [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hughes, Annie, E-mail: gforema2@illinois.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    We perform spatial and spectral analyses of the LMC gamma-ray emission collected over 66 months by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In our spatial analysis, we model the LMC cosmic-ray distribution and gamma-ray production using observed maps of the LMC interstellar medium, star formation history, interstellar radiation field, and synchrotron emission. We use bootstrapping of the data to quantify the robustness of spatial model performance. We model the LMC gamma-ray spectrum using fitting functions derived from the physics of π{sup 0} decay, Bremsstrahlung, and inverse Compton scattering. We find the integrated gamma-ray flux of the LMC from 200 MeV to 20 GeV to be 1.37 ± 0.02 × 10{sup −7} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, of which we attribute about 6% to inverse Compton scattering and 44% to Bremsstrahlung. From our work, we conclude that the spectral index of the LMC cosmic-ray proton population is 2.4 ± 0.2, and we find that cosmic-ray energy loss through gamma-ray production is concentrated within a few 100 pc of acceleration sites. Assuming cosmic-ray energy equipartition with magnetic fields, we estimate LMC cosmic rays encounter an average magnetic field strength ∼3 μG.

  7. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed

  8. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  9. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  10. Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Janiuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.

  11. Gamma-ray bursts at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are much brighter than supernovae, and could therefore possibly probe the Universe to high redshift. The presently established GRB redshifts range from 0.83 to 5, and quite possibly even beyond that. Since most proposed mechanisms for GRB link them closely to deaths of massive

  12. Coakial gamma ray detector and method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harchol, M.

    1977-01-01

    A coaxial gamma ray detector is fabricated using intrinsic Ge semiconductor material in a geometry whereby full depletion of electrical carriers is prevented within a small region proximate the point of electrical contact thereby allowing greater biasing potentials across the detector and, consequently, providing reduced electronic noise and increased energy resolution

  13. Effects of Shielding on Gamma Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-13

    The interaction of gamma rays with matter results in an effect we call attenuation (i.e. ‘shielding’). Attenuation can dramatically alter the appearance of a spectrum. Attenuating materials may actually create features in a spectrum via x-ray fluorescence

  14. Developments in mercuric iodide gamma ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, B E; Beyerle, A G; Dolin, R C; Ortale, C [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA). Santa Barbara Operations

    1989-11-01

    A mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) gamma ray imaging array and camera system previously described have been characterized for spatial and energy resolution. Based on these data a new camera is being developed to more fully exploit the potential of the array. Characterization results and design criteria for the new camera will be presented. (orig.).

  15. Current segmented gamma-ray scanner technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjork, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A new generation of segmented gamma-ray scanners has been developed at Los Alamos for scrap and waste measurements at the Savannah River Plant and the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The new designs are highly automated and exhibit special features such as good segmentation and thorough shielding to improve performance

  16. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  17. Gamma-ray astronomy: A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    This is a brief review of the course theoretical gamma-ray astronomy has taken over the past thirty years. An examination is given of what the theoretical expectations were; to what extent they were realized; how well they anticipated new directions of research; and alternatively, how often were new directions unexpected

  18. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-Hin T. Tam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs. Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  19. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics: Progress report, May 1, 1987-February 1, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.G.; Lewis, D.A.

    1988-02-01

    The Whipple observatory Gamma Ray Collaboration has continued to make steady progress in its development of a highly sensitive stereoscopic imaging gamma-ray telescope (known as the HERCULES project). The milestones in this year's development include: the demonstration of the success of the imaging concept with a single camera by the detection of a very weak flux of gamma rays from the Crab Nebula at a high level of statistical significance (7 sigma), the confirmation of our detection of an anomalous pulsed flux from Hercules X-1 in the summer of 1986 by two other groups; this result has serious implications for the mechanism for gamma-ray emission in this binary source. The construction and installation of the new high resolution camera on the 10 m reflector; the realistic simulation of the sensitivity of this camera as well as that of the full HERCULES system was also undertaken. These, and other highlights of this year's program at the Iowa State University and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, are discussed in this paper. 6 figs

  20. Determination of the Integral/SPI instrumental response and his application to the observation of gamma ray lines in the Vela region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attie, D.

    2005-01-01

    The INTEGRAL/SPI spectrometer was designed to observe the sky in the energy band of 20 keV to 8 MeV. The specificity of instrument SPI rests on the excellent spectral resolution (2.3 keV with 1 MeV) of its detecting plan, composed of 19 cooled germanium crystals; covering an effective area of 508 cm 2 . The use of a coded mask, located at 1.7 m above the detection plan ensures to it a resolving power of 2.5 degrees. The aim of this thesis, begun before the INTEGRAL launch, is made up of two parts. The first part relates to the analysis of the spectrometer calibration data. The objective was to measure and check the performances of the telescope, in particular to validate simulations of the INTEGRAL/SPI instrument response. This objective was successfully achieved. This analysis also highlights the presence of a significant instrumental background noise. Whereas, the second part concentrates on the data analysis of the Vela region observations. I have approached two astrophysical topics dealing with: - the search for radioactive decays lines of titanium-44, which is produced by explosive nucleosynthesis, in the supernova remnant of Vela Junior and, - the search of cyclotron resonance scattering features expected towards 25 keV and 52 keV in the accreting pulsar spectrum of the x-ray binary star Vela X-1. Putting forward the hypothesis that the result obtained previously by COMPTEL is correct and considering the no-detection of the titanium-44 lines by SPI, we give a lower limit at 4500 km s -1 for the ejecta velocity from Vela Junior. The analysis on the research of the cyclotron lines have shown that the results are very sensitive to the instrumental background. Thorough studies will be necessary to guarantee an unambiguous detection of these lines. (author)

  1. Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2015-07-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.

  2. Matrix of response functions for xenon gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shustov, A.E.; Vlasik, K.F.; Grachev, V.M.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Novikov, A.S.; P'ya, S.N.; Ulin, S.E.; Uteshev, Z.M.; Chernysheva, I.V.

    2014-01-01

    An approach of creation of response matrix using simulation GEANT4 gamma-ray Monte-Carlo method has been described for gamma-ray spectrometer based on high pressure xenon impulse ionization chamber with a shielding grid [ru

  3. Cosmic gamma-ray background radiation. Current understandings and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The cosmic gamma-ray background radiation is one of the most fundamental observables in the gamma-ray band. Although the origin of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation has been a mystery for a long time, the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has recently measured it at 0.1-820 GeV and revealed that the cosmic GeV gamma-ray background is composed of blazars, radio galaxies, and star-forming galaxies. However, Fermi still leaves the following questions. Those are dark matter contribution, origins of the cosmic MeV gamma-ray background, and the connection to the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino events. In this proceeding, I will review the current understandings of the cosmic gamma-ray background and discuss future prospects of cosmic gamma-ray background radiation studies. (author)

  4. Gamma Ray Bursts as Cosmological Probes with EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dieter; EXIST Team

    2006-12-01

    The EXIST mission, studied as a Black Hole Finder Probe within NASA's Beyond Einstein Program, would, in its current design, trigger on 1000 Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) per year (Grindlay et al, this meeting). The redshift distribution of these GRBs, using results from Swift as a guide, would probe the z > 7 epoch at an event rate of > 50 per year. These bursts trace early cosmic star formation history, point to a first generation of stellar objects that reionize the universe, and provide bright beacons for absorption line studies with groundand space-based observatories. We discuss how EXIST, in conjunction with other space missions and future large survey programs such as LSST, can be utilized to advance our understanding of cosmic chemical evolution, the structure and evolution of the baryonic cosmic web, and the formation of stars in low metallicity environments.

  5. Taurus Hill Observatory Scientific Observations for Pulkova Observatory during the 2016-2017 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentunen, V.-P.; Haukka, H.; Heikkinen, E.; Salmi, T.; Juutilainen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused on exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring. We also do long term monitoring projects.

  6. Applications of Monte Carlo simulations of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    A short, convenient computer program based on the Monte Carlo method that was developed to generate simulated gamma-ray spectra has been found to have useful applications in research and teaching. In research, we use it to predict spectra in neutron activation analysis (NAA), particularly in prompt gamma-ray NAA (PGNAA). In teaching, it is used to illustrate the dependence of detector response functions on the nature of gamma-ray interactions, the incident gamma-ray energy, and detector geometry

  7. Interstellar medium structure and content and gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, F.

    1982-05-01

    A general description of gamma-ray astronomy is presented with special emphasis on the study of diffuse gamma-ray emission. This is followed by a collection of reflections and observations on the structure and the gas and dust content of the local interstellar medium. Results of gamma-ray observations on the local interstellar medium are given. The last part is devoted to the whole of the galactic gamma-ray emission and its interpretation [fr

  8. Gamma-ray burst observations: the present situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedrenne, G.

    1984-01-01

    Recent results in gamma ray burst investigations concerning the spectral variability on a short time scale, precise locations, and the discovery of optical flashes in gamma ray burst positions on archival plates are presented. The implications of optical and X-ray observations of gamma ray burst error boxes are also discussed. 72 references

  9. Natural background gamma-ray spectrum. List of gamma-rays ordered in energy from natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimiya, Tsutomu [Japan Radioisotope Association, Tokyo (Japan); Narita, Tsutomu; Kitao, Kensuke

    1998-03-01

    A quick index to {gamma}-rays and X-rays from natural radionuclides is presented. In the list, {gamma}-rays are arranged in order of increasing energy. The list also contains {gamma}-rays from radioactive nuclides produced in a germanium detector and its surrounding materials by interaction with cosmic neutrons, as well as direct {gamma}-rays from interaction with the neutrons. Artificial radioactive nuclides emitting {gamma}-rays with same or near energy value as that of the natural {gamma}-rays and X-rays are also listed. In appendix, {gamma}-ray spectra from a rock, uranium ore, thorium, monazite and uraninite and also background spectra obtained with germanium detectors placed in iron or lead shield have been given. The list is designed for use in {gamma}-ray spectroscopy under the conditions of highly natural background, such as in-situ environmental radiation monitoring or low-level activity measurements, with a germanium detector. (author)

  10. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Clearest-Ever Evidence from VLT Spectra of Powerful Event Summary A very bright burst of gamma-rays was observed on March 29, 2003 by NASA's High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE-II) , in a sky region within the constellation Leo. Within 90 min, a new, very bright light source (the "optical afterglow") was detected in the same direction by means of a 40-inch telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory (Australia) and also in Japan. The gamma-ray burst was designated GRB 030329 , according to the date. And within 24 hours, a first, very detailed spectrum of this new object was obtained by the UVES high-dispersion spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It allowed to determine the distance as about 2,650 million light-years (redshift 0.1685). Continued observations with the FORS1 and FORS2 multi-mode instruments on the VLT during the following month allowed an international team of astronomers [1] to document in unprecedented detail the changes in the spectrum of the optical afterglow of this gamma-ray burst . Their detailed report appears in the June 19 issue of the research journal "Nature". The spectra show the gradual and clear emergence of a supernova spectrum of the most energetic class known, a "hypernova" . This is caused by the explosion of a very heavy star - presumably over 25 times heavier than the Sun. The measured expansion velocity (in excess of 30,000 km/sec) and the total energy released were exceptionally high, even within the elect hypernova class. From a comparison with more nearby hypernovae, the astronomers are able to fix with good accuracy the moment of the stellar explosion. It turns out to be within an interval of plus/minus two days of the gamma-ray burst. This unique conclusion provides compelling evidence that the two events are directly connected. These observations therefore indicate a common physical process behind the hypernova explosion and the associated emission of strong gamma-ray

  11. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From PSR J2021 3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, Marco; Atwood, William B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, Milan; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Berenji, Bijan; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bogaert, G.; Borgland, Anders W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, Thompson H.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the young, spin-powered radio pulsar PSR J2021+3651 using data acquired with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The light curve consists of two narrow peaks of similar amplitude separated by 0.468 ± 0.002 in phase. The first peak lags the maximum of the 2 GHz radio pulse by 0.162 ± 0.004 ± 0.01 in phase. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 100 MeV is (56 ± 3 ± 11) x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 . The photon spectrum is well-described by an exponentially cut-off power law of the form dF/dE = kE -# Gamma#e (-E/E c ) where the energy E is expressed in GeV. The photon index is Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 ± 0.1 and the exponential cut-off is E c = 2.4 ± 0.3 ± 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral photon flux of the bridge is approximately 10% of the pulsed emission, and the upper limit on off-pulse gamma-ray emission from a putative pulsar wind nebula is -2 but a poorly constrained magnetic geometry. Re-analysis of Chandra data enhanced the significance of the weak X-ray pulsations, and the first peak is roughly phase-aligned with the first gamma-ray peak. We discuss the emission region and beaming geometry based on the shape and spectrum of the gamma-ray light curve combined with radio and X-ray measurements, and the implications for the pulsar distance. Gamma-ray emission from the polar cap region seems unlikely for this pulsar.

  12. CHANDRA, KECK, AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB NEBULA DURING THE 2011-APRIL GAMMA-RAY FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tennant, Allyn F.; O' Dell, Stephen L. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Office (ZP12), Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Arons, Jonathan [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Blandford, Roger; Funk, Stefan; Romani, Roger W. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Buehler, Rolf [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Caraveo, Patrizia; De Luca, Andrea [INAF-IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cheung, Chi C. [National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Costa, Enrico [INFN Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Ferrigno, Carlo [ISDC, Data Center for Astrophysics of the University of Geneva, chemin d' cogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Habermehl, Moritz; Horns, Dieter [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Linford, Justin D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Lobanov, Andrei [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Max, Claire [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mignani, Roberto [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-03-01

    We present results from our analysis of Chandra X-Ray Observatory, W. M. Keck Observatory, and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) images of the Crab Nebula that were contemporaneous with the {gamma}-ray flare of 2011 April. Despite hints in the X-ray data, we find no evidence for statistically significant variations that pinpoint the specific location of the flares within the Nebula. The Keck observations extend this conclusion to the 'inner knot', i.e., the feature within an arcsecond of the pulsar. The VLA observations support this conclusion. We also discuss theoretical implications of the {gamma}-ray flares and suggest that the most dramatic {gamma}-ray flares are due to radiation-reaction-limited synchrotron emission associated with sudden, dissipative changes in the current system sustained by the central pulsar.

  13. Europe's space camera unmasks a cosmic gamma-ray machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The new-found neutron star is the visible counterpart of a pulsating radio source, Pulsar 1055-52. It is a mere 20 kilometres wide. Although the neutron star is very hot, at about a million degrees C, very little of its radiant energy takes the form of visible light. It emits mainly gamma-rays, an extremely energetic form of radiation. By examining it at visible wavelengths, astronomers hope to figure out why Pulsar 1055-52 is the most efficient generator of gamma-rays known so far, anywhere the Universe. The Faint Object Camera found Pulsar 1055-52 in near ultraviolet light at 3400 angstroms, a little shorter in wavelength than the violet light at the extremity of the human visual range. Roberto Mignani, Patrizia Caraveo and Giovanni Bignami of the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica in Milan, Italy, report its optical identification in a forthcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters (1 January 1997). The formal name of the object is PSR 1055-52. Evading the glare of an adjacent star The Italian team had tried since 1988 to spot Pulsar 1055-52 with two of the most powerful ground-based optical telescopes in the Southern Hemisphere. These were the 3.6-metre Telescope and the 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope of the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile. Unfortunately an ordinary star 100,000 times brighter lay in almost the same direction in the sky, separated from the neutron star by only a thousandth of a degree. The Earth's atmosphere defocused the star's light sufficiently to mask the glimmer from Pulsar 1055-52. The astronomers therefore needed an instrument in space. The Faint Object Camera offered the best precision and sensitivity to continue the hunt. Devised by European astronomers to complement the American wide field camera in the Hubble Space Telescope, the Faint Object Camera has a relatively narrow field of view. It intensifies the image of a faint object by repeatedly accelerating electrons from photo-electric films, so as to produce

  14. SB3. Experiment on secondary gamma-ray production cross sections averaged over a fast-neutron spectrum for each of 13 different elements plus a stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental and calculational details for a CSEWG integral data testing shielding experiment are presented. This particular experiment measured the secondary gamma-ray production cross sections averaged over a fast-neutron spectrum for iron, oxygen, sodium, aluminum, copper, titanium, calcium, potassium, silicon, nickel, zinc, barium, sulfur, and a type 321 stainless steel. The gamma-ray production cross sections were binned into 0.5-MeV wide gamma-ray energy intervals. 29 tables, 1 figure

  15. Relativistic effects in gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, Erik; Groen, Oeyvind

    1999-01-01

    According to recent models of the sources of gamma-ray bursts the extremely energetic emission is caused by shells expanding with ultrarelativistic velocity. With the recent identification of optical sources at the positions of some gamma-ray bursts these ''fireball'' models have acquired an actuality that invites to use them as a motivating application when teaching special relativity. We demonstrate several relativistic effects associated with these models which are very pronounced due to the great velocity of the shell. For example a burst lasting for a month in the rest frame of an element of the shell lasts for a few seconds only, in the rest frame of our detector. It is shown how the observed properties of a burst are modified by aberration and the Doppler effect. The apparent luminosity as a function of time is calculated. Modifications due to the motion of the star away from the observer are calculated. (Author)

  16. Fissile interrogation using gamma rays from oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald; Micklich, Bradley J.; Fessler, Andreas

    2004-04-20

    The subject apparatus provides a means to identify the presence of fissionable material or other nuclear material contained within an item to be tested. The system employs a portable accelerator to accelerate and direct protons to a fluorine-compound target. The interaction of the protons with the fluorine-compound target produces gamma rays which are directed at the item to be tested. If the item to be tested contains either a fissionable material or other nuclear material the interaction of the gamma rays with the material contained within the test item with result in the production of neutrons. A system of neutron detectors is positioned to intercept any neutrons generated by the test item. The results from the neutron detectors are analyzed to determine the presence of a fissionable material or other nuclear material.

  17. Environmental Effects of Gamma Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Osmel; Zarauza, Dario; Cardenas, Rolando

    2007-01-01

    Gamma rays bursts, coming from very massive stars, are the most powerful explosions in our Universe. Some authors have linked them to some of the climatic changes and consequent biological mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic eon. However, the consequences of their direct impact on primitive Earth, is today a hot topic of debate. On the other hand, it is usually assumed that they were more common in earlier stages of our galaxy. So it is important to evaluate its potential effects on terrestrial paleoenvironments. We outline some simple models to estimate their influence mainly on the primordial atmospheric chemistry of Earth and on the climate in general. To do that, we consider different scenarios where the atmospheric composition diverges substantially from the atmosphere today, and compute the evolution of principal chemical species under the intense radiational stress of a gamma ray burst. Furthermore, the possible impact on the isotopic composition, geochemistry and the biosphere are mentioned in general way

  18. TeV gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Wei

    2009-01-01

    The field of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has enjoyed rapid growth in recent years. As an increasing number of sources are detected at TeV energies, the field has matured and become a viable branch of modern astronomy. Lying at the uppermost end of the electromagnetic rainbow, TeV photons are always preciously few in number but carry essential information about the particle acceleration and radiative processes involved in extreme astronomical settings. Together with observations at longer wavelengths, TeV gamma-ray observations have drastically improved our view of the universe. In this review, we briefly describe recent progress in the field. We will conclude by providing a personal perspective on the future of the field, in particular, on the significant roles that China could play in advancing this young but exciting field. (invited reviews)

  19. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  20. Attenuation of the gamma rays in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    The mass and lineal attenuation coefficient and of hepatic tissue, muscular, osseous and of brain before gamma rays of 10 -3 to 10 5 MeV were calculated. For the case of the osseous tissue the calculation was made for the cartilage, the cortical tissue and the bone marrow. During the calculations the elementary composition of the tissues of human origin was used. The calculations include by separate the Photoelectric effect, the Compton scattering and the Pair production, as well as the total. For to establish a comparison with the attenuation capacities, the coefficients of the water, the aluminum and the lead also were calculated. The study was complemented measuring the attenuation coefficient of hepatic tissue of bovine before gamma rays of 0.662 MeV of a source of 137 Cs. The measurement was made through of an experiment of photons transmission through samples frozen of hepatic tissue and with a Geiger-Mueller detector. (Author)

  1. The Future of Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, gamma ray astrophysics has entered the astrophysical mainstream. Extremely successful space-borne (GeV) and ground-based (TeV) detectors, combined with a multitude of partner telescopes, have revealed a fascinating “astroscape" of active galactic nuclei, pulsars, gamma ray bursts, supernova remnants, binary stars, star-forming galaxies, novae much more, exhibiting major pathways along which large energy releases can flow. From  a basic physics perspective, exquisitely sensitive measurements have constrained the nature of dark matter, the cosmological origin of magnetic field and the properties of black holes. These advances have motivated the development of new facilities, including HAWC, DAMPE, CTA and SVOM, which will further our understanding of the high energy universe. Topics that will receive special attention include merging neutron star binaries, clusters of galaxies, galactic cosmic rays and putative, TeV dark matter.

  2. Extended gamma-ray sources around pulsars constrain the origin of the positron flux at Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Albert, A.; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Rojas, D. Avila; Solares, H. A. Ayala; Barber, A. S.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.

    2017-01-01

    The unexpectedly high flux of cosmic ray positrons detected at Earth may originate from nearby astrophysical sources, dark matter, or unknown processes of cosmic-ray secondary production. We report the detection, using the HighAltitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC), of extended tera-electron volt gamma-ray emission coincident with the locations of two nearby middle-aged pulsars (Geminga and PSR B0656+14). The HAWC observations demonstrate that these pulsars are indeed local sources of ac...

  3. Evaluation of gamma-ray intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Inoue, Hikaru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Yosei.

    1978-03-01

    Results of literature survey and evaluation of relative intensities and intensities per decay of gamma rays are presented. Evaluations were made for 22 Na, 24 Na, 46 Sc, 48 Sc, 48 V, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 60 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, sup(108m)Ag, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 203 Hg, and 207 Bi. For eight of the nuclides, the half-lives were also evaluated. (auth.)

  4. Gamma-ray standards for detector calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christmas, P.; Nichols, A.L.; Lorenz, A.

    1987-09-01

    The first official meeting of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on the Measurement and Evaluation of X- and Gamma-ray Standards for Detector Calibration was held in Rome from 11 to 13 June 1987. Work undertaken by the CRP members was reviewed in detail: specific problems in the evaluations were identified and actions placed on the participants to resolve these issues. (author). 3 tabs

  5. Gamma-ray bursts - a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudose, Valeriu; Biermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a short general introduction into the field of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) research, summarizing the past and the present status. We give an general view of the GRBs observations to date, both in the prompt emission phase as well as in the afterglow phase, and a brief primer into the theory, mainly in the frame-work of the fireball model. (authors)

  6. Balloon observation of gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jun; Fujii, Masami; Yamagami, Takamasa; Oda, Minoru; Ogawara, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Cosmic gamma-ray burst is an interesting high energy astrophysical phenomenon, but the burst mechanism has not been well understood. Since 1975, long duration balloon flight has been conducted to search for gamma-ray bursts and to determine the source locations. A rotating cross-modulation collimator was employed to determine the locations of sources, and four NaI(Tl) scintillation counters were employed to detect hard X-ray with energy from 20 to 200 keV. The balloon light was performed at altitude of 8.3 mb from September 28, 1977, and the observation time of 79 hours was achieved. In this experiment, the monitor counter was not mounted. The count increase was observed at 16 h 22 m 31 s JST on October 1, 1977. The event disappeared after 1 sec. The total flux is estimated to be 1.6 x 10 -6 erg/cm 2 sec at the top of the atmosphere. When this event was observed, the solar-terrestrial environment was also quiet. Thus, this event was attributed to a small gamma-ray burst. Unfortunately, the duration of the burst was so short that the position of the burst source was not able to be determined. (Yoshimori, M.)

  7. Prompt Gamma Ray Analysis of Soil Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Haseeb, S.M.A.; Hussein, Tanvir; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.H. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron moderation effects were measured in bulk soil samples through prompt gamma ray measurements from water and benzene contaminated soil samples using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering. The prompt gamma rays were measured using a cylindrical 76 mm x 76 mm (diameter x height) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. Since neutron moderation effects strongly depend upon hydrogen concentration of the sample, for comparison purposes, moderation effects were studied from samples containing different hydrogen concentrations. The soil samples with different hydrogen concentration were prepared by mixing soil with water as well as benzene in different weight proportions. Then, the effects of increasing water and benzene concentrations on the yields of hydrogen, carbon and silicon prompt gamma rays were measured. Moderation effects are more pronounced in soil samples mixed with water as compared to those from soil samples mixed with benzene. This is due to the fact that benzene contaminated soil samples have about 30% less hydrogen concentration by weight than the water contaminated soil samples. Results of the study will be presented. (authors)

  8. Gamma ray irradiation characteristics of SM fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Ryuichi; Okano, Hiroaki; Hashiba, Keichi; Nakai, Hisanori

    1987-01-01

    1.3 μm range single mode (SM) optical fibers have been used for wide application of mainly long distance communication. At present, in order to realize the larger capacity and longer distance between relay points, the development of 1.5 μm range SM fibers of low dispersion and small loss has been actively promoted. As for the radiation withstanding property of SM fibers, report is scarce. The authors reported on the gamma ray irradiation characteristics of 1.3 μm range SM fibers, but since 1.5 μm range SM fibers are designed with the different structure from that of 1.3 μm fibers, it is necessary to evaluate from new viewpoint. In this report, mainly on the structure having triangular distribution, the effect that the manufacturing condition and the structural defects of glass exert on the gamma ray irradiation characteristics is described. The specimens were mainly dispersion shift type fibers (DSF), and for comparison, single window, double window and 1.3 μm SM fibers were examined. Co-60 gamma ray was irradiated, and the optical loss and electron spin resonance were measured. By low temperature and low speed drawing, the good result in the optical loss was obtained. The presence of oxygen at the time of sintering materials had no effect. The dependence of the ESR on the drawing condition was not very remarkable. (Kako, I.)

  9. A gamma-ray discriminating neutron scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschbach, P.A.; Miller, S.D.; Cole, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    A neutron scintillator has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory which responds directly to as little as 10 mrem/hour dose equivalent rate fast neutron fields. The scintillator is composed of CaF 2 :Eu or of NaI grains within a silicone rubber or polystyrene matrix, respectively. Neutrons colliding with the plastic matrix provide knockon protons, which in turn deposit energy within the grains of phosphor to produce pulses of light. Neutron interactions are discriminated from gamma-ray events on the basis of pulse height. Unlike NE-213 liquid scintillators, this solid scintillator requires no pulseshape discrimination and therefore requires less hardware. Neutron events are anywhere from two to three times larger than the gamma-ray exposures are compared to 0.7 MeV gamma-ray exposures. The CaF 2 :Eu/silicone rubber scintillator is nearly optically transparent, and can be made into a very sizable detector (4 cm x 1.5 cm) without degrading pulse height. This CaF 2 :Eu scintillator has been observed to have an absolute efficiency of 0.1% when exposed to 5-MeV accelerator-generated neutrons (where the absolute efficiency is the ratio of observed neutron events divided by the number of fast neutrons striking the detector)

  10. Gamma-Ray Pulsars Models and Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    2001-01-01

    Pulsed emission from gamma-ray pulsars originates inside the magnetosphere, from radiation by charged particles accelerated near the magnetic poles or in the outer gaps. In polar cap models, the high energy spectrum is cut off by magnetic pair production above an energy that is dependent on the local magnetic field strength. While most young pulsars with surface fields in the range B = 10^{12} - 10^{13} G are expected to have high energy cutoffs around several GeV, the gamma-ray spectra of old pulsars having lower surface fields may extend to 50 GeV. Although the gamma-ray emission of older pulsars is weaker, detecting pulsed emission at high energies from nearby sources would be an important confirmation of polar cap models. Outer gap models predict more gradual high-energy turnovers at around 10 GeV, but also predict an inverse Compton component extending to TeV energies. Detection of pulsed TeV emission, which would not survive attenuation at the polar caps, is thus an important test of outer gap models. N...

  11. Radio Flares from Gamma-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J.; Harrison, R.; Japelj, J.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.; Gomboc, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1-1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time.

  12. RADIO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J.; Harrison, R.; Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1–1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time

  13. Gamma rays from the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemen, J.B.G.M.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes new gamma-ray views on cosmic rays and the interstellar medium. The author describes the COS-B data base and the pre-launch and in-flight calibration data used for all analyses. Diffuse galactic gamma radiation (> 50 MeV) may be either a result of cosmic-ray-matter interactions, or of the cosmic-ray electrons with the interstellar radiation field (mainly at optical and infrared wavelengths), through the inverse-Compton process. A detailed comparison between the gamma-ray observations of the large complex of interstellar clouds in Orion and Monoceros and the CO and HI surveys of this region is given. It gives insight into the cloud penetration of cosmic rays and in the relation between CO detections and molecular hydrogen column densities. Next, the radial distribution of gamma rays in the Galaxy is studied, as well as the galactic centre (more precisely, the central 400 pc), which contains a large concentration of CO molecules. The H 2 /CO abundance and the cosmic-ray density in the galactic centre are discussed and compared to the findings for the galactic disk. In various analyses in this thesis a likelihood-ratio method is applied for parameter estimation and hypothesis testing. A general description of this method is added as an appendix. (Auth.)

  14. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239 Pu Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, John

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239 Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-ray multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution

  15. Catalog of gamma-rays unplaced in radioactive decay schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Tsutomu; Kitao, Kensuke.

    1991-03-01

    A catalog is made for gamma-rays emitted in decay of radioactive nuclides but not placed in their decay schemes. It consists of two tables. In Table 1, the number of these unplaced gamma-ray components by a nuclide is given together with the fraction of total intensity of these gamma-rays to that of all observed gamma-rays. In Table 2, the unplaced gamma-rays are arranged in order of increasing energy. Each line of this table contains the gamma-ray energy, intensity, nuclide identification, and energies and intensities of the most prominent gamma-rays from the decay of the radionuclides. This catalog is a compilation from Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) maintained by National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory, of at February 1990. (author)

  16. Lunar occultations for gamma-ray source measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, David G.; Hughes, E. B.; Nolan, Patrick L.

    1990-01-01

    The unambiguous association of discrete gamma-ray sources with objects radiating at other wavelengths, the separation of discrete sources from the extended emission within the Galaxy, the mapping of gamma-ray emission from nearby galaxies and the measurement of structure within a discrete source cannot presently be accomplished at gamma-ray energies. In the past, the detection processes used in high-energy gamma-ray astronomy have not allowed for good angular resolution. This problem can be overcome by placing gamma-ray detectors on the moon and using the horizon as an occulting edge to achieve arcsec resolution. For purposes of discussion, this concept is examined for gamma rays above 100 MeV for which pair production dominates the detection process and locally-generated nuclear gamma rays do not contribute to the background.

  17. Physical constraints on models of gamma-ray bursters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the constraints that can be placed on models of gamma-ray burst sources based on only the well-established observational facts and physical principles. The premise is developed that the very hard x-ray and gamma-ray continua spectra are well-established aspects of gamma-ray bursts. Recent theoretical work on gamma-ray bursts are summarized with emphasis on the geometrical properties of the models. Constraints on the source models which are implied by the x-ray and gamma-ray spectra are described. The allowed ranges for the luminosity and characteristic dimension for gamma-ray burst sources are shown. Some of the deductions and inferences about the nature of the gamma-ray burst sources are summarized. 67 refs., 3 figs

  18. A link between prompt optical and prompt gamma-ray emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestrand, W T; Wozniak, P R; Wren, J A; Fenimore, E E; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Casperson, D; Davis, H; Evans, S; Galassi, M; McGowan, K E; Schier, J A; Asa, J W; Barthelmy, S D; Cummings, J R; Gehrels, N; Hullinger, D; Krimm, H A; Markwardt, C B; McLean, K; Palmer, D; Parsons, A; Tueller, J

    2005-05-12

    The prompt optical emission that arrives with the gamma-rays from a cosmic gamma-ray burst (GRB) is a signature of the engine powering the burst, the properties of the ultra-relativistic ejecta of the explosion, and the ejecta's interactions with the surroundings. Until now, only GRB 990123 had been detected at optical wavelengths during the burst phase. Its prompt optical emission was variable and uncorrelated with the prompt gamma-ray emission, suggesting that the optical emission was generated by a reverse shock arising from the ejecta's collision with surrounding material. Here we report prompt optical emission from GRB 041219a. It is variable and correlated with the prompt gamma-rays, indicating a common origin for the optical light and the gamma-rays. Within the context of the standard fireball model of GRBs, we attribute this new optical component to internal shocks driven into the burst ejecta by variations of the inner engine. The correlated optical emission is a direct probe of the jet isolated from the medium. The timing of the uncorrelated optical emission is strongly dependent on the nature of the medium.

  19. TARGET: A multi-channel digitizer chip for very-high-energy gamma-ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Okumura, A.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ruckman, L.; /Hawaii U.; Simons, A.; Tajima, H.; Vandenbroucke, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Varner, G.; /Hawaii U.

    2011-08-11

    The next-generation very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array, will feature dozens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs), each with thousands of pixels of photosensors. To be affordable and reliable, reading out such a mega-channel array requires event recording technology that is highly integrated and modular, with a low cost per channel. We present the design and performance of a chip targeted to this application: the TeV Array Readout with GSa/s sampling and Event Trigger (TARGET). This application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has 16 parallel input channels, a 4096-sample buffer for each channel, adjustable input termination, self-trigger functionality, and tight window-selected readout. We report the performance of TARGET in terms of sampling frequency, power consumption, dynamic range, current-mode gain, analog bandwidth, and cross talk. The large number of channels per chip allows a low cost per channel ($10 to $20 including front-end and back-end electronics but not including photosensors) to be achieved with a TARGET-based IACT readout system. In addition to basic performance parameters of the TARGET chip itself, we present a camera module prototype as well as a second-generation chip (TARGET 2), both of which have been produced.

  20. Prospects for Dark Matter Measurements with the Advanced Gamma Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, James

    2009-05-01

    AGIS, a concept for a future gamma-ray observatory consisting of an array of 50 atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, would provide a powerful new tool for determining the nature of dark matter and its role in structure formation in the universe. The advent of more sensitive direct detection experiments, the launch of Fermi and the startup of the LHC make the near future an exciting time for dark matter searches. Indirect measurements of cosmic-ray electrons may already provide a hint of dark matter in our local halo. However, gamma-ray measurements will provide the only means for mapping the dark matter in the halo of our galaxy and other galaxies. In addition, the spectrum of gamma-rays (either direct annihilation to lines or continuum emission from other annihilation channels) will be imprinted with the mass of the dark matter particle, and the particular annihilation channels providing key measurements needed to identify the dark matter particle. While current gamma-ray instruments fall short of the generic sensitivity required to measure the dark matter signal from any sources other than the (confused) region around the Galactic center, we show that the planned AGIS array will have the angular resolution, energy resolution, low threshold energy and large effective area required to detect emission from dark matter annihilation in Galactic substructure or nearby Dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  1. Anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background measured by the Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuoco, A. [Stockholm University-Oskar Klein Center AlbaNova University Center, Fysikum, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Linden, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mazziotta, M.N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Siegal-Gaskins, J.M. [Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow, California Institute of Technology 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Vitale, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.vitale@roma2.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Tor Vergata, 00133 Roma (Italy); Komatsu, E. [Texas Cosmology Center and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, Dept. of Astronomy, 2511 Speedway, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-11-11

    The small angular scale fluctuations of the (on large scale) isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) carry information about the presence of unresolved source classes. A guaranteed contribution to the IGRB is expected from the unresolved gamma-ray AGN while other extragalactic sources, Galactic gamma-ray source populations and dark matter Galactic and extragalactic structures (and sub-structures) are candidate contributors. The IGRB was measured with unprecedented precision by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board of the Fermi gamma-ray observatory, and these data were used for measuring the IGRB angular power spectrum (APS). Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of Fermi-LAT all-sky observations were performed to provide a reference against which to compare the results obtained for the real data set. The Monte Carlo simulations are also a method for performing those detailed studies of the APS contributions of single source populations, which are required in order to identify the actual IGRB contributors. We present preliminary results of an anisotropy search in the IGRB. At angular scales <2 Degree-Sign (e.g., above multipole 155), angular power above the photon noise level is detected, at energies between 1 and 10 GeV in each energy bin, with statistical significance between 7.2 and 4.1{sigma}. The obtained energy dependences point to the presence of one or more unclustered source populations with the components having an average photon index {Gamma}=2.40{+-}0.07.

  2. COMPTEL gamma-ray observations of the C4 solar flare on 20 January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, C.A.; Arndt, M.B.; Bennett, K.; Winkler, C.; Connors, A.; Debrunner, H.; Diehl, R.; Rank, G.; Schoenfelder, V.; McConnell, M.; Miller, R.S.; Ryan, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The 'Pre-SMM' (Vestrand and Miller 1998) picture of gamma-ray line (GRL) flares was that they are relatively rare events. This picture was quickly put in question with the launch of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). Over 100 GRL flares were seen with sizes ranging from very large GOES class events (X12) down to moderately small events (M2). It was argued by some (Bai 1986) that this was still consistent with the idea that GRL events are rare. Others, however, argued the opposite (Vestrand 1988; Cliver, Crosby and Dennis 1994), stating that the lower end of this distribution was just a function of SMM's sensitivity. They stated that the launch of the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory (CGRO) would in fact continue this distribution to show even smaller GRL flares. In response to a BACODINE cosmic gamma-ray burst alert, COMPtonTELescope on the CGRO recorded gamma rays above 1 MeV from the C4 flare at 0221 UT 20 January 2000. This event, though at the limits of COMPTEL's sensitivity, clearly shows a nuclear line excess above the continuum. Using new spectroscopy techniques we were able to resolve individual lines. This has allowed us to make a basic comparison of this event with the GRL flare distribution from SMM and also compare this flare with a well-observed large GRL flare seen by OSSE

  3. Local gamma ray events as tests of the antimatter theory of gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofia, S.; Wilson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Nearby examples of the antimatter 'chunks' postulated by Sofia and Van Horn to explain the cosmic gamma ray bursts may produce detectable gamma ray events when struck by solar system meteoroids. These events would have a much shorter time scale and higher energy spectrum than the bursts already observed. In order to have a reasonably high event rate, the local meteoroid population must extend to a distance from the Sun of the order of 0.1 pc, but the required distance could become much lower if the instrumental threshold is improved. The expected gamma ray flux for interaction of the antimatter bodies with the solar wind is also examined, and found to be far below present instrumental capabilities. (Auth.)

  4. DETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE ETA-CARINAE REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavani, M.; Viotti, R. F.; Argan, A.; Cocco, V.; D'Ammando, F.; Costa, E.; Sabatini, S.; Pian, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Giuliani, A.; Vercellone, S.; Mereghetti, S.; Chen, A. W.; Corcoran, M. F.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Boffelli, F.; Cattaneo, P. W.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of extensive observations by the gamma-ray AGILE satellite of the Galactic region hosting the Carina nebula and the remarkable colliding wind binary Eta Carinae (η Car) during the period 2007 July-2009 January. We detect a gamma-ray source (1AGL J1043-5931) consistent with the position of η Car. If 1AGL J1043-5931 is associated with the Car system, our data provide the long sought first detection above 100 MeV of a colliding wind binary. The average gamma-ray flux above 100 MeV and integrated over the preperiastron period 2007 July-2008 October is F γ = (37 ± 5) x 10 -8 ph cm -2 s -1 corresponding to an average gamma-ray luminosity of L γ = 3.4 x 10 34 erg s -1 for a distance of 2.3 kpc. We also report a two-day gamma-ray flaring episode of 1AGL J1043-5931 on 2008 October 11-13 possibly related to a transient acceleration and radiation episode of the strongly variable shock in the system.

  5. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 μm) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  6. European team gauges a gamma-ray star

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    satellite COS-B had defined the position of the gamma-ray source to within half a degree -- well enough to prompt renewed efforts to identify it. Radio searches still drew a blank, but in the early 1980s Bignami and others found X-rays coming from Geminga in observations with NASA's Einstein satellite. They narrowed down Geminga's position to within a twentieth of a degree. There was no obvious counterpart to Geminga in visible light. Between 1983 and 1987 the Milanese team hunted for it with large telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. Eventually they selected a very faint object, peculiar in colour, as the visible Geminga. In 1992 a further sighting from Chile established Geminga's rate of movement across the sky. Meanwhile, the German/US/UK satellite Rosat revealed that Geminga pulsates in X-rays four times a second -- every 237 milliseconds to be precise. The same pulsation was found in gamma-rays by NASA's Gamma-Ray Observatory. Bignami and his colleagues then returned to the gamma-ray data from ESA's COS-B. They found the pulsation hidden there too and were able to compute the slowdown in Geminga's pulse-rate. From the slowdown they estimated the age of Geminga at 340,000 years. The distance measurement completes the gradual transformation of the enigmatic gamma-ray source into a well-characterized object. The Italian team calculates that Geminga is travelling at a speed of at least 120 kilometres per second. The neutron star's radiation in gamma-rays and X-rays is equivalent in energy to ten times the visible light of the Sun. More importantly, the way in which the neutron star distributes its energy output at different wavelengths is now known. "Neutron stars are radio sources for only a small fraction of their lives," says Giovanni Bignami. "So while we know 700 pulsars, there are probably millions of radio-silent neutron stars like Geminga. Thousands of them may be among X-ray sources already known but so far unidentified. I look forward to searching for new Gemingas

  7. Search for gamma-ray transients using the SMM spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, G. H.; Harris, M. J.; Leising, M. D.; Messina, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    Observations for transient radiation made by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the SMM satellite are summarized. Spectra were obtained from 215 solar flares and 177 gamma-ray bursts. No narrow or moderately broadened lines were observed in any of the bursts. The rate of bursts is consistent with a constant over the mission but is weakly correlated with solar activity. No evidence was found for bursts of 511 keV line emission, unaccompanied by a strong continuum, at levels not less than 0.05 gamma/sq cm s for bursts lasting not more than 16 s. No evidence was found for broad features near 1 MeV from Cyg X-1, the Galactic center, or the Crab in 12-d integrations at levels not less than 0.006 gamma/sq cm s. No evidence was found for transient celestial narrow-line emission from 300 keV to 7 MeV on min-to-hrs-long time scales from 1984 to 1989.

  8. GAMMA RAYS FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA SN 2014J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churazov, E.; Sunyaev, R.; Grebenev, S.; Isern, J.; Bikmaev, I.; Bravo, E.; Chugai, N.; Jean, P.; Knödlseder, J.; Lebrun, F.; Kuulkers, E.

    2015-01-01

    The whole set of INTEGRAL observations of Type Ia supernova SN 2014J, covering the period 19–162 days after the explosion, has been analyzed. For spectral fitting the data are split into early and late periods covering days 19–35 and 50–162, respectively, optimized for 56 Ni and 56 Co lines. As expected for the early period, much of the gamma-ray signal is confined to energies below ∼200 keV, while for the late period it is strongest above 400 keV. In particular, in the late period, 56 Co lines at 847 and 1248 keV are detected at 4.7σ and 4.3σ, respectively. The light curves in several representative energy bands are calculated for the entire period. The resulting spectra and light curves are compared with a subset of models. We confirm our previous finding that the gamma-ray data are broadly consistent with the expectations for canonical one-dimensional models, such as delayed detonation or deflagration models for a near-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf. Late optical spectra (day 136 after the explosion) show rather symmetric Co and Fe line profiles, suggesting that, unless the viewing angle is special, the distribution of radioactive elements is symmetric in the ejecta

  9. GRAYSKY-A new gamma-ray skyshine code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witts, D.J.; Twardowski, T.; Watmough, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new prototype gamma-ray skyshine code GRAYSKY (Gamma-RAY SKYshine) that has been developed at BNFL, as part of an industrially based master of science course, to overcome the problems encountered with SKYSHINEII and RANKERN. GRAYSKY is a point kernel code based on the use of a skyshine response function. The scattering within source or shield materials is accounted for by the use of buildup factors. This is an approximate method of solution but one that has been shown to produce results that are acceptable for dose rate predictions on operating plants. The novel features of GRAYSKY are as follows: 1. The code is fully integrated with a semianalytical point kernel shielding code, currently under development at BNFL, which offers powerful solid-body modeling capabilities. 2. The geometry modeling also allows the skyshine response function to be used in a manner that accounts for the shielding of air-scattered radiation. 3. Skyshine buildup factors calculated using the skyshine response function have been used as well as dose buildup factors

  10. Design and development of a PMOSFET gamma ray dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, V.K.; Kumar, A.; Gupta, R.P.; Pandya, A.; Roy, Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    A P-channel MOSFET chip has been designed for detection of gamma radiations. The chip consists of three MOSFETs of different geometrical parameters for achieving sensitivity to low and high dose ranges. One of the MOSFET structures has a closed geometry to reduce the leakage current. The developed dosimeter being a MOSFET, its IC (Integrated Circuit)-compatibility helps in easy interfacing with readout circuitry. The dosimeter fabrication process is based on metal-gate MOSFET technology with thick gate oxide to increase the effective number of electron-hole pairs generated by the gamma rays impinging on the device. The process for the chip realization has been designed and simulated to achieve the required impurity diffusion profile. The chip has been fabricated using the above process and electrically characterized. The device has been exposed to gamma ray source and its characteristics measured. The change in threshold voltage of the MOSFET after exposure has been used to calculate the sensitivity of the device. The developed dosimeter has potential applications in personnel dosimetry and cancer treatment. This paper describes the basic detection mechanism of the MOSFET, the design approach, and fabrication process of the MOSFET dosimeter. (author)

  11. Common Gamma-ray Glows above Thunderclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicole; Smith, David; Dwyer, Joseph; Hazelton, Bryna; Grefenstette, Brian; Lowell, Alex; Splitt, Michael; Lazarus, Steven; Rassoul, Hamid

    2013-04-01

    Gamma-ray glows are continuous, long duration gamma- and x-ray emission seen coming from thunderclouds. The Airborne for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) observed 12 gamma-ray glows during its summer 2009 flight campaign over the areas of Colorado and Florida in the United States. For these glows we shall present their spectra, relationship to lightning activity and how their duration and size changes as a function of distance. Gamma-ray glows follow the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) spectrum and have been previously measured from the ground and inside the cloud. ADELE measured most glows as it flew above the screening layer of the cloud. During the brightest glow on August 21, 2009, we can show that we are flying directly into a downward facing relativistic runaway avalanche, indicative of flying between the upper positive and negative screening layer of the cloud. In order to explain the brightness of this glow, RREA with an electric field approaching the limit for relativistic feedback must be occurring. Using all 12 glows, we show that lightning activity diminishes during the onset of the glow. Using this along with the fact that glows occur as the field approaches the level necessary for feedback, we attempt to distinguish between two possibilities: that glows are evidence that RREA with feedback, rather than lightning, is sometimes the primary channel for discharging the cloud, or else that the overall discharging is still controlled by lightning, with glows simply appearing during times when a subsidence of lightning allows the field to rise above the threshold for RREA.

  12. A model problem for restricted-data gamma ray emission tomography of highly active nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattle, Brian A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops the work of Cattle et al. [Cattle, B.A., Fellerman, A.S., West, R.M., 2004. On the detection of solid deposits using gamma ray emission tomography with limited data. Measurement Science and Technology 15, 1429-1439] by considering a generalization of the model employed therein. The focus of the work is the gamma ray tomographic analysis of high-level waste processing. The work in this paper considers a two-dimensional model for the measurement of gamma ray photon flux, as opposed to the previous one-dimensional analysis via the integrated Beer-Lambert law. The mathematical inverse problem that arises in determining physical quantities from the photon count measurements is tackled using Bayesian statistical methods that are implemented computationally using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. In a further new development, the effect of the degree of collimation of the detector on the reliability of the solutions is also considered

  13. Variable code gamma ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macovski, A.; Rosenfeld, D.

    1979-01-01

    A gamma-ray source distribution in the body is imaged onto a detector using an array of apertures. The transmission of each aperture is modulated using a code such that the individual views of the source through each aperture can be decoded and separated. The codes are chosen to maximize the signal to noise ratio for each source distribution. These codes determine the photon collection efficiency of the aperture array. Planar arrays are used for volumetric reconstructions and circular arrays for cross-sectional reconstructions. 14 claims

  14. Detection circuit for gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Yamagami, Takamasa; Mori, Kunishiro; Uchiyama, Sadayuki.

    1982-01-01

    A new gamma-ray burst detection system is described. The system was developed as an environmental monitor of an accelerator, and can be used as the burst detection system. The system detects the arrival time of burst. The difference between the arrival times detected at different places will give information on the burst source. The frequency of detecting false burst was estimated, and the detection limit under the estimated frequency of false burst was also calculated. Decision whether the signal is false or true burst was made by the statistical treatment. (Kato, T.)

  15. Gamma ray induced decomposition of lanthanide nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, N.G.; Garg, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma ray induced decomposition of the lanthanide nitrates, Ln(NO 3 ) 3 .xH 2 O where Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm and Yb has been studied at different absorbed doses up to 600 kGy. G(NO 2 - ) values depend on the absorbed dose and the nature of the outer cation. It has been observed that those lanthanides which exhibit variable valency (Ce and Eu) show lower G-values. An attempt has been made to correlate thermal and radiolytic decomposition processes. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    It is apparent that very high gamma-ray astronomy, at the very end of the electromagnetic spectrum, is just at the threshold of becoming an important channel of astronomical information. The author discusses how, to fully develop, it requires telescopes with improved minimum flux sensitivity; development of techniques that characterize the nature of the primary; more overlapping observations to remove any question of the reality of the detected phenomenon; more consistency in the application of statistics among experimenters and more openness about methods used; development of models that will predict the phenomenon to be expected rather than explain what has been observed; and more accurate calibrations to determine absolute fluxes and energies

  17. Gamma-Ray Spectrum Analysis Software GDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanabongse, P.

    1998-01-01

    The developmental work on computer software for gamma-ray spectrum analysis has been completed as a software package version 1.02 named GDA, which is an acronym for Gamma-spectrum Deconvolution and Analysis. The software package consists of three 3.5-inch diskettes for setup and a user's manual. GDA software can be installed for using on a personal computer with Windows 95 or Windows NT 4.0 operating system. A computer maybe the type of 80486 CPU with 8 megabytes of memory

  18. Gamma ray bursts from extragalactic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Fred; Burbidge, Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    The properties of gamma ray bursts of classical type are found to be explicable in terms of high speed collisions between stars. A model is proposed in which the frequency of such collisions can be calculated. The model is then applied to the nuclei of galaxies in general on the basis that galaxies, or at least some fraction of them, originate in the expulsion of stars from creation centers. Evidence that low level activity of this kind is also taking place at the center of our own Galaxy is discussed. The implications for galactic evolution are discussed and a negative view of black holes is taken.

  19. Gamma ray thermometrical facility for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Regazzoni, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    This invention concerns a gamma ray thermometer for nuclear reactors, fitted with a thermal bridge for use as a centring device. In accordance with the invention, an elastic device fills all the annular space between the gamma thermometer and the orifice through which the thermometer is introduced. This elastic device has the two-fold role of providing a thermal bridge at the gamma thermometer location suitable as a heat well, and of acting as a device for centring the thermometer in the orifice into which it has been introduced [fr

  20. Principles and techniques of gamma ray tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claxton, K.T.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive tracer techniques provide a very sensitive means of studying physical and chemical processes in a whole variety of different media. Some of the techniques and principles of radioactive tracers and their application to practical engineering systems are discussed. Information which has been found useful in the design of high temperature liquid sodium facilities employing radio-tracers, is presented. The report deals solely with the use of gamma-emitting species as the tracer. These find particular application for in-situ studies on engineering systems where the highly penetrating properties of gamma rays are needed for detection through strongly absorbent media such as stainless steel pepe walls. (author)

  1. Gamma ray constraints on decaying dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Moulin, E.; Panci, P.

    2012-01-01

    We derive new bounds on decaying dark matter from the gamma ray measurements of (i) the isotropic residual (extragalactic) background by Fermi and (ii) the Fornax galaxy cluster by H.E.S.S. We find that those from (i) are among the most stringent constraints currently available, for a large range...... of dark matter masses and a variety of decay modes, excluding half-lives up to similar to 10(26) to few 10(27) seconds. In particular, they rule out the interpretation in terms of decaying dark matter of the e(+/-) spectral features in PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S., unless very conservative choices...

  2. Gamma ray spectroscopy with Arduino UNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, C. M.

    2018-05-01

    We review a simple gamma ray spectrometer constructed on a solderless breadboard. The spectrometer's detector consists of a CsI(Tl) scintillator and silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and its readout is facilitated by an Arduino UNO. The system is low cost and utilizes a minimum of components while still achieving satisfactory charge linearity and noise levels. This instrument can be used in instructional laboratories to introduce both radiation detection and analog signal processing concepts. We also expect it will be of interest to those seeking to introduce gamma spectroscopy to the expanding ecosystem of Arduino hardware.

  3. Comptonization of gamma rays by cold electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yueming; Ross, R.R.; Mccray, R.

    1991-01-01

    An analytic method is developed for calculating the emergent spectrum of gamma-rays and X-rays scattered in a homogeneous medium with low-temperature electrons. The Klein-Nishina corrections of the scattering cross section and absorption processes are taken in account. The wavelength relaxation and the spatial diffusion problems are solved separately, and the emergent spectrum is calculated by convolving the evolution function of the spectrum in an infinite medium with the photon luminosity resulting from the spatial diffusion in a finite sphere. The analytic results are compared with that of Monte Carlo calculations and it is concluded that the analytic result is quite accurate. 9 refs

  4. Recent developments in airborne gamma ray surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Standardized procedures have been developed for converting airborne gamma ray measurements to ground concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. These procedures make use of an airborne calibration range whose ground concentrations should be measured with a calibrated portable spectrometer rather than by taking geochemical samples. Airborne sensitivities and height attenuation coefficients are normally determined from flights over the calibration range but may not be applicable in mountainous areas. Mathematical techniques have been now developed to reduce statistical noise in the airborne measurements by utilizing up to 256 channels of spectral information. (author)

  5. Gamma-Ray Pulsars: Beaming Evolution, Stats and Unident. EGRET Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Yadigaroglu, I. -A.; Romani, Roger W.

    1994-01-01

    We compute the variation of the beaming fraction with the efficiency of high energy gamma-ray production in the outer gap pulsar model of Romani and Yadigaroglu. This allows us to correct the fluxes observed for pulsars in the EGRET band and to derive a simple estimate of the variation of efficiency with age. Integration of this model over the population of young neutron stars gives the expected number of gamma-ray pulsars along with their distributions in age and distance. This model also sh...

  6. Search for Very High Energy Gamma Rays from the Northern $\\textit{Fermi}$ Bubble Region with HAWC

    OpenAIRE

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Albert, A.; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Solares, H. A. Ayala; Barber, A. S.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Braun, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a search of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the Northern $\\textit{Fermi}$ Bubble region using data collected with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) gamma-ray observatory. The size of the data set is 290 days. No significant excess is observed in the Northern $\\textit{Fermi}$ Bubble region, hence upper limits above $1\\,\\text{TeV}$ are calculated. The upper limits are between $3\\times 10^{-7}\\,\\text{GeV}\\, \\text{cm}^{-2}\\, \\text{s}^{-1}\\,\\text{sr}^{-1}$ and $4\\times 1...

  7. Contribution to gamma ray transport calculation in heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdet, L.

    1985-04-01

    This thesis presents the development of gamma transport calculation codes in three dimension heterogeneous geometries. These codes allow us to define the protection against gamma-rays or verify their efficiency. The laws that govern the interactions of gamma-rays with matters are briefly revised. A library with the all necessary constants for these codes is created. TRIPOLI-2, a code that treats in exact way the neutron transport in matters using Monte-Carlo method, has been adapted to deal with the transport of gamma-rays in matters as well. TRINISHI, a code which considers only one collision, has been realized to treat heterogeneous geometries containing voids. Elaborating a formula that calculates the albedo for gamma-ray reflection (the code ALBANE) allows us to solve the problem of gamma-ray reflection on plane surfaces. NARCISSE-2 deals with gamma-rays that suffer only one reflection on the inner walls of any closed volume (rooms, halls...) [fr

  8. Highlights of GeV Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays are primarily produced by high-energy particle interactions, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of sites of cosmic ray production and interactions. Gamma-ray bursts, pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, binary sources, and Active Galactic Nuclei are all phenomena that reveal particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. Diffuse Galactic gamma radiation, Solar System gamma-ray sources, and energetic radiation from supernova remnants are likely tracers of high-energy particle interactions with matter and photon fields. This paper will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

  9. Microwave-gamma ray water in crude monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paap, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A microwave-gamma ray water-in-crude monitoring system measures the percent quantity of fresh water or salt water in crude oil flowing in a pipe line. The system includes a measuring cell arranged with the pipe line so that the crude oil flows through the measuring cell. A microwave transmitter subsystem and a gamma ray source are arranged with the measuring cell so that microwave energy and gamma rays are transmitted through the measuring cell. A microwave receiving subsystem and a gamma ray detector provide signals corresponding to received microwave energy and to the received gamma rays, respectively. Apparatus connected to the microwave receiver and to the gamma ray detector provides an indication of the percentage of water in the crude oil

  10. Integration of space geodesy: A US National Geodetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Neilan, Ruth E.

    2005-11-01

    In the interest of improving the performance and efficiency of space geodesy a diverse group in the US, in collaboration with IGGOS, has begun to establish a unified National Geodetic Observatory (NGO). To launch this effort an international team will conduct a multi-year program of research into the technical issues of integrating SLR, VLBI, and GPS geodesy to produce a unified set of global geodetic products. The goal is to improve measurement accuracy by up to an order of magnitude while lowering the cost to current sponsors. A secondary goal is to expand and diversify international sponsorship of space geodesy. Principal benefits will be to open new vistas of research in geodynamics and surface change while freeing scarce NASA funds for scientific studies. NGO will proceed in partnership with, and under the auspices of, the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) as an element of the Integrated Global Geodetic Observation System project. The collaboration will be conducted within, and will make full use of, the IAG's existing international services: the IGS, IVS, ILRS, and IERS. Seed funding for organizational activities and technical analysis will come from NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards Program. Additional funds to develop an integrated geodetic data system known as Inter-service Data Integration for Geodetic Operations (INDIGO), will come from a separate NASA program in Earth science information technology. INDIGO will offer ready access to the full variety of NASA's space geodetic data and will extend the GPS Seamless Archive (GSAC) philosophy to all space geodetic data types.

  11. The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008. In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

  12. Collimatorless imaging of gamma rays with help of gamma-ray tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Marel, J V D

    2001-01-01

    In many gamma-ray detector systems that are built for imaging purposes Compton scattered photons are suppressed as much as possible. However, the information from photons that scattered inside a detector system can be used to reconstruct the tracks of the photons with help of gamma-ray tracking. Estimates of the incident directions of the photons can be made and an image can be created. Examples of potential applications for this technique are the use as a gamma-camera in medical imaging (e.g. SPECT) or as a detector for PET. Due to the omission of collimators, much higher detection efficiencies can be achieved, reducing the doses required for an image. A gamma-ray tracking method, called backtracking, has been developed for nuclear spectroscopy. The method tracks gamma-rays originating from a point source in the center of a spherical detector system consisting of position-sensitive germanium detectors. This method can also be used as a tracking technique for imaging of an unknown source distribution. With he...

  13. SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF GAMMA-RAY-BRIGHT BLAZARS WITH OPTICAL POLARIZATION AND GAMMA-RAY VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Ryosuke; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kanda, Yuka; Shiki, Kensei; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Takata, Koji; Ui, Takahiro [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg M. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Uemura, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kawabata, Koji S.; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Ohsugi, Takashi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Schinzel, Frank K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Moritani, Yuki [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sasada, Mahito [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Yamanaka, Masayuki, E-mail: itoh@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: itoh@hp.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); and others

    2016-12-10

    Blazars are highly variable active galactic nuclei that emit radiation at all wavelengths from radio to gamma rays. Polarized radiation from blazars is one key piece of evidence for synchrotron radiation at low energies, and it also varies dramatically. The polarization of blazars is of interest for understanding the origin, confinement, and propagation of jets. However, even though numerous measurements have been performed, the mechanisms behind jet creation, composition, and variability are still debated. We performed simultaneous gamma-ray and optical photopolarimetry observations of 45 blazars between 2008 July and 2014 December to investigate the mechanisms of variability and search for a basic relation between the several subclasses of blazars. We identify a correlation between the maximum degree of optical linear polarization and the gamma-ray luminosity or the ratio of gamma-ray to optical fluxes. Since the maximum polarization degree depends on the condition of the magnetic field (chaotic or ordered), this result implies a systematic difference in the intrinsic alignment of magnetic fields in parsec-scale relativistic jets between different types of blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars vs. BL Lacs) and consequently between different types of radio galaxies (FR I versus FR II).

  14. The Extragalactic Background Light and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Krennrich, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is one of the fundamental observational quantities in cosmology. All energy releases from resolved and unresolved extragalactic sources, and the light from any truly diffuse background, excluding the cosmic microwave background (CMB), contribute to its intensity and spectral energy distribution. It therefore plays a crucial role in cosmological tests for the formation and evolution of stellar objects and galaxies, and for setting limits on exotic energy releases in the universe. The EBL also plays an important role in the propagation of very high energy gamma-rays which are attenuated en route to Earth by pair producing gamma-gamma interactions with the EBL and CMB. The EBL affects the spectrum of the sources, predominantly blazars, in the approx 10 GeV to 10 TeV energy regime. Knowledge of the EBL intensity and spectrum will allow the determination of the intrinsic blazar spectrum in a crucial energy regime that can be used to test particle acceleration mechanisms and VHE gamma-ray production models. Conversely, knowledge of the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum and the detection of blazars at increasingly higher redshifts will set strong limits on the EBL and its evolution. This paper reviews the latest developments in the determination of the EBL and its impact on the current understanding of the origin and production mechanisms of gamma-rays in blazars, and on energy releases in the universe. The review concludes with a summary and future directions in Cherenkov Telescope Array techniques and in infrared ground-based and space observatories that will greatly improve our knowledge of the EBL and the origin and production of very high energy gamma-rays.

  15. The Virtual Solar Observatory and the Heliophysics Meta-Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is now able to search for solar data ranging from the radio to gamma rays, obtained from space and groundbased observatories, from 26 sources at 12 data providers, and from 1915 to the present. The solar physics community can use a Web interface or an Application Programming Interface (API) that allows integrating VSO searches into other software, including other Web services. Over the next few years, this integration will be especially obvious as the NASA Heliophysics division sponsors the development of a heliophysics-wide virtual observatory (VO), based on existing VO's in heliospheric, magnetospheric, and ionospheric physics as well as the VSO. We examine some of the challenges and potential of such a "meta-VO."

  16. Near stellar sources of gamma-ray bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Luchkov, B. I.; Markin, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Correlation analysis of gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby stars, registered on 2008-2011, revealed 5 coincidences with angular accuracy better than 0.1 degree. The random probability is $7\\times 10^{-7}$, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. The proposed method should be continued in order to provide their share in common balance of cosmic gamma-ray bursts.

  17. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation explores the relationship between Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGF) and lightning. Using data from the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), and the gamma ray observations from Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), the study reviews any causal relationship between TGFs and lightning. The conclusion of the study is that the TGF and lightning are simultaneous with out a causal relationship.

  18. Sensitivity of Gamma-Ray Detectors to Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Yadigaroglu, I. -A.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the largest gamma-ray detector to date, EGRET, does not have useful polarization sensitivity. We have explored here some improved approaches to analyzing gamma-ray pair production events, leading to important gains in sensitivity to polarization. The performance of the next generation gamma-ray instrument GLAST is investigated using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the complete detector.

  19. Gamma-ray transients and related astrophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, R.E.; Hudson, H.S.; Worrall, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The workshop covered the study of the explosive phenomena responsible for the various gamma ray transients. X-ray burster observations and theories were also reviewed with emphasis on their relationship to gamma ray bursts. Recent observational data, particularly from the SMM, HEAO, and VENERA satellites made the workshop especially timely. Major headings include: gamma-ray transients, x-ray bursts, solar transients, and instrumental concepts. Individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  20. Terrestrial gamma-ray flash production by lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Brant E.

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are brief flashes of gamma-rays originating in the Earth's atmosphere and observed by satellites. First observed in 1994 by the Burst And Transient Source Experiment on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, TGFs consist of one or more ˜1 ms pulses of gamma-rays with a total fluence of ˜1/cm2, typically observed when the satellite is near active thunderstorms. TGFs have subsequently been observed by other satellites to have a very hard spectrum (harder than dN/d E ∝ 1/ E ) that extends from below 25 keV to above 20 MeV. When good lightning data exists, TGFs are closely associated with measurable lightning discharge. Such discharges are typically observed to occur within 300 km of the sub-satellite point and within several milliseconds of the TGF observation. The production of these intense energetic bursts of photons is the puzzle addressed herein. The presence of high-energy photons implies a source of bremsstrahlung, while bremsstrahlung implies a source of energetic electrons. As TGFs are associated with lightning, fields produced by lightning are naturally suggested to accelerate these electrons. Initial ideas about TGF production involved electric fields high above thunderstorms as suggested by upper atmospheric lightning research and the extreme energies required for lower-altitude sources. These fields, produced either quasi-statically by charges in the cloud and ionosphere or dynamically by radiation from lightning strokes, can indeed drive TGF production, but the requirements on the source lightning are too extreme and therefore not common enough to account for all existing observations. In this work, studies of satellite data, the physics of energetic electron and photon production, and consideration of lightning physics motivate a new mechanism for TGF production by lightning current pulses. This mechanism is then developed and used to make testable predictions. TGF data from satellite observations are compared

  1. Spectra of {gamma} rays feeding superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The spectrum of {gamma}rays coincident with SD transitions contains the transitions which populate the SD band. This spectrum can provide information on the feeding mechanism and on the properties (moment of inertia, collectivity) of excited SD states. We used a model we developed to explain the feeding of SD bands, to calculate the spectrum of feeding {gamma}rays. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the trigger conditions present in our Eurogam experiment. Both experimental and theoretical spectra contain a statistical component and a broad E2 peak (from transitions occurring between excited states in the SD well). There is good resemblance between the measured and calculated spectra although the calculated multiplicity of an E2 bump is low by {approximately}30%. Work is continuing to improve the quality of the fits, which will result in a better understanding of excited SD states. In addition, a model for the last steps, which cool the {gamma} cascade into the SD yrast line, needs to be developed. A strong M1/E2 low-energy component, which we believe is responsible for this cooling, was observed.

  2. Observation of gamma-ray bursts with GINGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Toshio; Fujii, Masami; Nishimura, Jun

    1989-01-01

    Gamma-ray Burst Detector System (GBD) on board the scientific satellite 'GINGA' which was launched on Feb. 5, 1987, was realized as an international cooperation between ISAS and LANL. It has recorded more than 40 Gamma-Ray Burst candidates during 20 months observation. Although many observational evidences were accumulated in past 20 years after the discovery of gamma-ray burst by LANL scientists, there are not enough evidence to determine the origin and the production mechanism of the gamma-ray burst. GBD consists of a proportional counter and a NaI scintillation counter so that it became possible to observe energy spectrum of the gamma-ray burst with high energy resolution over wide range of energy (1.5-380 keV) together with high time resolution. As the result of observation, the following facts are obtained: (1) A large fraction of observed gamma-ray bursts has a long X-ray tail after the harder part of gamma-ray emission has terminated. (2) Clear spectral absorption features with harmonic in energy was observed in some of the energy spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. These evidences support the hypothesis that the strongly magnetized neutron star is the origin of gamma-ray burst. (author)

  3. GRAP, Gamma-Ray Level-Scheme Assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklyn, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: An interactive program for allocating gamma-rays to an energy level scheme. Procedure allows for searching for new candidate levels of the form: 1) L1 + G(A) + G(B) = L2; 2) G(A) + G(B) = G(C); 3) G(A) + G(B) = C (C is a user defined number); 4) L1 + G(A) + G(B) + G(C) = L2. Procedure indicates intensity balance of feed and decay of each energy level. Provides for optimization of a level energy (and associated error). Overall procedure allows for pre-defining of certain gamma-rays as belonging to particular regions of the level scheme, for example, high energy transition levels, or due to beta- decay. 2 - Method of solution: Search for cases in which the energy difference between two energy levels is equal to a gamma-ray energy within user-defined limits. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of gamma-rays: 999; Maximum gamma ray energy: 32000 units; Minimum gamma ray energy: 10 units; Maximum gamma-ray intensity: 32000 units; Minimum gamma-ray intensity: 0.001 units; Maximum number of levels: 255; Maximum level energy: 32000 units; Minimum level energy: 10 units; Maximum error on energy, intensity: 32 units; Minimum error on energy, intensity: 0.001 units; Maximum number of combinations: 6400 (ca); Maximum number of gamma-ray types : 127

  4. High-energy gamma-ray emission in compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerutti, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Four gamma-ray sources have been associated with binary systems in our Galaxy: the micro-quasar Cygnus X-3 and the gamma-ray binaries LS I +61 degrees 303, LS 5039 and PSR B1259-63. These systems are composed of a massive companion star and a compact object of unknown nature, except in PSR B1259-63 where there is a young pulsar. I propose a comprehensive theoretical model for the high-energy gamma-ray emission and variability in gamma-ray emitting binaries. In this model, the high-energy radiation is produced by inverse Compton scattering of stellar photons on ultra-relativistic electron-positron pairs injected by a young pulsar in gamma-ray binaries and in a relativistic jet in micro-quasars. Considering anisotropic inverse Compton scattering, pair production and pair cascade emission, the TeV gamma-ray emission is well explained in LS 5039. Nevertheless, this model cannot account for the gamma-ray emission in LS I +61 degrees 303 and PSR B1259-63. Other processes should dominate in these complex systems. In Cygnus X-3, the gamma-ray radiation is convincingly reproduced by Doppler-boosted Compton emission of pairs in a relativistic jet. Gamma-ray binaries and micro-quasars provide a novel environment for the study of pulsar winds and relativistic jets at very small spatial scales. (author)

  5. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac

    2009-01-01

    The recording of gamma-ray spectra along an irradiated fuel rod allows the fission products to be qualitatively and quantitatively examined. Among all nondestructive examinations performed on irradiated fuel rods by gamma-ray spectroscopy, the most comprehensive one is the average burnup measurement, which is quantitative. Moreover, burnup measurements by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy are less time-consuming and waste-generating than burnup measurements by radiochemical, destructive methods. This work presents the theoretical foundations and experimental techniques necessary to measure, using nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the average burnup of irradiated fuel rods in a laboratory equipped with hot cells. (author)

  6. X-ray echoes from gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.; Hurley, K.C.; Hartmann, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The identification of an echo of reflected radiation in time histories of gamma-ray burst spectra can provide important information about the existence of binary companions or accretion disks in gamma-ray burst systems. Because of the nature of Compton scattering, the spectrum of the echo will be attenuated at gamma-ray energies compared with the spectrum of the primary burst emission. The expected temporal and spectral signatures of the echo and a search for such echoes are described, and implications for gamma-ray burst models are discussed. 35 refs

  7. Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Gamma-ray Source List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the {gamma}-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than {approx}10{sigma}) {gamma}-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) {gamma}-ray sources in the early mission data.

  8. Integrating Near Fault Observatories (NFO) for EPOS Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2015-04-01

    Following the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) project vision aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth sciences to support science for a more sustainable society, we are working on the integration of Near-Fault Observatories (NFOs). NFOs are state of the art research infrastructures consisting of advanced networks of multi-parametric sensors continuously monitoring the chemical and physical processes related to the common underlying earth instabilities governing active faults evolution and the genesis of earthquakes. Such a methodological approach, currently applicable only at the local scale (areas of tens to few hundreds of kilometres), is based on extremely dense networks and less common instruments deserving an extraordinary work on data quality control and multi-parameter data description. These networks in fact usually complement regional seismic and geodetic networks (typically with station spacing of 50-100km) with high-density distributions of seismic, geodetic, geochemical and geophysical sensors located typically within 10-20 km of active faults where large earthquakes are expected in the future. In the initial phase of EPOS-IP, seven NFO nodes will be linked: the Alto Tiberina and Irpinia Observatories in Italy, the Corinth Observatory in Greece, the South-Iceland Seismic Zone, the Valais Observatory in Switzerland, Marmara Sea GEO Supersite in Turkey (EU MARSite) and the Vrancea Observatory in Romania. Our work is aimed at establishing standards and integration within this first core group of NFOs while other NFOs are expected to be installed in the next years adopting the standards established and developed within the EPOS Thematic Core Services (TCS). The goal of our group is to build upon the initial development supported by these few key national observatories coordinated under previous EU projects (NERA and REAKT), inclusive and harmonised TCS supporting the installation over the next decade of tens of near

  9. Focal Plane Detectors for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. G.; Byrum, K.; Drake, G.; Funk, S.; Otte, N.; Smith, A.; Tajima, H.; Williams, D.

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. It is being designed to achieve a significant improvement in sensitivity compared to current Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) Arrays. One of the main requirements in order that AGIS fulfills this goal will be to achieve higher angular resolution than current IACTs. Simulations show that a substantial improvement in angular resolution may be achieved if the pixel size is reduced to 0.05 deg, i.e. two to three times smaller than for current IACT cameras. Here we present results from testing of alternatives being considered for AGIS, including both silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs).

  10. Camera Concepts for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuk Otte, Adam

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Design goals are ten times better sensitivity, higher angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a camera that detects and records the Cherenkov-light flashes from air showers. The camera is comprised of a pixelated focal plane of blue sensitive and fast (nanosecond) photon detectors that detect the photon signal and convert it into an electrical one. The incorporation of trigger electronics and signal digitization into the camera are under study. Given the size of AGIS, the camera must be reliable, robust, and cost effective. We are investigating several directions that include innovative technologies such as Geiger-mode avalanche-photodiodes as a possible detector and switched capacitor arrays for the digitization.

  11. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Telescope Optical System Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliev, Vladimir; Buckley, Jim; Falcone, Abe; Fegan, Steven; Finley, John; Gaurino, Victor; Hanna, David; Kaaret, Philip; Konopelko, Alex; Krawczynski, Henric; Romani, Roger; Weekes, Trevor

    2008-04-01

    AGIS is a conceptual design for a future ground-based gamma-ray observatory based on an array of ˜100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) with a sensitivity to gamma-rays in the energy range 40 GeV-100 TeV. The anticipated improvement of AGIS sensitivity, angular resolution, and reliability of operation imposes demanding technological and cost requirements on the design of the IACTs. In this submission we focus on the optical system (OS) of the AGIS telescopes and consider options which include traditional Davies-Cotton and the other prime- focus telescope designs, as well as a novel two-mirror aplanatic OS originally proposed by Schwarzschild. Emerging new mirror production technologies based on replication processes such as cold and hot glass slumping, cured CFRP, and electroforming provide new opportunities for cost effective solutions for the design of the OS. We evaluate the capabilities of these mirror fabrication methods for the AGIS project.

  12. The MeV spectra of gamma-ray bursts measured with COMPTEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, A.S.; Kippen, R.M.; McConnell, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    The past decade has produced a wealth of observational data on the energy spectra of prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts. Most of the data cover the energy range from a few to several hundred KeV. One set of higher energy observations comes from the Imaging Compton Telescope COMPTEL on the Compton Observatory, which measured in the energy range from 0.75 to 30 MeV. We analyzed the full 9.2 years COMPTEL data to reveal the significant detection of 44 gamma-ray bursts. We present preliminary results obtained in the process of preparing a final catalog of the spectral analysis of these events. In addiction, we compare the COMPTEL spectra to simultaneous BATSE measurements for purposes of cross-calibration

  13. Searching gamma-ray bursts for gravitational lensing echoes - Implications for compact dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Norris, J. P.; Wickramasinghe, W. A. D. T.; Horack, J. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    The first available 44 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory have been inspected for echo signals following shortly after the main signal. No significant echoes have been found. Echoes would have been expected were the GRBs distant enough and the universe populated with a sufficient density of compact objects composing the dark matter. Constraints on dark matter abundance and GRB redshifts from the present data are presented and discussed. Based on these preliminary results, a universe filled to critical density of compact objects between 10 exp 6.5 and 10 exp 8.1 solar masses are now marginally excluded, or the most likely cosmological distance paradigm for GRBs is not correct. We expect future constraints to be able either to test currently popular cosmological dark matter paradigms or to indicate that GRBs do not lie at cosmological distances.

  14. Gamma-Ray, Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10(exp -35) m. I will discuss here the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) from observations of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) to the amount of LIV of at a proton Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.

  15. The MAGIC telescope for gamma-ray astronomy above 30 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo, A.; MAGIC Collaboration

    The MAGIC telescope is presently at its commissioning phase at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (ORM) on the island of La Palma. MAGIC will become the largest ground-based gamma ray telescope in the world, being sensitive to photons of energies as low as 30 GeV. The spectral range between 10 and 300 GeV remains to date mostly unexplored. Observations in this region of the spectrum are expected to provide key data for the understanding of a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena belonging to the so-called ``non thermal Universe'', like the processes in the nuclei of active galaxies, the radiation mechanisms of pulsars and supernova remnants, and the enigmatic gamma-ray bursts. And overview of the telescope and its Physics goals is presented.

  16. Observational constraints on the inter-binary stellar flare hypothesis for the gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. R.; Vahia, M. N.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment (GRO/BATSE) results on the Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have given an internally consistent set of observations of about 260 GRBs which have been released for analysis by the BATSE team. Using this database we investigate our earlier suggestion (Vahia and Rao, 1988) that GRBs are inter-binary stellar flares from a group of objects classified as Magnetically Active Stellar Systems (MASS) which includes flare stars, RS CVn binaries and cataclysmic variables. We show that there exists an observationally consistent parameter space for the number density, scale height and flare luminosity of MASS which explains the complete log(N) - log(P) distribution of GRBs as also the observed isotropic distribution. We further use this model to predict anisotropy in the GRB distribution at intermediate luminosities. We make definite predictions under the stellar flare hypothesis that can be tested in the near future.

  17. Detection prospects for GeV neutrinos from collisionally heated gamma-ray bursts with IceCube/DeepCore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, I; Beloborodov, A M; Hurley, K; Márka, S

    2013-06-14

    Jet reheating via nuclear collisions has recently been proposed as the main mechanism for gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission. In addition to producing the observed gamma rays, collisional heating must generate 10-100 GeV neutrinos, implying a close relation between the neutrino and gamma-ray luminosities. We exploit this theoretical relation to make predictions for possible GRB detections by IceCube + DeepCore. To estimate the expected neutrino signal, we use the largest sample of bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in 1991-2000. GRB neutrinos could have been detected if IceCube + DeepCore operated at that time. Detection of 10-100 GeV neutrinos would have significant implications, shedding light on the composition of GRB jets and their Lorentz factors. This could be an important target in designing future upgrades of the IceCube + DeepCore observatory.

  18. Observation of solar gamma-ray by Hinotori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimori, Masato; Okudaira, Kiyoaki; Hirashima, Yo; Kondo, Ichiro.

    1982-01-01

    The solar gamma-ray emitted by solar flare was observed. The gamma-ray is the electromagnetic radiation with the energy more than 300 keV. The line gamma-ray intensity and the time profile were observed. The gamma-ray detector CsI (Tl) was loaded on Hinotori, and the observed gamma-ray was analyzed by a multi-channel analyzer. The observed line gamma-ray was the radiation from Fe-56 and Ne-20. The line gamma-ray from C-12 and O-16 was also seen. These gamma-ray is the direct evidence of the nuclear reaction on the sun. The observed spectrum suggested the existence of the lines from Mg-24 and Si-28. The intensity of the 2.22 MeV gamma-line was small. This fact showed that the origin of this line was different from other nuclear gamma-ray. Two kinds of hard X-ray bursts were detected. The one was impulsive burst, and the other was gradual burst. There was no time difference between the hard X-ray and the gamma-ray of the impulsive burst. The impulsive burst may be explained by the beam model. The delay of time profile in the high energy gamma-ray of the gradual burst was observed. This means that the time when accelerated electrons cause bremsstrahlung depends on the electron energy. The long trapping of electrons at the top of magnetic loop is suggested. (Kato, T.)

  19. Multichannel CdZnTe Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, F.P.; Lingren, C. L.; Apotovsky, B. A.; Brunsch, J.; Butler, J. F.; Collins, T.; Conwell, R.L.; Friesenhahn, S.; Gormley, J.; Pi, B.; Zhao, S.; Augustine, F.L.; Bennet, B. A.; Cross, E.; James, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    A 3 cm 3 multichannel gamma spectrometer for DOE applications is under development by Digirad Corporation. The device is based on a position sensitive detector packaged in a compact multi-chip module (MCM) with integrated readout circuitry. The modular, multichannel design will enable identification and quantitative analysis of radionuclides in extended sources, or sources containing low levels of activity. The MCM approach has the advantages that the modules are designed for imaging applications, and the sensitivity can be arbitrarily increased by increasing the number of pixels, i.e. adding modules to the instrument. For a high sensitivity probe, the outputs for each pixel can be corrected for gain and offset variations, and summed digitally. Single pixel results obtained with discrete low noise readout indicate energy resolution of 3 keV can be approached with currently available CdZnTe. The energy resolution demonstrated to date with MCMs for 511 keV gamma rays is 10 keV

  20. Operating experience with gamma ray irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, F.M.; Ouwerkerk, T.

    1980-01-01

    The experience of Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL) with radioisotopes dates back to the mid-1940s when radium was marketed for medical purposes. Cobalt-60 came on the scene in 1949 and within a few years a thriving business in cancer teletherapy machines and research irradiators was developed. AECL's first full-scale cobalt-60 gamma ray sterilizer for medical products was installed in 1964. AECL now has over 50 plants and 30 million curies in service around the world. Sixteen years of design experience in cobalt-60 sources, radiation shielding, safety interlock systems, and source pass mechanisms have made gamma irradiators safe, reliable, and easy to operate. This proven technology is being applied in promising new fields such as sludge treatment and food preservation. Cesium-137 is expected to be extensively utilized as the gamma radiation source for these applications

  1. Gravitational wave: gamma-ray burst connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Jim

    2007-05-15

    After 35 years of experimental research, we are rapidly approaching the point at which gravitational waves (GWs) from astrophysical sources may be directly detected by the long-baseline detectors LIGO (USA), GEO 600 (Germany/UK), VIRGO (Italy/France) and TAMA 300 (Japan), which are now in or coming into operation.A promising source of GWs is the coalescence of compact binary systems, events which are now believed to be the origin of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in detector development and exploitation will be given, with particular relevance to a search for signals associated with GRBs, and plans for the future will be discussed.

  2. Gamma-ray burst theory after Swift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Tsvi; Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2007-05-15

    Afterglow observations in the pre-Swift era confirmed to a large extend the relativistic blast wave model for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Together with the observations of properties of host galaxies and the association with (type Ic) SNe, this has led to the generally accepted collapsar origin of long GRBs. However, most of the afterglow data was collected hours after the burst. The X-ray telescope and the UV/optical telescope onboard Swift are able to slew to the direction of a burst in real time and record the early broadband afterglow light curves. These observations, and in particular the X-ray observations, resulted in many surprises. While we have anticipated a smooth transition from the prompt emission to the afterglow, many observed that early light curves are drastically different. We review here how these observations are changing our understanding of GRBs.

  3. New possibilities in prompt gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borderie, B; Barrandon, J N [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Lab. du cyclotron; Pinault, J L [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France)

    1977-01-01

    Prompt gamma ray spectrometry has been used as an analytical tool for many years. The high level of background noise does, however, remain a major problem with this technique. From simple theoretical consideration, conditions (particle, energy) were determined to reduce significantly the background noise under irradiation. Alpha particles of 3.5 MeV were chosen. Some fifty elements were studied, of which 24 gave interesting results. The detection limits obtained for a sample of niobium were as follows: approximately 1 ppm (10/sup -6/g/g) for the light elements Li, B, F and Na, and between 50 ppm and 1% for the others. Numerous applications may be envisaged in the geo- and cosmo-sciences.

  4. Dosimetry for terrestrial gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, S.A.; Dickson, H.W.; Kerr, G.D.; Miah, M.F.K.; Perdue, P.T.

    1975-01-01

    Dose rates from natural radionuclides and 137 Cs in soils of the Oak Ridge area have been determined from in situ and core sample measurements. Information on soil composition, density, and moisture content and on the distribution of cesium in the soil was obtained from the core samples. Measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the samples were made with a 4 x 4 in. NaI detector. Gamma-ray spectroscopy using a lithium-drifted germanium (GeLi) detector has been applied to the determination of radionuclide concentrations in soil and the associated gamma dose rates above the earth plane. An unshielded GeLi detector placed about 1 m above the earth detects gamma radiation from an area of about 100 m 2 . The equipment and data processing procedure are briefly described

  5. New lithology compensated capture gamma ray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peatross, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    The results of the HYDROCARBON* log after a series of field tests in which gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture were measured utilizing an energy analyzer and a scintillation counter of unique construction are reported. A brief discussion covers the nuclear physics required for an understanding of gamma spectral logging. Included in the explanation will be the effects of different atoms on neutrons and photons. The HYDROCARBON log utilizes these nuclear principles to record cased hole measurements and quantitatively distinguish possible productive zones from non-productive zones. Different field examples are illustrated showing the response to shaly sands, porosity and water salinity. Interpretation techniques are discussed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The HYDROCARBON log has proven to be a reliable device in the determination of water saturation in sands behind casing even when shale content and porosity are not well known. This technique is also valuable in the location of the present position of gas--oil contacts and water levels

  6. A review of gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin J

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts, an enigma for more than 25 years, are now coming into focus. They involve extraordinary power outputs, and highly relativistic dynamics. The 'trigger' involves stellar-mass compact objects. The most plausible progenitors, ranging from neutron star binary mergers to collapsars (sometimes called 'hypernovae') eventually lead to the formation of a black hole with a torus of hot neutron-density material around it, the extractable energy being up to 10 sup 5 sup 4 ergs. Magnetic fields may exceed 10 sup 1 sup 5 G and particles may be accelerated up to > or approx. 10 sup 2 sup 0 eV. Details of the afterglow may be easier to understand than the initial trigger. Bursts at very high redshift can be astronomically-important as probes of the distant universe.

  7. Gamma-ray induced doppler broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The ultra high resolving power of the GAMS4 double-flat crystal spectrometer (M.S. Dewey et al Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 284 (1989) 151.) has been used to observe the Doppler broadening of gamma-rays emitted by nuclei recoiling at speeds as low as 10 -6 c. Such recoils may be induced by the previous emission of gamma-radiation following thermal neutron capture. If the population mechanism of an excited state is known (or can be approximated) and the slowing down mechanism can be modeled, then this technique can be used to extract the lifetime of excited nuclear states. The combination of this technique and the neutron capture reaction allows the study of states which cannot necessarily be accessed by other means. This has allowed the resolution of a number of long standing questions in low-spin nuclear structure. The basis of the technique is discussed and a number of examples given

  8. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Radio Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs are extremely energetic events at cosmological distances. They provide unique laboratory to investigate fundamental physical processes under extreme conditions. Due to extreme luminosities, GRBs are detectable at very high redshifts and potential tracers of cosmic star formation rate at early epoch. While the launch of Swift and Fermi has increased our understanding of GRBs tremendously, many new questions have opened up. Radio observations of GRBs uniquely probe the energetics and environments of the explosion. However, currently only 30% of the bursts are detected in radio bands. Radio observations with upcoming sensitive telescopes will potentially increase the sample size significantly and allow one to follow the individual bursts for a much longer duration and be able to answer some of the important issues related to true calorimetry, reverse shock emission, and environments around the massive stars exploding as GRBs in the early Universe.

  9. Gamma-Rays from Galactic Compact Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2007-04-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed many sources of TeV photons in our Mikly Way galaxy powered by compact objects, either neutron stars or black holes. These objects must be powerful particle accelerators, some with peak energies of at least 100 TeV, and may be neutrino, as well as photon, sources. Future TeV observations will enable us to address key questions concerning particle acceleration by compact objects including the fraction of energy which accreting black holes channel into relativstic jet production, whether the compact object jets are leptonic or hadronic, and the mechanism by which pulsar winds accelerate relativistic particles. We report on work done related to compact Galactic objects in preparation of a White Paper on the status and future of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy requested by the Division of Astrophysics of the American Physical Society.

  10. Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Dainotti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism responsible for the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs is still a debated issue. The prompt phase-related GRB correlations can allow discriminating among the most plausible theoretical models explaining this emission. We present an overview of the observational two-parameter correlations, their physical interpretations, and their use as redshift estimators and possibly as cosmological tools. The nowadays challenge is to make GRBs, the farthest stellar-scaled objects observed (up to redshift z=9.4, standard candles through well established and robust correlations. However, GRBs spanning several orders of magnitude in their energetics are far from being standard candles. We describe the advances in the prompt correlation research in the past decades, with particular focus paid to the discoveries in the last 20 years.

  11. Nuclear gamma ray lines from supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, J.O.D.

    1980-01-01

    From theoretical considerations of the behaviour of gamma ray line fluxes occurring after a supernova explosion, the 1.156 and 0.847 MeV lines are seen to be the most likely to be observed. The 1.156 MeV line has been previously observed by other investigators. Observations of the 0.847 MeV line, and 1.332, 1.173 and 0.059 MeV lines using a Ge(Li) telescope aboard a stratospheric balloon which was flown in Brazil in 1977 are reported. The observation using a NaI(Tl) detector of a line in the energy interval 1.5 - 1.6 MeV, which may be due to 0 18 (p,p') 0 18 sup (*) reaction is also reported. (Author) [pt

  12. Theoretical Study of Gamma-ray Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwong Sang Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We use the non-stationary three dimensional two-layer outer gap model to explain gamma-ray emissions from a pulsar magnetosphere. We found out that for some pulsars like the Geminga pulsar, it was hard to explain emissions above a level of around 1 GeV. We then developed the model into a non-stationary model. In this model we assigned a power-law distribution to one or more of the spectral parameters proposed in the previous model and calculated the weighted phaseaveraged spectrum. Though this model is suitable for some pulsars, it still cannot explain the high energy emission of the Geminga pulsar. An Inverse-Compton Scattering component between the primary particles and the radio photons in the outer magnetosphere was introduced into the model, and this component produced a sufficient number of GeV photons in the spectrum of the Geminga pulsar.

  13. Gamma ray induced somatic mutations in rose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    Budwood of 32 rose cultivars (Rosa spp.) was exposed to 3-4 krad of gamma rays and eyes were grafted on Rosa indica var. odorata root stock. Radiosensitivity with respect to sprouting, survival and plant height, and mutation frequency varied with the cultivar and dose of gamma rays. Somatic mutations in flower colour/shape were detected as chimera in 21 cultivars. The size of the mutant sector varied from a narrow streak on a petal to a whole flower and from a portion of a branch to an entire branch. 14 mutants were detected in M 1 V 1 , four in M 1 V 2 and three in M 1 V 3 . Maximum number of mutations was detected following 3 krad treatment. Eyes from mutant branches were grafted again on root stock and non-chimeric mutants were aimed at by vegetative propagation. Mutants from 11 cultivars only could be isolated in pure form. Isolation of non-chimeric mutants sometimes is difficult due to weak growth of a mutant branch. In such a case, all normal looking branches are removed to force a better growth of the mutant branch. It is advisable to maintain irradiated plants at least for four years with drastic pruning in each year. Nine mutants viz. 'Sharada', 'Sukumari', 'Tangerine Contempo', 'Yellow Contempo', 'Pink Contempo', 'Striped Contempo', 'Twinkle', 'Curio' and 'Light Pink Prize' have already been released as new cultivars for commercialization [ref. MBNL No. 23 and 31] and others are being multiplied and assessed. The mutation spectrum appears to be wider for the cultivars 'Contempo' and 'Imperator'. Pigment composition of the original variety is relevant for the kind of flower colour mutations that can be induced

  14. High dose gamma-ray standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrin, R.; Moraru, R.

    1999-01-01

    The high gamma-ray doses produced in a gamma irradiator are used, mainly, for radiation processing, i.e. sterilization of medical products, processing of food, modifications of polymers, irradiation of electronic devices, a.s.o. The used absorbed doses depend on the application and cover the range 10 Gy to 100 MGy. The regulations in our country require that the response of the dosimetry systems, used for the irradiation of food and medical products, be calibrated and traceable to the national standards. In order to be sure that the products receive the desired absorbed dose, appropriate dosimetric measurements must be performed, including the calibration of the dosemeters and their traceability to the national standards. The high dose gamma-ray measurements are predominantly based on the use of reference radiochemical dosemeters. Among them the ferrous sulfate can be used as reference dosemeter for low doses (up to 400 Gy) but due to its characteristics it deserves to be considered a standard dosemeter and to be used for transferring the conventional absorbed dose to other chemical dosemeters used for absorbed doses up to 100 MGy. The study of the ferrous sulfate dosemeter consisted in preparing many batches of solution by different operators in quality assurance conditions and in determining for all batches the linearity, the relative intrinsic error, the repeatability and the reproducibility. The principal results are the following: the linear regression coefficient: 0.999, the relative intrinsic error: max.6 %, the repeatability (for P* = 95 %): max.3 %, the reproducibility (P* = 95%): max.5 %. (authors)

  15. Activation of wine bentonite with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranov, N.; Antonov, M.

    1997-01-01

    The action of gamma rays on wine bentonite as well as influence of its adsorption and technologic qualities on the composition and stability of wines against protein darkening and precipitation has been studied. The experiments were carried out with wine bentonite produced in the firm Bentonite and irradiated with doses of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 MR. White and red wines have been treated with irradiated bentonite under laboratory conditions at 1.0 g/dm 3 . All samples are treated at the same conditions. The flocculation rate of the sediment was determined visually. Samples have been taken 24 h later from the cleared wine layers. The following parameters have been determined: clarification, filtration rate, phenolic compounds, calcium, colour intensity, total extracted substances, etc. The volume of the sediment has been determined also. The control samples have been taken from the same unirradiated wines. The results showed better and faster clarification in on the third, the 20th and the 24th hours with using of gamma-irradiated at doses 0.8 and 1.0 MR. The sediment was the most compact and its volume - the smallest compared to the samples treated with bentonite irradiated with doses of 0.6 and 0.4 MR. This ensures a faster clarification and better filtration of treated wines. The bentonite activated with doses of 0.8 and 1.0 MR adsorbs the phenolic compounds and the complex protein-phenolic molecules better. In the same time it adsorbs less extracted substances compared to untreated bentonite and so preserves all organoleptic properties of wine. The irradiated bentonite adsorbs less the monomers of anthocyan compounds which ensures brighter natural colour of wine. The gamma-rays activation consolidates calcium in the crystal lattice of bentonite particles and in this way eliminates the formation of crystal precipitates

  16. A new processing technique for airborne gamma-ray data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical-statistical background for at new technique for processing gamma-ray spectra is presented. The technique - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition - decomposes at set of gamma-ray spectra into a few basic spectra - the spectral components. The spectral components can be proce...

  17. Pulser injection with subsequent removal for gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Goodwin, S.G.; Johnson, L.O.; Killian, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a module for use with a gamma-ray spectroscopy system. The system includes a gamma-ray detector for detecting gamma-ray events and producing a signal representing the gamma-ray events, a converter responsive to the detector and capable of converting the signal to a spectrum, a storage memory responsive to the converter and capable of storing the spectrum at address locations in memory, and a pulser capable of injecting pulses into the signal produced by the detector. The module comprises: means for generating a logic pulse for controlling the pulser, the controlling means adapted for coupling to the pulser; means for generating separation of events logic to isolate the components of a combined gamma-ray---pulse spectrum, the separation of events logic means adapted for coupling to the converter and the storage memory with the capability of storing pulses at address locations in the storage memory separate from the gamma-ray events; means for receiving an imitating signal from the converter to generate a plurality of operations by the module; means for tracking variations in a gamma-ray---pulse spectrum brought on by external parameter changes; and means for interfacing with commercially developed gamma-ray spectrometry equipment

  18. Effectiveness of gamma ray irradiation and ethyl methane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival rate and plantlet performance of DNKW001 in gamma ray + EMS 7uM treatment declined profoundly with increasing doses and LD50 was lower (104 Gy) than LD50 in gamma ray irradiation (177 Gy) alone. Variants of plantlets were detected in pre (white streaked leaf and bigger petiole with distorted leaf) and post ...

  19. Wolf-Rayet stars as gamma-ray burst progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langer, N.; van Marle, A. -J; Yoon, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    It became clear in the last few years that long gamma-ray bursts are associated with the endpoints of massive star evolution. They occur in star forming regions at cosmological distances (Jakobsson et al., 2005), and are associated with supernova-type energies. The collapsar model explains gamma-ray

  20. The First Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermann, M.; et al., [Unknown; van der Horst, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (gsim 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected

  1. Gamma ray bursts observed with WATCH‐EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The WATCH wide field x‐ray monitor has the capability of independently locating bright Gamma Ray Bursts to 1° accuracy. We report the preliminary positions of 12 Gamma Ray Bursts observed with the WATCH monitor flown on the ES spacecraft EURECA during its 11 month mission. Also the recurrence...

  2. The many phases of gamma-ray burst afterglows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leventis, K.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest sources in the universe. Their afterglows have been observed for about 15 years now, and their study has greatly advanced our understanding of these, mysterious until recently, events. In a way, gamma-ray bursts can be seen as huge cosmic bombs which convert

  3. Gamma ray bursts: Current status of observations and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meegan, C.A.

    1990-04-01

    Gamma ray bursts display a wide range of temporal and spectral characteristics, but typically last several seconds and emit most of their energy in a low energy, gamma ray region. The burst sources appear to be isotropically distributed on the sky. Several lines of evidence suggest magnetic neutron stars as sources for bursts. A variety of energy sources and emission mechanisms are proposed

  4. Supernova sheds light on gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 29 March the HETE-II satellite detected the most violent explosion in the universe to date - an enormous burst of gamma rays. Observers across the world recorded and studied the event. It appears to prove that gamma ray bursts originate in supernovae (1 page)

  5. X and gamma ray backgroud observations in Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, U.B.

    1988-01-01

    Atmospheric X amd gamma rays are products of complex electromagnetic interation between charged particles and atmospheric constituents. The latitudinal dependence of the cosmic rays secondaries, auroral and South Atlantic Anomaly phenomena produce flux variations, especially the later temporal flux variations. We propose to discuss these variations in relevance to balloon flight observations of X and gamma ray atmospheric background at polar latitudes. (author) [pt

  6. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H.J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  7. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  8. Observational techniques of gamma rays astronomy in low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.M. da.

    1982-02-01

    Due to the absorption of great part of the gamma-ray spectrum of cosmic origin, by the earth's atmosphere at heights above 20Km, gamma-ray astronomy achieved its full development only after the advent of the space age. Ballons and satellites are the space vehicles which have been used to transport gamma-ray telescopes to observational heights in the atmosphere, or out of it. The results of these experiments can determine the sources, the energy spectra and the intensities of the cosmic gamma-rays, and provide other important information of astrophysical interest. The detection of gamma-rays of cosmic origin is very difficult. The observational techniques used in gamma-ray astronomy are dependent on the energy range of the gamma-rays which one desires to detect. The most common telescopes of low energy gamma-ray astronomy (50KeV - 20MeV) use NaI(Tl) scintillators, or germanium diodes, as principal detectors, surrounded by an active shield (anticoincidence) of organic or inorganic scintillators. (Author) [pt

  9. Gamma Ray Tomographic Scan Method for Large Scale Industrial Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jin Ho; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Park, Jang Geun

    2011-01-01

    The gamma ray tomography systems have been used to investigate a chemical process for last decade. There have been many cases of gamma ray tomography for laboratory scale work but not many cases for industrial scale work. Non-tomographic equipment with gamma-ray sources is often used in process diagnosis. Gamma radiography, gamma column scanning and the radioisotope tracer technique are examples of gamma ray application in industries. In spite of many outdoor non-gamma ray tomographic equipment, the most of gamma ray tomographic systems still remained as indoor equipment. But, as the gamma tomography has developed, the demand on gamma tomography for real scale plants also increased. To develop the industrial scale system, we introduced the gamma-ray tomographic system with fixed detectors and rotating source. The general system configuration is similar to 4 th generation geometry. But the main effort has been made to actualize the instant installation of the system for real scale industrial plant. This work would be a first attempt to apply the 4th generation industrial gamma tomographic scanning by experimental method. The individual 0.5-inch NaI detector was used for gamma ray detection by configuring circular shape around industrial plant. This tomographic scan method can reduce mechanical complexity and require a much smaller space than a conventional CT. Those properties make it easy to get measurement data for a real scale plant

  10. Bulk density calculations from prompt gamma ray yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Nagadi, M.M.; Al-Amoudi, O.S.B.; Maslehuddin, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The gamma ray yield from a Prompt Gamma ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup is a linear function of element concentration and neutron flux in a the sample with constant bulk density. If the sample bulk density varies as well, then the element concentration and the neutron flux has a nonlinear correlation with the gamma ray yield [1]. The measurement of gamma ray yield non-linearity from samples and a standard can be used to estimate the bulk density of the samples. In this study the prompt gamma ray yield from Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Ash, Silica Fumes and Superpozz cements samples have been measured as a function of their calcium and silicon concentration using KFUPM accelerator-based PGNAA setup [2]. Due to different bulk densities of the blended cement samples, the measured gamma ray yields have nonlinear correlation with calcium and silicon concentration of the samples. The non-linearity in the yield was observed to increase with gamma rays energy and element concentration. The bulk densities of the cement samples were calculated from ratio of gamma ray yield from blended cement and that from a Portland cement standard. The calculated bulk densities have good agreement with the published data. The result of this study will be presented

  11. Discoveries by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Fermi is a large space gamma-ray mission developed by NASA and the DOE with major contributions from France, Germany, Italy, Japan and Sweden. It was launched in June 2008 and has been performing flawlessly since then. The main instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT) operating in the 20 MeV to 300 GeV range and a smaller monitor instrument is the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) operating in the 8 keV to 40 MeV range. New findings are occurring every week. Some of the key discoveries are: 1) Discovery of many new gamma-ray pulsars, including gamma-ray only and millisecond pulsars. 2) Detection of high energy gamma-ray emission from globular clusters, most likely due to summed emission from msec pulsars. 3) Discovery of delayed and extended high energy gamma-ray emission from short and long gamma-ray busts. 4) Detection of approximately 250 gamma-ray bursts per year with the GBM instrument. 5) Most accurate measurement of the cosmic ray electron spectrum between 30 GeV and 1 TeV, showing some excess above the conventional diffusion model. The talk will present the new discoveries and their implications.

  12. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts from BATSE - Another great debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dieter H.; The, Lih-Sin; Clayton, Donald D.; Schnepf, Neil G.; Linder, Eric V.

    1992-01-01

    The BATSE detectors aboard Compton Observatory record about one cosmic gamma-ray burst (GRB) per day. Preliminary data analysis shows a highly isotropic sky map and a nonuniform brightness distribution. Anisotropies expected from a Galactic neutron star population, the most frequently considered source model, did not emerge from the data. Taken at face value, the data seem to suggest a heliocentric solution of the GRB puzzle. The observed isotropy can be achieved if sources are either very near or extragalactic. Pop I neutron stars in the disk do not simultaneously fit sky and brightness distributions. A possibility are sources in an extended Galactic halo with scale length large enough to avoid strong anisotropies due to the solar offset from the Galactic center. If GRBs are located in an extended halo we ask whether the neutron star paradigm can survive. We show that the recently discovered high velocity radio pulsars may provide a natural source population for GRBs. If these pulsars formed in the halo, as suggested by the radio data, the possibility arises that GRBs and high velocity pulsars are two related phenomena that provide observational evidence of the dark Galactic corona. We also discuss cosmological redshift constraints that follow from the observed brightness distribution.

  13. The gamma-ray sky as seen with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüntemeyer, Petra

    2015-12-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) TeV Gamma-Ray Observatory located at a site about two hours drive east of Puebla, Mexico on the Sierra Negra plateau (4100 m a.s.l.) was inaugurated in March 2015. The array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors can observe large portions of the sky simultaneously and, with an energy range of 100 GeV to 100 TeV, is currently one of the most sensitive instruments capable of probing particle acceleration near PeV energies. HAWC has already started science operation in the Summer of 2013 and preliminary sky maps have been produced from 260 days of data taken with a partial array. Multiple > 5 σ (pre-trials) hotspots are visible along the galactic plane and some appear to coincide with known TeV sources from the H.E.S.S. catalog, SNRs and molecular cloud associations, and pulsars wind nebulae (PWNe). The sky maps based on partial HAWC array data are discussed as well as the scientific potential of the completed instrument especially in the context of multi-wavelengths studies.

  14. The gamma-ray sky as seen with HAWC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüntemeyer Petra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC TeV Gamma-Ray Observatory located at a site about two hours drive east of Puebla, Mexico on the Sierra Negra plateau (4100 m a.s.l. was inaugurated in March 2015. The array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors can observe large portions of the sky simultaneously and, with an energy range of 100 GeV to 100 TeV, is currently one of the most sensitive instruments capable of probing particle acceleration near PeV energies. HAWC has already started science operation in the Summer of 2013 and preliminary sky maps have been produced from 260 days of data taken with a partial array. Multiple > 5 σ (pre-trials hotspots are visible along the galactic plane and some appear to coincide with known TeV sources from the H.E.S.S. catalog, SNRs and molecular cloud associations, and pulsars wind nebulae (PWNe. The sky maps based on partial HAWC array data are discussed as well as the scientific potential of the completed instrument especially in the context of multi-wavelengths studies.

  15. MAGNETIC STRUCTURES IN GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS PROBED BY GAMMA-RAY POLARIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Murakami, Toshio; Morihara, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Takuya; Wakashima, Yudai; Yonemochi, Hajime; Sakashita, Tomonori; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kodama, Yoshiki [College of Science and Engineering, School of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Gunji, Shuichi; Toukairin, Noriyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12, Koshirakawa, Yamagata, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Mihara, Tatehiro [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako City, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Toma, Kenji, E-mail: yonetoku@astro.s.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2012-10-10

    We report polarization measurements in two prompt emissions of gamma-ray bursts, GRB 110301A and GRB 110721A, observed with the gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP) on borad the IKAROS solar sail mission. We detected linear polarization signals from each burst with polarization degree of {Pi} = 70 {+-} 22% with statistical significance of 3.7{sigma} for GRB 110301A, and {Pi} = 84{sup +16}{sub -28}% with 3.3{sigma} confidence level for GRB 110721A. We did not detect any significant change of polarization angle. These two events had shorter durations and dimmer brightness compared with GRB 100826A, which showed a significant change of polarization angle, as reported in Yonetoku et al. Synchrotron emission model can be consistent with the data of the three GRBs, while the photospheric quasi-thermal emission model is not favored. We suggest that magnetic field structures in the emission region are globally ordered fields advected from the central engine.

  16. The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens

    2013-06-13

    The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general.

  17. Gamma-Ray Bursts: 4th Huntsville Symposium. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meegan, C.A.; Preece, R.D.; Koshut, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Fourth Huntsville Gamma-Ray Bursts Symposium held in September, 1997 in Huntsville, Alabama, USA. This conference occurred at a crucial time in the history of the gamma-ray burst research. In early 1997, 30 years after the detection of the first gamma-ray burst by the Vela satellites, counterparts to bursts were finally detected at optical and radio wavelengths. The symposium attracted about 200 scientists from 16 countries. Some of the topics discussed include gamma-ray burst spectra, x-ray observations, optical observations, radio observations, host galaxies, shocks and afterglows and models of gamma-ray bursts. There were 183 papers presented, out of these, 16 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  18. Recent achievements in the field of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Tan; Dai Zigao

    2001-01-01

    Recent progresses in the field of gamma-ray bursts is briefly introduced. Gamma-ray bursts are the most energetic explosion since the Big Bang of the universe. Within a few tens of seconds, the energy released in gamma-ray bursts could be several hundred times larger than that released form the sun in its whole life (about 10 billion years). The authors will first briefly discuss the observational facts, based on which the authors will discuss the standard fireball model, the dynamical behavior and evolution of gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows. Then, various observational phenomena that contradict the standard model are given and the importance of these post-standard effects are pointed out. The questions related to the energy source of gamma-ray bursts are still unanswered, and other important questions also remain to be solved

  19. THE Ep EVOLUTIONARY SLOPE WITHIN THE DECAY PHASE OF 'FAST RISE AND EXPONENTIAL DECAY' GAMMA-RAY BURST PULSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Z. Y.; Ma, L.; Yin, Y.; Zhao, X. H.; Fang, L. M.; Bao, Y. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Employing two samples containing of 56 and 59 well-separated fast rise and exponential decay gamma-ray burst pulses whose spectra are fitted by the Band spectrum and Compton model, respectively, we have investigated the evolutionary slope of E p (where E p is the peak energy in the νFν spectrum) with time during the pulse decay phase. The bursts in the samples were observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. We first test the E p evolutionary slope during the pulse decay phase predicted by Lu et al. based on the model of highly symmetric expanding fireballs in which the curvature effect of the expanding fireball surface is the key factor concerned. It is found that the evolutionary slopes are normally distributed for both samples and concentrated around the values of 0.73 and 0.76 for Band and Compton model, respectively, which is in good agreement with the theoretical expectation of Lu et al.. However, the inconsistency with their results is that the intrinsic spectra of most of bursts may bear the Comptonized or thermal synchrotron spectrum, rather than the Band spectrum. The relationships between the evolutionary slope and the spectral parameters are also checked. We show that the slope is correlated with E p of time-integrated spectra as well as the photon flux but anticorrelated with the lower energy index α. In addition, a correlation between the slope and the intrinsic E p derived by using the pseudo-redshift is also identified. The mechanisms of these correlations are unclear currently and the theoretical interpretations are required.

  20. Gamma-Ray imaging for nuclear security and safety: Towards 3-D gamma-ray vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Kai; Barnowksi, Ross; Haefner, Andrew; Joshi, Tenzing H. Y.; Pavlovsky, Ryan; Quiter, Brian J.

    2018-01-01

    The development of portable gamma-ray imaging instruments in combination with the recent advances in sensor and related computer vision technologies enable unprecedented capabilities in the detection, localization, and mapping of radiological and nuclear materials in complex environments relevant for nuclear security and safety. Though multi-modal imaging has been established in medicine and biomedical imaging for some time, the potential of multi-modal data fusion for radiological localization and mapping problems in complex indoor and outdoor environments remains to be explored in detail. In contrast to the well-defined settings in medical or biological imaging associated with small field-of-view and well-constrained extension of the radiation field, in many radiological search and mapping scenarios, the radiation fields are not constrained and objects and sources are not necessarily known prior to the measurement. The ability to fuse radiological with contextual or scene data in three dimensions, in analog to radiological and functional imaging with anatomical fusion in medicine, provides new capabilities enhancing image clarity, context, quantitative estimates, and visualization of the data products. We have developed new means to register and fuse gamma-ray imaging with contextual data from portable or moving platforms. These developments enhance detection and mapping capabilities as well as provide unprecedented visualization of complex radiation fields, moving us one step closer to the realization of gamma-ray vision in three dimensions.

  1. Extra-light gamma-ray imager for safeguards and homeland security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Oleg P.; Semin, Ilya A.; Potapov, Victor N.; Stepanov, Vyacheslav E. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, 123182, (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-ray imaging is the most important way to identify unknown gamma-ray emitting objects in decommissioning, security, overcoming accidents. Over the past two decades a system for producing of gamma images in these conditions became more or less portable devices. But in recent years these systems have become the hand-held devices. This is very important, especially in emergency situations, and measurements for safety reasons. We describe the first integrated hand-held instrument for emergency and security applications. The device is based on the coded aperture image formation, position sensitive gamma-ray (X-ray) detector Medipix2 (detectors produces by X-ray Imaging Europe) and tablet computer. The development was aimed at creating a very low weight system with high angular resolution. We present some sample gamma-ray images by camera. Main estimated parameters of the system are the following. The field of view video channel ∼ 490 deg. The field of view gamma channel ∼ 300 deg. The sensitivity of the system with a hexagonal mask for the source of Cs-137 (Eg = 662 keV), is in units of dose D ∼ 100 mR. This option is less then order of magnitude worse than for the heavy, non-hand-held systems (e.g., gamma-camera Cartogam, by Canberra.) The angular resolution of the gamma channel for the sources of Cs-137 (Eg = 662 keV) is about 1.20 deg. (authors)

  2. Verification of Gamma-ray Sensitivity for BF3 Neutron Detection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yu Sun; Cho, Jin Bok; Lyou, Seok Jean

    2016-01-01

    The BF3(Boron Tri-Fluorides) gas filled neutron detector(hereafter BF3 Detector) is commonly used for nuclear reactor’s startup channel due to its relatively high neutron efficiency and good discrimination against gamma-ray backgrounds. In order to measure how much this gamma-ray will affect on BF3 neutron detector performance in view of gamma noise discrimination, Multi-Channel Analyzer(MCA) is utilized for spectrum based signal analysis. The pre-test of BF3 Detector should be performed in an area where the ionization does not exceed 2.5 micro Gy/Hr(Ref.1). In this paper, the discrimination level (Voltage Unit) is verified by experimentally measurement if that discrimination level is acceptable within the criteria or not before installation. The maximum discrimination level, so called LLD, is determined by experimentally measurement. This BF3 Detector (LND20372) is insensitive under 540 micro Gy/Hr of gamma ray and 0.3V of LLD could cut off a background and gamma induced signal in a laboratory. MCA could be a convenient tool for spectrum analysis of signals that induced from gamma ray and a time saving tool rather than oscilloscope investigation due to its function to integrate all input signals at a sudden duration

  3. Handheld real-time volumetric 3-D gamma-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefner, Andrew, E-mail: ahaefner@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab – Applied Nuclear Physics, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barnowski, Ross [Department of Nuclear Engineering, UC Berkeley, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Luke, Paul; Amman, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab – Applied Nuclear Physics, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vetter, Kai [Department of Nuclear Engineering, UC Berkeley, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab – Applied Nuclear Physics, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-06-11

    This paper presents the concept of real-time fusion of gamma-ray imaging and visual scene data for a hand-held mobile Compton imaging system in 3-D. The ability to obtain and integrate both gamma-ray and scene data from a mobile platform enables improved capabilities in the localization and mapping of radioactive materials. This not only enhances the ability to localize these materials, but it also provides important contextual information of the scene which once acquired can be reviewed and further analyzed subsequently. To demonstrate these concepts, the high-efficiency multimode imager (HEMI) is used in a hand-portable implementation in combination with a Microsoft Kinect sensor. This sensor, in conjunction with open-source software, provides the ability to create a 3-D model of the scene and to track the position and orientation of HEMI in real-time. By combining the gamma-ray data and visual data, accurate 3-D maps of gamma-ray sources are produced in real-time. This approach is extended to map the location of radioactive materials within objects with unknown geometry.

  4. EARLY OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS BY THE TAROT TELESCOPES: PERIOD 2001-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Atteia, J. L.; Gendre, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Telescopes a Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires telescopes are two robotic observatories designed to observe the prompt optical emission counterpart and the early afterglow of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present data acquired between 2001 and 2008 and discuss the properties of the optical emission of GRBs, noting various interesting results. The optical emission observed during the prompt GRB phase is rarely very bright: we estimate that 5%-20% of GRBs exhibit a bright optical flash (R < 14) during the prompt gamma-ray emission, and that more than 50% of the GRBs have an optical emission fainter than R = 15.5 when the gamma-ray emission is active. We study the apparent optical brightness distribution of GRBs at 1000 s showing that our observations confirm the distribution derived by other groups. The combination of these results with those obtained by other rapid slewing telescopes allows us to better characterize the early optical emission of GRBs and to emphasize the importance of very early multiwavelength GRB studies for the understanding of the physics of the ejecta.

  5. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From PSR J2021 3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, Marco; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, William B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Battelino, Milan; /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, Bijan; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bogaert, G.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Borgland, Anders W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Columbia U. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /LPCE, Orleans /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /ASI, Rome /NRAO, Charlottesville /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Manchester U. /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; /more authors..

    2011-11-30

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the young, spin-powered radio pulsar PSR J2021+3651 using data acquired with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The light curve consists of two narrow peaks of similar amplitude separated by 0.468 {+-} 0.002 in phase. The first peak lags the maximum of the 2 GHz radio pulse by 0.162 {+-} 0.004 {+-} 0.01 in phase. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 100 MeV is (56 {+-} 3 {+-} 11) x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The photon spectrum is well-described by an exponentially cut-off power law of the form dF/dE = kE{sup -{Gamma}}e{sup (-E/E{sub c})} where the energy E is expressed in GeV. The photon index is {Gamma} = 1.5 {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.1 and the exponential cut-off is E{sub c} = 2.4 {+-} 0.3 {+-} 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral photon flux of the bridge is approximately 10% of the pulsed emission, and the upper limit on off-pulse gamma-ray emission from a putative pulsar wind nebula is < 10% of the pulsed emission at the 95% confidence level. Radio polarization measurements yield a rotation measure of RM = 524 {+-} 4 rad m{sup -2} but a poorly constrained magnetic geometry. Re-analysis of Chandra data enhanced the significance of the weak X-ray pulsations, and the first peak is roughly phase-aligned with the first gamma-ray peak. We discuss the emission region and beaming geometry based on the shape and spectrum of the gamma-ray light curve combined with radio and X-ray measurements, and the implications for the pulsar distance. Gamma-ray emission from the polar cap region seems unlikely for this pulsar.

  6. Integration of space geodesy: a US National Geodetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Neilan, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    In the interest of improving the performance and efficiency of space geodesy a diverse group in the U.S., in collaboration with IGGOS, has begun to establish a unified National Geodetic Observatory (NGO).

  7. Gamma ray sensitivity of superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawamura, Teruko; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Narita, Masakuni

    2000-01-01

    The superheated drop detector (SDD) is composed of droplets of sensitive liquid with a low-boiling point and a medium supporting the dispersed droplets throughout the medium. The SDD has been mainly used for neutron dosimetry and recently also for gamma-rays. While for neutrons the conditions for bubble formation have been discussed, there has been little work for gamma-rays. We investigated the conditions for low LET radiation, such as protons and gamma-rays, and showed octafluoropropane (C 3 F 8 , boiling point -36.7degC) as advantageous liquid. The bubble formation condition is given by the energy density imparted from the charged particle to the sensitive liquid. The energy density requirement means that the energy must be deposited over a definite region length, effective to produce the vapor nucleus that becomes the visible bubble. Recently for γ-rays, Evans and Wang proposed the model that the vaporization was triggered by the energy deposition in a 'cluster' including many events in proximity in a superheated liquid. Measurements of the γ-ray sensitivity have not been sufficiently carried out and therefore the effective length or the cluster model has not been well-established. In this study the detection sensitivity was evaluated by measuring the life time of a liquid drop exposed to γ-rays. We developed a device trapping a superheated drop, where a single drop of test liquid was trapped and decompressed by an acoustic standing wave field. When a liquid drop with volume V[cm 3 ] is exposed to a γ-ray flux φ γ [cm -2 s -1 ], the average evaporation rate λ(T, P) [s -1 ] (T: temperature, P: decompressed pressure) is expressed as λ(T, P)=K γ Vφ γ (1), K γ [cm -1 ] is the γ-ray detection sensitivity per unit volume of the sensitive liquid and unit fluence. If the average rate of spontaneous evaporation is λ 0 (T, P), then the probability distribution of the life time t, the probability that t > τ, is expressed by X(τ)=exp{-(λ+λ 0 )

  8. ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H W; Young, C S; Mack, J M; Kim, Y H; McEvoy, A; Evans, S; Sedillo, T; Batha, S; Schmitt, M; Wilson, D C; Langenbrunner, J R; Malone, R; Kaufman, M I; Cox, B C; Frogget, B; Tunnell, T W; Miller, E K; Ali, Z A; Stoeffl, W; Horsfield, C J

    2010-01-01

    Reaction history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be employed to help steer the National Ignition Facility (NIF) towards ignition. Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of nuclear interaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Gas Cherenkov Detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. In particular, bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics are being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases. The first phase consists of four channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at ∼6 m from target chamber center (GRH-6m) coupled to ultra-fast photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). This system is intended to operate in the 10 13 -10 17 neutron yield range expected during the early THD campaign. It will have high enough bandwidth to provide accurate bang times and burn widths for the expected THD reaction histories (> 80 ps fwhm). Successful operation of the first GRH-6m channel has been demonstrated at OMEGA, allowing a verification of instrument sensitivity, timing and EMI/background suppression. The second phase will consist of several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from target chamber center (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs. This system is intended to operate in the 10 16 -10 20 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign, providing higher temporal resolution

  9. ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Batha, S.; Schmitt, M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Malone, R.; Kaufman, M. I.; Cox, B. C.; Frogget, B.; Miller, E. K.; Ali, Z. A.; Tunnell, T. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.

    2010-08-01

    Reaction history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be employed to help steer the National Ignition Facility (NIF) towards ignition. Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of nuclear interaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Gas Cherenkov Detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. In particular, bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics are being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases. The first phase consists of four channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at ~6 m from target chamber center (GRH-6m) coupled to ultra-fast photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). This system is intended to operate in the 1013-1017 neutron yield range expected during the early THD campaign. It will have high enough bandwidth to provide accurate bang times and burn widths for the expected THD reaction histories (> 80 ps fwhm). Successful operation of the first GRH-6m channel has been demonstrated at OMEGA, allowing a verification of instrument sensitivity, timing and EMI/background suppression. The second phase will consist of several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from target chamber center (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs. This system is intended to operate in the 1016-1020 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign, providing higher temporal resolution for the

  10. Prompt gamma-ray analysis of steel slag in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Akhtar Abbas; Garwan, Muhammad Ahmad; Nagadi, Mahmoud Mohammad; Rehman, Khateeb-ur; Raashid, Mohammad; Masalehuddin Mohiuddin, Mohammad; Al-Amoudi, Omar Saeed Baghabra

    2009-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS) is added to Portland cement concrete to increase its durability, particularly its corrosion resistance. Monitoring the concentration of BFS in concrete for quality control purposes is desired. In this study, the concentration of BFS in concrete was measured by utilizing an accelerator-based prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The optimum size of the BFS cement concrete specimen that produces the maximum intensity of gamma rays at the detector location was calculated through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results were experimentally validated through the gamma-ray yield measurement from BFS cement concrete specimens having different radii. The concentration of BFS in the cement concrete specimens was assessed through calcium and silicon gamma-ray yield measurement from cement concrete specimens containing 5 to 80 wt% BFS. The yield of calcium gamma rays decreases with increasing BFS concentration in concrete while the yield of silicon gamma rays increases with increasing BFS concentration in concrete. The calcium-to-silicon gamma-ray yield ratio has an inverse relation with BFS concentration in concrete. (author)

  11. Design Study for Direction Variable Compton Scattering Gamma Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, T.; Omer, M.; Negm, H.; Choi, Y. W.; Kinjo, R.; Yoshida, K.; Konstantin, T.; Kimura, N.; Ishida, K.; Imon, H.; Shibata, M.; Shimahashi, K.; Komai, T.; Okumura, K.; Zen, H.; Masuda, K.; Hori, T.; Ohgaki, H.

    2013-03-01

    A monochromatic gamma ray beam is attractive for isotope-specific material/medical imaging or non-destructive inspection. A laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma ray source which is based on the backward Compton scattering of laser light on high-energy electrons can generate energy variable quasi-monochromatic gamma ray. Due to the principle of the LCS gamma ray, the direction of the gamma beam is limited to the direction of the high-energy electrons. Then the target object is placed on the beam axis, and is usually moved if spatial scanning is required. In this work, we proposed an electron beam transport system consisting of four bending magnets which can stick the collision point and control the electron beam direction, and a laser system consisting of a spheroidal mirror and a parabolic mirror which can also stick the collision point. Then the collision point can be placed on one focus of the spheroid. Thus gamma ray direction and collision angle between the electron beam and the laser beam can be easily controlled. As the results, travelling direction of the LCS gamma ray can be controlled under the limitation of the beam transport system, energy of the gamma ray can be controlled by controlling incident angle of the colliding beams, and energy spread can be controlled by changing the divergence of the laser beam.

  12. The LASL gamma-ray burst astronomy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebesadel, R.W.; Evans, W.D.; Laros, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst observations performed by LASL began with the identification and initial report of the phenomenon from data acquired by the Vela satellites. The Vela instruments have recorded responses to 73 gamma-ray bursts over a ten-year interval, and are continuing to contribute toward these observations. Similar instrumentation was included aboard the NRL SOLRAD 11 spacecraft. These performed well but suffered an early demise. Recently, the LASL gamma-ray burst astronomy program has been enhanced through the implementation of experiments aboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and ISEF-C spacecraft. Both of these experiments are continuing to contribute data vital to trigonometric directional analyses. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of effective dose equivalent from environmental gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Tsutsumi, M.; Moriuchi, S.; Petoussi, N.; Zankl, M.; Veit, R.; Jacob, P.; Drexler, G.

    1991-01-01

    Organ doses and effective dose equivalents for environmental gamma rays were calculated using human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods accounting rigorously the environmental gamma ray fields. It was suggested that body weight is the dominant factor to determine organ doses. The weight function expressing organ doses was introduced. Using this function, the variation in organ doses due to several physical factors were investigated. A detector having gamma-ray response similar to that of human bodies has been developed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator. (author)

  14. Gamma-ray bursts from black hole accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    The suggestion was first made more than a year ago that gamma-ray bursts might originate in the neighborhood of black holes, based on some rather circumstantial evidence linking Cygnus X-1, the prime black-hole candidate, with two of the then-known gamma-ray bursts. Since then additional evidence makes the idea still more plausible. The evidence is summarized briefly, a physical model for production of gamma-ray bursts is given, and several of the more interesting consequences of such an origin are pointed out. (orig.) [de

  15. Cellular response to low Gamma-ray doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares A, E; Vega C, H R; Leon, L.C. de . [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rebolledo D, O; Radillo J, F [Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas y Agropecuarias de la Universidad de Colima, Colima (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    Lymphocytes, obtained from healthy donors, were exposed to a low strength gamma-ray field to determine heat shock protein expression in function of radiation dose. Protein identification was carried out using mAb raised against Hsp70 and Hsc70.Hsp70 protein was detected after lymphocyte irradiation. In all cases, an increasing trend of relative amounts of Hsp70 in function to irradiation time was observed. After 1.25 c Gy gamma-ray dose, lymphocytes expressed Hsp70 protein, indicating a threshold response to gamma rays. (Author)

  16. High energy photons and neutrinos from gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble space telescope has recently discovered thousands of gigantic comet-like objects in a ring around the central star in the nearest planetary nebula. It is suggested that such circumstellar rings exist around most of stars. Collisions of the relativistic debris from gamma ray bursts in dense stellar regions with such gigantic comet-like objects, which have been stripped off from the circumstellar rings by gravitational perturbations, produce detectable fluxes of high energy gamma-rays and neutrinos from gamma ray bursts

  17. Analytical applications of neutron capture gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Paul, R.L.; Anderson, D.L.; Paul, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Field and industrial applications of neutron capture gamma-ray spectrometry with isotopic sources or neutron generators are economically important. Geochemical exploration in boreholes is done routinely with neutron probes. Coal and ores are assayed with analyzers adjacent to a conveyor belt in dozens of industrial facilities. The use of capture gamma rays for explosives detection has been described in the literature, both for scanning airline baggage and for characterizing obsolete munitions; a packaged system for the latter is available commercially. Generalizations are drawn from the history of the field, and predictions are made about the future usefulness of capture gamma rays. (author)

  18. Optical telescope BIRT in ORIGIN for gamma ray burst observing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Content, Robert; Content, Robert; Sharples, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The ORIGIN concept is a space mission with a gamma ray, an X-ray and an optical telescope to observe the gamma ray bursts at large Z to determine the composition and density of the intergalactic matter in the line of sight. It was an answer to the ESA M3 call for proposal. The optical telescope i...... length. All 3 instruments use the same 2k x 2k detector simultaneously so that telescope pointing and tip-tilt control of a fold mirror permit to place the gamma ray burst on the desired instrument without any other mechanism. © 2012 SPIE....

  19. Cellular response to low Gamma-ray doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.; Leon, L.C. de; Rebolledo D, O.; Radillo J, F.

    2002-01-01

    Lymphocytes, obtained from healthy donors, were exposed to a low strength gamma-ray field to determine heat shock protein expression in function of radiation dose. Protein identification was carried out using mAb raised against Hsp70 and Hsc70.Hsp70 protein was detected after lymphocyte irradiation. In all cases, an increasing trend of relative amounts of Hsp70 in function to irradiation time was observed. After 1.25 c Gy gamma-ray dose, lymphocytes expressed Hsp70 protein, indicating a threshold response to gamma rays. (Author)

  20. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M 1 V 1 generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m 2 area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing

  1. Observations of short gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Derek B; Roming, Peter W A

    2007-05-15

    We review recent observations of short-hard gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows. The launch and successful ongoing operations of the Swift satellite, along with several localizations from the High-Energy Transient Explorer mission, have provoked a revolution in short-burst studies: first, by quickly providing high-quality positions to observers; and second, via rapid and sustained observations from the Swift satellite itself. We make a complete accounting of Swift-era short-burst localizations and proposed host galaxies, and discuss the implications of these observations for the distances, energetics and environments of short bursts, and the nature of their progenitors. We then review the physical modelling of short-burst afterglows: while the simplest afterglow models are inadequate to explain the observations, there have been several notable successes. Finally, we address the case of an unusual burst that threatens to upset the simple picture in which long bursts are due to the deaths of massive stars, and short bursts to compact-object merger events.

  2. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, K; Jos, J S [Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    1988-07-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m{sup 2} area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing.

  3. Portable high energy gamma ray imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guru, S.V.; Squillante, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    To satisfy the needs of high energy gamma ray imagers for industrial nuclear imaging applications, three high energy gamma cameras are presented. The RMD-Pinhole camera uses a lead pinhole collimator and a segmented BGO detector viewed by a 3 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). This pinhole gamma camera displayed an energy resolution of 25.0% FWHM at the center of the camera at 662 keV and an angular resolution of 6.2 FWHM at 412 keV. The fixed multiple hole collimated camera (FMCC), used a multiple hole collimator and a continuous slab of NaI(Tl) detector viewed by the same PSPMT. The FMCC displayed an energy resolution of 12.4% FWHM at 662 keV at the center of the camera and an angular resolution of 6.0 FWHM at 412 keV. The rotating multiple hole collimated camera (RMCC) used a 180 antisymmetric rotation modulation collimator and CsI(Tl) detectors coupled to PIN silicon photodiodes. The RMCC displayed an energy resolution of 7.1% FWHM at 662 keV and an angular resolution of 4.0 FWHM at 810 keV. The performance of these imagers is discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  4. Uses Of Gamma Rays In Peas Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghunim, A.; Mobakher, H.; Salman, S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of peas varieties grown in Syria are introduced and they have variable characteristics and unstable in the productivity. Therefore this study aims to utilize physical mutagens as the developed technology in plant breeding to obtain high, stable productivity and suitable for human consumption and processing. Two green peas vars (onward, local homsi) were used in this study, and their dry seeds were subjected to different doses of Gamma rays (5.0,7.5,10.0) KR and planted conventional used methods at AL Taibba searching station (20 Km from Damascus) in 1985/1986 season. Individual selection from M2 was practiced based on yield traits. Starting from 1991/1992 season the best selected mutants were used in yield trials to be compared with the best common cultivars. After/3/years of yield trials, the advanced lines were incorporated into field test trials. Some morphological and phonological scores, i.e. green pods yield, dry seeds yield per area were achieved in addition to lab tests. Some strains have advanced in yield of green pods and dry seeds per area compared with the local check. Some other strains. Showed an increase in earliness, length of pods, number of seeds per pod, and number of pods per plant than the local check. Therefore these can be called promising strains and as nucleus for new vars. will be used into verifiable fields, and in large-scale cultivation in order to be released. (Authors)

  5. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowski, A. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Acero, F. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, CC 72, Place Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Aharonian, F.; Bernloehr, K.; Bochow, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Akhperjanian, A. G. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia); Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barnacka, A. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Becherini, Y. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Becker, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Birsin, E. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Biteau, J.; Brun, F. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Boisson, C. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Bolmont, J. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris Cedex 5 (France); Bordas, P. [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Brun, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bulik, T., E-mail: stefan.ohm@le.ac.uk [Astronomical Observatory, The University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Collaboration: H.E.S.S. Collaboration; and others

    2012-10-01

    Very high energy (VHE; E {>=} 100 GeV) and high-energy (HE; 100 MeV {<=} E {<=} 100 GeV) data from {gamma}-ray observations performed with the H.E.S.S. telescope array and the Fermi-LAT instrument, respectively, are analyzed in order to investigate the non-thermal processes in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The VHE {gamma}-ray data can be described by a power law in energy with differential photon index {Gamma} = 2.14 {+-} 0.18{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub sys} and differential flux normalization at 1 TeV of F{sub 0} = (9.6 {+-} 1.5{sub stat}(+ 5.7, -2.9){sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A power-law fit to the differential HE {gamma}-ray spectrum reveals a photon index of {Gamma} 2.24 {+-} 0.14{sub stat} {+-} 0.03{sub sys} and an integral flux between 200 MeV and 200 GeV of F(0.2-200 GeV) = (4.9 {+-} 1.0{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. No evidence for a spectral break or turnover is found over the dynamic range of both the LAT instrument and the H.E.S.S. experiment: a combined fit of a power law to the HE and VHE {gamma}-ray data results in a differential photon index {Gamma} = 2.34 {+-} 0.03 with a p-value of 30%. The {gamma}-ray observations indicate that at least about 20% of the energy of the cosmic rays (CRs) capable of producing hadronic interactions is channeled into pion production. The smooth alignment between the spectra in the HE and VHE {gamma}-ray domain suggests that the same transport processes dominate in the entire energy range. Advection is most likely responsible for charged particle removal from the starburst nucleus from GeV to multiple TeV energies. In a hadronic scenario for the {gamma}-ray production, the single overall power-law spectrum observed would therefore correspond to the mean energy spectrum produced by the ensemble of CR sources in the starburst region.

  6. Integrating sea floor observatory data: the EMSO data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Robert; Azzarone, Adriano; Carval, Thierry; Doumaz, Fawzi; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Marinaro, Giuditta; Rolin, Jean-Francois; Beranzoli, Laura; Waldmann, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    The European research infrastructure EMSO is a European network of fixed-point, deep-seafloor and water column observatories deployed in key sites of the European Continental margin and Arctic. It aims to provide the technological and scientific framework for the investigation of the environmental processes related to the interaction between the geosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere and for a sustainable management by long-term monitoring also with real-time data transmission. Since 2006, EMSO is on the ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap and has entered its construction phase in 2012. Within this framework, EMSO is contributing to large infrastructure integration projects such as ENVRI and COOPEUS. The EMSO infrastructure is geographically distributed in key sites of European waters, spanning from the Arctic, through the Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea. It is presently consisting of thirteen sites which have been identified by the scientific community according to their importance respect to Marine Ecosystems, Climate Changes and Marine GeoHazards. The data infrastructure for EMSO is being designed as a distributed system. Presently, EMSO data collected during experiments at each EMSO site are locally stored and organized in catalogues or relational databases run by the responsible regional EMSO nodes. Three major institutions and their data centers are currently offering access to EMSO data: PANGAEA, INGV and IFREMER. In continuation of the IT activities which have been performed during EMSOs twin project ESONET, EMSO is now implementing the ESONET data architecture within an operational EMSO data infrastructure. EMSO aims to be compliant with relevant marine initiatives such as MyOceans, EUROSITES, EuroARGO, SEADATANET and EMODNET as well as to meet the requirements of international and interdisciplinary projects such as COOPEUS and ENVRI, EUDAT and iCORDI. A major focus is therefore set on standardization and

  7. An Artificial Intelligence Classification Tool and Its Application to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Giblin, Timothy; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite being the most energetic phenomenon in the known universe, the astrophysics of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has still proven difficult to understand. It has only been within the past five years that the GRB distance scale has been firmly established, on the basis of a few dozen bursts with x-ray, optical, and radio afterglows. The afterglows indicate source redshifts of z=1 to z=5, total energy outputs of roughly 10(exp 52) ergs, and energy confined to the far x-ray to near gamma-ray regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multi-wavelength afterglow observations have thus far provided more insight on the nature of the GRB mechanism than the GRB observations; far more papers have been written about the few observed gamma-ray burst afterglows in the past few years than about the thousands of detected gamma-ray bursts. One reason the GRB central engine is still so poorly understood is that GRBs have complex, overlapping characteristics that do not appear to be produced by one homogeneous process. At least two subclasses have been found on the basis of duration, spectral hardness, and fluence (time integrated flux); Class 1 bursts are softer, longer, and brighter than Class 2 bursts (with two second durations indicating a rough division). A third GRB subclass, overlapping the other two, has been identified using statistical clustering techniques; Class 3 bursts are intermediate between Class 1 and Class 2 bursts in brightness and duration, but are softer than Class 1 bursts. We are developing a tool to aid scientists in the study of GRB properties. In the process of developing this tool, we are building a large gamma-ray burst classification database. We are also scientifically analyzing some GRB data as we develop the tool. Tool development thus proceeds in tandem with the dataset for which it is being designed. The tool invokes a modified KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Databases) process, which is described as follows.

  8. Planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy: the effects of hydrogen absorption cross-section of the gamma-ray spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapides, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectroscopy of planet surfaces is one of several possible methods that are useful in determining the elemental composition of planet surfaces from orbiting spacecraft. This has been demonstrated on the Apollos 15 and 16 missions as well as the Soviet Mars-5 mission. Planetary gamma-ray emission is primarily the result of natural radioactive decay and cosmic-ray and solar-flare-induced nuclear reactions. Secondary neutron reactions play a large role in the more intense gamma-ray emission. The technique provides information on the elemental composition of the top few tens of centimeters of the planet surface. Varying concentrations of hydrogen and compositional variations that alter the macroscopic thermal-neutron absorption cross section have a significant effect on the neutron flux in the planet surface and therefore also on the gamma-ray emission from the surface. These effects have been systematically studied for a wide range of possible planetary compositions that include Mercury, the moon, Mars, the comets, and the asteroids. The problem of the Martian atmosphere was also investigated. The results of these calculations, in which both surface neutron fluxes and gamma-ray emission fluxes were determined, were used to develop general procedures for obtaining planet compositions from the gamma-ray spectrum. Several changes have been suggested for reanalyzing the Apollos 15 and 16 gamma-ray results. In addition, procedures have been suggested that can be applied to neutron-gamma techniques in mineral and oil exploration

  9. Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS): a new balloon-borne experiment for gamma-ray line astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.; Cline, T.L.; Gehrels, N.; Porreca, G.; Tueller, J.; Leventhal, M.; Huters, A.F.; Maccallum, C.J.; Stang, P.D.; Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is a relatively new field that holds great promise for further understanding of high energy astrophysical processes. When the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer (GRSE) was removed from the GRO payload, a balloon program was initiated to permit continued development and improvement of instrumentation in this field, as well as continued scientific observations. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) is one of the experiments selected as part of this program. The instrument contains a number of new and innovative features that are expected to produce a significant improvement in source location accuracy and sensitivity over previous balloon and satellite experiments

  10. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN HOST GALAXY METALLICITY AND GAMMA-RAY ENERGY RELEASE FOR LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Berger, Edo

    2010-01-01

    We compare the redshifts, host galaxy metallicities, and isotropic (E γ,iso ) and beaming-corrected (E γ ) gamma-ray energy release of 16 long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) at z γ,iso , or E γ . These results are at odds with previous theoretical and observational predictions of an inverse correlation between gamma-ray energy release and host metallicity, as well as the standard predictions of metallicity-driven wind effects in stellar evolutionary models. We consider the implications that these results have for LGRB progenitor scenarios, and discuss our current understanding of the role that metallicity plays in the production of LGRBs.

  11. Gamma-Ray Instrument for Polarimetry, Spectroscopy and Imaging (GIPSI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kroeger, R. A; Johnson, W. N; Kinzer, R. L; Kurfess, J. D; Inderhees, S. E; Phlips, B. F; Graham, B. L

    1996-01-01

    .... Gamma-ray polarimetry in the energy band around 60-300 keV is an interesting area of high energy astrophysics where observations have not been possible with the technologies employed in current and past space missions...

  12. AGIS -- the Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krennrich, Frank

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System, AGIS, is envisioned to become the follow-up mission of the current generation of very high energy gamma-ray telescopes, namely, H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS. These instruments have provided a glimpse of the TeV gamma-ray sky, showing more than 70 sources while their detailed studies constrain a wealth of physics and astrophysics. The particle acceleration, emission and absorption processes in these sources permit the study of extreme physical conditions found in galactic and extragalactic TeV sources. AGIS will dramatically improve the sensitivity and angular resolution of TeV gamma-ray observations and therefore provide unique prospects for particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. This talk will provide an overview of the science drivers, scientific capabilities and the novel technical approaches that are pursued to maximize the performance of the large array concept of AGIS.

  13. Gamma-ray emission profile measurements during JET ICRH discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O N; Marcus, F B; Sadler, G; Van Belle, P [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Howarth, P J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Adams, J M; Bond, D S [UKAEA Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Div.

    1994-07-01

    Gamma-ray emission from plasma-impurity reactions caused by minority ICRH accelerating fuel ions to MeV energies has been measured using the JET neutron profile monitor. A successful data analysis technique has been used to isolate the RF-induced gamma-ray emission that was detected, enabling profiles of gamma-ray emission to be obtained. The 2-d gamma-ray emission profiles show that virtually all the radiation originates from the low field side of the RF resonance layer, as expected from RF-induced pitch angle diffusion. The emission profiles indicate the presence of a small population of resonant {sup 3}He ions that possess orbits lying near the passing-trapped boundary. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Cannon, A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Luca, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashi, K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Horan, D; Itoh, R; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Khangulyan, D; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S-H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Naumann-Godo, M; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Romani, R W; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Wang, P; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Ziegler, M

    2011-02-11

    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10(15) electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 × 10(-2) parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory.

  15. Some deficiencies and solutions in gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmeier, W.

    1998-01-01

    A number of problems in high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry as well as some deficiencies of existing computer programs for the quantitative evaluation of spectra are discussed and some practical solutions are proposed. (author)

  16. Multidimensional analysis of high resolution. gamma. -ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flibotte, S.; Huettmeier, U.J.; France, G. de; Haas, B.; Romain, P.; Theisen, C.; Vivien, J.P.; Zen, J. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, 67 - Strasbourg (France)); Bednarczyk, P. (Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland))

    1992-08-15

    Algorithms are developed to analyze high-fold {gamma}-ray coincidences. Performances of the programs have been tested in 3, 4 and 5 dimensions using events generated with a Monte Carlo simulation. (orig.).

  17. A new measurement-while-drilling gamma ray log calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, J.; Brooks, A.; Wisniewski, W.

    1985-01-01

    Many of the present methods of calibration for both wireline and MWD gamma ray detectors use a point source at a fixed distance from the detector. MWD calibration errors are introduced from scattering effects, from spectral differences, from position sensitivity and form lack of cylindrical geometry. A new method has been developed at Exploration Logging INc. (EXLOG) that eliminates these errors. The method uses a wrap-around or annular calibrator, referenced to the University of Houston gamma ray API pit. The new calibrator is designed to simulate the API pit's gamma ray emission spectrum with a finite amount of natural source material in the annular shape. Because of the thickness of steel between the MWD gamma ray detector and the formation, there is theoretical necessity for spectral matching. A simple theoretical approach was used to calibrate the new calibrator. Spectral matching allows a closer approximation to wireline logs and makes it possible to estimate the relative spectral content of a formation

  18. Saccharification of gamma-ray and alkali pretreated lignocellulosics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, A.; Choudhury, N.

    1988-01-01

    Enzymic saccharification of gamma ray and alkali pretreated sawdust, rice straw, and sugar cane bagasse showed higher release of reducing sugar from pretreated substrates. By gamma ray treatment alone (500 kGy) reducing sugar release of 2.8, 9.2, and 10 g/l was obtained from 7.5% (w/v) sawdust, rice straw, and bagasse and the same substrates showed reducing sugar release of 4.2, 30, and 20 g/l respectively when treated with alkali (0.1 g/g). Combination of gamma ray with alkali treatment further increased the reducing sugar release to 10.2, 33, and 36 g/l from sawdust, rice straw, and bagasse respectively. The effects of gamma ray and alkali treatment on saccharification varied with the nature of the substrate

  19. Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis

  20. Gamma-ray spectroscopy with relativistic exotic heavy-ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Feasibility of gamma-ray spectroscopy at relativistic energies with exotic heavy-ions and new generation of germanium detectors (segmented Clover) is discussed. An experiment with such detector array and radioactive is discussed.

  1. Generation of laser Compton gamma-rays using Compact ERL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hajima, Ryoichi; Nagai, Ryoji; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Michiaki; Seya, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive isotope-specific assay system using nuclear resonance fluorescence has been developed at JAEA. In this system, intense, mono-energetic laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma-rays are generated by combining an energy recovery linac (ERL) and laser enhancement cavity. As technical development for such an intense gamma-ray source, we demonstrated generation of LCS gamma-rays using Compact ERL (supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) developed in collaboration with KEK. We also measured X-ray fluorescence for elements near iron region by using mono-energetic LCS gamma-rays. In this presentation, we will show results of the experiment and future plan. (author)

  2. Public List of LAT-Detected Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following is a compilation of all publicly-announced gamma-ray pulsars detected using the Fermi LAT. Each of the detections has been vetted by the LAT team,...

  3. High energy astrophysics with ground-based gamma ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, F; Buckley, J; Kifune, T; Sinnis, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in ground-based gamma ray astronomy have led to the discovery of more than 70 sources of very high energy (E γ ≥ 100 GeV) gamma rays, falling into a number of source populations including pulsar wind nebulae, shell type supernova remnants, Wolf-Rayet stars, giant molecular clouds, binary systems, the Galactic Center, active galactic nuclei and 'dark' (yet unidentified) galactic objects. We summarize the history of TeV gamma ray astronomy up to the current status of the field including a description of experimental techniques and highlight recent astrophysical results. We also discuss the potential of ground-based gamma ray astronomy for future discoveries and describe possible directions for future instrumental developments

  4. Gamma-ray flares from the Crab nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A.A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Tibaldo, L.

    2011-01-01

    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10 15 electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 * 10 -2 parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory. (authors)

  5. Exploring the extreme gamma-ray sky with HESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sol, Helene

    2006-01-01

    The international HESS experiment. High Energy Stereoscopic System, fully operational since January 2004, is opening a new era for extreme gamma-ray astronomy. Located in Namibia, it is now the most sensitive detector for cosmic sources of very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays, in the tera-electron-volt (TeV) range. In July 2005, it had already more than double the number of sources detected at such energies, with the discovery of several active galactic nuclei (AGN), supernova remnants and plerions, a binary pulsar system, a microquasar candidate, and a sample of yet unidentified sources. HESS has also provide for the first time gamma-ray images of extended sources with the first astrophysical jet resolved in gamma-rays, and the first mapping of a shell supernova remnant, which proves the efficiency of in situ acceleration of particles up to 100 TeV and beyond

  6. Gamma-ray astronomy and cosmic-ray origin theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1973-01-01

    A theory of the origin of cosmic radiation is discussed in light of the advances made in gamma-ray astronomy. Arguments against metagalactic models for the origin of cosmic rays are emphasized. (U.S.)

  7. Upgrade of the JET gamma-ray cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soare, S.; Curuia, M.; Anghel, M.; Constantin, M.; David, E.; Craciunescu, T.; Falie, D.; Pantea, A.; Tiseanu, I.; Kiptily, V.; Prior, P.; Edlington, T.; Griph, S.; Krivchenkov, Y.; Loughlin, M.; Popovichev, S.; Riccardo, V; Syme, B.; Thompson, V.; Lengar, I.; Murari, A.; Bonheure, G.; Le Guern, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The JET gamma-ray camera diagnostics have already provided valuable information on the gamma-ray imaging of fast ion in JET plasmas. The applicability of gamma-ray imaging to high performance deuterium and deuterium-tritium JET discharges is strongly dependent on the fulfilment of rather strict requirements for the characterisation of the neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields. These requirements have to be satisfied within very stringent boundary conditions for the design, such as the requirement of minimum impact on the co-existing neutron camera diagnostics. The JET Gamma-Ray Cameras (GRC) upgrade project deals with these issues with particular emphasis on the design of appropriate neutron/gamma-ray filters ('neutron attenuators'). Several design versions have been developed and evaluated for the JET GRC neutron attenuators at the conceptual design level. The main design parameter was the neutron attenuation factor. The two design solutions, that have been finally chosen and developed at the level of scheme design, consist of: a) one quasi-crescent shaped neutron attenuator (for the horizontal camera) and b) two quasi-trapezoid shaped neutron attenuators (for the vertical one). The second design solution has different attenuation lengths: a short version, to be used together with the horizontal attenuator for deuterium discharges, and a long version to be used for high performance deuterium and DT discharges. Various neutron-attenuating materials have been considered (lithium hydride with natural isotopic composition and 6 Li enriched, light and heavy water, polyethylene). Pure light water was finally chosen as the attenuating material for the JET gamma-ray cameras. The neutron attenuators will be steered in and out of the detector line-of-sight by means of an electro-pneumatic steering and control system. The MCNP code was used for neutron and gamma ray transport in order to evaluate the effect of the neutron attenuators on the neutron field of the

  8. Ground-Based Observations of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes Associated with Downward-Directed Lightning Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, J.; Abbasi, R.; Krehbiel, P. R.; LeVon, R.; Remington, J.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial Gamma Flashes (TGFs) have been observed in satellite-borne gamma ray detectors for several decades, starting with the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray observatory in 1994. TGFs consist of bursts of upwards of 1018 primary gamma rays, with a duration of up to a few milliseconds, originating in the Earth's atmosphere. More recent observations have shown that satellite-observed TGFs are generated in upward-propagating negative leaders of intracloud lightning, suggesting that they may be sensitive to the processes responsible for the initial lightning breakdown. Here, we present the first evidence that TGFs are also produced at the beginning of negative cloud-to-ground flashes, and that they may provide a new window through which ground-based observatories may contribute to understanding the breakdown process. The Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD) is a 700 square kilometer cosmic ray observatory, an array of 507 3m2 scintillators on a 1.2 km grid. The array is triggered and read out when at least three adjacent detectors observe activity within an 8 μs window. Following the observation of bursts of anomalous TASD triggers, lasting a few hundred microseconds and correlated with local lightning activity, a Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and slow electric field antenna were installed at the TASD site in order to study the effect. From data obtained between 2014 and 2016, correlated observations were obtained for ten -CG flashes. In 9 out of 10 cases, bursts of up to five anomalous triggers were detected during the first ms of the flash, as negative breakdown was descending into lower positive storm charge. The triggers occurred when the LMA-detected VHF radiation sources were at altitudes between 1.5 to 4.5 km AGL. The tenth flash was initiated by an unusually energetic leader that reached the ground in 2.5 ms and produced increasingly powerful triggers down to about 500 m AGL. While the TASD is not optimized for individual gamma ray detection

  9. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Simulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan, Stephen; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, S.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.; Maier, G.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Simulation Studies Working Group; AGIS Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation instrument in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. It has the goal of achieving significant improvement in sensitivity over current experiments. We present the results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance, collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity are discussed.

  10. Significant gamma-ray lines from dark matter annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerr, Michael [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Fileviez Perez, Pavel; Smirnov, Juri [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-ray lines from dark matter annihilation are commonly seen as a ''smoking gun'' for the particle nature of dark matter. However, in many dark matter models the continuum background from tree-level annihilations makes such a line invisible. I present two simple extensions of the Standard Model where the continuum contributions are suppressed and the gamma-ray lines are easily visible over the continuum background.

  11. Gamma-ray bursts: astrophysical puzzle of the century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the problems of gamma-ray bursts /GRB/. As GRB became one of the greatest mysteries in modern astrophysics, this field of astrophysics is a subject of intensive research. The article covers some topical aspects of experiments related to the indentification of gamma-ray bursts. The preparation and results of experiments in the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic are described. (Z.J.)

  12. Extragalactic Gamma Ray Excess from Coma Supercluster Direction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More precise analysis of EGRET data however, makes it possible to estimate the diffuse gamma ray in Coma supercluster (i.e., Coma\\A1367 supercluster) direction with a value of ( > 30MeV) ≃ 1.9 × 10-6 cm-2 s-1, which is considered to be an upper limit for the diffuse gamma ray due to Coma supercluster. The related ...

  13. Population Studies of Radio and Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K; Gonthier, Peter; Coltisor, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are one of the most promising candidates for at least some of the 40-50 EGRET unidentified gamma-ray sources that lie near the Galactic plane. Since the end of the EGRO mission, the more sensitive Parkes Multibeam radio survey has detected mere than two dozen new radio pulsars in or near unidentified EGRET sources, many of which are young and energetic. These results raise an important question about the nature of radio quiescence in gamma-ray pulsars: is the non-detection of radio emission a matter of beaming or of sensitivity? The answer is very dependent on the geometry of the radio and gamma-ray beams. We present results of a population synthesis of pulsars in the Galaxy, including for the first time the full geometry of the radio and gamma-ray beams. We use a recent empirically derived model of the radio emission and luminosity, and a gamma-ray emission geometry and luminosity derived theoretically from pair cascades in the polar slot gap. The simulation includes characteristics of eight radio surveys of the Princeton catalog plus the Parkes MB survey. Our results indicate that EGRET was capable of detecting several dozen pulsars as point sources, with the ratio of radio-loud to radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars increasing significantly to about ten to one when the Parkes Survey is included. Polar cap models thus predict that many of the unidentified EGRET sources could be radio-loud gamma- ray pulsars, previously undetected as radio pulsars due to distance, large dispersion and lack of sensitivity. If true, this would make gamma-ray telescopes a potentially more sensitive tool for detecting distant young neutron stars in the Galactic plane.

  14. GLAST, the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, A

    2001-01-01

    GLAST, a detector for cosmic gamma rays in the range from 20 MeV to 300 GeV, will be launched in space in 2005. Breakthroughs are expected in particular in the study of particle acceleration mechanisms in space and of gamma ray bursts, and maybe on the search for cold dark matter; but of course the most exciting discoveries could come from the unexpected.

  15. Measuring The Variability Of Gamma-Ray Sources With AGILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Andrew W.; Vercellone, Stefano; Pellizzoni, Alberto; Tavani, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Variability in the gamma-ray flux above 100 MeV at various time scales is one of the primary characteristics of the sources detected by EGRET, both allowing the identification of individual sources and constraining the unidentified source classes. We present a detailed simulation of the capacity of AGILE to characterize the variability of gamma-ray sources, discussing the implications for source population studies

  16. Physics and astrophysics with gamma-ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    In the past few years gamma-ray astronomy has entered a golden age. A modern suite of telescopes is now scanning the sky over both hemispheres and over six orders of magnitude in energy. At {approx}TeV energies, only a handful of sources were known a decade ago, but the current generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS) has increased this number to nearly one hundred. With a large field of view and duty cycle, the Tibet and Milagro air shower detectors have demonstrated the promise of the direct particle detection technique for TeV gamma rays. At {approx}GeV energies, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has increased the number of known sources by nearly an order of magnitude in its first year of operation. New classes of sources that were previously theorized to be gamma-ray emitters have now been confirmed observationally. Moreover, there have been surprise discoveries of GeV gamma-ray emission from source classes for which no theory predicted it was possible. In addition to elucidating the processes of high-energy astrophysics, gamma-ray telescopes are making essential contributions to fundamental physics topics including quantum gravity, gravitational waves, and dark matter. I summarize the current census of astrophysical gamma-ray sources, highlight some recent discoveries relevant to fundamental physics, and describe the synergetic connections between gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy. This is a brief overview intended in particular for particle physicists and neutrino astronomers, based on a presentation at the Neutrino 2010 conference in Athens, Greece. I focus in particular on results from Fermi (which was launched soon after Neutrino 2008), and conclude with a description of the next generation of instruments, namely HAWC and the Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  17. The MAGIC gamma-ray telescope: status and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    MAGIC, a 17 m diameter Cherenkov telescope for gamma ray astronomy, has recently been commissioned at the Roque de los Muchachos site in the Island of La Palma, of the Canary Islands. The telescope was proposed in 1998 with the goal of lowering the threshold of observation of gamma rays by ground detectors to 20-30 GeV energies. This paper describes its main design features, its physics objectives and its first operations

  18. Catalogue of gamma rays from radionuclides ordered by nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, L.P.; Andersson, P.; Sheppard, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    A catalogue of about 28500 gamma-ray energies from 2338 radionuclides is presented. The nuclides are listed in order of increasing (A,Z) of the daughter nuclide. In addition the gamma-ray intensity per 100 decays of the parent (if known) and the decay half-life are given. All data are from a computer processing of a recent ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) file. (authors)

  19. Computers in activation analysis and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, B. S.; D' Agostino, M. D.; Yule, H. P. [eds.

    1979-01-01

    Seventy-three papers are included under the following session headings: analytical and mathematical methods for data analysis; software systems for ..gamma..-ray and x-ray spectrometry; ..gamma..-ray spectra treatment, peak evaluation; least squares; IAEA intercomparison of methods for processing spectra; computer and calculator utilization in spectrometer systems; and applications in safeguards, fuel scanning, and environmental monitoring. Separate abstracts were prepared for 72 of those papers. (DLC)

  20. Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by lightning current pulses

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are brief bursts of gamma rays observed by satellites, typically in coincidence with detectable lightning. We incorporate TGF observations and the key physics behind current TGF production theories with lightning physics to produce constraints on TGF production mechanisms. The combined constraints naturally suggest a mechanism for TGF production by current pulses in lightning leader channels. The mechanism involves local field enhancements due to charge re...

  1. Gamma-Ray Imager With High Spatial And Spectral Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, John L.; Varnell, Larry S.; Wheaton, William A.; Mahoney, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma-ray instrument developed to enable both two-dimensional imaging at relatively high spatial resolution and spectroscopy at fractional-photon-energy resolution of about 10 to the negative 3rd power in photon-energy range from 10 keV to greater than 10 MeV. In its spectroscopic aspect, instrument enables identification of both narrow and weak gamma-ray spectral peaks.

  2. Technical Aspect on Procedure of Gamma-Ray Pipeline Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasif Mohd Zain; Ainul Mardhiah Terry; Norman Shah Dahing

    2015-01-01

    The main problems happen in industrial pipelines are deposit build-up, blockage, corrosion and erosion. These effects will give a constraint in transporting refined products to process or production points and cause a major problem in production. One of the techniques to inspect the problem is using gamma-ray pipe scans. The principle of the technique is gamma-ray absorption technique. In this paper describes on the technical aspect to perform the pipe inspection in laboratory work. (author)

  3. A directional gamma-ray detector based on scintillator plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, D., E-mail: hanna@physics.mcgill.ca; Sagnières, L.; Boyle, P.J.; MacLeod, A.M.L.

    2015-10-11

    A simple device for determining the azimuthal location of a source of gamma radiation, using ideas from astrophysical gamma-ray burst detection, is described. A compact and robust detector built from eight identical modules, each comprising a plate of CsI(Tl) scintillator coupled to a photomultiplier tube, can locate a point source of gamma rays with degree-scale precision by comparing the count rates in the different modules. Sensitivity to uniform environmental background is minimal.

  4. The first gamma-ray bursts in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesler, R. A.; Pihlström, Y. M.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Smidt, Joseph; Fryer, Chris L.; Lloyd-Ronning, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the ultimate cosmic lighthouses, capable of illuminating the universe at its earliest epochs. Could such events probe the properties of the first stars at z ∼ 20, the end of the cosmic Dark Ages? Previous studies of Population III (Pop III) GRBs only considered explosions in the diffuse relic H II regions of their progenitors or bursts that are far more energetic than those observed to date. However, the processes that produce GRBs at the highest redshifts likely reset their local environments, creating much more complicated structures than those in which relativistic jets have been modeled so far. These structures can greatly affect the luminosity of the afterglow and hence the redshift at which it can be detected. We have now simulated Pop III GRB afterglows in H II regions, winds, and dense shells ejected by the star during the processes that produce the burst. We find that GRBs with E iso,γ = 10 51 -10 53 erg will be visible at z ≳ 20 to the next generation of near infrared and radio observatories. In many cases, the environment of the burst, and hence progenitor type, can be inferred from the afterglow light curve. Although some Pop III GRBs are visible to Swift and the Very Large Array now, the optimal strategy for their detection will be future missions like the proposed EXIST and JANUS missions with large survey areas and onboard X-ray and infrared telescopes that can track their near-infrared flux from the moment of the burst, thereby identifying their redshifts.

  5. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  6. Gamma-ray effect on sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Ciofu, R.; Stroia, L.; Ghering, A.; Ferdes, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the results on modification occurred in biochemical properties of sweet potato (Ipomea batatus L.) after gamma irradiation. Two varieties, named Victoria Ianb (a white variety) and Portocaliu (a red variety), were selected and acclimatized for the agrometeorological conditions of Romania. The samples consist of roots from both usual and experimental crops. They were irradiated in batch, one week after harvesting, with a ICPR Co-60 gamma-ray source by approx. 370 TBq, dose range 100-500 Gy, dose rate 100±5 Gy/hour, dose uniformity ±5%, temperature 10 o C, 80±5% relative humidity (rh). The irradiation doses received were checked using the Fricke ferrous sulphate dosimeter procedure. The roots were kept two months at relative darkness, 6-11 o C, 60-75% rh and analyzed from time to time (initial, 5, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days). The following parameters are analyzed by conventional methods: total and reducing sugars (in De equivalent, %, on dry weight basis), starch content and the activities of sugar metabolizing enzymes. The red variety had a better behaviour towards irradiation that the white one. The sugar contents (both total and reducing), as well as starch, varied more in the white variety. The sugar metabolizing enzyme activities were influenced by both irradiation and storage conditions. Their activities were maximal at 200 and 300 Gy, and decreased significantly at higher doses. The activities also decreased in time, their variations being higher at lower doses (100 and 200 Gy). The results showed no significant influence of gamma irradiation on storage life. The modifications induced in sugar contents and enzyme activities had maximal effects at 200-300 Gy. (author)

  7. HETEROGENEITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels, Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample is comprised of 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales-durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals-for EE bursts are factors of ∼2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts-the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width-continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition, we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (∼6x10 -10 erg cm -2 s -1 ) is ∼>20x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (∼60,000 s) is ∼30x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into denser environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently powers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  8. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, M. S.; Roberts, O.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Stanbro, M.; Cramer, E.; Mailyan, B. G.; McBreen, S.; Connaughton, V.; Grove, J. E.; Chekhtman, A.; Holzworth, R.

    2017-12-01

    The revised Second Fermi GBM TGF catalog includes data on 4144 TGFs detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor through 2016 July 31. The catalog includes 686 bright TGFs there were detected in orbit and 4135 TGFs that were discovered by ground analysis of GBM data (the two samples overlap). Thirty of the events may have been detected as electrons and positrons rather than gamma-rays: Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs). We also provide results from correlating the GBM TGFs with VLF radio detections of the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). TGFs with WWLLN associations have their localization uncertainties improved from 800 to 10 km, making it possible to identify specific thunderstorms responsible for the TGFs and opening up new types of scientific investigations. There are 1544 TGFs with WWLLN associations; maps are provided for these and the other TGFs of the catalog. The data tables of the catalog are available for use by the scientific community at the Fermi Science Support Center, at https://fermi.gsfc.nasa.gov/ssc/data/access/gbm/tgf/.

  9. CENTRAL ENGINE MEMORY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND SOFT GAMMA-RAY REPEATERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bursts of γ-rays generated from relativistic jets launched from catastrophic events such as massive star core collapse or binary compact star coalescence. Previous studies suggested that GRB emission is erratic, with no noticeable memory in the central engine. Here we report a discovery that similar light curve patterns exist within individual bursts for at least some GRBs. Applying the Dynamic Time Warping method, we show that similarity of light curve patterns between pulses of a single burst or between the light curves of a GRB and its X-ray flare can be identified. This suggests that the central engine of at least some GRBs carries “memory” of its activities. We also show that the same technique can identify memory-like emission episodes in the flaring emission in soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), which are believed to be Galactic, highly magnetized neutron stars named magnetars. Such a phenomenon challenges the standard black hole central engine models for GRBs, and suggest a common physical mechanism behind GRBs and SGRs, which points toward a magnetar central engine of GRBs

  10. Using airborne GAMMA-ray spectrometry (uranium, thorium, potassium) to quantify weathering and erosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, F.

    2005-01-01

    The airborne gamma-ray spectrometry survey carried out on the Armorican Massif provided soil contents in U, Th and K in ppm. Chemical and mechanical erosion processes within a homogeneous geological unit have been estimated using their variations and those of the 137 Cs. Our new approach, based on a multivariate analysis (hierarchic ascending classification), integrates the airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data, with their broad spatial distribution, together with precisely located station data (major elements, traces and isotopic geochemistry) resulting from a soil and river water erosion products survey. The total export of potassium was estimated in any point of an area catchment (50-m resolution) until 17+2 t/km 2 /a for a 50-m thick weathering profile. Erosion study by river sampling provide important biases, for the perennial river does not integrate the whole range of erosion products: the geochemical signature of the valleys is currently more represented than plateau areas. (author)

  11. 1012 - 1015 eV interaction deduced from energy spectra of gamma-ray and hadrons at airplane altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    The present paper deals with the latest results of the spectral measurements of high energy cosmic ray performed on an airplane with an emulsion chamber. The hadronic component together with the gamma-ray component were observed in the region of gamma energy not smaller than 30 GeV and gamma energy sum not larger than 40 TeV. It was observed that the integral spectra of hadronic showers showed less steep power than those obtained at mountain stations. On the other hand, the integral spectra of gamma-ray in the energy region from 40 GeV to 40 TeV showed steeper power than those of hadronic component. The zenith angle distributions of hadrons and gamma-ray were inspected, and it was confirmed that the observed distributions were well reproduced by the theoretical curves with the appropriate attenuation length. (Yoshimori, M.)

  12. Integral -tracking extreme radiation across the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    the four instruments is about 2 tonnes, roughly half the launch weight of Integral. Integral's orbit and operations After launch, Integral will follow an elliptical orbit that is inclined by 51.6° to the Earth’s equator. In this orbit, it will cycle between 9000 kilometres and 153 000 kilometres above Earth, completing one revolution of the Earth every 72 hours. This eccentric orbit is necessary because there are ‘radiation belts’ that surround the Earth and these would interfere with Integral’s ability to see gamma rays. It is important for Integral to be outside these belts. Its elliptical orbit is designed to keep it outside the radiation belts for 90% of its trajectory around Earth. Once Integral is in orbit, it must communicate with Earth to download its scientific data and to receive commands. Communicating with and controlling Integral is a task spread over a number of different sites. Firstly, astronomers submit proposals for observations to the Integral Science Operations Centre (ISOC) at Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Experts at ISOC evaluate the proposals and draw up a list of targets and detailed observation schedules for Integral. The schedules are sent to the Mission Operations Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. There everything is transformed into commands that Integral will understand. Signals to and from Integral go through two tracking stations, one at Redu in Belgium, the second at Goldstone in California, United States. The MOC also ensures the correct performance of the spacecraft. After Integral has collected observations, the raw science data is forwarded to the Integral Science Data Centre (ISDC) in Versoix near Geneva, Switzerland. There it is converted into usable data files, archived, and distributed to the astronomical community. A worldwide network of space science institutes and observatories will receive the data very quickly. This is essential especially when sudden and short

  13. Spatial distribution of reflected gamma rays by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehouani, A.; Merzouki, A.; Boutadghart, F.; Ghassoun, J.

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, the reflection of gamma rays of the walls and metals constitutes an unknown origin of radiation. These reflected gamma rays must be estimated and determined. This study concerns reflected gamma rays on metal slabs. We evaluated the spatial distribution of the reflected gamma rays spectra by using the Monte Carlo method. An appropriate estimator for the double differential albedo is used to determine the energy spectra and the angular distribution of reflected gamma rays by slabs of iron and aluminium. We took into the account the principal interactions of gamma rays with matter: photoelectric, coherent scattering (Rayleigh), incoherent scattering (Compton) and pair creation. The Klein-Nishina differential cross section was used to select direction and energy of scattered photons after each Compton scattering. The obtained spectra show peaks at 0.511 * MeV for higher source energy. The Results are in good agreement with those obtained by the TRIPOLI code [J.C. Nimal et al., TRIPOLI02: Programme de Monte Carlo Polycinsetique a Trois dimensions, CEA Rapport, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique.

  14. Self-powered neutron and gamma-ray flux detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Shields, R.B.; Lynch, G.F.; Cuttler, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of self-powered neutron detector was developed which is sensitive to both the neutron and gamma-ray fluxes. The emitter comprises two parts. The central emitter core is made of materials that generate high-energy electrons on exposure to neutrons. The outer layer acts as a gamma-ray/electron converter, and since it has a higher atomic number and higher back-scattering coefficient than the collector, increases the net outflow or emmission of electrons. The collector, which is around the emitter outer layer, is insulated from the outer layer electrically with dielectric insulation formed from compressed metal-oxide powder. The fraction of electrons given off by the emitter that is reflected back by the collector is less than the fraction of electrons emitted by the collector that is reflected back by the emitter. The thickness of the outer layer needed to achieve this result is very small. A detector of this design responds to external reactor gamma-rays as well as to neutron capture gamma-rays from the collector. The emitter core is either nickel, iron or titanium, or alloys based on these metals. The outer layer is made of platinum, tantalum, osmium, molybdenum or cerium. The detector is particularly useful for monitoring neutron and gamma ray flux intensities in nuclear reactor cores in which the neutron and gamma ray flux intensities are closely proportional, are unltimately related to the fission rate, and are used as measurements of nuclear reactor power. (DN)

  15. A study on gamma rays from electrochemical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Ai

    1993-01-01

    The energies and intensities of gamma rays emitted from 3 cells with Pd-cathodes of φ 1mm x 10mm, φ 2mm x 20mm, φ 1mm x 10mm were determined using HPGe-detector system and compared with Pd-neutron capture model. Very strong gamma rays of 512keC, 622keC, 1051keC and 8 more important ones were found to be identical with characteristic gamma rays of 106 Pd and 109 Pd. It is likely that the neutron capture reaction, A PD(n, γ) A+1 Pd, occurred in the cell and the neutrons came from the fusion reaction of two deutrons. It is necessary, however, to retest the model since another strong 84keV-gamma rays do not belong to any A+1 Pd-gamma spectra and two important 106 Pd-gamma rays 717keV, 1046KeV were not detected. Total amount of emitted gamma rays was large when the size of the Pd-cathod was large. Its depedence on the time of measurement and the preheating period did not have any regularities. Thus the replication is not an easy thing. (Author)

  16. Gamma-ray emission profile measurements during JET ICRH discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, P.J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S.; Watkins, N. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Jarvis, O.N.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-12-31

    Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) that is tuned to minority fuel ions can induce an energy diffusion of the heated species and create high energy tail temperatures of {approx} 1 MeV. The most energetic of these accelerated minority ions can undergo nuclear reactions with impurity Be and C that produces {gamma}-ray emission from the decay of the excited product nuclei. This RF-induced {gamma}-ray emission has been recorded using the JET neutron emission profile diagnostic which is capable of distinguishing neutrons and {gamma}-rays. Appropriate data processing has enabled the RF-induced {gamma}-ray emission signals to be isolated from the {gamma}-ray emission signals associated with neutron interactions in the material surrounding the profile monitor. The 2-d {gamma}-ray emission profiles show that virtually all the radiation originates from the low field side of the RF resonance layer, as expected from RF-induced pitch angle diffusion. The emission profiles indicate the presence of a small population of resonant {sup 3}He ions that possess orbits lying near the passing-trapped boundary. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Proton current measurements using the prompt gamma ray diagnostic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Burns, E.J.T.; Johnson, D.J.; McMurtry, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Prompt gamma ray signals from the nuclear reaction 7 Li(p,γ) 8 Be have been used to make time resolved proton current measurements. In these measurements, the proton beam was allowed to strike cylindrical thick lithium metal targets. The time integrated proton current was measured using gamma activation of copper via the reaction 63 Cu(γ,n) 62 Cu(β+). The positron activity of the copper sample was easily measured using coincidence counting techniques. The number of 62 Cu atoms produced per proton incident on a thick Li metal target was determined with separate calibration runs performed on the Sandia 2.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The time history of the prompt gamma production was measured using six EGG NPM-54 scintillator photomultiplier combinations shielded by 96.5 cm of concrete and 5.1 cm of Pb. The use of six scintillator photomultiplier combinations was necessary to increase the statistical precision of the data. The normalization of the prompt gamma time history data with the total time integrated proton-current measurement yielded the absolute time resolved proton current on target. Data from runs performed on the Sandia Proto I accelerator will be presented

  18. Recent results from the Compton Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelson, P.F.; Hansen, W.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Compton Observatory is an orbiting astronomical observatory for gamma-ray astronomy that covers the energy range from about 30 keV to 30 GeV. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET), one of four instruments on-board, is capable of detecting and imaging gamma radiation from cosmic sources in the energy range from approximately 20 MeV to 30 GeV. After about one month of tests and calibration following the April 1991 launch, a 15-month all sky survey was begun. This survey is now complete and the Compton Observatory is well into Phase II of its observing program which includes guest investigator observations. Among the highlights from the all-sky survey discussed in this presentation are the following: detection of five pulsars with emission above 100 MeV; detection of more than 24 active galaxies, the most distant at redshift greater than two; detection of many high latitude, unidentified gamma-ray sources, some showing significant time variability; detection of at least two high energy gamma-ray bursts, with emission in one case extending to at least 1 GeV. EGRET has also detected gamma-ray emission from solar flares up to energies of at least 2 GeV and has observed gamma-rays from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  19. Gamma-ray emission from internal shocks in novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Dubus, G.; Jean, P.; Tatischeff, V.; Dosne, C.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Gamma-ray emission at energies ≥100 MeV has been detected from nine novae using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), and can be explained by particle acceleration at shocks in these systems. Eight out of these nine objects are classical novae in which interaction of the ejecta with a tenuous circumbinary material is not expected to generate detectable gamma-ray emission. Aim. We examine whether particle acceleration at internal shocks can account for the gamma-ray emission from these novae. The shocks result from the interaction of a fast wind radiatively-driven by nuclear burning on the white dwarf with material ejected in the initial runaway stage of the nova outburst. Methods: We present a one-dimensional model for the dynamics of a forward and reverse shock system in a nova ejecta, and for the associated time-dependent particle acceleration and high-energy gamma-ray emission. Non-thermal proton and electron spectra are calculated by solving a time-dependent transport equation for particle injection, acceleration, losses, and escape from the shock region. The predicted emission is compared to LAT observations of V407 Cyg, V1324 Sco, V959 Mon, V339 Del, V1369 Cen, and V5668 Sgr. Results: The ≥100 MeV gamma-ray emission arises predominantly from particles accelerated up to 100 GeV at the reverse shock and undergoing hadronic interactions in the dense cooling layer downstream of the shock. The emission rises within days after the onset of the wind, quickly reaches a maximum, and its subsequent decrease reflects mostly the time evolution of the wind properties. Comparison to gamma-ray data points to a typical scenario where an ejecta of mass 10-5-10-4 M⊙ expands in a homologous way with a maximum velocity of 1000-2000 km s-1, followed within a day by a wind with a velocity values of which result in the majority of best-fit models having gamma-ray spectra with a high-energy turnover below 10 GeV. Our typical model is able to account for the main

  20. NEW FERMI-LAT EVENT RECONSTRUCTION REVEALS MORE HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA RAYS FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bregeon, J.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Tinivella, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Chekhtman, A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Cohen-Tanugi, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Drlica-Wagner, A.; Omodei, N.; Rochester, L. S.; Usher, T. L. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ra' anana 43537 (Israel); Longo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Razzaque, S. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Zimmer, S., E-mail: melissa.pesce.rollins@pi.infn.it, E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: granot@openu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Based on the experience gained during the four and a half years of the mission, the Fermi-LAT Collaboration has undertaken a comprehensive revision of the event-level analysis going under the name of Pass 8. Although it is not yet finalized, we can test the improvements in the new event reconstruction with the special case of the prompt phase of bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), where the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough that loose selection cuts are sufficient to identify gamma rays associated with the source. Using the new event reconstruction, we have re-analyzed 10 GRBs previously detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) for which an X-ray/optical follow-up was possible and found four new gamma rays with energies greater than 10 GeV in addition to the seven previously known. Among these four is a 27.4 GeV gamma ray from GRB 080916C, which has a redshift of 4.35, thus making it the gamma ray with the highest intrinsic energy ({approx}147 GeV) detected from a GRB. We present here the salient aspects of the new event reconstruction and discuss the scientific implications of these new high-energy gamma rays, such as constraining extragalactic background light models, Lorentz invariance violation tests, the prompt emission mechanism, and the bulk Lorentz factor of the emitting region.

  1. Gamma rays application in veterinary immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulkhanov, R.U.; Butaev, M.K.; Mirzaev, B.Sh.; Ryasnyanskiy, I.V.; Yuldashev, R.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The process based on stimulated action of ionized radiation, change of quality of agricultural goods and row materials, biocides including bactericide action of ionized radiation are among the methods of radiation biotechnology, which can be applied in agriculture. We used the bactericide action of ionized radiation in technological process for creation of fundamentally new preparation possessed by by immunogenic properties and named as 'radio vaccine'. This term is well known and frequently used in scientific papers in the field of applied radiobiology. It is well known that physical (thermal) and chemical actions are used for preparation of vaccine for veterinary. It was noted that this process resulted in destruction of antigenic structure of bacteria cells, with are responsible for immunity creation. The possibility of virulence reduction at constant immunogenic properties of microorganism and keeping its antigenic structure can be achieved by using ionized radiation as one of the factor, which influences on bacteria. Taking into account the necessity of vaccine improvement and increase of quantity of associated vaccine one of the most important problems of veterinary science and particle is creation of vaccines of new generation which are characterized by the ability to form immunity against several diseases of agricultural animals. As a result of many-years investigations using gamma rays radiations in UzSRIV (laboratory of radiobiology) the radiation biotechnology of vaccine preparation was developed. These vaccines are necessary for practical application. Radiation biotechnology allows to prepare high-effective mono-, associated and polyvalent radio vaccines against widespread infection diseases of agricultural animals especially cubs (calves, lambs, young pigs). On the basis of developed radiation biotechnology there were prepared the following vaccines: 'Associated radio vaccine against colibacteriosis and salmonellosis of small horned cattle

  2. The INTEGRAL mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Di Cocco, G.

    2003-01-01

    in the X-ray (3-35 keV) and optical (V-band, 550 nm) energy ranges. INTEGRAL carries two main gamma-ray instruments, the spectrometer SPI (Vedrenne et al. 2003)-optimized for the high-resolution gamma-ray line spectroscopy (20 keV-8 MeV), and the imager IBIS (Ubertini et al. 2003)-optimized for high......The ESA observatory INTEGRAL (International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) is dedicated to the fine spectroscopy (2.5 keV FWHM @ 1 MeV) and fine imaging (angular resolution: 12 arcmin FWHM) of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy range 15 keV to 10 MeV with concurrent source monitoring...... Centre at ESTEC and the Science Data Centre near Geneva. INTEGRAL was launched on 17 October 2002. The observing programme is well underway and sky exposure (until June 2003) reaches similar to1800 ks in the Galactic plane. The prospects are excellent for the scientific community to observe the high...

  3. Characteristics of bursts observed by the SMM Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, G. H.; Messina, D. C.; Iadicicco, A.; Matz, S. M.; Rieger, E.; Forrest, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the SMM completed close to 10 years of highly successful operation when the spacecraft reentered the atmosphere on December 2, 1989. During this period the GRS detected 177 events above 300 keV which have been classified as cosmic gamma-ray bursts. A catalog of these events is in preparation which will include time profiles and spectra for all events. Visual inspection of the spectra indicates that emission typically extends into the MeV range, without any evidence for a high-energy cutoff; 17 of these events are also observed above 10 MeV. We find no convincing evidence for line-like emission features in any of the time-integrated spectra.

  4. Development of low level 226Ra analysis for live fish using gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandani, Z.; Prestwich, W. V.; Byun, S. H.

    2017-06-01

    A low level 226Ra analysis method for live fish was developed using a 4π NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. In order to find out the best algorithm for accomplishing the lowest detection limit, the gamma-ray spectrum from a 226Ra point was collected and nine different methods were attempted for spectral analysis. The lowest detection limit of 0.99 Bq for an hour counting occurred when the spectrum was integrated in the energy region of 50-2520 keV. To extend 226Ra analysis to live fish, a Monte Carlo simulation model with a cylindrical fish in a water container was built using the MCNP code. From simulation results, the spatial distribution of the efficiency and the efficiency correction factor for the live fish model were determined. The MCNP model will be able to be conveniently modified when a different fish or container geometry is employed as fish grow up in real experiments.

  5. Calculation of neutron and gamma ray energy spectra for fusion reactor shield design: comparison with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Chapman, G.T.

    1980-08-01

    Integral experiments that measure the transport of approx. 14 MeV D-T neutrons through laminated slabs of proposed fusion reactor shield materials have been carried out. Measured and calculated neutron and gamma ray energy spectra are compared as a function of the thickness and composition of stainless steel type 304, borated polyethylene, and Hevimet (a tungsten alloy), and as a function of detector position behind these materials. The measured data were obtained using a NE-213 liquid scintillator using pulse-shape discrimination methods to resolve neutron and gamma ray pulse height data and spectral unfolding methods to convert these data to energy spectra. The calculated data were obtained using two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport methods in a complex calculational network that takes into account the energy-angle dependence of the D-T neutrons and the nonphysical anomalies of the S/sub n/ method

  6. The third IBIS/ISGRI soft gamma-ray survey catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Hill, A.B.; Clark, D.J.; Dean, A.J.; Molina, M.; Sguera, V.; Malizia, A.; Bassani, L.; Capitanio, F.; Stephen, J.B.; Bazzano, A.; Fiocchi, M.; Ubertini, P.; Belanger, G.; Gotz, D.; Lebrun, F.; Renaud, M.; Zurita, J.; Produit, N.; Produit, N.; Walter, R.; Terrier, R.; Walter, R.; Winkler, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report on the third soft gamma-ray source catalog obtained with the IBIS/ISGRI gamma-ray imager on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The scientific data set is based on more than 40 Ms of high-quality observations performed during the first 3.5 yr of Core Program and public IBIS/ISGRI observations. Compared to previous IBIS/ISGRI surveys, this catalog includes a substantially increased coverage of extragalactic fields, and comprises more than 400 high-energy sources detected in the energy range 17-100 keV, including both transients and faint persistent objects that can only be revealed with longer exposure times. (authors)

  7. Effect of /sup 60/Co. gamma. -rays on polyphenyl methacrylate obtained by. gamma. -ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, S.; Rao, M.H.; Rao, K.N. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Chemistry Div.)

    1983-01-01

    Polyphenyl methacrylate of different molecular weights Msub(n) 13000, 34500 and crosslinked polymer prepared by /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-irradiation has been irradiated with /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays at 300 K. G(scission) of the 13000 molecular weight polymer was 15. The crosslinked polymer undergoes both degradation and crosslinking. G(x) value determined for that polymer is approx. 9. The gaseous product consists largely of CO with some CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/. Hydrocarbon gases were not detected. The yield of H/sub 2/ is only to the extent of 2 to 5% of the total gas and it is assumed that majority of scission takes place at the ester linkage. On the basis of the estimation of phenol and benzene, a mechanism for degradation and crosslinking is proposed.

  8. INTEGRAL: In flight behavior of ISGRI and SPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, F.; Roques, J.-P.; Sauvageon, A.; Terrier, R.; Laurent, P.; Limousin, O.; Lugiez, F.; Claret, A.

    2005-01-01

    The payload of INTEGRAL, the space gamma-ray observatory launched in October 2002, features two gamma-ray telescopes that take advantage of the semiconductor technologies. The spectrometer SPI, is equipped with 19 high-purity germanium detectors cooled at 85 K. We will report on the SPI in-flight background, performance, the detector evolution and the annealings performed every 6 months. The INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI) is the low-energy camera of the IBIS telescope. It is the first large camera equipped with CdTe detectors. We will present some system aspects, in particular the noisy pixel handling and will report on its in-flight background, performance and their evolution

  9. Rarefaction acceleration in magnetized gamma-ray burst jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzis, Konstantinos; Vlahakis, Nektarios

    2013-09-01

    Relativistic jets associated with long/soft gamma-ray bursts are formed and initially propagate in the interior of the progenitor star. Because of the subsequent loss of their external pressure support after they cross the stellar surface, these flows can be modelled as moving around a corner. A strong steady-state rarefaction wave is formed, and the sideways expansion is accompanied by a rarefaction acceleration. We investigate the efficiency and the general characteristics of this mechanism by integrating the steady-state, special relativistic, magnetohydrodynamic equations, using a special set of partial exact solutions in planar geometry (r self-similar with respect to the `corner'). We also derive analytical approximate scalings in the ultrarelativistic cold/magnetized, and hydrodynamic limits. The mechanism is more effective in magnetized than in purely hydrodynamic flows. It substantially increases the Lorentz factor without much affecting the opening of the jet; the resulting values of their product can be much greater than unity, allowing for possible breaks in the afterglow light curves. These findings are similar to the ones from numerical simulations of axisymmetric jets by Komissarov et al. and Tchekhovskoy et al., although in our approach we describe the rarefaction as a steady-state simple wave and self-consistently calculate the opening of the jet that corresponds to zero external pressure.

  10. The measurement of gamma ray induced heating in a mixed neutron and gamma ray environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, H.K.

    1991-10-01

    The problem of measuring the gamma heating in a mixed DT neutron and gamma ray environment was explored. A new detector technique was developed to make this measurement. Gamma heating measurements were made in a low-Z assembly irradiated with 14-Mev neutrons and (n, n') gammas produced by a Texas Nuclear Model 9400 neutron generator. Heating measurements were made in the mid-line of the lattice using a proportional counter operating in the Continuously-varied Bias-voltage Acquisition mode. The neutron-induced signal was separated from the gamma-induced signal by exploiting the signal rise-time differences inherent to radiations of different linear energy transfer coefficient, which are observable in a proportional counter. The operating limits of this measurement technique were explored by varying the counter position in the low-Z lattice, hence changing the irradiation spectrum observed. The experiment was modelled numerically to help interpret the measured results. The transport of neutrons and gamma rays in the assembly was modelled using the one- dimensional radiation transport code ANISN/PC. The cross-section set used for these calculations was derived from the ENDF/B-V library using the code MC 2 -2 for the case of DT neutrons slowing down in a low-Z material. The calculated neutron and gamma spectra in the slab and the relevant mass-stopping powers were used to construct weighting factors which relate the energy deposition in the counter fill-gas to that in the counter wall and in the surrounding material. The gamma energy deposition at various positions in the lattice is estimated by applying these weighting factors to the measured gamma energy deposition in the counter at those locations

  11. UBAT of UFFO/ Lomonosov: The X-Ray Space Telescope to Observe Early Photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Reglero, V.; Connell, P.; Kim, M. B.; Lee, J.; Rodrigo, J. M.; Ripa, J.; Eyles, C.; Lim, H.; Gaikov, G.; Jeong, H.; Leonov, V.; Chen, P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Nam, J. W.; Svertilov, S.; Yashin, I.; Garipov, G.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Huang, J.-J.; Kim, J. E.; Liu, T.-C.; Petrov, V.; Bogomolov, V.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Brandt, S.; Park, I. H.

    2018-02-01

    The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Burst Alert and Trigger Telescope (UBAT) has been designed and built for the localization of transient X-ray sources such as Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). As one of main instruments in the UFFO payload onboard the Lomonosov satellite (hereafter UFFO/ Lomonosov), the UBAT's roles are to monitor the X-ray sky, to rapidly locate and track transient sources, and to trigger the slewing of a UV/optical telescope, namely Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT). The SMT, a pioneering application of rapid slewing mirror technology has a line of sight parallel to the UBAT, allowing us to measure the early UV/optical GRB counterpart and study the extremely early moments of GRB evolution. To detect X-rays, the UBAT utilizes a 191.1 cm2 scintillation detector composed of Yttrium Oxyorthosilicate (YSO) crystals, Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MAPMTs), and associated electronics. To estimate a direction vector of a GRB source in its field of view, it employs the well-known coded aperture mask technique. All functions are written for implementation on a field programmable gate array to enable fast triggering and to run the device's imaging algorithms. The UFFO/ Lomonosov satellite was launched on April 28, 2016, and is now collecting GRB observation data. In this study, we describe the UBAT's design, fabrication, integration, and performance as a GRB X-ray trigger and localization telescope, both on the ground and in space.

  12. THE ORIGIN OF GAMMA RAYS FROM GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K. S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Hui, C. Y.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-01-01

    Fermi has detected gamma-ray emission from eight globular clusters (GCs). It is commonly believed that the energy sources of these gamma rays are millisecond pulsars (MSPs) inside GCs. Also it has been standard to explain the spectra of most Fermi Large Area Telescope pulsars including MSPs resulting from the curvature radiation (CR) of relativistic electrons/positrons inside the pulsar magnetosphere. Therefore, gamma rays from GCs are expected to be the collection of CR from all MSPs inside the clusters. However, the angular resolution is not high enough to pinpoint the nature of the emission. In this paper, we calculate the gamma rays produced by the inverse Compton (IC) scattering between relativistic electrons/positrons in the pulsar wind of MSPs in the GCs and background soft photons including cosmic microwave/relic photons, background star lights in the clusters, the galactic infrared photons, and the galactic star lights. We show that the gamma-ray spectrum from 47 Tucanae can be explained equally well by upward scattering of either the relic photons, the galactic infrared photons, or the galactic star lights, whereas the gamma-ray spectra from the other seven GCs are best fitted by the upward scattering of either the galactic infrared photons or the galactic star lights. We also find that the observed gamma-ray luminosity is correlated better with the combined factor of the encounter rate and the background soft photon energy density. Therefore, the IC scattering may also contribute to the observed gamma-ray emission from GCs detected by Fermi in addition to the standard CR process. Furthermore, we find that the emission region of high-energy photons from GCs produced by the IC scattering is substantially larger than the cores of GCs with a radius >10 pc. The diffuse radio and X-rays emitted from GCs can also be produced by the synchrotron radiation and IC scattering, respectively. We suggest that future observations including radio, X-rays, and gamma rays

  13. GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BLAZARS BEHIND THE GALACTIC PLANE: B2013+370 AND B2023+336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, E.; Errando, M.; Aliu, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Böttcher, M.; Fortin, P.; Halpern, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    B2013+370 and B2023+336 are two blazars at low-galactic latitude that were previously proposed to be the counterparts for the EGRET unidentified sources 3EG J2016+3657 and 3EG J2027+3429. Gamma-ray emission associated with the EGRET sources has been detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, and the two sources, 1FGL J2015.7+3708 and 1FGL J2027.6+3335, have been classified as unidentified in the 1 year catalog. This analysis of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data collected during 31 months reveals that the 1FGL sources are spatially compatible with the blazars and are significantly variable, supporting the hypothesis of extragalactic origin for the gamma-ray emission. The gamma-ray light curves are compared with 15 GHz radio light curves from the 40 m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. Simultaneous variability is seen in both bands for the two blazar candidates. The study is completed with the X-ray analysis of 1FGL J2015.7+3708 using Swift observations that were triggered in 2010 August by a Fermi-detected flare. The resulting spectral energy distribution shows a two-component structure typical of blazars. We also identify a second source in the field of view of 1FGL J2027.6+3335 with similar characteristics to the known LAT pulsars. This study gives solid evidence favoring blazar counterparts for these two unidentified EGRET and Fermi sources, supporting the hypothesis that a number of unidentified gamma-ray sources at low-galactic latitudes are indeed of extragalactic origin.

  14. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from Local Primordial Black Holes with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Caputo, R.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Costantin, D.; D’Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Di Lalla, N.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, C.; Kensei, S.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J. D.; Maldera, S.; Malyshev, D.; Manfreda, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meyer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ojha, R.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Palatiello, M.; Paliya, V. S.; Paneque, D.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Principe, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Valverde, J.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.

    2018-04-01

    Black holes with masses below approximately 1015 g are expected to emit gamma-rays with energies above a few tens of MeV, which can be detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Although black holes with these masses cannot be formed as a result of stellar evolution, they may have formed in the early universe and are therefore called primordial black holes (PBHs). Previous searches for PBHs have focused on either short-timescale bursts or the contribution of PBHs to the isotropic gamma-ray emission. We show that, in cases of individual PBHs, the Fermi-LAT is most sensitive to PBHs with temperatures above approximately 16 GeV and masses 6 × 1011 g, which it can detect out to a distance of about 0.03 pc. These PBHs have a remaining lifetime of months to years at the start of the Fermi mission. They would appear as potentially moving point sources with gamma-ray emission that become spectrally harder and brighter with time until the PBH completely evaporates. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm to detect the proper motion of gamma-ray point sources, and apply it to 318 unassociated point sources at a high galactic latitude in the third Fermi-LAT source catalog. None of the unassociated point sources with spectra consistent with PBH evaporation show significant proper motion. Using the nondetection of PBH candidates, we derive a 99% confidence limit on the PBH evaporation rate in the vicinity of Earth, {\\dot{ρ }}PBH}< 7.2× {10}3 {pc}}-3 {yr}}-1. This limit is similar to the limits obtained with ground-based gamma-ray observatories.

  15. EGRET upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars in nearby globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K.; Chiang, J.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a number of globular clusters. The observations were done as part of an all-sky survey by the energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during Phase I of the CGRO mission (1991 June to 1992 November). Several theoretical models suggest that MSPs may be sources of high-energy gamma radiation emitted either as primary radiation from the pulsar magnetosphere or as secondary radiation generated by conversion into photons of a substantial part of the relativistic e(+/-) pair wind expected to flow from the pulsar. To date, no high-energy emission has been detected from an individual MSP. However, a large number of MSPs are expected in globular cluster cores where the formation rate of accreting binary systems is high. Model predictions of the total number of pulsars range in the hundreds for some clusters. These expectations have been reinforced by recent discoveries of a substantial number of radio MSPs in several clusters; for example, 11 have been found in 47 Tucanae (Manchester et al.). The EGRET observations have been used to obtain upper limits for the efficiency eta of conversion of MSP spin-down power into hard gamma rays. The upper limits are also compared with the gamma-ray fluxes predicted from theoretical models of pulsar wind emission (Tavani). The EGRET limits put significant constraints on either the emission models or the number of pulsars in the globular clusters.

  16. Continued Development of a Soft Gamma-Ray Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloser, Peter

    We propose to continue our development of a concept for a soft gamma-ray (E > 100 keV) concentrator using thin-film multilayer structures. Alternating layers of low- and high-density materials will channel soft gamma-ray photons via total external reflection. A suitable arrangement of bent structures will then concentrate the incident radiation to a point. Gamma-ray optics made in this way offer the potential for soft gamma-ray telescopes with focal lengths of less than 10 m, removing the need for formation flying spacecraft and opening the field up to balloon-borne instruments. Under previous APRA funding we have been investigating methods for efficiently producing such multilayer structures and modeling their performance. We now propose to pursue magnetron sputtering (MS) techniques to quickly produce structures with the required smoothness and thickness, to measure their channeling efficiency and compare with calculations, and to design a "lens" with optimized bandpass and throughput and predict its scientific performance. If successful, this work will confirm that this innovative optics concept is suitable for a balloon-born soft gamma-ray telescope with unprecedented sensitivity.

  17. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljanic, S.; Zorko, B.; Gregori, B.; Knezevic, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron + gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Boskovic Inst. (RBI), Croatia, Jozef Stefan Inst. (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7 LiF (TLD-700), CaF 2 :Mn and Al2 O3 :Mg,Y - all from RBI; CaF 2 :Mn from JSI and 7 LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed. (authors)

  18. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanić, Saveta; Zorko, Benjamin; Gregori, Beatriz; Knezević, Zeljka

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron+gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI), Croatia, JoZef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7LiF (TLD-700), CaF2:Mn and Al2O3:Mg,Y-all from RBI; CaF2:Mn from JSI and 7LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed.

  19. X-Ray Spectral Characteristics of Ginga Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmayer, T.E.; Fenimore, E.E.; Murakami, T.; Yoshida, A.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the spectral characteristics of a sample of bright gamma-ray bursts detected with the gamma-ray burst sensors aboard the satellite Ginga. This instrument employed a proportional and scintillation counter to provide sensitivity to photons in the 2 endash 400 keV region and as such provided a unique opportunity to characterize the largely unexplored X-ray properties of gamma-ray bursts. The photon spectra of the Ginga bursts are well described by a low-energy slope, a bend energy, and a high-energy slope. In the energy range where they can be compared, this result is consistent with burst spectral analyses obtained from the BATSE experiment aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. However, below 20 keV we find evidence for a positive spectral number index in approximately 40% of our burst sample, with some evidence for a strong rolloff at lower energies in a few events. There is a correlation (Pearson's r = -0.62) between the low-energy slope and the bend energy. We find that the distribution of spectral bend energies extends below 10 keV. There has been some concern in cosmological models of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that the bend energy covers only a small dynamic range. Our result extends the observed dynamic range, and, since we observe bend energies down to the limit of our instrument, perhaps observations have not yet limited the range. The Ginga trigger range was virtually the same as that of BATSE, yet we find a different range of fit parameters. One possible explanation might be that GRBs have two break energies, one often in the 50 endash 500 keV range and the other near 5 keV. Both BATSE and Ginga fit with only a single break energy, so BATSE tends to find breaks near the center of its energy range, and we tend to find breaks in our energy range. The observed ratio of energy emitted in the X-rays relative to the gamma rays can be much larger than a few percent and, in fact, is sometimes larger than unity. The average for our 22 bursts

  20. Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays from a laser plasma accelerator with quadrant-sectored range filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jong Ho, E-mail: jhjeon07@ibs.re.kr; Nakajima, Kazuhisa, E-mail: naka115@dia-net.ne.jp; Rhee, Yong Joo; Pathak, Vishwa Bandhu; Cho, Myung Hoon; Shin, Jung Hun; Yoo, Byung Ju; Jo, Sung Ha; Shin, Kang Woo [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Taek; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Choi, Il Woo [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Hojbota, Calin; Bae, Lee Jin; Jung, Jaehyung; Cho, Min Sang; Cho, Byoung Ick; Nam, Chang Hee [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Photon Science, GIST, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays radiated by GeV electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) are presented. The angle-resolved spectrum of betatron radiation was deconvolved from the position dependent data measured for a single laser shot with a broadband gamma-ray spectrometer comprising four-quadrant sectored range filters and an unfolding algorithm, based on the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The unfolded gamma-ray spectra in the photon energy range of 0.1–10 MeV revealed an approximately isotropic angular dependence of the peak photon energy and photon energy-integrated fluence. As expected by the analysis of betatron radiation from LWFAs, the results indicate that unpolarized gamma-rays are emitted by electrons undergoing betatron motion in isotropically distributed orbit planes.

  1. Radar, geologic, airborne gamma ray and Landsat TM digital data integration for geological mapping of the Estrela granite complex (Para State); Integracao digital de imagens de radar e Landsat-TM com dados geologicos e aerogamaespectrometricos no auxilio ao mapeamento geologico da regiao do complexo granitico Estrela-Para (PA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Edson Ricardo Soares Pereira da

    2002-07-01

    This work is focused on the geotectonic context of the Carajas Mineral Province, Amazon Craton, which represents the most important Brazilian Mineral Province and hosts iron, cooper, gold, manganese and nickel deposits. At the end of Archean age, during the techno-metamorphic evolution, moderated alkaline granitoids were generated, such as, Estrela Granite Complex (EGC). This work has used digital integration products with the purpose of study the granite suite, its host rock, and the surrounded area. The digital integrated data were gamma-ray and geological data with satellite images (SAR-SAREX e TM-Landsat). The geophysics data, originally in 32 bits and grid format, were interpolated and converted to 8 bits images. The geological data (facies map) was digitalized and converted to a raster format. The remote sensing images were geometrically corrected to guarantee an accuracy on the geological mapping. On the data processing phase, SAR images were digital integrated with gamma-ray data, TM-Landsat image and the raster facies map. The IHS transformation was used as the technique to integrate the multi-source data. On the photogeological interpretation, SAR data were extremely important to permit the extraction of the main tectonic lineaments which occur on the following directions: +/- N45W, +/- N70W, +/- NS, +/- N20E, +/- N45E e +/- N75E. This procedure was done both in analogic and automatic form, being the automatic process more useful to complement information in the extracting process. Among the digital products generated, SAR/GAMA products (uranium, thorium and total count) were the ones that give the most important contribution. The interpretation of the SAR/GAMA's products added to the field campaign have allowed to map the limits of units that occur in the region and four facies of the Estrela Granite Complex were detected. The origin of the granite suite might be related to a magmatic differentiation or to distinct intrusion pulses. The use of the

  2. An Ordinary Short Gamma-Ray Burst with Extraordinary Implications: Fermi -GBM Detection of GRB 170817A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, A.; Roberts, O. J.; Connaughton, V. [Science and Technology Institute, Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Veres, P.; Briggs, M. S.; Hamburg, R.; Preece, R. D.; Poolakkil, S. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Burns, E.; Racusin, J.; Canton, T. Dal [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kocevski, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Hui, C. M.; Littenberg, T. [Astrophysics Office, ST12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Kienlin, A. von [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Christensen, N.; Broida, J. [Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, MN 55057 (United States); Siellez, K. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Blackburn, L., E-mail: Adam.M.Goldstein@nasa.gov [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); and others

    2017-10-20

    On 2017 August 17 at 12:41:06 UTC the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) detected and triggered on the short gamma-ray burst (GRB) 170817A. Approximately 1.7 s prior to this GRB, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory triggered on a binary compact merger candidate associated with the GRB. This is the first unambiguous coincident observation of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation from a single astrophysical source and marks the start of gravitational-wave multi-messenger astronomy. We report the GBM observations and analysis of this ordinary short GRB, which extraordinarily confirms that at least some short GRBs are produced by binary compact mergers.

  3. Operating performance of the gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope: An end-to-end Schwarzschild–Couder telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dournaux, J.L., E-mail: jean-laurent.dournaux@obspm.fr [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); De Franco, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Laporte, P. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); White, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Greenshaw, T. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, P.O. Box 147, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Sol, H. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Abchiche, A. [CNRS, Division technique DT-INSU, 1 Place Aristide Briand, 92190 Meudon (France); Allan, D. [Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Amans, J.P. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Armstrong, T.P. [Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Balzer, A.; Berge, D. [GRAPPA, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boisson, C. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); and others

    2017-02-11

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) consortium aims to build the next-generation ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray observatory. The array will feature different sizes of telescopes allowing it to cover a wide gamma-ray energy band from about 20 GeV to above 100 TeV. The highest energies, above 5 TeV, will be covered by a large number of Small-Sized Telescopes (SSTs) with a field-of-view of around 9°. The Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope (GCT), based on Schwarzschild–Couder dual-mirror optics, is one of the three proposed SST designs. The GCT is described in this contribution and the first images of Cherenkov showers obtained using the telescope and its camera are presented. These were obtained in November 2015 in Meudon, France.

  4. Gamma ray polarimetry using a position sensitive germanium detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kroeger, R A; Kurfess, J D; Phlips, B F

    1999-01-01

    Imaging gamma-ray detectors make sensitive polarimeters in the Compton energy regime by measuring the scatter direction of gamma rays. The principle is to capitalize on the angular dependence of the Compton scattering cross section to polarized gamma rays and measure the distribution of scatter directions within the detector. This technique is effective in a double-sided germanium detector between roughly 50 keV and 1 MeV. This paper reviews device characteristics important to the optimization of a Compton polarimeter, and summarizes measurements we have made using a device with a 5x5 cm active area, 1 cm thickness, and strip-electrodes on a 2 mm pitch.

  5. Observation of cosmic gamma ray burst by Hinotori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okudaira, Kiyoaki; Yoshimori, Masato; Hirashima, Yo; Kondo, Ichiro.

    1982-01-01

    The solar gamma ray detecor (SGR) on Hinotori has no collimator, and the collimator of a hard X-ray monitor is not effective for gamma ray with energy more than 100 KeV. Accordingly, the detection system can detect cosmic gamma ray burst, and two bursts were observed. The first burst was detected on February 28, 1981, and the source of the burst was in the direction of 81 degree from Venus. The time profile and the spectrum were observed. In July 21, 1981, the second burst was detected. The time profile obtained with the SGR was compared with those of PVO (Pioneer Venus Orbiter) and LASL-ISEE. The time difference among the data of time profiles indicated that the source of the burst was not the sun. The spectrum was also measured. (Kato, T.)

  6. Detection of pseudo gamma-ray bursts of long duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontera, F.; Fuligni, F.; Morelli, E.; Pizzichini, G.; Ventura, G.

    1981-01-01

    It is known that the counting rate of both Na I and Cs I hard X-ray detectors can have intense enhancements of brief (< 1 s) duration, which appear like very short cosmic gamma-ray bursts but probably are due to phosphorescence in the detector itself. Unfortunately, this problem is not limited to short bursts. We present here three much longer (up to 80 s) pseudo-gamma-ray bursts observed during a transatlantic balloon flight. We conclude that detections of gamma-ray bursts (and probably also of hard X-ray source flares) based only on a rate increase by a single scintillator should always be confirmed by at least one other instrument. (orig.)

  7. Calibration and control modules for gamma-ray borehole loggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A calibration pad for quantitative evaluation of gamma-ray logs, developed and constructed by CNEA is described. The facility is composed of a set of mineralized modules with which it is intended to reproduce the natural variable conditions found in boreholes drilled for uranium mineral exploration, such as the ore concentration, rock's density and porosity, water content, etc. The facility is able to operate under different radiometric models, as follow: 1) gross-count gamma-ray models; 2) gamma-spectrometer models; 3) neutronic-fission models, and 4) models for determination of magnetic susceptibility, density, neutron-neutron, etc. The gathered information allows the adequate quantitative radiometric evaluation of the ore bodies crossed by exploration holes, and also allows the correlation of gamma-ray logs obtained by different logger-equipments. The paper includes the description of the project development and the standards established for the facility's operation. (M.E.L.) [es

  8. Gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Kane, W.R.; Markey, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon gas near the critical point (166 degrees C, 58 atm) is under development. The spectrometer will function as a room-temperature ionization chamber detecting gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. The energy resolution is superior to that of a NaI scintillation spectrometer by a substantial margin (approximately a factor 5), and accordingly, much more information can be extracted from a given gamma-ray spectrum. Unlike germanium detectors, the spectrometer possesses the capability for sustained operation under ambient temperature conditions without a requirement for liquid nitrogen

  9. In situ measurements of dose rates from terrestrial gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, M.C.; Jiang, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    A portable, high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was employed for the performance of in situ measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations in the ground in Taiwan, at altitudes ranging from sea level to 3900 m. The absolute peak efficiency of the HPGe detector for a gamma-ray source uniformly distributed in the semi-infinite ground was determined using a semi-empirical method. The gamma-ray dose rates from terrestrial radionuclides were calculated from the measured activity levels using recently published dose rate conversion factors. The absorbed dose rate in air due to cosmic rays was derived by subtracting the terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate from the overall absorbed dose rate in air measured using a high-pressure ionization chamber. The cosmic-ray dose rate calculated as a function of altitude, was found to be in good agreement with the data reported by UNSCEAR. (orig.)

  10. Laser Compton Scattering Gamma Ray Induced Photo-Trasmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dazhi

    2004-01-01

    High brightness beams of gamma rays produced with laser Compton scattering have the potential to realize photo-transmutation through (γ,n) reaction, implying an efficient method to dispose long-lived fission products. Preliminary investigations have been carried out in understanding the feasibility of development of a transmutation facility to repose nuclear waste. A laser Compton scattering experimental setup based on a storage ring started to generate gamma-ray beams for studying the coupling of gamma photons and nuclear giant resonance. This paper demonstrates the dependency of nuclear transmutation efficiency on target dimensions and gamma ray features. 197Au sample was adopted in our experiment, and experimental results correspond to the theoretical estimations.

  11. Response of human lymphocytes to low gamma ray doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Carrillo, HR; Banuelos Valenzuela, R; Manzanares Acuna, E; Sanchez-Rodriguez, S.H

    2001-01-01

    Radiation and non-radiation workers lymphocytes were exposed to a low strength gamma-ray field to determine heat shock protein expression in function of radiation dose. Protein identification was carried out using mAb raised against Hsp25, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90; from these, only Hsp70 protein was detected before and after lymphocyte irradiation. In all cases, an increasing trend of relative amounts of Hsp70 in function to irradiation time was observed. After 70.5 mGy gamma-ray dose, radiation worker's lymphocytes expressed more Hsp70 protein, than non-radiation workers' lymphocytes, indicating a larger tolerance to gamma rays (gamma tolerance), due to an adaptation process developed by their labor condition (Au)

  12. Characteristics of environmental gamma-rays and dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1986-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity has attracted much attention in terms of exposure to the population, although its exposure doses are minimal. This paper presents problems encountered in the assessment of exposure doses using model and monitoring systems, focusing on the characteristics, such as energy distribution, direction distribution, and site, of environmental gamma-rays. The assessment of outdoor and indoor exposure doses of natural gamma-rays is discussed in relation to the shielding effect of the human body. In the assessment of artificial gamma-rays, calculation of exposure doses using build-up factor, the shielding effect of the human body, and energy dependency of the measuring instrument are covered. A continuing elucidation about uncertainties in dose assessment is emphasized. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Gamma ray induced chromophore modification of softwood thermomechanical pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, S.; Daneault, C.; Viel, C.; Lepine, F.

    1992-01-01

    This study focuses on bleaching a softwood (black spruce, balsam fur) thermomechanical pulp with gamma rays. Gamma rays are known for their enormous penetrating power, along with their ionizing properties. They can generate highly energetic radicals capable of oxidizing lignin chromophores. The authors studied the influence of isopropyl alcohol, sodium borohydride, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, nitrogen dioxide and water along with gamma ray irradiation of the pulps. The authors measured the optimal dose and dose rate, along with the influence of the radical scavengers like oxygen on the bleaching effect of gamma irradiated pulps. They observe various degrees of bleaching of these pulps. Evidence relates this bleaching to the generation of perhydroxyl anions upon irradiation of water. Also, they were able to pinpoint the influence of the dose rate on the rate of formation and disappearance of these perhydroxyl anions and their influence on bleaching kinetics. Stability toward photoyellowing, and photoyellowing's kinetic of papers from these pulps was also studied

  14. On response operator in semiconductor gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krnac, S [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Povinec, P [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (Monaco). MEL; Ragan, R [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    Some results of the scaling confirmation factor analysis (SCFA) application in semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometry presented in this contribution points out to a new ground for evaluation the gamma-ray spectra. This whole-spectrum processing approach considerably increases detection sensitivity, especially, if significant interferences being present in the measured spectrum. Precision of the SCFA method is determined by choice of a sufficient number of suitable calibration gamma-ray sources in the energy region of interest, by setting up an acceptable latent hypothesis and by chosen experimental quantification of spectra. The SCFA method is very advantageous to use, for instance, in ultra low-level gamma-spectrometry where counting rates in full energy peaks are extremely low as compared with background interferences. It enables to increase of the sensitivity by the 5-10 times in comparison with the traditional full energy peak net area method (J.K.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs.

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Z.M.; Carlson, J.B.; Wang, Tzu-Fang; Ruhter, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were investigated as a means of simulating the gamma-ray spectra of Pu. These simulated spectra will be used to develop and evaluate gamma-ray analysis techniques for various nondestructive measurements. Simulated spectra of calculational standards can be used for code intercomparisons, to understand systematic biases and to estimate minimum detection levels of existing and proposed nondestructive analysis instruments. The capability to simulate gamma-ray spectra from HPGe detectors could significantly reduce the costs of preparing large numbers of real reference materials. MCNP was used for the Monte Carlo transport of the photons. Results from the MCNP calculations were folded in with a detector response function for a realistic spectrum. Plutonium spectrum peaks were produced with Lorentzian shapes, for the x-rays, and Gaussian distributions. The MGA code determined the Pu isotopes and specific power of this calculated spectrum and compared it to a similar analysis on a measured spectrum

  16. On response operator in semiconductor gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krnac, S.; Povinec, P.

    1995-01-01

    Some results of the scaling confirmation factor analysis (SCFA) application in semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometry presented in this contribution points out to a new ground for evaluation the gamma-ray spectra. This whole-spectrum processing approach considerably increases detection sensitivity, especially, if significant interferences being present in the measured spectrum. Precision of the SCFA method is determined by choice of a sufficient number of suitable calibration gamma-ray sources in the energy region of interest, by setting up an acceptable latent hypothesis and by chosen experimental quantification of spectra. The SCFA method is very advantageous to use, for instance, in ultra low-level gamma-spectrometry where counting rates in full energy peaks are extremely low as compared with background interferences. It enables to increase of the sensitivity by the 5-10 times in comparison with the traditional full energy peak net area method (J.K.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  17. Gamma-ray spectrometry applied to down-hole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumesnil, P.; Umiastowsky, K.

    1983-11-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry permits to improve the accuracy of natural gamma, gamma-gamma and neutron-gamma geophysical measurements. The probe developed at Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay allows down-hole gamma-ray spectrometry. Among others, this probe can be applied to the uranium content determination by selective natural gamma method, down-hole determination of the ash content in the coal by gamma-gamma selective method and elemental analysis by neutron-gamma method. For the calibration and an exact interpretation of the measurements it is important to know the gamma-ray and neutron characteristics of the different kinds of rocks considered as probabilistic variables

  18. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir

    2016-01-01

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal (_5_6Ba, _6_4Gd, _8_2Pb, _8_3Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  19. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir, E-mail: dr.tejbir@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal ({sub 56}Ba, {sub 64}Gd, {sub 82}Pb, {sub 83}Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  20. Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission Spectroscopy Over a Broad Range of Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Hannah; Wilkinson, John; Tighe, Meghanne; McLallen, Walter; McGuire, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Ion beam analysis is a common application of nuclear physics that allows elemental and isotopic information about materials to be determined from accelerated light ion beams One of the best know ion beam analysis techniques is Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) spectroscopy, which can be used ex vacuo to identify the elements of interest in almost any solid target. The energies of the gamma-rays emitted by excited nuclei will be unique to each element and depend on its nuclear structure. For the most sensitivity, the accelerated ions should exceed the Coulomb barrier of the target, but many isotopes are known to be accessible to PIGE even below the Coulomb barrier. To explore the sensitivity of PIGE across the periodic table, PIGE measurements were made on elements with Z = 5, 9, 11-15, 17, 19-35, 37, 42, 44-48, 53, 56, 60, 62, 73, and 74 using 3.4 MeV protons. These measurements will be compared with literature values and be used as a basis for comparison with higher-energy proton beams available at the University of Notre Dame's St. Andre accelerator when it comes online this Fall. The beam normalization technique of using atmospheric argon and its 1459 keV gamma-ray to better estimate the integrated beam on target will also be discussed. Funded by the NSF REU program and the University of Notre Dame.