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Sample records for intact tumor environment

  1. Isotope inequilibrium of glucose metabolites in intact cells and particlefree supernatants of Ehrlich ascites tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daehnfeldt, J.L.; Winge, P.

    1975-01-01

    With an enzyme degradative technique, isotope inequilibrium of glucose metabolites was demonstrated in intact cells and particle-free supernatants of Ehrlich ascites tumor using I- 14 C-glucose as tracer. Inequilibrium was found between glucose and glucose-6-phosphate, glucose and fructose-6-phosphate, glucose and 6-phosphogluconate, while glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate were found to be in near equilibrium within the incubation time investigated. Glucose and lactate were found to be in near equilibrium after 8 min in intact cells. Calculations based on the equilibrium levels found, showed that these inequilibria could not be explained by the effects of the pentose cycle. (U.S.)

  2. Biological stoichiometry in tumor micro-environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kareva

    Full Text Available Tumors can be viewed as evolving ecological systems, in which heterogeneous populations of cancer cells compete with each other and somatic cells for space and nutrients within the ecosystem of the human body. According to the growth rate hypothesis (GRH, increased phosphorus availability in an ecosystem, such as the tumor micro-environment, may promote selection within the tumor for a more proliferative and thus potentially more malignant phenotype. The applicability of the GRH to tumor growth is evaluated using a mathematical model, which suggests that limiting phosphorus availability might promote intercellular competition within a tumor, and thereby delay disease progression. It is also shown that a tumor can respond differently to changes in its micro-environment depending on the initial distribution of clones within the tumor, regardless of its initial size. This suggests that composition of the tumor as a whole needs to be evaluated in order to maximize the efficacy of therapy.

  3. Magnitude of malate-aspartate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide shuttle activity in intact respiring tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, W V; Lehninger, A L

    1977-11-01

    Measurements of respiration, CO2 and lactate production, and changes in the levels of various key metabolites of the glycolytic sequence and tricarboxylic acid cycle were made on five lines of rodent ascites tumor cells (two strains of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, Krebs II carcinoma, AS-30D carcinoma, and L1210 cells) incubated aerobically in the presence of uniformly labeled D-[14C]glucose. From these data, as well as earlier evidence demonstrating that the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) shuttle in these cells requires a transaminase step and is thus identified as the malate-aspartate shuttle (W.V.V. Greenhouse and A.L. Lehninger, Cancer Res., 36: 1392-1396, 1976), metabolic flux diagrams were constructed for the five cell lines. These diagrams show the relative rates of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport, and the malate-aspartate shuttle in these tumors. Large amounts of cytosolic NADH were oxidized by the mitochondrial respiratory chain via the NADH shuttle, comprising anywhere from about 20 to 80% of the total flow of reducing equivalents to oxygen in these tumors. Calculations of the sources of energy for adenosine triphosphate synthesis indicated that on the average about one-third of the respiratory adenosine triphosphate is generated by electron flow originating from cytosolic NADH via the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  4. Simulating tumor growth in confined heterogeneous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevertz, Jana L; Torquato, Salvatore; Gillies, George T

    2008-01-01

    The holy grail of computational tumor modeling is to develop a simulation tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for many of the complex processes involved in tumor growth. One interaction that has not been incorporated into computational models of neoplastic progression is the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and heterogeneity have on tumor growth. For this reason, we have taken a cellular automaton algorithm that was originally designed to simulate spherically symmetric tumor growth and generalized the algorithm to incorporate the effects of tissue shape and structure. We show that models that do not account for organ/tissue geometry and topology lead to false conclusions about tumor spread, shape and size. The impact that confinement has on tumor growth is more pronounced when a neoplasm is growing close to, versus far from, the confining boundary. Thus, any clinical simulation tool of cancer progression must not only consider the shape and structure of the organ in which a tumor is growing, but must also consider the location of the tumor within the organ if it is to accurately predict neoplastic growth dynamics

  5. The origin and fate of intact polar lipids in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, J.

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms, such as bacteria, archaea and algae, are the most abundant organisms on Earth and they contain the bulk of the biosphere’s carbon, nitrogen and phosphor.They are also the main drivers of the biogeochemical cycles, and therefore the study of microbes in their environment (microbial

  6. Tumor penetration with intact MAb and fragments demonstrated in vitro on tumor spheroids and in vivo in the nude mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchegger, F.; Halpern, S.E.; Sutherland, R.M.; Schreyer, M.; Mach, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Tumor spheroids grown in culture represent a good in vitro model for the study of tumor penetration phenomena of potential radiotherapeutics. Using this system, it was found that Fab-fragments penetrate tumors more quickly and deeply than complete antibodies. These results were confirmed in tumor bearing nephrectomized nude mice

  7. Effect of perioperative application of L-asrginine combined with intacted protein compound preparations on postoperative antitumor immunity and tumor load in patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Lan Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of perioperative application of L-arginine combined with intacted protein compound preparations on postoperative antitumor immunity and tumor load in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 68 patients with gastric cancer received radical operation, and according to different perioperative nutrition intervention, they were divided into control group (normal glucose saline enteral nutrition and observation group (L-arginine combined with intacted protein compound preparations enteral nutrition by half. Postoperative short-term antitumor immune cell levels and serum levels of illness-related indexes, nutrition and inflammation indexes of two groups were detected, patients were followed up for 3 years and the gastric stump MRI changes were observed. Results: Venous blood CD4+ T lymphocyte level and CD4+ /CD8+ ratio of observation group 3 months after treatment were higher than those of control group while CD8+ T lymphocyte and Treg cell levels were lower than those of control group; serum Pentraxin-3, CYFRA21-1, TTF-1 and HE4 levels were lower than those of control group; ALB, PA and IL-2 levels were higher than those of control group while IL-6 and IL-10 levels were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Gastric stump MRI images 3 years after operation were significantly different between two groups. Conclusions: Perioperative application of L-arginine combined with intacted protein compound preparations can optimize postoperative immune and nutritional state in patients with gastric cancer, and it also has positive effect on reducing the incidence of long-term gastric stump carcinoma and other aspects.

  8. Renal cell tumors with clear cell histology and intact VHL and chromosome 3p: a histological review of tumors from the Cancer Genome Atlas database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Laura; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Barod, Ravi; Rogers, Craig G; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Gupta, Nilesh S; Williamson, Sean R

    2017-11-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is by far the most common form of kidney cancer; however, a number of histologically similar tumors are now recognized and considered distinct entities. The Cancer Genome Atlas published data set was queried (http://cbioportal.org) for clear cell renal cell carcinoma tumors lacking VHL gene mutation and chromosome 3p loss, for which whole-slide images were reviewed. Of the 418 tumors in the published Cancer Genome Atlas clear cell renal cell carcinoma database, 387 had VHL mutation, copy number loss for chromosome 3p, or both (93%). Of the remaining, 27/31 had whole-slide images for review. One had 3p loss based on karyotype but not sequencing, and three demonstrated VHL promoter hypermethylation. Nine could be reclassified as distinct or emerging entities: translocation renal cell carcinoma (n=3), TCEB1 mutant renal cell carcinoma (n=3), papillary renal cell carcinoma (n=2), and clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (n=1). Of the remaining, 6 had other clear cell renal cell carcinoma-associated gene alterations (PBRM1, SMARCA4, BAP1, SETD2), leaving 11 specimens, including 2 high-grade or sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas and 2 with prominent fibromuscular stroma (not TCEB1 mutant). One of the remaining tumors exhibited gain of chromosome 7 but lacked histological features of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Two tumors previously reported to harbor TFE3 gene fusions also exhibited VHL mutation, chromosome 3p loss, and morphology indistinguishable from clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the significance of which is uncertain. In summary, almost all clear cell renal cell carcinomas harbor VHL mutation, 3p copy number loss, or both. Of tumors with clear cell histology that lack these alterations, a subset can now be reclassified as other entities. Further study will determine whether additional entities exist, based on distinct genetic pathways that may have implications for treatment.

  9. Comparison of extraction and work up techniques for analysis of core and intact polar tetraether lipids from sedimentary environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengger, S.K.; Hopmans, E.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether-based intact polar lipids (IPL GDGTs) are used as biomarkers for living Archaea and are analyzed utilizing a variety of extraction and quantification techniques. Most IPL GDGT studies have used a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction method, but it has been

  10. Hypoxic Response of Tumor Tissues in a Microfluidic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Adnan; Dutta, Prashanta

    2017-11-01

    Inside a tumor tissue, cells growing further away from the blood vessel often suffer from low oxygen levels known as hypoxia. Cancer cells have shown prolonged survival in hostile hypoxic conditions by sharply changing the cellular metabolism. In this work, different stages of growth of the tumor tissue and the oxygen transport across the tissue are investigated. The tissue was modeled as a contiguous block of cells inside a microfluidic environment with nutrient transport through advection and diffusion. While oxygen uptake inside the tissue is through diffusion, ascorbate transport from the extracellular medium is addressed by a concentration dependent uptake model. By varying the experimentally observed oxygen consumption rate, different types of cancer cells and their normoxic and hypoxic stages were studied. Even when the oxygen supply in the channel is maintained at normoxic levels, our results show the onset of hypoxia within minutes inside the cellblock. Interestingly, modeled cell blocks with and without a structured basal layer showed less than 5% variation in hypoxic response in chronic hypoxia. Results also indicate that the balance of cell survival and growth are affected by the flow rate of nutrients and the oxygen consumption rate. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMS 1317671.

  11. A laboratory experiment on the behaviour of soil-derived core and intact polar GDGTs in aquatic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterse, F.; Moy, C. M.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2015-01-01

    We have performed incubation experiments in order to examine the behaviour of soil-derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) membrane lipids upon entering an aquatic environment and to evaluate the processes that potentially take place during their fluvial transport from land to

  12. BONE TUMOR ENVIRONMENT AS POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC TARGET IN EWING SARCOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eREDINI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone tumor, with three cases per million worldwide. In clinical terms, ES is an aggressive, rapidly fatal malignancy that mainly develops in osseous sites (85%, but also in extraskeletal soft tissue. It spreads naturally to the lungs, bones and bone marrow with poor prognosis in the two latter cases. Bone lesions from primary or secondary (metastases tumors are characterized by extensive bone remodeling, more often due to osteolysis. Osteoclast activation and subsequent bone resorption is responsible for the clinical features of bone tumors including pain, vertebral collapse and spinal cord compression. Based on the vicious cycle concept of tumor cells and bone resorbing cells, drugs which target osteoclasts may be promising agents as adjuvant setting for treating bone tumors, including Ewing sarcoma. There is also increasing evidence that cellular and molecular protagonists present in the bone microenvironment play a part in establishing a favorable niche for tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic value of drugs targeting the bone tumor microenvironment in Ewing Sarcoma. The first part of the review will focus on targeting the bone resorbing function of osteoclasts by means of bisphosphonates (BPs or drugs blocking the pro-resorbing cytokine Receptor Activator of NF-kappa B Ligand (RANKL. Second, the role of this peculiar hypoxic microenvironment will be discussed in the context of resistance to chemotherapy, escape from the immune system, or neo-angiogenesis. Therapeutic interventions based on these specificities could be then proposed in the context of Ewing sarcoma.

  13. Characterizing the Role of Nanoparticle Design on Tumor Transport and Stability in the Extracellular Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Alexandre

    Nanotechnology has emerged as an exciting strategy for the delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents into established tumors. Advancements in nanomaterial synthesis have generated an extensive number of nanoparticle designs made from different materials. Unfortunately, it remains impossible to predict a design's effectiveness for in vivo tumor accumulation. Little is known about how a nanoparticle's morphology and surface chemistry affect its interactions with cells and proteins inside the tumor tissue. This thesis focuses on the development of in vitro experimental tools to evaluate how nanoparticle design affects transport in a three-dimensional tumor tissue and stability in the tumor microenvironment. Nanoparticle transport was evaluated using a novel 'tumor-on-a-chip' system where multicellular tumor spheroids were immobilized in a microfluidic channel. This setup created a three-dimensional tumor environment displaying physiological cell density, extracellular matrix organization, and interstitial flow rates. The tumor-on-a-chip demonstrated that accumulation of nanoparticles was limited to diameters below 110 nm and was improved by receptor targeting. Nanoparticle stability in the tumor microenvironment was evaluated using media isolated from different tumor cell lines. Nanoparticle diameter and surface chemistry were important determinants of stability in cancer cell-conditioned media. Small nanoparticles with unstable surface chemistries adsorbed cellular proteins on their surface and were prone to aggregation. Nanoparticle aggregation altered cellular interactions leading to changes in cell uptake. Using a novel technique to generate different aggregate sizes possessing a uniform surface composition, it was determined that aggregation can change receptor affinity, cell internalization mechanisms and sub-cellular sequestration patterns. Data from this thesis characterize the behavior of nanoparticles within modeled tumor environments and provide some

  14. The relationship between environmental parameters of saline and underground karst - patients with different diseases in the course of speleotherapy - anthropogenic effect - keeping intact the underground environment and curative properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionca, Iu.; Hoteteu, M.; Chonka, Ia.; Slavik, P.; Kubas, J.; Grudnicki, N.

    2009-04-01

    mechanism for keeping them intact. The data collected indicate the status of the underground salt or karst environment, allows the composition and aplication of the time period and speleotherapeutic procedures for patients with different pathologies in order to obtain speleotherapeutic positive effect or their use to balneoclimatic tourism, and also allow to assess anthropyc pollution and necessary measures for keeping intact of curative properties or their regeneration.

  15. (Photosynthesis in intact plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Progress in the two years since the last renewal application has been excellent. We have made substantial contributions on both main fronts of the projects, and are particularly happy with the progress of our research on intact plants. The approach of basing our field work on a sound foundation of laboratory studies has enabled is to use methods which provide unambiguous assays of well characterized reactions. We have also made excellent progress in several laboratory studies which will have direct applications in future field work, and have introduced to the laboratory a range of molecular genetics techniques which will allow us to explore new options in the attempt to understand function at the level of molecular structure.

  16. Silencing of Foxp3 delays the growth of murine melanomas and modifies the tumor immunosuppressive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco-Molina MA

    2016-01-01

    and decreased in tumors derived from B16F10.1 cells. Similar data were obtained from spleen cells. These results suggest that, in melanomas, Foxp3 partly induces tumor growth by modifying the immune system at the local and peripheral level, shifting the environment toward an immunosuppressive profile. Therapies incorporating this transcription factor could be strategies for cancer treatment. Keywords: melanoma, Foxp3, cancer, T-regulatory cells

  17. Tumoral Environment Triggers Transcript Anomalies in Established Tumors: Induction of Altered Gene Expression and of Aberrant, Truncated and B2 Repeat-Containing Gene Transcripts

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    Pieter Rottiers

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to eugenetic changes, cancerous cells exhibit extensive modifications in the expression levels of a variety of genes. The phenotypic switch observed after inoculation of T lymphoma cells into syngenic mice illustrates the active participation of tumoral environment in the induction of an aberrant gene expression pattern. To further substantiate this contribution, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based subtraction suppression hybridization (SSH to identify genes that are differentially expressed in tumor-derived EL4/13.3 cells compared to the same cells isolated from cultures. Besides a number of unknown genes, the subtracted library contained several known genes that have been reported to be expressed at increased levels in tumors and/or to contribute to carcinogenesis. Apart from clones representing translated transcripts, the subtracted library also contained a high number of clones representing B2 repeat elements, viz. short interspersed repetitive elements that are transcribed by RNA polymerase III. Northern blotting confirmed the induction of B2 transcripts in tumor tissue and also revealed induction of chimeric, B2 repeat-containing mRNA. The appearance of chimeric transcripts was accompanied by aberrant, shorter-than-full-length transcripts, specifically from upregulated genes. Accordingly, in addition to altered gene expression, tumoral environmental triggers constitute a potent mechanism to create an epigenetic diversity in cancers by inducing extensive transcript anomalies.

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD. Analysis of ASD populations, whether high-functioning, Asperger's or autism Broad Phenotype, studied over a range of executive functions including response inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and alerting networks indicates an absence of damage/impairment compared to the typically-developed normal control subjects. These findings of intact executive functioning in ASD subjects provide a strong foundation on which to construct applications for growth environments and the rehabilitation of autistic subjects.

  19. The postischemic environment differentially impacts teratoma or tumor formation after transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seminatore, Christine; Polentes, Jerome; Ellman, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    Risk of tumorigenesis is a major obstacle to human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Likely linked to the stage of differentiation of the cells at the time of implantation, formation of teratoma/tumors can also be influenced by factors released by the host tissue. We have...... analyzed the relative effects of the stage of differentiation and the postischemic environment on the formation of adverse structures by transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors....

  20. Bone Tumor Environment as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Ewing Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Redini, Fran?oise; Heymann, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone tumor, with three cases per million worldwide. In clinical terms, Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, rapidly fatal malignancy that mainly develops not only in osseous sites (85%) but also in extra-skeletal soft tissue. It spreads naturally to the lungs, bones, and bone marrow with poor prognosis in the two latter cases. Bone lesions from primary or secondary (metastases) tumors are characterized by extensive bone remodeling, more often due t...

  1. Hypoxic tumor environments exhibit disrupted collagen I fibers and low macromolecular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samata M Kakkad

    Full Text Available Hypoxic tumor microenvironments result in an aggressive phenotype and resistance to therapy that lead to tumor progression, recurrence, and metastasis. While poor vascularization and the resultant inadequate drug delivery are known to contribute to drug resistance, the effect of hypoxia on molecular transport through the interstitium, and the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM in mediating this transport are unexplored. The dense mesh of fibers present in the ECM can especially influence the movement of macromolecules. Collagen 1 (Col1 fibers form a key component of the ECM in breast cancers. Here we characterized the influence of hypoxia on macromolecular transport in tumors, and the role of Col1 fibers in mediating this transport using an MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model engineered to express red fluorescent protein under hypoxia. Magnetic resonance imaging of macromolecular transport was combined with second harmonic generation microscopy of Col1 fibers. Hypoxic tumor regions displayed significantly decreased Col1 fiber density and volume, as well as significantly lower macromolecular draining and pooling rates, than normoxic regions. Regions adjacent to severely hypoxic areas revealed higher deposition of Col1 fibers and increased macromolecular transport. These data suggest that Col1 fibers may facilitate macromolecular transport in tumors, and their reduction in hypoxic regions may reduce this transport. Decreased macromolecular transport in hypoxic regions may also contribute to poor drug delivery and tumor recurrence in hypoxic regions. High Col1 fiber density observed around hypoxic regions may facilitate the escape of aggressive cancer cells from hypoxic regions.

  2. Bone Tumor Environment as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Ewing Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redini, Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone tumor, with three cases per million worldwide. In clinical terms, Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, rapidly fatal malignancy that mainly develops not only in osseous sites (85%) but also in extra-skeletal soft tissue. It spreads naturally to the lungs, bones, and bone marrow with poor prognosis in the two latter cases. Bone lesions from primary or secondary (metastases) tumors are characterized by extensive bone remodeling, more often due to osteolysis. Osteoclast activation and subsequent bone resorption are responsible for the clinical features of bone tumors, including pain, vertebral collapse, and spinal cord compression. Based on the "vicious cycle" concept of tumor cells and bone resorbing cells, drugs, which target osteoclasts, may be promising agents as adjuvant setting for treating bone tumors, including Ewing sarcoma. There is also increasing evidence that cellular and molecular protagonists present in the bone microenvironment play a part in establishing a favorable "niche" for tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic value of drugs targeting the bone tumor microenvironment in Ewing sarcoma. The first part of the review will focus on targeting the bone resorbing function of osteoclasts by means of bisphosphonates or drugs blocking the pro-resorbing cytokine receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand. Second, the role of this peculiar hypoxic microenvironment will be discussed in the context of resistance to chemotherapy, escape from the immune system, or neo-angiogenesis. Therapeutic interventions based on these specificities could be then proposed in the context of Ewing sarcoma.

  3. Injury Signals Cooperate with Nf1 Loss to Relieve the Tumor-Suppressive Environment of Adult Peripheral Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ribeiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells are highly plastic cells that dedifferentiate to a progenitor-like state following injury. However, deregulation of this plasticity, may be involved in the formation of neurofibromas, mixed-cell tumors of Schwann cell (SC origin that arise upon loss of NF1. Here, we show that adult myelinating SCs (mSCs are refractory to Nf1 loss. However, in the context of injury, Nf1-deficient cells display opposing behaviors along the wounded nerve; distal to the injury, Nf1−/− mSCs redifferentiate normally, whereas at the wound site Nf1−/− mSCs give rise to neurofibromas in both Nf1+/+ and Nf1+/− backgrounds. Tracing experiments showed that distinct cell types within the tumor derive from Nf1-deficient SCs. This model of neurofibroma formation demonstrates that neurofibromas can originate from adult SCs and that the nerve environment can switch from tumor suppressive to tumor promoting at a site of injury. These findings have implications for both the characterization and treatment of neurofibromas.

  4. Molecular Imaging to Identify Tumor Recurrence following Chemoradiation in a Hostile Surgical Environment

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    Olugbenga T. Okusanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical biopsy of potential tumor recurrence is a common challenge facing oncologists, surgeons, and cancer patients. Imaging modalities have limited ability to accurately detect recurrent cancer in fields affected by previous surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation. However, definitive tissue diagnosis is often needed to initiate treatment and to direct therapy. We sought to determine if a targeted fluorescent intraoperative molecular imaging technique could be applied in a clinical setting to assist a surgical biopsy in a “hostile” field. We describe the use of a folate-fluorescein conjugate to direct the biopsy of a suspected recurrent lung adenocarcinoma invading the mediastinum that had been previously treated with chemoradiation. We found that intraoperative imaging allowed the identification of small viable tumor deposits that were otherwise indistinguishable from scar and necrosis. Our operative observations were confirmed by histology, fluorescence microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate one possible application and clinical value of intraoperative molecular imaging.

  5. Studies on the interaction between the Ehrlich ascites tumor cell and its fluid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnani, B.

    1984-01-01

    In this dissertation, the glycolytic nature of the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cell is disclosed both in vivo and in vitro by experiments challenging it with glucose. It is demonstrated that EAT cells can cause the extracellular pH to drop to values sufficiently acidic so as to inhibit EAT glycolysis. However, the extracellular fluid or the Ascites Supernatant Fluid (ASF) reduced the extent to which the pH dropped during EAT cell glycolysis. A comparison of the activities of the sera from tumor-bearing mice and normal mice revealed that the serumfrom the tumor-bearing mice reduced the pH fall generated by the EAT cell in the same way as did ASF; normal mouse serum had no such effect. The metabolic pathways utilized during glucose catabolism were examined by radio-respirometry and the results demonstrated that the high percentage of the glucose conversion to lactate occurred because of partial blockade of the TCA cycle. The databolism of glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine, aspartic acid, and alanine was enhanced by ASF as determined by measuring 14 CO 2 from 14 C-labelled amino acids, with glutamine catabolism enhanced about three-fold. Fractionation experiments revealed that ASF contained a factor(s) responsible for this enhancement that had a molecular weight greater than 300,000 daltons and was heat-labile

  6. Differentiation of EL4 lymphoma cells by tumoral environment is associated with inappropriate expression of the large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan PG-M and the tumor-associated antigen HTgp-175.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottiers, P; Verfaillie, T; Contreras, R; Revets, H; Desmedt, M; Dooms, H; Fiers, W; Grooten, J

    1998-11-09

    Progression to malignancy of transformed cells involves complex genetic alterations and aberrant gene expression patterns. While aberrant gene expression is often caused by alterations in individual genes, the contribution of the tumoral environment to the triggering of this gene expression is less well established. The stable but heterogeneous expression in cultured EL4/13 cells of a novel tumor-associated antigen, designated as HTgp-175, was chosen for the investigation of gene expression during tumor formation. Homogeneously HTgp-175-negative EL4/13 cells, isolated by cell sorting or obtained by subcloning, acquired HTgp-175 expression as a result of tumor formation. The tumorigenicity of HTgp-175-negative vs. HTgp-175-positive EL4 variants was identical, indicating that induction but not selection accounted for the phenotypic switch from HTgp-175-negative to HTgp-175-positive. Although mutagenesis experiments showed that the protein was not essential for tumor establishment, tumor-derived cells showed increased malignancy, linking HTgp-175 expression with genetic changes accompanying tumor progression. This novel gene expression was not an isolated event, since it was accompanied by ectopic expression of the large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan PG-M and of normal differentiation antigens. We conclude that signals derived from the tumoral microenvironment contribute significantly to the aberrant gene expression pattern of malignant cells, apparently by fortuitous activation of differentiation processes and cause expression of novel differentiation antigens as well as of inappropriate tumor-associated and ectopic antigens.

  7. Influence of physiological environment on the expression of thermotolerance in proliferating (P) and quiescent (Q) tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallen, C.A.; Gutierrez, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Alteration of the physiological environment of Q 66 and 67 mouse mammary tumor cells by placing them in either fresh, complete medium or a balanced salt solution supplemented with 24 mM glucose resulted in a significant increase in the time at 45 0 C necessary to measure cytotoxicity. The degree of increased resistance was dependent on the solution used to change the environment and the length of time the cells were allowed to equilibrate in this new environment. The aim of the present study is to determine if alterations in the Q cell environment has significant effects on the expression of thermotolerance. Pure P and Q cell populations of both 66 and 67 cell lines are exposed continuously to either 42 or 43 0 C and assayed for colony formation at various times for the development of thermotolerance. The comparison of thermotolerance development both in terms of time course and extent are measured in Q cells under 5 conditions: 1) normal, depleted medium (pH 6.8), 2) fresh, complete medium (pH 7.2), 3) balanced salt solution with 24 mM glucose (pH 7.2), 4) balanced salt solution with no glucose (pH 7.2), and 5) depleted medium supplemented with fresh serum (pH 6.8). These data have implications for the importance of Q cells in determining the outcome of clinical hyperthermia and the role of other stressors on the expression of thermotolerance

  8. The matricellular receptor LRP1 forms an interface for signaling and endocytosis in modulation of the extracellular tumor environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eVan Gool

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The membrane protein low-density lipoprotein receptor related-protein 1 (LRP1 has been attributed a role in cancer. However, its presumably often indirect involvement is far from understood. LRP1 has both endocytic and signaling activities. As a matricellular receptor it is involved in regulation, mostly by clearing, of various extracellular matrix degrading enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases, serine proteases, protease-inhibitor complexes and the endoglycosidase heparanase. Furthermore, by binding extracellular ligands including growth factors and subsequent intracellular interaction with scaffolding and adaptor proteins it is involved in regulation of various signaling cascades. LRP1 expression levels are often downregulated in cancer and some studies consider low LRP1 levels a poor prognostic factor. On the contrary, upregulation in brain cancers has been noted and clinical trials explore the use of LRP1 as cargo receptor to deliver cytotoxic agents.This mini-review focuses on LRP1’s role in tumor growth and metastasis especially by modulation of the extracellular tumor environment. In relation to this role its diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential will be discussed.

  9. Controlling micro- and nano-environment of tumor and stem cells for novel research and therapy of brain cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Lloyd

    The use of modern technologies in cancer research has engendered a great deal of excitement. Many of these advanced approaches involve in-depth mathematical analyses of the inner working of cells, via genomic and proteomic analyses. However these techniques may not be ideal for the study of complex cell phenotypes and behaviors. This dissertation explores cancer and potential therapies through phenotypic analysis of cell behaviors, an alternative approach. We employ this experimental framework to study brain cancer (glioma), a particularly formidable example of this diverse ailment. Through the application of micro- and nanotechnology, we carefully control the surrounding environments of cells to understand their responses to various cues and to manipulate their behaviors. Subsequently we obtain clinically relevant information that allows better understanding of glioma, and enhancement of potential therapies. We first aim to address brain tumor dispersal, through analysis of cell migration. Utilizing nanometer-scale topographic models of the extracellular matrix, we study the migratory response of glioma cells to various stimuli in vitro. Second, we implement knowledge gained from these investigations to define characteristics of tumor progression in patients, and to develop treatments inhibiting cell migration. Next we use microfluidic and nanotopographic models to study the behaviors of stem cells in vitro. Here we attempt to improve their abilities to deliver therapeutic proteins to cancer, an innovative treatment approach. We analyze the multi-step process by which adipose-derived stem cells naturally home to tumor sites, and identify numerous environmental perturbations to enhance this behavior. Finally, we attempt to demonstrate that these cell culture-based manipulations can enhance the localization of adipose stem cells to glioma in vivo using animal models. Throughout this work we utilize environmental cues to analyze and induce particular behaviors in

  10. Strategies for Analyzing Data from Intact Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Lawrence H.; Lane, Carolyn E.

    Action research often necessitates the use of intact groups for the comparison of educational treatments or programs. This paper considers several analytical methods that might be used for such situations when pretest scores indicate that these intact groups differ significantly initially. The methods considered include gain score analysis of…

  11. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Griffiths, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  12. Intact glycopeptide characterization using mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Li; Qu, Yi; Zhang, Zhaorui; Wang, Zhe; Prykova, Iya; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most prominent and extensively studied protein post-translational modifications. However, traditional proteomic studies at the peptide level (bottom-up) rarely characterize intact glycopeptides (glycosylated peptides without removing glycans), so no glycoprotein heterogeneity information is retained. Intact glycopeptide characterization, on the other hand, provides opportunities to simultaneously elucidate the glycan structure and the glycosylation site needed to r...

  13. 40 CFR 261.40 - Conditional Exclusion for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditional Exclusion for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Recycling. 261.40 Section 261.40 Protection of Environment...) Exported for Recycling. Used, intact CRTs exported for recycling are not solid wastes if they meet the...

  14. Patterns of DNA damage response in intracranial germ cell tumors versus glioblastomas reflect cell of origin rather than brain environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, Jirina; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Krizova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) machinery becomes commonly activated in response to oncogenes and during early stages of development of solid malignancies, with an exception of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). The active DDR signaling evokes cell death or senescence but this anti-tumor barrier ...... checkpoints in intracranial tumorigenesis, with implications for the differential biological responses of diverse tumor types to endogenous stress as well as to genotoxic treatments such as ionizing radiation or chemotherapy....

  15. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  16. Intact glycopeptide characterization using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Qu, Yi; Zhang, Zhaorui; Wang, Zhe; Prytkova, Iya; Wu, Si

    2016-05-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most prominent and extensively studied protein post-translational modifications. However, traditional proteomic studies at the peptide level (bottom-up) rarely characterize intact glycopeptides (glycosylated peptides without removing glycans), so no glycoprotein heterogeneity information is retained. Intact glycopeptide characterization, on the other hand, provides opportunities to simultaneously elucidate the glycan structure and the glycosylation site needed to reveal the actual biological function of protein glycosylation. Recently, significant improvements have been made in the characterization of intact glycopeptides, ranging from enrichment and separation, mass spectroscopy (MS) detection, to bioinformatics analysis. In this review, we recapitulated currently available intact glycopeptide characterization methods with respect to their advantages and limitations as well as their potential applications.

  17. Modulation of clonogenicity, growth, and radiosensitivity of three human epidermoid tumor cell lines by a fibroblastic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gery, Bernard; Little, John B.; Coppey, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model vitro system to examine the influence of fibroblasts on the growth and survival of human tumor cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The cell system consists of three epidermoid carcinoma cell lines derived from head and neck tumors having differing growth potentials and intrinsic radiosensitivities, as well as a low passage skin fibroblast strain from a normal human donor. The tumor cells were seeded for five days prior to exposure to radiation: (a) in the presence of different numbers of fibroblasts, (b) in conditioned medium from stationary fibroblast cultures, and (c) on an extracted fibroblastic matrix. Results: When grown with fibroblasts, all three tumor cell lines showed increased clonogenicity and increased radioresistance. The radioprotective effect was maximal at a density of approximately 10 5 fibroblasts/100 mm Petri dish, and was greatest in the intrinsically radiosensitive tumor cell line. On the other hand, the effects of incubation with conditioned medium or on a fibroblastic matrix varied among the tumor cell lines. Thus, the protective effect afforded by coculture with fibroblasts must involve several cellular factors related to the fibroblast itself. Conclusions: These observations emphasize the importance of cultural conditions on the apparent radiosensitivity of human tumor cell lines, and suggest that the fibroblastic connective tissue enveloping the malignant cells should be considered when the aim is to establish a radiopredictive assay from surgical tumors fragments

  18. Visualizing Early-Stage Breast Cancer Tumors in a Mammographic Environment Through a 3-Dimensional Mathematical Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bassham, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    ... of improving early breast cancer detection. By using modeling and simulation to construct an accurate breast cancer tumor model, we hope to solve the problems associated with mammogram misdiagnosis and, perhaps as a by-product, lend insight...

  19. Energy and Redox Homeostasis in Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Fernandes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells display abnormal morphology, chromosomes, and metabolism. This review will focus on the metabolism of tumor cells integrating the available data by way of a functional approach. The first part contains a comprehensive introduction to bioenergetics, mitochondria, and the mechanisms of production and degradation of reactive oxygen species. This will be followed by a discussion on the oxidative metabolism of tumor cells including the morphology, biogenesis, and networking of mitochondria. Tumor cells overexpress proteins that favor fission, such as GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1. The interplay between proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family that promotes Drp 1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation and fusogenic antiapoptotic proteins such as Opa-1 will be presented. It will be argued that contrary to the widespread belief that in cancer cells, aerobic glycolysis completely replaces oxidative metabolism, a misrepresentation of Warburg’s original results, mitochondria of tumor cells are fully viable and functional. Cancer cells also carry out oxidative metabolism and generally conform to the orthodox model of ATP production maintaining as well an intact electron transport system. Finally, data will be presented indicating that the key to tumor cell survival in an ROS rich environment depends on the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes and high levels of the nonenzymatic antioxidant scavengers.

  20. Radioiodination of an outer membrane protein in intact Rickettsia prowazekii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Winkler, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    Intact Rickettsia prowazekii was radiolabeled with the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method of iodination. Separation of the rickettsial extract into cytoplasmic, outer and inner membrane fractions demonstrated that the outer membrane was preferentially labeled. Analysis of the polypeptides of these fractions on high-resolution slab polyacrylamide gels showed that most of the 125 I was in polypeptide T49, an outer membrane constituent. Additional outer membrane polypeptides were iodinated in broken envelope preparations, demonstrating that T49 is uniquely accessible to the external environment and the asymmetric polypeptide organization of the outer membrane

  1. Intacting Integrity in coping with health issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Stine Leegaard; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Fridlund, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formal substantive theory (FST) on the multidimensional behavioral process of coping with health issues. Intacting integrity while coping with health issues emerged as the core category of this FST. People facing health issues strive to safeguard and keep...

  2. Epispadias in boys with an intact prepuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E. M. E.; Kuijper, C. F.; Chrzan, R. J.; Dik, P.; Klijn, A. J.; de Jong, T. P. V. M.

    2014-01-01

    To present an overview of the clinical presentation and pathological anatomy, and the results of surgical correction of 7 cases of epispadias with intact prepuce; a rare condition that has only occasionally been reported in literature. A retrospective search was performed in the surgical and

  3. HYDROCARBON VAPOR DIFFUSION IN INTACT CORE SLEEVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diffusion of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP) and 2,2,5-trimethylhexane (TMH) vapors put of residually contaminated sandy soil from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) field research site at Traverse City, Michigan, was measured and modeled. The headspace of an intact ...

  4. Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Ken-Ji; Carle, G. C.; Bunch, T. E.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE) will develop technologies and engineering techniques necessary to capture nearly intact, uncontaminated cosmic and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). Successful capture of such particles will benefit the exobiology and planetary science communities by providing particulate samples that may have survived unaltered since the formation of the solar system. Characterization of these particles may contribute fundamental data to our knowledge of how these particles could have formed into our planet Earth and, perhaps, contributed to the beginnings of life. The term 'uncontaminated' means that captured cosmic and IDP particles are free of organic contamination from the capture process and the term 'nearly intact capture' means that their chemical and elemental components are not materially altered during capture. The key to capturing cosmic and IDP particles that are organic-contamination free and nearly intact is the capture medium. Initial screening of capture media included organic foams, multiple thin foil layers, and aerogel (a silica gel); but, with the exception of aerogel, the requirements of no contamination or nearly intact capture were not met. To ensure no contamination of particles in the capture process, high-purity aerogel was chosen. High-purity aerogel results in high clarity (visual clearness), a useful quality in detection and recovery of embedded captured particles from the aerogel. P. Tsou at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) originally described the use of aerogel for this purpose and reported laboratory test results. He has flown aerogel as a 'GAS-can Lid' payload on STS-47 and is evaluating the results. The Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE), a Eureca 1 experiment, is also flying aerogel and is scheduled for recovery in late April.

  5. Macromolecular pHPMA-based nanoparticles with cholesterol for solid tumor targeting: behavior in HSA protein environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, X.; Niebuur, B.-J.; Chytil, Petr; Etrych, Tomáš; Filippov, Sergey K.; Kikhney, A.; Wieland, D. C. F.; Svergun, D. I.; Papadakis, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2018), s. 470-480 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC15-10527J; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28594A; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer carriers * N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide * tumor targeting Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.246, year: 2016

  6. Measurement of diffusive properties of intact rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, K B

    1996-12-01

    In the Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System for the Disposal of Canada`s Nuclear Fuel Waste (Goodwin et al. 1994) the disposal vault is assumed to be surrounded by a zone of intact rock, referred to as the `exclusion zone.` A sensitivity analysis of the relative effectiveness of the several engineered and natural barriers that contribute to the safety of the reference disposal system has shown that this zone of intact rock is the most effective of these barriers to the movement of radionuclides through the reference system. Peer review of the geosphere model used in the case study for the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has identified the need to quantify the properties of the intact rock surrounding the disposal vault that would control the transport of radionuclides by diffusion. The Postclosure Assessment also identified the need for appropriate values of the free water diffusion coefficient (D{sub o}) for {sup 129}1 and {sup 14}C. The measurement of rock resistivity allows the calculation of the Formation Factor for a rock This review describes the Formation Factor, diffusivity, permeability, and porosity, and how these properties might be measured or inferred for insitu rock under the conditions that apply to the intact rock surrounding a potential disposal vault. The importance of measuring the intrinsic diffusion coefficient (D{sup i}) of diffusing species under solution salinities simulating those of groundwaters is emphasised, and a method of measurement is described that is independent of the diffusing medium, and which would be appropriate for measurements made in chemically complex media such as groundwaters. (author). 95 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs.

  7. Measurement of diffusive properties of intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, K.B.

    1996-12-01

    In the Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System for the Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste (Goodwin et al. 1994) the disposal vault is assumed to be surrounded by a zone of intact rock, referred to as the 'exclusion zone.' A sensitivity analysis of the relative effectiveness of the several engineered and natural barriers that contribute to the safety of the reference disposal system has shown that this zone of intact rock is the most effective of these barriers to the movement of radionuclides through the reference system. Peer review of the geosphere model used in the case study for the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has identified the need to quantify the properties of the intact rock surrounding the disposal vault that would control the transport of radionuclides by diffusion. The Postclosure Assessment also identified the need for appropriate values of the free water diffusion coefficient (D o ) for 129 1 and 14 C. The measurement of rock resistivity allows the calculation of the Formation Factor for a rock This review describes the Formation Factor, diffusivity, permeability, and porosity, and how these properties might be measured or inferred for insitu rock under the conditions that apply to the intact rock surrounding a potential disposal vault. The importance of measuring the intrinsic diffusion coefficient (D i ) of diffusing species under solution salinities simulating those of groundwaters is emphasised, and a method of measurement is described that is independent of the diffusing medium, and which would be appropriate for measurements made in chemically complex media such as groundwaters. (author). 95 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs

  8. Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria

    Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.

  9. How can we conserve intact tropical peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Ian; Roucoux, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    The scientific community has, for more than three decades, been expressing increasing alarm about the fate of peatlands in parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive land-use conversion and drainage for rice and oil palm have greatly compromised peatland hydrology, ecology, biological richness, and carbon storage. The discourse in the literature on these peatlands is now moving on from attempts to preserve the last remaining fragments of peat-swamp forest, towards discussion of how best to restore damaged ecosystems, and whether it is possible to manage plantations more 'sustainably'. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that peatlands occur quite widely in other parts of the lowland tropics, including parts of Amazonia and the Congo Basin, and many of these peatlands can reasonably be described as 'intact': although few if any parts of the tropics are totally unaffected by human actions, the hydrology and functional ecology of these systems appear to be close to a 'natural' state. The question then arises as to what should be done with the knowledge of their existence. Here we analyse the arguments in favour of protecting intact peatlands, and the potential conflicts with other priorities such as economic development and social justice. We evaluate alternative mechanisms for protecting intact peatlands, focusing on the particular issues raised by peatlands as opposed to other kinds of tropical ecosystem. We identify ways in which natural science agendas can help to inform these arguments, using our own contributions in palaeoecology and carbon mapping as examples. Finally, we argue for a radical reconsideration of research agendas in tropical peatlands, highlighting the potential contribution of methodologies borrowed from the social sciences and humanities.

  10. Sorption of cesium in intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puukko, E.

    2014-04-01

    The mass distribution coefficient K d is used in performance assessment (PA) to describe sorption of a radionuclide on rock. The R d is determined using crushed rock which causes uncertainty in converting the R d values to K d values for intact rock. This work describes a method to determine the equilibrium of sorption on intact rock. The rock types of the planned Olkiluoto waste disposal site were T-series mica gneiss (T-MGN), T-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (T-TGG), P-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (P-TGG) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). These rocks contain different amount of biotite which is the main sorbing mineral. The sorption of cesium on intact rock slices was studied by applying an electrical field to speed up migration of cesium into the rock. Cesium is in the solution as a noncomplex cation Cs + and it is sorbed by ion exchange. The tracer used in the experiments was 134 Cs. The experimental sorption on the intact rock is compared with values calculated using the in house cation exchange sorption model (HYRL model) in PHREEQC program. The observed sorption on T-MGN and T-TGG rocks was close to the calculated values. Two PGR samples were from a depth of 70 m and three samples were from a depth of 150 m. Cesium sorbed more than predicted on the two 70 m PGR samples. The sorption of Cs on the three 150 m PGR samples was small which was consistent with the calculations. The pegmatitic granite PGR has the smallest content of biotite of the four rock types. In the case of P-TGG rock the observed values of sorption were only half of the calculated values. Two kind of slices were cut from P-TGG drill core. The slices were against and to the direction of the foliation of the biotite rims. The sorption of cesium on P-TGG rock was same in both cases. The results indicated that there was no effect of the directions of the electric field and the foliation of biotite in the P-TGG rock. (orig.)

  11. Quantitative proteomic analysis of intact plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraya, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Plastids are specialized cell organelles in plant cells that are differentiated into various forms including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts, and fulfill important functions in maintaining the overall cell metabolism and sensing environmental factors such as sunlight. It is therefore important to grasp the mechanisms of differentiation and functional changes of plastids in order to enhance the understanding of vegetality. In this chapter, details of a method for the extraction of intact plastids that makes analysis possible while maintaining the plastid functions are provided; in addition, a quantitative shotgun method for analyzing the composition and changes in the content of proteins in plastids as a result of environmental impacts is described.

  12. Oxidation of molecular tritium by intact soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.W.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors on the rate of oxidation of molecular tritium (T 2 ) to tritiated water (HTO) were determined for intact soils during field exposures. Maximum deposition velocities of approximately 0.03 cm/sec were measured for T 2 at low wind speeds for a variety of soils over a wide range of conditions. Deposition velocities were slightly inhibited in wet soils and at 0 0 C. In dry soils, oxidation of T 2 to HTO occurred deeper in the soil profile, but deposition velocities were unaffected

  13. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  14. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...

  15. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  16. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Single guard cell recordings in intact plants : light-induced hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, MRG; Steinmeyer, R; Staal, M; Hedrich, R

    Guard cells are electrically isolated from other plant cells and therefore offer the unique possibility to conduct current- and voltage-clamp recordings on single cells in an intact plant. Guard cells in their natural environment were impaled with double-barreled electrodes and found to exhibit

  18. Interactions among genes, tumor biology and the environment in cancer health disparities: examining the evidence on a national and global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Tiffany A; Martin, Damali N; Ambs, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates show great variations across nations and between population groups. These variations are largely explained by differences in age distribution, diet and lifestyle, access to health care, cultural barriers and exposure to carcinogens and pathogens. Cancers caused by infections are significantly more common in developing than developed countries, and they overproportionally affect immigrant populations in the USA and other countries. The global pattern of cancer is not stagnant. Instead, it is dynamic because of fluctuations in the age distribution of populations, improvements in cancer prevention and early detection in affluent countries and rapid changes in diet and lifestyle in parts of the world. For example, increased smoking rates have caused tobacco-induced cancers to rise in various Asian countries, whereas reduced smoking rates have caused these cancers to plateau or even begin to decline in Western Europe and North America. Some population groups experience a disproportionally high cancer burden. In the USA and the Caribbean, cancer incidence and mortality rates are excessively high in populations of African ancestry when compared with other population groups. The causes of this disparity are multifaceted and may include tumor biological and genetic factors and their interaction with the environment. In this review, we will discuss the magnitude and causes of global cancer health disparities and will, with a focus on African-Americans and selected cancer sites, evaluate the evidence that genetic and tumor biological factors contribute to existing cancer incidence and outcome differences among population groups in the USA.

  19. The Tumor Macroenvironment: Cancer-Promoting Networks Beyond Tumor Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Melanie R; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the macroenvironment and the primary tumor will enable the design of specific therapies that have the potential to prevent dissemination and metastatic spread. This chapter will summarize recent findings detailing how the primary tumor and systemic tumor macroenvironment coordinate malignant progression. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ( 3 H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented

  1. A new infusion pathway intactness monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sata, Koji; Hamada, Shingo; Caldwell, W Morton

    2006-01-01

    A new infusion pathway monitoring system has been developed for hospital and home use. The system consists of linear integrated circuits and a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer which constantly monitors the infusion pathway intactness. An AC (alternating current) voltage is induced on the patient's body by electrostatic coupling from the normal 100 volt, 60 Hz AC power line wiring field in the patient's room. The induced AC voltage can be recorded by a main electrode wrapped around the infusion polyvinyl chloride tube. A reference electrode is wrapped on the electrode to monitor the AC voltage around the main electrode. If the injection needle or infusion tube becomes detached, then the system detects changes in the induced AC voltages and alerts the nursing station, via the nurse call system or PHS (personal handy phone system).

  2. Reconciling certification and intact forest landscape conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschroth, Fritz; Garcia, Claude; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2018-05-29

    In 2014, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) added a new criterion to its principles that requires protection of intact forest landscapes (IFLs). An IFL is an extensive area of forest that lacks roads and other signs of human activity as detected through remote sensing. In the Congo basin, our analysis of road networks in formally approved concessionary logging areas revealed greater loss of IFL in certified than in noncertified concessions. In areas of informal (i.e., nonregulated) extraction, road networks are known to be less detectable by remote sensing. Under the current definition of IFL, companies certified under FSC standards are likely to be penalized relative to the noncertified as well as the informal logging sector on account of their planned road networks, despite an otherwise better standard of forest management. This could ultimately undermine certification and its wider adoption, with implications for the future of sustainable forest management.

  3. Localization by whole-body autoradiography of intact and fragmented radiolabeled antibodies in a metastatic human colonic cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fand, Irwin; Sharkey, R.M.; Grundy, J.P.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this report, we have employed macroautoradiography to compare the tumor targeting of 125 I-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) MAb (NP-4) to 125 I-labeled anti-colon-specific antigen-p (CSAp) MAb (Mu-9) and their labeled F(ab') 2 and Fab' fragments, in nude mice each bearing large dorsal human colonic tumor xenografts, and small nodular tumors in the liver and lungs. Using intact MAbs (NP-4 and Mu-9), clearance of background radioactivity was delayed to 3-7 days post-treatment. Treatment with F(ab') 2 and Fab' fragments of both NP-4 and Mu-9 MAbs, however, promoted clearance of background 125 I-radioactivity which was well advanced by 6-24 h and complete by 24-48 h after injection. Localization of 125 I-radioactivity in large and micrometastatic tumor perimeters was the most characteristic uptake pattern observed for both intact and fragmented MAbs. Qualitative analysis of macroautoradiographic images and quantitative densitometry indicated that the higher tumor-to-blood ratios achieved with labeled F(ab') 2 and Fab' fragments at early time points, compared to labeled whole immunoglobulin, appeared to be more a function of rapid plasma clearance, tumor mass, location of xenografts and specific tumor growth patterns than increased tumor penetrance by lower molecular weight univalent and bivalent immune fragments. (Author)

  4. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  5. THE TUMOR MACROENVIRONMENT: CANCER-PROMOTING NETWORKS BEYOND TUMOR BEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Puchalt, Alfredo Perales; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, and myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the mac...

  6. Comparison of Intact PTH and Bio-Intact PTH Assays Among Non-Dialysis Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbinder, Yael; Benchetrit, Sydney; Golan, Eliezer; Zitman-Gal, Tali

    2017-09-01

    The third-generation bio-intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-84) assay was designed to overcome problems associated with the detection of C-terminal fragments by the second-generation intact PTH assay. The two assays have been compared primarily among dialysis populations. The present study evaluated the correlations and differences between these two PTH assays among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5 not yet on dialysis. Blood samples were collected from 98 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5. PTH concentrations were measured simultaneously by using the second-generation - PTH intact-STAT and third-generation bio-intact 1-84 PTH assays. Other serum biomarkers of bone mineral disorders were also assessed. CKD stage was calculated by using the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration (EPI) formula. Serum bio-intact PTH concentrations were strongly correlated but significantly lower than the intact PTH concentrations (r=0.963, Pbio-intact PTH) positively correlated with urea (r=0.523, r=0.504; P=0.002, respectively), phosphorus (r=0.532, r=0.521; Pbio-intact PTH assay detected significantly lower PTH concentrations compared with intact PTH assay. Additional studies that correlate the diagnosis and management of CKD mineral and bone disorders with bone histomorphometric findings are needed to determine whether bio-intact PTH assay results are better surrogate markers in these early stages of CKD. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  7. SU-D-207A-02: Possible Characterization of the Brain Tumor Vascular Environment by a Novel Strategy of Quantitative Analysis in Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging: A Combination of Both Patlak and Logan Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S; Chinnaiyan, P; Wloch, J; Pirkola, M; Yan, D [Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The majority of quantitative analyses involving dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI have been performed to obtain kinetic parameters such as Ktrans and ve. Such analyses are generally performed assuming a “reversible” tissue compartment, where the tracer is assumed to be rapidly equilibrated between the plasma and tissue compartments. However, some tumor vascular environments may be more suited for a “non-reversible” tissue compartment, where, as with FDG PET imaging, the tracer is continuously deposited into the tissue compartment (or the return back to the plasma compartment is very slow in the imaging time scale). Therefore, Patlak and Logan analyses, which represent tools for the “non-reversible” and “reversible” modeling, respectively, were performed to better characterize the brain tumor vascular environment. Methods: A voxel-by-voxel analysis was performed to generate both Patlak and Logan plots in two brain tumor patients, one with grade III astrocytoma and the other with grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma. The slopes of plots and the r-square were then obtained by linear fitting and compared for each voxel. Results: The 2-dimensional scatter plots of Logan (Y-axis) vs. Patlak slopes (X-axis) clearly showed increased Logan slopes for glioblastoma (Figure 3A). The scatter plots of goodness-of-fit (Figure 3B) also suggested glioblastoma, relative to grade III astrocytoma, might consist of more voxels that are kinetically Logan-like (i.e. rapidly equilibrated extravascular space and active vascular environment). Therefore, the enhanced Logan-like behavior (and the Logan slope) in glioblastoma may imply an increased fraction of active vascular environment, while the enhanced Patlak-like behavior implies the vascular environment permitting a relatively slower washout of the tracer. Conclusion: Although further verification is required, the combination of Patlak and Logan analyses in DCE MRI may be useful in characterizing the tumor

  8. Pathophysiology of preterm labor with intact membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Asha N; Hackney, David N; Mesiano, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Preterm labor with intact membranes is a major cause of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). To prevent sPTB a clear understanding is needed of the hormonal interactions that initiate labor. The steroid hormone progesterone acting via its nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine cells is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and disruption of PR signaling (i.e., functional progesterone/PR withdrawal) is key trigger for labor. The process of parturition is also associated with inflammation within the uterine tissues and it is now generally accepted that inflammatory stimuli from multiple extrinsic and intrinsic sources induce labor. Recent studies suggest inflammatory stimuli induce labor by affecting PR transcriptional activity in uterine cells to cause functional progesterone/PR withdrawal. Advances in understanding the functional interaction of inflammatory load on the pregnancy uterus and progesterone/PR signaling is opening novel areas of research and may lead to rational therapeutic strategies to effectively prevent sPTB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Excitons in intact cells of photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Arvi; Pajusalu, Mihkel; Rätsep, Margus

    2013-09-26

    Live cells and regular crystals seem fundamentally incompatible. Still, effects characteristic to ideal crystals, such as coherent sharing of excitation, have been recently used in many studies to explain the behavior of several photosynthetic complexes, especially the inner workings of the light-harvesting apparatus of the oldest known photosynthetic organisms, the purple bacteria. To this date, there has been no concrete evidence that the same effects are instrumental in real living cells, leaving a possibility that this is an artifact of unnatural study conditions, not a real effect relevant to the biological operation of bacteria. Hereby, we demonstrate survival of collective coherent excitations (excitons) in intact cells of photosynthetic purple bacteria. This is done by using excitation anisotropy spectroscopy for tracking the temperature-dependent evolution of exciton bands in light-harvesting systems of increasing structural complexity. The temperature was gradually raised from 4.5 K to ambient temperature, and the complexity of the systems ranged from detergent-isolated complexes to complete bacterial cells. The results provide conclusive evidence that excitons are indeed one of the key elements contributing to the energetic and dynamic properties of photosynthetic organisms.

  10. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies, life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior. Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families.

  11. Isolation of intact elastin fibers devoid of microfibrils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, W.F.; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2005-01-01

    Purification protocols for elastin generally result in greatly damaged elastin fibers and this likely influences the biological response. We here describe a novel protocol for the isolation of elastin whereby the fibers stay intact, and introduce the term "elastin fiber" for intact elastic fibers

  12. 50 CFR 622.38 - Landing fish intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that is operating under the respective trip limits. Such cut-off fish also may be sold. A maximum of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Landing fish intact. 622.38 Section 622.38... Landing fish intact. The operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring that fish...

  13. Imaging with 11B of intact tissues using magnetic resonance gradient echoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, T.L.; Bradshaw, K.M.; Freeman, D.M.; Sotak, C.H.; Gavin, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a proposed method of treating Glioblastoma Multiforme. BNCT is based on 10 B intake by the tumor and in-situ activation by neutron beam. It is estimated that to have successful BNCT, a 10 B delivery mechanism must deposit 20 ppM or more of 10 B within the tumor. To study and understand this delivery mechanism, 11 B can be used instead of 10 B. The pharmacokinetics of any compound using 11 B will be the same as 10 B. The advantage of using 11 B over 10 B is its greater nuclear magnetic resonance sensitivity for both spectroscopy and imaging. The use of 11 B imaging to detect and quantitate boron uptake non-invasively in animal tumor modes will facilitate continued work with 10 B. Preliminary work has shown that 11 B nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (nonlocalized) can detect 11 B in intact mouse tissues and the area under the boron peak correlates with the total boron content (correlation coefficient of 0.997). Once the ability to non-invasively measure the boron compound is established using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with spectroscopy, we will be able to address the following questions: (1) what is the optimum method of boron administration for maximum tumor selective uptake, (2) at what time is peak tumor boron concentration after infusion, and (3) what is the dose distribution in the head (based on neutron radiation and boron concentration)? The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of imaging 11 B in intact tissues using magnetic resonance

  14. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors.

  15. Serum steroid levels in intact and endocrine ablated BALB/c nude mice and their intact littermates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Svenstrup, B; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was made of the serum steroid levels found in intact and endocrine ablated nude mice of both sexes and in their intact homozygous littermates. The results showed that nude mice have a normal steroidogenesis, but with decreased levels of circulating steroids compared to those...

  16. Genetic disruptions of Drosophila Pavlovian learning leave extinction learning intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H; Dubnau, J

    2010-03-01

    Individuals who experience traumatic events may develop persistent posttraumatic stress disorder. Patients with this disorder are commonly treated with exposure therapy, which has had limited long-term success. In experimental neurobiology, fear extinction is a model for exposure therapy. In this behavioral paradigm, animals are repeatedly exposed in a safe environment to the fearful stimulus, which leads to greatly reduced fear. Studying animal models of extinction already has lead to better therapeutic strategies and development of new candidate drugs. Lack of a powerful genetic model of extinction, however, has limited progress in identifying underlying molecular and genetic factors. In this study, we established a robust behavioral paradigm to study the short-term effect (acquisition) of extinction in Drosophila melanogaster. We focused on the extinction of olfactory aversive 1-day memory with a task that has been the main workhorse for genetics of memory in flies. Using this paradigm, we show that extinction can inhibit each of two genetically distinct forms of consolidated memory. We then used a series of single-gene mutants with known impact on associative learning to examine the effects on extinction. We find that extinction is intact in each of these mutants, suggesting that extinction learning relies on different molecular mechanisms than does Pavlovian learning.

  17. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  18. Assessing the carcinogenic potential of low-dose exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment: focus on the cancer hallmark of tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Brooks, Samira A; Dormoy, Valérian; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Massfelder, Thierry; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Xia, Menghang; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Brown, Dustin G; Prudhomme, Kalan R; Colacci, Annamaria; Hamid, Roslida A; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K; Lowe, Leroy; Jensen, Lasse; Bisson, William H; Kleinstreuer, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    One of the important 'hallmarks' of cancer is angiogenesis, which is the process of formation of new blood vessels that are necessary for tumor expansion, invasion and metastasis. Under normal physiological conditions, angiogenesis is well balanced and controlled by endogenous proangiogenic factors and antiangiogenic factors. However, factors produced by cancer cells, cancer stem cells and other cell types in the tumor stroma can disrupt the balance so that the tumor microenvironment favors tumor angiogenesis. These factors include vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial tissue factor and other membrane bound receptors that mediate multiple intracellular signaling pathways that contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Though environmental exposures to certain chemicals have been found to initiate and promote tumor development, the role of these exposures (particularly to low doses of multiple substances), is largely unknown in relation to tumor angiogenesis. This review summarizes the evidence of the role of environmental chemical bioactivity and exposure in tumor angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. We identify a number of ubiquitous (prototypical) chemicals with disruptive potential that may warrant further investigation given their selectivity for high-throughput screening assay targets associated with proangiogenic pathways. We also consider the cross-hallmark relationships of a number of important angiogenic pathway targets with other cancer hallmarks and we make recommendations for future research. Understanding of the role of low-dose exposure of chemicals with disruptive potential could help us refine our approach to cancer risk assessment, and may ultimately aid in preventing cancer by reducing or eliminating exposures to synergistic mixtures of chemicals with carcinogenic potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients with persistently elevated PSA and tumor-negative biopsy in ambulatory care. Performance of MR imaging in a multi-reader environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidler, J.; Weoeres, I.; Scharf, M.; Siebels, M.; Brinkschmidt, C.; Zeitler, H.; Heuck, A.; Panzer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: False-negative results are obtained in approx. 20 % of prostate cancer (PCa) patients (pts) at initial systematic transrectal biopsy (Bx), in particular when digital rectal examination (DRE) or transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is negative. The aim of this study was to assess whether MR endorectal imaging of the prostate in a multi-reader ambulatory care setting may assist in patient selection for re-biopsy. Materials and Methods: 115 consecutive pts with persistent PSA elevation, negative Bx, DRE and TRUS were examined using T2w axial and coronal and T1w axial sequences for tumor diagnosis. MR images were prospectively read as tumor-suspicious or tumor-negative by the MR radiologist on duty. Additionally, a retrospective readout of a prostate MR expert and an abdominal imaging fellowship-trained radiologist was performed to evaluate the effect of the reader's experience on tumor detection. Imaging findings were compared to the results of the repeat Bx (61 pts) or the clinical course of at least two years. Results: For the prospective reading, the sensitivity of MRI was 83 %, the specificity was 69 %, the PPV was 33 % and the NPV was 96 %. ROC analysis revealed a significantly better performance of the prostate MR imaging expert compared to the abdominal imaging radiologist (area under ROC 0.88 vs. 0.66, p < 0.001). Based on the prospective reading, a pre-test probability for PCa of 17.4 % as in our study can be reduced to 5 % when obtaining a tumor-negative result in MRI. Conclusion: MR imaging in a multi-reader ambulatory care setting assists in patient selection for re-biopsy. Reducing the post-test probability for PCa to 5 % allows for further follow-up instead of re-biopsy in MR tumor-negative patients. Specific training and experience improve tumor detection in prostate MR imaging. (orig.)

  20. Diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients with persistently elevated PSA and tumor-negative biopsy in ambulatory care. Performance of MR imaging in a multi-reader environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidler, J. [Radiologisches Zentrum Muenchen-Pasing, Muenchen (Germany); Weoeres, I.; Scharf, M.; Siebels, M. [Urologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Pasing (Germany); Brinkschmidt, C. [Gemeinschaftspraxis Pathologie, Starnberg (Germany); Zeitler, H.; Heuck, A. [Radiologisches Zentrum Muenchen (Germany); Panzer, S. [Unfallklinik Murnau (Germany). Radiologie

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: False-negative results are obtained in approx. 20 % of prostate cancer (PCa) patients (pts) at initial systematic transrectal biopsy (Bx), in particular when digital rectal examination (DRE) or transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is negative. The aim of this study was to assess whether MR endorectal imaging of the prostate in a multi-reader ambulatory care setting may assist in patient selection for re-biopsy. Materials and Methods: 115 consecutive pts with persistent PSA elevation, negative Bx, DRE and TRUS were examined using T2w axial and coronal and T1w axial sequences for tumor diagnosis. MR images were prospectively read as tumor-suspicious or tumor-negative by the MR radiologist on duty. Additionally, a retrospective readout of a prostate MR expert and an abdominal imaging fellowship-trained radiologist was performed to evaluate the effect of the reader's experience on tumor detection. Imaging findings were compared to the results of the repeat Bx (61 pts) or the clinical course of at least two years. Results: For the prospective reading, the sensitivity of MRI was 83 %, the specificity was 69 %, the PPV was 33 % and the NPV was 96 %. ROC analysis revealed a significantly better performance of the prostate MR imaging expert compared to the abdominal imaging radiologist (area under ROC 0.88 vs. 0.66, p < 0.001). Based on the prospective reading, a pre-test probability for PCa of 17.4 % as in our study can be reduced to 5 % when obtaining a tumor-negative result in MRI. Conclusion: MR imaging in a multi-reader ambulatory care setting assists in patient selection for re-biopsy. Reducing the post-test probability for PCa to 5 % allows for further follow-up instead of re-biopsy in MR tumor-negative patients. Specific training and experience improve tumor detection in prostate MR imaging. (orig.)

  1. Epigenetic silencing of CYP24 in the tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Candace S.; Chung, Ivy; Trump, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol) has significant antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in a number of tumor model systems. We developed a system for isolation of fresh endothelial cells from tumors and Matrigel environments which demonstrate that CYP24, the catabolic enzyme involved in vitamin D signaling, is epigenetically silenced selectively in tumor-derived endothelial cells (TDEC). TDEC maintain phenotypic characteristics which are distinct from endothelial cells isolated from normal tissues and from Matrigel plugs (MDEC). In TDEC, calcitriol induces G0/G1 arrest, modulates p27 and p21, and induces apoptotic cell death and decreases P-Erk and P-Akt. In contrast, endothelial cells isolated from normal tissues and MDEC are unresponsive to calcitriol-mediated anti-proliferative effects despite intact signaling through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). In TDEC, which is sensitive to calcitriol, the CYP24 promoter is hypermethylated in two CpG island regions located at the 5′end; this hypermethylation may contribute to gene silencing of CYP24. The extent of methylation in these two regions is significantly less in MDEC. Lastly, treatment of TDEC with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor restores calcitriol-mediated induction of CYP24 and resistance to calcitriol. These data suggest that epigenetic silencing of CYP24 modulates cellular responses to calcitriol. PMID:20304059

  2. Sinus Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > CONDITIONS > Sinus Tumors Adult Sinusitis Pediatric ... and they vary greatly in location, size and type. Care for these tumors is individualized to each ...

  3. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  4. Wilms tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggested. Alternative Names Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor - Wilms Images Kidney anatomy Wilms tumor References Babaian KN, Delacroix SE, Wood CG, Jonasch E. Kidney cancer. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  5. Assessment of geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay - Expert report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, F.; Vogelhuber, M.

    2015-11-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI presents an expert report published on the assessment of the geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay. This review report addresses the conceptual constitutive framework for repositories in Opalinus Clay. The author addresses the geomechanical fundamentals that are necessary in order to adequately judge experiments on intact Opalinus Clay and the interpretation of the results. The report assesses in detail the various test series on intact Opalinus Clay carried out along with the interpretations made by experts and NAGRA. Further assessments are quoted including those on sample geometries tested, effective strength properties, undrained shear strength properties and elastic properties. The results of work done by other experts are also presented and discussed. The report is completed with a list of relevant literature

  6. Assessment of geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay - Expert report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, F. [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETHZ, Zürich (Switzerland); Vogelhuber, M. [Dr. von Moos AG, Geotechnisches Büro, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI presents an expert report published on the assessment of the geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay. This review report addresses the conceptual constitutive framework for repositories in Opalinus Clay. The author addresses the geomechanical fundamentals that are necessary in order to adequately judge experiments on intact Opalinus Clay and the interpretation of the results. The report assesses in detail the various test series on intact Opalinus Clay carried out along with the interpretations made by experts and NAGRA. Further assessments are quoted including those on sample geometries tested, effective strength properties, undrained shear strength properties and elastic properties. The results of work done by other experts are also presented and discussed. The report is completed with a list of relevant literature.

  7. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  8. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  9. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov; Ivica Gjurovski; Trpe Ristoski; Goran Nikolovski; Pandorce Trenkoska; Plamen Trojacanec; Ksenija Ilievska; Toni Dovenski; Gordana Petrushevska

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs.They have a complex morphology, usually affecting middle age and older bitches. Almost 50% of the mammary tumors in dogs are malignant neoplasms. Prognosis is based on several factors: stage, age, tumor size, metastasis, histopathology, ovariectomy status and hormone-receptor activity. Immunohistochemical (IHC) measurement has become increasingly an important diagnostic and prognostic parameter, with the development of m...

  11. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  12. Determinates of tumor response to radiation: Tumor cells, tumor stroma and permanent local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wende; Huang, Peigen; Chen, David J.; Gerweck, Leo E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The causes of tumor response variation to radiation remain obscure, thus hampering the development of predictive assays and strategies to decrease resistance. The present study evaluates the impact of host tumor stromal elements and the in vivo environment on tumor cell kill, and relationship between tumor cell radiosensitivity and the tumor control dose. Material and methods: Five endpoints were evaluated and compared in a radiosensitive DNA double-strand break repair-defective (DNA-PKcs −/− ) tumor line, and its DNA-PKcs repair competent transfected counterpart. In vitro colony formation assays were performed on in vitro cultured cells, on cells obtained directly from tumors, and on cells irradiated in situ. Permanent local control was assessed by the TCD 50 assay. Vascular effects were evaluated by functional vascular density assays. Results: The fraction of repair competent and repair deficient tumor cells surviving radiation did not substantially differ whether irradiated in vitro, i.e., in the absence of host stromal elements and factors, from the fraction of cells killed following in vivo irradiation. Additionally, the altered tumor cell sensitivity resulted in a proportional change in the dose required to achieve permanent local control. The estimated number of tumor cells per tumor, their cloning efficiency and radiosensitivity, all assessed by in vitro assays, were used to predict successfully, the measured tumor control doses. Conclusion: The number of clonogens per tumor and their radiosensitivity govern the permanent local control dose

  13. Bioavailability and in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Christian; Frandsen, Heidi Blok; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits associated with consumption of cruciferous vegetables have received considerable attention with a hitherto focus on the role and bioactivity of glucosinolate degradation products. We investigated the in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates by following their fate in digesta an...

  14. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectromet of intact proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Vega, Elena; Haselberg, Rob; Somsen, Govert W.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a powerful analytical tool for the characterization of intact proteins. It combines the high separation efficiency, short analysis time, and versatility of CE with the mass selectivity and sensitivity offered by MS

  15. Intact collagen and atelocollagen sponges: Characterization and ESEM observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruozi, Barbara; Tosi, Giovanni; Leo, Eliana; Parma, Bruna; Vismara, Susanna; Forni, Flavio; Vandelli, Maria Angela

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the chemical-physical and morphological properties of intact and atelocollagen sponges used for tissue engineering. The porous sponges were prepared by lyophilization and their physico-chemical characteristics (water binding capacity, denaturing temperature, amino group content) were investigated. Considering the importance of the 'in vivo' interactions between these sponges and the tissue, our attention was addressed (a) to clarify the relationships between the morphology and the amount of water absorbed and (b) to evaluate the influence of pepsin-alkaline treatment on the reorganization of the atelocollagen fibres. Conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were employed to study the morphology and wetting behaviour of the intact and atelocollagen sponges. The observations by SEM indicated remarkable differences both in the structure and dimension of the pores between intact and atelocollagen sponges. At the data are related to a different water binding capacity. However, the ESEM observations, achieved by changing the relative humidity in the operative chamber, demonstrated that the water adsorbed can be removed with major difficulty from atelocollagen sponges than from intact ones

  16. Phosphorylation of intact erythrocytes in human muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.M.; Nigro, M.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of exogenous 32 Pi into the membrane proteins of intact erythrocytes was measured in 8 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. No abnormalities were noted after autoradiographic analysis. This contrasts with earlier results obtained when isolated membranes were phosphorylated with gamma-[ 32 P]ATP, and suggests a possible reinterpretation of those experiments

  17. Behavior Management Style of Single Parents and Intact Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas K.; And Others

    Studies examining the behavior management styles of parents as a function of family intactness and parent employment status are lacking. To assess parental style of behavior management, the Parental Management Questionnaire (PMQ) was completed by 1,957 parents of elementary school children (50% response rate). The PMQ is based on Aronfreed's…

  18. Non-intact zona improves development of murine preimplantation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl5

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... 2College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, ... Key words: Mouse, non-intact zona embryos, adenovirus vector with green fluorescent protein (pAd-GFP), .... Based on microscopic examination, the ZP of some ..... permeable structure of ZP that allowed penetration of.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of erythropoietin in intact and anephric dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, J.S.; Lertora, J.J.; Brookins, J.; Rice, J.C.; Fisher, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The present studies were performed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin in intact and anephric dogs by use of unlabeled crude native erythropoietin (nEp) and iodine 125-labeled purified recombinant erythropoietin (rEp) given by intravenous infusion for 15 minutes. Sephadex G-75 gel filtration was used to confirm that the 125I-rEp molecule remained iodinated in dog plasma during the 24-hour period of these studies. The plasma disappearance of erythropoietin conformed to a biexponential equation for both nEp and 125I-rEp, with the central compartment being larger than the peripheral compartment. The mean distribution half-life of 75.3 +/- 21.2 minutes for nEp was significantly (p less than 0.05) longer than that of 125I-rEp (23.7 +/- 5.0 minutes) in intact dogs. The intercompartmental clearance (CIic) for nEp (0.018 +/- 0.006 L/kg/hr) was significantly smaller than that of 125I-rEp (0.068 +/- 0.018 L/kg/hr) in intact dogs (p less than 0.05). There were no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution, elimination half-life, and elimination clearance (CIe) for nEp and rEp in intact dogs. The mean elimination half-life for 125I-rEp in intact dogs (9.0 +/- 0.6 hours) and anephric dogs (13.8 +/- 1.4 hours) was significantly different (p less than 0.05). The CIe for 125I-rEp in anephric dogs (0.008 +/- 0.001 L/kg/hr) was significantly (p less than 0.05) smaller than that of 125I-rEp in intact dogs (0.011 +/- 0.001 L/kg/hr). There were no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution, distribution half-life, and CIic for 125I-rEp in intact and anephric dogs

  20. In vitro and in vivo tumor models for studies of distribution of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies and fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchegger, F.; Halpern, S.E.; Sutherland, R.M.; Schreyer, M.; Mach, J.P.; Rochester Univ., NY

    1986-01-01

    Colon carcinoma multicellular spheroids were incubated in vitro with radiolabelled MAbs. The more rapid penetration of fragments as compared to intact MAbs was clearly demonstrated. For the study of antibody localization in tumors in vivo, the model of nude mice with ligated kidneys was used. Although very artificial, this model allowed to demonstrate that, without urinary excretion, Fab fragments accumulated more rapidly into the tumor than intact MAbs and disappeared faster from the blood. This difference was less striking for F(ab') 2 fragments. In the liver a decreased accumulation of both types of fragments as compared to intact MAbs was observed. Concerning radio-immunotherapy we think that Fab fragments are not useful because of their too short half-life the circulation and in tumor and because they will probably be too toxic for the kidneys. Intact MAbs and F(ab') 2 fragments have each their advantages. Intact MAbs show highest tumor accumulation in mice without ligated kidney, however, they remain mostly on the periphery of tumor nodules, as shown by autoradiography. F(ab') 2 fragments have been found to penetrate deeper into the tumor and to accumulate less in the liver. It might be therefore an advantage to combine intact MAbs with F(ab') 2 fragments, so that in the tumor two different regions could be attacked whereas in normal tissues toxicity could be distributed to different organs such as to the liver with intact MAbs and to the kidney with F(ab') 2 fragments. (orig.) [de

  1. Threats to intact tropical peatlands and opportunities for their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucoux, K H; Lawson, I T; Baker, T R; Del Castillo Torres, D; Draper, F C; Lähteenoja, O; Gilmore, M P; Honorio Coronado, E N; Kelly, T J; Mitchard, E T A; Vriesendorp, C F

    2017-12-01

    Large, intact areas of tropical peatland are highly threatened at a global scale by the expansion of commercial agriculture and other forms of economic development. Conserving peatlands on a landscape scale, with their hydrology intact, is of international conservation importance to preserve their distinctive biodiversity and ecosystem services and maintain their resilience to future environmental change. We explored threats to and opportunities for conserving remaining intact tropical peatlands; thus, we excluded peatlands of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive deforestation, drainage, and conversion to plantations means conservation in this region can protect only small fragments of the original ecosystem. We focused on a case study, the Pastaza-Marañón Foreland Basin (PMFB) in Peru, which is among the largest known intact tropical peatland landscapes in the world and is representative of peatland vulnerability. Maintenance of the hydrological conditions critical for carbon storage and ecosystem function of peatlands is, in the PMFB, primarily threatened by expansion of commercial agriculture linked to new transport infrastructure that is facilitating access to remote areas. There remain opportunities in the PMFB and elsewhere to develop alternative, more sustainable land-use practices. Although some of the peatlands in the PMFB fall within existing legally protected areas, this protection does not include the most carbon-dense (domed pole forest) areas. New carbon-based conservation instruments (e.g., REDD+, Green Climate Fund), developing markets for sustainable peatland products, transferring land title to local communities, and expanding protected areas offer pathways to increased protection for intact tropical peatlands in Amazonia and elsewhere, such as those in New Guinea and Central Africa which remain, for the moment, broadly beyond the frontier of commercial development. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  2. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  3. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe and Explain Differences Between Intact Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a

  4. Comparative study of intact A7 MoAc and F(ab')2 fragments for radioimmunoimaging of human colon cancer in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shuji; Suzuki, Naomi; Shimura, Noriko; Kubodera, Akiko; Kubota, Kazuhiko; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu; Takahashi, Toshio; Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru

    1993-01-01

    Differences of pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging ability between intact monoclonal antibody A7 (A7 MoAb) and F(ab) 2 fragments were studied in human colon cancer (LS-174T)-bearing nude mice. The authors examined the yield and the immunoreactivity of F(ab) 2 fragments after treatment with ficin as a function of time. The yield of F(ab) 2 fragments reached about 50% after ficin treatment for 8 h, and the F(ab) 2 retained about 80% of the immunoreactivity of the corresponding MoAb. Longer digestion with ficin produced smaller fragments (less than 92 kDa) with a lower yield and most of the immunoreactivity was lost. In pharmacokinetics studies, the F(ab') 2 was preferentially taken up by the tumor, cleared more rapidly from the blood circulation and seemed to have less non-specific tissue binding than intact A7 MoAb. The tumor image obtained at an early time using 131 I-F(ab') 2 was much superior in quality to that with intact 131 I-A7 MoAb. The use of F(ab') 2 fragments may be effective for tumor diagnosis and therapy. (author)

  5. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Shayoub, Mohammed E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment

  6. Tumor cell surface proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, S.J.; Braslawsky, G.R.; Flynn, K.; Foote, L.J.; Friedman, E.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Huang, A.H.L.; Lankford, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Cell surface proteins mediate interaction between cells and their environment. Unique tumor cell surface proteins are being identified and quantified in several tumor systems to address the following questions: (i) how do tumor-specific proteins arise during cell transformation; (ii) can these proteins be used as markers of tumor cell distribution in vivo; (iii) can cytotoxic drugs be targeted specifically to tumor cells using antibody; and (iv) can solid state radioimmunoassay of these proteins provide a means to quantify transformation frequencies. A tumor surface protein of 180,000 M/sub r/ (TSP-180) has been identified on cells of several lung carcinomas of BALB/c mice. TSP-180 was not detected on normal lung tissue, embryonic tissue, or other epithelial or sarcoma tumors, but it was found on lung carcinomas of other strains of mice. Considerable amino acid sequence homology exists among TSP-180's from several cell sources, indicating that TSP-180 synthesis is directed by normal cellular genes although it is not expressed in normal cells. The regulation of synthesis of TSP-180 and its relationship to normal cell surface proteins are being studied. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to TSP-180 have been developed. The antibodies have been used in immunoaffinity chromatography to isolate TSP-180 from tumor cell sources. This purified tumor antigen was used to immunize rats. Antibody produced by these animals reacted at different sites (epitopes) on the TSP-180 molecule than did the original MoAb. These sera and MoAb from these animals are being used to identify normal cell components related to the TSP-180 molecule

  7. One-step synthesis, toxicity assessment and degradation in tumoral pH environment of SiO2@Ag core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteis, Valeria; Rizzello, Loris; Di Bello, Maria Pia; Rinaldi, Rosaria

    2017-06-01

    The unique physicochemical properties of SiO2@Ag core/shell nanoparticles make them a promising tool in nanomedicine, where they are used as nanocarriers for several biomedical applications, including (but not restricted to) cancer treatment. However, a comprehensive estimation of their potential toxicity, as well as their degradation in the tumor microenvironment, has not been extensively addressed yet. We investigated in vitro the viability, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, the DNA damage level, and the nanoparticle uptake on HeLa cells, used as model cancer cells. In addition, we studied the NPs degradation profile at pH 6.5, to mimic the tumor microenvironment, and at the neutral and physiological (pH 7-7.4). Our experiments demonstrate that the silver shell dissolution is promoted under acidic conditions, which could be related to cell death induction. Our evidences demonstrate that SiO2@Ag nanoparticles possess the ability of combining an effective cancer cell treatment (through local silver ions release) together with a possible controlled release of bioactive compounds encapsulated in the silica as future application.

  8. Tumoral tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Direct tumor tracers are subdivided in the following categories:metabolite tracers, antitumoral tracers, radioactive proteins and cations. Use of 67 Ga-citrate as a clinically important tumoral tracer is emphasized and gallium-67 whole-body scintigraphy is discussed in detail. (M.A.) [pt

  9. Structural determination of intact proteins using mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, Gary [San Francisco, CA; Schoeniger, Joseph S [Oakland, CA; Young, Malin M [Livermore, CA

    2008-05-06

    The present invention relates to novel methods of determining the sequence and structure of proteins. Specifically, the present invention allows for the analysis of intact proteins within a mass spectrometer. Therefore, preparatory separations need not be performed prior to introducing a protein sample into the mass spectrometer. Also disclosed herein are new instrumental developments for enhancing the signal from the desired modified proteins, methods for producing controlled protein fragments in the mass spectrometer, eliminating complex microseparations, and protein preparatory chemical steps necessary for cross-linking based protein structure determination.Additionally, the preferred method of the present invention involves the determination of protein structures utilizing a top-down analysis of protein structures to search for covalent modifications. In the preferred method, intact proteins are ionized and fragmented within the mass spectrometer.

  10. Does human leukocyte elastase degrade intact skin elastin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzer, Christian E H; Jung, Michael C; Wohlrab, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of intact fibrillar human elastin to human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. Elastin is a vital protein of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, and provides exceptional properties including elasticity and tensile strength to many tissues...... and organs, including the aorta, lung, cartilage, elastic ligaments and skin, and is thus critical for their long-term function. Mature elastin is an insoluble and extremely durable protein that undergoes very little turnover, but sustained exposure to proteases may lead to irreversible and severe damage......, and thus to functional loss of the elastic fiber network. Hence, it is a key issue to understand which enzymes actually initiate elastolysis under certain pathological conditions or during intrinsic aging. In this paper, we provide a complete workflow for isolation of pure and intact elastin from very...

  11. SOLITARY CHEMORECEPTOR CELL SURVIVAL IS INDEPENDENT OF INTACT TRIGEMINAL INNERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian; Silver, Wayne; Finger, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) are a population of specialized chemosensory epithelial cells presumed to broaden trigeminal chemoreceptivity in mammals (Finger et al., 2003). SCCs are innervated by peptidergic trigeminal nerve fibers (Finger et al., 2003) but it is currently unknown if intact innervation is necessary for SCC development or survival. We tested the dependence of SCCs on innervation by eliminating trigeminal nerve fibers during development with neurogenin-1 knockout mice, during early postnatal development with capsaicin desensitization, and during adulthood with trigeminal lesioning. Our results demonstrate that elimination of innervation at any of these times does not result in decreased SCC numbers. In conclusion, neither SCC development nor mature cell maintenance is dependent on intact trigeminal innervation. PMID:18300260

  12. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... differences, suggesting that there are both qualitative and quantitative changes in the metal ion and radical species present. A major component of the spectra obtained from young nodules is assigned to a complex (Lb-NO) of nitric oxide (NO.) with the heme protein leghemoglobin (Lb). This Lb-NO species, which...... has not been previously detected in intact root nodules of plants grown in the absence of nitrate, is thought to be formed by reaction of nitric oxide with iron(II) leghemoglobin. The nitric oxide may be generated from arginine via a nitric oxide synthase-like activity present in the nodules...

  13. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  14. Isolation and Properties of Intact Chromoplasts from Tomato Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Norio, Iwatsuki; Ryuichi, Moriyama; Tadashi, Asahi; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University

    1984-01-01

    Intact chromoplasts were isolated from tomato fruits at different ripening stages by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The isolated chromoplast fractions were contaminated very little by other organelles, although the fraction from fully ripened fruits contained some mitochondria and microbodies. As the transformation of chloroplasts to chromoplasts proceeded, the density of the plastids decreased from 1.096 to 1.075g・cm^ and the decrease was related to a decrease in chlorophyll and an...

  15. Global forest loss disproportionately erodes biodiversity in intact landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Matthew G; Wolf, Christopher; Ripple, William J; Phalan, Ben; Millers, Kimberley A; Duarte, Adam; Butchart, Stuart H M; Levi, Taal

    2017-07-27

    Global biodiversity loss is a critical environmental crisis, yet the lack of spatial data on biodiversity threats has hindered conservation strategies. Theory predicts that abrupt biodiversity declines are most likely to occur when habitat availability is reduced to very low levels in the landscape (10-30%). Alternatively, recent evidence indicates that biodiversity is best conserved by minimizing human intrusion into intact and relatively unfragmented landscapes. Here we use recently available forest loss data to test deforestation effects on International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List categories of extinction risk for 19,432 vertebrate species worldwide. As expected, deforestation substantially increased the odds of a species being listed as threatened, undergoing recent upgrading to a higher threat category and exhibiting declining populations. More importantly, we show that these risks were disproportionately high in relatively intact landscapes; even minimal deforestation has had severe consequences for vertebrate biodiversity. We found little support for the alternative hypothesis that forest loss is most detrimental in already fragmented landscapes. Spatial analysis revealed high-risk hot spots in Borneo, the central Amazon and the Congo Basin. In these regions, our model predicts that 121-219 species will become threatened under current rates of forest loss over the next 30 years. Given that only 17.9% of these high-risk areas are formally protected and only 8.9% have strict protection, new large-scale conservation efforts to protect intact forests are necessary to slow deforestation rates and to avert a new wave of global extinctions.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of a new intact skin antisepsis formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Antonello; Viotti, Pier Luigi; Vitali, Matteo; Clementi, Massimo

    2003-04-01

    Different antiseptic formulations have shown limitations when applied to disinfecting intact skin, notably short-term tolerability and/or efficacy. The purpose of this study was optimizing a new antiseptic formulation specifically targeted at intact skin disinfection and evaluating its in vitro microbicidal activity and in vivo efficacy. The biocidal properties of the antiseptic solution containing 0.5% chloramine-T diluted in 50% isopropyl alcohol (Cloral; Eurospital SpA Trieste, Italy) were measured in vitro versus gram-positive-, gram-negative-, and acid-alcohol-resistant germs and fungi with standard suspension tests in the presence of fetal bovine serum. Virus-inhibiting activity was evaluated in vitro against human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, poliovirus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. Tests used different methods for the different biologic and in vitro replication capacity of these human viruses. Lastly, Cloral tolerability and skin colonization retardation efficacy after disinfection were studied in vivo. The antiseptic under review showed fast and sustained antimicrobial activity. The efficacy of Cloral against clinically important bacterial and viral pathogens and fungi was highlighted under the experimental conditions described in this article. Finally, microbial regrowth lag and no side effects were documented in vivo after disinfection of 11 volunteers. A stable chloramine-T solution in isopropyl alcohol may be suggested for intact skin antisepsis.

  17. Shifts in oxidation states of cerium oxide nanoparticles detected inside intact hydrated cells and organelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, Craig J.; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Mihai, Cosmin; Xie, Yumei; Hu, Dehong; Gilles, Marry K.; Tyliszczak, T.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Orr, Galya

    2015-09-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have been shown to induce diverse biological effects, ranging from toxic to beneficial. The beneficial effects have been attributed to the potential antioxidant activity of CNPs via certain redox reactions, depending on their oxidation state or Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio. However, this ratio is strongly dependent on the environment and age of the nanoparticles and it is unclear whether and how the complex intracellular environment impacts this ratio and the possible redox reactions of CNPs. To identify any changes in the oxidation state of CNPs in the intracellular environment and better understand their intracellular reactions, we directly quantified the oxidation states of CNPs outside and inside intact hydrated cells and organelles using correlated scanning transmission x-ray and super resolution fluorescence microscopies. By analyzing hundreds of small CNP aggregates, we detected a shift to a higher Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio in CNPs inside versus outside the cells, indicating a net reduction of CNPs in the intracellular environment. We further found a similar ratio in the cytoplasm and in the lysosomes, indicating that the net reduction occurs earlier in the internalization pathway. Together with oxidative stress and toxicity measurements, our observations identify a net reduction of CNPs in the intracellular environment, which is consistent with their involvement in potentially beneficial oxidation reactions, but also point to interactions that can negatively impact the health of cells.

  18. Ablation of the Galnt3 Gene Leads to Low-Circulating Intact Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (Fgf23) Concentrations and Hyperphosphatemia Despite Increased Fgf23 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Sorenson, Andrea H.; Austin, Anthony M.; Mackenzie, Donald S.; Fritz, Timothy A.; Moh, Akira; Hui, Siu L.; Econs, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Familial tumoral calcinosis is characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), Klotho (KL), and uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3). In vitro studies indicate that GALNT3 O-glycosylates a phosphaturic hormone, FGF23, and prevents its proteolytic processing, thereby allowing secretion of intact FGF23. In this study we generat...

  19. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association (ABTA) International RadioSurgery Association National Brain Tumor Society National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ... Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  20. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the brain to reduce spinal fluid pressure. Risks of radiation therapy include damage to healthy brain cells when tumor cells are destroyed. Common side effects from chemotherapy include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and fatigue.

  1. Optimization of fractionated radiotherapy of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    Underlying modern conceptions of clinical radiobiology and mathematic methods in system theory a model of radiation therapy for tumors is developed. To obtain optimal fractionating conditions the principle of gradual optimization is used. A optimal therapeutic method permits to minimize the survival of a tumor cell population with localized lesions of the intact tissue. An analytic research is carried out for the simplest variant of the model. By help of a SORT-program unit the conditions are ascertained for gradual optimization of radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Feasible pickup from intact ossicular chain with floating piezoelectric microphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hou-Yong; Na, Gao; Chi, Fang-Lu; Jin, Kai; Pan, Tie-Zheng; Gao, Zhen

    2012-02-22

    Many microphones have been developed to meet with the implantable requirement of totally implantable cochlear implant (TICI). However, a biocompatible one without destroying the intactness of the ossicular chain still remains under investigation. Such an implantable floating piezoelectric microphone (FPM) has been manufactured and shows an efficient electroacoustic performance in vitro test at our lab. We examined whether it pick up sensitively from the intact ossicular chain and postulated whether it be an optimal implantable one. Animal controlled experiment: five adult cats (eight ears) were sacrificed as the model to test the electroacoustic performance of the FPM. Three groups were studied: (1) the experiment group (on malleus): the FPM glued onto the handle of the malleus of the intact ossicular chains; (2) negative control group (in vivo): the FPM only hung into the tympanic cavity; (3) positive control group (Hy-M30): a HiFi commercial microphone placed close to the site of the experiment ear. The testing speaker played pure tones orderly ranged from 0.25 to 8.0 kHz. The FPM inside the ear and the HiFi microphone simultaneously picked up acoustic vibration which recorded as .wav files to analyze. The FPM transformed acoustic vibration sensitively and flatly as did the in vitro test across the frequencies above 2.0 kHz, whereas inefficiently below 1.0 kHz for its overloading mass. Although the HiFi microphone presented more efficiently than the FPM did, there was no significant difference at 3.0 kHz and 8.0 kHz. It is feasible to develop such an implantable FPM for future TICIs and TIHAs system on condition that the improvement of Micro Electromechanical System and piezoelectric ceramic material technology would be applied to reduce its weight and minimize its size.

  3. Feasible pickup from intact ossicular chain with floating piezoelectric microphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hou-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Many microphones have been developed to meet with the implantable requirement of totally implantable cochlear implant (TICI. However, a biocompatible one without destroying the intactness of the ossicular chain still remains under investigation. Such an implantable floating piezoelectric microphone (FPM has been manufactured and shows an efficient electroacoustic performance in vitro test at our lab. We examined whether it pick up sensitively from the intact ossicular chain and postulated whether it be an optimal implantable one. Methods Animal controlled experiment: five adult cats (eight ears were sacrificed as the model to test the electroacoustic performance of the FPM. Three groups were studied: (1 the experiment group (on malleus: the FPM glued onto the handle of the malleus of the intact ossicular chains; (2 negative control group (in vivo: the FPM only hung into the tympanic cavity; (3 positive control group (Hy-M30: a HiFi commercial microphone placed close to the site of the experiment ear. The testing speaker played pure tones orderly ranged from 0.25 to 8.0 kHz. The FPM inside the ear and the HiFi microphone simultaneously picked up acoustic vibration which recorded as .wav files to analyze. Results The FPM transformed acoustic vibration sensitively and flatly as did the in vitro test across the frequencies above 2.0 kHz, whereas inefficiently below 1.0 kHz for its overloading mass. Although the HiFi microphone presented more efficiently than the FPM did, there was no significant difference at 3.0 kHz and 8.0 kHz. Conclusions It is feasible to develop such an implantable FPM for future TICIs and TIHAs system on condition that the improvement of Micro Electromechanical System and piezoelectric ceramic material technology would be applied to reduce its weight and minimize its size.

  4. The uptake of radioactive iodine in rat intact Graafian follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, L.M.; Lieberman, G.L.; Lieberman, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of iodine-131 in the ovaries of mammals has important implications in the use of I-131 for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease in women. The authors studied the I-131 uptake in whole ovaries and in isolated Graafian follicles of sexually mature rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, in groups of 5-6 animals, were injected IP with 10-50 μCi of I-131, at 3, 12, and 24 hrs prior to the day of proestrus and killed on the day of proestrus. The thyroid gland and ovaries were removed intact and these organs, as well as eight other tissue specimens, were weighed. The large preovulatory follicles (6-9/ovary) were then isolated under a dissecting microscope and the remaining ovary weighed. All samples were counted in a gamma well counter and the % dose/g estimated. The thyroid gland showed 23.7% dose/organ at 24 hrs. Blood decreased from 1.6% dose/g at 3 hrs to 0.5% dose/g at 24 hrs with the uterus showing 1.1% dose/g and 0.4% dose/g at the same times. Ovarian tissue was 0.5, 0.1, and 0.1% dose/g at 3,12, and 24 hrs respectively, while the intact Graafian follicles had from one-tenth to one-third the concentration of the ovary at the same times. (0.05, 0.03, and 0.03% dose/g). The authors found that the intact Graafian follicle concentrates approximately one-thirtieth to one-sixteenth of the I-131 in the blood and one-tenth to one-third of the I-131 in the ovary. This suggests that there is no active uptake of I-131 in the follicle or follicular fluid

  5. Radionuclide sorption on crushed and intact granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, Tryggve E.; Locklund, Birgitta

    1989-05-01

    The specific surface areas and distribution ratios for sorption of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 152 Eu were measured for crushed and intact granite rock. The experimental data can be accommodated by a sorption model encompassing sorption on outer and inner surface. It is clearly demonstrated that the time required to obtain reliable Kd-values for the sorption of strongly sorbing radionuclides like 152 Eu is very long due to solution depletion and slow diffusion into the rock. A combination of surface area measurements and batch sorption with small particles may therefore be preferable when studying strongly sorbing nuclides. (authors) (17 figs., 6 tabs.)

  6. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May cause excessive secretion of hormones Common among men and women in their 50s-80s Accounts for about 13 percent of all brain tumors Symptoms Headache Depression Vision loss Nausea or vomiting Behavioral and cognitive ...

  7. Tumor immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Lise, Mario; Nitti, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Advances in tumor immunology are supporting the clinical implementation of several immunological approaches to cancer in the clinical setting. However, the alternate success of current immunotherapeutic regimens underscores the fact that the molecular mechanisms underlying immune-mediated tumor rejection are still poorly understood. Given the complexity of the immune system network and the multidimensionality of tumor/host interactions, the comprehension of tumor immunology might greatly benefit from high-throughput microarray analysis, which can portrait the molecular kinetics of immune response on a genome-wide scale, thus accelerating the discovery pace and ultimately catalyzing the development of new hypotheses in cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of microarray technology in tumor immunology studies has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to an effective immune response against cancer. Although the general principles of microarray-based gene profiling have rapidly spread in the scientific community, the need for mastering this technique to produce meaningful data and correctly interpret the enormous output of information generated by this technology is critical and represents a tremendous challenge for investigators, as outlined in the first section of this book. In the present Chapter, we report on some of the most significant results obtained with the application of DNA microarray in this oncology field.

  8. Metabolism of inhaled ethane and pentane by the intact rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, M.S.; Luddent, T.M.; Burk, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of exhaled ethane or pentane is a noninvasive technique for studying in vivo lipid peroxidation. Many past studies have assumed that pentane and ethane are not metabolized. Radiolabeled ( 14 C) ethane and pentane were used to study the disposition of these compounds in intact rats. Rats were placed for 8 h in a closed plexiglass chamber fitted with a system for replenishing chamber atmospheric O 2 . Evolved CO 2 was trapped by recirculating chamber air through 3 N NaOH contained in a vessel external to the chamber. Radiolabeled ethane or pentane was injected into the chamber at the start of each experiment. The percent of 14 C-activity added to the chamber recovered in the CO 2 trap, urine, and chamber air at the end of the experiment (8 h) in the [ 14 C]-ethane (n=5) and [ 14 C]-pentane (n=4) studies are presented. Results indicate that both ethane and pentane are metabolized to CO 2 in the intact rat. Possible changes in ethane and pentane metabolism must be considered if the exhalation rates of these hydrocarbons are to be used as indices of in vivo lipid peroxidation

  9. Surface plasmon resonance sensing: from purified biomolecules to intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Wen; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-12

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has become a well-recognized label-free technique for measuring the binding kinetics between biomolecules since the invention of the first SPR-based immunosensor in 1980s. The most popular and traditional format for SPR analysis is to monitor the real-time optical signals when a solution containing ligand molecules is flowing over a sensor substrate functionalized with purified receptor molecules. In recent years, rapid development of several kinds of SPR imaging techniques have allowed for mapping the dynamic distribution of local mass density within single living cells with high spatial and temporal resolutions and reliable sensitivity. Such capability immediately enabled one to investigate the interaction between important biomolecules and intact cells in a label-free, quantitative, and single cell manner, leading to an exciting new trend of cell-based SPR bioanalysis. In this Trend Article, we first describe the principle and technical features of two types of SPR imaging techniques based on prism and objective, respectively. Then we survey the intact cell-based applications in both fundamental cell biology and drug discovery. We conclude the article with comments and perspectives on the future developments. Graphical abstract Recent developments in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging techniques allow for label-free mapping the mass-distribution within single living cells, leading to great expansions in biomolecular interactions studies from homogeneous substrates functionalized with purified biomolecules to heterogeneous substrates containing individual living cells.

  10. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors; Peptic ulcer - islet cell tumor; Hypoglycemia - islet cell tumor ... stomach acid. Symptoms may include: Abdominal pain Diarrhea ... and small bowel Vomiting blood (occasionally) Glucagonomas make ...

  11. Validity of bioluminescence measurements for noninvasive in vivo imaging of tumor load in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, Clara P. W.; Overmeer, Renée M.; Niers, Tatjana M. H.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Richel, Dick J.; Buckle, Tessa; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; van Tellingen, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    A relatively new strategy to longitudinally monitor tumor load in intact animals and the effects of therapy is noninvasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The validity of BLI for quantitative assessment of tumor load in small animals is critically evaluated in the present review. Cancer cells are

  12. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/Computed Tomography for Primary Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen Segtnan, Eivind; Hess, Søren; Grupe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Structural imaging with computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging is the mainstay in primary diagnosis of primary brain tumors, but these modalities depend on morphologic appearance and an intact blood-brain barrier, and important aspects of tumor biology are not addressed. Such issues may...

  13. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensler, E.H.L.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  14. Imaging of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaensler, E H.L. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.).

  15. Oxygen diffusion and oxygen effect in tumor tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, H.M.; Hehn, G.

    1979-06-01

    The diffusion of oxygen in tumor cords of bronchus carcinoma of the lung have been studied with refined computer methods for solving the diffusion equation in axis symmetric tumor structures. In this tumor configuration we may find three different regions consisting of euoxic cells, hypoxic tumor cells and necrotic parts. In the case of oxygen supply from a capillary inside a cylinder of tumor tissue with radius 200 μm or in a tumor cord of radius 300 μm with oxygen supply by capillaries outside, we get a relation of well oxygenated cells to hypoxic cells approximately as 1:8 or as 1:1.1 respectively. Of course most of the tumor cords observed in histological slices have smaller diameters, so that an average of approximately 20% hypoxic cells can be assumed. Based on the work of Ardenne, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose in a tumor of type DS-carcinosarcom has been investigated in both intact tumor and tumor treated with ionizing radiation. We can show that a strong reoxygenation effect takes place in that the well supplied regions may increase in some tumor configurations up to a factor of four by volume. The biological consequences of the oxygen pressure determined in tumor cells are discussed in detail. The investigation of oxygen diffusion in the intercapillary tumor region should give a quantitative physical basis for considering the oxygen effect with the aim to explain the advantages of neutron therapy against conventional radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Improved radioimaging and tumor localization with monoclonal F(ab')2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.L.; Parker, C.W.; Philpott, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Monoclonal anti-tumor antibodies have great promise for radioimmunodetection and localization of tumors. Fab and F(ab')2 fragments, which lack the Fc fragment of antibody (Ab), are cleared more rapidly from the circulation and may have less nonspecific tissue binding than intact Ab. In radioimaging studies using a murine monoclonal antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen in a human colon carcinoma xenografted into hamsters, F(ab')2 fragments were shown superior to Fab fragments and intact antibody for scintiscanning. In double-label experiments with anti-CEA antibody and control monoclonal IgG, F(ab')2 fragments were found to give better and more rapid specific tumor localization than intact antibody or Fab fragments. F(ab')2 fragments offer significant promise for tumor imaging and possibly therapy

  17. [Mesh structure of two-dimensional tumor microvascular architecture phenotype heterogeneity in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zeng; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Jin-Kang; Hu, Cheng-Ping; Zhou, Mo-Ling; Xia, Yu; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the structural characteristics and clinical significance of two-dimensional tumor microvascular architecture phenotype (2D-TMAP) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thirty surgical specimens of NSCLC were collected. The sections of the tumor tissues corresponding to the slice of CT perfusion imaging were selected to construct the 2D-TMAP expression. Spearman correlation analysis was used to examine the relation between the 2D-TMAP expression and the clinicopathological features of NSCLC. A heterogeneity was noted in the 2D-TMAP expression of NSCLC. The microvascular density (MVD) in the area surrounding the tumor was higher than that in the central area, but the difference was not statistically significant. The density of the microvessels without intact lumen was significantly greater in the surrounding area than in the central area (P=0.030). The total MVD was not correlated to tumor differentiation (r=0.042, P=0.831). The density of the microvessels without intact lumen in the surrounding area was positively correlated to degree of tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis (r=0.528 and 0.533, P=0.041 and 0.028, respectively), and also to the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), ephrinB2, EphB4, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (r=0.504, 0.549, 0.549, and 0.370; P=0.005, 0.002, 0.002, and 0.048, respectively). The degree of tumor differentiation was positively correlated to PCNA and VEGF expression (r=0.604 and 0.370, P=0.001 and 0.048, respectively), but inversely to the integrity of microvascular basement membrane (r=-0.531, P=0.033). The 2D-TMAP suggests the overall state of the micro-environment for tumor growth. The 2D-TMAP of NSCLC regulates angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation through a mesh-like structure, and better understanding of the characteristics and possible mechanism of 2D-TMAP expression can be of great clinical importance.

  18. Radiation-induced adaptive response in the intact mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Morio

    2009-01-01

    The author and coworkers have revealed that radiation adaptive response (AR) is seen also in the bone marrow of the intact mouse, of which details are described here. First, SPF ICR mice were pre-irradiated (PI) with 0-0.1 Gy of X-ray and after 2 months, subsequently irradiated (SI) with 7.75 Gy. Survival rates at 30 days after SI were about 14% in mice with PI 0-0.025 Gy whereas 40% or more in animals with PI 0.05-0.1 Gy: bone marrow death was found significantly suppressed in this effective PI dose range. The death 2 weeks after SI was found also inhibited at PI 0.3-0.5 Gy. Second, PI doses and interval between PI and SI for acquiring the radio-resistance (RR) were studied and third, the PI 0.3-0.5 Gy with SI 8.0 Gy at 9-17 days later revealed that regional PI of the head (central nervous system) was found unnecessary for RR and of abdomen (systems of hemopoiesis, immunity and digestion), essential. Fourth, strain difference of RR was shown by the fact that RR was observed only in C57BL mouse as well, but neither in BALB/c nor C3H strain. Next, at 12 days after SI 4.25-6.75 Gy (PI 0.5 Gy at 14 days before), mouse spleen cells were subjected to colony formation analysis by counting the endogenous hemopoietic stem cells, which revealed that those cells were increased to about 5 times by PI. Suppression of SI-induced hemorrhage was found in mice with PI by the decreased fecal hemoglobin content. Finally, AR was similarly studied in p53 +/+ and its knockout C57BL mice and was not found in the latter animal, indicating the participation of p53 in AR of the intact mouse. Elucidation of AR mechanisms in the intact animal seems to require somewhat different aspect from that in cells. The results were controvertible to the general concept that radiation risk is proportional to cumulative dose, suggesting that low dose radiation differs from high dose one in biological effect. (K.T.)

  19. Present and future thermal environments available to Sharp-tailed Grouse in an intact grassland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Raynor

    Full Text Available Better understanding animal ecology in terms of thermal habitat use has become a focus of ecological studies, in large part due to the predicted temperature increases associated with global climate change. To further our knowledge on how ground-nesting endotherms respond to thermal landscapes, we examined the thermal ecology of Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus during the nesting period. We measured site-specific iButton temperatures (TiB and vegetation characteristics at nest sites, nearby random sites, and landscape sites to assess thermal patterns at scales relevant to nesting birds. We asked if microhabitat vegetation characteristics at nest sites matched the characteristics that directed macrohabitat nest-site selection. Grouse selected sites sheltered by dense vegetation for nesting that moderated TiB on average up to 2.7°C more than available landscape sites. Successful nests were positioned in a way that reduced exposure to thermal extremes by as much as 4°C relative to failed nests with an overall mean daytime difference (±SE of 0.4 ±0.03°C. We found that macrohabitat nest-site selection was guided by dense vegetation cover and minimal bare ground as also seen at the microhabitat scale. Global climate projections for 2080 suggest that TiB at nest sites may approach temperatures currently avoided on the landscape, emphasizing a need for future conservation plans that acknowledge fine-scale thermal space in climate change scenarios. These data show that features of grassland landscapes can buffer organisms from unfavorable microclimatic conditions and highlight how thermal heterogeneity at the individual-level can drive decisions guiding nest site selection.

  20. Present and future thermal environments available to Sharp-tailed Grouse in an intact grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Edward J; Powell, Larkin A; Schacht, Walter H

    2018-01-01

    Better understanding animal ecology in terms of thermal habitat use has become a focus of ecological studies, in large part due to the predicted temperature increases associated with global climate change. To further our knowledge on how ground-nesting endotherms respond to thermal landscapes, we examined the thermal ecology of Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) during the nesting period. We measured site-specific iButton temperatures (TiB) and vegetation characteristics at nest sites, nearby random sites, and landscape sites to assess thermal patterns at scales relevant to nesting birds. We asked if microhabitat vegetation characteristics at nest sites matched the characteristics that directed macrohabitat nest-site selection. Grouse selected sites sheltered by dense vegetation for nesting that moderated TiB on average up to 2.7°C more than available landscape sites. Successful nests were positioned in a way that reduced exposure to thermal extremes by as much as 4°C relative to failed nests with an overall mean daytime difference (±SE) of 0.4 ±0.03°C. We found that macrohabitat nest-site selection was guided by dense vegetation cover and minimal bare ground as also seen at the microhabitat scale. Global climate projections for 2080 suggest that TiB at nest sites may approach temperatures currently avoided on the landscape, emphasizing a need for future conservation plans that acknowledge fine-scale thermal space in climate change scenarios. These data show that features of grassland landscapes can buffer organisms from unfavorable microclimatic conditions and highlight how thermal heterogeneity at the individual-level can drive decisions guiding nest site selection.

  1. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  2. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a child's general health and to detect any adverse side effects (such as low red or white blood cell ... medicine needed, which helps reduce long-term side effects. The most common ... can be completely removed by surgery. About 41% of all Wilms tumors are stage ...

  3. Nephrogenic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Nephroblastomas are the most common malignant renal tumors in childhood. According to the guidelines of the SIOP (Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique) and GPOH (Gesellschaft fuer Paediatrische Onkologie und Haematologie) pre-operative chemotherapy can be started without histological confirmation and thus initial imaging studies, in particular ultrasound, play an outstanding role for diagnostic purposes

  4. Genetic ablation of soluble tumor necrosis factor with preservation of membrane tumor necrosis factor is associated with neuroprotection after focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Pernille M; Clausen, Bettina H; Degn, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Microglia respond to focal cerebral ischemia by increasing their production of the neuromodulatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor, which exists both as membrane-anchored tumor necrosis factor and as cleaved soluble tumor necrosis factor forms. We previously demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor...... reduced infarct volumes at one and five days after stroke. This was associated with improved functional outcome after experimental stroke. No changes were found in the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor and tumor necrosis factor-related genes (TNFR1, TNFR2, TACE), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6...... knockout mice display increased lesion volume after focal cerebral ischemia, suggesting that tumor necrosis factor is neuroprotective in experimental stroke. Here, we extend our studies to show that mice with intact membrane-anchored tumor necrosis factor, but no soluble tumor necrosis factor, display...

  5. Transport of indoleacetic acid in intact corn coleoptiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, K.E.; Briggs, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized the transport of [ 3 H]indoleacetic acid (IAA) in intact corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles. We have used a wide range of concentrations of added IAA (28 femtomoles to 100 picomoles taken up over 60 minutes). The shape of the transport curve varies with the concentration of added IAA, although the rate of movement of the observed front of tracer is invariant with concentration. At the lowest concentration of tracer used, the labeled IAA in the transport stream is not detectably metabolized or immobilized, curvature does not develop as a result of tracer application, and normal phototropic and gravitropic responsiveness are not affected. Therefore we believe we are observing the transport of true tracer quantities of labeled auxin at this lowest concentration

  6. Simple Genome Editing of Rodent Intact Embryos by Electroporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas system is a powerful tool for genome editing in animals. Recently, new technology has been developed to genetically modify animals without using highly skilled techniques, such as pronuclear microinjection of endonucleases. Technique for animal knockout system by electroporation (TAKE method is a simple and effective technology that produces knockout rats by introducing endonuclease mRNAs into intact embryos using electroporation. Using TAKE method and CRISPR/Cas system, the present study successfully produced knockout and knock-in mice and rats. The mice and rats derived from embryos electroporated with Cas9 mRNA, gRNA and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN comprised the edited targeted gene as a knockout (67% of mice and 88% of rats or knock-in (both 33%. The TAKE method could be widely used as a powerful tool to produce genetically modified animals by genome editing.

  7. Selective dansylation of M protein within intact influenza virions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, B.H.; Bennett, J.C.; Compans, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    Exposure of purified influenza virions to (/sup 14/C)dansyl chloride resulted in the covalent attachment of the dansyl chromophore to the virion. Gel electrophoresis revealed that the dansyl chromophore was specifically coupled to the internal membrane (M) protein. Purification of the M protein by gel filtration followed by cyanogen bromide cleavage and peptide fractionation revealed that four of six peptide peaks contained dansyl label. Acid hydrolysis of the separated peptide peaks followed by thin-layer chromatography revealed that dansyl label was coupled to lysine residues present in these peptides. The results of these investigations have demonstrated that the M protein molecule is the major viral polypeptide labeled when intact virions are exposed to dansyl chloride.

  8. Selective dansylation of M protein within intact influenza virions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, B.H.; Bennett, J.C.; Compans, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure of purified influenza virions to [ 14 C]dansyl chloride resulted in the covalent attachment of the dansyl chromophore to the virion. Gel electrophoresis revealed that the dansyl chromophore was specifically coupled to the internal membrane (M) protein. Purification of the M protein by gel filtration followed by cyanogen bromide cleavage and peptide fractionation revealed that four of six peptide peaks contained dansyl label. Acid hydrolysis of the separated peptide peaks followed by thin-layer chromatography revealed that dansyl label was coupled to lysine residues present in these peptides. The results of these investigations have demonstrated that the M protein molecule is the major viral polypeptide labeled when intact virions are exposed to dansyl chloride

  9. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodger Jason QD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

  10. Intact calcium signaling in adrenergic-deficient embryonic mouse hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Jessica N; Taylor, David G; Katchman, Alexander N; Ebert, Steven N

    2018-01-22

    Mouse embryos that lack the ability to produce the adrenergic hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI), due to disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh -/- ) gene inevitably perish from heart failure during mid-gestation. Since adrenergic stimulation is well-known to enhance calcium signaling in developing as well as adult myocardium, and impairments in calcium signaling are typically associated with heart failure, we hypothesized that adrenergic-deficient embryonic hearts would display deficiencies in cardiac calcium signaling relative to adrenergic-competent controls at a developmental stage immediately preceding the onset of heart failure, which first appears beginning or shortly after mouse embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). To test this hypothesis, we used ratiometric fluorescent calcium imaging techniques to measure cytosolic calcium transients, [Ca 2+ ] i in isolated E10.5 mouse hearts. Our results show that spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i oscillations were intact and robustly responded to a variety of stimuli including extracellular calcium (5 mM), caffeine (5 mM), and NE (100 nM) in a manner that was indistinguishable from controls. Further, we show similar patterns of distribution (via immunofluorescent histochemical staining) and activity (via patch-clamp recording techniques) for the major voltage-gated plasma membrane calcium channel responsible for the L-type calcium current, I Ca,L , in adrenergic-deficient and control embryonic cardiac cells. These results demonstrate that despite the absence of vital adrenergic hormones that consistently leads to embryonic lethality in vivo, intracellular and extracellular calcium signaling remain essentially intact and functional in embryonic mouse hearts through E10.5. These findings suggest that adrenergic stimulation is not required for the development of intracellular calcium oscillations or extracellular calcium signaling through I Ca,L and that aberrant calcium signaling does not likely contribute

  11. Optimized Planning Target Volume for Intact Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Alvin; Jensen, Lindsay G.; Sun Shuai; Song, William Y.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Zhang Fuquan; Jiang, Steve B.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To model interfraction clinical target volume (CTV) variation in patients with intact cervical cancer and design a planning target volume (PTV) that minimizes normal tissue dose while maximizing CTV coverage. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 50 patients undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for intact cervical cancer using daily online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCTs (n = 972) for each patient were rigidly registered to the planning CT. The CTV was delineated on the planning CT (CTV 0 ) and the set of CBCTs ({CTV 1 –CTV 25 }). Manual (n = 98) and automated (n = 668) landmarks were placed over the surface of CTV 0 with reference to defined anatomic structures. Normal vectors were extended from each landmark, and the minimum length required for a given probability of encompassing CTV 1 –CTV 25 was computed. The resulting expansions were used to generate an optimized PTV. Results: The mean (SD; range) normal vector length to ensure 95% coverage was 4.3 mm (2.7 mm; 1–16 mm). The uniform expansion required to ensure 95% probability of CTV coverage was 13 mm. An anisotropic margin of 20 mm anteriorly and posteriorly and 10 mm superiorly, inferiorly, and laterally also would have ensured a 95% probability of CTV coverage. The volume of the 95% optimized PTV (1470 cm 3 ) was significantly lower than both the anisotropic PTV (2220 cm 3 ) and the uniformly expanded PTV (2110 cm 3 ) (p 0 , 5–10 mm along the interfaces of CTV 0 with the bladder and rectum, and 10–14 mm along the anterior surface of CTV 0 at the level of the uterus. Conclusion: Optimizing PTV definition according to surface landmarking resulted in a high probability of CTV coverage with reduced PTV volumes. Our results provide data justifying planning margins to use in practice and clinical trials.

  12. A genome editing approach to study cancer stem cells in human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Carme; Turon, Gemma; Stork, Diana; Hernando-Momblona, Xavier; Sevillano, Marta; Aguilera, Mònica; Tosi, Sébastien; Merlos-Suárez, Anna; Stephan-Otto Attolini, Camille; Sancho, Elena; Batlle, Eduard

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of stem cell hierarchies in human cancers has been hampered by the impossibility of identifying or tracking tumor cell populations in an intact environment. To overcome this limitation, we devised a strategy based on editing the genomes of patient-derived tumor organoids using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to integrate reporter cassettes at desired marker genes. As proof of concept, we engineered human colorectal cancer (CRC) organoids that carry EGFP and lineage-tracing cassettes knocked in the LGR5 locus. Analysis of LGR5-EGFP + cells isolated from organoid-derived xenografts demonstrated that these cells express a gene program similar to that of normal intestinal stem cells and that they propagate the disease to recipient mice very efficiently. Lineage-tracing experiments showed that LGR5 + CRC cells self-renew and generate progeny over long time periods that undergo differentiation toward mucosecreting- and absorptive-like phenotypes. These genetic experiments confirm that human CRCs adopt a hierarchical organization reminiscent of that of the normal colonic epithelium. The strategy described herein may have broad applications to study cell heterogeneity in human tumors. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  13. Origin of Androgen-Insensitive Poorly Differentiated Tumors in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy J. Huss

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Following castration, the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP model demonstrates rapid development of SV40-Tag-driven poorly differentiated tumors that express neuroendocrine cell markers. The cell population dynamics within the prostates of castrated TRAMP mice were characterized by analyzing the incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd and the expression of SV40-Tag, synaptophysin, and androgen receptor (AR. Fourteen days postcastration, the remaining epithelial cells and adenocarcinoma cells were nonproliferative and lacked detectable SV40-Tag or synaptophysin expression. In contrast, morphologically distinct intraglandular foci were identified which expressed SV40-Tag, synaptophysin, and Ki67, but that lacked AR expression. These proliferative SV40-Tag and synaptophysin-expressing intraglandular foci were associated with the rare BrdUrd-retaining cells. These foci expanded rapidly in the postcastration prostate environment, in contrast to the AR- and SV40-Tag-expressing adenocarcinoma cells that lost SV40-Tag expression and underwent apoptosis after castration. Intraglandular foci of synaptophysin-expressing cells were also observed in the prostates of intact TRAMP mice at a comparable frequency; however, they did not progress to rapidly expanding tumors until much later in the life of the mice. This suggests that the foci of neuroendocrine-like cells that express SV40-Tag and synaptophysin, but lack AR, arise independent of androgen-deprivation and represent the source of the poorly differentiated tumors that are the lethal phenotype in the TRAMP model.

  14. Liposomes and lipid disks traverse the BBB and BBTB as intact forms as revealed by two-step Förster resonance energy transfer imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongcheng Dai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The blood–brain barrier (BBB and the blood–brain tumor barrier (BBTB prevent drug and nano-drug delivery systems from entering the brain. However, ligand-mediated nano-drug delivery systems have significantly enhanced the therapeutic treatment of glioma. In this study we investigated the mechanism especially the integrity of liposomes and lipid disks while traversing the BBB and BBTB both in vitro and in vivo. Fluorophores (DiO, DiI and DiD were loaded into liposomes and lipid disks to form Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET nano-drug delivery systems. Using brain capillary endothelial cells as a BBB model, we show that liposomes and disks are present in the cytoplasm as their intact forms and traverse the BBB with a ratio of 0.68‰ and 1.67‰, respectively. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells as BBTB model, liposomes and disks remained intact and traversed the BBTB with a ratio of 2.31‰ and 8.32‰ at 3 h. Ex vivo imaging and immunohistochemical results revealed that liposomes and disks could traverse the BBB and BBTB in vivo as intact forms. In conclusion, these observations explain in part the mechanism by which nano-drug delivery systems increase the therapeutic treatment of glioma. KEY WORDS: Liposomes, Disks, Intact form, BBB, BBTB, FRET

  15. Tumor Cells and Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Secreted Proteins as Potential Targets for Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Baay, Marc; Brouwer, Anja; Pauwels, Patrick; Peeters, Marc; Lardon, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory pathways, meant to defend the organism against infection and injury, as a byproduct, can promote an environment which favors tumor growth and metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which constitute a significant part of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells, have been linked to the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of a variety of cancers, most likely through polarization of TAMs to the M2 (alternative) phenotype. The interaction between tumor cells and macrophages pro...

  16. Ablation of the Galnt3 gene leads to low-circulating intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23) concentrations and hyperphosphatemia despite increased Fgf23 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Sorenson, Andrea H; Austin, Anthony M; Mackenzie, Donald S; Fritz, Timothy A; Moh, Akira; Hui, Siu L; Econs, Michael J

    2009-06-01

    Familial tumoral calcinosis is characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), Klotho (KL), and uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3). In vitro studies indicate that GALNT3 O-glycosylates a phosphaturic hormone, FGF23, and prevents its proteolytic processing, thereby allowing secretion of intact FGF23. In this study we generated mice lacking the Galnt3 gene, which developed hyperphosphatemia without apparent calcifications. In response to hyperphosphatemia, Galnt3-deficient mice had markedly increased Fgf23 expression in bone. However, compared with wild-type and heterozygous littermates, homozygous mice had only about half of circulating intact Fgf23 levels and higher levels of C-terminal Fgf23 fragments in bone. Galnt3-deficient mice also exhibited an inappropriately normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Furthermore, renal expression of sodium-phosphate cotransporters and Kl were elevated in Galnt3-deficient mice. Interestingly, there were sex-specific phenotypes; only Galnt3-deficient males showed growth retardation, infertility, and significantly increased bone mineral density. In summary, ablation of Galnt3 impaired secretion of intact Fgf23, leading to decreased circulating Fgf23 and hyperphosphatemia, despite increased Fgf23 expression. Our findings indicate that Galnt3-deficient mice have a biochemical phenotype of tumoral calcinosis and provide in vivo evidence that Galnt3 plays an essential role in proper secretion of Fgf23 in mice.

  17. "Cancer tumor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  18. Memory deficits with intact cognitive control in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure model of neurodevelopmental insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kally C; Perica, Maria I; Fenton, André A

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairments are amongst the most debilitating deficits of schizophrenia and the best predictor of functional outcome. Schizophrenia is hypothesized to have a neurodevelopmental origin, making animal models of neurodevelopmental insult important for testing predictions that early insults will impair cognitive function. Rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at gestational day 17 display morphological, physiological and behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. Here we investigate the cognitive abilities of adult MAM rats. We examined brain activity in MAM rats by histochemically assessing cytochrome oxidase enzyme activity, a metabolic marker of neuronal activity. To assess cognition, we used a hippocampus-dependent two-frame active place avoidance paradigm to examine learning and spatial memory, as well as cognitive control and flexibility using the same environment and evaluating the same set of behaviors. We confirmed that adult MAM rats have altered hippocampal morphology and brain function, and that they are hyperactive in an open field. The latter likely indicates MAM rats have a sensorimotor gating deficit that is common to many animal models used for schizophrenia research. On first inspection, cognitive control seems impaired in MAM rats, indicated by more errors during the two-frame active place avoidance task. Because MAM rats are hyperactive throughout place avoidance training, we considered the possibility that the hyperlocomotion may account for the apparent cognitive deficits. These deficits were reduced on the basis of measures of cognitive performance that account for motor activity differences. However, though other aspects of memory are intact, the ability of MAM rats to express trial-to-trial memory is delayed compared to control rats. These findings suggest that spatial learning and cognitive abilities are largely intact, that the most prominent cognitive deficit is specific to acquiring memory in the MAM

  19. Intact Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 Complex Predicts Good Response to Radiotherapy in Early Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederlund, Karin; Stal, Olle; Skoog, Lambert; Rutqvist, Lars Erik; Nordenskjoeld, Bo; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the expression and predictive role of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM) for the outcome of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The protein expression of ATM and the DNA repair proteins in the MRN complex were investigated using immunohistochemistry in tumors from 224 women with early breast cancer, who were randomized to receive postoperative radiotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Compared with normal breast tissue, the staining intensity of Mre11, Rad50, Nbs1, and ATM was reduced in a majority of the tumors. Weak expression of the MRN complex was correlated with high histologic grade and estrogen receptor negativity (p = 0.01 and p 0.0001, respectively). Radiotherapy significantly reduced the risk of local recurrence as compared with chemotherapy (p = 0.04). The greatest benefit of radiotherapy was seen in patients with moderate/strong expression of the MRN complex (relative risk = 0.27, 95% confidence interval = 0.098-0.72, p 0.009), whereas patients with negative/weak MRN expression had no benefit of radiotherapy compared with adjuvant chemotherapy. These results suggest that an intact MRN complex is important for the tumor cell eradicating effect of radiotherapy. Conclusions: Reduced expression of the MRN complex predicts a poor effect of radiotherapy in patients with early breast cancer

  20. Novel GALNT3 mutations causing hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome result in low intact fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Guigonis, Vincent; Imel, Erik A; Courouble, Mélanie; Heissat, Sophie; Henley, John D; Sorenson, Andrea H; Petit, Barbara; Lienhardt, Anne; Econs, Michael J

    2007-05-01

    Hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome (HHS) is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by hyperphosphatemia and localized hyperostosis. HHS is caused by mutations in GALNT3, which encodes UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N- acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3. Familial tumoral calcinosis (TC), characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia, is caused by mutations in the GALNT3 or fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) genes. Our objective was to identify mutations in FGF23 or GALNT3 and determine serum FGF23 levels in an HHS patient. Mutation detection in FGF23 and GALNT3 was performed by DNA sequencing, and serum FGF23 concentrations were measured by ELISA. A 5-year-old French boy with HHS and his family members participated. The patient presented with painful cortical lesions in his leg. Radiographs of the affected bone showed diaphyseal hyperostosis. The lesional tissue comprised trabeculae of immature, woven bone surrounded by fibrous tissue. Biochemistry revealed elevated phosphate, tubular maximum rate for phosphate reabsorption per deciliter of glomerular filtrate, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The patient was a compound heterozygote for two novel GALNT3 mutations. His parents and brother were heterozygous for one of the mutations and had no biochemical abnormalities. Intact FGF23 level in the patient was low normal, whereas C-terminal FGF23 was elevated, a pattern similar to TC. The presence of GALNT3 mutations and elevated C-terminal, but low intact serum FGF23, levels in HHS resemble those seen in TC, suggesting that HHS and TC are different manifestations of the same disorder. The absence of biochemical abnormalities in the heterozygous individuals suggests that one normal allele is sufficient for secretion of intact FGF23.

  1. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  2. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  3. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  4. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  5. Digested BLG can induce tolerance when co-administered with intact BLG in Brown Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    the human gastro-duodenal digestion process. Four different fractions of BLG-digest was made, based on sizes of peptides or aggregates hereof. Intact BLG and the four fractions of BLG-digesta were characterized by protein chemical analyses. Brown Norway (BN) rats were immunised i.p. three times without......Background: Milk is a major constituent of small children’s diet. Milk allergy is also one of the most common allergies in small children. Prevention, treatment and general understanding of this allergy are therefore important. Methods: Intact BLG was digested in an in vitro model simulating...... the use of adjuvant with either PBS (control), 200 µg of intact BLG, 30 µg of intact BLG, 200 µg of digested BLG (with 30 µg of intact BLG), 200 µg of digested BLG, 200 µg of a fraction of large complexes or 200 µg of a fraction of small complexes (all three without intact BLG). Sera from BN rats were...

  6. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  7. Response of melanoma tumor phospholipid metabolism to chloroethyle nitrosourea: a high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Daniel; Demidem, Aïcha; Madelmont, Jean-Claude

    2003-07-01

    Phospholipid metabolism is tightly involved in tumor growth regulation and tumor cell survival. The response of phospholipid metabolism to chloroethyle nitrosourea treatment is investigated in a murine B16 melanoma model. Measurements of phospholipid derivatives are performed on intact tumor tissue samples using one- and two-dimensional proton NMR spectroscopy. During the tumor growth inhibition phase under treatment, tumors overexpress phosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine, glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine, whereas phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine levels are maintained to control levels. During re-growth, which remained quantitatively much below control growth, chloroethyle nitrosourea-treated melanoma tumors overexpress phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine only. In treated melanoma, phosphatidylcholine levels show an inverse relationship with tumor growth rates. In conclusion, chloroethyle nitrosourea-treated melanoma tumors maintain their phosphatidylcholine levels and exhibit transformed phospholipid metabolism phenotype, by mechanisms that could participate in tumor cell survival.

  8. The role of inorganic phosphate in intact human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Eiko; Umeda, Masahiro.

    1988-01-01

    The role of inorganic phosphate in intact human erythrocytes was investigated by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P NMR). When erythrocytes stored for 5 weeks were incubated at 37 deg C, pH 7.4, in medium containing 2 mM adenine and 10 mM inosine, with or without 5 mM glucose, a substance of around 4 ppm, as assessed by 31 P NMR chemical shift, was detected in the mixture. However, this substance disappeared by the addition of inorganic phosphate. When erythrocytes stored for 4 weeks in acid citrate dextrose (ACD) solution were incubated with 2 mM adenine, 10 mM inosine, 5 mM glucose, 50 mM inorganic phosphate and 10 mM pyruvate at 37 deg C, pH 7.4, the 2,3-DPG level increased gradually, whereas the ATP level initially increased and then decreased. Intracellular inorganic phosphate appeared to be used for the synthesis of ATP and 2,3-DPG during the first 30 min. of the reaction. These results suggests that the inorganic phosphate accelerates glycolysis by increasing the activity of glycolytic enzymes rather than its direct involvement in synthesizing organic phosphorus compounds in stored erythrocytes. The results also suggests that the reserve energy from ATP synthesis is not sufficient for the synthesis of 2,3-DPG. (author)

  9. Basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C van der Steen

    Full Text Available Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15 and a matched control group (N = 15 on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo. In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument.

  10. Basic Timing Abilities Stay Intact in Patients with Musician's Dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, M. C.; van Vugt, Floris T.; Keller, Peter E.; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15) and a matched control group (N = 15) on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo). In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument. PMID:24667273

  11. Intact information sampling in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarian, Laura; Trinka, Eugen; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Bodner, Thomas; Unterberger, Iris; Luef, Gerhard; Delazer, Margarete

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have reported deficits in decision making under ambiguity for patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). It is unknown whether mTLE is also associated with alterations at a predecisional stage. This study aimed to gain insight into predecisional processing of patients with mTLE. We compared performance of patients with mTLE (n = 25) with that of healthy controls (n = 75) on the information sampling task (IST), a task assessing reflection-impulsivity and predecisional information sampling. Patients and healthy controls showed a similar performance pattern in both conditions of the IST as indicated by the amount of information gathered, the degree of uncertainty tolerated, and the number of decision errors made. They both also demonstrated a significant sensitivity to the different reward characteristics of the task. For the patient group, we found no significant effects on performance on the IST of epilepsy lateralization, abnormality side, structural abnormality (hippocampus vs. amygdala), and medication (monotherapy vs. polytherapy). Reflection processes and predecisional information sampling as tested by the IST are intact in mTLE. Patients collect as much information as healthy individuals and adapt their behavior according to the changing reward conditions. Our findings indicate that in well-defined risk situations, where memory demands are sufficiently minimized, patients with mTLE should be able to gather sufficient information, weight risks and benefits, and make advantageous decisions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Assessment of mechanical strain in the intact plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Franklyn-Miller, Andrew; Falvey, Eanna; Bryant, Adam L; Bartold, Simon; McCrory, Paul

    2009-09-01

    A method of measuring tri-axial plantar fascia strain that is minimally affected by external compressive force has not previously been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of micro-strain gauges to examine strain in the different axes of the plantar fascia. Two intact limbs from a thawed, fresh-frozen cadaver were dissected, and a combination of five linear and one three-way rosette gauges were attached to the fascia of the foot and ankle. Strain was assessed during two trials, both consisting of an identical controlled, loaded dorsiflexion. An ICC analysis of the results revealed that the majority of gauge placement sites produced reliable measures (ICC>0.75). Strain mapping of the plantar fascia indicates that the majority of the strain is centrally longitudinal, which provides supportive evidence for finite element model analysis. Although micro-strain gauges do possess the limitation of calibration difficulty, they provide a repeatable measure of fascial strain and may provide benefits in situations that require tri-axial assessment or external compression.

  13. Temporal Ventriloquism Reveals Intact Audiovisual Temporal Integration in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Michael D; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2018-02-01

    We have shown previously that amblyopia involves impaired detection of asynchrony between auditory and visual events. To distinguish whether this impairment represents a defect in temporal integration or nonintegrative multisensory processing (e.g., cross-modal matching), we used the temporal ventriloquism effect in which visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) is normally enhanced by a lagging auditory click. Participants with amblyopia (n = 9) and normally sighted controls (n = 9) performed a visual TOJ task. Pairs of clicks accompanied the two lights such that the first click preceded the first light, or second click lagged the second light by 100, 200, or 450 ms. Baseline audiovisual synchrony and visual-only conditions also were tested. Within both groups, just noticeable differences for the visual TOJ task were significantly reduced compared with baseline in the 100- and 200-ms click lag conditions. Within the amblyopia group, poorer stereo acuity and poorer visual acuity in the amblyopic eye were significantly associated with greater enhancement in visual TOJ performance in the 200-ms click lag condition. Audiovisual temporal integration is intact in amblyopia, as indicated by perceptual enhancement in the temporal ventriloquism effect. Furthermore, poorer stereo acuity and poorer visual acuity in the amblyopic eye are associated with a widened temporal binding window for the effect. These findings suggest that previously reported abnormalities in audiovisual multisensory processing may result from impaired cross-modal matching rather than a diminished capacity for temporal audiovisual integration.

  14. Evidence for an intact polysaccharide capsule in Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, YiLin; Li, Rui; Howe, Josephine; Hoo, Regina; Pant, Aakanksha; Ho, SiYing; Alonso, Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Polysaccharide capsules contribute to the pathogenesis of many bacteria species by providing resistance against various defense mechanisms. The production of a capsule in Bordetella pertussis, the etiologic agent of whooping cough, has remained controversial; earlier studies reported this pathogen as a capsulated microorganism whereas the recent B. pertussis genome analysis revealed the presence of a truncated capsule locus. In this work, using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining approaches, we provide a formal evidence for the presence of an intact microcapsule produced at the surface of both laboratory strain and clinical isolates of B. pertussis. In agreement with previous studies, we found that the capsule is optimally produced in avirulent phase. Unexpectedly, the presence of the capsule was also detected at the surface of virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Consistently, a substantial transcriptional activity of the capsule operon was detected in virulent phase, suggesting that the capsular polysaccharide may play a role during pertussis pathogenesis. In vitro assays indicated that the presence of the capsule does not affect B. pertussis adherence to mammalian cells and does not further protect the bacterium from phagocytosis, complement-mediated killing or antimicrobial peptide attack. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Intact unconscious processing of eye contact in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Seymour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of eye gaze is crucial for social interaction, providing essential information about another person’s goals, intentions, and focus of attention. People with schizophrenia suffer a wide range of social cognitive deficits, including abnormalities in eye gaze perception. For instance, patients have shown an increased bias to misjudge averted gaze as being directed toward them. In this study we probed early unconscious mechanisms of gaze processing in schizophrenia using a technique known as continuous flash suppression. Previous research using this technique to render faces with direct and averted gaze initially invisible reveals that direct eye contact gains privileged access to conscious awareness in healthy adults. We found that patients, as with healthy control subjects, showed the same effect: faces with direct eye gaze became visible significantly faster than faces with averted gaze. This suggests that early unconscious processing of eye gaze is intact in schizophrenia and implies that any misjudgments of gaze direction must manifest at a later conscious stage of gaze processing where deficits and/or biases in attributing mental states to gaze and/or beliefs about being watched may play a role.

  16. Stress dependence of permeability of intact and fractured shale cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Reinier; Yarushina, Viktoriya

    2016-04-01

    Whether a shale acts as a caprock, source rock, or reservoir, understanding fluid flow through shale is of major importance for understanding fluid flow in geological systems. Because of the low permeability of shale, flow is thought to be largely confined to fractures and similar features. In fracking operations, fractures are induced specifically to allow for hydrocarbon exploration. We have constructed an experimental setup to measure core permeabilities, using constant flow or a transient pulse. In this setup, we have measured the permeability of intact and fractured shale core samples, using either water or supercritical CO2 as the transporting fluid. Our measurements show decreasing permeability with increasing confining pressure, mainly due to time-dependent creep. Furthermore, our measurements show that for a simple splitting fracture, time-dependent creep will also eliminate any significant effect of this fracture on permeability. This effect of confinement on fracture permeability can have important implications regarding the effects of fracturing on shale permeability, and hence for operations depending on that.

  17. Research on intact marine ecosystems: a lost era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowitsch, Michael

    2003-07-01

    It is proposed that a new, fifth era should be added to the four historical phases of marine research identified by Rupert Riedl, specifically an era devoted to studying and ameliorating disturbed marine ecosystems. In an age of global environmental deterioration, many marine ecosystems and organisms are high on the list of threatened entities. This poor status prompts research that would otherwise have been unnecessary and hinders research that would normally have been conducted. I argue that research into intact marine ecosystems is becoming increasingly difficult, and that most of our future insights into marine habitats will stem from knowledge gained by examining various disfunctions of those systems rather than their functions. The new era will therefore differ from past research in its underlying aim, the range of topics studied, the selection and funding of those topics, the validity of its conclusions, and in its urgency. Sea turtles and cetaceans are cited as case studies at the organismic level, shallow-water benthic communities, including coral reefs, at the ecosystem level.

  18. Measurement of tritiated norepinephrine metabolism in intact rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, M.; Kowalik, S.; Barkai, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for the study of NE metabolism in the intact rat brain is described. The method involves ventriculocisternal perfusion of the adult male rat with artificial CSF containing [ 3 H]NE. Radioactivity in the perfusate associated with NE and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DOMA), 3,4-dihydroxphenylethyleneglycol (DHPG), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), and normetanephrine (NMN) is separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After 80 min the radioactivity in the perfusate reaches an apparent steady-state. Analysis of the steady-state samples shows higher activity in the fractions corresponding to DHPG and MHPG than in those corresponding to DOMA and VMA, confirming glycol formation as the major pathway of NE metabolism in rat brain. Pretreatment with an MAO inhibitor (tranylcypromine) results in a marked decrease in the deaminated metabolites DHPG and MHPG and a concurrent increase in NMN. The results indicate this to be a sensitive procedure for the in vivo determination of changes in NE metabolism. (Auth.)

  19. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-05-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents.

  20. Thermodynamic measurement after cooling the cornea with intact epithelium and lid manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ortueta, Diego; Magnago, Thomas; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the rate of change of ocular surface temperature (OST) under lid manipulation after cooling the intact cornea with balanced salt solution (BSS). In a patient for refractive surgery, prior to the ablation, the temperature of the cornea was continuously recorded with a high speed infrared (350Hz) camera. Two millilitre of chilled BSS with a temperature of 8.6°Celsius (°C) was instilled for about 3s. Using exponential functions, the three contributions have been determined, subjacent corneal layers, environment, and chilled BSS. The mean temperature of the cornea preoperatively was 34.5°C. After applying the chilled BSS the temperature decreased about 14°C down to an OST of 20°C and the time needed afterwards to get the normal (OST) temperature of about 30°C was 40s. Due to the inserted speculum and missing blink, OST did not reach the original OST of 34.5°C and faded at about 32.5°C. According to our best fitted model, absolute value of each contributing component was 31.4°C (subjacent corneal layers), 26.8°C (environment) and 8.6°C (BSS). Applying chilled BSS to the cornea quickly reduces the temperature of the cornea with a thermal relaxation time of 3s and a amplitude decrease of 8.6°C. This together with a relaxation time of 7s for subjacent corneal layers, and 184s for environment after instillation of BSS combined with a well-controlled environment provides a period of 40s of corneal temperature below baseline, which may be of clinical benefit when applying chilled BSS immediately before or immediately after ablation. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Testis tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Maier, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical trials are evaluating new combinations of drugs with the goal of diminishing the toxicity associated with the current regimens while not compromising the chance for cure. The evolution of information and staging studies such as tumor markers, CT scanning and MR scanning has made possible the detection of residual metastatic disease while obviating the need for surgical staging procedures. This has made less treatment possible for a large number of patients. The regularity of follow-up studies has made early detection of recurrences a possibility, so that effective and curative treatment is generally possible

  2. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  3. The intact capture of hypervelocity dust particles using underdense foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Carl R.; Borg, J.; Tanner, William G.; Stevenson, T. J.; Bibring, J.-P.

    1994-01-01

    probability of survival for the impacting particle. The primary objectives of the experiment are to (1) Examine the morphology of primary and secondary hypervelocity impact craters. Primary attention will be paid to craters caused by ejecta during hypervelocity impacts of different substrates. (2) Determine the size distribution of ejecta by means of witness plates and collect fragments of ejecta from craters by means of momentum-sensitive mcropore foam. (3) Assess the directionality of the flux by means of penetration-hole alignment of thin films placed above the cells. (4) Capture intact the particles that perforated the thin film and entered the cell. Capture media consisted of both previously flight-tested micropore foams and aerogel. The foams had different latent heats of fusion and, accordingly, will capture particles over a range of momenta. Aerogel was incorporated into the cells to determine the minimum diameter than can be captured intact.

  4. Intensity modulated tangential beam irradiation of the intact breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.; Hunt, M.; Chui, C.; Forster, K.; Lee, H.; Lutz, W.; Yahalom, J.; Kutcher, G.J.; McCormick, B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of intensity modulated tangential beams in the irradiation of the intact breast. The primary goal was to develop an intensity modulated treatment which would substantially decrease the dose to coronary arteries, lung and contralateral breast while still using a standard tangential beam arrangement. Improved target dose homogeneity, within the limits imposed by opposed fields, was also desired. Since a major goal of the study was the development of a technique which was practical for use on a large population of patients, the design of 'standard' intensity profiles analogous in function to conventional wedges was also investigated. Materials and Methods: Three dimensional treatment planning was performed using both conventional and intensity modulated tangential beams. Plans were developed for both the right and left breast for a range of patient sizes and shapes. For each patient, PTV, lung, heart, origin and peripheral branches of the coronary artery, and contralateral breast were contoured. Optimum tangential beam direction and shape were designed using Beams-Eye-View display and then used for both the conventional and intensity modulated plans. For the conventional plan, the optimum wedge combination and beam weighting were chosen based on the dose distribution in a single transverse plane through the field center. Intensity modulated plans were designed using an algorithm which allows the user to specify the prescribed, maximum and minimum acceptable doses and dose volume constraints for each organ of interest. Plans were compared using multiple dose distributions and DVHs. Results: Significant improvements in the doses to critical structures were achieved using the intensity modulated plan. Coronary artery dose decreased substantially for patients treated to the left breast. Ipsilateral lung and contralateral breast doses decreased for all patients. For one patient treated to

  5. Intact suppression of increased false recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Anthony P; Dodson, Chad S; Goff, Donald C; Schacter, Daniel L; Heckers, Stephan

    2002-09-01

    Recognition memory is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, as they rely largely on item familiarity, rather than conscious recollection, to make mnemonic decisions. False recognition of novel items (foils) is increased in schizophrenia and may relate to this deficit in conscious recollection. By studying pictures of the target word during encoding, healthy adults can suppress false recognition. This study examined the effect of pictorial encoding on subsequent recognition of repeated foils in patients with schizophrenia. The study included 40 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy comparison subjects. After incidental encoding of 60 words or pictures, subjects were tested for recognition of target items intermixed with 60 new foils. These new foils were subsequently repeated following either a two- or 24-word delay. Subjects were instructed to label these repeated foils as new and not to mistake them for old target words. Schizophrenic patients showed greater overall false recognition of repeated foils. The rate of false recognition of repeated foils was lower after picture encoding than after word encoding. Despite higher levels of false recognition of repeated new items, patients and comparison subjects demonstrated a similar degree of false recognition suppression after picture, as compared to word, encoding. Patients with schizophrenia displayed greater false recognition of repeated foils than comparison subjects, suggesting both a decrement of item- (or source-) specific recollection and a consequent reliance on familiarity in schizophrenia. Despite these deficits, presenting pictorial information at encoding allowed schizophrenic subjects to suppress false recognition to a similar degree as the comparison group, implying the intact use of a high-level cognitive strategy in this population.

  6. Mapping the World's Intact Forest Landscapes by Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Potapov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection of large natural forest landscapes is a highly important task to help fulfill different international strategic initiatives to protect forest biodiversity, to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and to stimulate sustainable forest management practices. This paper introduces a new approach for mapping large intact forest landscapes (IFL, defined as an unbroken expanse of natural ecosystems within areas of current forest extent, without signs of significant human activity, and having an area of at least 500 km2. We have created a global IFL map using existing fine-scale maps and a global coverage of high spatial resolution satellite imagery. We estimate the global area of IFL within the current extent of forest ecosystems (forest zone to be 13.1 million km2 or 23.5% of the forest zone. The vast majority of IFL are found in two biomes: Dense Tropical and Subtropical Forests (45.3% and Boreal Forests (43.8%. The lowest proportion of IFL is found in Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests. The IFL exist in 66 of the 149 countries that together make up the forest zone. Three of them - Canada, Russia, and Brazil - contain 63.8% of the total IFL area. Of the world's IFL area, 18.9% has some form of protection, but only 9.7% is strictly protected, i.e., belongs to IUCN protected areas categories I-III. The world IFL map presented here is intended to underpin the development of a general strategy for nature conservation at the global and regional scales. It also defines a baseline for monitoring deforestation and forest degradation that is well suited for use with operational and cost-effective satellite data. All project results and IFL maps are available on a dedicated web site (http://www.intactforests.org.

  7. Preferential flow through intact soil cores: Effects of matrix head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, H.W.; Gaber, H.M.; Wraith, J.M.; Huwe, B.; Inskeep, W.P.

    1999-12-01

    Continuous soil pores may act as pathways for preferential flow depending on their size and water status (filled or drained), the latter being largely controlled by the soil matrix head (h). The literature contains a wide range of proposed minimal pore sizes that may contribute to preferential flow. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between h (and corresponding pore sizes) and preferential solute transport in a naturally structured soil. Tracer ({sup 3}H{sub 2}O and pentafluorobenzoic acid, [PFBA]) miscible displacement experiments were performed at several h values in intact soil cores (15-cm diameter, 30-cm length) using an apparatus especially suited to maintain constant h while collecting large effluent volumes. To test for the occurrence of preferential flow, observed breakthrough curves (BTCs) were evaluated for physical nonequilibrium (PNE) using a comparison between fitted local equilibrium (PNE) and PNE models. Fitting results of the observed BTCs indicated absence of PNE in all solute transport experiments at h {le} {minus}10 cm. Experiments at h {ge} {minus}5 cm consistently exhibited PNE conditions, indicating the presence of preferential flow. These results suggest that soil pores with effective radii of 150 {micro}m and smaller (water-filled at h = {minus}10 cm) do not contribute to preferential flow. Observed pore water velocities were not indicative of the presence or absence of preferential flow conditions. Continuous measurements of soil water content ({theta}) using time domain reflectometry (TDR) revealed that at h = {minus}10 cm, <2% of the soil volume had drained.

  8. Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organ...

  9. Differences in School Behavior and Achievement between Children from Intact, Reconstituted, and Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Darin R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed differences in school behavior and achievement among students (n=530) in grades six through nine from intact, reconstituted, and single-parent families. Students from intact, two-parent families had fewer absences and tardies, higher grade point averages, and fewer negative and more positive teacher behavioral ratings than did those from…

  10. Visual Speech Fills in Both Discrimination and Identification of Non-Intact Auditory Speech in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; McAlpine, Rachel P.; Abdi, Herve

    2018-01-01

    To communicate, children must discriminate and identify speech sounds. Because visual speech plays an important role in this process, we explored how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification by children. Critical items had intact visual speech (e.g. baez) coupled to non-intact (excised onsets) auditory speech (signified…

  11. Parathyroid carcinoma survival: improvements in the era of intact parathyroid hormone monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve R. Martinez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH assay is a critical test in the diagnosis and management of PTH-mediated hypercalcemia, including parathyroid carcinoma (PCa. We hypothesized that the survival of patients diagnosed with PCa has improved since adoption of the iPTH assay into clinical practice. We identified all confirmed cases of PCa within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database from 1973 to 2006. Patients were categorized into two eras based upon introduction of the iPTH assay: 1973 to 1997 (era I and 1997 to 2006 (era II, when the iPTH assay was in standard use. We estimated overall survival (OS and disease-specific survival (DSS using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences among survival curves assessed via log rank. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models compared the survival rates between treatment eras while controlling for patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, tumor size, nodal status, extent of disease, and type of surgery. Multivariate models included patients undergoing potentially curative surgery and excluded those with dis- tant metastases. Risks of overall and disease-specific mortality were reported as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Study criteria were met by 370 patients. Median survival was 15.6 years. Five-year rates of OS and DSS were 78% and 88% for era I and 82% and 96% for era II. On multivariate analysis, age, black race, and unknown extent of disease predicted an increased risk of death from any cause. Treatment era did not predict OS. No factor predicted PCa-specific mortality. In multivariate analysis, neither OS nor DSS have improved in the current era that utilizes iPTH for the detection and management of PCa.

  12. Liver polyribosome distribution in intact and adrenalectomized rats exposed to. gamma. radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatvin, M B; Abdel-Halim, M N [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Human Oncology)

    1978-06-01

    The mechanism(s) by which gamma radiation influences liver polyribosome distribution was studied in groups of intact and adrenalectomized male rats. A shift from light to heavy aggregates occurred in the polyribosomes of both intact and adrenalectomized rats after they were exposed to gamma rays. In irradiated adrenalectomized rats, however, the shift to heavier aggregates was not as great as that which occurred in irradiated adrenal-intact animals. Subcutaneous injection of cortisone acetate (10 mg/100 g body weight) also altered the liver polyribosome patterns of both intact and adrenalectomized rats within 8 hours of its administration. The shift which occurred following cortisone administration, however, was less striking than that seen after irradiation only. Thus, although adrenal glucocorticoids contribute to the radiation-indu ied shift in liver polyribosomes in adrenal-intact rats, other factors appear to be involved, since the shift is also obtained in adrenalectomized animals.

  13. Intensity-modulated tangential beam irradiation of the intact breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.; Hunt, M.; Chui, C.; Spirou, S.; Forster, K.; Lee, H.; Yahalom, J.; Kutcher, G.J.; McCormick, B.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential benefits of intensity modulated tangential beams in the irradiation of the intact breast. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional treatment planning was performed on five left and five right breasts using standard wedged and intensity modulated (IM) tangential beams. Optimal beam parameters were chosen using beams-eye-view display. For the standard plans, the optimal wedge angles were chosen based on dose distributions in the central plane calculated without inhomogeneity corrections, according to our standard protocol. Intensity-modulated plans were generated using an inverse planning algorithm and a standard set of target and critical structure optimization criteria. Plans were compared using multiple dose distributions and dose volume histograms for the planning target volume (PTV), ipsilateral lung, coronary arteries, and contralateral breast. Results: Significant improvements in the doses to critical structures were achieved using intensity modulation. Compared with a standard-wedged plan prescribed to 46 Gy, the dose from the IM plan encompassing 20% of the coronary artery region decreased by 25% (from 36 to 27 Gy) for patients treated to the left breast; the mean dose to the contralateral breast decreased by 42% (from 1.2 to 0.7 Gy); the ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 46 Gy decreased by 30% (from 10% to 7%); the volume of surrounding soft tissue receiving more than 46 Gy decreased by 31% (from 48% to 33%). Dose homogeneity within the target volume improved greatest in the superior and inferior regions of the breast (approximately 8%), although some decrease in the medial and lateral high-dose regions (approximately 4%) was also observed. Conclusion: Intensity modulation with a standard tangential beam arrangement significantly reduces the dose to the coronary arteries, ipsilateral lung, contralateral breast, and surrounding soft tissues. Improvements in dose homogeneity throughout the target volume can also be

  14. Immune response to UV-induced tumors: mediation of progressor tumor rejection by natural killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, P.R.; Fortner, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Skin tumors induced in mice by chronic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are highly antigenic and can induce a state of transplantation immunity in syngeneic animals. In the present study, the authors compared the in vitro cytolytic activity of splenic lymphocytes from mice immunized with either regressor or progressor UV-tumors. The results of this comparison implicated tumor-specific cytolytic T (Tc) lymphocytes in rejection of regressor UV-tumors, and revealed that immunization with the progressor UV-tumor 2237 failed to elicit detectable levels of progressor tumor-specific Tc cells even as the tumors rejected. Following in vitro resensitization of spleen cells from either regressor or progressor tumor immune animals, the authors found NK-like lymphocytes with anti-tumor activity. As the authors had not detected cells with this activity in splenic lymphocyte preparations prior to in vitro resensitization, the authors examined lymphocytes from the local tumor environment during the course of progressor tumor rejection for this activity. This analysis revealed NK lymphocytes exhibiting significant levels of cytolytic activity against UV-tumors. These results implicate NK cells as potential effector cells in the rejection of progressor UV-tumors by immune animals, and suggests that these cells may be regulated by T lymphocytes

  15. Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, S.L.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Sonké, B.; Affum-Baffoe, K.; Ewango, C.E.N.

    2009-01-01

    The response of terrestrial vegetation to a globally changing environment is central to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide1, 2. The role of tropical forests is critical because they are carbon-dense and highly productive3, 4. Inventory plots across Amazonia show that

  16. Incorporation of 14CO2 by illuminated intact leaves of bean (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.G. de

    1980-01-01

    Bean plants were grown in hydroponic nutrient solution, maintained in controlled environment. Measurements of the photosynthetic activity using the method of 14 CO 2 incorporation in intact leaves with portable equipment were made on the central leaflet of the first trifoliate leaf except when the effect of leaf age was studied in which case all central leaflets of the same branch were used. The data obtained indicated differences in the photosynthetic efficiency of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars. Relative differences in RuDP carboxylase activity in the crude extracts of leaves, leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content were also observed. Rates of 14 CO 2 incorporation at saturating light varied from 14.94 to 22.96 mg CO 2 .dm -2 .h and the 6 studied cultivars could be divided into two classes: Classe 1 (above 20 mg CO 2 .dm -2 .h): Pirata-1, Rosinha G-2, and Pintadinho Precoce; Classe 2 (below 20 mg CO 2 .dm - 2 .h): Carioca, Rosinha Precoce and Pintado. Plants of the same cultivar showed a relatively high variability and a strong dependence in relation to environmental conditions. Differences among cultivars in relation to RuDP carboxylase activity, leaf area and leaf age were correlated to photosynthetic rate. (Author) [pt

  17. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  18. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  19. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  20. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  1. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  2. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 01/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  3. Tumor thrombus formation in two dogs with insulinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrook, Lydia E; Kudnig, Simon T

    2012-10-15

    A 9-year-old sexually intact male Staffordshire Bull Terrier and a 9-year-old neutered male Boxer were evaluated for intermittent neurologic signs including muscle tremors, ataxia, episodic collapse, disorientation, and seizures. Both dogs had low blood glucose and high serum insulin concentrations. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were unremarkable for both dogs. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass that extended from the body of the pancreas into the pancreaticoduodenal vein in each dog. Marginal resection of pancreatic masses was performed, and tumor thrombi were removed via venotomy in both dogs. Histologic evaluation indicated the masses were pancreatic islet cell tumors with tumor thrombi. Clinical signs resolved following surgical resection of tumors and tumor thrombi, and the dogs were euglycemic during the follow-up period (17 and 45 months after surgery). Although gross tumor thrombus formation has been identified in humans with insulinomas, tumor thrombi have not been previously reported for dogs with insulinomas. Surgical removal of tumor thrombi via venotomy seemed to be well tolerated by the dogs. Tumor thrombus formation did not seem to adversely affect prognosis for the 2 dogs of this report.

  4. Non-cell autonomous or secretory tumor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Christelle En Lin; Chan, Shu Ning; Tang, Bor Luen

    2014-10-01

    Many malignancies result from deletions or loss-of-function mutations in one or more tumor suppressor genes, the products of which curb unrestrained growth or induce cell death in those with dysregulated proliferative capacities. Most tumor suppressors act in a cell autonomous manner, and only very few proteins are shown to exert a non-cell autonomous tumor suppressor function on other cells. Examples of these include members of the secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) family and the secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)-related proteins. Very recent findings have, however, considerably expanded our appreciation of non-cell autonomous tumor suppressor functions. Broadly, this may occur in two ways. Intracellular tumor suppressor proteins within cells could in principle inhibit aberrant growth of neighboring cells by conditioning an antitumor microenvironment through secreted factors. This is demonstrated by an apparent non-cell autonomous tumor suppressing property of p53. On the other hand, a tumor suppressor produced by a cell may be secreted extracellularly, and taken up by another cell with its activity intact. Intriguingly, this has been recently shown to occur for the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by both conventional and unconventional modes of secretion. These recent findings would aid the development of therapeutic strategies that seek to reinstate tumor suppression activity in therapeutically recalcitrant tumor cells, which have lost it in the first place. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Desmoplastic Tumor Microenvironment and Immunotherapy in Cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Dan; Lewinska, Monika; Andersen, Jesper B

    2018-01-01

    connective tissue which surrounds and infiltrates the tumor epithelium. This desmoplastic environment presents a clinical challenge, limiting drug delivery and supporting the growth of the tumor mass. In this review we attempt to highlight key pathways involved in cell to cell communication between the tumor......Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a dismal disease which often is diagnosed at a late stage where the tumor is locally advanced, metastatic, and, as a result, is associated with low resectability. The heterogeneity of this cancer type is a major reason why the majority of patients fail to respond...... to therapy, and surgery remains their only curative option. Among patients who undergo surgical intervention, such tumors typically recur in 50% of cases within 1year. Thus, CCA is among the most aggressive and chemoresistant malignancies. CCA is characterized by marked tumor reactive stroma, a fibrogenic...

  6. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  7. DNA synthesis in periportal and perivenous hepatocytes of intact and hepatectomized young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, A; Inda, A M; Errecalde, A L

    2015-01-01

    DNA synthesis of hepatocytes in two areas of Intact and Hepatectomized young mice liver along a circadian period was studied. DNA synthesis was significantly different at all analyzed time points in Intact and Hepatectomized animals. Differences between periportal and perivenous hepatocytes were found in hepatectomized animals at 04/42 and 08/46 hr of day/hour post-hepatectomy. DNAs peak in periportal hepatocytes regenerating liver occurs 4 hr earlier than in perivenous hepatocytes, probably reflecting their shorter G1 phase. Besides, daily mean values of regenerating livers were higher than those observed in Intact animals, as a consequence of surgical removal.

  8. Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.

    1987-08-31

    The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p < 0.001). Competition for (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-(..beta..-..gamma..-imino)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables.

  9. Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p 3 H]-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-[β-γ-imino]triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables

  10. Radiological diagnostics of skeletal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, M.; Herget, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    The book contains contributions concerning the following topics: 1. introduction and fundamentals: WHO classification of bone tumors, imaging diagnostics and their function; localization, typical clinical and radiological criteria, TNM classification and status classification, invasive tumor diagnostics; 2. specific tumor diagnostics: chondrogenic bone tumors, osseous tumors, connective tissue bony tumors, osteoclastoma, osteomyelogenic bone tumors, vascular bone tumors, neurogenic bone tumors, chordoma; adamantinoma of the long tubular bone; tumor-like lesions, bony metastases, bone granulomas, differential diagnostics: tumor-like lesions

  11. In vivo cation exchange in quantum dots for tumor-specific imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyou; Braun, Gary B; Qin, Mingde; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Sugahara, Kazuki N

    2017-08-24

    In vivo tumor imaging with nanoprobes suffers from poor tumor specificity. Here, we introduce a nanosystem, which allows selective background quenching to gain exceptionally tumor-specific signals. The system uses near-infrared quantum dots and a membrane-impermeable etchant, which serves as a cation donor. The etchant rapidly quenches the quantum dots through cation exchange (ionic etching), and facilitates renal clearance of metal ions released from the quantum dots. The quantum dots are intravenously delivered into orthotopic breast and pancreas tumors in mice by using the tumor-penetrating iRGD peptide. Subsequent etching quenches excess quantum dots, leaving a highly tumor-specific signal provided by the intact quantum dots remaining in the extravascular tumor cells and fibroblasts. No toxicity is noted. The system also facilitates the detection of peritoneal tumors with high specificity upon intraperitoneal tumor targeting and selective etching of excess untargeted quantum dots. In vivo cation exchange may be a promising strategy to enhance specificity of tumor imaging.The imaging of tumors in vivo using nanoprobes has been challenging due to the lack of sufficient tumor specificity. Here, the authors develop a tumor-specific quantum dot system that permits in vivo cation exchange to achieve selective background quenching and high tumor-specific imaging.

  12. Radioimmunodetection of human tumor xenografts by monoclonal antibody F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlyn, D.; Munz, D.L.; Herlyn, M.; Koprowski, H.; Powe, J.; Alavi, A.; Meinken, G.E.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures are described for the radiolocalization of human tumors by murine monoclonal antibodies (MAb) in animal model systems. Visualization of tumor xenografts was clearer in nude mice compared to experimentally immunosuppressed mice due to the higher tumor viability. MAb localization in tumor tissue was greatly enhanced when F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments rather than intact antibody molecules were used. Although tumors could be visualized with /sup 131/I-, /sup 123/I-or /sup 111/In-labeled MAb fragments without background subtraction, tumor-to-background ratios of radioactivity were highest for /sup 131/I-labeled fragments. /sup 131/I-labeled F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments of eight MAb against human colorectal carcinoma, melanoma or lung carcinoma localized specifically only in those tumors that bound the MAb in vitro and not in unrelated tumors. Radiolabeled fragments of MAb with other specificities (anti-hepatitis virus MAb) did not localize in tumors. All MAb that inhibited tumor growth in nude mice effectively localized these tumors by ..gamma..-scintigraphy. Some MAb were effective in localizing tumors but ineffective in inhibiting their growth. The ability of the specific radiolabeled F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments to localize in tumor grafts correlated significantly with MAb binding affinity and density of antigenic sites on tumor cells together, but not with either in vitro binding parameter alone.

  13. 31P NMR study of phosphate metabolites in intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, P.N.; Pande, P.C.; Ratcliffe, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The study of 31 P NMR spectra of intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard and its possible use for assessing the relative degree of hypoxia under in vivo conditions are reported. 7 refs., 2 figs

  14. Toward best practices in data processing and analysis for intact biotherapeutics by MS in quantitative bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, John F; Kehler, Jonathan R; Karlinsey, Molly Z; Summerfield, Scott G

    2017-12-01

    Typically, quantitation of biotherapeutics from biological matrices by LC-MS is based on a surrogate peptide approach to determine molecule concentration. Recent efforts have focused on quantitation of the intact protein molecules or larger mass subunits of monoclonal antibodies. To date, there has been limited guidance for large or intact protein mass quantitation for quantitative bioanalysis. Intact- and subunit-level analyses of biotherapeutics from biological matrices are performed at 12-25 kDa mass range with quantitation data presented. Linearity, bias and other metrics are presented along with recommendations made on the viability of existing quantitation approaches. This communication is intended to start a discussion around intact protein data analysis and processing, recognizing that other published contributions will be required.

  15. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for predicting amino acids content in intact processed animal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Haba, Maria José; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio; Pérez-Marín, Dolores C

    2006-10-04

    Near-infrared calibrations were developed for the instantaneous prediction of amino acids composition of processed animal proteins (PAPs). Two sample presentation modes were compared (ground vs intact) for demonstrating the viability of the analysis in the intact form, avoiding the need for milling. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) equations for the prediction of amino acids in PAPs were developed using the same set of samples (N = 92 PAPs) analyzed in ground and intact form and in three cups differing in the optical window size. The standard error for cross validation (SECV) and the coefficient of determination (1-VR) values yielded with the calibrations developed using the samples analyzed in the intact form showed similar or even better accuracy than those obtained with finely ground samples. The excellent predictive ability (1-VR > 0.90; CV marketing of these important protein feed ingredients, alleviating the costs and time associated with the routine quality controls.

  16. Cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane: histopathologic evidence for a tympanic membrane origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhoff, H; Linthicum, F H

    2001-07-01

    Several theories have been proposed with respect to the origin and pathogenesis of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane. The authors describe a case of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane in a 71-year-old man with a history of tympanic membrane retraction fixed to the incus without evidence of a perforation. The membrane eventually became detached, and remnants of keratinizing squamous epithelium were found on the incus. Mechanisms such as metaplasia, ectopic epidermis rests, or ingrowth of meatal epidermis have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane. These findings, based on temporal bone histopathology, support the role of an acquired epidermal rest. This case report provides evidence that cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane can be established from a resolved retraction of the pars tensa of the tympanic membrane.

  17. Superolateral Dislocation of Intact Mandibular Condyle: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Saikrishna, Degala; Shyam Sundar, S.; Mamata, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Anteromedial fracture dislocation of the mandibular condyle is common but a superolateral dislocation of an intact condyle is quite rare. This type of dislocation is often misdiagnosed or completely overlooked and hence inadequately addressed. We report a case of a 41-year-old male patient who experienced superolateral dislocation of the intact condyle with symphysis fracture and panfacial fracture following a road-traffic accident, and review of literature of superolateral dislocations from ...

  18. Impulse radar scanning of intact salt at the Avery Island Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.W.

    1980-05-01

    A series of experiments was run in the Avery Island Mine to evaluate the capability of an impulse radar to locate anomalies and simulated waste targets in intact dome salt. Voids in salt were difficult to detect. On the positive side, metal targets and simulated waste (glass) were easily located in intact salt. Radar scanning at ranges of greater than 25 meters and short-range resolution of target positions to within a few centimeters were achieved

  19. Prediction of valid acidity in intact apples with Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy*

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-de; Ying, Yi-bin; Fu, Xia-ping

    2005-01-01

    To develop nondestructive acidity prediction for intact Fuji apples, the potential of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) method with fiber optics in interactance mode was investigated. Interactance in the 800 nm to 2619 nm region was measured for intact apples, harvested from early to late maturity stages. Spectral data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques including partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods. A total of 120 Fuji appl...

  20. Occurence of translocations between irradiated and intact chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasnyankina, E.N.; Abeleva, Eh.A.; Generalova, M.V.

    1980-01-01

    Two translocations between irradiated father and intact mother autosomes are obtained in Drosophila melanogaster. Five out of 283 regular translocations (between the second and the third chromosomes of an irradiated male) are accompanied by a recombination over the second or the third chromosomes. Nine flies out of twenty considered to be recombinants, could originate due to mutations. The data obtained prove that intact female autosomes can take part in the exchange with homologic (recombinations) and heterologic (translocations) irradiated male autosomes

  1. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-03-14

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  2. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  3. Risks for Conduct Disorder Symptoms Associated with Parental Alcoholism in Stepfather Families versus Intact Families from a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Debra L.; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael; Gardner, Charles O.; Maes, Hermine H.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is not known if the prevalence of parental psychiatric disorders is higher in stepfather than intact families, or if parental alcoholism is differentially associated with risk for conduct disorder (CD) symptoms in stepfather families versus intact families. Method: The sample comprised 839 girls and 741 boys from 792 intact families…

  4. Investigation of Mitochondrial Dysfunction by Sequential Microplate-Based Respiration Measurements from Intact and Permeabilized Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Pascaline; Polster, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a component of many neurodegenerative conditions. Measurement of oxygen consumption from intact neurons enables evaluation of mitochondrial bioenergetics under conditions that are more physiologically realistic compared to isolated mitochondria. However, mechanistic analysis of mitochondrial function in cells is complicated by changing energy demands and lack of substrate control. Here we describe a technique for sequentially measuring respiration from intact and saponin-permeabilized cortical neurons on single microplates. This technique allows control of substrates to individual electron transport chain complexes following permeabilization, as well as side-by-side comparisons to intact cells. To illustrate the utility of the technique, we demonstrate that inhibition of respiration by the drug KB-R7943 in intact neurons is relieved by delivery of the complex II substrate succinate, but not by complex I substrates, via acute saponin permeabilization. In contrast, methyl succinate, a putative cell permeable complex II substrate, failed to rescue respiration in intact neurons and was a poor complex II substrate in permeabilized cells. Sequential measurements of intact and permeabilized cell respiration should be particularly useful for evaluating indirect mitochondrial toxicity due to drugs or cellular signaling events which cannot be readily studied using isolated mitochondria. PMID:22496810

  5. Endocrine tumors other than thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Norio; Dohi, Kiyohiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data. ABCC-RERF sample data using 4136 autopsy cases (1961-1977) revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 (46.7%) of 15 parathyroid tumors cases were A-bomb survivors. Data (1974-1987) from the Tumor Registry Committee (TRC) in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed that a relative risk of parathyroid tumors was 5.6 times higher in the entire group of A-bomb survivors and 16.2 times higher in the group of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, suggesting the dose-dependent increase in their occurrence. Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of 123 cases from the TRC data, and 15 (31.5%) of these 47 were A-bomb survivors. Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors (54.5%). The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT) tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the 1-9 rad group, the 10-99 rad group, and the 100 or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.1, 5.7, and 7.1, respectively, relative to both the not-in the city group and the 0 rad group. These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors (including hyperparathyroidism), adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT (especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors). (N.K.)

  6. Study of the cellular uptake and distribution of 57cobalt bleomycin in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelmann, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    We investigated the dependence of the cellular uptake of 57 cobalt-bleomycin on the exposure time and on the dose. In addition we observed the influences due to the incubation temperature, to the growth phase of the tumor cells and due to the composition of the suspensory medium. In supplementary experiments we investigated the binding of the labelled cytostatic agent to erythrocytes, its adsorption to broken Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and the 57 cobalt-bleomycin outflow from pre-loaded intact Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The 57 cobalt-bleomycin uptake of intact Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is determined by characteristic kinetics. Moreover, the erythrocytes and injured Ehrlich ascites tumor cells show a qualitatively similar graph of the 57 cobalt-bleomycin binding, which can clearly be distinguished from the kinetics found with intact Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The uptake of this cytostatic agent depends on an unequivocal time-dose-temperature relationship. The transport mechanism of the 57 cobalt-bleomycin uptake was considered as endocytosis. An endocytosis-stimulating inducer could not be detected. However, we obtained indications that the cell-bound cytostatic agent is taken up in two compartments: on the cellular surface and in the interior of the cell. (orig./MG) [de

  7. CT of abdominal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Satoshi; Yamada, Kenji; Ito, Masatoshi; Ito, Hisao; Yamaura, Harutsugu

    1981-01-01

    CT findings in 33 patients who had an abdominal tumor were evaluated. CT revealed a tumor in 31 cases. The organ from which the tumor originated was correctly diagnosed in 18 patients. Whether the tumor was solid or cystic was correctly predicted in 28 patients. The diagnosis malignant or benign nature of tumor was correct, incorrect and impossible, in 23, 3, and five patiens, respectively. (Kondo, M.)

  8. Microbiological influences on fracture surfaces of intact mud-stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.M.; Harrison, H.; Wragg, J.; Wagner, D.; Milodowski, A.E.; Turner, G.; Lacinska, A.; Holyoake, S.; Harrington, J.; Coombs, P.; Bateman, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Aoki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. It is well recognised that microbes live in a wide range of subsurface environments including potential geological repository host rocks; and their presence can have an impact on transport processes. Microbial activity in any environment is located on chemical or physical interfaces, usually within bio-films. Their impact on transport can be physical (e.g. altering porosity) and/or chemical (e.g. changing redox conditions or altering pH) often resulting in intracellular or extracellular mineral formation or degradation. Consequently, the significance of microbial activity on the transport properties of potential host rocks for geological repositories is now being investigated. This pilot study investigates changes in transport properties that are because of microbial activity in sedimentary mud-stone rock environments at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Horonobe underground research laboratory (URL) in northern Japan. The geological setting of the URL is summarised elsewhere. Geo-microbiological assessments of ground waters, from boreholes, previously drilled at Horonobe, have revealed the presence of a diverse indigenous microbiological ecosystem. The impacts of the presence of these microbes on the performance of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository, using geo-microbiological data from Horonobe, has shown that denitrifying bacteria is likely to be the group of organisms with the greatest activity. Consequently, the impact of this group of organisms, specifically Pseudomonas denitrificans, on Horonobe rock transport properties, is the focus of this study. In brief, two experiments, one biotic and a 'control', were carried out using a flow-through column operated at a constant rate of fluid flow and under pressurised conditions. Changes in biological and chemical parameters were monitored throughout the experiment together with changes in confining pressure and temperature. The experiments were

  9. Emotional instability but intact spatial cognition in adenosine receptor 1 knock out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Undine E; Lang, Florian; Richter, Kerstin; Vallon, Volker; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Schnermann, Jürgen; Wolfer, David P

    2003-10-17

    Several lines of evidence point to the involvement of adenosine in the regulation of important central mechanisms such as cognition, arousal, aggression and anxiety. In order to elucidate the involvement of the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) in spatial learning and the control of exploratory behaviour, we assessed A1AR knockout mice (A1AR-/-) and their wild-type littermates (A1AR+/+) in a place navigation task in the water maze and in a battery of forced and free exploration tests. In the water maze, A1AR-/- mice showed normal escape latencies and were indistinguishable from controls with respect to measures of spatial performance during both training and probe trial. But despite normal performance they showed increased wall hugging, most prominently after the relocation of the goal platform for reversal training. Quantitative analysis of strategy choices indicated that wall hugging was increased mainly at the expense of chaining and passive floating, whereas the frequency of trials characterised as direct swims or focal searching was normal in A1AR-/- mice. These results indicate intact spatial cognition, but mildly altered emotional reactions to the water maze environment. In line with this interpretation, A1AR-/- mice showed normal levels and patterns of activity, but a mild increase of some measures of anxiety in our battery of forced and free exploration paradigms. These results are in line with findings published using a genetically similar line, but demonstrate that the magnitude of the changes and the range of affected behavioural measures may vary considerably depending on the environmental conditions during testing.

  10. Tumor Cells and Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Secreted Proteins as Potential Targets for Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baay, Marc; Brouwer, Anja; Pauwels, Patrick; Peeters, Marc; Lardon, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory pathways, meant to defend the organism against infection and injury, as a byproduct, can promote an environment which favors tumor growth and metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which constitute a significant part of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells, have been linked to the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of a variety of cancers, most likely through polarization of TAMs to the M2 (alternative) phenotype. The interaction between tumor cells and macrophages provides opportunities for therapy. This paper will discuss secreted proteins as targets for intervention. PMID:22162712

  11. Tumor Cells and Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Secreted Proteins as Potential Targets for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Baay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory pathways, meant to defend the organism against infection and injury, as a byproduct, can promote an environment which favors tumor growth and metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs, which constitute a significant part of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells, have been linked to the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of a variety of cancers, most likely through polarization of TAMs to the M2 (alternative phenotype. The interaction between tumor cells and macrophages provides opportunities for therapy. This paper will discuss secreted proteins as targets for intervention.

  12. Biochemomechanical poroelastic theory of avascular tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shi-Lei; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2016-09-01

    Tumor growth is a complex process involving genetic mutations, biochemical regulations, and mechanical deformations. In this paper, a thermodynamics-based nonlinear poroelastic theory is established to model the coupling among the mechanical, chemical, and biological mechanisms governing avascular tumor growth. A volumetric growth law accounting for mechano-chemo-biological coupled effects is proposed to describe the development of solid tumors. The regulating roles of stresses and nutrient transport in the tumor growth are revealed under different environmental constraints. We show that the mechano-chemo-biological coupling triggers anisotropic and heterogeneous growth, leading to the formation of layered structures in a growing tumor. There exists a steady state in which tumor growth is balanced by resorption. The influence of external confinements on tumor growth is also examined. A phase diagram is constructed to illustrate how the elastic modulus and thickness of the confinements jointly dictate the steady state of tumor volume. Qualitative and quantitative agreements with experimental observations indicate the developed model is capable of capturing the essential features of avascular tumor growth in various environments.

  13. Maternal high fat diet promotion of mammary tumor risk in adult progeny is associated with early expansion of mammary cancer stem-like cells and increased maternal oxidative environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many adult chronic diseases might be programmed during early life by maternal nutritional history. Here, we evaluated effects of maternal high fat diet on mammary gland development and tumor formation in adult progeny. Female Wnt-1 transgenic mice exposed to high fat (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or control C...

  14. Performance of intact and castrated beef cattle in an intensive croppasture rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Turini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to evaluate the performance of intact or castrated beef cattle in a croppasture rotation system. The experiment was conducted during 2004 and 2005, and carried out at the Cooperativa Agropecuária Mourãoense (COAMO Experimental Farm, in Campo Mourão city, Paraná state. It was used a completely randomized design, with two treatments, intact or castrated. Forty ½Angus+½Nelore crossbred animals, with average age of nine months, were used. Half of the animals were castrated at weaning, and the other half was kept intact. Pasture was composed of two areas. The winter field, established after soybean crop, was composed by a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiforum. The summer field was composed by stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum. During the winter time it was used a continues grazing system, with regulator animals (put and take, and during the summer an intensive rotational system, with regulator animals and fixed grazing period. Intact animals presented higher average daily weight gain (0.907 vs 0.698 kg, slaughter weight (490.9 vs 442.2 kg, and hot carcass weight (250.2 vs 232.6 kg. Slaughter age was influenced by sexual condition, being lesser in the intact animals. Carcass dressing percentage was similar for the groups. Castrated animals showed better finishing fat cover and backfat thickness (3.45 vs 2.70 mm compared to intact ones. Therefore, it can be concluded that intact animals presents better performance than castrated ones when finished in an intensive crop-pasture rotation system, however, they may not present the minimum required fat cover, when slaughter at young ages.

  15. Tumor macroenvironment and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%-20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient's outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Accumulation of phenanthrene by roots of intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings: passive or active uptake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ting-Hui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of particular concern due to their hydrophobic, recalcitrant, persistent, potentially carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties, and their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. Most of the PAHs in the environment are present in surface soil. Plants grown in PAH-contaminated soils or water can become contaminated with PAHs because of their uptake. Therefore, they may threaten human and animal health. However, the mechanism for PAHs uptake by crop roots is little understood. It is important to understand exactly how PAHs are transported into the plant root system and into the human food chain, since it is beneficial in governing crop contamination by PAHs, remedying soils or waters polluted by PAHs with plants, and modeling potential uptake for risk assessment. Results The possibility that plant roots may take up phenanthrene (PHE, a representative of PAHs, via active process was investigated using intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings in a series of hydroponic experiments. The time course for PHE uptake into wheat roots grown in Hoagland solution containing 5.62 μM PHE for 36 h could be separated into two periods: a fast uptake process during the initial 2 h and a slow uptake component thereafter. Concentration-dependent PHE uptake was characterized by a smooth, saturable curve with an apparent Km of 23.7 μM and a Vmax of 208 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. Competition between PHE and naphthalene for their uptake by the roots further supported the carrier-mediated uptake system. Low temperature and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP could inhibit PHE uptake equally, indicating that metabolism plays a role in PHE uptake. The inhibitions by low temperature and DNP were strengthened with increasing concentration of PHE in external solution within PHE water solubility (7.3 μM. The contribution of active uptake to total absorption was almost 40

  17. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 5. Abstract. Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as ...

  18. Self-etching adhesive on intact enamel, with and without pre-etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarasa, G M; Subba Reddy, V V; Chaitra, N L; Swarna, Y M

    2012-05-01

    Bond strengths of composite resin to enamel using self-etch adhesive (SEA) Clearfil SE bond system on intact enamel and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid were compared. The objective was to determine if the pre-etching would increase the bond strengths of the SEA systems to intact enamel and to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on bond formation of self-etch adhesives on intact enamel. Labial surfaces of 40 caries free permanent upper central and lateral incisors were cleaned, sectioned of their roots. All specimens were mounted on acrylic block and divided randomly into four groups. In two groups the application of self-etch adhesive, Clearfil SE bond was carried as per manufacturer's instructions, composite cylinders were built, whereas in the other two groups, 37% phosphoric acid etching was done before the application of self-etching adhesives. Then the resin tags were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and shear bond strength was measured using Instron universal testing machine. When phosphoric acid was used, there was significant increase in the depth of penetration of resin tags and in the Shear Bond Strength of composite to enamel. The results indicate that out of both treatment groups, pre-etching the intact enamel with 37% phosphoric acid resulted in formation of longer resin tags and higher depth of penetration of resin tags of the Clearfil SE bond, and attaining higher bond strength of the Clearfil SE bond to intact enamel. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Family Donate Volunteer Justin's Hope Fund Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  20. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed. (Author) [pt

  1. Testicular germinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of testicular germinal tumors. The presumed diagnosis is based in the anamnesis, clinical examination, testicular ultrasound and tumor markers. The definitive diagnosis is obtained through the inguinal radical orchidectomy

  2. O6-Methylguanine DNA Methyltransferase Status Does Not Predict Response or Resistance to Alkylating Agents in Well-Differentiated Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Nitya; Klimstra, David S; Horvat, Natally; Zhang, Liying; Chou, Joanne F; Capanu, Marinela; Basturk, Olca; Do, Richard Kinh Gian; Allen, Peter J; Reidy-Lagunes, Diane

    2017-07-01

    Alkylating agents have activity in well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (WD panNETs). In glioblastoma multiforme, decreased activity of O-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) predicts response; in panNETs, MGMT relevance is unknown. We identified patients with WD panNETs treated with alkylating agents, determined best overall response by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1, and performed MGMT activity testing. Fifty-six patients were identified; 26 (46%) of the 56 patients experienced partial response, 24 (43%) of 56 experienced stable disease, and 6 (11%) of 56 experienced progression of disease. O-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase status was available for 36 tumors. For tumors with partial response, 10 (67%) of 15 were MGMT deficient, and 5 (33%) of 15 were MGMT intact. For tumors with stable disease, 7 (47%) of 15 were MGMT deficient, and 8 (53%) of 15 were MGMT intact. For tumors with progression of disease, 3 (50%) of 6 were MGMT deficient, and 3 (50%) of 6 were MGMT intact. We observed response and resistance to alkylating agents in MGMT-deficient and MGMT-intact tumors. O-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase status should not guide alkylating agent therapy in WD panNETs.

  3. Tissue engineered tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Techy, G B; Ward, B R; Imam, S A; Atkinson, R; Ho, H; Taylor, C R

    2010-08-01

    Many research programs use well-characterized tumor cell lines as tumor models for in vitro studies. Because tumor cells grown as three-dimensional (3-D) structures have been shown to behave more like tumors in vivo than do cells growing in monolayer culture, a growing number of investigators now use tumor cell spheroids as models. Single cell type spheroids, however, do not model the stromal-epithelial interactions that have an important role in controlling tumor growth and development in vivo. We describe here a method for generating, reproducibly, more realistic 3-D tumor models that contain both stromal and malignant epithelial cells with an architecture that closely resembles that of tumor microlesions in vivo. Because they are so tissue-like we refer to them as tumor histoids. They can be generated reproducibly in substantial quantities. The bioreactor developed to generate histoid constructs is described and illustrated. It accommodates disposable culture chambers that have filled volumes of either 10 or 64 ml, each culture yielding on the order of 100 or 600 histoid particles, respectively. Each particle is a few tenths of a millimeter in diameter. Examples of histological sections of tumor histoids representing cancers of breast, prostate, colon, pancreas and urinary bladder are presented. Potential applications of tumor histoids include, but are not limited to, use as surrogate tumors for pre-screening anti-solid tumor pharmaceutical agents, as reference specimens for immunostaining in the surgical pathology laboratory and use in studies of invasive properties of cells or other aspects of tumor development and progression. Histoids containing nonmalignant cells also may have potential as "seeds" in tissue engineering. For drug testing, histoids probably will have to meet certain criteria of size and tumor cell content. Using a COPAS Plus flow cytometer, histoids containing fluorescent tumor cells were analyzed successfully and sorted using such criteria.

  4. Spontaneous and light-induced photon emission from intact brains of chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦珠; 于文斗; 孙彤

    1997-01-01

    Photon emission (PE) and light-induced photon emission(LPE) of intact brains isolated from chick embryos have been measured by using the single photon counting device. Experimental results showed that the intensi-ty level of photon emission was detected to be higher from intact brain than from the medium in which the brain was immerged during measuring, and the emission intensity was related to the developmental stages, the healthy situation of the measured embryos, and the freshness of isolated brains as well. After white light illumination, a short-life de-layed emission from intact brains was observed, and its relaxation behavior followed a hyperbolic rather than an expo-nential law. According to the hypothesis of biophoton emission originating from a delocalized coherent electromagnetic field and Frohlich’s idea of coherent long-range interactions in biological systems, discussions were made on the signifi-cance of photon emission in studying cell communication, biological regulation, living system’

  5. Performance of intact and partially degraded concrete barriers in limiting fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.C.; Seitz, R.R.

    1991-07-01

    Concrete barriers will play a critical role in the long-term isolation of low-level radioactive wastes. Over time the barriers will degrade, and in many cases, the fundamental processes controlling performance of the barriers will be different for intact and degraded conditions. This document examines factors controlling fluid flow through intact and degraded concrete disposal facilities. Simplified models are presented fro predicting build up of fluid above a vault; fluid flow through and around intact vaults, through flaws in coatings/liners applied to a vault, and through cracks in a concrete vault; and the influence of different backfill materials around the outside of the vault. Example calculations are presented to illustrate the parameters and processes that influence fluid flow. 46 refs., 49 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Multiparametric MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, A.A.; Astrakas, L.G.; Zarifi, M.K.; Petridou, N.; Young-Poussaint, T.; Goumnerova, L.; Black, P.McL.; Zurakowski, D.; Anthony, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors has expanded to include physiologic information related to cellular metabolites, hemodynamic and diffusion parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MR and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in children with primary brain tumors. Twenty-one patients (mean age 9 years) with histologically verified brain tumors underwent conventional MR imaging, hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI) and proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Fourteen patients also had diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWMRI). Metabolic indices including choline-containing compounds (Cho), total creatine (tCr) and lipids/lactate (L) were derived by proton MRSI, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) by HMRI, and apparent tissue water diffusion coefficients (ADC) by DWMRI. Variables were examined by linear regression and correlation as well as by ANOVA. Cho (suggestive of tumor cellularity and proliferative activity) correlated positively with rCBV, while the relationship between Cho and ADC (suggestive of cellular density) was inverse (P<0.001). The relationship between rCBV and ADC was also inverse (P=0.004). Cho and lipids (suggestive of necrosis and/or apoptosis) were not significantly correlated (P=0.51). A positive relationship was found between lipids and ADC (P=0.002). The relationships between Cho, rCBV, ADC and lipids signify that tumor physiology is influenced by the tumor's physical and chemical environment. Normalized Cho and lipids distinguished high-grade from low-grade tumors (P<0.05). Multiparametric MR imaging using MRSI, HMRI and DWMRI enhances assessment of brain tumors in children and improves our understanding of tumor physiology while promising to distinguish higher- from lower-malignancy tumors, a distinction that is particularly clinically important among inoperable tumors. (orig.)

  7. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  9. Neural activation differences in amputees during imitation of intact versus amputee movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Cusack

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mirror neuron system has been attributed with increased activation in motor-related cortical areas upon viewing of another’s actions. Recent work suggests that limb movements that are similar and dissimilar in appearance to that of the viewer equivalently activate the mirror neuron system. It is unclear if this result can be observed in the action encoding areas in amputees who use prosthetic devices. Intact subjects and upper extremity amputee prosthesis users were recruited to view video demonstrations of tools being used by an intact actor and a prosthetic device user. All subjects were asked to pantomime the movements seen in the video while recording electroencephalography. Intact subjects showed equivalent left parietofrontal activity during imitation after watching the intact or prosthetic arm. Likewise, when prosthesis users imitated prosthesis demonstrations, typical left parietofrontal activation was observed during planning. When prosthesis users imitated intact actors, a new pattern was revealed which showed greater bilateral parietal and occipital activity during movement planning (p<0.001. This change may be required for prosthesis users to imitate movements in which the limb states between the observed and the observer do not match. The finding that prosthesis users imitating other prosthesis users showed typical left parietofrontal activation suggests that these subjects engage normal planning related activity when they are able to imitate a limb matching their own. This result has significant implications on rehabilitation, as standard therapy involves training with an intact occupational therapist, which could necessitate atypical planning mechanisms in amputees when learning to use their prosthesis.

  10. Losing a jewel—Rapid declines in Myanmar’s intact forests from 2002-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, Ned; Khaing, Thiri; Thein, Zaw Min; Aung, Kyaw Moe; Aung, Kyaw Htet; Phyo, Paing; Tun, Ye Lin; Oo, Aung Htat; Neil, Anthony; Thu, Win Myo; Songer, Melissa; Huang, Qiongyu; Connette, Grant; Leimgruber, Peter

    2017-01-01

    New and rapid political and economic changes in Myanmar are increasing the pressures on the country’s forests. Yet, little is known about the past and current condition of these forests and how fast they are declining. We mapped forest cover in Myanmar through a consortium of international organizations and environmental non-governmental groups, using freely-available public domain data and open source software tools. We used Landsat satellite imagery to assess the condition and spatial distribution of Myanmar’s intact and degraded forests with special focus on changes in intact forest between 2002 and 2014. We found that forests cover 42,365,729 ha or 63% of Myanmar, making it one of the most forested countries in the region. However, severe logging, expanding plantations, and degradation pose increasing threats. Only 38% of the country’s forests can be considered intact with canopy cover >80%. Between 2002 and 2014, intact forests declined at a rate of 0.94% annually, totaling more than 2 million ha forest loss. Losses can be extremely high locally and we identified 9 townships as forest conversion hotspots. We also delineated 13 large (>100,000 ha) and contiguous intact forest landscapes, which are dispersed across Myanmar. The Northern Forest Complex supports four of these landscapes, totaling over 6.1 million ha of intact forest, followed by the Southern Forest Complex with three landscapes, comprising 1.5 million ha. These remaining contiguous forest landscape should have high priority for protection. Our project demonstrates how open source data and software can be used to develop and share critical information on forests when such data are not readily available elsewhere. We provide all data, code, and outputs freely via the internet at (for scripts: https://bitbucket.org/rsbiodiv/; for the data: http://geonode.themimu.info/layers/geonode%3Amyan_lvl2_smoothed_dec2015_resamp) PMID:28520726

  11. Boron-11 MRI and MRS of intact animals infused with a boron neutron capture agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.W.; Davis, M.; Bendel, P.

    1988-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the delivery of boron-containing drugs to a targeted lesion. Currently, the verification and quantification of in vivo boron content is a difficult problem. Boron-11 spectroscopy was utilized to confirm the presence of a dimeric sulfhydryl dodecaborane BNCT agent contained in an intact animal. Spectroscopy experiments revealed that the decay time of transverse magnetization of the boron-11 spins was less than 1 ms which precluded the use of a 2DFT imaging protocol. A back-projection protocol was developed and utilized to generate the first boron-11 image of a BNCT agent in the liver of an intact Fisher 344 rat

  12. A low carbohydrate, high protein diet suppresses intratumoral androgen synthesis and slows castration-resistant prostate tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokidis, H Bobby; Yieng Chin, Mei; Ho, Victor W; Adomat, Hans H; Soma, Kiran K; Fazli, Ladan; Nip, Ka Mun; Cox, Michael; Krystal, Gerald; Zoubeidi, Amina; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S

    2015-06-01

    Dietary factors continue to preside as dominant influences in prostate cancer prevalence and progression-free survival following primary treatment. We investigated the influence of a low carbohydrate diet, compared to a typical Western diet, on prostate cancer (PCa) tumor growth in vivo. LNCaP xenograft tumor growth was studied in both intact and castrated mice, representing a more advanced castration resistant PCa (CRPC). No differences in LNCaP tumor progression (total tumor volume) with diet was observed for intact mice (P = 0.471) however, castrated mice on the Low Carb diet saw a statistically significant reduction in tumor growth rate compared with Western diet fed mice (P = 0.017). No correlation with serum PSA was observed. Steroid profiles, alongside serum cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels, were significantly altered by both diet and castration. Specifically, DHT concentration with the Low Carb diet was 58% that of the CRPC-bearing mice on the Western diet. Enzymes in the steroidogenesis pathway were directly impacted and tumors isolated from intact mice on the Low Carb diet had higher AKR1C3 protein levels and lower HSD17B2 protein levels than intact mice on the Western diet (ARK1C3: P = 0.074; HSD17B2: P = 0.091, with α = 0.1). In contrast, CRPC tumors from mice on Low Carb diets had higher concentrations of both HSD17B2 (P = 0.016) and SRD5A1 (P = 0.058 with α = 0.1) enzymes. There was no correlation between tumor growth in castrated mice for Low Carb diet versus Western diet and (a) serum insulin (b) GH serum levels (c) insulin receptor (IR) or (d) IGF-1R in tumor tissue. Intact mice fed Western diet had higher serum insulin which was associated with significantly higher blood glucose and tumor tissue IR. We conclude that both diet and castration have a significant impact on the endocrinology of mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors. The observed effects of diet on cholesterol and steroid regulation impact tumor tissue DHT specifically and are

  13. Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs.They have a complex morphology, usually affecting middle age and older bitches. Almost 50% of the mammary tumors in dogs are malignant neoplasms. Prognosis is based on several factors: stage, age, tumor size, metastasis, histopathology, ovariectomy status and hormone-receptor activity. Immunohistochemical (IHC measurement has become increasingly an important diagnostic and prognostic parameter, with the development of monoclonal antibodies against nuclear estrogen and progestin receptors. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of ER receptors in malignant canine mammary tumors and to identify their association with the clinical course of the tumor. Mammary tumor samples have been obtained by mastectomy from dogs presented at our clinic. Detailed clinical examination, CBC and basic serum biochemical profile were performed in all patients. Surgery was the only treatment. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical detection of estrogen α receptors (ERα was performed on 8 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, using the PT LINK immunoperoxidase technique. Histopathological examination of the mammary tumor samples (n=11 revealed tubular adenocarcinoma (n=6,54.5% and ductal adenocarcinoma (n=3, 27.3%, one patient with benign adenoma and one with mastitis. Patients with positive ER tumors are alive, without remission, while 3 of the patients that were ER negative died due to lung metastases. According to our results, it can be concluded that the appearance and development of canine mammary tumors is highly connected with ovarian steroid hormones and that immunostaining of the tumors may be used as a good prognostic parameter in these patients.

  14. PET and endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of 18 FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)

  15. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  16. The impact of family intactness on family functioning, parental control and parent-child relational qualities in a Chinese context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the differences between intact and non-intact families in family processes, including systematic family functioning, parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities. The participants were 3,328 Secondary One students, with a mean age of 12.59 years, recruited from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Four validated scales were used to assess family processes. Results showed that adolescents in non-intact families perceived relatively poorer family functioning, lower level of paternal and maternal behavioral control, lower level of paternal psychological control and poorer parent-child relational qualities than did adolescents in intact families. This generally indicated that family processes were poorer in non-intact families, compared with those in intact families. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  17. Hyperandrogenism from an ovarian interstitial-cell tumor in an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rosanne; Kutzler, Michelle; Valentine, Beth A; Semevolos, Stacy

    2006-11-01

    An 8-year-old intact female Huacaya alpaca (Lama pacos) was presented for recent development of male behavior. Serum testosterone concentration was determined to be 969.1 pg/ml by using radioimmunoassay, while the range in 33 healthy female adult intact alpacas was 11.7-62.1 pg/ml. An ovarian mass was suspected, and an exploratory laparotomy was performed. A tan mass was present on the left ovary. Histologically, the mass was composed of closely packed, plump, polygonal cells with central round nuclei with granular chromatin and abundant eosinophilic finely granular to vesiculate cytoplasm. An ovarian benign interstitial (Leydig) cell tumor was diagnosed.

  18. Epilepsy and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yi Sha

    2009-01-01

    @@ Epidemiology It is estimated 61,414 new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2009 in the U.S. The incidence statistic of 61,414 persons diagnosed per year includes both malignant (22,738) and non-malignant (38,677) brain tumors. (Data from American Brain Tumor Association). During the years 2004-2005, approximately 359,000 people in the United States were living with the diagnosis of a primary brain or central nervous system tumor. Specifically, more than 81,000 persons were living with a malignant tumor, more than 267,000 persons with a benign tumor. For every 100,000 people in the United States, approximately 131 are living following the diagnosis of a brain tumor. This represents a prevalence rate of 130.8 per 100,000 person years[1].

  19. CD8+ Tumor-Infiltrating T Cells Are Trapped in the Tumor-Dendritic Cell Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Boissonnas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy enhances the antitumor adaptive immune T cell response, but the immunosuppressive tumor environment often dominates, resulting in cancer relapse. Antigen-presenting cells such as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs and tumor dendritic cells (TuDCs are the main protagonists of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL immuno-suppression. TAMs have been widely investigated and are associated with poor prognosis, but the immuno-suppressive activity of TuDCs is less well understood. We performed two-photon imaging of the tumor tissue to examine the spatiotemporal interactions between TILs and TuDCs after chemotherapy. In a strongly immuno-suppressive murine tumor model, cyclophosphamide-mediated chemotherapy transiently enhanced the antitumor activity of adoptively transferred ovalbumin-specific CD8+ T cell receptor transgenic T cells (OTI but barely affected TuDC compartment within the tumor. Time lapse imaging of living tumor tissue showed that TuDCs are organized as a mesh with dynamic interconnections. Once infiltrated into the tumor parenchyma, OTI T cells make antigen-specific and long-lasting contacts with TuDCs. Extensive analysis of TIL infiltration on histologic section revealed that after chemotherapy the majority of OTI T cells interact with TuDCs and that infiltration is restricted to TuDC-rich areas. We propose that the TuDC network exerts antigen-dependent unproductive retention that trap T cells and limit their antitumor effectiveness.

  20. Fertility, pregnancy, and delivery after biventricular repair for pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenthen, Willem; Pieper, Petronella G.; Roos-Hesselink, Jollen W.; Zoon, Nicole; Voors, Adrlaan A.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Ebels, Tjark; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study to investigate fertility, pregnancy, and delivery in women with biventricular repair for pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum (PAIVS). Using a nationwide registry (CONCOR), 37 patients with pulmonary atresia were identified, 6 of whom (aged 21 to 34

  1. Fertility, pregnancy, and delivery after biventricular repair for pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenthen, W.; Pieper, P.G.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Zoon, N.; Voors, A.A.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Vliegen, H.W.; Sollie, K.M.; Ebels, T.; Veldhuisen, D.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study to investigate fertility, pregnancy, and delivery in women with biventricular repair for pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum (PAIVS). Using a nationwide registry (CONCOR), 37 patients with pulmonary atresia were identified, 6 of whom (aged 21 to 34

  2. Family Conflict and Children's Self-Concepts: A Comparison of Intact and Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Helen J.; Raschke, Vernon J.

    1979-01-01

    Using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale to measure self-concept, and self-reports for family structure and family conflict, no significant differences in self-concept scores of children from intact, single-parent, reconstituted, or other types of families were found. Self-concept scores were significantly lower for children reporting…

  3. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  4. 46 CFR 173.020 - Intact stability standards: Counterballasted and non-counterballasted vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE Lifting § 173.020 Intact stability standards... vessel that is not equipped to counter-ballast while lifting must be shown by design calculations to... and crane radius. (b) Each vessel must have a righting arm curve with the following characteristics...

  5. 46 CFR 173.025 - Additional intact stability standards: Counterballasted vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE Lifting § 173.025 Additional intact stability standards: Counterballasted vessels. (a) Each vessel equipped to counterballast while lifting must be shown... loading and operation and at each combination of hook load and crane radius. (b) When doing the...

  6. Detection of intact megadalton protein assemblies of vanillyl-alcohol oxidase by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van W.J.H.; Heuvel, van den R.H.H.; Versluis, C.; Heck, A.

    2000-01-01

    Well-resolved ion signals of intact large protein assemblies, with molecular masses extending above one million Dalton, have been detected and mass analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with an uncertainty in mass of <0.2&Eth;The mass spectral data seem to reflect known

  7. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in older nursing home residents with intact cognitive function in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sophia H; Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Ting, Yeh-Feng; Lin, Kuan-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Jung

    2018-03-25

    The investigators aimed to explore the prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among older residents with intact cognitive function in nursing homes in Taiwan. A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational research design was used. A convenience sample of 178 older residents without cognitive impairment was recruited from 36 nursing homes in Southern Taiwan. The questionnaires included demographic data; the Barthel Index, which assesses the ability to perform activities of daily living; and the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form. Among older residents in nursing homes with intact cognitive function, 39.3% had depressive symptoms. Age, religion, previous living status, previous working status, being totally dependent in physical function, and being severely dependent in physical function were significant predictors of depressive symptoms among cognitively intact older residents. The findings highlight the critical mental healthcare issues among older residents with intact cognitive function in nursing homes. Practical strategies for preventing the occurrence of depressive symptoms and caring for those who have depressive symptoms should be developed, especially for younger or dependent older residents or residents who have never been employed, have no religious beliefs, or have lived alone before they moved into an institution. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Proceedings of the international workshop on mechanistic understanding of radionuclide migration in compacted/intact systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yukio; Yui, Mikazu

    2010-03-01

    The international workshop on mechanistic understanding of radionuclide migration in compacted / intact systems was held at ENTRY, JAEA, Tokai on 21st - 23rd January, 2009. This workshop was hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as part of the project on the mechanistic model/database development for radionuclide sorption and diffusion behavior in compacted / intact systems. The overall goal of the project is to develop the mechanistic model / database for a consistent understanding and prediction of migration parameters and its uncertainties for performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive waste. The objective of the workshop is to integrate the state-of-the-art of mechanistic sorption and diffusion model in compacted / intact systems, especially in bentonite / clay systems, and discuss the JAEA's mechanistic approaches and future challenges, especially the following discussions points; 1) What's the status and difficulties for mechanistic model/database development? 2) What's the status and difficulties for applicability of mechanistic model to the compacted/intact system? 3) What's the status and difficulties for obtaining evidences for mechanistic model? 4) What's the status and difficulties for standardization of experimental methodology for batch sorption and diffusion? 5) What's the uncertainties of transport parameters in radionuclides migration analysis due to a lack of understanding/experimental methodologies, and how do we derive them? This report includes workshop program, overview and materials of each presentation, summary of discussions. (author)

  9. The action of cobra venom phospholipase A2 isoenzymes towards intact human erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, B.; Sibenius Trip, M.; Verheij, H.M.; Zevenbergen, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    1. 1. Cobra venom phospholipase A2 from three different sources has been fractionated into different isoenzymes by DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. 2. 2. Treatment of intact human erythrocytes with the various isoenzymes revealed significant differences in the degree of phosphatidylcholine

  10. Intactness of cell wall structure controls the in vitro digestion of starch in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Bhattarai, Rewati R; Gorham, John; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Increasing the level of starch that is not digested by the end of the small intestine and therefore enters the colon ('resistant starch') is a major opportunity for improving the nutritional profile of foods. One mechanism that has been shown to be successful is entrapment of starch within an intact plant tissue structure. However, the level of tissue intactness required for resistance to amylase digestion has not been defined. In this study, intact cells were isolated from a range of legumes after thermal treatment at 60 °C (starch not gelatinised) or 95 °C (starch gelatinised) followed by hydrolysis using pancreatic alpha amylase. It was found that intact cells, isolated at either temperature, were impervious to amylase. However, application of mechanical force damaged the cell wall and made starch accessible to digestive enzymes. This shows that the access of enzymes to the entrapped swollen starch is the rate limiting step controlling hydrolysis of starch in cooked legumes. The results suggest that a single cell wall could be sufficient to provide an effective delivery of starch to the large intestine with consequent nutritional benefits, provided that mechanical damage during digestion is avoided.

  11. Collagen fibril size and crimp morphology in ruptured and intact Achilles tendons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, S P; Qvortrup, K; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2002-01-01

    tendons. Crimp angle did not display any region-specific differences, or any difference between the rupture and intact tendons. In conclusion, these data suggest that although crimp morphology is unchanged there appears to be a site-specific loss of larger fibrils in the core and periphery of the Achilles...

  12. Mechanisms of blood pressure changes following renal irradiation of intact, adrenalectomized and adrenal regenerating rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported from studies on the differences in changes in systolic arterial blood pressure following renal x-irradiation (1100 R) in adrenal-intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal-regenerating rats and the roles of the kidneys and of the adrenal glands in the blood pressure changes

  13. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of the Pulpal Peroxide Levels in Intact and Restored Teeth - An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patri, Gaurav; Acharya, Gourismita; Agrawal, Pratik; Panda, Vijeta

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (30%) is a commonly used "in office" bleaching agent. Deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide on the pulp have been observed. The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the penetration of 30% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber through intact teeth and through the surface of teeth, restored with either hybrid composite or Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC). Sixty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into six groups. Two groups were restored with hybrid composite resin and two with RMGIC, while two groups were left intact. The teeth with acetate buffer solution in their pulp cavity were then immersed in either 30% hydrogen peroxide or distilled water depending upon the group, for 60 minutes at 37°C. Then horseradish peroxidase and leucocrystal violet were added to the acetate buffer solution present in the pulp chamber after it was transferred to a test tube and the optical density of the resultant blue solution obtained was measured spectrophotometrically. The data obtained were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Student's t-test. The data obtained established that hydrogen peroxide penetrated into the pulp from the bleaching agent used. Hydrogen peroxide (30%) showed the highest pulpal peroxide level in teeth restored with RMGIC followed by teeth restored with hybrid composite resin and the least amount of penetration was observed in intact teeth. The amount of peroxide penetration into the tooth is more through restored tooth than intact tooth and is also dependant on the type of restorative materials used.

  14. Decubitus grade IV (deep pressure sore) with intact skin in a patient with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, C.C.W.; Zeilstra, J.T.; van Voorst Vader, P.C.; Kardaun, S.H.; Leeman, F.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Even with intact skin the possibility of pressure sores should not be dismissed. Early recognition of a pressure sore is important for adequate treatment and prevention of progression. Multidisciplinary intervention is essential. A wheelchair patient with spinal cord injury is described, who

  15. Family relationships and the psychosocial adjustment of school-aged children in intact families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, E.M.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized

  16. Effects of radiation quality on the opening of stomata in intact Phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorska, K.; Kozłowska, B.; Ciereszko, I.; Maleszewski, S.

    1997-01-01

    In intact French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves blue radiation enhanced opening of stomata both when it was used individually and when it was used as preirradiation before ''white light'' irradiation. Effects of red radiation were just the contrary

  17. Predictors of Attachment Security in Preschool Children from Intact and Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Hira; Murray, Ann D.

    2005-01-01

    The authors selected 58 mother-child dyads from divorced and intact families to participate in a study on the impact of divorce on preschoolers' attachment security. The authors explored pathways that lead to security of attachment. They found that mothers from divorced families were younger, had lower income levels, and had lower levels of…

  18. Aboveground biomass variability across intact and degraded forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Longo; Michael Keller; Maiza N. dos-Santos; Veronika Leitold; Ekena R. Pinagé; Alessandro Baccini; Sassan Saatchi; Euler M. Nogueira; Mateus Batistella; Douglas C. Morton

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation rates have declined in the Brazilian Amazon since 2005, yet degradation from logging, fire, and fragmentation has continued in frontier forests. In this study we quantified the aboveground carbon density (ACD) in intact and degraded forests using the largest data set of integrated forest inventory plots (n = 359) and airborne lidar data (18,000 ha)...

  19. Forest loss in protected areas and intact forest landscapes : A global analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heino, Matias; Kummu, Matti; Makkonen, Marika; Mulligan, Mark; Verburg, Peter H.; Jalava, Mika; Räsänen, Timo A.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the high importance of forests, global forest loss has remained alarmingly high during the last decades. Forest loss at a global scale has been unveiled with increasingly finer spatial resolution, but the forest extent and loss in protected areas (PAs) and in large intact forest

  20. Using Spores for Fusarium spp. Classification by MALDI-Based Intact Cell/Spore Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Winkler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is a widespread genus of filamentous fungi and a member of the soil microbial community. Certain subspecies are health threatening because of their mycotoxin production that affects the human and animal food chain. Thus, for early and effective pest control, species identification is of particular interest; however, differentiation on the subspecies level is challenging and time-consuming for this fungus. In the present study, we show the possibilities of intact cell mass spectrometry for spore analysis of 22 different Fusarium strains belonging to six Fusarium subspecies. We found that species differentiation is possible if mass spectrometric analyses are performed under well-defined conditions with fixed parameters. A critical point for analysis is a proper sample preparation of spores, which increases the quality of mass spectra with respect to signal intensity and m/z value variations. It was concluded that data acquistion has to be performed automatically; otherwise, user-specific variations are introduced generating data which cannot fit the existing datasets. Data that show clearly that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-based intact cell/intact spore mass spectrometry (IC/ISMS can be applied to differentiate closely related Fusarium spp. are presented. Results show a potential to build a database on Fusarium species for accurate species identification, for fast response in the case of infections in the cornfield. We furthermore demonstrate the high precision of our approach in classification of intact Fusarium species according to the location of their collection.

  1. Tolerance of a standard intact protein formula versus a partially hydrolyzed formula in healthy, term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marunycz John D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335 were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7% was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1% was significantly different (P = 0.001. Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120

  2. Operative findings of conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane and normal temporal bone computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Despite recent technological advances in diagnostic methods including imaging technology, it is often difficult to establish a preoperative diagnosis of conductive hearing loss (CHL) in patients with an intact tympanic membrane (TM). Especially, in patients with a normal temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT), preoperative diagnosis is more difficult. We investigated middle ear disorders encountered in patients with CHL involving an intact TM and normal TBCT. We also analyzed the surgical results with special reference to the pathology. We reviewed the medical records of 365 patients with intact TM, who underwent exploratory tympanotomy for CHL. Fifty nine patients (67 ears, eight bilateral surgeries) had a normal preoperative TBCT findings reported by neuro-radiologists. Demographic data, otologic history, TM findings, preoperative imaging findings, intraoperative findings, and pre- and postoperative audiologic data were obtained and analyzed. Exploration was performed most frequently in the second and fifth decades. The most common postoperative diagnosis was stapedial fixation with non-progressive hearing loss. The most commonly performed hearing-restoring procedure was stapedotomy with piston wire prosthesis insertion. Various types of hearing-restoring procedures during exploration resulted in effective hearing improvement, especially with better outcome in the ossicular chain fixation group. In patients with CHL who have intact TM and normal TBCT, we should consider an exploratory tympanotomy for exact diagnosis and hearing improvement. Information of the common operative findings from this study may help in preoperative counseling.

  3. Raman spectroscopy of normal oral buccal mucosa tissues: study on intact and incised biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2011-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of among the top 10 malignancies. Optical spectroscopy, including Raman, is being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex vivo tissues. Spectral features showed predominance of lipids and proteins in normal and cancer conditions, respectively, which were attributed to membrane lipids and surface proteins. In view of recent developments in deep tissue Raman spectroscopy, we have recorded Raman spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of 10 normal oral tissues on intact, as well as incised, biopsies after separation of epithelium from connective tissue. Spectral variations and similarities among different groups were explored by unsupervised (principal component analysis) and supervised (linear discriminant analysis, factorial discriminant analysis) methodologies. Clusters of spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of intact tissues show a high overlap; whereas spectra from separated epithelium and connective tissue sections yielded clear clusters, though they also overlap on clusters of intact tissues. Spectra of all four groups of normal tissues gave exclusive clusters when tested against malignant spectra. Thus, this study demonstrates that spectra recorded from the superior surface of an intact tissue may have contributions from deeper layers but has no bearing from the classification of a malignant tissues point of view.

  4. Impact of location of CaCO3 precipitation on the development of intact anaerobic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, van E.P.A.; Ramaekers, H.; Wiechers, J.; Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Lettinga, G.

    2000-01-01

    The development of intact anaerobic granular sludge was studied in UASB reactors under varying conditions of CaCO3 precipitation and biomass yield. Varying precipitating quantities were obtained using different calcium concentrations in the influent and different biomass yields were obtained by

  5. Biotransformation of the citrus flavone tangeretin in rats. Identification of metabolites with intact flavane nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.E.; Breinholt, V.; Cornett, C.

    2000-01-01

    were separated and identified by HPLC and the structures elucidated by LC/MS and H-1 NMR. Ten new, major metabolites with intact flavonoid structure were identified. The metabolites identified were either demethylated or hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound and metabolic changes were found...

  6. Automated setup for characterization of intact histone tails in Suz12-/- stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidoli, Simone; Schwämmle, Veit; Hansen, Thomas Aarup

    Epigenetics is defined as the study of heritable changes that occur without modifying the DNA sequence. Histone proteins are crucial components of epigenetic mechanisms and regulation, since they are fundamental for chromatin structure. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is already an integrated...... developed a high-resolving and automated LC-MS/MS setup to characterize intact histone tails (middle-down strategy)...

  7. Assessment of characteristic failure envelopes for intact rock using results from triaxial tests

    OpenAIRE

    Muralha, J.; Lamas, L.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents contributions to the statistical study of the parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown strength criteria, in order to assess the characteristic failure envelopes for intact rock, based on the results of several sets of triaxial tests performed by LNEC. 10p DBB/NMMR

  8. Predicting water-holding capacity of intact chicken broiler breast fillets with Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of using visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy to predict water-holding capacity (WHC) of intact chicken broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) was assessed in this study. Boneless and skinless chicken fillets (214 in total) were procured from a commercial processing plant ...

  9. Secretion of intact proteins and peptide fragments by lysosomal pathways of protein degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenman, L.D.; Dice, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    We report that degradation of proteins microinjected into human fibroblasts is accompanied by release into the culture medium of peptide fragments and intact proteins as well as single amino acids. For the nine proteins and polypeptides microinjected, acid-precipitable radioactivity, i.e. peptide fragments and/or intact proteins, ranged from 10 to 67% of the total released radioactivity. Peptide fragments and/or intact protein accounted for 60% of the radioactivity released into the medium by cells microinjected with ribonuclease A. Two major radiolabeled peptide fragments were found, and one was of an appropriate size to function as an antigen in antigen-presenting cells. The peptides released from microinjected ribonuclease A were derived from lysosomal pathways of proteolysis based on several lines of evidence. Previous studies have shown that microinjected ribonuclease A is degraded to single amino acids entirely within lysosomes. We show that release of free amino acids and peptide fragments and/or intact protein was equivalently stimulated by serum deprivation and equivalently inhibited by NH4Cl. We also show that lysosomal degradation of endocytosed [3H]ribonuclease A was accompanied by the release of two peptide fragments similar in size and charge to those from microinjected [ 3 H]ribonuclease A. These findings demonstrate that degradation within lysosomes occurs in a manner that spares specific peptides; they also suggest a previously unsuspected pathway by which cells can secrete cytosol-derived polypeptides

  10. Conservation experiments applying radiation-curable impregnating agents to intact and artifically decayed wood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Slais, E.

    1983-02-01

    Conservation experiments have been performed applying 10 selected impregnating agents to intact and chemically as well as biologically decayed wood samples. The quality of the radiation-curable impregnating agents could be valued by determination of the monomer uptake, the alteration of dimensions and volume and the deformation of the samples. The results are to be discussed. (Author) [de

  11. Transbilayer distribution and mobility of phosphatidylcholine in intact erythrocyte membranes. A study with phosphatidylcholine exchange protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.; Poorthuis, B. J.; Wirtz, K. W.; Op den Kamp, J. A.; van Deenen, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    1. The exchange of phosphatidylcholine between intact human or rat erythrocytes and rat liver microsomes was greatly stimulated by phosphatidylcholine-specific exchange proteins from rat liver and beef liver. It was found, however, that compared to the exchange reaction between phospholipid vesicles

  12. Transbilayer distribution and mobility of phosphatidylcholine in intact erythrocyte membranes. A study with phosphatidylcholine exchange protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368; Poorthuis, B.J.H.M.; Wirtz, K.W.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068427956; op den Kamp, J.A.F.; van Deenen, L.L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The exchange of phosphatidylcholine between intact human or rat erythrocytes and rat liver microsomes was greatly stimulated by phosphatidylcholine-specific exchange proteins from rat liver and beef liver. It was found, however, that compared to the exchange reaction between phospholipid vesicles

  13. The Fate of Dissolved Creosote Compounds in an Intact Fratured Clay Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Kim; Arvin, Erik; Hansen, Asger

    1995-01-01

    The fate of 16 different organics typical for creosote was studied under aerobic conditions in a large intact fractured clay column experiment. Some of the organics (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, phenol, and o-cresol) were transported at the same rate as bromide through the fractured clay, whereas ...

  14. Inference of Tumor Evolution during Chemotherapy by Computational Modeling and In Situ Analysis of Genetic and Phenotypic Cellular Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Almendro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer therapy exerts a strong selection pressure that shapes tumor evolution, yet our knowledge of how tumors change during treatment is limited. Here, we report the analysis of cellular heterogeneity for genetic and phenotypic features and their spatial distribution in breast tumors pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We found that intratumor genetic diversity was tumor-subtype specific, and it did not change during treatment in tumors with partial or no response. However, lower pretreatment genetic diversity was significantly associated with pathologic complete response. In contrast, phenotypic diversity was different between pre- and posttreatment samples. We also observed significant changes in the spatial distribution of cells with distinct genetic and phenotypic features. We used these experimental data to develop a stochastic computational model to infer tumor growth patterns and evolutionary dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of integrated analysis of genotypes and phenotypes of single cells in intact tissues to predict tumor evolution.

  15. Inference of tumor evolution during chemotherapy by computational modeling and in situ analysis of genetic and phenotypic cellular diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almendro, Vanessa; Cheng, Yu-Kang; Randles, Amanda; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Marusyk, Andriy; Ametller, Elisabet; Gonzalez-Farre, Xavier; Muñoz, Montse; Russnes, Hege G.; Helland, Åslaug; Rye, Inga H.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Maruyama, Reo; Van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Dowsett, Mitchell; Jones, Robin L.; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Gascon, Pere; Gönen, Mithat; Michor, Franziska; Polyak, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    Cancer therapy exerts a strong selection pressure that shapes tumor evolution, yet our knowledge of how tumors change during treatment is limited. Here, we report the analysis of cellular heterogeneity for genetic and phenotypic features and their spatial distribution in breast tumors pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We found that intratumor genetic diversity was tumor-subtype specific, and it did not change during treatment in tumors with partial or no response. However, lower pretreatment genetic diversity was significantly associated with pathologic complete response. In contrast, phenotypic diversity was different between pre- and post-treatment samples. We also observed significant changes in the spatial distribution of cells with distinct genetic and phenotypic features. We used these experimental data to develop a stochastic computational model to infer tumor growth patterns and evolutionary dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of integrated analysis of genotypes and phenotypes of single cells in intact tissues to predict tumor evolution

  16. Genistein Stimulates Jejunum Chloride Secretion via an Akt-Mediated Pathway in Intact Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Leung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We have previously shown that daily subcutaneous injections with the naturally occurring phytoestrogen genistein (600 mg genistein/kg body weight/day, 600G results in a significantly increased basal intestinal chloride, Cl-, secretion (Isc, a measure of transepithelial secretion in intact C57BL/6J female mice after 1-week of treatment, compared to controls (DMSO vehicle injected. Removal of endogenous estrogen via ovariectomy (OVX had no effect on the 600G-mediated increase in basal Isc. Methods: Given the estrogen-like characteristics of genistein, we compared the effects of daily estradiol (E2 injections (10 mg E2/kg body weight/day, 10E2 on basal Isc in intact and OVX mice. In intact mice, 10E2 was without effect on basal Isc, however, in OVX mice, 10E2 significantly increased basal Isc (mimicked 600G. The goal of the current study was to characterize the intracellular signaling pathways responsible for mediating 600G- or 10E2-stimulated increases in basal Isc in intact female or OVX mice. Results: We measured total protein expression in isolated segments of jejunum using western blot from the following six groups of mice; intact or OVX with; 600G, 10E2 or control. The proteins of interest were: Akt, p-Akt, p-PDK1, p-PTEN, p-c-Raf, p-GSK-3β, rap-1 and ERK1/2. All blots were normalized to GAPDH levels (n = 6-18/group. Conclusion: These data suggest that the presence of the endogenous sex steroid, estrogen, modifies the intracellular signaling pathway required to mediate Cl- secretion when the intestine is exposed to exogenous 600G or E2. These studies may have relevance for designing pharmacological tools for women with intestinal chloride secretory dysfunctions.

  17. Aboveground Biomass Variability Across Intact and Degraded Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Marcos; Keller, Michael; Dos-Santos, Maiza N.; Leitold, Veronika; Pinage, Ekena R.; Baccini, Alessandro; Saatchi, Sassan; Nogueira, Euler M.; Batistella, Mateus; Morton, Douglas C.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation rates have declined in the Brazilian Amazon since 2005, yet degradation from logging, re, and fragmentation has continued in frontier forests. In this study we quantified the aboveground carbon density (ACD) in intact and degraded forests using the largest data set of integrated forest inventory plots (n 359) and airborne lidar data (18,000 ha) assembled to date for the Brazilian Amazon. We developed statistical models relating inventory ACD estimates to lidar metrics that explained70 of the variance across forest types. Airborne lidar-ACD estimates for intact forests ranged between 5.0 +/- 2.5 and 31.9 +/- 10.8 kg C m(exp -2). Degradation carbon losses were large and persistent. Sites that burned multiple times within a decade lost up to 15.0 +/- 0.7 kg C m(-2)(94%) of ACD. Forests that burned nearly15 years ago had between 4.1 +/- 0.5 and 6.8 +/- 0.3 kg C m(exp -2) (22-40%) less ACD than intact forests. Even for low-impact logging disturbances, ACD was between 0.7 +/- 0.3 and 4.4 +/- 0.4 kg C m(exp -2)(4-21%) lower than unlogged forests. Comparing biomass estimates from airborne lidar to existing biomass maps, we found that regional and pan-tropical products consistently overestimated ACD in degraded forests, under-estimated ACD in intact forests, and showed little sensitivity to res and logging. Fine-scale heterogeneity in ACD across intact and degraded forests highlights the benefits of airborne lidar for carbon mapping. Differences between airborne lidar and regional biomass maps underscore the need to improve and update biomass estimates for dynamic land use frontiers, to better characterize deforestation and degradation carbon emissions for regional carbon budgets and Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation(REDD+).

  18. A consensus-based guideline defining clinical target volume for primary disease in external beam radiotherapy for intact uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toita, Takafumi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kaneyasu, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a consensus-based guideline to define clinical target volume for primary disease (clinical target volume primary) in external beam radiotherapy for intact uterine cervical cancer. The working subgroup of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) Radiation Therapy Study Group began developing a guideline for primary clinical target volume in November 2009. The group consisted of 10 radiation oncologists and 2 gynecologic oncologists. The process started with comparing the contouring on computed tomographic images of actual cervical cancer cases among the members. This was followed by a comprehensive literature review that included primary research articles and textbooks as well as information on surgical procedures. Extensive discussion occurred in face-to-face meetings (three occasions) and frequent e-mail communications until a consensus was reached. The working subgroup reached a consensus on the definition for the clinical target volume primary. The clinical target volume primary consists of the gross tumor volume, uterine cervix, uterine corpus, parametrium, vagina and ovaries. Definitions for these component structures were determined. Anatomical boundaries in all directions were defined for the parametrium. Examples delineating these boundaries were prepared for the posterior border of the parametrium for various clinical situations (id est (i.e.) central tumor bulk, degree of parametrial involvement). A consensus-based guideline defining the clinical target volume primary was developed for external beam radiotherapy for intact uterine cervical cancer. This guideline will serve as a template for radiotherapy protocols in future clinical trials. It may also be used in actual clinical practice in the setting of highly precise external beam radiotherapy, including intensity-modulated radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Beyond the GIST: Mesenchymal Tumors of the Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menias, Christine O.; Gaballah, Ayman H.; Shroff, Stuti; Taggart, Melissa W.; Garg, Naveen; Elsayes, Khaled M.

    2013-01-01

    Intramural gastric masses arise in the wall of the stomach (generally within the submucosa or muscularis propria), often with intact overlying mucosa. These tumors are typically mesenchymal in origin and have overlapping radiologic appearances. A combination of features such as location, attenuation, enhancement, and growth pattern may suggest one diagnosis over another. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for the majority of intramural tumors and can vary widely in appearance, from small intraluminal lesions to exophytic masses that protrude into the peritoneal cavity, commonly with areas of hemorrhage or necrosis. A well-circumscribed mass measuring −70 to −120 HU is a lipoma. Leiomyomas usually manifest as low-attenuation masses at the gastric cardia. Homogeneous attenuation is a noteworthy characteristic of schwannomas, particularly for larger lesions that might otherwise be mistaken for GISTs. A hypervascular mass in the antrum is a common manifestation of glomus tumors. Hemangiomas are also hypervascular but often manifest in childhood. Inflammatory fibroid polyps usually arise as a polypoid mass in the antrum. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are infiltrative neoplasms with a propensity for local recurrence. Plexiform fibromyxomas are rare, usually antral tumors. Carcinoid tumors are epithelial in origin, but often submucosal in location, and therefore should be distinguished from other intramural lesions. Multiple carcinoid tumors are associated with hypergastrinemia, either in the setting of chronic atrophic gastritis or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Sporadic solitary carcinoid tumors not associated with hypergastrinemia have a higher rate of metastasis. Histopathologic analysis, including immunohistochemistry, is usually required for diagnosis of intramural masses. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:24108557

  20. Visual speech alters the discrimination and identification of non-intact auditory speech in children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F; McAlpine, Rachel P; Abdi, Hervé

    2017-03-01

    Understanding spoken language is an audiovisual event that depends critically on the ability to discriminate and identify phonemes yet we have little evidence about the role of early auditory experience and visual speech on the development of these fundamental perceptual skills. Objectives of this research were to determine 1) how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification; 2) whether visual speech influences these two processes in a like manner, such that discrimination predicts identification; and 3) how the degree of hearing loss affects this relationship. Such evidence is crucial for developing effective intervention strategies to mitigate the effects of hearing loss on language development. Participants were 58 children with early-onset sensorineural hearing loss (CHL, 53% girls, M = 9;4 yrs) and 58 children with normal hearing (CNH, 53% girls, M = 9;4 yrs). Test items were consonant-vowel (CV) syllables and nonwords with intact visual speech coupled to non-intact auditory speech (excised onsets) as, for example, an intact consonant/rhyme in the visual track (Baa or Baz) coupled to non-intact onset/rhyme in the auditory track (/-B/aa or/-B/az). The items started with an easy-to-speechread/B/or difficult-to-speechread/G/onset and were presented in the auditory (static face) vs. audiovisual (dynamic face) modes. We assessed discrimination for intact vs. non-intact different pairs (e.g., Baa:/-B/aa). We predicted that visual speech would cause the non-intact onset to be perceived as intact and would therefore generate more same-as opposed to different-responses in the audiovisual than auditory mode. We assessed identification by repetition of nonwords with non-intact onsets (e.g.,/-B/az). We predicted that visual speech would cause the non-intact onset to be perceived as intact and would therefore generate more Baz-as opposed to az- responses in the audiovisual than auditory mode. Performance in the audiovisual mode showed more same

  1. Visual Speech Alters the Discrimination and Identification of Non-Intact Auditory Speech in Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; McAlpine, Rachel P.; Abdi, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Understanding spoken language is an audiovisual event that depends critically on the ability to discriminate and identify phonemes yet we have little evidence about the role of early auditory experience and visual speech on the development of these fundamental perceptual skills. Objectives of this research were to determine 1) how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification; 2) whether visual speech influences these two processes in a like manner, such that discrimination predicts identification; and 3) how the degree of hearing loss affects this relationship. Such evidence is crucial for developing effective intervention strategies to mitigate the effects of hearing loss on language development. Methods Participants were 58 children with early-onset sensorineural hearing loss (CHL, 53% girls, M = 9;4 yrs) and 58 children with normal hearing (CNH, 53% girls, M = 9;4 yrs). Test items were consonant-vowel (CV) syllables and nonwords with intact visual speech coupled to non-intact auditory speech (excised onsets) as, for example, an intact consonant/rhyme in the visual track (Baa or Baz) coupled to non-intact onset/rhyme in the auditory track (/–B/aa or /–B/az). The items started with an easy-to-speechread /B/ or difficult-to-speechread /G/ onset and were presented in the auditory (static face) vs. audiovisual (dynamic face) modes. We assessed discrimination for intact vs. non-intact different pairs (e.g., Baa:/–B/aa). We predicted that visual speech would cause the non-intact onset to be perceived as intact and would therefore generate more same—as opposed to different—responses in the audiovisual than auditory mode. We assessed identification by repetition of nonwords with non-intact onsets (e.g., /–B/az). We predicted that visual speech would cause the non-intact onset to be perceived as intact and would therefore generate more Baz—as opposed to az— responses in the audiovisual than auditory mode. Results

  2. [Immune system and tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Imaging of pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most frequent solid tumor of the pancreas. This tumor has distinct features including early obstruction of the pancreatic duct, diminished enhancement after administration of contrast material due to desmoplastic growth, high propensity to infiltrate adjacent structures and to metastasize into the liver and the peritoneum. Hormone active endocrine tumors cause specific clinical symptoms. Imaging is aimed at localization of these hypervascular tumors. Non hormone active tumors are most frequently malignant and demonstrate very varying features. Cystic pancreatic tumors are increasingly detected by means of cross sectional imaging. Exact classification can be achieved with knowledge of the macropathology and considering clinical presentation as well as age and gender of the patients. (orig.)

  4. Intrauterine Environment and PCOS

    OpenAIRE

    Dumesic, Daniel A.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D.; Abbott, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The maternal-fetal environment plays an important role in developmental programming of adult disease. Metabolic and hormonal dysfunction during human fetal development accompanies gestational diabetes as a common occurrence in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) mothers, while human fetal androgen excess from congenital adrenal hyperplasia or virilizing tumors precedes PCOS-like symptoms after birth. To date, clinical studies of infant blood levels at term have yet to confirm that human fetal an...

  5. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demšar, Ivan; Duhovnik, Jože; Lešnik, Blaž; Supej, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW), various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA) and Range of Motion (RoM) in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1°) was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8°) and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°). In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2°) was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°). The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing. Key points The RoM in the ski boot on the side of the prosthetic leg was smaller than the RoM of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the ankle joint of prosthetic leg was comparable to that of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the prosthetic knee joint was greater than the RoM in the knee joint of the

  6. Tumor associated osteoclast-like giant cells promote tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yu; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Morita, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • M-CSF and RANKL expressing HeLa cells induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • We established OGC-containing tumor model in vivo. • OGC-containing tumor became larger independent of M-CSF or RANKL effect. • VEGF-C secreted from OGCs was a one of candidates for OGC-containing tumor growth. - Abstract: Tumors with osteoclast-like giant cells (OGCs) have been reported in a variety of organs and exert an invasive and prometastatic phenotype, but the functional role of OGCs in the tumor environment has not been fully clarified. We established tumors containing OGCs to clarify the role of OGCs in tumor phenotype. A mixture of HeLa cells expressing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, HeLa-M) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, HeLa-R) effectively supported the differentiation of osteoclast-like cells from bone marrow macrophages in vitro. Moreover, a xenograft study showed OGC formation in a tumor composed of HeLa-M and HeLa-R. Surprisingly, the tumors containing OGCs were significantly larger than the tumors without OGCs, although the growth rates were not different in vitro. Histological analysis showed that lymphangiogenesis and macrophage infiltration in the tumor containing OGCs, but not in other tumors were accelerated. According to quantitative PCR analysis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C mRNA expression increased with differentiation of osteoclast-like cells. To investigate whether VEGF-C expression is responsible for tumor growth and macrophage infiltration, HeLa cells overexpressing VEGF-C (HeLa-VC) were established and transplanted into mice. Tumors composed of HeLa-VC mimicked the phenotype of the tumors containing OGCs. Furthermore, the vascular permeability of tumor microvessels also increased in tumors containing OGCs and to some extent in VEGF-C-expressing tumors. These results suggest that macrophage infiltration and vascular permeability are possible mediators in these tumors. These

  7. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  8. Management of CNS tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The treatment of tumors of the CNS has undergone a number of changes based on the impact of CT. The use of intraoperative US for the establishment of tumor location and tumor histology is demonstrated. MR imaging also is beginning to make an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of tumors of the CNS. Examples of MR images are shown. The authors then discuss the important aspects of tumor histology as it affects management and newer concepts in surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy on tumor treatment. The role of intraoperative placement of radioactive sources, the utilization of heavy particle radiation therapy, and the potential role of other experimental radiation therapy techniques are discussed. The role of hyperfractionated radiation and of neutrons and x-ray in a mixed-beam treatment are discussed in perspective with standard radiation therapy. Current chemotherapy techniques, including intraarterial chemotherapy, are discussed. The complications of radiation therapy alone and in combination with chemotherapy in the management of primary brain tumors, brain metastases, and leukemia are reviewed. A summary of the current management of pituitary tumors, including secreting pituitary adenomas and chromophobe adenomas, are discussed. The treatment with heavy particle radiation, transsphenoidal microsurgical removal, and combined radiotherapeutic and surgical management are considered. Tumor metastasis management of lesions of the brain and spinal cord are considered

  9. Brain Tumor Trials Collaborative | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain Tumor Trials Collaborative In Pursuit of a Cure The mission of the BTTC is to develop and perform state-of-the-art clinical trials in a collaborative and collegial environment, advancing treatments for patients with brain tumors, merging good scientific method with concern for patient well-being and outcome.

  10. Collagen reorganization at the tumor-stromal interface facilitates local invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inman David R

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal-epithelial interactions are of particular significance in breast tissue as misregulation of these interactions can promote tumorigenesis and invasion. Moreover, collagen-dense breast tissue increases the risk of breast carcinoma, although the relationship between collagen density and tumorigenesis is not well understood. As little is known about epithelial-stromal interactions in vivo, it is necessary to visualize the stroma surrounding normal epithelium and mammary tumors in intact tissues to better understand how matrix organization, density, and composition affect tumor formation and progression. Methods Epithelial-stromal interactions in normal mammary glands, mammary tumors, and tumor explants in three-dimensional culture were studied with histology, electron microscopy, and nonlinear optical imaging methodologies. Imaging of the tumor-stromal interface in live tumor tissue ex vivo was performed with multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy (MPLSM to generate multiphoton excitation (MPE of endogenous fluorophores and second harmonic generation (SHG to image stromal collagen. Results We used both laser-scanning multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy to determine the organization of specific collagen structures around ducts and tumors in intact, unfixed and unsectioned mammary glands. Local alterations in collagen density were clearly seen, allowing us to obtain three-dimensional information regarding the organization of the mammary stroma, such as radiating collagen fibers that could not have been obtained using classical histological techniques. Moreover, we observed and defined three tumor-associated collagen signatures (TACS that provide novel markers to locate and characterize tumors. In particular, local cell invasion was found predominantly to be oriented along certain aligned collagen fibers, suggesting that radial alignment of collagen fibers relative to tumors facilitates invasion. Consistent

  11. Sympathetic Nervous Regulation of Calcium and Action Potential Alternans in the Intact Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, James; Bishop, Martin J; Wilder, Catherine D E; O'Shea, Christopher; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Arrhythmogenic cardiac alternans are thought to be an important determinant for the initiation of ventricular fibrillation. There is limited information on the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) on alternans in the intact heart and the conclusions of existing studies, focused on investigating electrical alternans, are conflicted. Meanwhile, several lines of evidence implicate instabilities in Ca handling, not electrical restitution, as the primary mechanism underpinning alternans. Despite this, there have been no studies on Ca alternans and SNS in the intact heart. The present study sought to address this, by application of voltage and Ca optical mapping for the simultaneous study of APD and Ca alternans in the intact guinea pig heart during direct SNS. Objective : To determine the effects of SNS on APD and Ca alternans in the intact guinea pig heart and to examine the mechanism(s) by which the effects of SNS are mediated. Methods and Results : Studies utilized simultaneous voltage and Ca optical mapping in isolated guinea pig hearts with intact innervation. Alternans were induced using a rapid dynamic pacing protocol. SNS was associated with rate-independent shortening of action potential duration (APD) and the suppression of APD and Ca alternans, as indicated by a shift in the alternans threshold to faster pacing rates. Qualitatively similar results were observed with exogenous noradrenaline perfusion. In contrast with previous reports, both SNS and noradrenaline acted to flatten the slope of the electrical restitution curve. Pharmacological block of the slow delayed rectifying potassium current (I Ks ), sufficient to abolish I Ks -mediated APD-adaptation, partially reversed the effects of SNS on pacing-induced alternans. Treatment with cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum ATPase, had opposite effects to that of SNS, acting to increase susceptibility to alternans, and suggesting that accelerated Ca reuptake

  12. Tumor carcinoide apendicular Appendiceal carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Vázquez Palanco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue dar a conocer un interesante caso de tumor carcinoide que se presentó con cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda. El paciente fue un varón de 8 años de edad, al cual se realizó apendicectomía a causa de una apendicitis aguda. El resultado anatomopatológico confirmó un tumor de células endocrinas (argentafinoma, tumor carcinoide en el tercio distal del órgano, que infiltraba hasta la serosa, y apendicitis aguda supurada. El paciente fue enviado a un servicio de oncohematología para tratamiento oncoespecífico. Por lo inusual de estos tumores en edades tempranas y por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta no consecuente, decidimos presentar este caso a la comunidad científica nacional e internacional. Es extremadamente importante el seguimiento de los pacientes con apendicitis aguda y de las conclusiones del examen histológico, por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta inadecuada en una situación como esta.The objective of this paper was to make known an interesting case of carcinoid tumor that presented a clinical picture of acute appendicitis.The patient was an eight-year-old boy that underwent appendectomy due to an acute appendicitis. The anatomopathological report confirmed an endocrine cell tumor (argentaffinoma, carcinoid tumor in the distal third of the organ that infiltrated up to the serosa, and acute suppurative appendicitis. The patient was referred to an oncohematology service for oncospecific treatment. As it is a rare tumor at early ages, and taking into account what a inconsequent behavior may represent for the child, it was decided to present this case to the national and international scientific community. The follow-up of the patients with acute appendicitis and of the conclusions of the histological examination is extremely important considering what an inadequate conduct may represent for the child in a situation like this.

  13. Aspergillosis of the sphenoid sinus simulating a pituitary tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larranaga, J.; Fandino, J.; Gomez-Bueno, J.; Botana, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Gonzalez-Carrero, J.

    1989-09-01

    Sphenoidal aspergillosis is an unusual cause of sella turcica enlargement. Pituitary abscess secondary to Aspergillus had been reported. In the present case, a woman with sphenoid sinus aspergillosis mimiced a pituitary tumor. This patient survived her infection with intact pituitary function following a transsphenoidal approach. No postoperative amphotericine-B and 5-fluorocytosine were necessary. CT scan revealed a mass occupying the sphenoid sinus extending to the sella turcica. Factors that should alert the clinican to the presence of a sphenoidal and pituitary abscess in a patient with sella turcica enlargement are prior episodes of sinusitis, meningitis and immunosuppression and, as in the present case, hyperglycemia. (orig.).

  14. VEGF expression in hepatectomized tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrini, L; Blanco, A Fernandez; Inda, A; García, M; Garcia, A; Errecalde, A

    2011-01-01

    The experiments were designed in order to study the VEGF expression in intact (group I), hepatectomized (group II), and hepatectomized-tumor bearing mice (group III) throughout one complete circadian time span. Adult male mice were used for the VEGF expression study. The statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed statistical differences in the VEGF expression between groups I and II, but the most significant differences were found between groups I and III. In conclusion, these expressions have a circadian rhythm in all groups; moreover, in group III, this expression was higher and appeared before than in the others.

  15. Valine-based biphenylsulphonamide matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as tumor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltenfreiter, Ruth [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: ruth.oltenfreiter@ugent.be; Staelens, Ludovicus [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Kersemans, Veerle [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cornelissen, Bart [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Frankenne, Francis [Laboratory of Tumor and Developmental Biology, University of Liege, Sart-Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Foidart, Jean-Michel [Laboratory of Tumor and Developmental Biology, University of Liege, Sart-Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Wiele, Christophe van de [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Gent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Slegers, Guido [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-06-15

    Among matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the subfamily of gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) is of particular interest due to their ability to degrade type IV collagen and other non-fibrillar collagen domains and proteins such as fibronectin and laminin. Whilst malignant cells often over-express various MMPs, the gelatinases have been most consistently detected in malignant tissues and associated with tumor growth, metastatic potential and angiogenesis. Radiosynthesis of carboxylic (1') and hydroxamic (2') MMPIs resulted in radiochemical yields of 70+/-5% (n=6) and 60+/-5% (n=4), respectively. Evaluation in A549-inoculated athymic mice showed a tumor uptake of 2.0+/-0.7%ID/g (3h p.i.), a tumor/blood ratio of 0.5 and a tumor/muscle ratio of 4.6 at 48hp.i. for 1'. For compound 2' a tumor uptake of 0.7+/-0.2%ID/g (3hp.i.), a tumor/blood ratio of 1.2 and a tumor/muscle ratio of 1.8 at 24hp.i. were observed. HPLC analysis of the blood (plasma) showed no dehalogenation or other metabolites of 1' 2hp.i. For compound 2', 65.4% of intact compound was found in the blood (plasma) and one polar metabolite (31%) was detected whereas in the tumor 91.8% of the accumulated activity was caused by intact compound and only 8.1% by the metabolite. Planar imaging, using a Toshiba GCA-9300A/hg SPECT camera, showed that tumor tissue could be visualized and that image quality improved by decreasing specific activity resulting in lower liver uptake, indicating some degree of saturable binding in the liver. In vivo evaluation of these radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitor tracers revealed that MMP inhibitors could have potential as tumor imaging agents, but that further research is necessary.

  16. Valine-based biphenylsulphonamide matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as tumor imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltenfreiter, Ruth; Staelens, Ludovicus; Kersemans, Veerle; Cornelissen, Bart; Frankenne, Francis; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Wiele, Christophe van de; Slegers, Guido

    2006-01-01

    Among matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the subfamily of gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) is of particular interest due to their ability to degrade type IV collagen and other non-fibrillar collagen domains and proteins such as fibronectin and laminin. Whilst malignant cells often over-express various MMPs, the gelatinases have been most consistently detected in malignant tissues and associated with tumor growth, metastatic potential and angiogenesis. Radiosynthesis of carboxylic (1') and hydroxamic (2') MMPIs resulted in radiochemical yields of 70+/-5% (n=6) and 60+/-5% (n=4), respectively. Evaluation in A549-inoculated athymic mice showed a tumor uptake of 2.0+/-0.7%ID/g (3h p.i.), a tumor/blood ratio of 0.5 and a tumor/muscle ratio of 4.6 at 48hp.i. for 1'. For compound 2' a tumor uptake of 0.7+/-0.2%ID/g (3hp.i.), a tumor/blood ratio of 1.2 and a tumor/muscle ratio of 1.8 at 24hp.i. were observed. HPLC analysis of the blood (plasma) showed no dehalogenation or other metabolites of 1' 2hp.i. For compound 2', 65.4% of intact compound was found in the blood (plasma) and one polar metabolite (31%) was detected whereas in the tumor 91.8% of the accumulated activity was caused by intact compound and only 8.1% by the metabolite. Planar imaging, using a Toshiba GCA-9300A/hg SPECT camera, showed that tumor tissue could be visualized and that image quality improved by decreasing specific activity resulting in lower liver uptake, indicating some degree of saturable binding in the liver. In vivo evaluation of these radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitor tracers revealed that MMP inhibitors could have potential as tumor imaging agents, but that further research is necessary

  17. An exceptional collision tumor: gastric calcified stromal tumor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors report an exceptional case of collision tumor comprised of a gastric calcified stromal tumor and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The pancreatic tumor was detected fortuitously on the histological exam of resection specimen. Key words: Collision tumor, stromal tumor, adenocarcinoma ...

  18. Pituitary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [de

  19. [Pituitary gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesser, J; Schlamp, K; Bendszus, M

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15% of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65% of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50% secrete prolactin, 10% secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6% secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10% of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland.

  20. Tumor tissue slice cultures as a platform for analyzing tissue-penetration and biological activities of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Lea; Höbel, Sabrina; Kallendrusch, Sonja; Ewe, Alexander; Bechmann, Ingo; Franke, Heike; Merz, Felicitas; Aigner, Achim

    2017-03-01

    The success of therapeutic nanoparticles depends, among others, on their ability to penetrate a tissue for actually reaching the target cells, and their efficient cellular uptake in the context of intact tissue and stroma. Various nanoparticle modifications have been implemented for altering physicochemical and biological properties. Their analysis, however, so far mainly relies on cell culture experiments which only poorly reflect the in vivo situation, or is based on in vivo experiments that are often complicated by whole-body pharmacokinetics and are rather tedious especially when analyzing larger nanoparticle sets. For the more precise analysis of nanoparticle properties at their desired site of action, efficient ex vivo systems closely mimicking in vivo tissue properties are needed. In this paper, we describe the setup of organotypic tumor tissue slice cultures for the analysis of tissue-penetrating properties and biological activities of nanoparticles. As a model system, we employ 350μm thick slice cultures from different tumor xenograft tissues, and analyze modified or non-modified polyethylenimine (PEI) complexes as well as their lipopolyplex derivatives for siRNA delivery. The described conditions for tissue slice preparation and culture ensure excellent tissue preservation for at least 14days, thus allowing for prolonged experimentation and analysis. When using fluorescently labeled siRNA for complex visualization, fluorescence microscopy of cryo-sectioned tissue slices reveals different degrees of nanoparticle tissue penetration, dependent on their surface charge. More importantly, the determination of siRNA-mediated knockdown efficacies of an endogenous target gene, the oncogenic survival factor Survivin, reveals the possibility to accurately assess biological nanoparticle activities in situ, i.e. in living cells in their original environment. Taken together, we establish tumor (xenograft) tissue slices for the accurate and facile ex vivo assessment of

  1. Quantitative imaging of magnesium distribution at single-cell resolution in brain tumors and infiltrating tumor cells with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash; Parker, Dylan J.; Barth, Rolf F.; Pannullo, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest forms of human brain tumors. The infiltrative pattern of growth of these tumors includes the spread of individual and/or clusters of tumor cells at some distance from the main tumor mass in parts of the brain protected by an intact blood-brain-barrier. Pathophysiological studies of GBM could be greatly enhanced by analytical techniques capable of in situ single-cell resolution measurements of infiltrating tumor cells. Magnesium homeostasis is an area of active investigation in high grade gliomas. In the present study, we have used the F98 rat glioma as a model of human GBM and an elemental/isotopic imaging technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), a CAMECA IMS-3f ion microscope, for studying Mg distributions with single-cell resolution in freeze-dried brain tissue cryosections. Quantitative observations were made on tumor cells in the main tumor mass, contiguous brain tissue, and infiltrating tumor cells in adjacent normal brain. The brain tissue contained a significantly lower total Mg concentration of 4.70 ± 0.93 mmol/Kg wet weight (mean ± SD) in comparison to 11.64 ± 1.96 mmol/Kg wet weight in tumor cells of the main tumor mass and 10.72 ± 1.76 mmol/Kg wet weight in infiltrating tumor cells (p<0.05). The nucleus of individual tumor cells contained elevated levels of bound Mg. These observations demonstrate enhanced Mg-influx and increased binding of Mg in tumor cells and provide strong support for further investigation of GBMs for altered Mg homeostasis and activation of Mg-transporting channels as possible therapeutic targets. PMID:26703785

  2. Effects of ignoring baseline on modeling transitions from intact cognition to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Tyas, Suzanne L; Snowdon, David A; Kryscio, Richard J

    2009-07-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of ignoring baseline when modeling transitions from intact cognition to dementia with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and global impairment (GI) as intervening cognitive states. Transitions among states are modeled by a discrete-time Markov chain having three transient (intact cognition, MCI, and GI) and two competing absorbing states (death and dementia). Transition probabilities depend on two covariates, age and the presence/absence of an apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 allele, through a multinomial logistic model with shared random effects. Results are illustrated with an application to the Nun Study, a cohort of 678 participants 75+ years of age at baseline and followed longitudinally with up to ten cognitive assessments per nun.

  3. Blood epididymal barrier to [3H]-inulin in intact and vasectomized hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, T.T.; D'Addario, D.A.; Howards, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The net transport of [ 3 H]-inulin into the fluids of the hamster seminiferous and caput, corpus, and cauda epididymal tubules was examined in both intact animals and those vasectomized 10 months previously. Mean isotope concentrations in reproductive tract tubule fluids did not exceeded 10 per cent of blood plasma isotope concentrations during the experiment. There were no significant differences in net transport of [ 3 H]-inulin into any of the tubule fluids sampled. Ten months after vasectomy, the seminiferous tubule, and all regions of the epididymal tubule retain the capacity to exclude [ 3 H]-insulin. Thus in the hamster 10 months after vasectomy, the blood testis and blood epididymal barriers to inulin are intact

  4. Determination of the intracellular pH of intact erythrocytes by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabenstein, D.L.; Isab, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for determining the intracellular pH of intact erythrocytes by 1 H NMR. The determination is based on the pH dependence of the chemical shifts of resonances for carbon-bounded protons of an indicator molecule (imidazole) in intact cells. The imidazole is introduced into the erythrocytes by incubation in an isotonic saline solution of the indicator. The pH dependence of the chemical shifts of the imidazole resonances is calibrated from 1 H NMR spectra of the imidazole-containing red cell lysates whose pH is varied by the addition of acid or base and measured directly with a pH electrode. To reduce in intensity or eliminate the much more intense envelope of resonances from the hemoglobin, the 1 H NMR measurements are made by either the spin-echo Fourier transform technique or by the transfer-or-saturation by cross-relaxation method

  5. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jes; Sørensen, Jens A; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human...... skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm...... liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers...

  6. Characterization of the anion sensitive ATPase in intact vacuoles of Kalanchoe diagremontiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobza, J.; Uribe, E.G.

    1986-04-01

    A method for the isolation of intact vacuoles from K. daigremontiana was developed which produced high yields of relatively pure vacuoles as determined by marker enzyme contamination. Upon isolation, the vacuoles were stabilized by the inclusion of 5% (w/v) ficoll. Enzyme activity was insensitive to vanadate and azide but was strongly inhibited by DCCD. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the inclusion of Mg/sup 2 +/ and was stimulated by anions as depicted by the series, NO/sub 3//sup -/ < Br/sup -/ < SO/sub 4//sup -/ < HCO/sub 3//sup -/ < Cl/sup -/. It was found that in intact vacuoles the ATPase activity was stimulated by phosphate to a level equivalent to that found with the chloride. The enzyme exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km for Mg-ATP complex of 0.51 mM.

  7. Intact Four-atom Organic Tetracation Stabilized by Charge Localization in the Gas Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuhashi, Tomoyuki; Toyota, Kazuo; Mitsubayashi, Naoya; Kozaki, Masatoshi; Okada, Keiji; Nakashima, Nobuaki

    2016-10-05

    Several features distinguish intact multiply charged molecular cations (MMCs) from other species such as monocations and polycations: high potential energy, high electron affinity, a high density of electronic states with various spin multiplicities, and charge-dependent reactions. However, repulsive Coulombic interactions make MMCs quite unstable, and hence small organic MMCs are currently not readily available. Herein, we report that the isolated four-atom molecule diiodoacetylene survives after the removal of four electrons via tunneling. We show that the tetracation remains metastable towards dissociation because of the localization (91-95 %) of the positive charges on the terminal iodine atoms, ensuring minimum Coulomb repulsion between adjacent atoms as well as maximum charge-induced attractive dipole interactions between iodine and carbon. Our approach making use of iodines as the positively charged sites enables small organic MMCs to remain intact. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Intact and Degraded Component Criticality Calculations of N Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. Angers

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to perform intact and degraded mode criticality evaluations of the Department of Energy's (DOE) N Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel codisposed in a 2-Defense High-Level Waste (2-DHLW)/2-Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Waste Package (WP) and emplaced in a monitored geologic repository (MGR) (see Attachment I). The scope of this calculation is limited to the determination of the effective neutron multiplication factor (k eff ) for both intact and degraded mode internal configurations of the codisposal waste package. This calculation will support the analysis that will be performed to demonstrate the technical viability for disposing of U-metal (N Reactor) spent nuclear fuel in the potential MGR

  9. A method to detect transfected chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene expression in intact animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, R.; Jastreboff, M.M.; Chiu, Chang Fang; Ito, Etsuro; Bertino, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid procedure is described for assaying chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme activity in intact animals following transfection of the RSV CAT plasmid into mouse bone marrow cells by electroporation. The reconstituted mice were injected with [ 14 C]chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extracts of 24-h urine samples were analyzed by TLC autoradiography for the excretion of 14 C-labeled metabolites. CAT expression in vivo can be detected by the presence of acetylated 14 C-labeled metabolites in the urine within 1 week after bone marrow transplantation and, under the conditions described, these metabolites can be detected for at least 3 months. CAT expression in intact mice as monitored by the urine assay correlates with the CAT expression in the hematopoietic tissues assayed in vitro. This method offers a quick mode of screening for introduced CAT gene expression in vivo without sacrificing the mice

  10. Cutaneous mast cell maturation does not depend on an intact bone marrow microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charley, M.R.; Mikhael, A.; Sontheimer, R.D.; Gilliam, J.N.; Bennett, M.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether the maturation of murine cutaneous mast cells from stem cells depends on an intact bone marrow microenvironment. Normal bone marrow cells (+/+) were infused into 2 groups of mast cell-deficient mice: WBB6F1-W/Wv mice and 89 Sr-pretreated W/Wv mice. 89 Sr is a long-lived bone-seeking radioisotope which provides continuous irradiation of the marrow and thereby ablates the marrow microenvironment. Skin biopsies revealed that the 89 Sr-pretreated mice and the controls had repopulated their skin with mast cells equally well. Natural killer cell function was significantly depressed in the 89 Sr-treated mice, confirming that the marrow microenvironment had been functionally altered. It appears that, although the precursors for cutaneous mast cells are marrow derived, they do not need an intact marrow microenvironment for maturation

  11. Ewing tumors in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Dirksen, Uta; Ranft, Andreas; Jürgens, Heribert

    2008-01-01

    Malignancies in infancy are extremely rare. Ewing tumors are hardly ever noted in these children. Since it is generally assumed that malignancies in infancy have an extremely poor outcome, we wanted to investigate whether this was also the case in Ewing tumors. We identified in the Munster data

  12. GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pavel M.E., Baum U., Hahn E.G., Hensen J. Doxorubucin and streptozocin after failed biotherapy of Neuroendocrine tumors. Int J. Gastrointest Cancer 2005; 35 179-185. 33. Yao J.C., Phan A., Hoff P.M., et al. Targeting vas- cular endothelial growth factor in advanced carci- noid tumors: a random assignment phase II study.

  13. Atypically localized glomus tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meric Ugurlar

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: When a painful mass is found in the body, glomus tumors should be kept in mind. The consideration of symptoms, including pain, temperature sensitivity, point tenderness, and discoloration, common characteristics of glomus tumors, may aid diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 112-117

  14. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  15. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  16. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  17. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, M. V.; Budyal, Sweta; Kasliwal, Rajeev; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented. PMID:23226664

  18. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Kee; Phi, Ji Hoon; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies for neuronal differentiation in glial tumors revealed subsets of tumors having both characteristics of glial and neuronal lineages. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation can be observed with diverse phenotypes and histologic grades. The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle and papillary glioneuronal tumor have been newly classified as distinct disease entities. There are other candidates for classification, such as the glioneuronal tumor without pseudopapillary architecture, glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands, and the malignant glioneuronal tumor. The clinical significance of these previously unclassified tumors should be confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sediment carbon and nutrient fluxes from cleared and intact temperate mangrove ecosystems and adjacent sandflats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, Richard H; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Lohrer, Andrew M; Lundquist, Carolyn J

    2017-12-01

    The loss of mangrove ecosystems is associated with numerous impacts on coastal and estuarine function, including sediment carbon and nutrient cycling. In this study we compared in situ fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the sediment to the atmosphere, and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients and oxygen across the sediment-water interface, in intact and cleared mangrove and sandflat ecosystems in a temperate estuary. Measurements were made 20 and 25months after mangrove clearance, in summer and winter, respectively. Sediment CO 2 efflux was over two-fold higher from cleared than intact mangrove ecosystems at 20 and 25months after mangrove clearance. The higher CO 2 efflux from the cleared site was explained by an increase in respiration of dead root material along with sediment disturbance following mangrove clearance. In contrast, sediment CO 2 efflux from the sandflat site was negligible (≤9.13±1.18mmolm -2 d -1 ), associated with lower sediment organic matter content. The fluxes of inorganic nutrients (NH 4 + , NO x and PO 4 3- ) from intact and cleared mangrove sediments were low (≤20.37±18.66μmolm -2 h - 1 ). The highest NH 4 + fluxes were measured at the sandflat site (69.21±13.49μmolm -2 h - 1 ). Lower inorganic nutrient fluxes within the cleared and intact mangrove sites compared to the sandflat site were associated with lower abundance of larger burrowing macrofauna. Further, a higher fraction of organic matter, silt and clay content in mangrove sediments may have limited nutrient exchange. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A structured approach to the study of metabolic control principles in intact and impaired mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Heinrich J.; Connolly, Niamh M. C.; Dussmann, Heiko; Prehn, Jochen H. M.

    2012-01-01

    We devised an approach to extract control principles of cellular bioenergetics for intact and impaired mitochondria from ODE-based models and applied it to a recently established bioenergetic model of cancer cells. The approach used two methods for varying ODE model parameters to determine those model components that, either alone or in combination with other components, most decisively regulated bioenergetic state variables. We found that, while polarisation of the mitochondrial membrane pot...

  1. Ingested soluble CD14 from milk is transferred intact into the blood of newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tonya L; Spencer, William J; Davis, Laura D R; Harrold, Joann; Mack, David R; Altosaar, Illimar

    2014-02-01

    Milk acts as an edible immune system that is transferred from mother to newborn. Soluble Cluster of Differentiation 14 (sCD14) is a protein found in significant quantities in human milk (~8-29 µg/ml). At a 10-fold lower concentration in the blood (~3 µg/ml), the most notable role of sCD14 is to sequester lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria from immune cells. To explore the pharmacodynamics of this milk protein and its biological fate, the biodistribution of radiolabeled sCD14 ((14)C, (125)I) was monitored in 10-d-old rat pups. Up to 3.4 ± 2.2% of the radiolabeled sCD14 administered was observed, intact, in the pup blood for up to 8 h post-ingestion. Additionally, 30.3 ± 13.0% of the radiolabeled sCD14 administered was observed degraded in the stomach at 8 h post-ingestion. A reservoir of intact, administered sCD14 (3.2 ± 0.3%), however, remained in the stomach at 8 h post-ingestion. Intact sCD14 was observed in the small intestine at 5.5 ± 1.6% of the dose fed at 8 h post-ingestion. The presence of intact sCD14 in the blood and the gastrointestinal tract of newborns post-ingestion has implications in the development of allergies, obesity, and other inflammation-related pathogeneses later in life.

  2. Forest Loss in Protected Areas and Intact Forest Landscapes: A Global Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, Matias; Kummu, Matti; Makkonen, Marika; Mulligan, Mark; Verburg, Peter H; Jalava, Mika; Räsänen, Timo A

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the high importance of forests, global forest loss has remained alarmingly high during the last decades. Forest loss at a global scale has been unveiled with increasingly finer spatial resolution, but the forest extent and loss in protected areas (PAs) and in large intact forest landscapes (IFLs) have not so far been systematically assessed. Moreover, the impact of protection on preserving the IFLs is not well understood. In this study we conducted a consistent assessment of the global forest loss in PAs and IFLs over the period 2000-2012. We used recently published global remote sensing based spatial forest cover change data, being a uniform and consistent dataset over space and time, together with global datasets on PAs' and IFLs' locations. Our analyses revealed that on a global scale 3% of the protected forest, 2.5% of the intact forest, and 1.5% of the protected intact forest were lost during the study period. These forest loss rates are relatively high compared to global total forest loss of 5% for the same time period. The variation in forest losses and in protection effect was large among geographical regions and countries. In some regions the loss in protected forests exceeded 5% (e.g. in Australia and Oceania, and North America) and the relative forest loss was higher inside protected areas than outside those areas (e.g. in Mongolia and parts of Africa, Central Asia, and Europe). At the same time, protection was found to prevent forest loss in several countries (e.g. in South America and Southeast Asia). Globally, high area-weighted forest loss rates of protected and intact forests were associated with high gross domestic product and in the case of protected forests also with high proportions of agricultural land. Our findings reinforce the need for improved understanding of the reasons for the high forest losses in PAs and IFLs and strategies to prevent further losses.

  3. Microseismic Analysis of Fracture of an Intact Rock Asperity Traversing a Sawcut Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaskey, G.; Lockner, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Microseismic events carry information related to stress state, fault geometry, and other subsurface properties, but their relationship to large and potentially damaging earthquakes is not well defined. We conducted laboratory rock mechanics experiments that highlight the interaction between a sawcut fault and an asperity composed of an intact rock "pin". The sample is a 76 mm diameter cylinder of Westerly granite with a 21 mm diameter cylinder (the pin) of intact Westerly granite that crosses the sawcut fault. Upon loading to 80 MPa in a triaxial machine, we first observed a slip event that ruptured the sawcut fault, slipped about 35 mm, but was halted by the rock pin. With continued loading, the rock pin failed in a swarm of thousands of M -7 seismic events similar to the localized microcracking that occurs during the final fracture nucleation phase in an intact rock sample. Once the pin was fractured to a critical point, it permitted complete rupture events on the sawcut fault (stick-slip instabilities). No seismicity was detected on the sawcut fault plane until the pin was sheared. Subsequent slip events were preceded by 10s of foreshocks, all located on the fault plane. We also identified an aseismic zone on the fault plane surrounding the fractured rock pin. A post-mortem analysis of the sample showed a thick gouge layer where the pin intersected the fault, suggesting that this gouge propped open the fault and prevented microseismic events in its vicinity. This experiment is an excellent case study in microseismicity since the events separate neatly into three categories: slip on the sawcut fault, fracture of the intact rock pin, and off-fault seismicity associated with pin-related rock joints. The distinct locations, timing, and focal mechanisms of the different categories of microseismic events allow us to study how their occurrence is related to the mechanics of the deforming rock.

  4. Dissolution of intact UO2 pellet in batch and rotary dissolver conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayendra Kumar Gelatar; Bijendra Kumar; Sampath, M.; Shekhar Kumar; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative dissolution of intact un-irradiated UO 2 pellet of PHWR fuel dimensions was performed in batch and dynamic rotary dissolver conditions in aqueous nitric acid solutions at elevated temperatures. The extent of dissolution was estimated by determining the uranium concentration of the resulting aqueous solution. It was observed that rate of dissolution was much faster in dynamic conditions as compared to static batch conditions. (author)

  5. DETERMINATION OF THE MINIMUM INTACT DIMENSIONS AVAILABLE IN PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gyorgy HORVATH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of wastes is one of the main requirements of sustainable wood processing. Technologies available for waste management however are currently suited to the reuse of large quantities. This study investigates the utilisation of individual pieces of sawn wood and veneer wastes by laser cutting, with special emphasis on the search for the practical minimum intact dimension that can be produced by laser cutting

  6. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of intact cells of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Ristić, M.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Chernyshev, A. V.; Ignatov, V. V.

    1997-06-01

    The data of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements performed on intact cells of the soil nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense grown in a standard medium and under the conditions of an increased metal uptake are compared and discussed. The structural FTIR information obtained is considered together with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) data on the content of metal cations in the bacterial cells. Some methodological aspects concerning preparation of bacterial cell samples for FTIR measurements are also discussed.

  7. Discrimination between intact and decayed pulp regions in carious teeth by ADC mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Ksenija; Nemeth, Lidija; Bajd, Franci; Vidmar, Jernej; Serša, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping, in the functional assessment of carious teeth. 38 extracted human teeth with scores of 0, 3 and 6 according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria were screened and subsequently analyzed by MRI at 2.35 T. Histology sectioning of teeth was used for the gold standard by analyzing two extreme cases (intact and severely decayed). ADC maps of the same teeth were calculated from corresponding diffusion-weighted images and used to obtain ADC distributions along dental pulp as functions of the relative pulp length measured from the occlusal pulp side. The measured distributions were analyzed for the best fit by a four-parameter three-segment linear regression model for ADC distribution along the pulp. MRI results were in good agreement with findings in histological sections of identical teeth. The best fit model parameters, relative decayed region depth, relative transition region width and ADC values of intact and decayed pulp tissue, showed statistically significant differences between the ADC values of intact and decayed pulp tissue (1.0 × 10(-9) m(2)/s vs. 0.74-0.89 × 10(-9) m(2)/s) and the relative decayed region depth progressing with ICDAS score (3 vs. 46% with ICDAS 3 vs. ICDAS 6). The results of this feasibility study confirmed relevance of ADC mapping for the discrimination and localization of intact and decayed regions in dental pulps of carious teeth. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Tumorous interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Meyer, E.; Mundinger, A.; Helwig, A.; Blum, U.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor-dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception. High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor- or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable. (orig.) [de

  9. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  10. Wilm's tumor in adulthood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, B.P.; Bukharkin, B.V.; Gotsadze, D.T.

    1984-01-01

    Wilms' tumor occurs extremely rarely in adults. There is no consensus in the literature on the problems of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the diseasa. Ten adult patients (aged 16-29) with Wilms' tumor formed the study group. They made up 0.9 per cent of the total number of kidney tumor patients. The peculiarities of the clinical course that distinguish adult nephroblastoma from renal cancer and Wilms' tumor of the infancy were analysed. The latent period appeared to be long. Problems of diagnosis are discussed. Angiography proved to be of the highest diagnostic value. Complex treatment including transperitoneal nephrectory, radiation and chemotherapy was carried out in 7 cases, palliative radiation treatmenchemotherapy andn 3. Unlike pediatric nephroblastomt - i Wilms' tumor in adults was resistant to radiation. Treatment results still remained unsatisfactory: 6 patients died 7-19 months after the beginning of treatment

  11. Radiotherapy of pineal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danoff, B.; Sheline, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotherapy has universally been used in the treatment of pineal tumors and suprasellar germinomas. Recently however, major technical advances related to the use of the operating microscope and development of microsurgical techniques have prompted a renewed interest in the direct surgical approach for biopsy and/or excision. This interest has resulted in a controversy regarding the role of surgery prior to radiotherapy. Because of the heterogeneity of tumors occurring in the pineal region (i.e., germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, glial tumors, and cysts) and their differing biological behavior, controversy also surrounds aspects of radiotherapy such as: the optimal radiation dose, the volume to be irradiated, and indications for prophylactic spinal irradiation. A review of the available data is presented in an attempt to answer these questions

  12. Mechanisms of blood pressure changes following renal irradiation of intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal regenerating rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, M.

    1977-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the differences in changes in systolic arterial blood pressure following renal x irradiation (1100 R) in adrenal-intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal-regenerating rats and to elucidate the involvement or roles of the kidneys and of the adrenal glands in the blood pressure changes. The parameters studied included the following: systolic blood pressure; body weight; food and fluid consumption; urine output; plasma and urine electrolytes; sodium balance; plasma renin activity; plasma corticosterone; renal vascular volume; renal vascular permeability (using 125 I-polyvinylpyrrolidone extravasation rate as an indicator); renal blood flow (using 42 K extraction); kidney weight; hematocrit; and total vascular, plasma, and red cell volumes. Renal x irradiation of intact rats caused polydipsia, polyuria, and reduced urine concentrations of sodium and potassium without significantly affecting blood pressure during the period of study (80 days); plasma renin activity was significantly lowered and had a positive correlation with blood volume; an abnormal blood volume-plasma renin activity relationship is suggested. Adrenalectomy caused prolonged hypotension in saline-maintained rats even though their sodium balance was more positive than that in adrenal-intact or adrenal-regenerating rats with normal or elevated blood pressure. The blood pressure of renally irrradiated, adrenalectomized rats was greater than non-irradiated adrenalectomized rats, but with only borderline significance; it is concluded that the absence of the adrenal glands does not affect the degree or duration of the effects of renal irradiation on blood pressure

  13. The effect of self-transcendence on depression in cognitively intact nursing home patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, Gørill; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2012-01-01

    Aims. This study's aim was to test the effects of self-transcendence on depression among cognitively intact nursing home patients. Background. Depression is considered the most frequent mental disorder among the elderly population. Specifically, the depression rate among nursing home patients is three to four times higher than that among community-dwelling elderly. Therefore, finding new and alternative ways to prevent and decrease depression is of great importance for nursing home patients' well-being. Self-transcendence is related to spiritual as well as nonspiritual factors, and it is described as a correlate and resource for well-being among vulnerable populations and at the end of life. Methods. A two-factor construct of the self-transcendence scale (interpersonal and intrapersonal) and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was applied. A sample of 202 cognitively intact nursing home patients in central Norway was selected to respond to the questionnaires in 2008/2009. Results. A hypothesized SEM model demonstrated significant direct relationships and total effects of self-transcendence on depression. Conclusion and Implication for Practice. Facilitating patients' self-transcendence, both interpersonally and intrapersonally, might decrease depression among cognitively intact nursing home patients.

  14. Beta Adrenergic Regulation of Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses in Intact Rat and Isolated Rat Lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Bates

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA allow large diameter particles of venous origin to bypass the pulmonary capillary bed and embolize the systemic arterial circulation. IPAVA have been routinely observed in healthy humans with exercise, hypoxia, and catecholamine infusion, but the mechanism by which they are recruited is not well-defined. We hypothesized that beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation recruits IPAVA and that receptor blockade would limit hypoxia-induced IPAVA recruitment. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the transpulmonary passage of microspheres in intact rats and isolated rats lung infused with the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol. We also evaluated IPAVA recruitment in intact rats with hypoxia and the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol. We found that IPAVA are recruited in the intact rat by isoproterenol and their recruitment by hypoxia can be minimized by propranolol, suggesting a role for the adrenergic system in the recruitment of IPAVA by hypoxia. IPAVA recruitment is completely abolished by ventilation with 100% oxygen. Isoproterenol also recruits IPAVA in isolated rat lungs. The fact that isoproterenol can recruit IPAVA in isolated lungs, without increased pulmonary flow, suggests that elevated cardiac output is not required for IPAVA recruitment.

  15. Predictors of attachment security in preschool children from intact and divorced families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Hira; Murray, Ann D

    2005-09-01

    The authors selected 58 mother-child dyads from divorced and intact families to participate in a study on the impact of divorce on preschoolers' attachment security. The authors explored pathways that lead to security of attachment. They found that mothers from divorced families were younger, had lower income levels, and had lower levels of education compared with their intact counterparts. Divorced mothers also reported significantly higher levels of stress, depression, need for social support, and conflict with their spouses. Mothers from intact families were more likely to use positive (authoritative) parenting styles compared with divorced mothers. Children in the divorced group had lower security scores on the Attachment Q-Set instrument (E. Waters, 1995). Regression analyses indicated that parenting style made a direct (independent) contribution to attachment security. In addition, temperament was related to attachment security, but temperament did not diminish the association of parenting style with attachment security. Furthermore, regression analyses indicated that the relationship of divorce to attachment security was mediated by parenting style.

  16. Estimating Carbon Dynamics in an Intact Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest Using a Forest Carbon Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongyeol Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Intact dipterocarp forests in Asia act as crucial carbon (C reservoirs, and it is therefore important to investigate the C dynamics in these forests. We estimated C dynamics, together with net ecosystem production (NEP, in an intact tropical dipterocarp forest of Brunei Darussalam. Fifty-four simulation units (plots; 20 m × 20 m were established and initial C stocks were determined via direct field measurement. The C dynamics were annually simulated with a regression model and the Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC model. The initial C stock (Mg C·ha−1 of biomass, litter, dead wood and mineral soil were 213.1 ± 104.8, 2.0 ± 0.8, 31.3 ± 38.8, and 80.7 ± 15.5, respectively. Their annual changes (Mg C·ha−1·year−1 were 3.2 ± 1.1, 0.2 ± 0.2, −3.7 ± 6.1, and −0.3 ± 1.1, respectively. NEP was −0.6 ± 6.1 Mg C·ha−1·year−1, showing large heterogeneity among the plots. The initial C stocks of biomass and dead wood, biomass turnover rates and dead wood decay rates were elucidated as dominant factors determining NEP in a sensitivity analysis. Accordingly, investigation on those input data can constrain an uncertainty in determining NEP in the intact tropical forests.

  17. Calculation of ion currents across the inner membrane of functionally intact mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Daniel A; Pavlov, Evgeny V

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial ion transport systems play a central role in cell physiology. Rates of Ca2+ and K+ transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane have been derived from the measurement of ion accumulation over time within functional isolated mitochondria or mitochondria of cultured cells. Alternatively, the electrical currents generated by ionic flux have been directly measured in purified and swollen mitochondrial samples (mitoplasts) or reconstituted channels, and typically range from 1 pA to several 100s pA. However, the direct electrophysiological approach necessarily requires extensive processing of the mitochondria prior to measurement, which can only be performed on isolated mitoplasts. To compare rates of mitochondrial ion transport measured in electrophysiological experiments to those measured in intact mitochondria and cells, we converted published rates of mitochondrial ion uptake into units of ionic current. We estimate that for monovalent ions, uptake by intact mitochondria at the rate of 1 nmol ∙ mg−1 protein ∙ min−1 is equivalent to 0.2 fA of current per whole single mitochondrion (0.4 fA for divalent ions). In intact mitochondria, estimated rates of electrogenic cation uptake are limited to 1–100 fA of integral current per single mitochondrion. These estimates are orders of magnitude lower than the currents through mitochondrial channels directly measured via patch-clamp or artificial lipid bilayer approaches. PMID:24037064

  18. Binding of radiolabelled luteinizing hormone to intact and ovariectomised rat uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Bhattacharya, S.

    1992-01-01

    Binding of ovine LH to uterine tissue preparation from intact and ovariectomised rat clearly indicates that uterus possesses specific binding sites for LH. Binding characteristics of LH to uterine tissue preparation from intact rat showed saturability with high affinity and low capacity. Scatchard plot analysis showed dissociation constant of the specific binding site to be 0.12 x 10 -9 mol/l and the number of binding sites was 2.31±0.05 fmol/mg protein. Ovariectomy did not change the binding affinity but effected a decrease in the number of binding sites (1.7 ± 0.08 f mol/mg protein). LH treatment of ovariectomized (ovx) rat had no effect on binding affinity but significantly increased the number of binding sites (3.23 ± 0.1 f mol/mg protein). Reduction of uterine weight due to ovariectomy and marked increase of ovx rat uterine weight by LH administration indicate a source of estrogen in ovx rat. An in vitro uterine tissue slice (from intact and ovx rat) incubation showed depletion of 17 β-estradiol (E 2 ) content in ovx rat which significantly elevated on LH addition. Data suggest the LH binding to rat uterine tissue has biological relevance. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab

  19. Conductive hearing loss with an intact tympanic membrane due to non-inflammatory causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Hyuk; Lee, Min Young; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Lee, Sang Heun; Jang, Jeong Hun

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed audiologic and surgical findings in patients with conductive hearing loss (CHL) with an intact tympanic membrane (TM) that was of a non-inflammatory origin. We reviewed data from patients who underwent exploratory tympanotomy for CHL with intact TM from January 1995 to November 2012. Patients with diseases of non-inflammatory origin were enrolled (69 patients; 79 ears). Patients were categorized into two groups: non-trauma (50 ears) and trauma (29 ears). Demographic data, intraoperative findings, and audiologic results were obtained and analyzed. Overall, the second decade was the most common age of diagnosis in both the non-trauma and trauma groups. Operative findings showed that ossicular dislocation was more prevalent than ossicular fixation; all trauma group subjects had ossicular dislocation. Short columellization or partial ossicular replacement was the most frequently adopted surgical procedures in both groups. Overall, audiologically, air-conduction thresholds (ACs) and air-bone gaps were significantly improved over the short- and long-term period in both groups. However, the non-trauma group had significantly higher preoperative ACs than the trauma group, especially at low frequencies. This study provides clinicians with useful information regarding the clinical characteristics of CHL with intact TM of non-inflammatory origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential transcriptional profiling of damaged and intact adjacent dorsal root ganglia neurons in neuropathic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Reinhold

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain, caused by a lesion in the somatosensory system, is a severely impairing mostly chronic disease. While its underlying molecular mechanisms are not thoroughly understood, neuroimmune interactions as well as changes in the pain pathway such as sensitization of nociceptors have been implicated. It has been shown that not only are different cell types involved in generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain, like neurons, immune and glial cells, but, also, intact adjacent neurons are relevant to the process. Here, we describe an experimental approach to discriminate damaged from intact adjacent neurons in the same dorsal root ganglion (DRG using differential fluorescent neuronal labelling and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. Two fluorescent tracers, Fluoroemerald (FE and 1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI, were used, whose properties allow us to distinguish between damaged and intact neurons. Subsequent sorting permitted transcriptional analysis of both groups. Results and qPCR validation show a strong regulation in damaged neurons versus contralateral controls as well as a moderate regulation in adjacent neurons. Data for damaged neurons reveal an mRNA expression pattern consistent with established upregulated genes like galanin, which supports our approach. Moreover, novel genes were found strongly regulated such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, providing novel targets for further research. Differential fluorescent neuronal labelling and sorting allows for a clear distinction between primarily damaged neuropathic neurons and "bystanders," thereby facilitating a more detailed understanding of their respective roles in neuropathic processes in the DRG.

  1. Perineal hernia repair using an autologous tunica vaginalis communis in nine intact male dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratummintra, Kittiya; Chuthatep, Suwicha; Banlunara, Wijit; Kalpravidh, Marissak

    2013-01-01

    Perineal hernia in dogs is very problematic and mostly requires surgical reconstruction of the weak pelvic diaphragm. Tissue or synthetic grafts have been used for the correction after failure of the conventional herniorrhaphy. Aim of this clinical trial was to assess the possible use of the autologous tunica vaginalis communis as a free graft for perineal hernia repair in intact male dogs. Seven unilateral and 2 bilateral perineal hernias in nine intact male dogs free from testicular and scrotal neoplasms were included in this study. The median surgical time for unilateral herniorrhaphy was 75 min. The median follow-up time was 13 months. The success of the autografting, based on no recurrence and comfort of the animals during urination and defecation, was found in ten of 11 hernias; giving a success rate of 90.91%. One hernia (9.09%) recurred 10 days after surgery. Histopathological examination of the apposing area between the graft and the adjacent tissue, taken during the repair of the recurred case at day 20, revealed neovascularization and connective tissue ingrowth. In conclusion, the tunica vaginalis autograft can be used for perineal herniorrhaphy in intact male dogs.

  2. Length of time domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) spend smelling urine of gonadectomised and intact conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riach, Anna C; Asquith, Rachel; Fallon, Melissa L D

    2017-09-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use urine to communicate among themselves, however, it is unknown whether the gonadectomy (neutering or spaying) of a dog affects this communication in anyway. Urine samples from 10 intact and 10 gonadectomised, unfamiliar dogs were presented to 12 tester dogs to sniff under controlled conditions in a pilot study. The amount of time the tester dogs spent sniffing each sample was recorded. Overall, tester dogs were recorded smelling the urine of gonadectomised individuals for a longer time. In addition to the type of urine sample, the result is likely to have been influenced by the sex and status (gonadectomised or intact) of the tester dogs. The observed increase in the length of time spent sniffing urine from gonadectomised individuals could be explained by the tester dogs experiencing more difficulty in gaining information from the urine or facing more confusion while analysing the urine compared to the intact urine they have evolved to smell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Parallel evolution of tumor subclones mimics diversity between tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumor adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicines approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumor (intratumor heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumors (intertumor heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, ...

  4. Uncovering biological soil crusts: carbon content and structure of intact Arctic, Antarctic and alpine biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Patrick; Briegel-Williams, Laura; Simon, Anika; Thyssen, Anne; Büdel, Burkhard

    2018-02-01

    Arctic, Antarctic and alpine biological soil crusts (BSCs) are formed by adhesion of soil particles to exopolysaccharides (EPSs) excreted by cyanobacterial and green algal communities, the pioneers and main primary producers in these habitats. These BSCs provide and influence many ecosystem services such as soil erodibility, soil formation and nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycles. In cold environments degradation rates are low and BSCs continuously increase soil organic C; therefore, these soils are considered to be CO2 sinks. This work provides a novel, non-destructive and highly comparable method to investigate intact BSCs with a focus on cyanobacteria and green algae and their contribution to soil organic C. A new terminology arose, based on confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) 2-D biomaps, dividing BSCs into a photosynthetic active layer (PAL) made of active photoautotrophic organisms and a photosynthetic inactive layer (PIL) harbouring remnants of cyanobacteria and green algae glued together by their remaining EPSs. By the application of CLSM image analysis (CLSM-IA) to 3-D biomaps, C coming from photosynthetic active organisms could be visualized as depth profiles with C peaks at 0.5 to 2 mm depth. Additionally, the CO2 sink character of these cold soil habitats dominated by BSCs could be highlighted, demonstrating that the first cubic centimetre of soil consists of between 7 and 17 % total organic carbon, identified by loss on ignition.

  5. The kinetics of interaction of porcine - alpha-, and porcine - beta -trypsin with intact and modified soybean trypsin inhibitor (kunitz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The association of porcine trypsin with soybean trypsin inhibitor (Kunitz) resulted in characteristic changes in absorption spectrum, indicating an alteration of the micro environments of the enzyme chromophores as a consequence of the interaction. The rates of formation of the stable trypsin - inhibitor complexes from porcine - alpha - trypsin and soybean trypsin inhibitor and from porcine - beta - trypsin and either intact or modified soybean trypsin inhibitor were measured by mixing the equimolar concentration of the reactants in a Stopped - Flow apparatus at pH (4.5 to 10.0). The reaction of trypsin with soybean trypsin inhibitor was of first order with respect to the concentration of the reactants used. The rates of dissociation of the stable complexes, alpha - trypsin - soybean trypsin inhibitor, beta -trypsin - soybean trypsin inhibitor and beta -trypsin modified soybean trypsin inhibitor were also measured at pH (1.92 to 3.58). The values of first order rate constant, k/sub D/ obtained for the dissociation of all the three complexes were identical with one another. The kinetics results obtained for the porcine trypsin were compared with those of bovine trypsin system and it was suggested that the reaction mechanisms in both these systems were identical. (author)

  6. Endothelial Thermotolerance Impairs Nanoparticle Transport in Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Alexander F; Scherz-Shouval, Ruth; Galie, Peter A; Zhang, Angela Q; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Whitesell, Luke; Chen, Christopher S; Lindquist, Susan; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-08-15

    The delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to solid tumors is limited by physical transport barriers within tumors, and such restrictions directly contribute to decreased therapeutic efficacy and the emergence of drug resistance. Nanomaterials designed to perturb the local tumor environment with precise spatiotemporal control have demonstrated potential to enhance drug delivery in preclinical models. Here, we investigated the ability of one class of heat-generating nanomaterials called plasmonic nanoantennae to enhance tumor transport in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer. We observed a temperature-dependent increase in the transport of diagnostic nanoparticles into tumors. However, a transient, reversible reduction in this enhanced transport was seen upon reexposure to heating, consistent with the development of vascular thermotolerance. Harnessing these observations, we designed an improved treatment protocol combining plasmonic nanoantennae with diffusion-limited chemotherapies. Using a microfluidic endothelial model and genetic tools to inhibit the heat-shock response, we found that the ability of thermal preconditioning to limit heat-induced cytoskeletal disruption is an important component of vascular thermotolerance. This work, therefore, highlights the clinical relevance of cellular adaptations to nanomaterials and identifies molecular pathways whose modulation could improve the exposure of tumors to therapeutic agents. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Fossilized intact polar lipids of photosynthetic organisms in ancient subsurface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauersachs, T.; Schouten, S.; Hopmans, E. C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, the idea of a rich microbial biosphere in the marine sea floor has been widely accepted. This so-called “deep biosphere” is estimated to contain ca. 50 % of Earth’s total prokaryotic biomass with the overall order of magnitude of microbial cells in the sea floor being the same as the biomass of all surface plant life (Whitman et al. 1998). Evidence for the existence of a deep biosphere comes, among others, from the analysis of intact polar lipids (IPLs). This approach presumes that IPLs almost instantaneously lose their polar head group after cell death and thus do not preserve on geological timescales. Consequently, IPLs in the subsurface should derive from in situ production and hence indicate the presence of living prokaryotic cells. For example, in various oceanic subsurface sediments archaeal IPLs have been found, suggesting that Archaea constitute a major fraction of the deep biosphere biomass (Lipp et al. 2008). In this study, we found IPLs of heterocystous cyanobacteria in a number of ancient and deeply buried sediments. Heterocystous cyanobacteria are strictly photoautotrophic organisms that are a common constituent of the phytoplankton community in many freshwater and brackish environments but are also encountered in the marine realm as endosymbionts of diatom species. Under nitrogen-depleted conditions, these organisms carry out nitrogen fixation in specialized cells, known as heterocysts. These cells contain a suite of heterocyst glycolipids (HGs) that have not been identified in any other organism and are thus unique biological markers for nitrogen-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria. Using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS), we detected HGs in Pleistocene and Pliocene Mediterranean sapropels buried up to 60 m below the seafloor. In addition, these HGs were also found in lacustrine deposits of the Oligocene Lake Enspel (35 Ma), the Eocene Lake Messel

  8. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Demšar, Jože Duhovnik, Blaž Lešnik, Matej Supej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW, various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA and Range of Motion (RoM in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1° was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8° and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°. In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2° was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°. The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing.

  9. Tumor control probability after a radiation of animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Muneyasu; Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Nesumi, Naofumi

    1975-01-01

    Tumor control and regrowth probability of animal tumors irradiated with a single x-ray dose were determined, using a spontaneous C3H mouse mammary carcinoma. Cellular radiation sensitivity of tumor cells and tumor control probability of the tumor were examined by the TD 50 and TCD 50 assays respectively. Tumor growth kinetics were measured by counting the percentage of labelled mitosis and by measuring the growth curve. A mathematical analysis of tumor control probability was made from these results. A formula proposed, accounted for cell population kinetics or division probability model, cell sensitivity to radiation and number of tumor cells. (auth.)

  10. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) / Microwave Ablation (MWA) of Lung Tumors ... and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? What are Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, ...

  11. The PCa Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottnik, Joseph L; Zhang, Jian; Macoska, Jill A; Keller, Evan T

    2011-12-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a very complex niche that consists of multiple cell types, supportive matrix and soluble factors. Cells in the TME consist of both host cells that are present at tumor site at the onset of tumor growth and cells that are recruited in either response to tumor- or host-derived factors. PCa (PCa) thrives on crosstalk between tumor cells and the TME. Crosstalk results in an orchestrated evolution of both the tumor and microenvironment as the tumor progresses. The TME reacts to PCa-produced soluble factors as well as direct interaction with PCa cells. In return, the TME produces soluble factors, structural support and direct contact interactions that influence the establishment and progression of PCa. In this review, we focus on the host side of the equation to provide a foundation for understanding how different aspects of the TME contribute to PCa progression. We discuss immune effector cells, specialized niches, such as the vascular and bone marrow, and several key protein factors that mediate host effects on PCa. This discussion highlights the concept that the TME offers a potentially very fertile target for PCa therapy.

  12. Epilepsy and brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGLOT, DARIO J.; CHANG, EDWARD F.; VECHT, CHARLES J.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70–80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60–75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20–50% of patients with meningioma and 20–35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60–90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  13. CNS tumors: postoperative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayanir, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Imaging assessment of brain tumors following surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including the location of the tumor, the surgical procedure and the disease process for which it was performed. Depending upon these factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities may be required to demonstrate any clinically relevant situation, to assist the surgeon in deciding if repeat surgery is necessary. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show the shape, size, signal intensity, and enhancement of a brain tumor. It has been widely used to diagnose and differentiate brain tumors and to assess the surgery outcomes. Longitudinal MRI scans have also been applied for the assessment of treatment and response to surgery. The newly developed MRI techniques, including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), have the potential to provide the molecular, functional and metabolic information of preoperative and postoperative brain tumors. Postoperative diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging are especially useful in predicting early functional recovery from new deficits after brain tumor surgery.This lecture will stress the principles, applications, and pitfalls of conventional as well as newly developing functional imaging techniques following operation of brain tumors

  14. Cutaneous leishmaniosis in naturally infected dogs in Paraná, Brazil, and the epidemiological implications of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis detection in internal organs and intact skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Ellen de Souza; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Nabut, Luciene Biazono; da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Dela Coletta Troiano Araújo, Ludmilla; Poubel, Saloe Bispo; Gonçalves, André Luiz; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Dos Santos Trad, Ana Paula Millet Evangelista; Dias, Rafael Andre Ferreira; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2017-08-30

    Environmental changes have occurred over the years, altering the eco-epidemiological pattern of leishmaniosis in the State of Paraná, Brazil, involving the pillars of the cycle (parasite, vectors, reservoir, and environment) and their interaction. Much has been discussed about the dog's role as a reservoir of the Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Vianna, 1911 transmission cycle. However, this question remains unanswered. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using parasitological and molecular methods, different samples in eight naturally infected dogs from an endemic rural locality where only L. (V.) braziliensis is present, and where human cases have been previously notified. Blood and biopsied organ samples from naturally infected dogs were analyzed by culture media, PCR, random amplified polymorphic DNA and sequencing methodologies. Only skin lesions from all dogs yielded positive cultures and when PCR was performed, L. (V.) braziliensis DNA was amplified from intact skin, peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, liver and lymph nodes. RAPD was also applied to isolates from the skin lesions, exhibiting the genetic variability of the parasite identified. To confirm which species of Leishmania was amplified in PCR, the sequencing method was performed, verifying 100% similarity with the Viannia subgenus. This study showed that L. (V.) braziliensis can spread to other sites besides the ulcerous lesions, such as intact skin, peripheral blood and internal organs, making it possibility for dogs to serve as active sources of parasite transmission. For definitive proof, xenodiagnostic test on intact skin of infected dogs, should be done. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Orbital Chondroma: A rare mesenchymal tumor of orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi S Kabra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While relatively common in the skeletal system, cartilaginous tumors are rarely seen originating from the orbit. Here, we report a rare case of an orbital chondroma. A 27-year-old male patient presented with a painless hard mass in the superonasal quadrant (SNQ of left orbit since 3 months. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity of both eyes was 20/20, with normal anterior and posterior segment with full movements of eyeballs and normal intraocular pressure. Computerized tomography scan revealed well defined soft tissue density lesion in SNQ of left orbit. Patient was operated for anteromedial orbitotomy under general anesthesia. Mass was excised intact and sent for histopathological examination (HPE. HPE report showed lobular aggregates of benign cartilaginous cells with mild atypia suggesting of benign cartilaginous tumor - chondroma. Very few cases of orbital chondroma have been reported in literature so far.

  16. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Fike, J.R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  17. Stochastic models for tumoral growth

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border, and surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stoch...

  18. Uterine mesenchymal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil A Sangle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine mesenchymal tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can frequently be diagnostically challenging. Differentiation between the benign and malignant counterparts of mesenchymal tumors is significant due to differences in clinical outcome, and the role of the surgical pathologist in making this distinction (especially in the difficult cases cannot be underestimated. Although immunohistochemical stains are supportive toward establishing a final diagnosis, the morphologic features trump all the other ancillary techniques for this group of neoplasms. This review therefore emphasizes the key morphologic features required to diagnose and distinguish uterine mesenchymal tumors from their mimics, with a brief description of the relevant immunohistochemical features.

  19. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  20. Comparison of allergenicity and immunogenicity of an intact allergen vaccine and commercially available allergoid products for birch pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, L; Henmar, H; Würtzen, P A; Lund, G; Hjortskov, N; Larsen, J N

    2007-04-01

    Specific immunotherapy with intact allergen vaccine is a well-documented treatment for allergic diseases. Different vaccine formulations are currently commercially available, the active ingredient either being intact allergens or chemically modified allergoids. The rationale behind allergoids is to decrease allergenicity while maintaining immunogenicity. However, data from the German health authorities based on reporting of adverse events over a 10-year period did not indicate increased safety of allergoids over intact allergens. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chemical modification on allergenicity and immunogenicity comparing four commercial allergoid products for birch pollen immunotherapy with an intact allergen vaccine. Solid-phase IgE inhibition and histamine release assays were selected as model systems for allergenicity, and a combination of human T cell proliferation and IgG titres following mouse immunizations were used to address the immunogenicity of the intact allergen vaccine and the four allergoids. In all assays, the products were normalized with respect to the manufacturer's recommended maintenance dose. IgE inhibition experiments showed a change in epitope composition comparing intact allergen vaccine with allergoid. One allergoid product induced enhanced histamine release compared to the intact allergens, while the other three allergoids showed reduced release. Standard T cell stimulation assays using lines from allergic patients showed a reduced response for all allergoids compared with the intact allergen vaccine regardless of the cell type used for antigen presentation. All allergoids showed reduced capacity to induce allergen-specific IgG responses in mice. While some allergoids were associated with reduced allergenicity, a clear reduction in immunogenicity was observed for all allergoid products compared with the intact allergen vaccine, and the commercial allergoids tested therefore do not fulfil the allergoid

  1. Inositol pyrophosphates promote tumor growth and metastasis by antagonizing liver kinase B1

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Feng; Xu, Jing; Fu, Chenglai; Cha, Jiyoung Y.; Gadalla, Moataz M.; Xu, Risheng; Barrow, James C.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2015-01-01

    Inositol pyrophosphates are messenger molecules incorporating the energetic pyrophosphate bond. Although they have been implicated in diverse biologic processes, their physiologic functions remain enigmatic. We show that the catalytic activity of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 2 (IP6K2), one of the principal enzymes generating the inositol pyrophosphate IP7 (5-diphosphoinositolpentakisphosphate), mediates cancer cell migration and tumor metastasis both in cell culture and intact mice. In th...

  2. Decomposition of intact chicken feathers by a thermophile in combination with an acidulocomposting garbage-treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeri, Yasushi; Matsui, Tatsunobu; Watanabe, Kunihiko

    2009-11-01

    In order to develop a practical method for the decomposition of intact chicken feathers, a moderate thermophile strain, Meiothermus ruber H328, having strong keratinolytic activity, was used in a bio-type garbage-treatment machine working with an acidulocomposting process. The addition of strain H328 cells (15 g) combined with acidulocomposting in the garbage machine resulted in 70% degradation of intact chicken feathers (30 g) within 14 d. This degradation efficiency is comparable to a previous result employing the strain as a single bacterium in flask culture, and it indicates that strain H328 can promote intact feather degradation activity in a garbage machine currently on the market.

  3. Transfer Comparison Study Nitrogen on the Intact and Decapitated Legumes by Using the 15N Labeling Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjayanto, Didik W.

    1998-01-01

    The experiment was done in order to evaluate the N transfer from the intact and decapitated legumes by using the 15 N labeling technique. Seven days after final labeling the above ground biomass from labeled legume species was removed and the remaining stalks capped to prevent regrowth. Twenty days after final labeling (fourteen days after capping) the all treatments were sample and analyzed. The decapitated legumes appeared to transfer more percentage N than the intact legumes. Although both decapitated and intact legumes transferred, the transfer of N did not incur a dry matter and N yield benefit

  4. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Benign Liver Tumors Back ...

  5. Overview of Heart Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors By Siddique A. Abbasi, MD, MSc, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University; Attending Cardiologist, Director of Heart Failure, and Director of Cardiac MRI, Providence VA Medical ...

  6. Renal tumors in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaya, J.; Garcia, P.

    1997-01-01

    The classification of childhood renal masses in updated, including the clinical signs and imaging techniques currently employed to confirm their presence and type them. Several bening and malignant childhood tumors are described in substantial detail. (Author) 24 refs

  7. Radioimmunoassays for tumor diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, J.

    1983-01-01

    Aside from imaging techniques several (radio-)immunological analyses are used for tumor diagnosis. Oncofetal antigens, for instance the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), have become the most important substances for many malignancies. However, nearly all of the so-called tumor markers are not suitable for early diagnosis or screening either because of low sensitivity or low tumor specifity. On the other hand follow-up measurements give a very sensitive index of the success of treatment and may indicate tumor progression when other signs are still not present. In some carcinomas and under some clinical circumstances tumorspecific markers are available and mandatory for detection and/or staging: AFP in hepatoma, acid phosphatase in metastasizing carcinoma of the prostate and serum thyreoglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.) [de

  8. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  9. Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina M; Bozeman, Erica N; Imasuen, Imade E; He, Sara; Daniels, Danielle; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate associated with cancer and its resistance to conventional treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy has led to the investigation of a variety of anti-cancer immunotherapies. The development of novel immunotherapies has been bolstered by the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), through gene sequencing and proteomics. One such immunotherapy employs established allogeneic human cancer cell lines to induce antitumor immunity in patients through TAA presentation. Allogeneic cancer immunotherapies are desirable in a clinical setting due to their ease of production and availability. This review aims to summarize clinical trials of allogeneic tumor immunotherapies in various cancer types. To date, clinical trials have shown limited success due potentially to extensive degrees of inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity found among cancer patients. However, these clinical results provide guidance for the rational design and creation of more effective allogeneic tumor immunotherapies for use as monotherapies or in combination with other therapies. PMID:24064957

  10. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It is not very .... was estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and ... cervical, ovarian, and urinary bladder cancers. Multiple.

  11. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones. They can press on or damage the pituitary gland and prevent it from secreting adequate levels of hormones. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2010). NINDS pituitary tumors information page . ...

  12. Noninvasive Assessment of Tumor Cell Proliferation in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Edinger

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Revealing the mechanisms of neoplastic disease and enhancing our ability to intervene in these processes requires an increased understanding of cellular and molecular changes as they occur in intact living animal models. We have begun to address these needs by developing a method of labeling tumor cells through constitutive expression of an optical reporter gene, noninvasively monitoring cellular proliferation in vivo using a sensitive photon detection system. A stable line of HeLa cells that expressed a modified firefly luciferase gene was generated, proliferation of these cells in irradiated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice was monitored. Tumor cells were introduced into animals via subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous inoculation and whole body images, that revealed tumor location and growth kinetics, were obtained. The number of photons that were emitted from the labeled tumor cells and transmitted through murine tissues was sufficient to detect 1×103 cells in the peritoneal cavity, 1×104 cells at subcutaneous sites and 1×106 circulating cells immediately following injection. The kinetics of cell proliferation, as measured by photon emission, was exponential in the peritoneal cavity and at subcutaneous sites. Intravenous inoculation resulted in detectable colonies of tumor cells in animals receiving more than 1×103 cells. Our demonstrated ability to detect small numbers of tumor cells in living animals noninvasively suggests that therapies designed to treat minimal disease states, as occur early in the disease course and after elimination of the tumor mass, may be monitored using this approach. Moreover, it may be possible to monitor micrometastases and evaluate the molecular steps in the metastatic process. Spatiotemporal analyses of neoplasia will improve the predictability of animal models of human disease as study groups can be followed over time, this method will accelerate development of novel therapeutic

  13. Silibinin inhibits accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor growth of murine breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forghani, Parvin; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad R; Waller, Edmund K

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC)s increase in blood and accumulate in the tumor microenvironment of tumor-bearing animals, contributing to immune suppression in cancer. Silibinin, a natural flavonoid from the seeds of milk thistle, has been developed as an anti-inflammatory agent and supportive care agent to reduce the toxicity of cancer chemotherapy. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effect of silibinin on MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice and antitumor activity of silibinin in a mouse model of breast cancer. 4T1 luciferase-transfected mammary carcinoma cells were injected into in the mammary fat pad female BALB/c mice, and female CB17-Prkdc Scid/J mice. Silibinin treatment started on day 4 or day 14 after tumor inoculation continued every other day. Tumor growth was monitored by bioluminescent imaging (BLI) measuring total photon flux. Flow cytometry measured total leukocytes, CD11b + Gr-1 + MDSC, and T cells in the blood and tumors of tumor-bearing mice. The effects of silibinin on 4T1 cell viability in vitro were measured by BLI. Treatment with silibinin increased overall survival in mice harboring tumors derived from the 4T1-luciferase breast cancer cell line, and reduced tumor volumes and numbers of CD11b + Gr-1 + MDSCs in the blood and tumor, and increased the content of T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Silibinin failed to inhibit tumor growth in immunocompromised severe combined immunodeficiency mice, supporting the hypothesis that anticancer effect of silibinin is immune-mediated. The antitumor activity of silibinin requires an intact host immune system and is associated with decreased accumulation of blood and tumor-associated MDSCs

  14. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  15. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  16. Perlecan and tumor angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of basement membranes (BMs) and connective tissues. The core protein of perlecan is divided into five domains based on sequence homology to other known proteins. Commonly, the N-terminal domain I of mammalian perlecan is substituted with thr...... have unwanted promoting effects on tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Understanding of these attributes at the molecular level may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention....

  17. Adrenocortical tumors in children

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    R.C. Ribeiro

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT are rare. In the USA, only about 25 new cases occur each year. In Southern Brazil, however, approximately 10 times that many cases are diagnosed each year. Most cases occur in the contiguous states of São Paulo and Paraná. The cause of this higher rate has not been identified. Familial genetic predisposition to cancer (p53 mutations and selected genetic syndromes (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have been associated with childhood ACT in general but not with the Brazilian counterpart. Most of the affected children are young girls with classic endocrine syndromes (virilizing and/or Cushing. Levels of urinary 17-ketosteroids and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, which are abnormal in approximately 90% of the cases, provide the pivotal clue to a diagnosis of ACT. Typical imaging findings of pediatric ACT consist of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor containing calcifications with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage. The pathologic classification of pediatric ACT is troublesome. Even an experienced pathologist can find it difficult to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery is the single most important procedure in the successful treatment of ACT. The role of chemotherapy in the management of childhood ACT has not been established although occasional tumors are responsive to mitotane or cisplatin-containing regimens. Because of the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease, prognostic factors have been difficult to establish in pediatric ACT. Patients with incomplete tumor resection or with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a dismal prognosis. In patients with localized and completely resected tumors, the size of the tumor has predictive value. Patients with large tumors have a much higher relapse rate than those with small tumors.

  18. Remodeling of Tumor Stroma and Response to Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Anna; Ganss, Ruth, E-mail: ganss@waimr.uwa.edu.au [Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, Centre for Medical Research, University of Western Australia, Perth 6000 (Australia)

    2012-03-27

    Solid tumors are intrinsically resistant to therapy. Cancer progression occurs when tumor cells orchestrate responses from diverse stromal cell types such as blood vessels and their support cells, inflammatory cells, and fibroblasts; these cells collectively form the tumor microenvironment and provide direct support for tumor growth, but also evasion from cytotoxic, immune and radiation therapies. An indirect result of abnormal and leaky blood vessels in solid tumors is high interstitial fluid pressure, which reduces drug penetration, but also creates a hypoxic environment that further augments tumor cell growth and metastatic spread. Importantly however, studies during the last decade have shown that the tumor stroma, including the vasculature, can be modulated, or re-educated, to allow better delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs or enhance the efficiency of active immune therapy. Such remodeling of the tumor stroma using genetic, pharmacological and other therapeutic approaches not only enhances selective access into tumors but also reduces toxic side effects. This review focuses on recent novel concepts to modulate tumor stroma and thus locally increase therapeutic efficacy.

  19. Remodeling of Tumor Stroma and Response to Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Anna; Ganss, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Solid tumors are intrinsically resistant to therapy. Cancer progression occurs when tumor cells orchestrate responses from diverse stromal cell types such as blood vessels and their support cells, inflammatory cells, and fibroblasts; these cells collectively form the tumor microenvironment and provide direct support for tumor growth, but also evasion from cytotoxic, immune and radiation therapies. An indirect result of abnormal and leaky blood vessels in solid tumors is high interstitial fluid pressure, which reduces drug penetration, but also creates a hypoxic environment that further augments tumor cell growth and metastatic spread. Importantly however, studies during the last decade have shown that the tumor stroma, including the vasculature, can be modulated, or re-educated, to allow better delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs or enhance the efficiency of active immune therapy. Such remodeling of the tumor stroma using genetic, pharmacological and other therapeutic approaches not only enhances selective access into tumors but also reduces toxic side effects. This review focuses on recent novel concepts to modulate tumor stroma and thus locally increase therapeutic efficacy

  20. Influence of metabolism modifiers of cyclic nucleotides on contractility of right ventricle of rat heart with intact and removed endocardial endothelium

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    Savić Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endocardial endothelium, a natural biological barrier between circulating blood in heart ventricle and cells, creates a complex yet finely tuned balance of interactions with the immediate environment. Objective. We investigated the roles of theophylline, nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and imidazole, an activator of phosphodiesterase on contractility of the right ventricle of rat heart, with intact and removed endocardial endothelium. Methods. Adult rats, of both sexes, type Wistar albino, were used in this experiment. All experiments were conducted on the preparations of the right ventricle using two experimental models. In the first experimental model, an endocardial endothelium (EE was preserved, and in the second model, an endocardial endothelium (-EE was removed using 1% solution Triton X-100. Results. Theophylline (1x10-2 mol/l expressed the positive inotropic effect on the heart, regardless of the presence of the endocardial endothelium. Inotropic response as multiple process can be induced by inhibition of phosphodiesterase, accumulation of cyclic nucleotides and activation of Ca2+ channels. Imidazole (2x10-3 mol/l increased the contractility of the right ventricle of the heart with EE. The modulator effect of endocardial endothelium on contractility of imidazole proved to be significant. As imidazole influenced the contractility of the right ventricle only in the presence of the endocardial endothelium, it is assumed that its effect is mediated via deliverance of endothelial mediators with positive inotropic effect. Conclusion. An intact endocardial endothelium is necessary for completion of contractile performance of the heart.

  1. Neuroendocrine tumors and smoking

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    Tanja Miličević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine cells are dispersed around the body and can be found within the gastrointestinal system, lungs, larynx, thymus, thyroid, adrenal, gonads, skin and other tissues. These cells form the so-called ''diffuse neuroendocrine system'' and tumors arising from them are defined as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs. The traditional classification of NETs based on their embryonic origin includes foregut tumors (lung, thymus, stomach, pancreas and duodenum, midgut tumors (beyond the ligament of Treitz of the duodenum to the proximal transverse colon and hindgut tumors (distal colon and rectum. NETs at each site are biologically and clinically distinct from their counterparts at other sites. Symptoms in patients with early disease are often insidious in onset, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The majority of these tumors are thus diagnosed at a stage at which the only curative treatment, radical surgical intervention, is no longer an option. Due to the increasing incidence and mortality, many studies have been conducted in order to identify risk factors for the development of NETs. Still, little is known especially when it comes to preventable risk factors such as smoking. This review will focus on smoking and its contribution to the development of different subtypes of NETs.

  2. Prospective Validation of a High Dimensional Shape Model for Organ Motion in Intact Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Casey W.; Green, Garrett; Noticewala, Sonal S.; Li, Nan; Shen, Hanjie [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Vaida, Florin [Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Mell, Loren K., E-mail: lmell@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: Validated models are needed to justify strategies to define planning target volumes (PTVs) for intact cervical cancer used in clinical practice. Our objective was to independently validate a previously published shape model, using data collected prospectively from clinical trials. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 42 patients with intact cervical cancer treated with daily fractionated pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy in one of 2 prospective clinical trials. We collected online cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans before each fraction. Clinical target volume (CTV) structures from the planning computed tomography scan were cast onto each CBCT scan after rigid registration and manually redrawn to account for organ motion and deformation. We applied the 95% isodose cloud from the planning computed tomography scan to each CBCT scan and computed any CTV outside the 95% isodose cloud. The primary aim was to determine the proportion of CTVs that were encompassed within the 95% isodose volume. A 1-sample t test was used to test the hypothesis that the probability of complete coverage was different from 95%. We used mixed-effects logistic regression to assess effects of time and patient variability. Results: The 95% isodose line completely encompassed 92.3% of all CTVs (95% confidence interval, 88.3%-96.4%), not significantly different from the 95% probability anticipated a priori (P=.19). The overall proportion of missed CTVs was small: the grand mean of covered CTVs was 99.9%, and 95.2% of misses were located in the anterior body of the uterus. Time did not affect coverage probability (P=.71). Conclusions: With the clinical implementation of a previously proposed PTV definition strategy based on a shape model for intact cervical cancer, the probability of CTV coverage was high and the volume of CTV missed was low. This PTV expansion strategy is acceptable for clinical trials and practice; however, we recommend daily

  3. Does intact pleura during internal mammary artery harvesting decreases pleuropulmonary complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paracha, V.I.; Iqbal, M.A.; Rashid, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects on postoperative pulmonary function of pleural integrity versus opened pleura, in patients who receive a left internal mammary artery graft. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi from June 2009 to Feb 2010. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted on 62 patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Group A consisted of patients who underwent internal mammary artery harvesting with opened pleura (n=31) while Group B consisted of patients having internal mammary artery harvested with intact pleura (n=31). To monitor pleuro-pulmonary complications, chest radiography was performed routinely 1 day before operation and on the second, fourth and sixth postoperative days. The preoperative, after extubation, and first postoperative day values of partial oxygen pressure (PaO/sub 2/), partial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO/sub 2/), oxygen (O/sub 2/) saturation and haematocrit were recorded for comparison. The effect of intact pleura on IMA traction was also recorded by serial cardiac enzymes measurement and electrocardiography in the immediate postoperative period. Results: Pleural effusion occurred more often in patients of Group A (35.5% versus 12.9%) which was statistically significant (P 0.038). However, no significant differences were recorded in postoperative respiratory complications. Reoperation for postoperative bleeding and tamponade was done in 6.5% and 3.2% of cases in Group B respectively but none Group A; however it was not statistically significant (P 0.076). The mean postoperative hospital stay was 7.84 days for Group A and 7.58 days for Group B. Conclusion: Pleural integrity during IMA harvesting decreases pleural effusion. Although, no significant differences were recorded in postoperative lung complications, intact pleural technique of IMA

  4. Human skin penetration of silver nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larese, Francesca Filon; D'Agostin, Flavia; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Renzi, Nadia; Bovenzi, Massimo; Maina, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest on nanoparticle safety for topical use. The benefits of nanoparticles have been shown in several scientific fields, but little is known about their potential to penetrate the skin. This study aims at evaluating in vitro skin penetration of silver nanoparticles. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with intact and damaged human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and 70 μg/cm 2 of silver nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone dispersed in synthetic sweat were applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. The receptor fluid measurements were performed by electro thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS). Human skin penetration was also determined by using transmission electron microscope (TEM) to verify the location of silver nanoparticles in exposed membranes. Median silver concentrations of 0.46 ng cm -2 (range -2 (range 0.43-11.6) were found in the receiving solutions of cells where the nanoparticles solution was applied on intact skin (eight cells) and on damaged skin (eight cells), respectively. Twenty-four hours silver flux permeation in damaged skin was 0.62 ± 0.2 ng cm -2 with a lag time <1 h. Our experimental data showed that silver nanoparticles absorption through intact and damaged skin was very low but detectable, and that in case of damaged skin it was possible an increasing permeation of silver applied as nanoparticles. Moreover, silver nanoparticles could be detected in the stratum corneum and the outermost surface of the epidermis by electron microscopy. We demonstrated for the first time that silver applied as nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone is able to permeate the damaged skin in an in vitro diffusion cell system

  5. Bioengineered human IAS reconstructs with functional and molecular properties similar to intact IAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-01-01

    Because of its critical importance in rectoanal incontinence, we determined the feasibility to reconstruct internal anal sphincter (IAS) from human IAS smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with functional and molecular attributes similar to the intact sphincter. The reconstructs were developed using SMCs from the circular smooth muscle layer of the human IAS, grown in smooth muscle differentiation media under sterile conditions in Sylgard-coated tissue culture plates with central Sylgard posts. The basal tone in the reconstructs and its changes were recorded following 0 Ca2+, KCl, bethanechol, isoproterenol, protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, and Rho kinase (ROCK) and PKC inhibitors Y-27632 and Gö-6850, respectively. Western blot (WB), immunofluorescence (IF), and immunocytochemical (IC) analyses were also performed. The reconstructs developed spontaneous tone (0.68 ± 0.26 mN). Bethanechol (a muscarinic agonist) and K+ depolarization produced contraction, whereas isoproterenol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) and Y-27632 produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the tone. Maximal decrease in basal tone with Y-27632 and Gö-6850 (each 10−5 M) was 80.45 ± 3.29 and 17.76 ± 3.50%, respectively. WB data with the IAS constructs′ SMCs revealed higher levels of RhoA/ROCK, protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor or inhibitory phosphoprotein for myosin phosphatase (CPI-17), phospho-CPI-17, MYPT1, and 20-kDa myosin light chain vs. rectal smooth muscle. WB, IF, and IC studies of original SMCs and redispersed from the reconstructs for the relative distribution of different signal transduction proteins confirmed the feasibility of reconstruction of IAS with functional properties similar to intact IAS and demonstrated the development of myogenic tone with critical dependence on RhoA/ROCK. We conclude that it is feasible to bioengineer IAS constructs using human IAS SMCs that behave like intact IAS. PMID:22790596

  6. Investigations on the role of hemoglobin in sulfide metabolism by intact human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Christopher L; Savitsky, Anton; Feelisch, Martin; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M

    2018-03-01

    In addition to their role as oxygen transporters, red blood cells (RBCs) contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis by regulating nitric oxide (NO) metabolism via interaction of hemoglobin (Hb) with nitrite and NO itself. RBCs were proposed to also participate in sulfide metabolism. Although Hb is known to react with sulfide, sulfide metabolism by intact RBCs has not been characterized so far. Therefore we explored the role of Hb in sulfide metabolism in intact human RBCs. We find that upon exposure of washed RBCs to sulfide, no changes in oxy/deoxyhemoglobin (oxy/deoxyHb) are observed by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy. However, sulfide reacts with methemoglobin (metHb), forming a methemoglobin-sulfide (metHb-SH) complex. Moreover, while metHb-SH is stable in cell-free systems even in the presence of biologically relevant thiols, it gradually decomposes to produce oxyHb, inorganic polysulfides and thiosulfate in intact cells, as detected by EPR and mass spectrometry. Taken together, our results demonstrate that under physiological conditions RBCs are able to metabolize sulfide via intermediate formation of a metHb-SH complex, which subsequently decomposes to oxyHb. We speculate that decomposition of metHb-SH is preceded by an inner-sphere electron transfer, forming reduced Hb (which binds oxygen to form oxyHb) and thiyl radical (a process we here define as "reductive sulfhydration"), which upon release, gives rise to the oxidized products, thiosulfate and polysulfides. Thus, not only is metHb an efficient scavenger and regulator of sulfide in blood, intracellular sulfide itself may play a role in keeping Hb in the reduced oxygen-binding form and, therefore, be involved in RBC physiology and function. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Release of proteins from intact chloroplasts induced by reactive oxygen species during biotic and abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Verma, Dheeraj; Jin, Shuangxia; Singh, Nameirakpam D; Daniell, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Plastids sustain life on this planet by providing food, feed, essential biomolecules and oxygen. Such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions require efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus. However, specific factors, especially large molecules, released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have not yet been fully elucidated. When tobacco and lettuce transplastomic plants expressing GFP within chloroplasts, were challenged with Erwinia carotovora (biotic stress) or paraquat (abiotic stress), GFP was released into the cytoplasm. During this process GFP moves gradually towards the envelope, creating a central red zone of chlorophyll fluorescence. GFP was then gradually released from intact chloroplasts into the cytoplasm with an intact vacuole and no other visible cellular damage. Different stages of GFP release were observed inside the same cell with a few chloroplasts completely releasing GFP with detection of only red chlorophyll fluorescence or with no reduction in GFP fluorescence or transitional steps between these two phases. Time lapse imaging by confocal microscopy clearly identified sequence of these events. Intactness of chloroplasts during this process was evident from chlorophyll fluorescence emanated from thylakoid membranes and in vivo Chla fluorescence measurements (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II) made before or after infection with pathogens to evaluate their photosynthetic competence. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion serve as signal molecules for generation of reactive oxygen species and Tiron, scavenger of superoxide anion, blocked release of GFP from chloroplasts. Significant increase in ion leakage in the presence of paraquat and light suggests changes in the chloroplast envelope to facilitate protein release. Release of GFP-RC101 (an antimicrobial peptide), which was triggered by Erwinia infection, ceased after conferring protection, further confirming this export phenomenon. These results suggest a

  8. Release of proteins from intact chloroplasts induced by reactive oxygen species during biotic and abiotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Chul Kwon

    Full Text Available Plastids sustain life on this planet by providing food, feed, essential biomolecules and oxygen. Such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions require efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus. However, specific factors, especially large molecules, released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have not yet been fully elucidated. When tobacco and lettuce transplastomic plants expressing GFP within chloroplasts, were challenged with Erwinia carotovora (biotic stress or paraquat (abiotic stress, GFP was released into the cytoplasm. During this process GFP moves gradually towards the envelope, creating a central red zone of chlorophyll fluorescence. GFP was then gradually released from intact chloroplasts into the cytoplasm with an intact vacuole and no other visible cellular damage. Different stages of GFP release were observed inside the same cell with a few chloroplasts completely releasing GFP with detection of only red chlorophyll fluorescence or with no reduction in GFP fluorescence or transitional steps between these two phases. Time lapse imaging by confocal microscopy clearly identified sequence of these events. Intactness of chloroplasts during this process was evident from chlorophyll fluorescence emanated from thylakoid membranes and in vivo Chla fluorescence measurements (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II made before or after infection with pathogens to evaluate their photosynthetic competence. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion serve as signal molecules for generation of reactive oxygen species and Tiron, scavenger of superoxide anion, blocked release of GFP from chloroplasts. Significant increase in ion leakage in the presence of paraquat and light suggests changes in the chloroplast envelope to facilitate protein release. Release of GFP-RC101 (an antimicrobial peptide, which was triggered by Erwinia infection, ceased after conferring protection, further confirming this export phenomenon. These

  9. Palladium nanoparticles exposure: Evaluation of permeation through damaged and intact human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Crosera, Matteo; Mauro, Marcella; Baracchini, Elena; Bovenzi, Massimo; Montini, Tiziano; Fornasiero, Paolo; Adami, Gianpiero

    2016-07-01

    The intensified use of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) in many chemical reactions, jewellery, electronic devices, in car catalytic converters and in biomedical applications lead to a significant increase in palladium exposure. Pd can cause allergic contact dermatitis when in contact with the skin. However, there is still a lack of toxicological data related to nano-structured palladium and information on human cutaneous absorption. In fact, PdNPs, can be absorbed through the skin in higher amounts than bulk Pd because NPs can release more ions. In our study, we evaluated the absorption of PdNPs, with a size of 10.7 ± 2.8 nm, using intact and damaged human skin in Franz cells. 0.60 mg cm(-2) of PdNPs were applied on skin surface for 24 h. Pd concentrations in the receiving solutions at the end of experiments were 0.098 ± 0.067 μg cm(-2) and 1.06 ± 0.44 μg cm(-2) in intact skin and damaged skin, respectively. Pd flux permeation after 24 h was 0.005 ± 0.003 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and 0.057 ± 0.030 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and lag time 4.8 ± 1.7 and 4.2 ± 3.6 h, for intact and damaged skin respectively. This study indicates that Pd can penetrate human skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of reactive Mn(III)-oxalate complexes on structurally intact plant cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summering, J. A.; Keiluweit, M.; Goni, M. A.; Nico, P. S.; Kleber, M.

    2011-12-01

    Lignin components in the in plant litter are commonly assumed to have longer residence times in soil than many other compounds, which are supposedly, more easily degradable. The supposed resistance of lignin compounds to decomposition is generally attributed to the complex chain of biochemical steps required to create footholds in the non-porous structure of ligno-cellulose in cell walls. Interestingly, Mn(III) complexes have shown the ability to degrade ligno-cellulose. Mn(III) chelated by ligands such as oxalate are soluble oxidizers with a high affinity for lignin structures. Here we determined (i) the formation and decay kinetics of the Mn(III)-oxalate complexes in aqueous solution and (ii) the effects that these complexes have on intact ligno-cellulose. UV/vis spectroscopy and iodometric titrations confirmed the transient nature of Mn(III)-oxalate complexes with decay rates being in the order of hours. Zinnia elegans tracheary elements - a model ligno-cellulose substrate - were treated with Mn(III)-oxalate complexes in a newly developed flow-through reactor. Soluble decomposition products released during the treatment were analyzed by GC/MS and the degree of cell integrity was measured by cell counts, pre- and post-treatment counts indicate a decrease in intact Zinnia elegans as a result of Mn(III)-treatment. GC/MS results showed the release of a multitude of solubilized lignin breakdown products from plant cell walls. We conclude that Mn(III)-oxalate complexes have the ability to lyse intact plant cells and solubilize lignin. Lignin decomposition may thus be seen as resource dependent, with Mn(III) a powerful resource that should be abundant in terrestrial characterized by frequent redox fluctuations.

  11. Spatially Rearranged Object Parts Can Facilitate Perception of Intact Whole Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eCacciamani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The familiarity of an object depends on the spatial arrangement of its parts; when the parts are spatially rearranged, they form a novel, unrecognizable configuration. Yet the same collection of parts comprises both the familiar and novel configuration. Is it possible that the collection of familiar parts activates a representation of the intact familiar configuration even when they are spatially rearranged? We presented novel configurations as primes before test displays that assayed effects on figure-ground perception from memories of intact familiar objects. In our test displays, two equal-area regions shared a central border; one region depicted a portion of a familiar object. Previous research with such displays has shown that participants are more likely to perceive the region depicting a familiar object as the figure and the abutting region as its ground when the familiar object is depicted in its upright orientation rather than upside down. The novel primes comprised either the same or a different collection of parts as the familiar object in the test display (part-rearranged and control primes, respectively. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the familiar region as figure in upright vs. inverted displays following part-rearranged primes but not control primes. Thus, priming with a novel configuration comprising the same familiar parts as the upcoming figure-ground display facilitated orientation-dependent effects of object memories on figure assignment. Similar results were obtained when the spatially rearranged collection of parts was suggested on the groundside of the prime’s border, suggesting that familiar parts in novel configurations access the representation of their corresponding intact whole object before figure assignment. These data demonstrate that familiar parts access memories of familiar objects even when they are arranged in a novel configuration.

  12. Spatially rearranged object parts can facilitate perception of intact whole objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciamani, Laura; Ayars, Alisabeth A; Peterson, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    The familiarity of an object depends on the spatial arrangement of its parts; when the parts are spatially rearranged, they form a novel, unrecognizable configuration. Yet the same collection of parts comprises both the familiar and novel configuration. Is it possible that the collection of familiar parts activates a representation of the intact familiar configuration even when they are spatially rearranged? We presented novel configurations as primes before test displays that assayed effects on figure-ground perception from memories of intact familiar objects. In our test displays, two equal-area regions shared a central border; one region depicted a portion of a familiar object. Previous research with such displays has shown that participants are more likely to perceive the region depicting a familiar object as the figure and the abutting region as its ground when the familiar object is depicted in its upright orientation rather than upside down. The novel primes comprised either the same or a different collection of parts as the familiar object in the test display (part-rearranged and control primes, respectively). We found that participants were more likely to perceive the familiar region as figure in upright vs. inverted displays following part-rearranged primes but not control primes. Thus, priming with a novel configuration comprising the same familiar parts as the upcoming figure-ground display facilitated orientation-dependent effects of object memories on figure assignment. Similar results were obtained when the spatially rearranged collection of parts was suggested on the groundside of the prime's border, suggesting that familiar parts in novel configurations access the representation of their corresponding intact whole object before figure assignment. These data demonstrate that familiar parts access memories of familiar objects even when they are arranged in a novel configuration.

  13. Enzymatic methylation of band 3 anion transporter in intact human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, L.L.; Clarke, S.

    1987-01-01

    Band 3, the anion transport protein of erythrocyte membranes, is a major methyl-accepting substrate of the intracellular erythrocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine: protein-D-aspartate O-methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.77). The localization of methylation sites in intact cells by analysis of proteolytic fragments indicated that sites were present in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain as well as the membranous C-terminal portion of the polypeptide. The amino acid residues that serve as carboxyl methylation sites of the erythrocyte anion transporter were also investigated. 3 H-Methylated band 3 was purified from intact erythrocytes incubated with L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine and from trypsinized and lysed erythrocytes incubated with S-adenosyl-L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine. After proteolytic digestion with carboxypeptidase Y, D-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl ester was isolated in low yields (9% and 1%, respectively) from each preparation. The bulk of the radioactivity was recovered as [ 3 H]methanol, and the amino acid residue(s) originally associated with these methyl groups could not be determined. No L-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl ester or glutamyl gamma-[ 3 H]methyl ester was detected. The formation of D-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl esters in this protein in intact cells resulted from protein carboxyl methyltransferase activity since it was inhibited by adenosine and homocysteine thiolactone, which increases the intracellular concentration of the potent product inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine, and cycloleucine, which prevents the formation of the substrate S-adenosyl-L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine

  14. Prototypic and Arkypallidal Neurons in the Dopamine-Intact External Globus Pallidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Azzedine; Mallet, Nicolas; Mohamed, Foad Y.; Sharott, Andrew; Dodson, Paul D.; Nakamura, Kouichi C.; Suri, Sana; Avery, Sophie V.; Larvin, Joseph T.; Garas, Farid N.; Garas, Shady N.; Vinciati, Federica; Morin, Stéphanie; Bezard, Erwan

    2015-01-01

    Studies in dopamine-depleted rats indicate that the external globus pallidus (GPe) contains two main types of GABAergic projection cell; so-called “prototypic” and “arkypallidal” neurons. Here, we used correlative anatomical and electrophysiological approaches in rats to determine whether and how this dichotomous organization applies to the dopamine-intact GPe. Prototypic neurons coexpressed the transcription factors Nkx2-1 and Lhx6, comprised approximately two-thirds of all GPe neurons, and were the major GPe cell type innervating the subthalamic nucleus (STN). In contrast, arkypallidal neurons expressed the transcription factor FoxP2, constituted just over one-fourth of GPe neurons, and innervated the striatum but not STN. In anesthetized dopamine-intact rats, molecularly identified prototypic neurons fired at relatively high rates and with high regularity, regardless of brain state (slow-wave activity or spontaneous activation). On average, arkypallidal neurons fired at lower rates and regularities than prototypic neurons, and the two cell types could be further distinguished by the temporal coupling of their firing to ongoing cortical oscillations. Complementing the activity differences observed in vivo, the autonomous firing of identified arkypallidal neurons in vitro was slower and more variable than that of prototypic neurons, which tallied with arkypallidal neurons displaying lower amplitudes of a “persistent” sodium current important for such pacemaking. Arkypallidal neurons also exhibited weaker driven and rebound firing compared with prototypic neurons. In conclusion, our data support the concept that a dichotomous functional organization, as actioned by arkypallidal and prototypic neurons with specialized molecular, structural, and physiological properties, is fundamental to the operations of the dopamine-intact GPe. PMID:25926446

  15. Clinical application of determination of plasma intact parathyroid hormone content in kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mei; Wang Zhaohui; Zhou Xiaoli; Ren Chunling; Chen Huaqian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe intact parathyroid hormone in kidney disease with clinical application. Methods: Plasma i-PTH level was measured in 46 patients with chronic renal insufficiency lose compensation stage, 39 patients with chronic renal failure, 35 patients with uremia. Besides, control group (n=41) was established. Results: Result shown that plasma i-PTH levels were experiment group and control group were obvious difference (P<0.01), among experiment group plasma i-PTH level was obvious difference (P<0.01). Conclusion: Results suggested along with renal function were worsen that plasma i-PTH level increasing gradually during renal insufficiency. (authors)

  16. In vitro permeation of palladium powders through intact and damaged human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosera, Matteo; Mauro, Marcella; Bovenzi, Massimo; Adami, Gianpiero; Baracchini, Elena; Maina, Giovanni; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2018-05-01

    The use of palladium (Pd) has grown in the last decades, commonly used in automotive catalytic converters, jewellery and dental restorations sectors. Both general and working population can be exposed to this metal, which may act as skin sensitizer. This study investigated in vitro palladium powders permeation through excised intact and damaged human skin using the Franz diffusion cell method and the effect of rapid skin decontamination using sodium laureth-sulphate. 1 mL of a 10 min sonicated suspension made of 2.5 g of Pd powder in 50 mL synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 and room temperature was applied to the outer surface of the skin membranes for 24 h. Pd permeation, assessed by ICP-MS, was higher when damaged skin was used (p = 0.03). Final flux permeation values and lag times were 0.02 ± 0.01 μg cm -2  h -1 and 6.00 ± 3.95 h for intact, and 0.10 ± 0.02 μg cm -2  h -1 and 2.05 ± 1.49 h for damaged skin samples, respectively. Damaged skin protocol enhances Pd skin penetration inside dermal layer (p = 0.04), thus making the metal available for systemic uptake. Pd penetration (p = 0.02) and permeation (p = 0.012) through intact skin decreased significantly when a cleaning procedure was applied. This study demonstrates that after skin exposure to Pd powders a small permeation of the metal happen both through intact and damaged skin and that an early decontamination with a common cleanser can significantly decrease the final amount of metal available forsystemic uptake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enzymatic changes in intact leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris following ozone fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dass, H C; Weaver, G M

    1972-01-01

    Enzymatic changes in the intact leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Seaway 65 were studied following ozone fumigation. It was found that peroxidase enzyme increased significantly with the ozone treatment in the first 48 h. Similarly, cellulase enzyme showed significant increase 48 h. following ozone treatment. Lactic dehydrogenase activity was not markedly affected by ozone treatment. Disc electrophoretic studies of peroxidase isoenzymes showed that ozone treatment induced a new band of peroxidase. The role of peroxidase, cellulase and lactic dehydrogenase enzymes is discussed in relation to ozone damage and the bronzing disorder in white beans. 22 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  18. Assessment of renal function following irradiation of the intact spleen for hodgkin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhead, B.M.; Dobbs, C.E.; Beard, M.F.; Tyson, J.W.; Fuller, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with clinical Stage IA to IIIB Hodgkin disease underwent extended-field radiotherapy, including the intact spleen. In 17 of those patients, there was little evidence of renal dysfunction resulting from partial irradiation of the left kidney, which is inherent in such treatment. While isotopic images revealed an anatomic defect in the upper pole of the left kidney in one-third of the patients, dynamic studies showed that this anatomic alteration was not accompanied by any demonstrable dysfunction. Consistently normal serum BUN and creatinine levels in all patients tended to affirm that conclusion

  19. Thermal deposition of intact tetrairon(III) single-molecule magnets in high-vacuum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheriti, Ludovica; Mannini, Matteo; Sorace, Lorenzo; Gorini, Lapo; Gatteschi, Dante; Caneschi, Andrea; Chiappe, Daniele; Moroni, Riccardo; de Mongeot, Francesco Buatier; Cornia, Andrea; Piras, Federica M; Magnani, Agnese; Sessoli, Roberta

    2009-06-01

    A tetrairon(III) single-molecule magnet is deposited using a thermal evaporation technique in high vacuum. The chemical integrity is demonstrated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry on a film deposited on Al foil, while superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry and alternating current susceptometry of a film deposited on a kapton substrate show magnetic properties identical to the pristine powder. High-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectra confirm the characteristic behavior for a system with S = 5 and a large Ising-type magnetic anisotropy. All these results indicate that the molecules are not damaged during the deposition procedure keeping intact the single-molecule magnet behavior.

  20. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and agenesis of the ductus arteriosus in a pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.J.; Patterson, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    A 7-week-old Wire Fox Terrier was admitted with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. The right ventricle and tricuspid valve were hypoplastic, and venous return to the right atrium reached the left side through an atrial septal defect. Oxygenation was via hyperplastic bronchial arteries. There was no evidence of the ductus arteriosus. Physical examination, plain and contrast radiography, and electrocardiography were performed. Clinical findings for this combination of defects were similar to those of more common defects (tetralogy of Fallot, patent ductus arteriosus

  1. A Universal Protocol for Photochemical Covalent Immobilization of Intact Carbohydrates for the Preparation of Carbohydrate Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huibin; Zhang, Yiming; Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-01-01

    A universal photochemical method has been established for the immobilization of intact carbohydrates and their analogues, and for the fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays. The method features the use of perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-modified substrates and the photochemical reaction of surface azido groups with printed carbohydrates. Various aldoses, ketoses, non-reducing sugars such as alditols and their derivatives can be directly arrayed on the PFPA-modified chips. The lectin-recognition ability of arrayed mannose, glucose and their oligo- and polysaccharides were confirmed using surface plasmon resonance imaging and laser-induced fluorescence imaging. PMID:21138274

  2. Superolateral dislocation of an intact mandibular condyle into the temporal fossa: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divashree; Khasgiwala, Ankit; Maheshwari, Bharat; Singh, Charanpreet; Shakya, Neelam

    2017-02-01

    Temporomandibular joint dislocation refers to the dislodgement of mandibular condyle from the glenoid fossa. Anterior and anteromedial dislocations of the mandibular condyle are frequently reported in the literature, but superolateral dislocation is a rare presentation. This report outlines a case of superolateral dislocation of an intact mandibular condyle that occurred in conjunction with an ipsilateral mandibular parasymphysis fracture. A review of the clinical features of superolateral dislocation of the mandibular condyle and the possible techniques of its reduction ranging from the most conservative means to extensive surgical interventions is presented. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Intact Pituitary Function is Decisive for the Catabolic Response to TNF-α

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Ermina; Møller, Andreas B; Jørgensen, Jens O L

    2015-01-01

    Context: TNF-α generates inflammatory responses and insulin resistance, lipolysis and protein breakdown. It is unclear whether these changes depend on intact hypothalamo-pituitary stress hormone responses triggering release of cortisol and growth hormone. Objective: To define differential effects......-α on lipase expression or regulation in fat. Conclusions: TNF-α increased both urea and amino acid fluxes and EGP significantly more in CTR compared to HP, suggesting that increases in endogenous cortisol and GH release are significant components of the metabolic response to TNF-α....

  4. Regulation of ion transport via apical purinergic receptors in intact rabbit airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Pedersen, Peter Steen

    2005-01-01

    and unidirectional Cl- fluxes decreased significantly. The results suggest that nucleotides released to the airway surface liquid exert an autocrine regulation of epithelial NaCl absorption mainly by inhibiting the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and paracellular anion conductance via a P2Y......We investigated purinergic receptors involved in ion transport regulation in the intact rabbit nasal airway epithelium. Stimulation of apical membrane P2Y receptors with ATP or UTP (200 microM) induced transient increases in short-circuit current (Isc) of 13 and 6% followed by sustained inhibitions...

  5. The Megameatus, Intact Prepuce Variant of Hypospadias: Use of the Inframeatal Vascularized Flap for Surgical Correction

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Cendron

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The megameatus intact prepuce (MIP) variant of hypospadias is a rare variant of hypospadias that is diagnosed either early at the time of circumcision or later as the foreskin is retracted. The true incidence of the anomaly is difficult to determine precisely as some patient never come to medical attention but is felt to under 5% of all cases of hypospadias. The purposes of this study are to review the embryology and clinical findings of MIP and then, in light of a personal expe...

  6. Use of electroporation to study the cytotoxic effects of fluorodeoxyuridylate in intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, M M; Sokoloski, J A; Bertino, J R; Narayanan, R

    1987-04-15

    The introduction of 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate and its analog, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate, into intact CCRF-CEM and NIH3T3 cells was achieved by electroporation. Following electroporation, cells were shown to be fully functional as monitored by the incorporation of deoxyuridylate, after conversion to thymidylate, into DNA. Pretreatment of cells with fluorodeoxyuridine completely abolished this effect. In contrast, introduction of the fluoro analog into cells by electroporation markedly inhibited both DNA synthesis and cell growth in a time-dependent manner. Thus, electroporation offers a powerful tool to permeabilize cells to a variety of cellular metabolites and antimetabolites.

  7. Overview of Methods Able to Overcome Impediments to tumor Drug Delivery with Special Attention to Tumor Interstitial Fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco eBaronzio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Every drug used to treat cancer (chemotherapeutics, immunologic, monoclonal antibodies, nanoparticles, radionuclides must reach the targeted cells through the tumor environment at adequate concentrations, in order to exert their cell-killing effects. For any of these agents to reach the goal cells they must overcome a number of impediments created by the tumor microenvironment, beginning with tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP and a multifactorial increase in composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM. A primary modifier of tumor microenvironment is hypoxia, which increases the production of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF. These growth factors released by both tumor cells and bone marrow recruited myeloid cells (MDS, form abnormal vasculature characterized by vessels that are tortuous and more permeable. Increased leakiness combined with increased inflammatory byproducts accumulates fluid within the tumor mass [tumor interstitial fluid (TIF], ultimately creating an increased pressure (TIFP. Fibroblasts are also up-regulated by the tumor microenvironment, and deposit fibers that further augment the density of the extracellular matrix (ECM, thus, further worsening the TIFP. Increased TIFP with the ECM are the major obstacles to adequate drug delivery. By decreasing TIFP and decreasing ECM density, we can expect an associated rise in drug concentration within the tumor itself. In this overview we will describe all the methods (drugs, nutraceuticals, physical methods of treatment able to lower TIFP and to modify ECM that can be used for increasing drug concentration within the tumor tissue.

  8. Ultralarge von Willebrand Factor Fibers Mediate Luminal Staphylococcus aureus Adhesion to an Intact Endothelial Cell Layer Under Shear Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappelbaum, Karin I.; Gorzelanny, Christian; Graessle, Sandra; Suckau, Jan; Laschke, Matthias W.; Bischoff, Markus; Bauer, Corinne; Schorpp-Kistner, Marina; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Obser, Tobias; Sinha, Bhanu; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2013-01-01

    Background During pathogenesis of infective endocarditis, Staphylococcus aureus adherence often occurs without identifiable preexisting heart disease. However, molecular mechanisms mediating initial bacterial adhesion to morphologically intact endocardium are largely unknown. Methods and Results

  9. Novel molecular events associated with altered steroidogenesis induced by exposure to atrazine in the intact and castrate male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology is increasingly focused on molecular events comprising adverse outcome pathways. Atrazine activates the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, but relationships to gonadal alterations are unknown. We characterized hormone profiles and adrenal (intact and castrate) and te...

  10. Cinacalcet reduces plasma intact parathyroid hormone, serum phosphate and calcium levels in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism irrespective of its severity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) - defined in terms of baseline plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level - and the magnitude of response to cinacalcet.

  11. Therapy-associated Solid Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, Lois B.

    2002-01-01

    As survival after a diagnosis of cancer improves, characterization of the late sequelae of treatment becomes critical. The development of second malignant neoplasms represents one of the most serious side effects of treatment with radiation and chemotherapy. Although secondary leukemia was the first reported carcinogenic effect resulting from cancer treatment, solid tumors now comprise the largest second tumor burden in some populations of survivors. It should be recognized, however, that solid cancers do not necessarily represent an adverse effect of therapy, but may also reflect the operation of shared etiologic factors, host determinants, gene-environment interactions, and other influences. Quantification of second cancer risk is important in terms of patient management, enabling clinicians to make informed decisions with regard to optimal treatment of the initial cancer, balancing efficacy against acute and chronic sequelae. This article focuses on selected highlights and recent developments in treatment-associated solid malignancies, with emphasis on radiotherapy and chemotherapy in adults, and summarizes areas for future research. Although cancer therapy represents a double-edged sword, it should always be recognized that it is advances in treatment that are largely responsible for the tremendous improvement in patient survival. Thus, the benefit derived from many cancer therapies far outweighs any risk of developing a second cancer

  12. Tumor detection using feature extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, A.S.; Amudhavalli, N.; Sivakolundu, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The assistance system for brain tumor detection helps the doctor to analyse the brain tumor in MRI image and help to make decision. The manual detection system takes 3 -5 hours time to analyse the tumor. Doctors are in a position to analyze the tumor faster and make a correct decision with an assistance system

  13. Wilms tumors: genotypes and phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Segers (Heidi)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, represents about 90% of all pediatric renal tumors and about 7% of all pediatric malignancies. Most Wilms tumors are unilateral, although in 5-10 % of the patients both kidneys are infected. Wilms tumor typically occurs between the age of 2 and 4 years,

  14. Cancer intravasation-on-a-chip : a LEGO house for tumors!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eslami Amirabadi, H.; Sahebali, Sh.; Miggiels, A.L.W.; Frimat, J.Ph.; Luttge, R.; den Toonder, J.

    2015-01-01

    The process where cancer cells leave the primary tumor and invade to the blood vessel. As shown in figure 1, intravasation is highly regulated by the micro-environment of the tumor. An important component of the micro-environment is the extracellular matrix (ECM) which can be seen as the building

  15. Probing the tumor microenvironment: collection and induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James K.; Padgen, Michael R.; Wang, Yarong; Entenberg, David; Gertler, Frank; Condeelis, John S.; Castracane, James

    2012-03-01

    The Nano Intravital Device, or NANIVID, is under development as an optically transparent, implantable tool to study the tumor microenvironment. Two etched glass substrates are sealed using a thin polymer membrane to create a reservoir with a single outlet. This reservoir is loaded with a hydrogel blend that contains growth factors or other chemicals to be delivered to the tumor microenvironment. When the device is implanted in the tumor, the hydrogel will swell and release these entrapped molecules, forming a gradient. Validation of the device has been performed in vitro using epidermal growth factor (EGF) and MenaINV, a highly invasive, rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. In both 2-D and 3-D environments, cells migrated toward the gradient of EGF released from the device. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of White Leghorn chicken eggs is being utilized to grow xenograft tumors that will be used for ex vivo cell collection. Device optimization is being performed for in vivo use as a tool to collect the invasive cell population. Preliminary cell collection experiments in vivo were performed using a mouse model of breast cancer. As a second application, the device is being explored as a delivery vehicle for chemicals that induce controlled changes in the tumor microenvironment. H2O2 was loaded in the device and generated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells near the device outlet. In the future, other induction targets will be explored, including hypoglycemia and the manipulation of extracellular matrix stiffness.

  16. Construction of disturbed and intact soil blocks to develop percolating soil based treatment systems for dirty water from dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, S K E; Chadwick, D R; Headon, D M

    2002-03-01

    Intact soil blocks with a surface area of 1.8 x 1.6 m, 1.0 m deep, were excavated in a coarse sandy loam. The sides of the soil blocks were supported with plywood before using hydraulic rams to force a steel cutting plate beneath them. Disturbed soil blocks of the same depth as the intact blocks were also established. Experiments were conducted to determine purification efficiencies for biological oxygen demand (BOD), molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP), nitrate and ammonium-N after the application of dirty water. A preliminary experiment is described where a low application of dirty water was applied to the soil blocks, 2 mm day(-1). In addition, a chloride tracer was conducted for the duration of the experiment. Disturbed soil had a purification efficiency for BOD of 99% compared to 96% from intact soil (Pammonium-N were 100 and 99%, respectively, for the intact and disturbed soils. Nitrate-N concentration increased in leachate from both treatments reaching maximum concentrations of 15 and 8 mg l(-1) from disturbed and intact soils, respectively. Chloride traces for each soil block followed similar patterns with 47 and 51% loss from disturbed and intact soils, respectively.

  17. Mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion chromatography for intact protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Guo, Zhimou; Hu, Zhuo; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-05-10

    A mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase C8PN composed of octyl and amino group has been developed for separation of intact protein. Before the separation of proteins, a set of probe compounds were employed to evaluate the chromatographic properties of C8PN, demonstrating typical reversed phase/positively charged repulsion interaction on this stationary phase as estimated. Then the new C8PN stationary phase was used to separate a standard protein mixture on the reversed phase mode. Compared with a commercial C4 stationary phase, it showed different selectivity for some proteins. In order to better understand the properties of C8PN, the effect of acetonitrile content was investigated based on retention equation. Higher values of the equation parameters on C8PN demonstrated that the protein retentions were more sensitive to the change of acetonitrile content. Besides, the influences of buffer salt additives on the protein retentions were also studied. The retention factors of the proteins got larger with the increase of buffer salt concentration, which confirmed the positively charged repulsion interaction on the column. Finally, the C8PN was further applied to separate oxidized- and reduced- forms of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone. Our study indicated the advantages and application potential of mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase for intact protein separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Management of threatening preterm labor with intact membranes: indications for antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, N

    2002-11-01

    To analyse the benefits and disadvantages of systematic antibiotic therapy in patient presenting a preterm labor with intact membranes. We reviewed French and English reports on Medline using to the following key words: "antibiotic therapy and preterm labor, preterm labor, streptococcus B, vaginose, mycoplasma, antenatal infection". The systematic prescription of antibiotics is not recommended for patients presenting preterm labor who have intact membranes and no symptoms of infection. The benefit of antibiotics is small and shows a tendency to prolong the pregnancy and the reduction of maternal infection. No benefit has been shown for neonatal results. When early-onset neonatal sepsis develops in a case in which antepartum chemoprophylaxis was used, the isolated bacteria will present an increasing risk of bacterial drug resistance. Local treatment (cream or pessary) do not belong in the treatment of threatening preterm labor and are not recommended for the prevention of prematurity or materno fetal infection. Risk groups of patients who present a positive vaginal colonization are subject to discussion. Studies do not allow us to ascertain that antibiotics have a beneficial effect on prematurity in these groups. Antibiotics are recommended for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. This treatment reduces prematurity and maternal infections. Despite poor consensus criteria, if threatening preterm labor is associated with a bacteriuria, experts usually recommend treatment.

  19. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes Dreier

    Full Text Available In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers that transport their cargo directly through the skin barrier, but mainly burst and fuse with the outer lipid layers of the stratum corneum. It was also found that the flexible liposomes showed a greater delivery of the fluorophore into the stratum corneum, indicating that they functioned as chemical permeability enhancers.

  20. Metabolic control over the oxygen consumption flux in intact skeletal muscle: in silico studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguzinski, Piotr; Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2006-12-01

    It has been postulated previously that a direct activation of all oxidative phosphorylation complexes in parallel with the activation of ATP usage and substrate dehydrogenation (the so-called each-step activation) is the main mechanism responsible for adjusting the rate of ATP production by mitochondria to the current energy demand during rest-to-work transition in intact skeletal muscle in vivo. The present in silico study, using a computer model of oxidative phosphorylation developed previously, analyzes the impact of the each-step-activation mechanism on the distribution of control (defined within Metabolic Control Analysis) over the oxygen consumption flux among the components of the bioenergetic system in intact oxidative skeletal muscle at different energy demands. It is demonstrated that in the absence of each-step activation, the oxidative phosphorylation complexes take over from ATP usage most of the control over the respiration rate and oxidative ATP production at higher (but still physiological) energy demands. This leads to a saturation of oxidative phosphorylation, impossibility of a further acceleration of oxidative ATP synthesis, and dramatic drop in the phosphorylation potential. On the other hand, the each-step-activation mechanism allows maintenance of a high degree of the control exerted by ATP usage over the ATP turnover and oxygen consumption flux even at high energy demands and thus enables a potentially very large increase in ATP turnover. It is also shown that low oxygen concentration shifts the metabolic control from ATP usage to cytochrome oxidase and thus limits the oxidative ATP production.

  1. Sequencing Larger Intact Proteins (30-70 kDa) with Activated Ion Electron Transfer Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Nicholas M.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of intact proteins via mass spectrometry can offer several benefits to proteome characterization, although the majority of top-down experiments focus on proteoforms in a relatively low mass range (AI-ETD) to proteins in the 30-70 kDa range. AI-ETD leverages infrared photo-activation concurrent to ETD reactions to improve sequence-informative product ion generation. This method generates more product ions and greater sequence coverage than conventional ETD, higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and ETD combined with supplemental HCD activation (EThcD). Importantly, AI-ETD provides the most thorough protein characterization for every precursor ion charge state investigated in this study, making it suitable as a universal fragmentation method in top-down experiments. Additionally, we highlight several acquisition strategies that can benefit characterization of larger proteins with AI-ETD, including combination of spectra from multiple ETD reaction times for a given precursor ion, multiple spectral acquisitions of the same precursor ion, and combination of spectra from two different dissociation methods (e.g., AI-ETD and HCD). In all, AI-ETD shows great promise as a method for dissociating larger intact protein ions as top-down proteomics continues to advance into larger mass ranges. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Screening of intact yeasts and cell extracts to reduce Scrapie prions during biotransformation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyben, David; Boqvist, Sofia; Passoth, Volkmar; Renström, Lena; Allard Bengtsson, Ulrika; Andréoletti, Olivier; Kiessling, Anders; Lundh, Torbjörn; Vågsholm, Ivar

    2018-02-08

    Yeasts can be used to convert organic food wastes to protein-rich animal feed in order to recapture nutrients. However, the reuse of animal-derived waste poses a risk for the transmission of infectious prions that can cause neurodegeneration and fatality in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of yeasts to reduce prion activity during the biotransformation of waste substrates-thereby becoming a biosafety hurdle in such a circular food system. During pre-screening, 30 yeast isolates were spiked with Classical Scrapie prions and incubated for 72 h in casein substrate, as a waste substitute. Based on reduced Scrapie seeding activity, waste biotransformation and protease activities, intact cells and cell extracts of 10 yeasts were further tested. Prion analysis showed that five yeast species reduced Scrapie seeding activity by approximately 1 log10 or 90%. Cryptococcus laurentii showed the most potential to reduce prion activity since both intact and extracted cells reduced Scrapie by 1 log10 and achieved the highest protease activity. These results show that select forms of yeast can act as a prion hurdle during the biotransformation of waste. However, the limited ability of yeasts to reduce prion activity warrants caution as a sole barrier to transmission as higher log reductions are needed before using waste-cultured yeast in circular food systems.

  3. IgE epitopes of intact and digested Ara h 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Nielsen, H.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    epitopes have been suggested to be of great importance. ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify IgE specific epitopes of intact and digested Ara h 1, and to compare epitope patterns between humans and rats. MethodsSera from five peanut allergic patients and five Brown Norway rats were used...... to identify intact and digested Ara h 1-specific IgE epitopes by competitive immunoscreening of a phage-displayed random hepta-mer peptide library using polyclonal IgE from the individual sera. The resulting peptide sequences were mapped on the surface of a three-dimensional structure of the Ara h 1 molecule...... to mimic epitopes using a computer-based algorithm. ResultsPatients as well as rats were shown to have individual IgE epitope patterns. All epitope mimics were conformational and found to cluster into three different areas of the Ara h 1 molecule. Five epitope motifs were identified by patient IgE, which...

  4. Clean Transfer of Large Graphene Single Crystals for High-Intactness Suspended Membranes and Liquid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jincan; Lin, Li; Sun, Luzhao; Huang, Yucheng; Koh, Ai Leen; Dang, Wenhui; Yin, Jianbo; Wang, Mingzhan; Tan, Congwei; Li, Tianran; Tan, Zhenjun; Liu, Zhongfan; Peng, Hailin

    2017-07-01

    The atomically thin 2D nature of suspended graphene membranes holds promising in numerous technological applications. In particular, the outstanding transparency to electron beam endows graphene membranes great potential as a candidate for specimen support of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, major hurdles remain to be addressed to acquire an ultraclean, high-intactness, and defect-free suspended graphene membrane. Here, a polymer-free clean transfer of sub-centimeter-sized graphene single crystals onto TEM grids to fabricate large-area and high-quality suspended graphene membranes has been achieved. Through the control of interfacial force during the transfer, the intactness of large-area graphene membranes can be as high as 95%, prominently larger than reported values in previous works. Graphene liquid cells are readily prepared by π-π stacking two clean single-crystal graphene TEM grids, in which atomic-scale resolution imaging and temporal evolution of colloid Au nanoparticles are recorded. This facile and scalable production of clean and high-quality suspended graphene membrane is promising toward their wide applications for electron and optical microscopy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. On Plant Detection of Intact Tomato Fruits Using Image Analysis and Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Yamamoto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fully automated yield estimation of intact fruits prior to harvesting provides various benefits to farmers. Until now, several studies have been conducted to estimate fruit yield using image-processing technologies. However, most of these techniques require thresholds for features such as color, shape and size. In addition, their performance strongly depends on the thresholds used, although optimal thresholds tend to vary with images. Furthermore, most of these techniques have attempted to detect only mature and immature fruits, although the number of young fruits is more important for the prediction of long-term fluctuations in yield. In this study, we aimed to develop a method to accurately detect individual intact tomato fruits including mature, immature and young fruits on a plant using a conventional RGB digital camera in conjunction with machine learning approaches. The developed method did not require an adjustment of threshold values for fruit detection from each image because image segmentation was conducted based on classification models generated in accordance with the color, shape, texture and size of the images. The results of fruit detection in the test images showed that the developed method achieved a recall of 0.80, while the precision was 0.88. The recall values of mature, immature and young fruits were 1.00, 0.80 and 0.78, respectively.

  6. Feasibility in multispectral imaging for predicting the content of bioactive compounds in intact tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-04-15

    Tomato is an important health-stimulating fruit because of the antioxidant properties of its main bioactive compounds, dominantly lycopene and phenolic compounds. Nowadays, product differentiation in the fruit market requires an accurate evaluation of these value-added compounds. An experiment was conducted to simultaneously and non-destructively measure lycopene and phenolic compounds content in intact tomatoes using multispectral imaging combined with chemometric methods. Partial least squares (PLS), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) were applied to develop quantitative models. Compared with PLS and LS-SVM, BPNN model considerably improved the performance with coefficient of determination in prediction (RP(2))=0.938 and 0.965, residual predictive deviation (RPD)=4.590 and 9.335 for lycopene and total phenolics content prediction, respectively. It is concluded that multispectral imaging is an attractive alternative to the standard methods for determination of bioactive compounds content in intact tomatoes, providing a useful platform for infield fruit sorting/grading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro comparison of human fibroblasts from intact and ruptured ACL for use in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Brune

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares fibroblasts extracted from intact and ruptured human anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL for creation of a tissue engineered ACL-construct, made of porcine small intestinal submucosal extracellular matrix (SIS-ECM seeded with these ACL cells. The comparison is based on histological, immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analyses. Differences were observed between cells in a ruptured ACL (rACL and cells in an intact ACL (iACL, particularly with regard to the expression of integrin subunits and smooth muscle actin (SMA. Despite these differences in the cell source, both cell populations behaved similarly when seeded on an SIS-ECM scaffold, with similar cell morphology, connective tissue organization and composition, SMA and integrin expression. This study shows the usefulness of naturally occurring scaffolds such as SIS-ECM for the study of cell behaviour in vitro, and illustrates the possibility to use autologous cells extracted from ruptured ACL biopsies as a source for tissue engineered ACL constructs.

  8. Rapid Diagnostic Assay for Intact Influenza Virus Using a High Affinity Hemagglutinin Binding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Caitlin E; Holstein, Carly A; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Bennett, Steven; Chevalier, Aaron; Nelson, Jorgen; Fu, Elain; Baker, David; Yager, Paul

    2017-06-20

    Influenza is a ubiquitous and recurring infection that results in approximately 500 000 deaths globally each year. Commercially available rapid diagnostic tests are based upon detection of the influenza nucleoprotein, which are limited in that they are unable to differentiate by species and require an additional viral lysis step. Sample preprocessing can be minimized or eliminated by targeting the intact influenza virus, thereby reducing assay complexity and leveraging the large number of hemagglutinin proteins on the surface of each virus. Here, we report the development of a paper-based influenza assay that targets the hemagglutinin protein; the assay employs a combination of antibodies and novel computationally designed, recombinant affinity proteins as the capture and detection agents. This system leverages the customizability of recombinant protein design to target the conserved receptor-binding pocket of the hemagglutinin protein and to match the trimeric nature of hemagglutinin for improved avidity. Using this assay, we demonstrate the first instance of intact influenza virus detection using a combination of antibody and affinity proteins within a porous network. The recombinant head region binder based assays yield superior analytical sensitivity as compared to the antibody based assay, with lower limits of detection of 3.54 × 10 7 and 1.34 × 10 7 CEID 50 /mL for the mixed and all binder stacks, respectively. Not only does this work describe the development of a novel influenza assay, it also demonstrates the power of recombinant affinity proteins for use in rapid diagnostic assays.

  9. Double Outlet Right Ventricle With Intact Ventricular Septum: Avulsion or Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sabarinath; Kumar, C J Ashok; Mathew, Thomas; Venkateshwarn, S; Jayakumar, K; Dharan, Baiju S

    2016-03-01

    Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is almost always associated with a ventricular septal defect. The variant of DORV with intact ventricular septum is very uncommon and may be associated with fetal demise or death immediately after birth. Reports of successful palliation of these patients to the stage of superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (bidirectional Glenn shunt) are rare. We describe the case of a child with DORV with intact ventricular septum who underwent successful palliation. This condition often provides a diagnostic, interventional, and surgical challenge. Patients generally require either balloon atrial septostomy or surgical atrial septectomy for survival, with the addition of a Blalock-Tausig shunt or pulmonary artery band depending on the pulmonary blood flow. Very few patients survive to a Glenn procedure. For those who do survive, a decision must be made regarding the management of the hypertensive and hypoplastic left ventricle (LV) and associated mitral regurgitation. The LV can be excluded by either mitral valve avulsion or closure (exclusion) of the mitral valve with a patch. The choice of the technique should be carefully made and depends in part on the size of the LV. In our patient, who was successfully palliated by bidirectional Glenn shunt, the LV was managed by means of mitral valve avulsion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Fluorescent-protein stabilization and high-resolution imaging of cleared, intact mouse brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Schwarz

    Full Text Available In order to observe and quantify long-range neuronal connections in intact mouse brain by light microscopy, it is first necessary to clear the brain, thus suppressing refractive-index variations. Here we describe a method that clears the brain and preserves the signal from proteinaceous fluorophores using a pH-adjusted non-aqueous index-matching medium. Successful clearing is enabled through the use of either 1-propanol or tert-butanol during dehydration whilst maintaining a basic pH. We show that high-resolution fluorescence imaging of entire, structurally intact juvenile and adult mouse brains is possible at subcellular resolution, even following many months in clearing solution. We also show that axonal long-range projections that are EGFP-labelled by modified Rabies virus can be imaged throughout the brain using a purpose-built light-sheet fluorescence microscope. To demonstrate the viability of the technique, we determined a detailed map of the monosynaptic projections onto a target cell population in the lateral entorhinal cortex. This example demonstrates that our method permits the quantification of whole-brain connectivity patterns at the subcellular level in the uncut brain.

  11. Intact skull chronic windows for mesoscopic wide-field imaging in awake mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silasi, Gergely; Xiao, Dongsheng; Vanni, Matthieu P.; Chen, Andrew C. N.; Murphy, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Craniotomy-based window implants are commonly used for microscopic imaging, in head-fixed rodents, however their field of view is typically small and incompatible with mesoscopic functional mapping of cortex. New Method We describe a reproducible and simple procedure for chronic through-bone wide-field imaging in awake head-fixed mice providing stable optical access for chronic imaging over large areas of the cortex for months. Results The preparation is produced by applying clear-drying dental cement to the intact mouse skull, followed by a glass coverslip to create a partially transparent imaging surface. Surgery time takes about 30 minutes. A single set-screw provides a stable means of attachment for mesoscale assessment without obscuring the cortical field of view. Comparison with Existing Methods We demonstrate the utility of this method by showing seed-pixel functional connectivity maps generated from spontaneous cortical activity of GCAMP6 signals in both awake and anesthetized mice. Conclusions We propose that the intact skull preparation described here may be used for most longitudinal studies that do not require micron scale resolution and where cortical neural or vascular signals are recorded with intrinsic sensors. PMID:27102043

  12. Single molecule approaches for quantifying transcription and degradation rates in intact mammalian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar Halpern, Keren; Itzkovitz, Shalev

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge in mammalian biology is to understand how rates of transcription and mRNA degradation jointly shape cellular gene expression. Powerful techniques have been developed for measuring these rates either genome-wide or at the single-molecule level, however these techniques are not applicable to assessment of cells within their native tissue microenvironment. Here we describe a technique based on single molecule Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization (smFISH) to measure transcription and degradation rates in intact mammalian tissues. The technique is based on dual-color libraries targeting the introns and exons of the genes of interest, enabling visualization and quantification of both nascent and mature mRNA. We present a software, TransQuant, that facilitates quantifying these rates from smFISH images. Our approach enables assessment of both transcription and degradation rates of any gene of interest while controlling for the inherent heterogeneity of intact tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transport of beta-aminopropionitrile through intact skin or scar tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibeault, J.D.; Cravens, R.B. Jr.; Chvapil, M.

    1989-01-01

    A lathyrogen, [ 14 C]aminopropionitrile (beta APN), was administered to 34 rats either in K-Y jelly or saline vehicles onto intact shaven skin or onto a healed splinted deep excision wound. The dynamics of beta APN transport and content in the skin or repair tissue was observed after 2, 5, 8, and 24 hr of topical administration. The repair tissue quickly absorbed the lathyrogen and reached maximum at the 2-hr sampling. The content of beta APN in the repair tissue was twice as high as that in K-Y jelly vehicle and remained high and stable for at least 24 hr only when beta APN was administered through a saline vehicle. The transport of beta APN through intact skin, irrespective of the vehicle tested, was slow and continuously increased. The study showed that almost 20% of the beta APN administered onto the wounded skin area was transported into the repair tissue within 2 hr. We suggest that, due to the absence of epidermal stratum corneum from the repair tissue, drugs, such as beta APN, penetrate quickly into the wound

  14. Radioassays for quantitation of intact complement proteins C2 and B in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, T J; Ueda, A; Volanakis, J E

    1988-05-25

    Availability of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies recognizing determinants on the major cleavage fragments of complement proteins C2 and B enabled development of sensitive radioassays which can be used to quantitate the intact proteins in human sera. Changes in C2 and B concentrations indicative of classical or alternative pathway activation, or both, were seen in normal serum after incubation with complement activators. The authors determined the normal range of C2 concentration to be 11-35 ..mu..g/ml in 32 healthy individuals, and that of protein B to be 74-286 ..mu..g/ml. Sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), septic shock, infections, and following orthopedic surgery were then assayed. Mean protein B concentration was significantly higher in SLE sera and in the infected and post-operative sera, and the mean C2 concentration in the septic shock group was significantly lower than the mean of healthy individuals. Intact C2 was not detected in known C2-deficient individuals. These assays allow parallel quantitation of the structurally and functionally homologous proteins of the classical (C2) and alternative (B) pathways, which is of interest in patients with genetic and acquired hypocomplementemia. 22 refs.; 3 figs.

  15. Characterization of intact subcellular bodies in whole bacteria by cryo-electron tomography and spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comolli, L R; Kundmann, M; Downing, K H

    2006-07-01

    We illustrate the combined use of cryo-electron tomography and spectroscopic difference imaging in the study of subcellular structure and subcellular bodies in whole bacteria. We limited our goal and focus to bodies with a distinct elemental composition that was in a sufficiently high concentration to provide the necessary signal-to-noise level at the relatively large sample thicknesses of the intact cell. This combination proved very powerful, as demonstrated by the identification of a phosphorus-rich body in Caulobacter crescentus. We also confirmed the presence of a body rich in carbon, demonstrated that these two types of bodies are readily recognized and distinguished from each other, and provided, for the first time to our knowledge, structural information about them in their intact state. In addition, we also showed the presence of a similar type of phosphorus-rich body in Deinococcus grandis, a member of a completely unrelated bacteria genus. Cryo-electron microscopy and tomography allowed the study of the biogenesis and morphology of these bodies at resolutions better than 10 nm, whereas spectroscopic difference imaging provided a direct identification of their chemical composition.

  16. Regrowth of Cirsium arvense from intact roots and root fragments at different soil depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen, Mette Goul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we measured the shoot rate from intact roots and from root fragments of Cirsium arvense at different digging depths and the number of leaves were used as estimate of minimum regenerative capacity. The experiments were performed on four sites with three or four repetitions of each treatment. On each site plot, the soil was removed down to a given depth within a 1 x 1 m square. All plant parts was excavated from the soil and the soil was either replaced without any root material, or roots of C. arvense was cut into 10 cm long fragments and replaced into the source hole. Shoot number, aboveground biomass and number of leaves were measured. Digging depth and time explained 50% - 60% of the variation in biomass (P<0.001. Replacement of root fragments increased the shoot number in one out of four treatments but did not affect biomass produced compared to production from undisturbed root systems. Number of leaves showed that shoots from all digging depths passed the level of minimum regenerative capacity. We conclude that the intact root system from all depths was able to regenerate within one season and it has a high contribution to the produced biomass compared with root fragments in the upper soil layers.

  17. Mass Spectrometry of Intact Proteins Reveals +98 u Chemical Artifacts Following Precipitation in Acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güray, Melda Z; Zheng, Shi; Doucette, Alan A

    2017-02-03

    Protein precipitation in acetone is frequently employed ahead of mass spectrometry for sample preconcentration and purification. Unfortunately, acetone is not chemically inert; mass artifacts have previously been observed on glycine-containing peptides when exposed to acetone under acidic conditions. We herein report a distinct chemical modification occurring at the level of intact proteins when incubated in acetone. This artifact manifests as one or more satellite peaks in the MS spectrum of intact protein, spaced 98 u above the mass of the unmodified protein. Other artifacts (+84, +112 u) also appear upon incubation of proteins or peptides in acetone. The reaction is pH-sensitive, being suppressed when proteins are exposed to acetone under acidic conditions. The +98 u artifact is speculated to originate through an intermediate product of aldol condensation of acetone to form diacetone alcohol and mesityl oxide. A +98 u product could originate from nucleophilic attack on mesityl oxide or through condensation with diacetone alcohol. Given the extent of modification possible upon exposure of proteins to acetone, particularly following overnight solvent exposure or incubation at room temperature, an awareness of the variables influencing this novel modification is valued by proteomics researchers who employ acetone precipitation for protein purification.

  18. Modeling of Recovery Profiles in Mentally Disabled and Intact Patients after Sevoflurane Anesthesia; A Pharmacodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Teo Jeon; Noh, Gyu-Jeong; Koo, Yong-Seo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mentally disabled patients show different recovery profiles compared to normal patients after general anesthesia. However, the relationship of dose-recovery profiles of mentally disabled patients has never been compared to that of normal patients. Materials and Methods Twenty patients (10 mentally disabled patients and 10 mentally intact patients) scheduled to dental surgery under general anesthesia was recruited. Sevoflurane was administered to maintain anesthesia during dental treatment. At the end of the surgery, sevoflurane was discontinued. End-tidal sevoflurane and recovery of consciousness (ROC) were recorded after sevoflurane discontinuation. The pharmacodynamic relation between the probability of ROC and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration was analyzed using NONMEM software (version VII). Results End-tidal sevoflurane concentration associated with 50% probability of ROC (C50) and γ value were lower in the mentally disabled patients (C50=0.37 vol %, γ=16.5 in mentally intact patients, C50=0.19 vol %, γ=4.58 in mentally disabled patients). Mentality was a significant covariate of C50 for ROC and γ value to pharmacodynamic model. Conclusion A sigmoid Emanx model explains the pharmacodynamic relationship between end-tidal sevoflurane concentration and ROC. Mentally disabled patients may recover slower from anesthesia at lower sevoflurane concentration at ROC an compared to normal patients. PMID:25323901

  19. Variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of intact cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Myung K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM is a powerful tool for observing fluorescently labeled molecules on the plasma membrane surface of animal cells. However, the utility of TIRFM in plant cell studies has been limited by the fact that plants have cell walls, thick peripheral layers surrounding the plasma membrane. Recently, a new technique known as variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM was developed to circumvent this problem. However, the lack of a detailed analysis of the optical principles underlying VAEM has limited its applications in plant-cell biology. Results Here, we present theoretical and experimental evidence supporting the use of variable-angle TIRFM in observations of intact plant cells. We show that when total internal reflection occurs at the cell wall/cytosol interface with an appropriate angle of incidence, an evanescent wave field of constant depth is produced inside the cytosol. Results of experimental TIRFM observations of the dynamic behaviors of phototropin 1 (a membrane receptor protein and clathrin light chain (a vesicle coat protein support our theoretical analysis. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that variable-angle TIRFM is appropriate for quantitative live imaging of cells in intact tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  20. Prediction of valid acidity in intact apples with Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-De; Ying, Yi-Bin; Fu, Xia-Ping

    2005-03-01

    To develop nondestructive acidity prediction for intact Fuji apples, the potential of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) method with fiber optics in interactance mode was investigated. Interactance in the 800 nm to 2619 nm region was measured for intact apples, harvested from early to late maturity stages. Spectral data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques including partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods. A total of 120 Fuji apples were tested and 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also quantified. Calibration models based on smoothing spectra were slightly worse than that based on derivative spectra, and the best result was obtained when the segment length was 5 nm and the gap size was 10 points. Depending on data preprocessing and PLS method, the best prediction model yielded correlation coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.759, low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0677, low root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.0562. The results indicated the feasibility of FT-NIR spectral analysis for predicting apple valid acidity in a nondestructive way.

  1. A high-throughput mass spectrometry assay to simultaneously measure intact insulin and C-peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven W; Clarke, Nigel J; Chen, Zhaohui; McPhaul, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of fasting levels of insulin and C-peptide are useful in documenting insulin resistance and may help predict development of diabetes mellitus. However, the specific insulin and C-peptide levels associated with specific degrees of insulin resistance have not been defined, owing to marked variability among immunoassays and lack of standardization. Herein, we describe a multiplexed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for intact insulin and C-peptide. Insulin and C-peptide were enriched from patient sera using monoclonal antibodies immobilized on magnetic beads and processed on a robotic liquid handler. Eluted peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Bovine insulin and a stable isotopically-labeled (13C/15N) C-peptide were utilized as internal standards. The assay had an analytical measurement range of 3 to 320 μIU/ml (18 to 1920 pmol/l) for insulin and 0.11 to 27.2 ng/ml (36 to 9006 pmol/l) for C-peptide. Intra- and inter-day assay variation was less than 11% for both peptides. Of the 5 insulin analogs commonly prescribed to treat diabetes, only the recombinant drug insulin lispro caused significant interference for the determination of endogenous insulin. There were no observed interferences for C-peptide. We developed and validated a high-throughput, quantitative, multiplexed LC-MS/MS assay for intact insulin and C-peptide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic transformation of intact Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis by high-voltage electroporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, D.A.; Harlander, S.K. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

    1989-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a system for electroporating intact cells of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 (previously designated Streptococcus lactis LM0230) with a commercially available electroporation unit. Parameters which influenced the efficiency of transformation included growth phase and final concentration of cells, ionic strength of the suspending medium, concentration of plasmid DNA, and the amplitude and duration of the pulse. Washed suspensions of intact cells suspended in deionized distilled water were subjected to one high-voltage electric pulse varying in voltage (300 to 900 V corresponding to field strengths of 5 to 17 kV/cm) and duration (100 {mu}s to 1 s). Transformation efficiencies of 10{sup 3} transformants per {mu}g of DNA were obtained when dense suspensions (final concentration, 5 {times} 10{sup 10} CFU/ml) of stationary-phase cells were subjected to one pulse with a peak voltage of 900 V (field strength, 17 kV/cm) and a pulse duration of 5 ms in the presence of plasmid DNA. Dilution of porated cells in broth medium followed by an expression period of 2 h at 30{degree}C was beneficial in enhancing transformation efficiencies. Plasmids ranging in size from 9.8 to 30.0 kilobase pairs could be transformed by this procedure.

  3. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  4. Effect of x irradiation on the vascularization of experimental animal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, Y; Ogawa, F; Nishiguchi, H; Tanaka, N; Murakami, K [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1975-03-01

    The authors studied the effect of ionizing radiation on blood vessels and tumor growth in two animal tumor systems: a third generation isoplants of a mammary cancer and a spontaneously arising squamous cell carcinoma. Single cell suspensions were transplanted into a C3H and a C3Hf mouse respectively. They were irradiated once with 2000 rad when the tumors reached about 8 mm in diameter. Microangiography was performed at a constant temperature and pressure, and a contrast medium containing lead-oxide and gelatin was flushed the vena cava for 10 min. at 120 mmHg. Tumor shrinkage was followed by continuous regrowth. The basic vasculature of the mammary carcinoma consisted of abundant large and fine blood vessels corkscrewed or stretched from the periphery of the tumor to its center in complex reticular networks. One day after irradiation there were small scattered avascular areas which, by the third day formed a large central necrosis. Supervascularization was also observed, indicating that some hypoxic tumor cells could be reoxygenized. In 5 days vascularization was similar to that of a nonirradiated tumor. Conversely, The squamous cell carcinoma showed peripheral and central vascularization with abundant vascular and avascular areas and extravasion in the large avascular area. Two days after irradiation the vessels were dilated. At 3 days peripheral fine vessels were damaged but the central vasculature remained intact. Unlike the mammary carcinoma, supervascularization was not the typical finding. At 5 days, vascularization was similar to that of a nonirradiated tumor.

  5. Tumor scintigram, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Shunichi; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Shimura, Kazuo; Ifuka, Keijiro

    1975-01-01

    In various cases of malignant tumors, especially those of lung cancer and liver cancer, scans were made with 57 Co-bleomycin(BLM), and its diagnostic significance was evaluated. Tumors were visualized with 57 Co-BLM in 22 of the 26 cases of lung cancer (84.6%). Concentrations of the RI were noted in all of the cases of squamous epithelium cancer, adenoid cancer and cellule-type undifferentiated cancer. The smallest tumor that could be detected was a 2 x 2 cm adenoid cancer. Tumors were imaged in 19 of the 27 cases of liver cancer (70.4%). This detection rate was increased by a combination of 57 Co-BLM and 198 Au-colloid scanning. The authors believe that 57 Co-BLM will help to establish the diagnosis of lung cancer or liver cancer. Tumors were also imaged in 6 of the 15 cases of breast cancer, but no distinct concentration was noted in the 7 cases of thyroid cancer. (Ueda, J.)

  6. Parotid hybrid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo C, Gustavo; Seymour M, Camila; Fernandez R, Lara; Villanueva I, Maria Elena; Scott C, Carlos; Celedon L, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands represent 33%-10% of head and neck neoplasms. The most common location is the parotid gland, accounting for 50%-85% of the cases, with 20%-30% of them being malignant. The following are known to be indicative of a malignant tumor: fast growing, painless mass, associated facial paralysis and lymphadenopathy. Most parotid neoplasm derive from a single histological type but eventually the development of more than one type on the same gland can occur. This paper presents a case of a parotid neoplasm with two different histological tumors, with uncharacteristic clinical presentation. The patient presented initially with ear pain and otorrhoea, in the clinical examination highlighted an external auditory canal tumor. The complementary study revealed a parotid neoplasm and a total resection of the gland was performed. The biopsy revealed an adenoid-cystic carcinoma with differentiated basaloid areas. Adjuvant radio-chemotherapy was administered, and the imaging control with PET-CT showed no evidence of recurrence or dissemination of the tumor

  7. Experimental Studies on Permeability of Intact and Singly Jointed Meta-Sedimentary Rocks Under Confining Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen; Li, Diyuan; Liu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Three different types of permeability tests were conducted on 23 intact and singly jointed rock specimens, which were cored from rock blocks collected from a rock cavern under construction in Singapore. The studied rock types belong to inter-bedded meta-sandstone and meta-siltstone with very low porosity and high uniaxial compressive strength. The transient pulse water flow method was employed to measure the permeability of intact meta-sandstone under a confining pressure up to 30 MPa. It showed that the magnitude order of meta-sandstone's intrinsic permeability is about 10-18 m2. The steady-state gas flow method was used to measure the permeability of both intact meta-siltstone and meta-sandstone in a triaxial cell under different confining pressures spanning from 2.5 to 10 MPa. The measured permeability of both rock types ranged from 10-21 to 10-20 m2. The influence of a single natural joint on the permeability of both rock types was studied by using the steady-state water flow method under different confining pressures spanning from 1.25 to 5.0 MPa, including loading and unloading phases. The measured permeability of both jointed rocks ranged from 10-13 to 10-11 m2, where the permeability of jointed meta-siltstone was usually slightly lower than that of jointed meta-sandstone. The permeability of jointed rocks decreases with increasing confining pressure, which can be well fitted by an empirical power law relationship between the permeability and confining pressure or effective pressure. The permeability of partly open cracked specimens is lower than that of open cracked specimens, but it is higher than that of the specimen with a dominant vein for the meta-sandstone under the same confining pressure. The permeability of open cracked rock specimens will partially recover during the unloading confining pressure process. The equivalent crack (joint) aperture is as narrow as a magnitude order of 10-6 m (1 μm) in the rock specimens under confining pressures

  8. A phase i study of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor ribociclib (LEE011) in patients with advanced solid tumors and lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Infante, Jeffrey R.; Cassier, Philippe A.; Gerecitano, John F.; Witteveen, Petronella O.; Chugh, Rashmi; Ribrag, Vincent; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Matano, Alessandro; Dobson, Jason R.; Crystal, Adam S.; Parasuraman, Sudha; Shapiro, Geoffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ribociclib (an oral, highly specific cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor) inhibits tumor growth in preclinical models with intact retinoblastoma protein (Rb+). This first-in-human study investigated the MTD, recommended dose for expansion (RDE), safety, preliminary activity,

  9. Intermitted pharmacologic pretreatment by xenon, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and the opioid morphine prevents tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced adhesion molecule expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Nina C.; Kandler, Jennis; Schlack, Wolfgang; Grueber, Yvonne; Frädorf, Jan; Preckel, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The barrier properties of the endothelium are of critical importance during pathophysiologic processes. These barrier properties depend on an intact cytoskeleton and are regulated by cell adhesion molecules. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to induce cell adhesion

  10. Tumor localization and biochemical response to cure in tumor-induced osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, William H; Andreopoulou, Panagiota; Chen, Clara C; Reynolds, James; Guthrie, Lori; Kelly, Marilyn; Gafni, Rachel I; Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Boyce, Alison M; El-Maouche, Diala; Crespo, Diana Ovejero; Sherry, Richard; Chang, Richard; Wodajo, Felasfa M; Kletter, Gad B; Dwyer, Andrew; Collins, Michael T

    2013-06-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare disorder of phosphate wasting due to fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23)-secreting tumors that are often difficult to locate. We present a systematic approach to tumor localization and postoperative biochemical changes in 31 subjects with TIO. All had failed either initial localization, or relocalization (in case of recurrence or metastases) at outside institutions. Functional imaging with ¹¹¹Indium-octreotide with single photon emission computed tomography (octreo-SPECT or SPECT/CT), and ¹⁸fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) were performed, followed by anatomic imaging (CT, MRI). Selective venous sampling (VS) was performed when multiple suspicious lesions were identified or high surgical risk was a concern. Tumors were localized in 20 of 31 subjects (64.5%). Nineteen of 20 subjects underwent octreo-SPECT imaging, and 16 of 20 FDG-PET/CT imaging. Eighteen of 19 (95%) were positive on octreo-SPECT, and 14 of 16 (88%) on FDG-PET/CT. Twelve of 20 subjects underwent VS; 10 of 12 (83%) were positive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were as follows: sensitivity = 0.95, specificity = 0.64, PPV = 0.82, and NPV = 0.88 for octreo-SPECT; sensitivity = 0.88, specificity = 0.36, PPV = 0.62, and NPV = 0.50 for FDG-PET/CT. Fifteen subjects had their tumor resected at our institution, and were disease-free at last follow-up. Serum phosphorus returned to normal in all subjects within 1 to 5 days. In 10 subjects who were followed for at least 7 days postoperatively, intact FGF23 (iFGF23) decreased to near undetectable within hours and returned to the normal range within 5 days. C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) decreased immediately but remained elevated, yielding a markedly elevated cFGF23/iFGF23 ratio. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25D) rose and exceeded the normal range. In this systematic approach to tumor

  11. Tumor radiation responses and tumor oxygenation in aging mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.

    1989-01-01

    EMT6 mouse mammary tumors transplanted into aging mice are less sensitive to radiation than tumors growing in young adult animals. The experiments reported here compare the radiation dose-response curves defining the survivals of tumor cells in aging mice and in young adult mice. Cell survival curves were assessed in normal air-breathing mice and in mice asphyxiated with N 2 to produce uniform hypoxia throughout the tumors. Analyses of survival curves revealed that 41% of viable malignant cells were severely hypoxic in tumors in aging mice, while only 19% of the tumor cells in young adult animals were radiobiologically hypoxic. This did not appear to reflect anaemia in the old animals. Treatment of aging animals with a perfluorochemical emulsion plus carbogen (95% O 2 /5% CO 2 ) increased radiation response of the tumors, apparently by improving tumor oxygenation and decreasing the number of severely hypoxic, radiation resistant cells in the tumors. (author)

  12. Radiology of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hako, R.; Hakova, H.; Gulova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors arise in the bronchopulmonary or gastrointestinal tract, but they can arise in almost any organ. The tumors have varied malignant potential depending on the site of their origin. Metastases may be present at the time of diagnosis, which often occurs at a late stage of the disease. Most NETs have nonspecific imaging characteristics. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the localization and staging of neuroendocrine tumors and in monitoring the treatment response. Imaging should involve multi-phase computed tomography, contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and other one. Hepatic metastatic disease in particular lends itself to a wide range of interventional treatment options. Transcatheter arterial embolization may be used alone or in combination with chemo embolization. Ablative techniques, hepatic cryotherapy and percutaneous ethanol injection may then be undertaken. A multidisciplinary approach to treatment and follow-up is important. (author)

  13. Bilateral Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, A.W.; Jaffe, N.; Folkman, M.J.; Cassady, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty children with bilateral Wilms' tumor were presented to the Children's Hospital Medical Center and Children's Cancer Research Foundation, Sidney Farber Cancer Institute, and Joint Center for Radiation Therapy (CHMC-CCRF, SFCI, JCRT) from January 1, 1956 to December 31, 1976. Of these 20, 16 had simultaneous and 4 had metachronous disease on presentation. All patients were treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Of the 16 patients with simultaneous disease, 10 (63%) are alive and free of disease 12+ to 175+ months post diagnosis and treatment, with median follow-up of 121 months. There were no long-term survivors in the metachronous group; all were dead of disease within 21 months from initial presentation of original tumor. With these data we relate prognosis to extent of disease and discuss a general approach to the management of bilateral Wilms' tumor

  14. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  15. Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Lim Suh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT is a benign glioneuronal neoplasm that most commonly occurs in children and young adults and may present with medically intractable, chronic seizures. Radiologically, this tumor is characterized by a cortical topography and lack of mass effect or perilesional edema. Partial complex seizures are the most common presentation. Three histologic subtypes of DNTs have been described. Histologically, the recognition of a unique, specific glioneuronal element in brain tumor samples from patients with medically intractable, chronic epilepsy serves as a diagnostic feature for complex or simple DNT types. However, nonspecific DNT has diagnostic difficulty because its histology is indistinguishable from conventional gliomas and because a specific glioneuronal element and/or multinodularity are absent. This review will focus on the clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features as well as the molecular genetics of all three variants of DNTs. The histological and cytological differential diagnoses for this lesion, especially the nonspecific variant, will be discussed.

  16. Mediastinal tumors. Update 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Thomas, C.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This volume represents the premier work devoted solely to the complex myriad of mediastinal tumors. The contributors to the state-of-the-art text are clinical investigators of international renown. The diagnosis, natural history, and therapeutic strategies in respect of all mediastinal tumors are thoroughly addressed in a concise and logical manner. An emphasis on the multidisciplinary nature of mediastinal tumors is thematic throughout the text. Moreover, the combined-modality treatment schemes that have been increasingly developed worldwide are analyzed. This textbook will prove of value to all general surgeons, thoracic surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pulmonologists, and endocrinologists, as well as to nursing and medical students, residents and fellows-in training. (orig.). 55 figs., 21 tabs

  17. A model of tumor architecture and spatial interactions with tumor microenvironment in breast carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Bassem; Bor-Angelier, Catherine; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Breast carcinomas are cancers that arise from the epithelial cells of the breast, which are the cells that line the lobules and the lactiferous ducts. Breast carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer and can be divided into different subtypes based on architectural features and growth patterns, recognized during a histopathological examination. Tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which tumor cells develop. Being composed of various cell types having different biological roles, TME is recognized as playing an important role in the progression of the disease. The architectural heterogeneity in breast carcinomas and the spatial interactions with TME are, to date, not well understood. Developing a spatial model of tumor architecture and spatial interactions with TME can advance our understanding of tumor heterogeneity. Furthermore, generating histological synthetic datasets can contribute to validating, and comparing analytical methods that are used in digital pathology. In this work, we propose a modeling method that applies to different breast carcinoma subtypes and TME spatial distributions based on mathematical morphology. The model is based on a few morphological parameters that give access to a large spectrum of breast tumor architectures and are able to differentiate in-situ ductal carcinomas (DCIS) and histological subtypes of invasive carcinomas such as ductal (IDC) and lobular carcinoma (ILC). In addition, a part of the parameters of the model controls the spatial distribution of TME relative to the tumor. The validation of the model has been performed by comparing morphological features between real and simulated images.

  18. Gastric stromal tumor: two-phase dynamic CT findings with water as oral contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Se Hyo; Cho, June Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Jeong, Ki Ho; Park, Jin Yong; Yu, Ho Jun; Kim, Young Min; Jeon, Kwang Jin

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate two-phase dynamic CT with water as oral contrast agents in the CT diagnosis of gastric stromal tumors. We retrospectively reviewed the CT findings in 21 patients with pathologically proven gastric stromal tumors. Six were found to be benign, twelve were malignant, and there were three cases of STUMP (stromal tumor uncertain malignant potential). Two-phase dynamic CT scans with water as oral contrast agents were obtained 60-70 secs (portal phase) and 3 mins (equilibrium phase) after the start of IV contrast administration. We determined the size, growth pattern, and enhancement pattern of the tumors and overlying mucosa, the presence or absence of ulceration and necrosis, tumor extent, and lymph nod and distant metastasis. The CT and pathologic findings were correlated. All six benign tumors and three STUMP were less than 5.5 cm in size, and during the portal phase showed round endogastric masses with highly enhanced, intact overlying mucosa. Twelve malignant tumors were 4.5-15.5 cm in size (mean, 11.5 cm); an endogastric mass was seen in three cases, an exogastric mass in one, and a mixed pattern in eight. On portal phase images the tumors were not significantly enhanced, but highly enhanced feeding vessels were noted in five larger tumors (greater than 10 cm). All 12 malignant tumors showed ulceration and necrosis, and interruption of overlying mucosa was clearly seen during the portal phase. We were readily able to evaluate tumor extent during this phase, and in ten malignant tumors there was no invasion of adjacent organs. Seven malignant tumors showed air density within their necrotic portion (p less than 0.05). On equilibrium phase images, all malignant tumors showed heterogeneous enhancement due to necrosis, and poorly enhanced overlying mucosa. Dynamic CT during the portal phase with water as oral contrast agents was useful for depicting the submucosal origin of gastric stromal tumors and for evaluating the extent of malignant stromal tumors. Our

  19. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Florenzano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome clinically characterized by bone pain, fractures and muscle weakness. It is caused by tumoral overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 that acts primarily at the proximal renal tubule, decreasing phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, thus producing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Lesions are typically small, benign mesenchymal tumors that may be found in bone or soft tissue, anywhere in the body. In up to 60% of these tumors, a fibronectin-1(FN1 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1 fusion gene has been identified that may serve as a tumoral driver. The diagnosis is established by the finding of acquired chronic hypophosphatemia due to isolated renal phosphate wasting with concomitant elevated or inappropriately normal blood levels of FGF23 and decreased or inappropriately normal 1,25-OH2-Vitamin D (1,25(OH2D. Locating the tumor is critical, as complete removal is curative. For this purpose, a step-wise approach is recommended, starting with a thorough medical history and physical examination, followed by functional imaging. Suspicious lesions should be confirmed by anatomical imaging, and if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23. If the tumor is not localized, or surgical resection is not possible, medical therapy with phosphate and active vitamin D is usually successful in healing the osteomalacia and reducing symptoms. However, compliance is often poor due to the frequent dosing regimen and side effects. Furthermore, careful monitoring is needed to avoid complications such us secondary/tertiary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis. Novel therapeutical approaches are being developed for TIO patients, such as image-guided tumor ablation and medical treatment with the anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody KRN23 or anti FGFR medications. The case of a patient with TIO is presented to

  20. Tumors of germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas, Ricardo; Avila, Andres

    2002-01-01

    The tumors of germinal cells (TGC) are derived neoplasia of the primordial germinal cells that in the life embryonic migrant from the primitive central nervous system until being located in the gonads. Their cause is even unknown and they represent 95% of the testicular tumors. In them, the intention of the treatment is always healing and the diagnostic has improved thanks to the results of the handling multidisciplinary. The paper includes topics like their incidence and prevalence, epidemiology and pathology, clinic and diagnoses among other topics

  1. 3D tumor tissue analogs and their orthotopic implants for understanding tumor-targeting of microenvironment-responsive nanosized chemotherapy and radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Pallavi; Jyoti, Amar; Swindell, Elden P; Chan, Ryan; Langner, Ulrich W; Feddock, Jonathan M; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Upreti, Meenakshi

    2015-11-01

    An appropriate representation of the tumor microenvironment in tumor models can have a pronounced impact on directing combinatorial treatment strategies and cancer nanotherapeutics. The present study develops a novel 3D co-culture spheroid model (3D TNBC) incorporating tumor cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts as color-coded murine tumor tissue analogs (TTA) to better represent the tumor milieu of triple negative breast cancer in vitro. Implantation of TTA orthotopically in nude mice, resulted in enhanced growth and aggressive metastasis to ectopic sites. Subsequently, the utility of the model is demonstrated for preferential targeting of irradiated tumor endothelial cells via radiation-induced stromal enrichment of galectin-1 using anginex conjugated nanoparticles (nanobins) carrying arsenic trioxide and cisplatin. Demonstration of a multimodal nanotherapeutic system and inclusion of the biological response to radiation using an in vitro/in vivo tumor model incorporating characteristics of tumor microenvironment presents an advance in preclinical evaluation of existing and novel cancer nanotherapies. Existing in-vivo tumor models are established by implanting tumor cells into nude mice. Here, the authors described their approach 3D spheres containing tumor cells, enodothelial cells and fibroblasts. This would mimic tumor micro-environment more realistically. This interesting 3D model should reflect more accurately tumor response to various drugs and would enable the design of new treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional and systemic distribution of anti-tumor x anti-CD3 heteroaggregate antibodies and cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in a human colon cancer xenograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.; Ramsey, P.S.; Kerr, L.A.; McKean, D.J.; Donohue, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Anti-tumor antibody (317G5) covalently coupled to an anti-CD3 antibody (OKT3) produces a heteroaggregate (HA) antibody that can target PBL to lyse tumor cells expressing the appropriate tumor Ag. The i.v. and i.p. distribution of radiolabeled HA antibody 317G5 x OKT3 and of radiolabeled cultured human PBL were studied in athymic nude mice bearing solid intraperitoneal tumor established from the human colon tumor line, LS174T. Mice were injected with 125I-labeled HA antibody, 125I-labeled anti-tumor mAb, or 111In-labeled PBL, and at designated timepoints tissues were harvested and measured for radioactivity. 125I-317G5 x OKT3 localized specifically to tumor sites. Tumor radioactivity levels (percent injected dose/gram) were lower with 125I-317G5 x OKT3 HA antibody than with 125I-317G5 anti-tumor mAb, but were similar to levels reported for other anti-tumor mAb. The major difference in radioactivity levels observed between i.v. and i.p. administration of 125I-317G5 x OKT3 was an increase in hepatic radioactivity after i.v. HA antibody administration. HA antibodies produced from F(ab')2 fragments, which exhibit decreased m. w. and decreased Fc receptor-mediated binding, demonstrated improved tumor:tissue ratios as compared to intact antibody HA. 125I-317G5 F(ab')2 x OKT3 F(ab')2 antibody levels were equivalent to intact HA antibody levels in tumor, but were lower than intact HA antibody levels in the blood, bowel, and liver. Tumor:bowel ratios (20:1 at 48 h) were highest when 317G5 F(ab')2 x OKT3 F(ab')2 was injected i.p. Autoradiography confirmed that anti-tumor x anti-CD3 HA antibodies localized specifically to intraperitoneal tumor; that i.p. administered HA antibodies penetrated tumor directly; and that i.v. administered HA antibodies distributed along tumor vasculature

  3. Information dynamics in carcinogenesis and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Robert A; Frieden, B Roy

    2004-12-21

    The storage and transmission of information is vital to the function of normal and transformed cells. We use methods from information theory and Monte Carlo theory to analyze the role of information in carcinogenesis. Our analysis demonstrates that, during somatic evolution of the malignant phenotype, the accumulation of genomic mutations degrades intracellular information. However, the degradation is constrained by the Darwinian somatic ecology in which mutant clones proliferate only when the mutation confers a selective growth advantage. In that environment, genes that normally decrease cellular proliferation, such as tumor suppressor or differentiation genes, suffer maximum information degradation. Conversely, those that increase proliferation, such as oncogenes, are conserved or exhibit only gain of function mutations. These constraints shield most cellular populations from catastrophic mutator-induced loss of the transmembrane entropy gradient and, therefore, cell death. The dynamics of constrained information degradation during carcinogenesis cause the tumor genome to asymptotically approach a minimum information state that is manifested clinically as dedifferentiation and unconstrained proliferation. Extreme physical information (EPI) theory demonstrates that altered information flow from cancer cells to their environment will manifest in-vivo as power law tumor growth with an exponent of size 1.62. This prediction is based only on the assumption that tumor cells are at an absolute information minimum and are capable of "free field" growth that is, they are unconstrained by external biological parameters. The prediction agrees remarkably well with several studies demonstrating power law growth in small human breast cancers with an exponent of 1.72+/-0.24. This successful derivation of an analytic expression for cancer growth from EPI alone supports the conceptual model that carcinogenesis is a process of constrained information degradation and that malignant

  4. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico. PMID:25992997

  5. Tumor Heterogeneity and Drug Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerova, L.; Skolekova, S.; Kozovska, Z.

    2015-01-01

    New generation of sequencing methodologies revealed unexpected complexity and genomic alterations linked with the tumor subtypes. This diversity exists across the tumor types, histologic tumor subtypes and subsets of the tumor cells within the same tumor. This phenomenon is termed tumor heterogeneity. Regardless of its origin and mechanisms of development it has a major impact in the clinical setting. Genetic, phenotypic and expression pattern diversity of tumors plays critical role in the selection of suitable treatment and also in the prognosis prediction. Intratumoral heterogeneity plays a key role in the intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance to cytotoxic and targeted therapies. In this review we focus on the mechanisms of intratumoral and inter tumoral heterogeneity and their relationship to the drug resistance. Understanding of the mechanisms and spatiotemporal dynamics of tumor heterogeneity development before and during the therapy is important for the ability to design individual treatment protocols suitable in the given molecular context. (author)

  6. Stochastic models for tumoral growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-02-01

    Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border and the surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stochastic partial differential equations are reported in this paper in order to correctly model the physical properties of tumoral growth in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions. The advantage of these models is that they reproduce the correct geometry of the tumor and are defined in terms of polar variables. An analysis of these models allows us to quantitatively estimate the response of the tumor to an unfavorable perturbation during growth.

  7. Aggression toward Familiar People, Strangers, and Conspecifics in Gonadectomized and Intact Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhoody, Parvene; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Tarwater, Patrick M; Serpell, James A; Duffy, Deborah L; Zink, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Gonadectomy is widely used to treat and prevent behavior problems including the aggressive behavior of dogs. The aim of this study was to determine whether aggressive behavior toward familiar people, strangers, or other dogs was significantly different in dogs gonadectomized at various ages vs. intact dogs using the Canine Behavioral Assessment Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) with multivariate analysis. Of 15,370 initial surveys, those for dogs reported to have been gonadectomized at less than 6 weeks of age or to correct a behavior problem, and those with incomplete answers to questions regarding independent or dependent variables were excluded, leaving 13,795 for the analysis of aggressive behavior toward familiar people: 13,498 for aggressive behavior toward strangers and 13,237 for aggressive behavior toward dogs. Aggressive behavior was defined (a) using mean scores for all questions on the C-BARQ for aggressive behavior (range 0-4) and (b) comparing dogs with no aggressive behavior (all questions answered 0) to dogs with moderate or severe aggression (at least one score of 2, 3, or 4). Data for intact dogs were compared with those for dogs gonadectomized at 6 months or less, 7-12 months, 11-18 months, and >18 months. Neither gonadectomy nor age at gonadectomy showed an association with aggression toward familiar people or dogs. However, there was a low but significant increase in the odds of moderate or severe aggression toward strangers for all gonadectomized dogs compared with intact dogs, but this effect was driven entirely by data for dogs gonadectomized at 7-12 months of age, which were 26% more likely to demonstrate aggression toward strangers. This large, comprehensive study of the relationships between gonadectomy and aggressive behavior in dogs demonstrates that when the many factors affecting aggressive behavior are considered, there is no evidence that gonadectomy at any age alters aggressive behavior toward familiar people or dogs

  8. [Analyses of the clinical characteristics of unilateral conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaoying; Zhang, Jishuai; Han, Weiju; Shen, Weidong; Liu, Jun; Hou, Zhaohui; Dai, Pu; Yang, Shiming; Han, Dongyi

    2016-05-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics of unilateral conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane, and summarize the key diagnostic points, differential diagnosis and observe the effects of surgical treatment. We reviewed data from 82 patients with unilateral conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membranes who accepted the exploratory tympanotomy from April 2011 to September 2013. There were 41 males and 41 females, aged from 7 to 66( averaged 26.5±13.7)years, with a history of one month to 50 years. The history, clinical symptoms, audiological evaluation, high resolution temporal bone CT, the results of surgical exploration and hearing reconstruction were analyzed. The exploratory tympanotomy revealed 43 cases of congenital middle ear malformations (52.4%), 22 cases of otosclerosis (26.8%), eight cases of congenital cholesteatoma (9.8%), six cases of trauma induced conductive hearing loss (7.3%), three cases of congenital ossicular malformations with congenital cholesteatoma (3.7%). Progressive hearing loss was common in patients with otosclerosis and congenital cholesteatoma, and patients with congenital middle ear malformations described their hearing loss since childhood. High resolution temporal bone CT of congenital middle ear malformation, trauma induced conductive hearing loss, congenital cholesteatoma diagnosis rate was 40.0%, 50.0%, and 83.3% respectively. The preoperative air-conductive threshold of patients with absence of the oval window were increased to (66.9±1.1)dBHL, the preoperative bone-conductive threshold achieved (28.3±10.4)dBHL at 2 000 Hz. While patients with stapes fixation and that with ossicular chain discontinuity were (27.2±9.7)dBHL and (17.8±8.8)dBHL(P=0.000)respectively. Through the tympanic exploration with endaural incision under the microscope, different hearing reconstruction were applied according to different lesions. After the operation, the hearing level of 52 patients with return visit were improved, the

  9. Tumor microenvironment indoctrination: an emerging hallmark of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Jacky G

    2012-01-01

    Nastiness of cancer does not only reside in the corruption of cancer cells by genetic aberrations that drive their sustained proliferative power--the roots of malignancy--but also in its aptitude to reciprocally sculpt its surrounding environment and cellular stromal ecosystem, in such a way that the corrupted tumor microenvironment becomes a full pro-tumorigenic entity. Such a contribution had been appreciated three decades ago already, with the discovery of tumor angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Nevertheless, the recent emergence of the tumor microenvironment as the critical determinant in cancer biology is paralleled by the promising therapeutic potential it carries, opening alternate routes to fight cancer. The study of the tumor microenvironment recruited numerous lead-scientists over the years, with distinct perspectives, and some of them have kindly accepted to contribute to the elaboration of this special issue entitled Tumor microenvironment indoctrination: An emerging hallmark of cancer.

  10. Migratory neighbors and distant invaders: tumor-associated niche cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wels, Jared; Kaplan, Rosandra N.; Rafii, Shahin; Lyden, David

    2008-01-01

    The cancer environment is comprised of tumor cells as well as a wide network of stromal and vascular cells participating in the cellular and molecular events necessary for invasion and metastasis. Tumor secretory factors can activate the migration of host cells, both near to and far from the primary tumor site, as well as promote the exodus of cells to distant tissues. Thus, the migration of stromal cells and tumor cells among specialized microenvironments takes place throughout tumor and metastatic progression, providing evidence for the systemic nature of a malignancy. Investigations of the tumor–stromal and stromal–stromal cross-talk involved in cellular migration in cancer may lead to the design of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:18316475

  11. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... breast and ascending colon. KEYWORDS: Carcinoid, colorectal cancer, metachronous, synchronous. Multiple Primary Tumors. MA Adeyanju, AA Ilori. Address for correspondence: Dr. MA Adeyanju,. Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Ebute Metta,. Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: mbadeyanju@yahoo.

  12. Surgery for adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamah, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the presentation, localization, pathology, surgical management and outcome of surgery for adrenal gland tumors. Design: Prospective clinico epidemiological study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of General Surgery, University Unit, Riyadh medical Complex Kingdom of Saudi Rabia from June, 1991 to may, 2001. Subjects and Methods: A total of 21 cases with adrenal tumors were studied for demographic data, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, localization, surgical management, pathology and outcome. The outcome of these patients was followed prospectively. Results: The study included 12 female and 9 male patients. The mean age at surgery was 36.7 years. Hypertension (69.%) was the commonest presentation in hypersecretory functional tumors. The localization accuracy for ultrasonography, computerized tomography, MRI and MIBG scan was 95.2%, 98.3% 87.8% and 83.6% respectively. Pheochromocytoma was the most common adrenal pathology observed in 14 (66.6%) cases. The overall morbidity was 19% with no hospital mortality. Complete follow-up of available 19 patients (90.5 %) revealed no tumor recurrence and persistent hypertension in 14.3% cases. Conclusion: surgery on adrenal glands is safe in experienced hands and is recommended in institutes with all backup facilities. (author)

  13. Study of wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.H.; Yaqub, N.

    2001-01-01

    This study is an effort to bring into light data related to children with Wilms' tumor managed at Islamabad as local literature on this topic is lacking. It was retrospective study. The study was conducted at Children Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Science, Islamabad between January, 1987 and December 1995. All patients managed during the study period were included in the study. In all the patients complete blood count (CBC), urine analysis (D/R),X-ray abdomen and chest, ultrasound abdomen and in selected cases CT scan were performed. National Wilms' Tumor Study Group (NWTS 3) protocol was followed for further management. Fifty patients including 28 males and 22 females with the age range from 9 months to 8 years were managed in 9 years period. Left kidney was involved in 31 patients. Most of the tumors were solid on ultrasound, 76% patients were in stage III and IV. In one case bilateral involvement of kidney was found. Forty patients underwent primary surgery. Only 14 patients received complete course of chemotherapy while 31 radiotherapy. Nineteen patients died and 15 lost to follow-up. The survival and mortality rates are comparable to NWTS-3 results, although, most of the patients were presented in advance stage of Wilms tumor. The survival of these patients can be improved by increasing awareness of society through electronic and print media. (author)

  14. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  15. Imaging findings of sacral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Sung Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik

    2003-01-01

    The various pathologic conditions detected at CT and MRI and subsumed by the term 'sacral tumor' include primary bone tumors, sacral canal tumors and metastases. Among these, metastases are much more common than primary bone tumors, of which chordoma is the most common. Although the imaging findings of sacral tumors are nonspecific, a patient's age and sex, and specific findings such as calcification or fluid-fluid levels, can help radiologists in their differential diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of primary sacral tumors, emphasizing the MRI findings

  16. MCDIRC: A model to estimate creep produced by microcracking around a shaft in intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.J.S.; Rigby, G.L.

    1989-12-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is studying the concept of disposing of nuclear fuel waste in a vault in plutonic rock. Models are being developed to predict the mechanical behaviour of the rock in response to excavation and heat from the waste. The dominant mechanism of deformation at temperatures below 150 degrees C is microcracking, which results in rock creep and a decrease in rock strength. A model has been constructed to consider the perturbation of the stress state of intact rock by a vertical cylindrical opening. Slow crack-growth data are used to estimate time-dependent changes in rock strength, from which the movement (creep) of the opening wall and radial strain in the rock mass can be estimated

  17. In vivo robotics: the automation of neuroscience and other intact-system biological fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Boyden, Edward S; Forest, Craig R

    2013-12-01

    Robotic and automation technologies have played a huge role in in vitro biological science, having proved critical for scientific endeavors such as genome sequencing and high-throughput screening. Robotic and automation strategies are beginning to play a greater role in in vivo and in situ sciences, especially when it comes to the difficult in vivo experiments required for understanding the neural mechanisms of behavior and disease. In this perspective, we discuss the prospects for robotics and automation to influence neuroscientific and intact-system biology fields. We discuss how robotic innovations might be created to open up new frontiers in basic and applied neuroscience and present a concrete example with our recent automation of in vivo whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology of neurons in the living mouse brain. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Mitochondrial and ER Calcium Uptake and Release Fluxes and their Interplay in Intact Nerve Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, David D.

    Ionized free Ca ( Ca 2+) is a ubiquitous signaling ion that serves as the critical link between a variety of physiological stimuli and their intracellular effectors. Previous studies of reduced in vitro preparations have provided functional characterizations of various Ca 2+ channels, pumps and exchangers that regulate cellular Ca 2+ movements. However, little is known about the functional interplay between transporters that are expressed together in intact cells and orchestrate stimulus-evoked changes in [ Ca 2+]. This review summarizes recent progress in characterizing Ca 2+ transporters in sympathetic neurons, which provide an ideal model for studying Ca 2+ dynamics in neurons. Our results show how the functional interplay between Ca 2+ transport systems that are regulated by Ca 2+ in quantitatively differ-ent ways leads to emergent properties of Ca 2+ signaling that are expected to play a critical role in defining how Ca 2+ serves its role as a signaling ion.

  19. Peptide fragments induce a more rapid immune response than intact proteins in earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusová, R; Tucková, L; Halada, P; Bezouska, K; Bilej, M

    1999-01-01

    The effect of in vivo proteolytic processing of protein antigen was studied in Eisenia foetida earthworms. Parenteral administration of the protein antigen induces elevated levels of an antigen-binding protein (ABP) which recognizes the protein used for stimulation. When the protein antigen is administered simultaneously with nontoxic serine proteinase inhibitor, ABP levels remain close to background. On the other hand, the in vivo adaptive response of earthworms to peptide fragments obtained by coelomic fluid digestion of the foreign antigen occurs even in the presence of proteinase inhibitor and, moreover, is significantly faster as compared to the response to intact antigen. These findings confirm the role of proteolytic processing in earthworms. MALDI mass spectrometric analysis of the fragments after coelomic fluid digestion has revealed the presence of the peptide fragments with molecular weights in the mass range 700-1100 Da.

  20. Numerical modeling of heat transfer and pasteurizing value during thermal processing of intact egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnezhad, Behzad; Hamdami, Nasser; Monteau, Jean-Yves; Vatankhah, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Thermal Pasteurization of Eggs, as a widely used nutritive food, has been simulated. A three-dimensional numerical model, computational fluid dynamics codes of heat transfer equations using heat natural convection, and conduction mechanisms, based on finite element method, was developed to study the effect of air cell size and eggshell thickness. The model, confirmed by comparing experimental and numerical results, was able to predict the temperature profiles, the slowest heating zone, and the required heating time during pasteurization of intact eggs. The results showed that the air cell acted as a heat insulator. Increasing the air cell volume resulted in decreasing of the heat transfer rate, and the increasing the required time of pasteurization (up to 14%). The findings show that the effect on thermal pasteurization of the eggshell thickness was not considerable in comparison to the air cell volume.