Board on Health Care Services Staff; Institute of Medicine Staff; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences
...: Insurance and Health Care , explores the myths and realities of who is uninsured, identifies social, economic, and policy factors that contribute to the situation, and describes the likelihood faced...
This study assesses the impact of the NHIS scheme in promoting access to health care. It identifies a need for all stakeholders to engage in the active promotion of awareness on health insurance as option of health care provisioning. It argues that health insurance can make health care more accessible to a wider segment ...
Sweden initiated a dental health care insurance in 1973. The health insurance is outlined, current problems and political issues are described. The benefits and limitations are described.......Sweden initiated a dental health care insurance in 1973. The health insurance is outlined, current problems and political issues are described. The benefits and limitations are described....
Health insurance helps protect you from high medical care costs. It is a contract between you and your ... Many people in the United States get a health insurance policy through their employers. In most cases, the ...
Health care spending in both the governmental and private sectors skyrocketed over the last century. This article examines the rapid growth of health care expenditures by analyzing the extent of this financial boom as well some of the reasons why health care financing has become so expensive. It also explores how the market concentration of insurance companies has led to growing insurer profits, fewer insurance providers, and less market competition. Based on economic data primarily from the Government Accountability Office, the Kaiser Family Foundation, and the American Medical Associa tion, it has become clear that this country needs more competitive rates for the business of health insurance. Because of the unique dynamics of health insurance payments and financing, America needs to promote affordability and innovation in the health insurance market and lower the market's high concentration levels. In the face of booming insurance profits, soaring premiums, many believe that in our consolidated health insurance market, the "business of insurance" should not be exempt from antitrust laws. All in all, it is in our nation's best interest that Congress restore the application of antitrust laws to health sector insurers by passing the Health Insurance Industry Antitrust Enforcement Act as an amendment to the McCarran-Ferguson Act's "business of insurance" provision.
de Meza, D
With rare exceptions the provision of actuarially fair health insurance tends to substantially increase the demand for medical care by redistributing income from the healthy to the sick. This suggests that previous studies which attribute all the extra demand for medical care to moral hazard effects may overestimate the efficiency costs of health insurance.
Perianayagam, Arokiasamy; Goli, Srinivas
India’s health care and health financing provision is characterized by too little Government spending on health, meager health insurance coverage, declining public health care use contrasted by highest levels of private out-of-pocket health spending in the world. To understand the interconnectedness of these disturbing outcomes, this paper envisions a theoretical framework of health insurance and health care revisits the existing health insurance schemes and assesses the health insurance cove...
incentive to reduce utilization Subsidy to leave TRICARE and use other private health insurance Increases in TRICARE premiums and co-pays This...analysis develops the estimated cost of providing health care through a premium -based insurance model consistent with an employer-sponsored benefit...State Income Plan premium data Contract cost data 22 May 2015 9 Agenda Overview Background Data Insurance Cost Estimate Methodology
Thailand has a universal multi-payer system with two main types of health insurance: National Health Security Office or public health insurance and private insurance. National health insurance is designed for people who are not eligible to be members of any employment-based health insurance program. Although private health insurance is also available, all Thai citizens are required to be enrolled in either national health insurance or employees? health insurance. There are many differences be...
This paper takes a different approach to estimating demand for medical care that uses the negotiated prices between insurers and providers as an instrument. The instrument is viewed as a textbook "cost shifting" instrument that impacts plan offerings, but is unobserved by consumers. The paper finds a price elasticity of demand of around -0.20, matching the elasticity found in the RAND Health Insurance Experiment. The paper also studies within-market variation in demand for prescription drugs and other medical care services and obtains comparable price elasticity estimates. Published by Elsevier B.V.
The financial exuberance that eventually culminated in the recent world economic crisis also ushered in dramatic shifts in how health care is financed, administered, and imagined. Drawing on research conducted in the mid-2000s at a health insurance company in Puerto Rico, this article shows how health care has been financialized in many ways that include: (1) privatizing public services; (2) engineering new insurance products like high deductible plans and health savings accounts; (3) applying financial techniques to premium payments to yield maximum profitability; (4) a managerial focus on shareholder value; and (5) prioritizing mergers and financial speculation. The article argues that financial techniques obfuscate how much health care costs, foster widespread gaming of reimbursement systems that drives up prices, and "unpool" risk by devolving financial and moral responsibility for health care onto individual consumers. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.
Stacey A. Tovino
Full Text Available This article compares and contrasts public and private health insurance coverage of skilled medical rehabilitation, including cognitive rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and skilled nursing services (collectively, skilled care. As background, prior scholars writing in this area have focused on Medicare coverage of skilled care and have challenged coverage determinations limiting Medicare coverage to beneficiaries who are able to demonstrate improvement in their conditions within a specific period of time (the Improvement Standard. By and large, these scholars have applauded the settlement agreement approved on 24 January 2013, by the U.S. District Court for the District of Vermont in Jimmo v. Sebelius (Jimmo, as well as related motions, rulings, orders, government fact sheets, and Medicare program manual statements clarifying that Medicare covers skilled care that is necessary to prevent or slow a beneficiary’s deterioration or to maintain a beneficiary at his or her maximum practicable level of function even though no further improvement in the beneficiary’s condition is expected. Scholars who have focused on beneficiaries who have suffered severe brain injuries, in particular, have framed public insurance coverage of skilled brain rehabilitation as an important civil, disability, and educational right. Given that approximately two-thirds of Americans with health insurance are covered by private health insurance and that many private health plans continue to require their insureds to demonstrate improvement within a short period of time to obtain coverage of skilled care, scholarship assessing private health insurance coverage of skilled care is important but noticeably absent from the literature. This article responds to this gap by highlighting state benchmark plans’ and other private health plans’ continued use of the Improvement Standard in skilled care coverage decisions and
Gavin, John N; Goodman, George; Goroff, David B
The owners of a health insurance/managed care business may want to sell that business for a variety of reasons. Health care provider systems may want to exit that business due to operating losses, difficulty in complying with regulations, the inherent conflict in operating that business as part of a provider system, or the desire to focus on being a health care provider. Health insurers/HMOs may want to sell all or a portion of their business due to operating losses, difficulty in servicing a particular market, or a desire to focus on other markets. No matter what reason prompts a seller to undertake a sale, a sale of health insurance/managed care business can be a complicated transaction involving a multitude of issues. This article will focus first on the ways in which such a sale may be structured. The article will then discuss some transactional issues that may arise in the negotiations for the sale of a health insurance/managed care business. The article will then focus on some particular legal issues that arise in each sale-e.g., antitrust, HIPAA, regulatory approvals, and charitable issues. Finally, this article will provide an overview of tax structuring considerations.
Board on Health Care Services Staff; Institute of Medicine Staff; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences
...? How does the system of insurance coverage in the U.S. operate, and where does it fail? The first of six Institute of Medicine reports that will examine in detail the consequences of having a large uninsured population, Coverage Matters...
Horne, L Chad
While citizens in a liberal democracy are generally expected to see to their basic needs out of their own income shares, health care is treated differently. Most rich liberal democracies provide their citizens with health care or health care insurance in kind. Is this "special" treatment justified? The predominant liberal account of justice in health care holds that the moral importance of health justifies treating health care as special in this way. I reject this approach and offer an alternative account. Health needs are not more important than other basic needs, but they are more unpredictable. I argue that citizens are owed access to insurance against health risks to provide stability in their future expectations and thus to protect their capacities for self-determination.
Saavedra-Avendaño, Biani; Darney, Blair G; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Serván-Mori, Edson
To test the association between public health insurance and adequate prenatal care among female adolescents in Mexico. Cross-sectional study, using the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2000, 2006, and 2012.We included 3 978 (N=4 522 296) adolescent (12-19) women who reported a live birth.We used logistic regression models to test the association of insurance and adequate (timeliness, frequency and content) prenatal care. The multivariable predicted probability of timely and frequent prenatal care improved over time, from 0.60 (IC95%:0.56;0.64) in 2000 to 0.71 (IC95%:0.66;0.76) in 2012. In 2012, the probability of adequate prenatal care was 0.54 (IC95%:0.49;0.58); women with Social Security had higher probability than women with Seguro Popular and without health insurance. Having Social Security is associated with receipt of adequate prenatal care among adolescents in Mexico.
Wang, Wenjuan; Temsah, Gheda; Mallick, Lindsay
While research has assessed the impact of health insurance on health care utilization, few studies have focused on the effects of health insurance on use of maternal health care. Analyzing nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), this study estimates the impact of health insurance status on the use of maternal health services in three countries with relatively high levels of health insurance coverage-Ghana, Indonesia and Rwanda. The analysis uses propensity score matching to adjust for selection bias in health insurance uptake and to assess the effect of health insurance on four measurements of maternal health care utilization: making at least one antenatal care visit; making four or more antenatal care visits; initiating antenatal care within the first trimester and giving birth in a health facility. Although health insurance schemes in these three countries are mostly designed to focus on the poor, coverage has been highly skewed toward the rich, especially in Ghana and Rwanda. Indonesia shows less variation in coverage by wealth status. The analysis found significant positive effects of health insurance coverage on at least two of the four measures of maternal health care utilization in each of the three countries. Indonesia stands out for the most systematic effect of health insurance across all four measures. The positive impact of health insurance appears more consistent on use of facility-based delivery than use of antenatal care. The analysis suggests that broadening health insurance to include income-sensitive premiums or exemptions for the poor and low or no copayments can increase use of maternal health care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... and 156 [CMS-9972-P] RIN 0938-AR40 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market... Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal...
Wong, Charlene A; Asch, David A; Vinoya, Cjloe M; Ford, Carol A; Baker, Tom; Town, Robert; Merchant, Raina M
We describe young adults' perspectives on health insurance and HealthCare.gov, including their attitudes toward health insurance, health insurance literacy, and benefit and plan preferences. We observed young adults aged 19-30 years in Philadelphia from January to March 2014 as they shopped for health insurance on HealthCare.gov. Participants were then interviewed to elicit their perceived advantages and disadvantages of insurance and factors considered important for plan selection. A 1-month follow-up interview assessed participants' plan enrollment decisions and intended use of health insurance. Data were analyzed using qualitative methodology, and salience scores were calculated for free-listing responses. We enrolled 33 highly educated young adults; 27 completed the follow-up interview. The most salient advantages of health insurance for young adults were access to preventive or primary care (salience score .28) and peace of mind (.27). The most salient disadvantage was the financial strain of paying for health insurance (.72). Participants revealed poor health insurance literacy with 48% incorrectly defining deductible and 78% incorrectly defining coinsurance. The most salient factors reported to influence plan selection were deductible (.48) and premium (.45) amounts as well as preventive care (.21) coverage. The most common intended health insurance use was primary care. Eight participants enrolled in HealthCare.gov plans: six selected silver plans, and three qualified for tax credits. Young adults' perspective on health insurance and enrollment via HealthCare.gov can inform strategies to design health insurance plans and communication about these plans in a way that engages and meets the needs of young adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik)
textabstractDoes medical insurance affect health care demand and in the end contribute to improvements in the health status? Evidence for China for the year 2004, by means of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), shows that health insurance does not affect health care demand in a significant
Gary Burtless; Pavel Svaton
Cash income offers an incomplete picture of the resources available to finance household consumption. Most American families are covered by an insurance plan that pays for some or all of the health care they consume. Only a comparatively small percentage of families pay for the full cost of this insurance out of their cash incomes. As health care has claimed a growing share of consumption, the percentage of care that is financed out of household incomes has declined. Because health care consu...
Newacheck, Paul W; Houtrow, Amy J; Romm, Diane L; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Bloom, Sheila R; Van Cleave, Jeanne M; Perrin, James M
Because of their elevated need for services, health insurance is particularly important for children with special health care needs. In this article we assess how well the current system is meeting the insurance needs of children with special health care needs and how emerging trends in health insurance may affect their well-being. We begin with a review of the evidence on the impact of health insurance on the health care experiences of children with special health care needs based on the peer-reviewed literature. We then assess how well the current system meets the needs of these children by using data from 2 editions of the National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs. Finally, we present an analysis of recent developments and emerging trends in the health insurance marketplace that may affect this population. Although a high proportion of children with special health care needs have insurance at any point in time, nearly 40% are either uninsured at least part of the year or have coverage that is inadequate. Recent expansions in public coverage, although offset in part by a contraction in employer-based coverage, have led to modest but significant reductions in the number of uninsured children with special health care needs. Emerging insurance products, including consumer-directed health plans, may expose children with special health care needs and their families to greater financial risks. Health insurance coverage has the potential to secure access to needed care and improve the quality of life for these children while protecting their families from financially burdensome health care expenses. Continued vigilance and advocacy for children and youth with special health care needs are needed to ensure that these children have access to adequate coverage and that they fare well under health care reform.
Yang, Zhou; Gilleskie, Donna B.; Norton, Edward C.
Prescription drug coverage creates a change in medical care consumption, beyond standard moral hazard, arising both from the differential cost-sharing and the relative effectiveness of different types of care. We model the dynamic supplemental health insurance decisions of Medicare beneficiaries, their medical care demand, and subsequent health…
Full Text Available Background: Indonesian's health care system is characterized by underutilized of the health-care infrastructure. One of the ways to improve the demand for formal health care is through health insurance. Responding to this potentially effective policy leads the Government of Indonesia to expand health insurance coverage by enacting the National Social Security Act in 2004. In this particular issue, understanding provider choice is therefore a key to address the broader policy question as to how the current low uptake of health care services could be turned in to an optimal utilization. Objective:To estimate a model of provider choice for outpatient care in Indonesia with specific attention being paid to the role of health insurance. Methods: A total of 16485 individuals were obtained from the second wave of the Indonesian Family Life survey. A multinomial logit regression model was applied to a estimate provider choice for outpatient care in three provider alternative (public, private and self-treatment. A policy simulation is reported as to how expanding insurance benefits could change the patterns of provider choice for outpatient health care services. Results: Individuals who are covered by civil servant insurance (Askes are more likely to use public providers, while the beneficiaries of private employees insurance (Jamsostek are more likely to use private ones compared with the uninsured population. The results also reveal that less healthy, unmarried, wealthier and better educated individuals are more likely to choose private providers than public providers. Conclusions: Any efforts to improve access to health care through health insurance will fail if policy-makers do not accommodate peoples' preferences for choosing health care providers. The likely changes in demand from public providers to private ones need to be considered in the current social health insurance reform process, especially in devising premium policies and benefit packages
objective of this paper is to examine factors influencing outpatient care demand in ..... Endogeneity of health insurance arises because the decision to purchase health ... insurance plan, or by purchasing privately a generous coverage. Existing ...
Ossa, Diego F; Towse, Adrian
The potential use of genetic tests in insurance has raised concerns about discrimination and individuals losing access to health care either because of refusals to test for treatable diseases, or because test-positives cannot afford premiums. Governments have so far largely sought to restrict the use of genetic information by insurance companies. To date the number of tests available with significant actuarial value is limited. However, this is likely to change, raising more clearly the question as to whether the social costs of adverse selection outweigh the social costs of individuals not accessing health care for fear of the consequences of test information being used in insurance markets. In this contribution we set out the policy context and model the potential trade-offs between the losses faced by insurers from adverse selection by insurees (which will increase premiums reducing consumer welfare) and the detrimental health effects that may result from persons refusing to undergo tests that could identify treatable health conditions. It argues that the optimal public policy on genetic testing should reflect overall societal benefit, taking account of these trade-offs. Based on our model, the factors that influence the outcome include: the size of and value attached to the health gains from treatment; deterrent effects of a disclosure requirement on testing for health reasons; incidence of the disease; propensity of test-positives to adverse select; policy value adverse selectors buy in a non-disclosure environment; and price elasticity of demand for insurance. Our illustrative model can be used as a benchmark for developing other scenarios or incorporating real data in order to address the impact of different policies on disclosure and requirement to test.
Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Akbari Sari, Ali; Moradi, Najme
Complementary health insurance is increasingly used to remedy the limitations and shortcomings of the basic health insurance benefit packages. Hence, it is essential to gather reliable information about the amount of Willingness to Pay (WTP) for health insurance. We assessed the WTP for health insurance in Iran in order to suggest an affordable complementary health insurance. The study sample consisted of 300 household heads all over provinces of Iran in 2013. The method applied was double bounded dichotomous choice and open-ended question approach of contingent valuation. The average WTP for complementary health insurance per person per month by double bounded dichotomous choice and open-ended question method respectively was 199000 and 115300 Rials (8 and 4.6 USD, respectively). Household's heads with higher levels of income and those who worked had more WTP for the health insurance. Besides, the WTP increased in direct proportion to the number of insured members of each household and in inverse proportion to the family size. The WTP value can be used as a premium in a society. As an important finding, the study indicated that the households were willing to pay higher premiums than currently collected for the complementary health insurance coverage in Iran. This offers the policy makers the opportunity to increase the premium and provide good benefits package for insured people of country then better risk pooling.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health care financing reforms in both China and Vietnam have resulted in greater financial difficulties in accessing health care, especially for the rural poor. Both countries have been developing rural health insurance for decades. This study aims to evaluate and compare equity in access to health care in rural health insurance system in the two countries. Methods Household survey and qualitative study were conducted in 6 counties in China and 4 districts in Vietnam. Health insurance policy and its impact on utilization of outpatient and inpatient service were analyzed and compared to measure equity in access to health care. Results In China, Health insurance membership had no significant impact on outpatient service utilization, while was associated with higher utilization of inpatient services, especially for the higher income group. Health insurance members in Vietnam had higher utilization rates of both outpatient and inpatient services than the non-members, with higher use among the lower than higher income groups. Qualitative results show that bureaucratic obstacles, low reimbursement rates, and poor service quality were the main barriers for members to use health insurance. Conclusions China has achieved high population coverage rate over a short time period, starting with a limited benefit package. However, poor people have less benefit from NCMS in terms of health service utilization. Compared to China, Vietnam health insurance system is doing better in equity in health service utilization within the health insurance members. However with low population coverage, a large proportion of population cannot enjoy the health insurance benefit. Mutual learning would help China and Vietnam address these challenges, and improve their policy design to promote equitable and sustainable health insurance.
Introduction Health care financing reforms in both China and Vietnam have resulted in greater financial difficulties in accessing health care, especially for the rural poor. Both countries have been developing rural health insurance for decades. This study aims to evaluate and compare equity in access to health care in rural health insurance system in the two countries. Methods Household survey and qualitative study were conducted in 6 counties in China and 4 districts in Vietnam. Health insurance policy and its impact on utilization of outpatient and inpatient service were analyzed and compared to measure equity in access to health care. Results In China, Health insurance membership had no significant impact on outpatient service utilization, while was associated with higher utilization of inpatient services, especially for the higher income group. Health insurance members in Vietnam had higher utilization rates of both outpatient and inpatient services than the non-members, with higher use among the lower than higher income groups. Qualitative results show that bureaucratic obstacles, low reimbursement rates, and poor service quality were the main barriers for members to use health insurance. Conclusions China has achieved high population coverage rate over a short time period, starting with a limited benefit package. However, poor people have less benefit from NCMS in terms of health service utilization. Compared to China, Vietnam health insurance system is doing better in equity in health service utilization within the health insurance members. However with low population coverage, a large proportion of population cannot enjoy the health insurance benefit. Mutual learning would help China and Vietnam address these challenges, and improve their policy design to promote equitable and sustainable health insurance. PMID:22376290
Percheski, Christine; Bzostek, Sharon
Objectives To estimate the impacts of public health insurance coverage on health care utilization and unmet health care needs for children in immigrant families. Methods We use survey data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (2001-2005) linked to data from Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) (2003-2007) for children with siblings in families headed by at least one immigrant parent. We use logit models with family fixed effects. Results Compared to their siblings with public insurance, uninsured children in immigrant families have higher odds of having no usual source of care, having no health care visits in a 2 year period, having high Emergency Department reliance, and having unmet health care needs. We find no statistically significant difference in the odds of having annual well-child visits. Conclusions for practice Previous research may have underestimated the impact of public health insurance for children in immigrant families. Children in immigrant families would likely benefit considerably from expansions of public health insurance eligibility to cover all children, including children without citizenship. Immigrant families that include both insured and uninsured children may benefit from additional referral and outreach efforts from health care providers to ensure that uninsured children have the same access to health care as their publicly-insured siblings.
Bolhaar, J.A.; van der Klaauw, B.; Lindeboom, M.
We find that asymmetric information is important for the uptake of supplementary private health insurance and health care utilization. We use dynamic panel data models to investigate the sources of asymmetric information and distinguish short-run selection effects into insurance from long-run
Fenny, Ama Pokuah; Enemark, Ulrika; Asante, Felix A
Ghana has initiated various health sector reforms over the past decades aimed at strengthening institutions, improving the overall health system and increasing access to healthcare services by all groups of people. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) instituted in 2005, is an innovative...... system aimed at making health care more accessible to people who need it. Currently, there is a growing amount of concern about the capacity of the NHIS to make quality health care accessible to its clients. A number of studies have concentrated on the effect of health insurance status on demand...... for health services, but have been quiet on supply side issues. The main aim of this study is to examine the overall satisfaction with health care among the insured and uninsured under the NHIS. The second aim is to explore the relations between overall satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics...
... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule implements provisions related to fair health insurance premiums, guaranteed...
Fenny, Ama P.; Enemark, Ulrika; Asante, Felix A.; Hansen, Kristian S.
Ghana has initiated various health sector reforms over the past decades aimed at strengthening institutions, improving the overall health system and increasing access to healthcare services by all groups of people. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) instituted in 2005, is an innovative system aimed at making health care more accessible to people who need it. Currently, there is a growing amount of concern about the capacity of the NHIS to make quality health care accessible to its clients. A number of studies have concentrated on the effect of health insurance status on demand for health services, but have been quiet on supply side issues. The main aim of this study is to examine the overall satisfaction with health care among the insured and uninsured under the NHIS. The second aim is to explore the relations between overall satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics, health insurance and the various dimensions of quality of care. This study employs logistic regression using household survey data in three districts in Ghana covering the 3 ecological zones (coastal, forest and savannah). It identifies the service quality factors that are important to patients’ satisfaction and examines their links to their health insurance status. The results indicate that a higher proportion of insured patients are satisfied with the overall quality of care compared to the uninsured. The key predictors of overall satisfaction are waiting time, friendliness of staff and satisfaction of the consultation process. These results highlight the importance of interpersonal care in health care facilities. Feedback from patients’ perception of health services and satisfaction surveys improve the quality of care provided and therefore effort must be made to include these findings in future health policies. PMID:24999137
Fenny, Ama Pokuaa; Enemark, Ulrika; Asante, Felix A; Hansen, Kristian S
Ghana has initiated various health sector reforms over the past decades aimed at strengthening institutions, improving the overall health system and increasing access to healthcare services by all groups of people. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) instituted in 2005, is an innovative system aimed at making health care more accessible to people who need it. Currently, there is a growing amount of concern about the capacity of the NHIS to make quality health care accessible to its clients. A number of studies have concentrated on the effect of health insurance status on demand for health services, but have been quiet on supply side issues. The main aim of this study is to examine the overall satisfaction with health care among the insured and uninsured under the NHIS. The second aim is to explore the relations between overall satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics, health insurance and the various dimensions of quality of care. This study employs logistic regression using household survey data in three districts in Ghana covering the 3 ecological zones (coastal, forest and savannah). It identifies the service quality factors that are important to patients' satisfaction and examines their links to their health insurance status. The results indicate that a higher proportion of insured patients are satisfied with the overall quality of care compared to the uninsured. The key predictors of overall satisfaction are waiting time, friendliness of staff and satisfaction of the consultation process. These results highlight the importance of interpersonal care in health care facilities. Feedback from patients' perception of health services and satisfaction surveys improve the quality of care provided and therefore effort must be made to include these findings in future health policies.
Berg, B. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Stam, P.; Laske-Aldershof, T.; Buchmueller, T.; Schut, F.T.
Legislation that came into effect in 2006 has dramatically altered the health insurance system in the Netherlands, placing greater emphasis on consumer choice and competition among insurers. The potential for such competition depends largely on consumer preferences for price and quality of service
DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Baez, Alia; Angier, Heather; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Carney, Patricia A.
PURPOSE Public health insurance programs have expanded coverage for the poor, and family physicians provide essential services to these vulnerable populations. Despite these efforts, many Americans do not have access to basic medical care. This study was designed to identify barriers faced by low-income parents when accessing health care for their children and how insurance status affects their reporting of these barriers. METHODS A mixed methods analysis was undertaken using 722 responses to an open-ended question on a health care access survey instrument that asked low-income Oregon families, “Is there anything else you would like to tell us?” Themes were identified using immersion/crystallization techniques. Pertinent demographic attributes were used to conduct matrix coded queries. RESULTS Families reported 3 major barriers: lack of insurance coverage, poor access to services, and unaffordable costs. Disproportionate reporting of these themes was most notable based on insurance status. A higher percentage of uninsured parents (87%) reported experiencing difficulties obtaining insurance coverage compared with 40% of those with insurance. Few of the uninsured expressed concerns about access to services or health care costs (19%). Access concerns were the most common among publicly insured families, and costs were more often mentioned by families with private insurance. Families made a clear distinction between insurance and access, and having one or both elements did not assure care. Our analyses uncovered a 3-part typology of barriers to health care for low-income families. CONCLUSIONS Barriers to health care can be insurmountable for low-income families, even those with insurance coverage. Patients who do not seek care in a family medicine clinic are not necessarily getting their care elsewhere. PMID:18025488
Devoe, Jennifer E; Baez, Alia; Angier, Heather; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Carney, Patricia A
Public health insurance programs have expanded coverage for the poor, and family physicians provide essential services to these vulnerable populations. Despite these efforts, many Americans do not have access to basic medical care. This study was designed to identify barriers faced by low-income parents when accessing health care for their children and how insurance status affects their reporting of these barriers. A mixed methods analysis was undertaken using 722 responses to an open-ended question on a health care access survey instrument that asked low-income Oregon families, "Is there anything else you would like to tell us?" Themes were identified using immersion/crystallization techniques. Pertinent demographic attributes were used to conduct matrix coded queries. Families reported 3 major barriers: lack of insurance coverage, poor access to services, and unaffordable costs. Disproportionate reporting of these themes was most notable based on insurance status. A higher percentage of uninsured parents (87%) reported experiencing difficulties obtaining insurance coverage compared with 40% of those with insurance. Few of the uninsured expressed concerns about access to services or health care costs (19%). Access concerns were the most common among publicly insured families, and costs were more often mentioned by families with private insurance. Families made a clear distinction between insurance and access, and having one or both elements did not assure care. Our analyses uncovered a 3-part typology of barriers to health care for low-income families. Barriers to health care can be insurmountable for low-income families, even those with insurance coverage. Patients who do not seek care in a family medicine clinic are not necessarily getting their care elsewhere.
International Labour Office. Geneva
This manual provides an overview of social health insurance schemes and looks at the development of health care policies and feasibility issues. It also examines the design of health insurance schemes, health care benefits, financing and costs and considers the operational and strategic information requirements.
Harrington, Mary E
The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) reauthorized CHIP through federal fiscal year 2019 and, together with provisions in the Affordable Care Act, federal funding for the program was extended through federal fiscal year 2015. Congressional action is required or federal funding for the program will end in September 2015. This supplement to Academic Pediatrics is intended to inform discussions about CHIP's future. Most of the new research presented comes from a large evaluation of CHIP mandated by Congress in the CHIPRA. Since CHIP started in 1997, millions of lower-income children have secured health insurance coverage and needed care, reducing the financial burdens and stress on their families. States made substantial progress in simplifying enrollment and retention. When implemented optimally, Express Lane Eligibility has the potential to help cover more of the millions of eligible children who remain uninsured. Children move frequently between Medicaid and CHIP, and many experienced a gap in coverage with this transition. CHIP enrollees had good access to care. For nearly every health care access, use, care, and cost measure examined, CHIP enrollees fared better than uninsured children. Access in CHIP was similar to private coverage for most measures, but financial burdens were substantially lower and access to weekend and nighttime care was not as good. The Affordable Care Act coverage options have the potential to reduce uninsured rates among children, but complex transition issues must first be resolved to ensure families have access to affordable coverage, leading many stakeholders to recommend funding for CHIP be continued. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.
Sucholotiuc, M; Stefan, L; Dobre, I; Teseleanu, M
In 1999 in Romania has initiated the reformation of the national health care system based on health insurance. In 1998 we analyzed this system from the point of view of its IT support and we studied methods of optimisation with relational, distributed databases and new technologies such as Our objectives were to make a model of the information and services flow in a modern health insurance system, to study the smart card technology and to demonstrate how smart card can improve health care services. The paper presents only the smart cards implementations.
... Multifamily Housing and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 AGENCY...: In accordance with HUD regulations, this notice announces changes of the mortgage insurance premiums... mortgage. The mortgage insurance premiums to be in effect for FHA firm commitments issued or reissued in FY...
Lattof, Samantha R
People working in Ghana's informal sector have low rates of enrolment in the publicly funded National Health Insurance Scheme. Informal sector workers, including migrant girls and women from northern Ghana working as head porters (kayayei), report challenges obtaining insurance and seeking formal health care. This article analyses how health insurance status affects kayayei migrants' care-seeking behaviours. This mixed-methods study involved surveying 625 migrants using respondent-driven sampling and conducting in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of 48 migrants. Analyses explore health status and health seeking behaviours for recent illness/injury. Binary logistic regression modelled the effects of selected independent variables on whether or not a recently ill/injured participant (n = 239) sought health care. Although recently ill/injured participants (38.4%) desired health care, less than half (43.5%) sought care. Financial barriers overwhelmingly limit kayayei migrants from seeking health care, preventing them from registering with the National Health Insurance Scheme, renewing their expired health insurance policies, or taking time away from work. Both insured and uninsured migrants did not seek formal health services due to the unpredictable nature of out-of-pocket expenses. Catastrophic and impoverishing medical expenses also drove participants' migration in search of work to repay loans and hospital bills. Health insurance can help minimize these expenditures, but only 17.4% of currently insured participants (58.2%) reported holding a valid health insurance card in Accra. The others lost their cards or forgot them when migrating. Access to formal health care in Accra remains largely inaccessible to kayayei migrants who suffer from greater illness/injury than the general female population in Accra and who are hindered in their ability to receive insurance exemptions. With internal migration on the rise in many settings, health systems must recognize the
Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Laar, Alexander Suuk
Background: Prepayments and risk pooling through social health insurance has been advocated by international development organizations. Social health insurance is seen as a mechanism that helps mobilize resources for health, pool risk, and provide more access to health care services for the poor. Hence Ghana implemented the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to help promote access to health care services for Ghanaians. The study examined the influence of the NHIS on the behavior of healt...
Wong, Chack-Kie; Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Tang, Kwong-Leung
Public insurance possibly increases the use of health care because of the insured person's interest in maximizing benefits without incurring out-of-pocket costs. A newly reformed public insurance scheme in China that builds on personal responsibility is thus likely to provide insurance without causing moral hazard. This possibility is the focus of this study, which surveyed 303 employees in a large city in China. The results show that the coverage and use of the public insurance scheme did not show a significant positive effect on the average employee's frequency of physician consultation. In contrast, the employee who endorsed public responsibility for health care visited physicians more frequently in response to some insurance factors. On balance, public insurance did not tempt the average employee to consult physicians frequently, presumably due to personal responsibility requirements in the insurance scheme.
Orynich, C Ashley; Casamassimo, Paul S; Seale, N Sue; Litch, C Scott; Reggiardo, Paul
To evaluate legislative differences in defining the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) pediatric dental benefit and the role of pediatric advocates across states with different health insurance Exchanges. Data were collected through public record investigation and confidential health policy expert interviews conducted at the state and federal level. Oral health policy change by the pediatric dental profession requires advocating for the mandatory purchase of coverage through the Exchange, tax subsidy contribution toward pediatric dental benefits, and consistent regulatory insurance standards for financial solvency, network adequacy and provider reimbursement. The pediatric dental profession is uniquely positioned to lead change in oral health policy amidst health care reform through strengthening state-level formalized networks with organized dentistry and commercial insurance carriers.
Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a comprehensive and multipronged reform of the US health care system. The legislation makes incremental changes to Medicare, Medicaid, and the market for employer-sponsored health insurance. However, it makes substantial changes to the market for individual and small-group health insurance. The purpose of this article is to introduce the key regulatory reforms in the market for individual and small-group health insurance and explain how these reforms tackle adverse selection and risk classification and improve access to health care for the hitherto uninsured or underinsured population. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Padula, William V; Baker, Kellan
Many transgender Americans continue to remain uninsured or are underinsured because of payers' refusal to cover medically necessary, gender-affirming healthcare services-such as hormone therapy, mental health counseling, and reconstructive surgeries. Coverage refusal results in higher costs and poor health outcomes among transgender people who cannot access gender-affirming care. Research into the value of health insurance coverage for gender-affirming care for transgender individuals shows that the health benefits far outweigh the costs of insuring transition procedures. Although the Affordable Care Act explicitly protects health insurance for transgender individuals, these laws are being threatened; therefore, this article reviews their importance to transgender-inclusive healthcare coverage.
Lyudmila Valentinovna Tokun
Full Text Available This article discusses the features of the mandatory health insurance, the financial resources of health care and the characteristics of the Russian health care system. The article defines the need to apply the SWOT-analysis to the activities of medical organizations, it analyses the interconnection between the criteria of quality, availability and payment for services and their accordance to the sector of economics, which produces or pays for the service. Goal / Objectives: The goal of this article is to study the compulsory health insurance system, its pros and cons in the health system. The objectives of this paper is to identify the sources of financing of compulsory health insurance, the definition of the stages of formation of financial flows, the designation of the role of insurance companies in the compulsory health insurance system, the study of the processes of formation of funds of health insurance companies, the definition of the role of the compulsory health insurance in the risk protection and study of the positive and negative aspects of the modern health care system. Methodology: Methods of comparison, analysis and synthesis are used in this article. Results: as a result of the conducted research authors have made conclusions about the need for the major changes in the financing of public health care. The scope of work of health insurance companies requires increase in number of staff , premises, additional hardware and software. Health insurance companies should be motivated to maintain the health of the population and its improvement. Conclusions: The results of this research can be used to build a system of motivation in the health insurance organizations.
Gunja, Munira Z; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beautel, Sophie
ISSUE: Prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), one-third of women who tried to buy a health plan on their own were either turned down, charged a higher premium because of their health, or had specific health problems excluded from their plans. Beginning in 2010, ACA consumer protections, particularly coverage for preventive care screenings with no cost-sharing and a ban on plan benefit limits, improved the quality of health insurance for women. In 2014, the law’s major insurance reforms helped millions of women who did not have employer insurance to gain coverage through the ACA’s marketplaces or through Medicaid. GOALS: To examine the effects of ACA health reforms on women’s coverage and access to care. METHOD: Analysis of the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Surveys, 2001–2016. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Women ages 19 to 64 who shopped for new coverage on their own found it significantly easier to find affordable plans in 2016 compared to 2010. The percentage of women who reported delaying or skipping needed care because of costs fell to an all-time low. Insured women were more likely than uninsured women to receive preventive screenings, including Pap tests and mammograms.
Glied, Sherry A; Altman, Stuart H
The United States relies on competition to balance costs and quality in the health care system. But concentration is increasing throughout the hospital, physician, and insurer markets. Midsize community hospitals face declining demand and growing competition from both larger hospitals and smaller freestanding diagnostic and surgical centers, leaving the midsize hospitals vulnerable to closure or merger with other facilities. Competition among insurers has been limited by the development of hospital systems that extend the bargaining power of "must-have" hospitals (those perceived to provide the best care for complex and less common conditions) across local health care markets. Government antitrust enforcement could play an important role in maintaining competition in both the hospital and insurer markets, but in many markets, the impact of that enforcement has been limited to date. Policy makers should consider supplementing antitrust activities with strategies that combine competition and regulation-for example, by regulating selected prices and structuring competition to cover entire insurance markets. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares G M; Enemark, Ulrika
: Reducing fragmentation is necessary to provide opportunities for redistribution and to promote equity in utilisation of health services. Improvement in the delivery of services is crucial for achievement of improved access and financial protection and for increased enrolment into the CHF, which...... characteristics on the probability of seeking care and choice of provider. RESULTS: Generally, health insurance is found to increase the probability of seeking care and reduce delays. However, the probability, timing of seeking care and choice of provider varies across the CHF and NHIF members. CONCLUSIONS...
Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Laar, Alexander Suuk
Prepayments and risk pooling through social health insurance has been advocated by international development organizations. Social health insurance is seen as a mechanism that helps mobilize resources for health, pool risk, and provide more access to health care services for the poor. Hence Ghana implemented the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to help promote access to health care services for Ghanaians. The study examined the influence of the NHIS on the behavior of health care providers in their treatment of insured and uninsured clients. The study took place in Bolgatanga (urban) and Builsa (rural) districts in Ghana. Data was collected through exit survey with 200 insured and uninsured clients, 15 in-depth interviews with health care providers and health insurance managers, and 8 focus group discussions with insured and uninsured community members. The NHIS promoted access for insured and mobilized revenue for health care providers. Both insured and uninsured were satisfied with care (survey finding). However, increased utilization of health care services by the insured leading to increased workloads for providers influenced their behavior towards the insured. Most of the insured perceived and experienced long waiting times, verbal abuse, not being physically examined and discrimination in favor of the affluent and uninsured. The insured attributed their experience to the fact that they were not making immediate payments for services. A core challenge of the NHIS was a delay in reimbursement which affected the operations of health facilities and hence influenced providers' behavior as well. Providers preferred clients who would make instant payments for health care services. Few of the uninsured were utilizing health facilities and visit only in critical conditions. This is due to the increased cost of health care services under the NHIS. The perceived opportunistic behavior of the insured by providers was responsible for the difference in the behavior
Full Text Available Abstract Background As one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the Pearl River Delta of South China, Shenzhen attracts millions of migrant workers annually. The objectives of this study were to compare health needs, self-reported health and healthcare utilisation of insured and uninsured migrant workers in Shenzhen, China, where a new health insurance scheme targeting at migrant workers was initiated. Methods A cross-sectional survey using multi-staged sampling was conducted to collect data from migrant factory workers. Statistical tests included logistic regression analysis were used. Results Among 4634 subjects (96.54% who responded to the survey, 55.11% were uninsured. Disease patterns were similar irrespective of insurance status. The uninsured were more likely to be female, single, younger and less educated unskilled labourers with a lower monthly income compared with the insured. Out of 1136 who reported illness in the previous two weeks, 62.15% did not visit a doctor. Of the 296 who were referred for inpatient care, 48.65% did not attend because of inability to pay. Amongst those who reported sickness, 548 were insured and 588 were uninsured. Those that were insured, and had easier access to care were more likely to make doctor visits than those who were uninsured. Conclusion Health care utilisation patterns differ between insured and uninsured workers and insurance status appears to be a significant factor. The health insurance system is inequitably distributed amongst migrant workers. Younger less educated women who are paid less are more likely to be uninsured and therefore to pay out of pocket for their care. For greater equity this group need to be included in the insurance schemes as they develop.
Bikker, Jaap; Popescu, Adelina
This paper investigates the cost efficiency and competitive behaviour of the non-life – or property and casualty – insurance market in the Netherlands over the period 1995-2012. We focus on the 2006 health care reform, where public health care insurance has been included in the non-life insurance
The CERN-AUSTRIA Agreement, which implemented CERN's health insurance scheme, expired on 31 December 1999.In accordance with CERN's rules, a call for tenders for the management of the health insurance scheme was issued and the contract was once again awarded to AUSTRIA. In June 1999, the Finance Committee thus authorised the Management to conclude a new contract with AUSTRIA, which came into force on 1st January 2000.Continuity is thus assured on favourable conditions and the transition from one contract to the other will entail no substantial changes in the system for those insured at CERN except for a few minor and purely formal amendmentsWHAT REMAINS UNCHANGEDThe list of benefits, i.e. the 'cover' provided by the system, is not changed;Neither is the reimbursement procedure.AUSTRIA's office at CERN and its opening hours as well as its city headquarters remain the same. The envelopes containing requests for reimbursement have had to be sent (since the end of 1998) to :Rue des Eaux-Vives 94Case postale 64021...
Change of name for AUSTRIA As of October 1, the AUSTRIA Assurances S.A. company will change its name to: UNIQA Assurances S.A. It inherits the same name as its parent Austrian company, which adopted it towards the end of 1999. This change has no effect on the contract which binds it to CERN for the administration of our Health Insurance Scheme. New insurance cards will be sent to you by UNIQA and the printed forms and envelopes will gradually be updated with the new name. Postal and phone addresses remain unaffected by the change. You should address your postal mail to: UNIQA Assurances rue des Eaux Vives 94 case postale 6402 1211 Genève 6 You may telephone your usual contact persons at the same numbers as before and send e-mails to the UNIQA office at CERN at: UNIQA.Assurances@cern.ch
Parikh-Patel, Arti; Morris, Cyllene R; Kizer, Kenneth W
Escalating costs and concerns about quality of cancer care have increased calls for quality measurement and performance accountability for providers and health plans. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to assess variability in the quality of cancer care by health insurance type in California.Persons with breast, ovary, endometrium, cervix, colon, lung, or gastric cancer during the period 2004 to 2014 were identified in the California Cancer Registry. Individuals were stratified into 5 health insurance categories: private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, dual Medicare and Medicaid eligible, and uninsured. Quality of care was evaluated using Commission on Cancer quality measures. Logistic regression models were generated to assess the independent effect of health insurance type on stage at diagnosis, quality of care and survival after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES).A total of 763,884 cancer cases were evaluated. Individuals with Medicaid or Medicare-Medicaid dual-eligible coverage and the uninsured had significantly lower odds of receiving recommended radiation and/or chemotherapy after diagnosis or surgery for breast, endometrial, and colon cancer, relative to those with private insurance. Dual eligible patients with gastric cancer had 21% lower odds of having the recommended number of lymph nodes removed and examined compared to privately insured patients.After adjusting for known demographic confounders, substantial and consistent disparities in quality of cancer care exist according to type of health insurance in California. Further study is needed to identify particular factors and mechanisms underlying the identified treatment disparities across sources of health insurance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohammed, Shafiu; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Souares, Aurélia; Sauerborn, Rainer; Dong, Hengjin
Responsiveness of health care services in low and middle income countries has been given little attention. Despite being introduced over a decade ago in many developing countries, national health insurance schemes have yet to be evaluated in terms of responsiveness of health care services. Although this responsiveness has been evaluated in many developed countries, it has rarely been done in developing countries. The concept of responsiveness is multi-dimensional and can be measured across various domains including prompt attention, dignity, communication, autonomy, choice of provider, quality of facilities, confidentiality and access to family support. This study examines the insured users' perspectives of their health care services' responsiveness. This retrospective, cross-sectional survey took place between October 2010 and March 2011. The study used a modified out-patient questionnaire from a responsiveness survey designed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Seven hundred and ninety six (796) enrolees, insured for more than one year in Kaduna State-Nigeria, were interviewed. Generalized ordered logistic regression was used to identify factors that influenced the users' perspectives on responsiveness to health services and quantify their effects. Communication (55.4%), dignity (54.1%), and quality of facilities (52.0%) were rated as "extremely important" responsiveness domains. Users were particularly contented with quality of facilities (42.8%), dignity (42.3%), and choice of provider (40.7%). Enrolees indicated lower contentment on all other domains. Type of facility, gender, referral, duration of enrolment, educational status, income level, and type of marital status were most related with responsiveness domains. Assessing the responsiveness of health care services within the NHIS is valuable in investigating the scheme's implementation. The domains of autonomy, communication and prompt attention were identified as priority areas for action to improve
Loftus, John; Allen, Elizabeth M; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Everson-Rose, Susan A
Reduced access to care and barriers have been shown in rural populations and in publicly insured populations. Barriers limiting health care access in publicly insured populations living in rural areas are not understood. This study investigates rural-urban differences in system-, provider-, and individual-level barriers and access to preventive care among adults and children enrolled in a public insurance program in Minnesota. This was a secondary analysis of a 2008 statewide, cross-sectional survey of publicly insured adults and children (n = 4,388) investigating barriers associated with low utilization of preventive care. Sampling was stratified with oversampling of racial/ethnic minorities. Rural enrollees were more likely to report no past year preventive care compared to urban enrollees. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.00-1.88). Provider- and system-level barriers associated with low use of preventive care among rural enrollees included discrimination based on public insurance status (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.34-2.38), cost of care concerns (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.03-2.89) and uncertainty about care being covered by insurance (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.01-2.85). These and additional provider-level barriers were also identified among urban enrollees. Discrimination, cost of care, and uncertainty about insurance coverage inhibit access in both the rural and urban samples. These barriers are worthy targets of interventions for publicly insured populations regardless of residence. Future studies should investigate additional factors associated with access disparities based on rural-urban residence. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.
Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...
Hidayat, Budi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Dong, Hengjin; Sauerborn, Rainer
This paper examines the effects of mandatory health insurance on access and equity in access to public and private outpatient care in Indonesia. Data from the second round of the 1997 Indonesian Family Life Survey were used. We adopted the concentration index as a measure of equity, and this was calculated from actual data and from predicted probability of outpatient-care use saved from a multinomial logit regression. The study found that a mandatory insurance scheme for civil servants (Askes) had a strongly positive impact on access to public outpatient care, while a mandatory insurance scheme for private employees (Jamsostek) had a positive impact on access to both public and private outpatient care. The greatest effects of Jamsostek were observed amongst poor beneficiaries. A substantial increase in access will be gained by expanding insurance to the whole population. However, neither Askes nor Jamsostek had a positive impact on equity. Policy implications are discussed.
Daansen, P J; van Schilt, J
As from 2014 Dutch health insurance companies will bear the full financial risk for their clients in mental health care. Over the next years the existing risk settlement shared between insurance companies will gradually be brought to a close. Municipalities and the Ministry of Justice are already responsible for or will soon become responsible for financing health care for adolescents, patients with severe psychiatric disorders and forensic psychiatric patients. As a result, the health insurance companies are beginning to impose ever stricter conditions regarding the care 'product' they are 'buying'. To study the possible consequences, for mental health care institutions, of the increased risk to be borne by health care insurers. Use was made of relevant marketing literature and literature relating to mental health care. Studies of Dutch mental health care literature indicate that in the future the purchasing procedure will no longer consider the immediate treatment outcome as the sole performance indicator but will also take into account additional factors such as long-term improvements in patients' health, customer satisfaction and degree of patient participation, patient empowerment and autonomy. In formulating the details of their health products and business strategies, health care providers will now have to take into account not only the efficacy of the treatment they provide but also the purchasing policy and strategy of the health insurance companies.
Grigorakis, Nikolaos; Floros, Christos; Tsangari, Haritini; Tsoukatos, Evangelos
The Greek state has reduced their funding on health as part of broader efforts to limit the large fiscal deficits and rising debt ratios to GDP. Benefits cuts and limitations of Social Health Insurance (SHI) reimbursements result in substantial Out of Pocket (OOP) payments in the Greek population. In this paper, we examine social health insurance's risk pooling mechanisms and the catastrophic impact that OOP payments may have on insured's income and well-being. Using data collected from a cross sectional survey in Greece, we find that the OOP payments for inpatient care in private hospitals have a positive relationship with SHI funding. Moreover, we show that the SHI funding is inadequate to total inpatient financing. We argue that the Greek health policy makers have to give serious consideration to the perspective of a SHI system which should be supplemented by the Private Health Insurance (PHI) sector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION... health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service Act and the Affordable Care Act. The proposed rule would define ``student health insurance [[Page 7768
Full Text Available Objective: Setting research priorities in the research management cycle is a key. It is important to set the research priorities to make optimal use of scarce resources. The aim of this research was to determine the research needs of Health Insurance Organization based on its health care centers research needs.Methods: This is a qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. A purposeful sample of 60 participants from 14 hospitals, seven dispensaries, five dental clinics, two rehabilitation centers, four radiology centers, six medical diagnostic laboratories, 12 pharmacies, and 20 medical offices that were contracted with the Health Insurance Organization in Iran was interviewed. The framework analysis method (a qualitative research method was used for analysis of interviews. Atlas-Ti software was used to analyze quantitative data, respectively. The topics were prioritized using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method through Expert Choice software.Results: Based on the problems extracted in our qualitative study, 12 research topics were proposed by the experts. Among these “Design of standard treatment protocols,” “Designing model of ranking the health care centers under contract,” and “Pathology of payment system” took the priority ranks of 1 to 3, earning the scores of 0.44, 0.42, and 0.37, respectively.Conclusion: Considering limited resources and unlimited needs and to prevent research resource wasting, conducting research related to health care providers in the Health Insurance Organization can help it achieve its goals.
This pioneer study tests the relationship between patients' trust in their physicians and patients' loyalty to their health care insurers. This is a cross-sectional study using a representative sample of patients from all health care insurers with identical health care plans. Regression analyses and Baron and Kenny's model were used to test the study model. Patient trust in the physician did not predict loyalty to the insurer. Loyalty to the physician did not mediate the relationship between trust in the physician and loyalty to the insurer. Satisfaction with the physician was the only predictor of loyalty to the insurer.
Christopher Trenholm; Anna Saltzman; Shanna Shulman; Michael Cousineau; Dana Hughes
This paper summarizes the CaliforniaKids and Healthy Kids programsâ€”county-based insurance programs in California for low-income children. The study examined features of both programs, use of basic health care services by the children enrolled, and typical experiences accessing inpatient and other high-cost care. Children enrolled in the two programs made substantial use of outpatient health care, despite important variation in program features. The study concludes with recommendations on ho...
Schoch, Goentje-Gesine; Würdemann, E
"Stratifying medicine" is a topic of increasing importance in the public health system. There are several questions related to "stratifying medicine". This paper reconsiders definitions, opportunities and risks related to "stratifying medicine" as well as the main challenges of "stratifying medicine" from the perspective of a public health insurance. The application of the term and the definition are important points to discuss. Terms such as "stratified medicine", "personalised medicine" or "individualised medicine" are used. The Techniker Krankenkasse prefers "stratifying medicine", because it usually means a medicine that tailors therapy to specific groups of patients by biomarkers. OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS: "Stratifying medicine" is associated with various hopes, e. g., the avoidance of ineffective therapies and early detection of diseases. But "stratifying medicine" also carries risks, such as an increase in the number of cases by treatment of disease risks, a duty for health and the weakening of the criteria of evidence-based medicine. The complexity of "stratifying medicine" is a big challenge for all involved parties in the health system. A lot of interrelations are still not completely understood. So the statutory health insurance faces the challenge of making innovative therapy concepts accessible in a timely manner to all insured on the one hand but on the other hand also to protect the community from harmful therapies. Information and advice to patients related to "stratifying medicine" is of particular importance. The equitable distribution of fees for diagnosis and counselling presents a particular challenge. The solidarity principle of public health insurance may be challenged by social and ethical issues of "stratifying medicine". "Stratifying medicine" offers great potential to improve medical care. However, false hopes must be avoided. Providers and payers should measure chances and risks of "stratifying medicine" together for the welfare of the
Aina O. Odusola
Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. Objective: We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care, in the context of a community-based health insurance programme in rural Nigeria. Design: Qualitative study using semi-structured individual interviews with primary care staff (n = 11 and health insurance managers (n=4. Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques. Results: Both stakeholder groups perceived health insurance as an important facilitator for implementing high-quality hypertension care because it covered costs of care for patients and provided essential resources and incentives to clinics: guidelines, staff training, medications, and diagnostic equipment. Perceived inhibitors included the following: high staff workload; administrative challenges at facilities; discordance between healthcare provider and insurer on how health insurance and provider payment methods work; and insufficient fit between some guideline recommendations and tools for patient education and characteristics/needs of the local patient population. Perceived strategies to address inhibitors included the following: task-shifting; adequate provider payment benchmarking; good provider–insurer relationships; automated administration systems; and tailoring guidelines/patient education. Conclusions: By providing insights into perspectives of primary care providers and health insurance managers, this study offers information on potential strategies for implementing high-quality hypertension care for insured patients in SSA.
Odusola, Aina O; Stronks, Karien; Hendriks, Marleen E; Schultsz, Constance; Akande, Tanimola; Osibogun, Akin; van Weert, Henk; Haafkens, Joke A
Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care, in the context of a community-based health insurance programme in rural Nigeria. Qualitative study using semi-structured individual interviews with primary care staff (n = 11) and health insurance managers (n=4). Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques. Both stakeholder groups perceived health insurance as an important facilitator for implementing high-quality hypertension care because it covered costs of care for patients and provided essential resources and incentives to clinics: guidelines, staff training, medications, and diagnostic equipment. Perceived inhibitors included the following: high staff workload; administrative challenges at facilities; discordance between healthcare provider and insurer on how health insurance and provider payment methods work; and insufficient fit between some guideline recommendations and tools for patient education and characteristics/needs of the local patient population. Perceived strategies to address inhibitors included the following: task-shifting; adequate provider payment benchmarking; good provider-insurer relationships; automated administration systems; and tailoring guidelines/patient education. By providing insights into perspectives of primary care providers and health insurance managers, this study offers information on potential strategies for implementing high-quality hypertension care for insured patients in SSA.
Alkhamis, Abdulwahab A
Insufficient knowledge of health insurance benefits could be associated with lack of access to health care, particularly for minority populations. This study aims to assess the association between expatriates' knowledge of health insurance benefits and lack of access to health care. A cross-sectional study design was conducted from March 2015 to February 2016 among 3398 insured male expatriates in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The dependent variable was binary and expresses access or lack of access to health care. Independent variables included perceived and validated knowledge of health insurance benefits and other variables. Data were summarized by computing frequencies and percentage of all quantities of variables. To evaluate variations in knowledge, personal and job characteristics with lack of access to health care, the Chi square test was used. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were recorded for each independent variable. Multiple logistic regression and stepwise logistic regression were performed and adjusted ORs were extracted. Descriptive analysis showed that 15% of participants lacked access to health care. The majority of these were unskilled laborers, usually with no education (17.5%), who had been working for less than 3 years (28.1%) in Saudi Arabia. A total of 23.3% worked for companies with less than 50 employees and 16.5% earned less than 4500 Saudi Riyals monthly ($1200). Many (20.3%) were young (English (16.7%) and lacked previous knowledge of health insurance (18%). For perceived knowledge of health insurance, 55.2% scored 1 or 0 from total of 3. For validated knowledge, 16.9% scored 1 or 0 from total score of 4. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only perceived knowledge of health insurance had significant associations with lack of access to health care ((OR) = 0.393, (CI) = 0.335-0.461), but the result was insignificant for validated knowledge. Stepwise logistic regression gave similar findings. Our results
Shafi, Shahid; Ogola, Gerald; Fleming, Neil; Rayan, Nadine; Kudyakov, Rustam; Barnes, Sunni A; Ballard, David J
Viability of trauma centers is threatened by cost of care provided to patients without health insurance. The health care reform of 2010 is likely to benefit trauma centers by mandating universal health insurance by 2014. However, the financial benefit of this mandate will depend on the reimbursement provided. The study hypothesis was that compensation for the care of uninsured trauma patients at Medicare or Medicaid rates will lead to continuing losses for trauma centers. Financial data for first hospitalization were obtained from an urban Level I trauma center for 3 years (n = 6,630; 2006-2008) and linked with clinical information. Patients were grouped into five payments categories: commercial (29%), Medicaid (8%), Medicare (20%), workers' compensation (6%), and uninsured (37%). Prediction models for costs and payments were developed for each category using multiple regression models, adjusting for patient demographics, injury characteristics, complications, and survival. These models were used to predict payments that could be expected if uninsured patients were covered by different insurance types. Results are reported as net margin per patient (payments minus total costs) for each insurance type, with 95% confidence intervals, discounted to 2008 dollar values. Patients were typical for an urban trauma center (median age of 43 years, 66% men, 82% blunt, 5% mortality, and median length of stay 4 days). Overall, the trauma center lost $5,655 per patient, totaling $37.5 million over 3 years. These losses were encountered for patients without insurance ($14,343), Medicare ($4,838), and Medicaid ($15,740). Patients with commercial insurance were profitable ($5,295) as were those with workers' compensation ($6,860). Payments for the care of the uninsured at Medicare/Medicaid levels would lead to continued losses at $2,267 to $4,143 per patient. The health care reforms of 2010 would lead to continued losses for trauma centers if uninsured are covered with Medicare
Collins, Sara R; Nuzum, Rachel; Rustgi, Sheila D; Mika, Stephanie; Schoen, Cathy; Davis, Karen
The United States leads all industrialized countries in the share of national health care expenditures devoted to insurance administration. The U.S. share is over 30 percent greater than Germany's and more than three times that of Japan. This issue brief examines the sources of administrative costs and describes how a private-public approach to health care reform--with the central feature of a national insurance exchange (largely replacing the present individual and small-group markets)--could substantially lower such costs. In three variations on that approach, estimated administrative costs would fall from 12.7 percent of claims to an average of 9.4 percent. Savings--as much as $265 billion over 2010-2020--would be realized through less marketing and underwriting, reduced costs of claims administration, less time spent negotiating provider payment rates, and fewer or standardized commissions to insurance brokers.
Full Text Available Based on the SKY micro health insurance project that GRET has been developing in Cambodia for ten years, this article reflects on how non-profit private micro health insurance can help improve public health care.The medical situation in Cambodia is particularly interesting to study insomuch as the population multiplies their sources of care (self-medication, visits to private practitioners, traditional therapists, doctors in public facilities, etc., which leads to high costs and mediocre care.Using the SKY project’s internal database and four qualitative studies conducted between 2007 and 2008 in the project’s areas of intervention, we show that the SKY project, which is conducted in agreement with the Khmer authorities, has enabled greater utilisation of public health care, a better perception of the quality of care, and a better capacity for financial anticipation both in health care facilities and among the insured. Nevertheless, the limitations of and obstacles facing such systems are numerous: self-medication among the insured persists, the attitude of poorly paid health care workers does not favour rational use of medicines, and the orientation of Ministerial financing of health care is not always consistent with the project’s objectives. Ultimately, the synergies between non profit private micro health insurance and public health care will be all the more effective when insurance accounts for a large share of health care facilities’ revenues—that is to say when the subscriber base is large.Basé sur le projet de micro-assurance santé SKY que le GRET développe au Cambodge depuis dix ans, cet article explique comment la micro-assurance santé privée à but non lucratif peut contribuer à améliorer les soins de santé publique.La situation médicale au Cambodge est particulièrement intéressante à étudier car la population multiplie les sources de soins (auto-médication, consultations en cabinet, médecine traditionnelle
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...
Background Having health insurance is associated with a number of beneficial health outcomes. However, previous research suggests that patients tend to avoid health insurance information and often misunderstand or lack knowledge about many health insurance terms. Health insurance knowledge is particularly low among young adults. Objective The purpose of this study was to design and test an interactive newsgame (newsgames are games that apply journalistic principles in their creation, for example, gathering stories to immerse the player in narratives) about health insurance. This game included entry-level information through scenarios and was designed through the collation of national news stories, local personal accounts, and health insurance company information. Methods A total of 72 (N=72) participants completed in-person, individual gaming sessions. Participants completed a survey before and after game play. Results Participants indicated a greater self-reported understanding of how to use health insurance from pre- (mean=3.38, SD=0.98) to postgame play (mean=3.76, SD=0.76); t71=−3.56, P=.001. For all health insurance terms, participants self-reported a greater understanding following game play. Finally, participants provided a greater number of correct definitions for terms after playing the game, (mean=3.91, SD=2.15) than they did before game play (mean=2.59, SD=1.68); t31=−3.61, P=.001. Significant differences from pre- to postgame play differed by health insurance term. Conclusions A game is a practical solution to a difficult health issue—the game can be played anywhere, including on a mobile device, is interactive and will thus engage an apathetic audience, and is cost-efficient in its execution. PMID:29146564
Browne, Joyce L; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin
This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. A population-based cross-sectional study. We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana, which included 2987 women who provided information on maternal health insurance status. Utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to determine the independent association between maternal health insurance and utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. After adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic and obstetric factors, we observed that among insured women the likelihood of having antenatal care increased by 96% (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.52; p valuehealth insurance status plays a significant role in the uptake of the maternal, neonatal and child health continuum of care service. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...
Greb, Stefan; Focke, Axel; Hessel, Franz; Wasem, Jürgen
As a result of recent health care reforms sickness funds and health care providers in German social health insurance face increased financial incentives for implementing disease management and integrated care. Sickness funds receive higher payments form the risk adjustment system if they set up certified disease management programmes and induce patients to enrol. If health care providers establish integrated care projects they are able to receive extra-budgetary funding. As a consequence, the number of certified disease management programmes and the number of integrated care contracts is increasing rapidly. However, contracts about disease management programmes between sickness funds and health care providers are highly standardized. The overall share of health care expenses spent on integrated care still is very low. Existing integrated care is mostly initiated by hospitals, is based on only one indication and is not fully integrated. However, opportunity to invest in integrated care may open up innovative processes, which generate considerable productivity gains. What is more, integrated care may serve as gateway for the introduction of more widespread selective contracting.
Agrawal, Pooja; Venkatesh, Arjun Krishna
We sought to evaluate the relationship between state-level implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and resettlement patterns among refugees. We linked federal refugee resettlement data to ACA expansion data and found that refugee resettlement rates are not significantly different according to state-level insurance expansion or cost. Forty percent of refugees have resettled to states without Medicaid expansion. The wide state-level variability in implementation of the ACA should be considered by federal agencies seeking to optimize access to health insurance coverage among refugees who have resettled to the United States.
Goudie, Anthony; Carle, Adam C
Nearly 30 percent of young adults with special health care needs in Ohio lack health insurance, compared to 5 percent of the state's children with special health care needs. As children with such needs become too old for Medicaid or insurance through their parents' employer, they face great challenges in obtaining insurance. Lack of insurance is highly predictive of unmet needs, which in turn are predictive of costly hospital-based encounters. Young adults with special health care needs who are uninsured are more than twice as likely as their peers with insurance to forgo filling prescriptions and getting care and to have problems getting care. Even after insurance status is accounted for, young adults with special health care needs are more likely than children with such needs to not fill prescriptions because of cost and to delay or forgo needed care. This study demonstrates that continuous and adequate health insurance is vital to the continued well-being of children with special health care needs as they transition to young adulthood.
Yu, Hao; Dick, Andrew W; Szilagyi, Peter G
Health care costs grew rapidly since 2001, generating substantial economic pressures on families, especially those with children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To examine how the growth of health care costs affected financial burden for families of CSHCN between 2001 and 2004 and to determine the extent to which health insurance coverage protected families of CSHCN against financial burden. In 2001-2004, 5196 families of CSHCN were surveyed by the national Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). The main outcome was financial burden, defined as the proportion of family income spent on out-of-pocket (OOP) health care expenditures for all family members, including OOP costs and premiums. Family insurance coverage was classified as: (1) all members publicly insured, (2) all members privately insured, (3) all members uninsured, (4) partial coverage, and (5) a mix of public and private with no uninsured periods. An upward trend in financial burden for families of CSHCN occurred and was associated with growth of economy-wide health care costs. A multivariate analysis indicated that, given the economy-wide increase in medical costs between 2001 and 2004, a family with CSHCN was at increased risk in 2004 for having financial burden exceeding 10% of family income [odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; P financial burden exceeding 20% of family income. Over 15% of families with public insurance had financial burden exceeding 10% of family income compared with 20% of families with private insurance (P financial burden of >10% or 20% of family income than privately-insured families. Rising health care costs increased financial burden on families of CSHCN in 2001-2004. Public insurance coverage provided better financial protection than private insurance against the rapidly rising health care costs for families of CSHCN.
Aug 4, 1990 ... supplemented by a national health insurance scheme, rather than through simply ... duals and families, and often unaffordable to individuals if they have to pay the .... Employees' contributions may be matched by employers.
Despite an expansive body of research on health and access to medical care among Mexican immigrants in the United States, research on return migrants focuses primarily on their labor market mobility and contributions to local development. Motivated by recent scholarship that documents poor mental and physical health among Mexican return migrants, this study investigates return migrants' health insurance coverage and access to medical care. I use descriptive and multivariate techniques to analyze data from the 2009 and 2014 rounds of Mexico's National Survey of Demographic Dynamics (ENADID, combined n=632,678). Analyses reveal a large and persistent gap between recent return migrants and non-migrants, despite rising overall health coverage in Mexico. Multivariate analyses suggest that unemployment among recent arrivals contributes to their lack of insurance. Relative to non-migrants, recently returned migrants rely disproportionately on private clinics, pharmacies, self-medication, or have no regular source of care. Mediation analysis suggests that returnees' high rate of uninsurance contributes to their inadequate access to care. This study reveals limited access to medical care among the growing population of Mexican return migrants, highlighting the need for targeted policies to facilitate successful reintegration and ensure access to vital resources such as health care.
Browne, Joyce L; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana,
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several stakeholders have undertaken initiatives to propose solutions towards a more sustainable health system and Spain, as an example of a European country affected by austerity measures, is looking for ways to cut healthcare budgets. Methods The aim of this paper is to study the effect of private health insurance on health care utilization using the latest micro-data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP, the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS and the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC. We use matching techniques based on propensity score methods: single match, four matches, bias-adjustment and allowing for heteroskedasticity. Results The results demonstrate that people with a private health insurance, use the public health system less than individuals without double health insurance coverage. Conclusions Our conclusions are useful when policy makers design public-private partnership policies.
Though oral diseases are preventable, many people across the globe still suffer from pain and discomfort associated with oral diseases. The attainment of optimum oral health is impeded by a number of obstacles which include the cost and affordability of treatment, poor access due to workforce shortages and inequitable ...
... benefit and pricing information. Benefit and pricing information includes data such as premiums, cost... percentage of total premium revenue expended on nonclinical costs (as reported under section 2718(a) of the Public Health Service Act), eligibility, availability, premium rates, and cost sharing with respect to...
Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom
Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Amelung, Volker; Wolf, S; Ozegowski, S; Eble, S; Hildebrandt, H; Knieps, F; Lägel, R; Schlenker, R-U; Sjuts, R
The traditional separation of health care into sectors in Germany causes communication problems that hinder continuous, patient-oriented care. This is most evident in the transition from inpatient to outpatient care. That said, there are also breaks in the flow of information, a lack of supply, or even incorrect information flowing within same-sector care. The transition from a division of functions into sectors to a patient-oriented process represents a change in the paradigm of health care that can only be successfully completed with considerable effort. Germany's statutory health insurance (SHI) funds play a key role here, as they are the contracting parties as well as the financiers of integrated care, and are strategically located at the center of the development process.The objective of this article is to explore how Germany's SHI funds view integrated care, what they regard as being the drivers of and barriers to transitioning to such a system, and what recommendations they can provide with regard to the further development of integrated care. For this purpose semi-structured interviews with board members and those responsible for implementing integrated care into the operations of ten SHI funds representing more than half of Germany's SHI-insured population were conducted. According to the interviewees, a better framework for integrated care urgently needs to be developed and rendered more receptive to innovation.Only in this way will the widespread stagnation of the past several years be overcome. The deregulation of § 140a-d SGB V and the establishment of a uniform basis for new forms of care in terms of a new innovation clause are among the central recommendations of this article. The German federal government's innovation fund was met with great hope, but also implied risks. Nonetheless, the new law designed to strengthen health care overall generated high expectations.
Ghandour, Reem M; Comeau, Meg; Tobias, Carol; Dworetzky, Beth; Hamershock, Rose; Honberg, Lynda; Mann, Marie Y; Bachman, Sara S
To report on coverage and adequacy of health insurance for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in 2009-2010 and assess changes since 2001. Data were from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), a random-digit telephone survey with 40,243 (2009-2010) and 38,866 (2001) completed interviews. Consistency and adequacy of insurance was measured by: 1) coverage status, 2) gaps in coverage, 3) coverage of needed services, 4) reasonableness of uncovered costs, and 5) ability to see needed providers, as reported by parents. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with adequate insurance coverage in 2009-2010. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence estimates were examined to identify changes in the type of insurance coverage and the proportion of CSHCN with adequate coverage by insurance type. The proportion of CSHCN with private coverage decreased from 64.7% to 50.7% between 2001 and 2009-2010, while public coverage increased from 21.7% to 34.7%; the proportion of CSHCN without any insurance declined from 5.2% to 3.5%. The proportion of CSHCN with adequate coverage varied over time and by insurance type: among privately covered CSHCN, the proportion with adequate coverage declined (62.6% to 59.6%), while among publicly covered CSHCN, the proportion with adequate insurance increased (63.0% to 70.7%). Publicly insured CSHCN experienced improvements in each of the 3 adequacy components. There has been a continued shift from private to public coverage, which is more affordable, offers benefits that are more likely to meet CSHCN needs, and allowed CSHCN to see necessary providers. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...
Michielsen, Joris; Criel, Bart; Devadasan, Narayanan; Soors, Werner; Wouters, Edwin; Meulemans, Herman
Recently, the Indian government launched health insurance schemes for the poor both to protect them from high health spending and to improve access to high-quality health services. This article aims to review the potentials of health insurance interventions in order to improve access to quality care in India based on experiences of community health insurance schemes. PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE (R), All EBM Reviews, CSA Sociological Abstracts, CSA Social Service Abstracts, EconLit, Science Direct, the ISI Web of Knowledge, Social Science Research Network and databases of research centers were searched up to September 2010. An Internet search was executed. One thousand hundred and thirty-three papers were assessed for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-five papers were selected providing information on eight schemes. A realist review was performed using Hirschman's exit-voice theory: mechanisms to improve exit strategies (financial assets and infrastructure) and strengthen patient's long voice route (quality management) and short voice route (patient pressure). All schemes use a mix of measures to improve exit strategies and the long voice route. Most mechanisms are not effective in reality. Schemes that focus on the patients' bargaining position at the patient-provider interface seem to improve access to quality care. Top-down health insurance interventions with focus on exit strategies will not work out fully in the Indian context. Government must actively facilitate the potential of CHI schemes to emancipate the target group so that they may transform from mere passive beneficiaries into active participants in their health.
Full Text Available Isaac AO Odeyemi,1 John Nixon21Senior Director and Head of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Astellas Pharma UK Ltd, Chertsey, UK; 2Teaching Associate in Health Economics, Department of Economics and Related Studies, University of York, York, UKBackground: Social and national health insurance schemes are being introduced in many developing countries in moving towards universal health care. However, gaps in coverage are common and can only be met by out-of-pocket payments, general taxation, or private health insurance (PHI. This study provides an overview of PHI in different health care systems and discusses factors that affect its uptake and equity.Methods: A representative sample of countries was identified (United States, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, France, Australia, and Latvia that illustrates the principal forms and roles of PHI. Literature describing each country's health care system was used to summarize how PHI is utilized and the factors that affect its uptake and equity.Results: In the United States, PHI is a primary source of funding in conjunction with tax-based programs to support vulnerable groups; in the UK and Latvia, PHI is used in a supplementary role to universal tax-based systems; in France and Latvia, complementary PHI is utilized to cover gaps in public funding; in The Netherlands, PHI is supplementary to statutory private and social health insurance; in Australia, the government incentivizes the uptake of complementary PHI through tax rebates and penalties. The uptake of PHI is influenced by age, income, education, health care system typology, and the incentives or disincentives applied by governments. The effect on equity can either be positive or negative depending on the type of PHI adopted and its role within the wider health care system.Conclusion: PHI has many manifestations depending on the type of health care system used and its role within that system. This study has illustrated its common applications
Pizarro, Vladimir; Ferrer, Montse; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme; Pont, Angels; Schiaffino, Anna; Almansa, Josue; Tresserras, Ricard; Alonso, Jordi
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of dental care service use with health insurance and its evolution. The Catalan Health Interview Survey is a cross-sectional study conducted in 1994 (n = 15 000) and 2001-2 (n = 8400) by interviews at home to a representative sample of Catalonia (Spain). All the estimates were obtained by applying weights to restore the representativeness of the Catalonia general population. In the bivariate analysis, age, gender, social class and health insurance coverage were statistically associated with a dental visit in the previous year (P use in the previous year, from 26.7% in 1994 to 34.3% in 2002. Future studies will be needed to monitor this tendency.
Wang, Hong; Zhang, Licheng; Yip, Winnie; Hsiao, William
This study examines adverse selection in a subsidized voluntary health insurance scheme, the Rural Mutual Health Care (RMHC) scheme, in a poor rural area of China. The study was made possible by a unique longitudinal data set: the total sample includes 3492 rural residents from 1020 households. Logistic regression was employed for the data analysis. The results show that although this subsidized scheme achieved a considerable high enrollment rate of 71% of rural residents, adverse selection still exists. In general, individuals with worse health status are more likely to enroll in RMHC than individuals with better health status. Although the household is set as the enrollment unit for the RMHC for the purpose of reducing adverse selection, nearly 1/3 of enrolled households are actually only partially enrolled. Furthermore, we found that adverse selection mainly occurs in partially enrolled households. The non-enrolled individuals in partially enrolled households have the best health status, while the enrolled individuals in partially enrolled households have the worst health status. Pre-RMHC, medical expenditure for enrolled individuals in partially enrolled households was 206.6 yuan per capita per year, which is 1.7 times as much as the pre-RMHC medical expenditure for non-enrolled individuals in partially enrolled households. The study also reveals that the pre-enrolled medical expenditure per capita per year of enrolled individuals was 9.6% higher than the pre-enrolled medical expenditure of all residents, including both enrolled and non-enrolled individuals. In conclusion, although the subsidized RMHC scheme reached a very high enrollment rate and the household is set as the enrollment unit for the purpose of reducing adverse selection, adverse selection still exists, especially within partially enrolled households. Voluntary RMHC will not be financially sustainable if the adverse selection is not fully taken into account.
This article examines three problems burdening the Russian system of health care finance in transition period: (a) unrealistic government promise to cover health care coverage too wide to be achieved with available resources; (b) inefficient management of health care delivery systems; and (c) lack in evidence of actual positive changes effected by the new players: mandatory health insurance carriers and funds. Radical reshaping of the health benefits promised by the government and introduction of patient co-payments are considered as a way to normalize public health sector finance and operations. Two alternative approaches to the reform of the existing eclectic system of health care management are available. Institutional preconditions for operational effectiveness of third-party purchasers of health services in public-financed health sector are defined.
Tumin, Dmitry; Foraker, Randi E; Tobias, Joseph D; Hayes, Don
The use of public insurance is associated with diminished survival in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) following lung transplantation. No data exist on benefits of gaining private health insurance for post-transplant care among such patients previously using public insurance. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was used to identify first-time lung transplant recipients participating in Medicare or Medicaid, diagnosed with CF, and transplanted between 2005 and 2015. Survival outcomes were compared between recipients gaining private insurance after transplantation and those maintaining public coverage throughout follow-up. Since implementation of the lung allocation score, 575 adults with CF received lung transplantation funded by Medicare or Medicaid and contributed data on insurance status post-transplant. There were 128 (22%) patients who gained private insurance. Multivariable analysis of time-varying insurance status found no survival benefit of gaining private insurance (HR = 0.822; 95% CI = 0.525, 1.286; p = 0.390). Further analysis demonstrated that resuming public insurance coverage was detrimental, relative to gaining and keeping private insurance (HR = 2.315; 95% CI = 1.020, 5.258; p = 0.045). Survival disadvantages of lung transplant recipients with CF who have public health insurance were not ameliorated by a switch to private coverage for post-transplant care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Odeyemi, Isaac Ao; Nixon, John
Social and national health insurance schemes are being introduced in many developing countries in moving towards universal health care. However, gaps in coverage are common and can only be met by out-of-pocket payments, general taxation, or private health insurance (PHI). This study provides an overview of PHI in different health care systems and discusses factors that affect its uptake and equity. A representative sample of countries was identified (United States, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, France, Australia, and Latvia) that illustrates the principal forms and roles of PHI. Literature describing each country's health care system was used to summarize how PHI is utilized and the factors that affect its uptake and equity. In the United States, PHI is a primary source of funding in conjunction with tax-based programs to support vulnerable groups; in the UK and Latvia, PHI is used in a supplementary role to universal tax-based systems; in France and Latvia, complementary PHI is utilized to cover gaps in public funding; in The Netherlands, PHI is supplementary to statutory private and social health insurance; in Australia, the government incentivizes the uptake of complementary PHI through tax rebates and penalties. The uptake of PHI is influenced by age, income, education, health care system typology, and the incentives or disincentives applied by governments. The effect on equity can either be positive or negative depending on the type of PHI adopted and its role within the wider health care system. PHI has many manifestations depending on the type of health care system used and its role within that system. This study has illustrated its common applications and the factors that affect its uptake and equity in different health care systems. The results are anticipated to be helpful in informing how developing countries may utilize PHI to meet the aim of achieving universal health care.
Winkelman, Tyler N A; Choi, HwaJung; Davis, Matthew M
To estimate health insurance and health care utilization patterns among previously incarcerated men following implementation of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Medicaid expansion and Marketplace plans in 2014. We performed serial cross-sectional analyses using data from the National Survey of Family Growth between 2008 and 2015. Our sample included men aged 18 to 44 years with (n = 3476) and without (n = 8702) a history of incarceration. Uninsurance declined significantly among previously incarcerated men after ACA implementation (-5.9 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -11.5, -0.4), primarily because of an increase in private insurance (6.8 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.1, 13.3). Previously incarcerated men accounted for a large proportion of the remaining uninsured (38.6%) in 2014 to 2015. Following ACA implementation, previously incarcerated men continued to be significantly less likely to report a regular source of primary care and more likely to report emergency department use than were never-incarcerated peers. Health insurance coverage improved among previously incarcerated men following ACA implementation. However, these men account for a substantial proportion of the remaining uninsured. Previously incarcerated men continue to lack primary care and frequently utilize acute care services.
Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.
In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...
Twigg, Judyth L
In keeping with the introduction of market-oriented reforms since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia's health care system has undergone a series of sweeping changes since 1992. These reforms, intended to overhaul socialized methods of health care financing and delivery and to replace them with a structure of competitive incentives to improve efficiency and quality of care, have met with mixed levels of implementation and results. This article probes some of the sources of support for and resistance to change in Russia's system of health care financing and delivery. It does so through a national survey of two key groups of participants in that system: head doctors in Russian clinics and hospitals, and the heads of the regional-level quasi-governmental medical insurance Funds. The survey results demonstrate that, on the whole, both head doctors and health insurance Fund directors claim to support the recent health care system reforms, although the latter's support is consistently statistically significantly stronger than that of the former. In addition, the insurance Fund directors' responses to the survey questions tend consistently to fall in the shape of a standard bell curve around the average responses, with a small number of respondents more in agreement with the survey statements than average, and a similarly small number of respondents less so. By contrast, the head doctors, along a wide variety of reform measures, split into two camps: one that strongly favors the marketization of health care, and one that would prefer a return to Soviet-style socialized medicine. The survey results show remarkable national consistency, with no variance according to the respondents' geographic location, regional population levels or other demographic or health characteristics, age of respondents, or size of health facility represented. These findings demonstrate the emergence of well-defined bureaucratic and political constituencies, their composition mixed depending
Nicole Maestas; Kathleen J. Mullen; Alexander Strand
As health insurance becomes available outside of the employment relationship as a result of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the cost of applying for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)–potentially going without health insurance coverage during a waiting period totaling 29 months from disability onset–will decline for many people with employer-sponsored health insurance. At the same time, the value of SSDI and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participation will decline for individuals...
Boonen, Lieke H H M; Schut, Frederik T
We investigate the impact of the transition towards managed competition in the Dutch health care system on health insurers' contracting behaviour. Specifically, we examine whether insurers have been able to take up their role as prudent buyers of care and examine consumers' attitudes towards insurers' new role. Health insurers' contracting behaviour is investigated by an extensive analysis of available information on purchasing practices by health insurers and by interviews with directors of health care purchasing of the four major health insurers, accounting for 90% of the market. Consumer attitudes towards insurers' new role are investigated by surveys among a representative sample of enrollees over the period 2005-2009. During the first four years of the reform, health insurers were very reluctant to engage in selective contracting and preferred to use 'soft' positive incentives to encourage preferred provider choice rather than engaging in restrictive managed care activities. Consumer attitudes towards channelling vary considerably by type of provider but generally became more negative in the first two years after the reform. Insurers' reluctance to use selective contracting can be at least partly explained by the presence of a credible-commitment problem. Consumers do not trust that insurers with restrictive networks are committed to provide good quality care. The credible-commitment problem seems to be particularly relevant to the Netherlands, since Dutch enrollees are not used to restrictions on provider choice. Since consumers are quite sensitive to differences in provider quality, more reliable information about provider quality is required to reduce the credible-commitment problem.
Jarlenski, Marian; Baller, Julia; Borrero, Sonya; Bennett, Wendy L
To examine time trends in disparities in low-income children's health insurance coverage and access to care by family immigration status. We used data from the National Survey of Children's Health in 2003 to 2011-2012, including 83,612 children aged 0 to 17 years with family incomes immigration status categories: citizen children with nonimmigrant parents; citizen children with immigrant parents; and immigrant children. We used multivariable regression analyses to obtain adjusted trends in health insurance coverage and access to care. All low-income children experienced gains in health insurance coverage and access to care from 2003 to 2011-2012, regardless of family immigration status. Relative to citizen children with nonimmigrant parents, citizen children with immigrant parents had a 5 percentage point greater increase in health insurance coverage (P = .06), a 9 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P Immigrant children had significantly lower health insurance coverage than other groups. However, the group had a 14 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P immigration status have lessened over time among children in low-income families, although large disparities still exist. Policy efforts are needed to ensure that children of immigrant parents and immigrant children are able to access health insurance and health care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Differences in Health Care Needs, Health Care Utilization, and Health Care Outcomes Among Children With Special Health Care Needs in Ohio: A Comparative Analysis Between Medicaid and Private Insurance.
Sarkar, Madhurima; Earley, Elizabeth R; Asti, Lindsey; Chisolm, Deena J
This study explores comparative differentials in health care needs, health care utilization, and health status between Medicaid and private/employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) among a statewide population of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in Ohio. We used data from the 2012 Ohio Medicaid Assessment Survey to examine CSHCN's health care needs, utilization, status, and health outcomes by insurance type. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore associations between public and private health insurance, as well as the utilization and health outcome variables. Bivariate analyses indicate that the Medicaid population had higher care coordination needs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2) as well as need for mental/educational health care services (OR = 1.5; 95% CI; 1.1-2.0). They also reported higher unmet dental care needs (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0), higher emergency department (ED) utilization (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.2), and worse overall health (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.7), oral health (OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5), and vision health (OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6). After controlling for demographic variables, CSHCN with Medicaid insurance coverage were more likely to need mental health and education services (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.8; 95% CI; 1.2-2.6), had significantly more ED visits (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.5), and were less likely to have excellent overall health (AOR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9), oral health (AOR = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7), and vision health (AOR = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6) than those with private insurance/ESI. The CSHCN population is a highly vulnerable population. While Ohio's Medicaid provides greater coverage to CSHCN, disparities continue to exist within access and services that Medicaid provides versus the ones provided by private insurance/ESI.
Odusola, A.O.; Stronks, K.; Hendriks, M.E.; Schultsz, C.; Akande, T.; Osibogun, A.; van Weert, H.; Haafkens, J.A.
Background: Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. Objective: We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and
Odusola, Aina O.; Stronks, Karien; Hendriks, Marleen E.; Schultsz, Constance; Akande, Tanimola; Osibogun, Akin; Weert, Henk van; Haafkens, Joke A.
Background Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. Objective We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and
Duku, Stephen Kwasi Opuku; van Dullemen, Caroline Elisabeth; Fenenga, Christine
Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa causes major challenges for policy makers in social protection. Our study focuses on Ghana, one of the few Sub-Saharan African countries that passed a National Policy on Aging in 2010. Ghana is also one of the first Sub-Saharan African countries that launched a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS; NHIS Act 650, 2003) with the aim to improve access to quality health care for all citizens, and as such can be considered as a means of poverty reduction. Our study assesses whether premium exemption policy under the NHIS that grants non-payments of annual health insurance premiums for older people increases access to health care. We assessed differences in enrollment coverage among four different age groups (18-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+). We found higher enrollment for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups. The likelihood of enrollment was 2.7 and 1.7 times higher for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups, respectively. Our results suggest the NHIS exemption policy increases insurance coverage of the aged and their utilization of health care services.
LAYTON, TIMOTHY J.; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.; SINAIKO, ANNA D.
In order to encourage entry and lower prices, most regulated markets for health insurance include policies that seek to reduce the uncertainty faced by insurers. In addition to risk adjustment of premiums paid to plans, the Health Insurance Marketplaces established by the Affordable Care Act implement reinsurance and risk corridors. Reinsurance limits insurer costs associated with specific individuals, while risk corridors protect against aggregate losses. Both tighten the insurer's distribut...
Fryling, Lauren R; Mazanec, Peter; Rodriguez, Robert M
Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is intended to provide a framework for increasing health care access for vulnerable populations, including the 1.2 million who experience homelessness each year in the United States. We sought to characterize homeless persons' knowledge of the ACA, identify barriers to their ACA enrollment, and determine access to various forms of communication that could be used to facilitate enrollment. At an urban county Level I trauma center, we interviewed all noncritically ill adults who presented to the emergency department (ED) during daytime hours and were able to provide consent. We assessed access to communication, awareness of the ACA, insurance status, and barriers preventing subjects from enrolling in health insurance and compared homeless persons' responses with concomitantly enrolled housed individuals. Of the 650 enrolled subjects, 134 (20.2%) were homeless. Homeless subjects were more likely to have never heard of the ACA (26% vs. 10%). "Not being aware if they qualify for Medicaid" was the most common (70%) and most significant (30%) barrier to enrollment reported by uninsured homeless persons. Of homeless subjects who were unsure if they qualified for Medicaid, 91% reported an income homeless subjects reported access. Homeless persons report having less knowledge of the ACA than their housed counterparts, poor understanding of ACA qualification criteria, and limited access to phone and internet. ED-based outreach and education regarding ACA eligibility may increase their enrollment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tseng, Phillip; Kaplan, Robert S; Richman, Barak D; Shah, Mahek A; Schulman, Kevin A
Administrative costs in the US health care system are an important component of total health care spending, and a substantial proportion of these costs are attributable to billing and insurance-related activities. To examine and estimate the administrative costs associated with physician billing activities in a large academic health care system with a certified electronic health record system. This study used time-driven activity-based costing. Interviews were conducted with 27 health system administrators and 34 physicians in 2016 and 2017 to construct a process map charting the path of an insurance claim through the revenue cycle management process. These data were used to calculate the cost for each major billing and insurance-related activity and were aggregated to estimate the health system's total cost of processing an insurance claim. Estimated time required to perform billing and insurance-related activities, based on interviews with management personnel and physicians. Estimated billing and insurance-related costs for 5 types of patient encounters: primary care visits, discharged emergency department visits, general medicine inpatient stays, ambulatory surgical procedures, and inpatient surgical procedures. Estimated processing time and total costs for billing and insurance-related activities were 13 minutes and $20.49 for a primary care visit, 32 minutes and $61.54 for a discharged emergency department visit, 73 minutes and $124.26 for a general inpatient stay, 75 minutes and $170.40 for an ambulatory surgical procedure, and 100 minutes and $215.10 for an inpatient surgical procedure. Of these totals, time and costs for activities carried out by physicians were estimated at a median of 3 minutes or $6.36 for a primary care visit, 3 minutes or $10.97 for an emergency department visit, 5 minutes or $13.29 for a general inpatient stay, 15 minutes or $51.20 for an ambulatory surgical procedure, and 15 minutes or $51.20 for an inpatient surgical procedure. Of
Lavelle, Bridget; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Wickrama, K. A. S.
Economic restructuring in rural areas in recent decades has been accompanied by rising marital instability. To examine the implications of the increase in divorce for the health of rural women, we examine how marital status predicts adequacy of health insurance coverage and health care access, and whether these factors help to account for the…
Szilagyi, Peter G.
Few people would disagree that children with disabilities need adequate health insurance. But what kind of health insurance coverage would be optimal for these children? Peter Szilagyi surveys the current state of insurance coverage for children with special health care needs and examines critical aspects of coverage with an eye to helping policy…
Lee, Changwoo; Shin, Euichul
This study examines whether bed days are alternative methods to medical care use for treating a particular illness. If bed days at home are considered as an alternative to medical treatment, then medical care use and bed days at home should be influenced by an individual's health insurance status. This study uses data from the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) on medical care use and bed days at home for each contracted illness of non-working married women. The results suggest that the health insurance status of non-working married women has considerable influence on their choice between medical care use and bed days at home. In addition, those with health insurance are more likely to use medical care and less likely to use bed days at home, but they tend to avoid the simultaneous use of medical care and bed days at home. In contrast to previous studies' findings indicating that absences from work and medical care use among working males may be complements, this study's results for non-working married women without health insurance suggest that they use rest and medical treatment as substitutes, not complements.
Background This study examines whether bed days are alternative methods to medical care use for treating a particular illness. If bed days at home are considered as an alternative to medical treatment, then medical care use and bed days at home should be influenced by an individual’s health insurance status. Method This study uses data from the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) on medical care use and bed days at home for each contracted illness of non-working married women. Results The results suggest that the health insurance status of non-working married women has considerable influence on their choice between medical care use and bed days at home. In addition, those with health insurance are more likely to use medical care and less likely to use bed days at home, but they tend to avoid the simultaneous use of medical care and bed days at home. Conclusions In contrast to previous studies’ findings indicating that absences from work and medical care use among working males may be complements, this study’s results for non-working married women without health insurance suggest that they use rest and medical treatment as substitutes, not complements. PMID:23816313
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Insure Kids Now (IKN) Dental Care Providers in Your State locator provides profile information for oral health providers participating in Medicaid and Children's...
Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William
Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.
This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investme...
Dixon, Jenna; Tenkorang, Eric Y; Luginaah, Isaac N; Kuuire, Vincent Z; Boateng, Godfred O
The objective of this study was to examine whether enrolment in the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) affects the likelihood and timing of utilising antenatal care among women in Ghana. Data were drawn from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey collected in 2008. The study used a cross-sectional design to examine the independent effects of NHIS enrolment on two dependent variables (frequency and timing of antenatal visits) among 1610 Ghanaian women. Negative binomial and logit models were fitted given that count and categorical variables were employed as outcome measures, respectively. Regardless of socio-economic and demographic factors, women enrolled in the NHIS make more antenatal visits compared with those not enrolled; however, there was no statistical association with the timing of the crucial first visit. Women who are educated, living in urban areas and are wealthy were more likely to attend antenatal care than those living in rural areas, uneducated and from poorer households. The NHIS should be strengthened and resourced as it may act as an important tool for increasing antenatal care attendance among women in Ghana. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ferrer, Robert L
Long-term shifts in specialty choice and health workforce policy have raised concern about the future of primary care in the United States. The objective of this study was to examine current use of primary and specialty care across the US population for policy-relevant subgroups, such as disadvantaged populations and persons with chronic illness. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2004 were analyzed using a probability sample patients or other participants from the noninstitutionalized US population in 2004 (N = 34,403). The main and secondary outcome measures were the estimates of the proportion of Americans who accessed different types of primary care and specialty physicians and midlevel practitioners, as well as the fraction of ambulatory visits accounted for by the different clinician types. Data were disaggregated by income, health insurance status, race/ethnicity, rural or urban residence, and presence of 5 common chronic diseases. Family physicians were the most common clinician type accessed by adults, seniors, and reproductive-age women, and they were second to pediatricians for children. Disadvantaged adults with 3 markers of disadvantage (poverty, disadvantaged minority, uninsured) received 45.6% (95% CI, 40.4%-50.7%) of their ambulatory visits from family physicians vs 30.5% (95% CI, 30.0%-32.1%) for adults with no markers. For children with 3 vs 0 markers of disadvantage, the proportion of visits from family physicians roughly doubled from 16.5% (95% CI, 14.4%-18.6%) to 30.1% (95% CI, 18.8%-41.2%). Family physicians constitute the only clinician group that does not show income disparities in access. Multivariate analyses show that patterns of access to family physicians and nurse-practitioners are more equitable than for other clinician types. Primary care clinicians, especially family physicians, deliver a disproportionate share of ambulatory care to disadvantaged populations. A diminished primary care workforce will leave
Erlyana, Erlyana; Damrongplasit, Kannika Kampanya; Melnick, Glenn
This study investigates the importance of medical fee and distance to health care provider on individual's decision to seek care in developing countries. The estimation method used a mixed logit model applied to data from the third wave of the Indonesian family life survey (2000). The key variables of interest include medical fee and distance to different types of health care provider and individual characteristic variables. Urban dweller's decision to choose health care providers are sensitive to the monetary cost of medical care as measured by medical fee but they are not sensitive to distance. For those who reside in rural area, they are sensitive to the non-medical component cost of care as measured by travel distance but they are not sensitive to medical fee. As a result of those findings, policy makers should consider different sets of policy instruments when attempting to expand health service's usage in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. To increase access in urban areas, we recommend expansion of health insurance coverage in order to lower out-of-pocket medical expenditures. As for rural areas, expansion of medical infrastructures to reduce commuting distance and costs will be needed to increase utilization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dworsky, Amy; Ahrens, Kym; Courtney, Mark
This research uses data from a longitudinal study to examine how two provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could affect health insurance coverage among young women who have aged out of foster care. It also explores how allowing young people to remain in foster care until age twenty-one affects their health insurance coverage, use of family planning services, and information about birth control. We find that young women are more likely to have health insurance if they remain in foster care until their twenty-first birthday and that having health insurance is associated with an increase in the likelihood of receiving family planning services. Our results also suggest that many young women who would otherwise lack health insurance after aging out of foster care will be eligible for Medicaid under the health care reform law. Because having health insurance is associated with use of family planning services, this increase in Medicaid eligibility may result in fewer unintended pregnancies among this high-risk population.
Brown, Henry Shelton
Although language and culture are important contributors to uninsurance among immigrants, one important contributor may have been overlooked - the ability of immigrants to return to their home country for health care. This paper examines the extent to which uninsurance (private insurance and Medicaid) is related to the ability of immigrants to return to Mexico for health care, as measured by spatial proximity. The data for this study are from the Mexican Migration Project. After controlling for household income, acculturation and demographic characteristics, arc distance to the place of origin plays a role in explaining uninsurance rates. Distance within Mexico is quite important, indicating that immigrants from the South of Mexico are more likely to seek care in their communities of origin (hometowns).
Hullegie, P.G.J.; Klein, T.J.
In Germany, employees are generally obliged to participate in the public health insurance system, where coverage is universal, co-payments and deductibles are moderate, and premia are based on income. However, they may buy private insurance instead if their income exceeds the compulsory insurance
The French government has decided that, with effect from 1 June 2014, persons resident in France but working in Switzerland (hereinafter referred to as “frontaliers”) will no longer be entitled to opt for private French health insurance provision as their sole and principal health insurance. The right of choice, which was granted by the Bilateral Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons between Switzerland and the European Union and which came into force on 1 June 2002, exempts “frontaliers” from the obligation to become a member of Switzerland’s compulsory health insurance scheme (LAMal) if they can prove that they have equivalent coverage in France, provided by either the French social security system (CMU) or a private French insurance provider. As the latter option of private health insurance as an alternative to membership of LAMal will be revoked under the new French legislation that will come into force on 1 June 2014, current “...
Roemer, M I
Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country's economic level and its government's political ideology. By the late 19th century, thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe, and in 1883 Germany's Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers. Other countries followed, with France completing Western European coverage in 1928. The Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a National Health Service covering everyone from general revenues by 1937. New Zealand legislated universal population coverage in 1939. After World War II, Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948. Outside of Europe Japan adopted health insurance in 1922, covering everyone in 1946. Chile was the first developing country to enact statutory health insurance in 1924 for industrial workers, with extension to all low-income people with its "Servicio Nacional de Salud" in 1952. India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation in 1948, and China after its 1949 revolution developed four types of health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents. Sub-Saharan African countries took limited health insurance actions in the late 1960s and 1970s. By 1980, some 85 countries had enacted social security programs to finance or deliver health services or both.
Grigorakis, Nikolaos; Floros, Christos; Tsangari, Haritini; Tsoukatos, Evangelos
The high level of out of pocket (OOP) payments constitutes a major concern for Greece and several other European and OECD countries as a result of the significant down turning of their public health finances due to the 2008 financial crisis. The basic objective of this study is to provide empirical evidence on the effect of combining social health insurance (SHI) and private health insurance (PHI) on OOP payments. Further, this study examines the catastrophic impact of OOP payments on insured's welfare using the incidence and intensity methodological approach of measuring catastrophic health care expenditures. Conducting a cross-sectional survey in Greece in 2013, we find that the combination of SHI-PHI has a strong negative influence on insured OOP payments for inpatient health care in private hospitals. Furthermore, our results indicate that SHI coverage is not sufficient by itself to manage with this issue. Moreover, we find that poor people present a greater tendency to incur catastrophic OOP expenditures for hospital health care in private providers. Drawing evidence from Greece, a country with huge fiscal problems that has suffered the consequences of the economic crisis more than any other, could be a starting point for policymakers to consider the perspective of SHI-PHI co-operation against OOP payments more seriously.
Brown, J.R.; Coe, N.B.; Finkelstein, A.
This paper provides empirical evidence of Medicaid crowd out of demand for private long-term care insurance. Using data on the near- and young-elderly in the Health and Retirement Survey, our central estimate suggests that a $10,000 decrease in the level of assets an individual can keep while
Lin, Lan-Ping; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lin, Fu-Gong; Lin, Pei-Ying; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding
Nationwide data were collected concerning inpatient care use and medical expenditure of people with disabilities (N = 937,944) among national health insurance beneficiaries in Taiwan. Data included gender, age, hospitalization frequency and expenditure, healthcare setting and service department, discharge diagnose disease according to the ICD-9-CM…
This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investment in children's human capital during negative health shocks, which suggests that one benefit of health insurance could arise from reducing the use of costly smoothing mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Edward, Jean; Mir, Nageen; Monti, Denise; Shacham, Enbal; Politi, Mary C
States that did not expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the United States have seen a growth in the number of individuals who fall in the assistance gap, defined as having incomes above the Medicaid eligibility limit (≥44% of the federal poverty level) but below the lower limit (marketplace. The purpose of this article is to present findings from a secondary data analysis examining the characteristics of those who fell in the assistance gap ( n = 166) in Missouri, a Medicaid nonexpansion state, by comparing them with those who did not fall in the assistance gap ( n = 157). Participants completed online demographic questionnaires and self-reported measures of health and insurance status, health literacy, numeracy, and health insurance literacy. A select group completed a 1-year follow-up survey about health insurance enrollment and health care utilization. Compared with the nonassistance gap group, individuals in the assistance gap were more likely to have lower levels of education, have at least one chronic condition, be uninsured at baseline, and be seeking health care coverage for additional dependents. Individuals in the assistance gap had significantly lower annual incomes and higher annual premiums when compared with the nonassistance gap group and were less likely to be insured through the marketplace or other private insurance at the 1-year follow-up. Findings provide several practice and policy implications for expanding health insurance coverage, reducing costs, and improving access to care for underserved populations.
Full Text Available We apply several estimators to Indonesian household data to estimate the relationship between health insurance and the number of outpatient visits to public and private providers. Once endogeneity of insurance is taken into account, there is a 63 percent increase in the average number of public visits by the beneficiaries of mandatory insurance for civil servants. Individuals' decisions to make first contact with private providers is affected by private insurance membership. However, insurance status does not make any difference for the number of future outpatient visits.
Huizenga, Carin R; Lowstuter, Katrina; Banks, Kimberly C; Lagos, Veronica I; Vandergon, Virginia O; Weitzel, Jeffrey N
Previous studies have documented that concerns about genetic discrimination (GD) may influence access to and participation in medically necessary care. We sought to characterize how GD issues influence current cancer genetics professional (CGP) practice, determine if their attitudes regarding GD have changed over time, and compare their knowledge and attitudes regarding laws prohibiting GD to a contemporary cohort of non-genetics clinicians. Members of the National Society of Genetic Counselors Familial Cancer Special Interest Group were invited to complete a 39 item online survey, adapted from previously published instruments. The resulting data were compared to a survey of CGPs published in 2000 and to a contemporary cohort of non-genetics clinicians (n = 1,181). There were 153 qualified respondents. Compared to the historical CGP cohort (n = 163), a significantly greater proportion said they would bill insurance for the cost of genetic testing for themselves (P genetics clinicians (P genetics clinicians. Better knowledge of GD and protective legislation, may facilitate non-genetics clinician utilization of genetics and personalized medicine.
Purpose: This longitudinal study examined the role of health insurance in access to health care among older immigrants. Design and Methods: Using data from the Second Longitudinal Study of Aging, the longitudinal trajectories of having a usual source of care were compared between 3 groups (all 70+ years): (a) late-life immigrants with less than 15…
Elam, Angela R; Andrews, Chris; Musch, David C; Lee, Paul P; Stein, Joshua D
To determine whether the type of health insurance a patient possesses and a patient's race/ethnicity affect receipt of common tests to monitor open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. A total of 21 766 persons aged ≥40 years with newly diagnosed OAG between 2007 and 2011 enrolled in Medicaid or a large United States managed care network. We determined the proportion of patients with newly diagnosed OAG who underwent visual field (VF) testing, fundus photography (FP), other ocular imaging (OOI), or none of these tests within the first 15 months after initial OAG diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the extent by which health insurance type and race/ethnicity affected the odds of undergoing glaucoma testing. Odds ratios (OR) of undergoing VF testing, FP, OOI, or none of these tests in the 15 months after initial OAG diagnosis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 18 372 persons with commercial health insurance and 3394 Medicaid recipients met the study inclusion criteria. The proportions of persons with commercial health insurance with newly diagnosed OAG who underwent VF, FP, and OOI were 63%, 22%, and 54%, respectively, whereas the proportions were 35%, 19%, and 30%, respectively, for Medicaid recipients. Compared with those with commercial health insurance, Medicaid recipients were 234% more likely to not receive any glaucoma testing in the 15 months after initial diagnosis (OR = 3.34; 95% CI, 3.07-3.63). After adjustment for confounders, whites with OAG enrolled in Medicaid had 198% higher odds of receiving no glaucoma testing compared with whites possessing commercial health insurance (OR = 2.98; 95% CI, 2.66-3.33). Blacks with Medicaid insurance demonstrated 291% higher odds (OR = 3.91; 95% CI, 3.40-4.49) of not receiving any glaucoma testing compared with blacks with commercial health insurance. Irrespective of race/ethnicity, Medicaid recipients with OAG are receiving substantially less
The relationship between the State and the health insurance passes through an institutional and financial crisis, leading the government to decide a new governance of the health care system and of the health insurance. The onset of the institutional crisis is the consequence of the confusion of the roles played by the State and the social partners. The social democracy installed by the French plan in 1945 and the autonomy of management of the health insurance established by the 1967 ordinances have failed. The administration parity (union and MEDEF) flew into pieces. The State had to step in by failing. The light is put on the financial crisis by the evolution of ONDAM (National Objective of the Health Insurance Expenses) which appears in the yearly law financing Social Security. The drift of the real expenses as compared to the passed ONDAM bill is constant and worsening. The question of reform includes the link between social democracy to be restored (social partners) and political democracy (Parliament and Government) to establish a contractual democracy. The Government made the announcement of an ONDAM sincere and medically oriented, based on tools agreed upon by all parties. The region could become a regulating step involving a regional health council. An accounting magistrate would be needed to consider not only the legal aspect but to include economic fallouts of health insurance. The role and the missions of the Social Security Accounting Committee should be reinforced.
Before we can evaluate the impact of the Affordable Care Act on health insurance premiums in the individual market, it is critical to understand the pricing trends of these premiums before the implementation of the law. Using rates of increase in the individual insurance market collected from state regulators, this issue brief documents trends in premium growth in the pre-ACA period. From 2008 to 2010, premiums grew by 10 percent or more per year. This growth was also highly variable across states, and even more variable across insurance plans within states. The study suggests that evaluating trends in premiums requires looking across a broad array of states and plans, and that policymakers must examine how present and future changes in premium rates compare with the more than 10 percent per year premium increases in the years preceding health reform.
Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizesthe necessity and the opportunity of creating in Romania a medical service market based on the competingsystem. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their very beginning. The development of thedomain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of anormative act that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment ofthe legislation related to the optional insurances for health care might lead to some activity norms for thecompanies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislation is made in order tocreate normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. Thischange, as part of the social protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medicalinsurance system. The extension of the segment of the optional insurances into the medical insurance segmentincreases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong to thebudgetary funds.
Su, Brooke M; Park, Jason S; Chan, Dylan K
Objective This study aims to describe the effects of primary language and insurance status on care utilization among deaf or hard-of-hearing children under active otolaryngologic and audiologic care. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Multidisciplinary hearing loss clinic at a tertiary center. Subjects and Methods Demographics, hearing loss data, and validated survey responses were collected from 206 patients aged 0 to 19 years. Two-sided t tests and χ 2 tests were used to obtain descriptive statistics and hypothesis testing. Results Of the sample, 52.4% spoke primarily English at home. Non-English-speaking children and families were less likely to receive psychiatric counseling (12.2% vs 35.2% in the English group, P children were less likely to know the type or degree of their child's hearing loss (56.9% vs 75.4%, P = .022), and these children were older on presentation to the clinic (8.5 vs 6.5 years of age, P = .01) compared to privately insured children. Publicly insured children were less likely to receive cochlear implants ( P = .046) and reported increased difficulty obtaining hearing aids ( P = .047). While all patients reported impairment in hearing-related quality of life, publicly insured children aged 2 to 7 years were more likely to perform below minimum thresholds on measures of auditory/oral functioning. Conclusion Even when under active care, deaf or hard-of-hearing children from families who do not speak English at home or with public insurance face more difficulty obtaining educational services, cochlear implants, and hearing aids. These findings represent significant disparities in access to necessary interventions.
Zhang, Chuanchuan; Lei, Xiaoyan; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui
We document the recent profile of health insurance and health care among mid-aged and older Chinese using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in 2011. Overall health insurance coverage is about 93%. Multivariate regressions show that respondents with lower income as measured by per capita expenditure have a lower chance of being insured, as do the less-educated, older, and divorced/widowed women and rural-registered people. Premiums and reimbursement rates of health insurance vary significantly by schemes. Inpatient reimbursement rates for urban people increase with total cost to a plateau of 60%; rural people receive much less. Demographic characteristics such as age, education, marriage status, per capita expenditure, and self-reported health status are not significantly associated with share of out-of-pocket cost after controlling community effects. For health service use, we find large gaps that vary across health insurance plans, especially for inpatient service. People with access to urban health insurance plans are more likely to use health services. In general, Chinese people have easy access to median low-level medical facilities. It is also not difficult to access general hospitals or specialized hospitals, but there exists better access to healthcare facilities in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Davidoff, Amy; Hill, Ian; Courtot, Brigette; Adams, Emerald
Our goal was to estimate the effects of managed care program type on service use and access for publicly insured children with chronic health conditions. Data on Medicaid and State Children's Health Insurance Program managed care programs were linked by county and year to pooled data from the 1997-2002 National Health Interview Survey. We used multivariate techniques to examine the effects of managed care program type, relative to fee-for-service, on a broad array of service use and access outcomes. Relative to fee-for-service, managed care program assignment was associated with selected reductions in service use but not with deterioration in reported access. Capitated managed care plans with mental health or specialty carve-outs were associated with a 7.4-percentage-point reduction in the probability of a specialist visit, a 6.3-percentage-point reduction in the probability of a mental health specialty visit, and a 5.9-percentage-point decrease in the probability of regular prescription drug use. Reductions in use associated with primary care case management and integrated capitated programs (without carve-outs) were more limited, and integrated capitated plans were associated with a reduction in unmet medical care need. We failed to find significant effects of special managed care programs for children with chronic health conditions. Managed care is associated with reduced service use, particularly when capitated programs carve out services. This finding is of key policy importance, as the proportion of children enrolled in plans with carve-out arrangements has been increasing over time. It is not possible to determine whether reductions in services represent better care management or skimping. However, despite the reductions in use, we did not observe a corresponding increase in perceived unmet need; thus, the net change may represent improved care management.
Dimitriyadis, I.; Öney, Ü. N.
This study is an extension to a simulation study that has been developed to determine ruin probabilities in health insurance. The study concentrates on inpatient and outpatient benefits for customers of varying age bands. Loss distributions are modelled through the Allianz tool pack for different classes of insureds. Premiums at different levels of deductibles are derived in the simulation and ruin probabilities are computed assuming a linear loading on the premium. The increase in the probability of ruin at high levels of the deductible clearly shows the insufficiency of proportional loading in deductible premiums. The PH-transform pricing rule developed by Wang is analyzed as an alternative pricing rule. A simple case, where an insured is assumed to be an exponential utility decision maker while the insurer's pricing rule is a PH-transform is also treated.
Hamar, Brent; Wells, Aaron; Gandy, William; Haaf, Andreas; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y
Hospital admissions are the source of significant health care expenses, although a large proportion of these admissions can be avoided through proper management of chronic disease. In the present study, we evaluate the impact of a proactive chronic care management program for members of a German insurance society who suffer from chronic disease. Specifically, we tested the impact of nurse-delivered care calls on hospital admission rates. Study participants were insured individuals with coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who consented to participate in the chronic care management program. Intervention (n = 17,319) and Comparison (n = 5668) groups were defined based on records of participating (or not participating) in telephonic interactions. Changes in admission rates were calculated from the year prior to (Base) and year after program commencement. Comparative analyses were adjusted for age, sex, region of residence, and disease severity (stratification of 3 [least severe] to 1 [most severe]). Overall, the admission rate in the Intervention group decreased by 6.2% compared with a 14.9% increase in the Comparison group (P management care calls can help reduce hospital admissions among German health insurance members with chronic disease.
Scott Braithwaite, R.; Omokaro, Cynthia; Justice, Amy C.; Nucifora, Kimberly; Roberts, Mark S.
Editors' Summary Background More money is spent per person on health care in the US than in any other country. US health care expenditure accounts for 16.2% of the gross domestic product and this figure is rising. Indeed, the increase in health care costs is outstripping the economy's growth rate. Consequently, US policy makers and providers of health insurance?health care in the US is largely provided by the private sector and is paid for through private health insurance or through governmen...
Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizes the necessity and the opportunity ofcreating in Romania a medical service market based on the competing system. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their verybeginning. The development of the domain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of a normativeact that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment of the legislation related to the optional insurancesfor health care might lead to some activity norms for the companies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislationis made in order to create normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. This change, as part of thesocial protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medical insurance system. The extension of the segment of the optionalinsurances into the medical insurance segment increases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong tothe budgetary funds.
Jiwani, Aliya; Himmelstein, David; Woolhandler, Steffie; Kahn, James G
The United States' multiple-payer health care system requires substantial effort and costs for administration, with billing and insurance-related (BIR) activities comprising a large but incompletely characterized proportion. A number of studies have quantified BIR costs for specific health care sectors, using micro-costing techniques. However, variation in the types of payers, providers, and BIR activities across studies complicates estimation of system-wide costs. Using a consistent and comprehensive definition of BIR (including both public and private payers, all providers, and all types of BIR activities), we synthesized and updated available micro-costing evidence in order to estimate total and added BIR costs for the U.S. health care system in 2012. We reviewed BIR micro-costing studies across healthcare sectors. For physician practices, hospitals, and insurers, we estimated the % BIR using existing research and publicly reported data, re-calculated to a standard and comprehensive definition of BIR where necessary. We found no data on % BIR in other health services or supplies settings, so extrapolated from known sectors. We calculated total BIR costs in each sector as the product of 2012 U.S. national health expenditures and the percentage of revenue used for BIR. We estimated "added" BIR costs by comparing total BIR costs in each sector to those observed in existing, simplified financing systems (Canada's single payer system for providers, and U.S. Medicare for insurers). Due to uncertainty in inputs, we performed sensitivity analyses. BIR costs in the U.S. health care system totaled approximately $471 ($330 - $597) billion in 2012. This includes $70 ($54 - $76) billion in physician practices, $74 ($58 - $94) billion in hospitals, an estimated $94 ($47 - $141) billion in settings providing other health services and supplies, $198 ($154 - $233) billion in private insurers, and $35 ($17 - $52) billion in public insurers. Compared to simplified financing, $375
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act is bringing an unprecedented level of scrutiny and transparency to health insurance rate increases. The Act ensures that, in any State, any...
Kristoff, Iris; Cramer, Ryan; Leichliter, Jami S
Young adults may not seek sensitive health services when confidentiality cannot be ensured. To better understand the policy environment for insured dependent confidentiality, we systematically assessed legal requirements for health insurance plan communications using WestlawNext to create a jurisdiction-level data set of health insurance plan communication regulations as of March 2013. Two jurisdictions require plan communications be sent to a policyholder, 22 require plan communications to be sent to an insured, and 36 give insurers discretion to send plan communications to the policyholder or insured. Six jurisdictions prohibit disclosure, and 3 allow a patient to request nondisclosure of certain patient information. Our findings suggest that in many states, health insurers are given considerable discretion in determining to whom plan communications containing sensitive health information are sent. Future research could use this framework to analyze the association between state laws concerning insured dependent confidentiality and public health outcomes and related sensitive services.
Pendzialek, Jonas B; Danner, Marion; Simic, Dusan; Stock, Stephanie
This paper investigates the change in price elasticity of health insurance choice in Germany after a reform of health insurance contributions. Using a comprehensive data set of all sickness funds between 2004 and 2013, price elasticities are calculated both before and after the reform for the entire market. The general price elasticity is found to be increased more than 4-fold from -0.81 prior to the reform to -3.53 after the reform. By introducing a new kind of health insurance contribution the reform seemingly increased the price elasticity of insured individuals to a more appropriate level under the given market parameters. However, further unintended consequences of the new contribution scheme were massive losses of market share for the more expensive sickness funds and therefore an undivided focus on pricing as the primary competitive element to the detriment of quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Orynich, C Ashley; Casamassimo, Paul S; Seale, N Sue; Reggiardo, Paul; Litch, C Scott
To examine the relationship between state health insurance Exchange selection and pediatric dental benefit design, regulation and cost. Medical and dental plans were analyzed across three types of state health insurance Exchanges: State-based (SB), State-partnered (SP), and Federally-facilitated (FF). Cost-analysis was completed for 10,427 insurance plans, and health policy expert interviews were conducted. One-way ANOVA compared the cost-sharing structure of stand-alone dental plans (SADP). T-test statistics compared differences in average total monthly pediatric premium costs. No causal relationships were identified between Exchange selection and the pediatric dental benefit's design, regulation or cost. Pediatric medical and dental coverage offered through the embedded plan design exhibited comparable average total monthly premium costs to aggregate cost estimates for the separately purchased SADP and traditional medical plan (P=0.11). Plan designs and regulatory policies demonstrated greater correlation between the SP and FF Exchanges, as compared to the SB Exchange. Parameters defining the pediatric dental benefit are complex and vary across states. Each state Exchange was subject to barriers in improving the quality of the pediatric dental benefit due to a lack of defined, standardized policy parameters and further legislative maturation is required.
Presswala, R G
In India, indemnity health insurance started about 3 decades ago. Mediclaim was the most popular product. Indian insurers and multinational companies have not been enthusiastic about starting health insurance in spite of the availability of a good market because health insurers have historically incurred losses. Losses have been caused by poor administration. Because it is a small portion of their total businesses, insurers have never tried sincerely to improve deficiencies or taken special interest. Hospital management and medical specialists have the spirit of entrepreneurship and are prepared to learn quickly and follow managed care principles, though they are not currently practiced in India. Actuarial data from the health insurance industry is sparse, but data from alternative sources will be helpful for starting managed healthcare. In my opinion, if properly administered, a "limited" managed care product with appropriate precautions and premium levels will be successful and profitable and will compete with present indemnity products in India.
Harmon, C; Nolan, B
The numbers buying private health insurance in Ireland have continued to grow, despite a broadening in entitlement to public care. About 40% of the population now have insurance, although everyone has entitlement to public hospital care. In this paper, we examine in detail the growth in insurance coverage and the factors underlying the demand for insurance. Attitudinal responses reveal the importance of perceptions about waiting times for public care, as well as some concerns about the quality of that care. Individual characteristics, such as education, age, gender, marital status, family composition and income all influence the probability of purchasing private insurance. We also examine the relationship between insurance and utilization of hospital in-patient services. The positive effect of private insurance appears less than that of entitlement to full free health care from the state, although the latter is means-tested, and may partly represent health status. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... to know what your insurance company is paying…Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversYour insurance policy lists a package of medical benefits such as tests, drugs, and treatment services. These ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Swiss ambulatory care is characterized by independent, and primarily practice-based, physicians, receiving fee for service reimbursement. This study analyses supply sensitive services using ambulatory care claims data from mandatory health insurance. A first research question was aimed at the hypothesis that physicians with large patient lists decrease their intensity of services and bill less per patient to health insurance, and vice versa: physicians with smaller patient lists compensate for the lack of patients with additional visits and services. A second research question relates to the fact that several cantons are allowing physicians to directly dispense drugs to patients ('self-dispensation' whereas other cantons restrict such direct sales to emergencies only. This second question was based on the assumption that patterns of rescheduling patients for consultations may differ across channels of dispensing prescription drugs and therefore the hypothesis of different consultation costs in this context was investigated. Methods Complete claims data paid for by mandatory health insurance of all Swiss physicians in own practices were analyzed for the years 2003-2007. Medical specialties were pooled into six main provider types in ambulatory care: primary care, pediatrics, gynecology & obstetrics, psychiatrists, invasive and non-invasive specialists. For each provider type, regression models at the physician level were used to analyze the relationship between the number of patients treated and the total sum of treatment cost reimbursed by mandatory health insurance. Results The results show non-proportional relationships between patient numbers and total sum of treatment cost for all provider types involved implying that treatment costs per patient increase with higher practice size. The related additional costs to the health system are substantial. Regions with self-dispensation had lowest treatment cost for primary care
Glaeske, G; Schramm, W; Herzig, D
Through the GMG (modified law of health system) the section sign 116b "out-patients department" was newly introduced into the SGB V (5(th) social welfare legislation) in 2004. Thus, the health insurance companies had the possibility to come to an agreement with hospitals concerning rare illnesses such as haemophilia. On this basis a care agreement was agreed upon in 2005 between the University Hospital Eppendorf (Hamburg) and three big health insurance companies. The result leads to positive changes for all concerned: The patients were offered an optimal care through the link to the CCC and this with an adequate compensation for the coagulation section for out-patients. As the therapy programme became more clarified, the communication between the parties involved became more constructive. With the law to strengthen competition (WSG) for the insurance companies, a change of section sign 116b of the SGB V (5(th) social welfare legislation) came into force in 2007. Thus the legal basis for the a. m. agreement was withdrawn. It is now the task of the a. m. parties to find a way to secure the advantages obtained through this agreement, to the benefit of the patients, the coagulation sections for out-patients and the cost bearers.
Do, Young Kyung; Eggleston, Karen N
To investigate educational disparities in the care process and health outcomes among patients with diabetes in the context of South Korea's universal health insurance system. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses of data from a cross-sectional health survey. A nationally representative and population-based survey, the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Respondents aged 40 or older who self-reported prior diagnosis with diabetes (n= 1418). Seven measures of the care process and health outcomes, namely (i) receiving medical treatment for diabetes, (ii) ever received diabetes education, (iii) received dilated eye examination in the past year, (iv) received microalbuminuria test in the past year, (v) having activity limitation due to diabetes, (vi) poor self-rated health and (vii) self-rated health on a visual analog scale. Except for receiving medical care for diabetes, overall process quality was low, with only 25% having ever received diabetes education, 39% having received a dilated eye examination in the past year and 51% having received a microalbuminuria test in the past year. Lower education level was associated with both poorer care processes and poorer health outcomes, whereas lower income level was only associated with poorer health outcomes. While South Korea's universal health insurance system may have succeeded in substantially reducing financial barriers related to diabetes care, the quality of diabetes care is low overall and varies by education level. System-level quality improvement efforts are required to address the weaknesses of the health system, thereby mitigating educational disparities in diabetes care quality.
Le, Anh Thi Kim; Vu, Lan Hoang; Schelling, Esther
Economic transition ( DoiMoi ) in the 1980s in Viet Nam has led to internal migration, particularly rural-to-urban migration. Many studies suggested that there is a difference between non-migrants and migrants in using health care services. Current studies have mostly focused on migrants working in industrial zones (IZs) but migrants working in private small enterprises (PSEs) and seasonal migrants seem to be ignored. However, these two groups of migrants are more vulnerable in health care access than others because they usually work without labor contracts and have no health insurance. The study aims to compare the utilization of health care services and explore its correlated factors among these three groups. This cross-sectional study included 1800 non-migrants and migrants aged 18-55 who were selected through stratified sampling in Long Bien and Ba Dinh districts, Hanoi. These study sites consist of large industrial zones and many slums where most seasonal migrants live in. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on health service utilization in the last 6 months before the study. Utilization of heath care services was identified as "an ill person who goes to health care centers to seek any treatment (i.e. both private and public health care centers)". 644 of 1800 participants reported having a health problem in the last 6 months before the study. Among these 644 people, 335 people used health care services. The percentage of non-migrants using health care service was the highest (67.6%), followed by migrants working in IZ (53.7%), migrants working in PSE (44%), and seasonal migrants (42%). Multivariate logistic regression showed migrants, especially seasonal migrants and migrants working in PSE, were less likely to use health care services (OR=0.35, p=0.016 and 0.38, p= 0.004, respectively), compared to non-migrants. The study also found that having no health insurance was a risk factor of the utilization (OR=0.29, pincome were not related
Paez, Kathryn A.; Mallery, Coretta J.; Noel, HarmoniJoie; Pugliese, Christopher; McSorley, Veronica E.; Lucado, Jennifer L.; Ganachari, Deepa
Understanding health insurance is central to affording and accessing health care in the United States. Efforts to support consumers in making wise purchasing decisions and using health insurance to their advantage would benefit from the development of a valid and reliable measure to assess health insurance literacy. This article reports on the development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM), a self-assessment measure of consumers' ability to select and use private health insurance...
van Eijk, Marieke
What is a clinician to do when people needing medical care do not have access to consistent or sufficient health insurance coverage and cannot pay for care privately? Analyzing ethnographically how clinicians at a university-based transgender clinic in the United States responded to this challenge, I examine the U.S. health insurance system, insurance paperwork, and administrative procedures that shape transgender care delivery. To buffer the impact of the system's failure to provide sufficient health insurance coverage for transgender care, clinicians blended administrative routines with psychological therapy, counseled people's minds and finances, and leveraged the prestige of their clinic in attempts to create space for gender nonconforming embodiments in gender conservative insurance policies. My analysis demonstrates that in a market-based health insurance system with multiple payers and gender binary insurance rules, health care may be unaffordable, or remain financially challenging, even for transgender people with health insurance. Moreover, insurance carriers' "reliance" on clinicians' insurance-related labor is problematic as it exacerbates existing insurance barriers to the accessibility and affordability of transgender care and obscures the workings of a financial payment model that prioritizes economic expediency over gender nonconforming health.
This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.These final regulations provide guidance to individuals related to employees who may enroll in eligible employer-sponsored coverage and who wish to enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges) and claim the premium tax credit.
Full Text Available Szilárd Kiss,1 Hitesh S Chandwani,2 Ashley L Cole,2 Vaishali D Patel,2 Orsolya E Lunacsek,3 Pravin U Dugel4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, 3Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Xcenda, LLC, Palm Harbor, FL, 4Retinal Consultants of Arizona and USC Eye Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA Purpose: To examine the comorbidity profile and update estimates of health care resource utilization for commercially insured, working-age adults with diabetic macular edema (DME relative to a matched comparison group of diabetic adults without DME. Additional comparisons were made in the subgroup of pseudophakic patients. Patients and methods: A retrospective matched-cohort study of commercially insured diabetic adults aged 18–63 years was conducted using medical and outpatient pharmacy claims (July 1, 2008–June 30, 2013. Outcomes included diabetes-related and ocular comorbidities and health care resource utilization (any health care visit days, outpatient visit days, inpatient visit days, emergency room visits, eye care-related visit days, unique medications in the 12-month post-index period. Results: All diabetes-related and ocular comorbidities were significantly more prevalent in DME cases versus non-DME controls (P<0.05. A significantly greater proportion of DME cases utilized eye care-related visits compared with non-DME controls (P<0.001. DME cases had almost twice the mean number of total health care visit days compared to non-DME controls (28.6 vs 16.9 days, P<0.001, with a minority of visit days being eye care-related (mean 5.1 vs 1.5 days, P<0.001. Similar trends were observed in pseudophakic cohorts. Conclusion: This working-age DME population experienced a mean of 29 health care visit days per year. Eye care-related visit days were a minority of the overall visit burden (mean 5 days emphasizing the trade-offs DME patients
Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J
The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Equity of access to healthcare remains a major challenge with families continuing to face financial and non-financial barriers to services. Lack of education has been shown to be a key risk factor for 'catastrophic' health expenditure (CHE, in many countries including India. Consequently, ways to address the education divide need to be explored. We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient care among households with varying levels of education.We used the National Sample Survey Organization 2004 survey as our baseline and the same survey design to collect post-intervention data from 8623 households in the state in 2012. Two outcomes, hospitalisation and CHE for inpatient care, were estimated using education as a measure of socio-economic status and transforming levels of education into ridit scores. We derived relative indices of inequality by regressing the outcome measures on education, transformed as a ridit score, using logistic regression models with appropriate weights and accounting for the complex survey design.Between 2004 and 2012, there was a 39% reduction in the likelihood of the most educated person being hospitalised compared to the least educated, with reductions observed in all households as well as those that had used the Aarogyasri. For CHE the inequality disappeared in 2012 in both groups. Sub-group analyses by economic status, social groups and rural-urban residence showed a decrease in relative indices of inequality in most groups. Nevertheless, inequalities in hospitalisation and CHE persisted across most groups.During the time of the Aarogyasri scheme implementation inequalities in access to hospital care were substantially reduced but not eliminated across the education divide. Universal access to education and schemes such as Aarogyasri have the synergistic potential
Baranes, Edmond; Bardey, David
This article examines a model of competition between two types of health insurer: Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and nonintegrated insurers. HMOs vertically integrate health care providers and pay them at a competitive price, while nonintegrated health insurers work as indemnity plans and pay the health care providers freely chosen by policyholders at a wholesale price. Such difference is referred to as an input price effect which, at first glance, favors HMOs. Moreover, we assume that policyholders place a positive value on the provider diversity supplied by their health insurance plan and that this value increases with the probability of disease. Due to the restricted choice of health care providers in HMOs a risk segmentation occurs: policyholders who choose nonintegrated health insurers are characterized by higher risk, which also tends to favor HMOs. Our equilibrium analysis reveals that the equilibrium allocation only depends on the number of HMOs in the case of exclusivity contracts between HMOs and providers. Surprisingly, our model shows that the interplay between risk segmentation and input price effects may generate ambiguous results. More precisely, we reveal that vertical integration in health insurance markets may decrease health insurers' premiums.
Fronstin, Paul; Salisbury, Dallas; VanDerhei, Jack
MODELING RETIREE HEALTH COSTS: This Issue Brief examines the uncertainty of health care expenses in retirement by using a Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate the amount of savings needed to cover health insurance premiums and out-of-pocket health care expenses. This type of simulation is able to account for the uncertainty related to individual mortality and rates of return, and computes the present value of the savings needed to cover health insurance premiums and out-of-pocket expenses in retirement. These observations were used to determine asset targets for having adequate savings to cover retiree health costs 50, 75, and 90 percent of the time. NOT ENOUGH SAVINGS: Many individuals will need more money than the amounts reported in this Issue Brief because this analysis does not factor in the savings needed to cover long-term care expenses, nor does it take into account the fact that many individuals retire prior to becoming eligible for Medicare. However, some workers will need to save less than what is reported if they keep working in retirement and receive health benefits as active workers. WHO HAS RETIREE HEALTH BENEFITS BEYOND MEDICARE?: About 12 percent of private-sector employers report offering any Medicare supplemental health insurance. This increases to about 40 percent among large employers. Overall, nearly 22 percent of retirees age 65 and older had retiree health benefits in 2005 to supplement Medicare coverage. As recently as 2006, 53 percent of retirees age 65 and older were covered by Medicare Part D, 24 percent had outpatient prescription drug coverage through an employment-based plan. Only 10 percent had no prescription drug coverage. INDIVIDUALLY PURCHASED MEDICARE SUPPLEMENTS, 2008: Among those who purchase Medigap and Medicare Part D prescription drug coverage at age 65 in 2008, men would need between $79,000 and $159,000 with median prescription drug expenses (50th percentile and 90th percentiles, respectively), and between $156
Robyn, Paul Jacob; Hill, Allan; Liu, Yuanli; Souares, Aurélia; Savadogo, Germain; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer
This study examines the role of community-based health insurance (CBHI) in influencing health-seeking behaviour in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Community-based health insurance was introduced in Nouna district, Burkina Faso, in 2004 with the goal to improve access to contracted providers based at primary- and secondary-level facilities. The paper specifically examines the effect of CBHI enrolment on reducing the prevalence of seeking modern and traditional methods of self-treatment as the first choice in care among the insured population. Three stages of analysis were adopted to measure this effect. First, propensity score matching was used to minimize the observed baseline differences between the insured and uninsured populations. Second, through matching the average treatment effect on the treated, the effect of insurance enrolment on health-seeking behaviour was estimated. Finally, multinomial logistic regression was applied to model demand for available health care options, including no treatment, traditional self-treatment, modern self-treatment, traditional healers and facility-based care. For the first choice in care sought, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of self-treatment among the insured and uninsured populations, reaching over 55% for each group. When comparing the alternative option of no treatment, CBHI played no significant role in reducing the demand for self-care (either traditional or modern) or utilization of traditional healers, while it did significantly increase consumption of facility-based care. The average treatment effect on the treated was insignificant for traditional self-care, modern self-care and traditional healer, but was significant with a positive effect for use of facility care. While CBHI does have a positive impact on facility care utilization, its effect on reducing the prevalence of self-care is limited. The policy recommendations for improving the CBHI scheme's responsiveness to population health care
Kennedy, Jae; Wood, Elizabeth Geneva; Frieden, Lex
The objective of this study was to assess trends in health insurance coverage, health service utilization, and health care access among working-age adults with and without disabilities before and after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and to identify current disability-based disparities following full implementation of the ACA. The ACA was expected to have a disproportionate impact on working-age adults with disabilities, because of their high health care usage as well as...
To examine the effects of hospital and insurer markets concentration on transaction prices for inpatient hospital services. Measures of hospital and insurer markets concentration derived from American Hospital Association and HealthLeaders-InterStudy data are linked to 2005-2008 inpatient administrative data from Truven Health MarketScan Databases. Uses a reduced-form price equation, controlling for cost and demand shifters and accounting for possible endogeneity of market concentration using instrumental variables (IV) technique. The findings suggest that greater hospital concentration raises prices, whereas greater insurer concentration depresses prices. A hypothetical merger between two of five equally sized hospitals is estimated to increase hospital prices by about 9 percent (p costs. © Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Congressional Budget Office
CBO and the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) continue to expect that the Affordable Care Act (ACA)—the health care legislation enacted in March 2010—will lead to a small reduction in the number of people receiving employment-based health insurance.
Baicker, Katherine; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua
A fundamental implication of standard moral hazard models is overuse of low-value medical care because copays are lower than costs. In these models, the demand curve alone can be used to make welfare statements, a fact relied on by much empirical work. There is ample evidence, though, that people misuse care for a different reason: mistakes, or “behavioral hazard.” Much high-value care is underused even when patient costs are low, and some useless care is bought even when patients face the full cost. In the presence of behavioral hazard, welfare calculations using only the demand curve can be off by orders of magnitude or even be the wrong sign. We derive optimal copay formulas that incorporate both moral and behavioral hazard, providing a theoretical foundation for value-based insurance design and a way to interpret behavioral “nudges.” Once behavioral hazard is taken into account, health insurance can do more than just provide financial protection—it can also improve health care efficiency. PMID:23930294
enrol in an insurance scheme feeling that they need more information on health insurance and the willingness to enrol in a ... and utilize the benefits of different types of health insurance services. Conclusion: The findings ..... improvements in access and quality of care, and the ... the 'rising tide' of and information technology.
Janiak, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Elizabeth; Foster, Angel M
Following state-level health care reform in Massachusetts, young women reported confusion over coverage of contraception and other sexual and reproductive health services under newly available health insurance products. To address this gap, a plain-language Web site titled "My Little Black Book for Sexual Health" was developed by a statewide network of reproductive health stakeholders. The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the health literacy demands and usability of the site among its target audience, women ages 18-26 years. We performed an evaluation of the literacy demands of the Web site's written content and tested the Web site's usability in a health communications laboratory. Participants found the Web site visually appealing and its overall design concept accessible. However, the Web site's literacy demands were high, and all participants encountered problems navigating through the Web site. Following this evaluation, the Web site was modified to be more usable and more comprehensible to women of all health literacy levels. To avail themselves of sexual and reproductive health services newly available under expanded health insurance coverage, young women require customized educational resources that are rigorously evaluated to ensure accessibility. To maximize utilization of reproductive health services under expanded health insurance coverage, US women require customized educational resources commensurate with their literacy skills. The application of established research methods from the field of health communications will enable advocates to evaluate and adapt these resources to best serve their targeted audiences. © 2013.
Liao, Chih-Hsien; Lu, Ning; Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Chang, Hui-Chih; Huang, Kuo-Cherh
There is still significant uncertainty as to whether market competition raises or lowers clinical quality in publicly funded healthcare systems. We attempted to assess the effects of market competition on inpatient care quality of stroke patients in a retrospective study of the universal single-payer health insurance system in Taiwan. In this 11-year population-based study, we conducted a pooled time-series cross-sectional analysis with a fixed-effects model and the Hausman test approach by utilizing two nationwide datasets: the National Health Insurance Research Database and the National Hospital and Services Survey in Taiwan. Patients who were admitted to a hospital for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were enrolled. After excluding patients with a previous history of stroke and those with different types of stroke, 247 379 ischemic and 79 741 hemorrhagic stroke patients were included in our analysis. Four outcome indicators were applied: the in-hospital mortality rate, 30-day post-operative complication rate, 14-day re-admission rate and 30-day re-admission rate. Market competition exerted a negative or negligible effect on the medical care quality of stroke patients. Compared to hospitals located in a highly competitive market, in-hospital mortality rates for hemorrhagic stroke patients were significantly lower in moderately (β = -0.05, P markets (β = -0.05, P market competition on the quality of care of ischemic stroke patients was insignificant. Simply fostering market competition might not achieve the objective of improving the quality of health care. Other health policy actions need to be contemplated.
Graves, John A; Nikpay, Sayeh S
The introduction of Medicaid expansions and state Marketplaces under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) have reduced the uninsurance rate to historic lows, changing the choices Americans make about coverage. In this article we shed light on these changing dynamics. We drew upon multistate transition models fit to nationally representative longitudinal data to estimate coverage transition probabilities between major insurance types in the years leading up to and including 2014. We found that the ACA's unprecedented coverage changes increased transitions to Medicaid and nongroup coverage among the uninsured, while strengthening the existing employer-sponsored insurance system and improving retention of public coverage. However, our results suggest possible weakness of state Marketplaces, since people gaining nongroup coverage were disproportionately older than other potential enrollees. We identified key opportunities for policy makers and insurers to improve underlying Marketplace risk pools by focusing on people transitioning from employer-sponsored coverage; these people are disproportionately younger and saw almost no change in their likelihood of becoming uninsured in 2014 compared to earlier years. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Grabner, Michael; Bodhani, Amit; Khandelwal, Nikhil; Palli, Swetha; Bonine, Nicole; Khera, Mohit
Hypogonadism is broadly associated with increases in chronic comorbid conditions and health care costs. Little is known about the specific impact of primary and secondary hypogonadism on health care costs. To characterize the health care cost and utilization burden of primary and secondary hypogonadism in a population of US men with commercial insurance. Newly diagnosed patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes associated with specific medical conditions known to have a high prevalence of testosterone deficiency (ie, relating to primary or secondary hypogonadism) or who had fills for testosterone replacement therapy from January 1, 2007 through April 30, 2013 were identified in administrative claims data from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database. A cohort of patients without hypogonadism was matched on demographics and comorbidities. The matched hypogonadism and non-hypogonadism cohorts (n = 5,777 in each cohort) were compared during a 12-month follow-up period. Direct health care expenditures and utilization were assessed for all causes and for hypogonadism-related claims. Costs included out-of-pocket patient expenditures and those paid by the insurer. Hypogonadism and matched non-hypogonadism cohorts were similar in demographics (mean age = 50 years) and diagnosed comorbid conditions in the 12 months preceding the index date. In the year after the index date, mean all-cause expenditures for patients with hypogonadism increased by 62% (from $5,425 to $8,813) compared with 25% for the matched controls (from $4,786 to $5,992; P groups). Approximately 16% of total mean costs ($1,377), primarily outpatient and pharmacy costs, were identifiable as related to hypogonadism. These data from a population of US men with commercial insurance coverage showed a greater resource use burden for patients with primary and secondary hypogonadism compared with similar patients without hypogonadism. Additional
Okebukola, Peter O; Brieger, William R
Despite a stated goal of achieving universal coverage, the National Health Insurance Scheme of Nigeria had achieved only 4% coverage 12 years after it was launched. This study assessed the plans of the National Health Insurance Scheme to achieve universal health insurance coverage in Nigeria by 2015 and discusses the challenges facing the scheme in achieving insurance coverage. In-depth interviews from various levels of the health-care system in the country, including providers, were conducted. The results of the analysis suggest that challenges to extending coverage include the difficulty in convincing autonomous state governments to buy into the scheme and an inadequate health workforce that might not be able to meet increased demand. Recommendations for increasing the scheme's coverage include increasing decentralization and strengthening human resources for health in the service delivery systems. Strong political will is needed as a catalyst to achieving these goals. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kercsmar, Carolyn M; Beck, Andrew F; Sauers-Ford, Hadley; Simmons, Jeffrey; Wiener, Brandy; Crosby, Lisa; Wade-Murphy, Susan; Schoettker, Pamela J; Chundi, Pavan K; Samaan, Zeina; Mansour, Mona
month by June 30, 2014, a 42.4% (95% CI, 42.2%-42.6%) relative reduction. Improvements were sustained for the subsequent 12 months. The proportion of patients who were rehospitalized or had a return ED visit for asthma within 30 days of an index hospitalization was reduced from 12% to 7%. The proportion of patients with documented well-controlled asthma in this study's primary care population increased from 48% to 54%. An integrated, multilevel approach focused on enhancing availability and accessibility of treatments, removing barriers to adherence, mitigating multidomain risks, augmenting self-management, and creating a collaborative relationship between the family and the health care system was associated with improved asthma outcomes for a population of Medicaid-insured pediatric patients. Similar models used in accountable care organizations or across patient panels and with other chronic conditions could be feasible and warrant evaluation.
... Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care... be able to purchase private health insurance through State-based competitive marketplaces called...
Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph
Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...
Dávila, F A; Herrera, J S; Yasnó, D A; Forero, L C; Alvarado, M V
Health satisfaction is a fundamental measure of the quality of health services. This study aims to validate and analyse the results of a quality of care questionnaire to assess the level of satisfaction of patients attended in the emergency department of a high complexity hospital. Observational, cross-sectional study, with a questionnaire designed to assess the quality of service and satisfaction at the end of care in the emergency department. Descriptive statistics of scale were established and presented, as well as determining the construct validity, overall reliability, internal and concurrent validity of an overall against a uni-dimensional scale. A total of 5,961 records were reviewed, most of them (77.3%) reported by patients in the Mandatory Health Plan. High levels of satisfaction overall and by subgroups were found. There were no significant differences between subgroups, with 86.8 for those with Pre-paid Medical Care Plan and 84.4 for mandatory health plan. Cronbach's alpha for the questionnaire was 0.90. The questionnaire proved to be reliable and valid in determining the quality and satisfaction with care. The results showed high levels of satisfaction overall and in the domains. A low consistency between the results of the multidimensional and unidimensional satisfaction scales suggests that there were aspects of satisfaction not investigated on the multidimensional scale. Ecologically-designed before and after studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Santiago-Casas, Yesenia; González-Rivera, Tania; Castro-Santana, Lesliane; Ríos, Grissel; Martínez, David; Rodríguez, Vanessa; González-Alcover, Rafael; Mayor, Angel M; Vilá, Luis M
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcome among indigent patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Puerto Rico receiving their healthcare in a managed care system, as compared with non-indigent patients treated in fee-for-service settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 214 Puerto Ricans with RA (per American College of Rheumatology classification criteria). Demographic features, health-related behaviors, cumulative clinical manifestations, disease activity (per disease activity score 28), comorbid conditions, functional status (per Health Assessment Questionnaire), and pharmacologic profile were determined. Data were examined using uni- and multivariable (logistic regression) analyses. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of the study population was 56.6 (13.5) years; 180 (84.1 %) were women. The mean (SD) disease duration was 10.8 (9.6) years. Sixty-seven patients were treated in the managed care setting, and 147 patients received their healthcare in fee-for-service settings. In the multivariable analyses, RA patients treated in the managed care setting had more joint deformities, extra-articular manifestations, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular events, fibromyalgia syndrome, and poorer functional status while having a lower exposure to biological agents than those treated in fee-for-service settings. Efforts should be undertaken to curtail the gap of health disparities among these Hispanic patients in order to improve their long-term outcomes.
Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern, preferences, and financial planning for health care among informal sector workers in a health district of Douala, Cameroon. ... This is mainly due to the lack of awareness and limited knowledge on the basic concepts of a CBHI by this target population. Solidarity ...
Tobe, Makoto; Stickley, Andrew; del Rosario, Rodolfo B; Shibuya, Kenji
OBJECTIVE The National Health Insurance Program (NHIP) in the Philippines is a social health insurance system partially subsidized by tax-based financing which offers benefits on a fee-for-service basis up to a fixed ceiling. This paper quantifies the extent to which beneficiaries of the NHIP incur out-of-pocket expenses for inpatient care, and examines the characteristics of beneficiaries making these payments and the hospitals in which these payments are typically made. METHODS Probit and ordinary least squares regression analyses were carried out on 94 531 insurance claims from Benguet province and Baguio city during the period 2007 to 2009. RESULTS Eighty-six per cent of claims involved an out-of-pocket payment. The median figure for out-of-pocket payments was Philippine Pesos (PHP) 3016 (US$67), with this figure varying widely [inter-quartile range (IQR): PHP 9393 (US$209)]. Thirteen per cent of claims involved very large out-of-pocket payments exceeding PHP 19 213 (US$428)-the equivalent of 10% of the average annual household income in the region. Membership type, disease severity, age and residential location of the patient, length of hospitalization, and ownership and level of the hospital were all significantly associated with making out-of-pocket payments and/or the size of these payments. CONCLUSION Although the current NHIP reduces the size of out-of-pocket payments, NHIP beneficiaries are not completely free from the risk of large out-of-pocket payments (as the size of these payments varies widely and can be extremely large), despite NHIP's attempts to mitigate this by setting different benefit ceilings based on the level of the hospital and the severity of the disease. To reduce these large out-of-pocket payments and to increase financial risk protection further, it is essential to ensure more investment for health from social health insurance and/or tax-based government funding as well as shifting the provider payment mechanism from a fee
Naavaal, Shillpa; Barker, Laurie K; Griffin, Susan O
We examined the association between utilization of care for a dental problem (utilization-DP) and parent-reported dental problem (DP) urgency among children with DP by type of health care insurance coverage. We used weighted 2008 National Health Interview Survey data from 2,834 children, aged 2-17 years with at least one DP within the 6 months preceding survey. Explanatory variables were selected based on Andersen's model of healthcare utilization. Need was considered urgent if DP included toothache, bleeding gums, broken or missing teeth, broken or missing filling, or decayed teeth and otherwise as non-urgent. The primary enabling variable, insurance, had four categories: none, private health no dental coverage (PHND), private health and dental (PHD), or Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). Predisposing variables included sociodemographic characteristics. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to identify explanatory variables' association with utilization-DP. Using logistic regression, we obtained adjusted estimates of utilization-DP by urgency for each insurance category. In bivariate analyses, utilization-DP was associated with both insurance and urgency. In multivariate analyses, the difference in percent utilizing care for an urgent versus non-urgent DP among children covered by Medicaid/SCHIP was 32 percentage points; PHD, 25 percentage points; PHND, 12 percentage points; and no insurance, 14 percentage points. The difference in utilization by DP urgency was higher for children with Medicaid/SCHIP compared with either PHND or uninsured children. Expansion of Medicaid/SCHIP may permit children to receive care for urgent DPs who otherwise may not, due to lack of dental insurance. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Ouyang, Lijing; Grosse, Scott D; Armour, Brian S; Waitzman, Norman J
We provide new estimates of medical care utilization and expenditures over the lifespan for persons living with spina bifida in the United States. Updated estimates are essential for calculations of lifetime costs and for economic evaluations of prevention and management strategies for spina bifida. We analyzed data from the 2001-2003 MarketScan database on paid medical and prescription drug claims of persons covered by employer-sponsored health insurance in the United States. Medical care utilization and expenditures during 2003 were analyzed for persons with a diagnosis of spina bifida recorded during 2001-2003 who had 12 months of coverage in a fee-for-service health plan. To calculate expenditures during infancy, a separate analysis was performed for those born during 2002 with claims and expenditures data during the first 12 months of life. We compared medical expenditures for persons with and without spina bifida by age groups. Average incremental medical expenditures comparing patients with spina bifida and those without were $41,460 per year at age 0, $14,070 at ages 1-17, $13,339 at ages 18-44, and $10,134 at ages 45-64. Children ages 1-17 years with spina bifida had average medical expenditures 13 times greater than children without spina bifida. Adults with spina bifida had average medical expenditures three to six times greater than adults without spina bifida in this privately insured population. Although per capita medical care utilization and expenditures are highest among children, adults constitute an important and growing share of the population living with spina bifida. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Kemper, Claudia; Koller, Daniela; Glaeske, Gerd; van den Bussche, Hendrik
Aphasia, dementia, and depression are important and common neurological and neuropsychological disorders after ischemic stroke. We estimated the frequency of these comorbidities and their impact on mortality and nursing care dependency. Data of a German statutory health insurance were analyzed for people aged 50 years and older with first ischemic stroke. Aphasia, dementia, and depression were defined on the basis of outpatient medical diagnoses within 1 year after stroke. Logistic regression models for mortality and nursing care dependency were calculated and were adjusted for age, sex, and other relevant comorbidity. Of 977 individuals with a first ischemic stroke, 14.8% suffered from aphasia, 12.5% became demented, and 22.4% became depressed. The regression model for mortality showed a significant influence of age, aphasia, and other relevant comorbidity. In the regression model for nursing care dependency, the factors age, aphasia, dementia, depression, and other relevant comorbidity were significant. Aphasia has a high impact on mortality and nursing care dependency after ischemic stroke, while dementia and depression are strongly associated with increasing nursing care dependency.
Fletcher, Rebecca Adkins
A major goal of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is to broaden health care access through the extension of insurance coverage. However, little attention has been given to growing disparities in access to health care among the insured, as trends to reduce benefits and increase cost sharing (deductibles, co-pays) reduce affordability and access. Through a political economic perspective that critiques moral hazard, this article draws from ethnographic research with the United Steelworkers (USW) at a steel mill and the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU) at a food-processing plant in urban Central Appalachia. In so doing, this article describes difficulties of health care affordability on the eve of reform for differentially insured working families with employer-sponsored health insurance. Additionally, this article argues that the proposed Cadillac tax on high-cost health plans will increase problems with appropriate health care access and medical financial burden for many families. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.
E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); D. de Graeve (Diana); A. Lecluyse (Ann); C. van de Voorde (Carine)
textabstractThe effects of supplemental health insurance on health-care consumption crucially depend on specific institutional features of the health-care system. We analyse the situation in Belgium, a country with a very broad coverage in compulsory social health insurance and where supplemental
Health insurance becomes a viable alternative for financing health care amidst the high cost of health care. This study, conducted in 1997, uses a valuation method to assess the willingness of individuals from the working sector in Accra, Ghana, to join and pay premium for a proposed National Health Insurance Scheme ...
... 1545-BK59 Fees on Health Insurance Policies and Self-Insured Plans for the Patient-Centered Outcomes... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on issuers of certain health insurance policies and plan... arrangements) or Rebecca L. Baxter at (202) 622-3970 (regarding health insurance policies). SUPPLEMENTARY...
Bradley, Cathy J.; Neumark, David; Motika, Meryl
Background Employment-contingent health insurance (ECHI) has been criticized for tying insurance to continued employment. Our research sheds light on two central issues regarding employment-contingent health insurance: whether such insurance “locks” people who experience a health shock into remaining at work; and whether it puts people at risk for insurance loss upon the onset of illness, because health shocks pose challenges to continued employment. Objective To determine how men’s dependence on their own employer for health insurance affects labor supply responses and health insurance coverage following a health shock. Data Sources We use the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) surveys from 1996 through 2008 to observe employment and health insurance status at interviews two years apart, and whether a health shock occurred in the intervening period between the interviews. Study Selection All employed married men with health insurance either through their own employer or their spouse’s employer, interviewed in at least two consecutive HRS waves with non-missing data on employment, insurance, health, demographic, and other variables, and under age 64 at the second interview. We limited the sample to men who were initially healthy. Data Extraction Our analytical sample consisted of 1,582 men of whom 1,379 had ECHI at the first interview, while 203 were covered by their spouse’s employer. Hospitalization affected 209 men with ECHI and 36 men with spouse insurance. A new disease diagnosis was reported by 103 men with ECHI and 22 men with other insurance. There were 171 men with ECHI and 25 men with spouse employer insurance who had a self-reported health decline. Data Synthesis Labor supply response differences associated with ECHI – with men with health shocks and ECHI more likely to continue working – appear to be driven by specific types of health shocks associated with future higher health care costs but not with immediate increases in morbidity that
Selwyn, Casey; Senter, Lindsay
The United States currently faces the large, logistical undertaking of enrolling millions of Americans into a complex Affordable Care Act (ACA) system within a short period of time. One way states have addressed this implementation challenge is through the development of consumer assistance programs. In these programs, health care professionals-known as "Assistors"-are trained in insurance enrollment services to help consumers navigate the complex application and plan selection process, with the ultimate goal of optimizing enrollment rates. Cicatelli Associates Inc. (CAI), a non-profit capacity building organization, has served as the Statewide Training Center for New York's Health Insurance Program Initiative since 2013, before the ACA Marketplace roll-out occurred. This article presents a narrative of CAI's experiences and promising practices related to training and developing of the Assistor workforce in New York State (NYS). By the end of the second enrollment period (February 2015), NYS trained and certified over 11,000 Assistors (1); CAI trained fifteen percent of this total workforce. As a result of this intensive workforce training effort, NYS observed extremely high rates of facilitated enrollment, and overall success with the roll-out process. Through this initiative, CAI has garnered key insights for other organizations that engage in similar work, as well as state policymakers considering how to integrate and bolster the Assistor programs in their states. These lessons include: the necessity of ensuring that Assistors are armed with all technical concepts and messages; ensuring that Assistors are motivated to work through a change process; the constructive feedback process that can occur when these Assistors directly communicate issues to the state; and the transformation of public opinion that can occur when Assistors provide good customer service and can effectively promote statewide and federal ACA policies and benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier
Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Tindana, Paulina; Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Nartey, Harry; Akazili, James
In 2005, the World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) urged member states to aim at achieving affordable universal coverage and access to key promotive, preventive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative health interventions for all their citizens on the basis of equity and solidarity. Since then, some African countries, including Ghana, have taken steps to introduce national health insurance reforms as one of the key strategies towards achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The aim of this study was to get a better understanding of how Ghana's health insurance institutions interact with stakeholders and other health sector programmes in promoting primary health care (PHC). Specifically, the study identified the key areas of misalignment between the operations of the NHIS and that of PHC. Using qualitative and survey methods, this study involved interviews with various stakeholders in six selected districts in the Upper East region of Ghana. The key stakeholders included the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA), district coordinators of the National Health Insurance Schemes (NHIS), the Ghana Health Service (GHS) and District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) who supervise the district hospitals, health centers/clinics and the Community-based Health and Planning Services (CHPS) compounds as well as other public and private PHC providers. A stakeholders' workshop was organized to validate the preliminary results which provided a platform for stakeholders to deliberate on the key areas of misalignment especially, and to elicit additional information, ideas and responses, comments and recommendations from respondents for the achievement of the goals of UHC and PHC. The key areas of misalignments identified during this pilot study included: delays in reimbursements of claims for services provided by health care providers, which serves as a disincentive for service providers to support the NHIS; inadequate coordination among
Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Joko, Walburga Yvonne A; Obama, Joel Marie N; Bigna, Jean Joel R
For the last two decades, promoted by many governments and international number in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2005 in Cameroon, there were only 60 Community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes nationwide, covering less than 1% of the population. In 2006, the Cameroon government adopted a national strategy aimed at creating at least one CBHI scheme in each health district and covering at least 40% of the population with CBHI schemes by 2015. Unfortunately, there is almost no published data on the awareness and the implementation of CBHI schemes in Cameroon. Structured interviews were conducted in January 2010 with 160 informal sectors workers in the Bonassama health district (BHD) of Douala, aiming at evaluating their knowledge, concern and preferences on CBHI schemes and their financial plan to cover health costs. The awareness on the existence of CHBI schemes was poor awareness schemes among these informal workers. Awareness of CBHI schemes was significantly associated with a high level of education (p = 0.0001). Only 4.4% of respondents had health insurance, and specifically 1.2% were involved in a CBHI scheme. However, 128 (86.2%) respondents thought that belonging to a CBHI scheme could facilitate their access to adequate health care, and were thus willing to be involved in CBHI schemes. Our respondents would have preferred CBHI schemes run by missionaries to CBHI schemes run by the government or people of the same ethnic group (p). There is a very low participation in CBHI schemes among the informal sector workers of the BHD. This is mainly due to the lack of awareness and limited knowledge on the basic concepts of a CBHI by this target population. Solidarity based community associations to which the vast majority of this target population belong are prime areas for sensitization on CBHI schemes. Hence these associations could possibly federalize to create CBHI schemes.
Sood, Neeraj; Wagner, Zachary
To evaluate the effects of a government insurance programme covering tertiary care for the poor in Karnataka, India--Vajpayee Arogyashree Scheme (VAS)--on treatment seeking and postoperative outcomes. Geographic regression discontinuity. 572 villages in Karnataka, India. 3478 households in 300 villages where VAS was implemented and 3486 households in 272 neighbouring matched villages ineligible for VAS. A government insurance programme that provided free tertiary care to households below the poverty line in half of villages in Karnataka from February 2010 to August 2012. Seeking treatment for symptoms, posthospitalisation well-being, occurrence of infections during hospitalisation and need for rehospitalisation. The prevalence of symptoms was nearly identical for households in VAS-eligible villages compared with households in VAS-ineligible villages. However, households eligible for VAS were 4.96 percentage points (95% CI 1 to 8.9; p=0.014) more likely to seek treatment for their symptoms. The increase in treatment seeking was more pronounced for symptoms of cardiac conditions, the condition most frequently covered by VAS. Respondents from VAS-eligible villages reported greater improvements in well-being after a hospitalisation in all categories assessed and they were statistically significant in 3 of the 6 categories (walking ability, pain and anxiety). Respondents eligible for VAS were 9.4 percentage points less likely to report any infection after their hospitalisation (95% CI -20.2 to 1.4; p=0.087) and 16.5 percentage points less likely to have to be rehospitalised after the initial hospitalisation (95% CI -28.7 to -4.3; p<0.01). Insurance for tertiary care increased treatment seeking among eligible households. Moreover, insured patients experienced better posthospitalisation outcomes, suggesting better quality of care received. These results suggest that there are several pathways through which tertiary care insurance could improve health, aside from
Aurelio Mejía Mejía
Full Text Available One of the main functions of health care systems is to collect enough revenue to finance health expenditures. This revenue can be obtained through different sources (taxes, social insurance contributions, out-of-pocket payments, donations, each of which has different implications in terms of equity. The equity implications of the different forms of revenue collection are an important component of health systems performance evaluation. The international evidence suggests that tax funded systems seem to be a more progressive health care financing mechanism than systems based on social insurance in low- and middle-income countries. However, progressivity results are sensitive to the choice of ability to pay measures and, therefore, policy makers must be aware of this fact when interpreting results of studies on health care financing.
Yeung, Ryan; Gunton, Bradley; Kalbacher, Dylan; Seltzer, Jed; Wesolowski, Hannah
Enacted in 1997, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) represented the largest expansion of U.S. public health care coverage since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid 32 years earlier. Although the program has recently been reauthorized, there remains a considerable lack of thorough and well-designed evaluations of the program. In…
A reimbursement category for "apps" does not exist in German statutory health insurance. Nevertheless different ways for reimbursement of digital health care products or processes exist. This article provides an overview and a description of the most relevant finance and reimbursement categories for apps in German statutory health insurance. The legal qualifications and preconditions of reimbursement in the context of single contracts with one health insurance fund will be discussed as well as collective contracts with national statutory health insurance funds. The benefit of a general outline appeals especially in respect to the numerous new players and products in the health care market. The article will highlight that health apps can challenge existing legal market access and reimbursement criteria and paths. At the same time, these criteria and paths exist. In terms of a learning system, they need to be met and followed.
Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008; the Application of Mental Health Parity Requirements to Coverage Offered by Medicaid Managed Care Organizations, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and Alternative Benefit Plans. Final rule.
This final rule will address the application of certain requirements set forth in the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008, to coverage offered by Medicaid managed care organizations, Medicaid Alternative Benefit Plans, and Children’s Health Insurance Programs.
Kennedy, Jae; Wood, Elizabeth Geneva; Frieden, Lex
The objective of this study was to assess trends in health insurance coverage, health service utilization, and health care access among working-age adults with and without disabilities before and after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and to identify current disability-based disparities following full implementation of the ACA. The ACA was expected to have a disproportionate impact on working-age adults with disabilities, because of their high health care usage as well as their previously limited insurance options. However, most published research on this population does not systematically look at effects before and after full implementation of the ACA. As the US Congress considers new health policy reforms, current and accurate data on this vulnerable population are essential. Weighted estimates, trend analyses and analytic models were conducted using the 1998-2016 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) and the 2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Compared with working-age adults without disabilities, those with disabilities are less likely to work, more likely to earn below the federal poverty level, and more likely to use public insurance. Average health costs for this population are 3 to 7 times higher, and access problems are far more common. Repeal of key features of the ACA, like Medicaid expansion and marketplace subsidies, would likely diminish health care access for working-age adults with disabilities.
Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Valera, Madeleine R; Adams, Alyce S; Ross-Degnan, Dennis
Adequate prenatal and delivery care are vital components of successful maternal health care provision. Starting in 1998, two programs were widely expanded in the Philippines: a national health insurance program (PhilHealth); and a donor-funded franchise of midwife clinics (Well Family Midwife Clinics). This paper examines population-level impacts of these interventions on achievement of minimum standards for prenatal and delivery care. Data from two waves of the Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted before (1998) and after (2003) scale-up of the interventions, are employed in a pre/post-study design, using longitudinal multivariate logistic and linear regression models. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, the PhilHealth insurance program scale-up was associated with increased odds of receiving at least four prenatal visits (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.06]) and receiving a visit during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR 1.03 [95% CI 1.01-1.06]). Exposure to midwife clinics was not associated with significant changes in achievement of prenatal care standards. While both programs were associated with slight increases in the odds of delivery in a health facility, these increases were not statistically significant. These results suggest that expansion of an insurance program with accreditation standards was associated with increases in achievement of minimal standards for prenatal care among women in the Philippines.
Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Valera, Madeleine R.; Adams, Alyce S.; Ross-Degnan, Dennis
Objectives Adequate prenatal and delivery care are vital components of successful maternal health care provision. Starting in 1998, two programs were widely expanded in the Philippines: a national health insurance program (PhilHealth); and a donor-funded franchise of midwife clinics (Well-Family Midwife Clinics). This paper examines population-level impacts of these interventions on achievement of minimum standards for prenatal and delivery care. Methods Data from two waves of the Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted before (1998) and after (2003) scale up of the interventions, are employed in a pre/post study design, using longitudinal multivariate logistic and linear regression models. Results After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, the PhilHealth insurance program scale up was associated with increased odds of receiving at least four prenatal visits (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01–1.06]) and receiving a visit during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR 1.03 [95% CI 1.01–1.06]). Exposure to midwife clinics was not associated with significant changes in achievement of prenatal care standards. While both programs were associated with slight increases in the odds of delivery in a health facility, these increases were not statistically significant. Conclusions These results suggest that expansion of an insurance program with accreditation standards was associated with increases in achievement of minimal standards for prenatal care among women in the Philippines. PMID:19327862
Full Text Available The global financial crisis of 2008 has led to the reinforcement of patient cost sharing in health care policy. This study aimed to explore the impact of direct out-of pocket payments (OOPs on health care utilization and the resulting financial burden across income groups under the South Korean National Health Insurance (NHI program with universal population coverage. We used the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES-IV and the Korean Household Income and Expenditure Survey (KHIES of 2007, 2008 and 2009. The Horizontal Inequity Index (HIwv and the average unit OOPs were used to measure income-related inequity in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of health care utilization, respectively. For financial burden, the incidence rates of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE were compared across income groups. For outpatient and hospital visits, there was neither pro-poor or pro-rich inequality. The average unit OOPs of the poorest quintile was approximately 75% and 60% of each counterpart in the richest quintile in the outpatient and inpatient services. For the CHE threshold of 40%, the incidence rates were 5.7%, 1.67%, 0.72%, 0.33% and 0.27% in quintiles I (the poorest quintile, II, III, IV and V, respectively. Substantial OOPs under the NHI are disadvantageous, particularly for the lowest income group in terms of health care quality and financial burden.
Teerawattananon, Yot; Russell, Steve
In Thailand, policymakers have come under increasing pressure to use economic evaluation to inform health-care resource allocation decisions, especially after the introduction of the Universal Health Insurance Coverage (UC) scheme. This article presents qualitative findings from research that assessed a range of policymakers' perspectives on the acceptability of using economic evaluation for the development of health-care benefit packages in Thailand. The policy analysis examined their opinions about existing decision-making processes for including health interventions in the UC benefit package, their understanding of health economic evaluation, and their attitudes, acceptance, and values relating to the use of the method. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role or have some input into health resource allocation decisions within the Thai health-care system. These included 14 senior policymakers at the national level, 5 hospital directors, 10 health professionals, and 7 academics. Policy actors thought that economic evaluation information was relevant for decision-making because of the increasing need for rationing and more transparent criteria for making UC coverage decisions. Nevertheless, they raised several difficulties with using economic evaluation that would pose barriers to its introduction, including distrust in the method, conflicting philosophical positions and priorities compared to that of "health maximization," organizational allegiances, existing decision-making procedures that would be hard to change, and concerns about political pressure and acceptability.
Doshi, Jalpa A; Cai, Qian; Buono, Jessica L; Spalding, William M; Sarocco, Phil; Tan, Hiangkiat; Stephenson, Judith J; Carson, Robyn T
The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) is estimated to be between 4.3% and 5.2% among adults in the United States. Little is known about the health care resource utilization and costs associated with IBS-C. To (a) evaluate the annual total all-cause, gastrointestinal (GI)-related, and IBS-C-related health care costs among IBS-C patients seeking medical care in a commercially insured population and (b) estimate the incremental all-cause health care costs among IBS-C patients relative to matched controls. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with continuous medical and pharmacy benefit eligibility in 2010 were identified from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database, which consists of administrative claims from 14 geographically dispersed U.S. health plans representing 45 million lives. IBS-C patients were defined as those with ≥ 1 medical claim with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis code in any position for IBS (ICD-9-CM 564.1x) and either ≥ 2 medical claims for constipation (ICD-9-CM 564.0x) on different service dates or ≥ 1 medical claim for constipation plus ≥ 1 pharmacy claim for a constipation-related prescription on different dates of service during the study period. Controls were defined as patients without any medical claims for IBS, constipation, abdominal pain, or bloating or pharmacy claims for constipation-related prescriptions. Controls were randomly selected and matched with IBS-C patients in a 1:1 ratio based on age (± 4 years), gender, health plan region, and health plan type. Patients with diagnoses or prescriptions suggesting mixed IBS, IBS with diarrhea, chronic diarrhea, or drug-induced constipation were excluded. Total health care costs in 2010 U.S. dollars were defined as the sum of health plan and patient paid costs for prescriptions and medical services, including inpatient visits, emergency room (ER) visits, physician office visits, and other outpatient services. The total cost approach was used to assess
The aging phenomenon, which is being observed all over the world, can strongly affect health policy and a planning in the health care sector. However, the impact of demographic changes on different parts of it can be varied. The main objective of this study was to check the possible impact of aging on health expenditure (HE) regarding different types of health care and to evaluate whether this impact is significant for all analyzed areas. To show a relationship between age and HE a special indicator (old-age sensitivity) was defined, showing a difference between the standardized value of HE per capita in the age group 65+ and in the group 20 to 64 (defined as the reference group). Then a simple prognosis of expenditure was prepared. Both analyses were done separately for 11 types of health care services and 2 types of goods reimbursement. The results show that while sensitivity varies between the different types of care, however, it is strong in most of them. Because of the prognosis, the expenditure will be increasing for the 9 types of care and decreasing for 4 of them. While in the case of the low values of sensitivity the HE is actually decreasing, the high value of sensitivity does not result in a growing tendency. Our main conclusion is that it is very important for health policy and planning to take into account the diversity of the types of health care and the different influences of changes in the size and structure of population on them. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Conclusion: This study employed nationally representative data in the detection of patterns in outpatient care utilization by elderly individuals in Taiwan. Medical care providers and policymakers should be fully aware of the complex patterns unique to older patients. The results of this study could be used as a benchmark with which to assess the impact of future medical care policy on elderly people.
Jehu-Appiah, C.; Aryeetey, G.C.; Agyepong, I.; Spaan, E.J.; Baltussen, R.M.
OBJECTIVE: This paper identifies, ranks and compares perceptions of insured and uninsured households in Ghana on health care providers (quality of care, service delivery adequacy, staff attitudes), health insurance schemes (price, benefits and convenience) and community attributes (health 'beliefs
...'s Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health Benefits in Alternative Benefit Plans...-2334-P] RIN 0938-AR04 Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Programs, and Exchanges: Essential Health... 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act), and the Children's Health Insurance Program...
R Scott Braithwaite
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that cost sharing (i.e.,copayments and deductibles decreases health expenditures but also reduces essential care. Value-based insurance design (VBID has been proposed to encourage essential care while controlling health expenditures. Our objective was to estimate the impact of broader diffusion of VBID on US health care benefits and costs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a published computer simulation of costs and life expectancy gains from US health care to estimate the impact of broader diffusion of VBID. Two scenarios were analyzed: (1 applying VBID solely to pharmacy benefits and (2 applying VBID to both pharmacy benefits and other health care services (e.g., devices. We assumed that cost sharing would be eliminated for high-value services ($300,000 per life-year. All costs are provided in 2003 US dollars. Our simulation estimated that approximately 60% of health expenditures in the US are spent on low-value services, 20% are spent on intermediate-value services, and 20% are spent on high-value services. Correspondingly, the vast majority (80% of health expenditures would have cost sharing that is impacted by VBID. With prevailing patterns of cost sharing, health care conferred 4.70 life-years at a per-capita annual expenditure of US$5,688. Broader diffusion of VBID to pharmaceuticals increased the benefit conferred by health care by 0.03 to 0.05 additional life-years, without increasing costs and without increasing out-of-pocket payments. Broader diffusion of VBID to other health care services could increase the benefit conferred by health care by 0.24 to 0.44 additional life-years, also without increasing costs and without increasing overall out-of-pocket payments. Among those without health insurance, using cost saving from VBID to subsidize insurance coverage would increase the benefit conferred by health care by 1.21 life-years, a 31% increase. CONCLUSION: Broader diffusion of VBID may amplify benefits from
Braithwaite, R Scott; Omokaro, Cynthia; Justice, Amy C; Nucifora, Kimberly; Roberts, Mark S
Evidence suggests that cost sharing (i.e.,copayments and deductibles) decreases health expenditures but also reduces essential care. Value-based insurance design (VBID) has been proposed to encourage essential care while controlling health expenditures. Our objective was to estimate the impact of broader diffusion of VBID on US health care benefits and costs. We used a published computer simulation of costs and life expectancy gains from US health care to estimate the impact of broader diffusion of VBID. Two scenarios were analyzed: (1) applying VBID solely to pharmacy benefits and (2) applying VBID to both pharmacy benefits and other health care services (e.g., devices). We assumed that cost sharing would be eliminated for high-value services (value services ($100,000-$300,000 per life-year or unknown), and would be increased for low-value services (>$300,000 per life-year). All costs are provided in 2003 US dollars. Our simulation estimated that approximately 60% of health expenditures in the US are spent on low-value services, 20% are spent on intermediate-value services, and 20% are spent on high-value services. Correspondingly, the vast majority (80%) of health expenditures would have cost sharing that is impacted by VBID. With prevailing patterns of cost sharing, health care conferred 4.70 life-years at a per-capita annual expenditure of US$5,688. Broader diffusion of VBID to pharmaceuticals increased the benefit conferred by health care by 0.03 to 0.05 additional life-years, without increasing costs and without increasing out-of-pocket payments. Broader diffusion of VBID to other health care services could increase the benefit conferred by health care by 0.24 to 0.44 additional life-years, also without increasing costs and without increasing overall out-of-pocket payments. Among those without health insurance, using cost saving from VBID to subsidize insurance coverage would increase the benefit conferred by health care by 1.21 life-years, a 31% increase
Kondo, H; Ogawa, S; Nishimura, H; Ono, A
To clarify the status of home care massage services provided to patients. This will help in understanding how many patients utilize this service and the circumstances under which treatment is provided. A retrospective study. Fifty-four acupuncture, moxibustion, and massage clinics. Participants were patients who had received home care massage for six months or more. We collected a total of 1587 responses from these 54 massage clinics; of these, 1415 responses (mean age = 79.1 ± 11.5 years) were valid (valid response rate 89.2%). Actual patients and actual care services. The most common disorder observed among patients who utilized home care massage services was cerebrovascular disease (at approximately 36%), while the second most common were arthropathy-related disorders (16.3%). Although most patients received massage, approximately 30% received manual therapy (e.g. manual correction) and hot fomentation as part of thermotherapy. Notably, only around 10% of patients received massage alone; the majority received treatment in combination with range of motion and muscle-strengthening exercises. This study helped to clarify the actual state of patients receiving home care massage and the details of the massage services provided. This study clearly showed the treatment effectiveness of massage, which can be used by home medical care stakeholders to develop more effective interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Golberstein, Ezra; Busch, Susan H
Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages. Quasi-experimental analysis of average wages by state and year for six mental health care-related occupations were considered: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists; Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors; Marriage and Family Therapists; Mental Health Counselors; Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers; and Psychiatrists. Data from 1999-2013 were used to estimate the association between the implementation of state mental health parity laws and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and average mental health provider wages. Mental health parity laws were associated with a significant increase in mental health care provider wages controlling for changes in mental health provider wages in states not exposed to parity (3.5 percent [95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%]; pwages. Health insurance benefit expansions may lead to increased prices for health services when the private market that supplies the service is imperfect or constrained. In the context of mental health parity, this work suggests that part of the value of expanding insurance benefits for mental health coverage was captured by providers. Given historically low wage levels of mental health providers, this increase may be a first step in bringing mental health provider wages in line with parallel health professions, potentially reducing turnover rates and improving treatment quality.
One of the most controversial issues in restructuring the Polish health insurance system is the implementation of private voluntary insurance and creation within it a new insurance product known as occupational health services (OHS). In this article some opportunities and dilemmas likely to be faced by providers and employers/employees, when contracting with insurance institutions, are considered as a contribution to the discussion on private insurance in Poland. The basic question is how private insurance institutions could influence the promotion of different preventive activities at the company level by motivating both OHS providers and employers. The descriptive qualitative method has been applied in the analysis of legal acts, scientific publications selected according to keywords (Pubmed), documents and expert evaluations and research project results. Taking into account the experiences of European countries, described in publications, international experts' opinions and results of research projects the solution proposed in Poland could be possible under the following several prerequisites: inclusion of a full scope of occupational health services into the insurance product, constant supervision of occupational medicine professionals, monitoring of the health care quality and the relations between private insurers and OHS provider and implementation of the economic incentives scheme to ensure an adequate position of OHS providers on the market. The proposed reconstruction of the health insurance system, comprising undoubtedly positive elements, may entail some threats in the area of health, organization and economy. Private voluntary health insurance implementation requires precisely defined solutions concerning the scope of insurance product, motivation scheme and information system.
... insurance coverage. 148.122 Section 148.122 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET... health insurance coverage. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all health insurance coverage in...
Price, James H.; Rickard, Megan
Background: Health insurance coverage increases access to health care. There has been an erosion of employer-based health insurance and a concomitant rise in children covered by public health insurance programs, yet more than 8 million children are still without health insurance coverage. Methods: This study was a national survey to assess the…
Dzúrová, Dagmar; Winkler, Petr; Drbohlav, Dušan
The Czech government has identified commercial health insurance as one of the major problems for migrants' access to health care. Non-EU immigrants are eligible for public health insurance only if they have employee status or permanent residency. The present study examined migrants' access to the public health insurance system in Czechia. A cross-sectional survey of 909 immigrants from Ukraine and Vietnam was conducted in March and May 2013, and binary logistic regression was applied in data analysis. Among immigrants entitled to Czech public health insurance due to permanent residency/asylum, 30% were out of the public health insurance system, and of those entitled by their employment status, 50% were out of the system. Migrants with a poor knowledge of the Czech language are more likely to remain excluded from the system of public health insurance. Instead, they either remain in the commercial health insurance system or they simultaneously pay for both commercial and public health insurance, which is highly disadvantageous. Since there are no reasonable grounds to stay outside the public health insurance, it is concluded that it is lack of awareness that keeps eligible immigrants from entering the system. It is suggested that no equal access to health care exists without sufficient awareness about health care system.
Full Text Available The Czech government has identified commercial health insurance as one of the major problems for migrants’ access to health care. Non-EU immigrants are eligible for public health insurance only if they have employee status or permanent residency. The present study examined migrants’ access to the public health insurance system in Czechia. A cross-sectional survey of 909 immigrants from Ukraine and Vietnam was conducted in March and May 2013, and binary logistic regression was applied in data analysis. Among immigrants entitled to Czech public health insurance due to permanent residency/asylum, 30% were out of the public health insurance system, and of those entitled by their employment status, 50% were out of the system. Migrants with a poor knowledge of the Czech language are more likely to remain excluded from the system of public health insurance. Instead, they either remain in the commercial health insurance system or they simultaneously pay for both commercial and public health insurance, which is highly disadvantageous. Since there are no reasonable grounds to stay outside the public health insurance, it is concluded that it is lack of awareness that keeps eligible immigrants from entering the system. It is suggested that no equal access to health care exists without sufficient awareness about health care system.
Portela, Maria; Sommers, Benjamin D
Puerto Rico is the United States' largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens, yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of US health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We analyzed national survey data from 2011 to 2012 and found that despite its far poorer population, Puerto Rico outperforms the mainland United States on several measures of health care coverage and access to care. While the ACA significantly increases federal resources in Puerto Rico, ongoing federal restrictions on Medicaid funding and premium tax credits in Puerto Rico pose substantial health policy challenges in the territory. Puerto Rico is the United States' largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens. Yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of US health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This article presents an overview of Puerto Rico's health care system and a comparative analysis of coverage and access to care in Puerto Rico and the mainland United States. We analyzed 2011-2012 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and 2012 data from the American Community Survey and its counterpart, the Puerto Rico Community Survey. Among adults 18 and older, we examined health insurance coverage; access measures, such as having a usual source of care and cost-related delays in care; self-reported health; and the receipt of recommended preventive services, such as cancer screening and glucose testing. We used multivariate regression models to compare Puerto Rico and the mainland United States, adjusted for age, income, race/ethnicity, and other demographic variables. Uninsured rates were significantly lower in Puerto Rico (unadjusted 7.4% versus 15.0%, adjusted difference: -12.0%, p Puerto Rico. Puerto Rican residents were more likely than those in the mainland United States to have a usual source of care and to have had a checkup within the past year, and fewer experienced cost-related delays in care. Screening
C.A. Brandenburg (Claudia)
textabstractThe Dutch government has started a process of reformation in the Dutch healthcare. The goal of this reformation is cost efficient healthcare in the Netherlands. Hospitals and health insurance companies in the Netherlands experience changes in regulations and funding. They are expected
Kanchebe Derbile, E.; van der Geest, S.
For the past 10 years the Ghana Government has been trying to replace the old user fee system with an overall health insurance scheme, but one problem of the old system continues to bedevil the new policy: exemption of the poor. This paper presents data from empirical fieldwork and also puts forward
.... The final regulations clarify that these benefits constitute health insurance when they are offered by... insurance. Limited Scope Dental and Vision Benefits The proposed regulations defined health insurance to... revising the definition of health insurance to exclude limited scope dental and vision benefits (sometimes...
Dupree, James M
Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.
2Primary Health Care Department, Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Benin City, ... selected from each of the ten wards in the LGA using multistage sampling technique. ..... Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Insurance Companies in Lagos State.
Changes implemented on 1 January 2011 In addition to the information provided in the Official News section of the Bulletin concerning the CHIS, the following changes are in place since 1 January 2011. Benefits The list of benefits including the ceilings will remain initially unchanged while the CHIS Board prepares proposals to the Director-General, who has been authorized by the Council to take timely measures to limit the increase of the CHIS expenses, by encouraging the use of health care providers and treatments which provide the best quality-to-cost ratio. Termination of the agreement with “La Metairie” Attempts to find an agreement with the management of “La Metairie” on the conditions to continue to collaborate failed. The present agreement that CHIS, as well as the other international organisations (WHO, ILO/ITU, UNOG) had signed, therefore came to an end on 31 December 2010. As a result, the rules applicable to hospitals without an agreement will apply to &...
Kim, JinHee; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Young Sam; Lee, Sei Won; Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Jin Hwa; Oh, YeonMok; Lee, Sang Do; Kim, Yuri; Kim, KyungJoo; Yoon, HyoungKyu
Patients with high grade chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) account for much of the COPD-related mortality and incur excessive financial burdens and medical care utilization. We aimed to determine the characteristics and medical care use of such patients using nationwide data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in 2009. Patients with COPD were identified by searching with the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision for those using medication. Patients with high grade COPD were selected based on their patterns of tertiary institute visits and medication use. The numbers of patients with high grade COPD increased rapidly in Korea during the study period, and they showed a high prevalence of comorbid disease. The total medical costs were over three times higher in patients with high grade COPD compared with those without it ($3,744 versus $1,183; P system in Korea. Prevention of progression to high grade COPD is important, both clinically and economically.
Decker, Sandra L
Objective To estimate the relationship between physicians' acceptance of new Medicaid patients and access to health care. Data Sources The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) Electronic Health Records Survey and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2011/2012. Study Design Linear probability models estimated the relationship between measures of experiences with physician availability among children on Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) from the NHIS and state-level estimates of the percent of primary care physicians accepting new Medicaid patients from the NAMCS, controlling for other factors. Principal Findings Nearly 16 percent of children with a significant health condition or development delay had a doctor's office or clinic indicate that the child's health insurance was not accepted in states with less than 60 percent of physicians accepting new Medicaid patients, compared to less than 4 percent in states with at least 75 percent of physicians accepting new Medicaid patients. Adjusted estimates and estimates for other measures of access to care were similar. Conclusions Measures of experiences with physician availability for children on Medicaid/CHIP were generally good, though better in states where more primary care physicians accepted new Medicaid patients. PMID:25683869
Dunn, Keith; Lafeuille, Marie-Hélène; Jiao, Xiaolong; Romdhani, Hela; Emond, Bruno; Woodruff, Kimberly; Pesa, Jacqueline; Tandon, Neeta; Lefebvre, Patrick
Adherence to antiretrovirals (ARVs) is critical to achieving durable virologic suppression. To investigate risk factors of poor adherence and the effect of suboptimal adherence on health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs in Medicaid patients. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted using Medicaid data. Adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 initiating selected ARVs (index date) were identified. Adherence was measured using medication possession ratio (MPR) and proportion of days covered (PDC) at 6 and 12 months post-index. Risk factors of poor adherence (PDC logistic regression. HCRU and costs were compared between suboptimal (80% ≤ PDC costs (mean monthly cost difference = $339; 95% CI = $153-$536; P costs (mean monthly cost difference = $259; 95% CI = $122-$418; P costs. Age, insurance type and coverage, previous ARV treatment, and HIV symptoms were predictors of adherence. Treatment options that enhance adherence and prevent developing virologic failure with drug resistance should be considered for HIV patients. This study was supported by Janssen Scientific Affairs, which was involved in the study design, data collection, data analysis, manuscript preparation, and publication decisions. Emond, Lafeuille, Romdhani, and Lefebvre are employees of Analysis Group, a consulting company that received research grants from Janssen Scientific Affairs to conduct this study. Dunn, Woodruff, Pesa, and Tandon are current employees and stockholders of Johnson & Johnson, owner of Janssen Scientific Affairs. Jiao was an employee of Janssen at the time of the study. Emond has received grants from Novartis, Regeneron, Aegerion, Lundbeck, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Bayer, Millennium, Allergan, AbbVie, and GlaxoSmithKline unrelated to this study. Part of the material in this study was presented at the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy 2017 Annual Meeting, March 27-30, 2017, in Denver, Colorado, and at the 9th International AIDS Society
Couch, Kenneth A., Ed.; Joyce, Theodore J., Ed.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is the most significant health policy legislation since Medicare in 1965. The need to address rising health care costs and the lack of health insurance coverage is widely accepted. Health care spending is approaching 17 percent of gross domestic product and yet 45 million Americans remain…
Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim
Although patient charges for health-care services may contribute to a more sustainable health-care financing, they often raise public opposition, which impedes their introduction. Thus, a consensus among the main stakeholders on the presence and role of patient charges should be worked out to assure their successful implementation. To analyse the acceptability of formal patient charges for health-care services in a basic package among different health-care system stakeholders in six Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine). Qualitative data were collected in 2009 via focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health-care consumers, providers, policy makers and insurers. The same participants were asked to fill in a self-administrative questionnaire. Qualitative and quantitative data are analysed separately to outline similarities and differences in the opinions between the stakeholder groups and across countries. There is a rather weak consensus on patient charges in the countries. Health policy makers and insurers strongly advocate patient charges. Health-care providers overall support charges but their financial profits from the system strongly affects their approval. Consumers are against paying for services, mostly due to poor quality and access to health-care services and inability to pay. To build consensus on patient charges, the payment policy should be responsive to consumers' needs with regard to quality and equity. Transparency and accountability in the health-care system should be improved to enhance public trust and acceptance of patient payments. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
After democratic changes in 1990 and the declaration of independence in 1991, Croatia inherited an archaic system of economy, similar to all the other post-communist countries, which had especially negative effects on the health system. Health services were divided into 113 independent offices with their own local rules; they could not truly support the health care system, which gradually stagnated, both organizationally and technologically. Such an administrative system devoured 17.5% of the total funds, and primary care used only 10.3% of this. Despite the costly hospital medicine the entire system was financed with US$300 per citizen. The system was functioning only because of professionalism and enthusiasm of well-educated medical personnel. Such health policy had a negative effect on all levels of the system, with long-term consequences. The new health insurance system instituted a standard of 1,700 insureds per family medicine team, reducing hospital capacities to 3.8 beds per 1,000 citizens for acute illnesses. Computerization of the system makes possible the transparency of accounting income and expenses. In a relatively short period, in spite of the war, and in a complex, socially and ethically delicate area, Croatian Health Insurance Institute has successfully carried out the rationalization and control of spending, without lowering the level of health care or negatively influencing the vital statistics data.
Sauer, Kristin; Kemper, Claudia; Glaeske, Gerd
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic pain condition impacting on quality of life, causing physical and psychological impairment resulting in limited participation in professional and social life. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, recommended pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions of FMS, patients' characteristics and to compare findings to current research. About 1.6 Mio patients of a German statutory health insurance company (GEK) in 2007 were analyzed for: (a) the prevalence of FMS (ICD-10: M79.7); (b) and comorbid depression (ICD-10: F32/33); (c) the recommended pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention rates; (d) and characteristics of patients associated with being prescribed recommended interventions. The (a) standardized prevalence of FMS in 2007 was 0.05% in men and 0.4% in women. (b) 51.9% of the patients with prevalent FMS had a comorbid depression in 2007 (88.2% female). (c) 66% of FMS patients received the recommended pharmacological treatment, 59% physical therapy, 6.1% cognitive-behavioural therapy and 3.4% a combination of these (multi-component therapy, MCT). (d) One year increase in age was associated with a 3% decrease in the predicted odds of receiving MCT (95%, CI 0.95-0.99). The current data indicate an FMS-prevalence that differs from epidemiological surveys and screenings, probably due to methodological differences. Especially females with comorbid depression are affected. The likelihood of receiving MCT is not associated with gender, but with younger age. Yet, the findings seem to indicate insufficient and inadequate treatment, but FMS warrants more research. Copyright Â© 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...
ence of social health insurance, and some Asian countries have more recently .... Mexico, special funds subsidised by the government and social security, were ..... show how powerful interest groups can influence the direction of health care ...
Daniel Gottlieb; Olivia S. Mitchell
We propose a model of narrow framing in insurance and test it using data from a new module we designed and fielded in the Health and Retirement Study. We show that respondents subject to narrow framing are substantially less likely to buy long-term care insurance than average. This effect is distinct from, and much larger than, the effects of risk aversion or adverse selection, and it offers a new explanation for why people underinsure their later-life care needs.
Enthoven, A C
The financing system for medical costs in this country suffers from severe inflation and inequity. The tax-supported system of fee for service for doctors, third-party intermediaries and cost reimbursement for hospitals produces inflation by rewarding cost-increasing behavior and failing to provide incentives for economy. The system is inequitable because the government pays more on behalf of those who choose more costly systems of care, because tax benefits subsidize the health insurance of the well-to-do, while not helping many low-income people, and because employment health insurance does not guarantee continuity of coverage and is regressive in its financing. Analysis of previous proposals for national health insurance shows none to be capable of solving most of these problems. Direct economic regulation by government will not improve the situation. Cost controls through incentives and regulated competition in the private sector are most likely to be effective.
Doubeni, Chyke; Robinson, Scott; Fouayzi, Hassan; Roblin, Douglas; Field, Terry; Fletcher, Robert
Background and Aims: Several studies have found variations in cancer health outcomes among persons in different socioeconomic (SES) groups, but the presence and extent of such disparities in insured populations is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether, among persons enrolled in HMOs, there are differences in the use of services for early detection of cancer according to neighborhood SES. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of men and women aged 50+ years, enrolled for at least 1 calendar year beginning in 2000 at one of 3 health plans participating in the Cancer Research Network. Follow-up was to the date of disenrollment from the health plan, or December 31, 2007, whichever was earlier. Using administrative data, we obtained dates of examinations and tests related to screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) for men and women and mammography among women. CRC tests were defined as time to the first colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy (endoscopy) during the follow-up period; and also time to an endoscopy that was not preceded by gastrointestinal conditions in the 6 months prior to the test. SES neighborhood measure was computed using 12 US Census (2000) measures of racial and SES composition and context at the tract level. Results: A total of 123,222 members, 54% women and average age 64 years, were followed for an average of 5.5 (SD=2.8) years. During 673,938 person-years of follow-up, about 41% had at least 1 endoscopy and 32% had an endoscopy not associated with prior GI-related diagnoses. Among women, 77% had at least 1 mammogram during the study period; 7% had mammograms during each of the first 5 years of follow-up. In Cox regression models, compared to lowest quartile of SES, persons residing in the highest quartile had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.76: (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75–0.78) for receipt of any endoscopy; 0.72: (CI: 0.70–0.74) for ‘screening’ endoscopy; and 0.86: (CI: 0.84–0.88) for mammography. Conclusion: Even
Schuster, Alexander K; Pick, Julia; Saalmann, Frauke; Pfeiffer, Norbert
Eye diseases causing visual impairment increase with age. Thus, seeking eye care has a higher probability in older people. In this study, the rate of utilization of outpatient eye care services in Germany was analyzed. The analyses focused on older persons and persons in need of either home-based or facility-based long-term care. A descriptive secondary data analysis of health insurance data of the AOK Baden-Württemberg from 2016 was conducted. The study population comprised all insured persons on 1 January 2016. The cohort of older persons (60 years+) was further stratified by the type of care (home-based/facility-based) and the level of care (0-3). The utilization of outpatient eye care services was defined by the reimbursement for an ophthalmologist's provision of service. While 39.3% of the study population 60+ years old sought eye care, the utilization rate was lower among people in need of home-based (33.0%) and facility-based care (19.3%). The utilization rates showed comparable age-dependent patterns, except for persons in need of facility-based care where rates were similar for all age groups. Utilization rates were negatively associated with increasing care levels. Only people with care level 0 showed lower utilization rates than people with care level 1. Utilization rates of eye healthcare services among older persons are considerably influenced by the need of long-term care, by the form of care as well as by the level of care.
Withagen-Koster, A.A. (A. A.); R.C. van Kleef (Richard); F. Eijkenaar (Frank)
textabstractA major challenge in regulated health insurance markets is to mitigate risk selection potential. Risk selection can occur in the presence of unpriced risk heterogeneity, which refers to predictable variation in health care spending not reflected in either premiums by insurers or risk
... the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9590] RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION...
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State Children's Health Insurance Program... Insurance Program Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) encourages States to provide health coverage for uninsured children in families...
Full Text Available JinHee Kim,1 Chin Kook Rhee,2 Kwang Ha Yoo,3 Young Sam Kim,4 Sei Won Lee,5 Yong Bum Park,6 Jin Hwa Lee,7 YeonMok Oh,5 Sang Do Lee,5 Yuri Kim,8 KyungJoo Kim,8 HyoungKyu Yoon9 1Office of Health Service Research, National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 6Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea; 7Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea; 8Department of Clinical Research Support, National Strategic Coordinating Center for Clinical Research, Seoul, Korea; 9Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Background: Patients with high grade chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD account for much of the COPD-related mortality and incur excessive financial burdens and medical care utilization. We aimed to determine the characteristics and medical care use of such patients using nationwide data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in 2009. Materials and methods: Patients with COPD were identified by searching with the International Classification of Diseases–10th Revision for those using medication. Patients with high grade COPD were selected based on their patterns of tertiary institute visits and medication use. Results: The numbers of patients with high grade COPD increased rapidly
Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre
This paper studies the design of long term care (LTC) insurance contracts in the presence of ex post moral hazard. While this problem bears some similarity with the study of health insurance (Blomqvist, 1997) the significance of informal LTC affects the problem in several crucial ways. It introduces the potential crowding out of informal care by market care financed through insurance coverage. Furthermore, the information structure becomes more intricate. Informal care is not publicly observable and, unlike the insurer, caregivers know the true needs of their relatives. We determine the optimal second-best contract and show that the optimal reimbursement rate can be written as an A-B-C expression à la Diamond (1998). These terms respectively reflect the efficiency loss as measured by the inverse of the demand elasticity, the distribution of needs and the preferences for risk sharing. Interestingly, informal care directly affects only the first term. More precisely the first term decreases with the presence and significance of informal care. Roughly speaking this means that an efficient LTC insurance contract should offer lower (marginal) reimbursement rates than its counterpart in a health insurance context. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jacobs, M Orry; Eggbeer, Bill
The introduction of the state health insurance exchanges, as provided for in the Affordable Care Act, has many strategic implications for healthcare providers: Unprecedented transparency; The "Walmart Effect", with patients playing a greater role as healthcare consumers; A rise in narrow networks spurred by low prices and narrow geographies; The potential end of the cross subsidy of Medicare and Medicaid by commercial plans; The possible end of not-for-profit status for hospitals
Murphy, Brigid M; Schoenman, Julie A; Pirani, Hafiza
To examine health insurance companies' role in employee wellness. Case studies of eight insurers. Wellness activities in work, clinical, online, and telephonic settings. Senior executives and wellness program leaders from Blue Cross Blue Shield health insurers and from one wellness organization. Telephone interviews with 20 informants. Health insurers were engaged in wellness as part of their mission to promote health and reduce health care costs. Program components included the following: education, health risk assessments, incentives, coaching, environmental consultation, targeted programming, onsite biometric screening, professional support, and full-time wellness staff. Programs relied almost exclusively on positive incentives to encourage participation. Results included participation rates as high as 90%, return on investment ranging from $1.09 to $1.65, and improved health outcomes. Health insurers have expertise in developing, implementing, and marketing health programs and have wide access to employers and their employees' health data. These capabilities make health insurers particularly well equipped to expand the reach of wellness programming to improve the health of many Americans. By coupling members' medical data with wellness-program data, health insurers can better understand an individual's health status to develop and deliver targeted interventions. Through program evaluation, health insurers can also contribute to the limited but growing evidence base on employee wellness programs.
Arbogast, James W; Moore-Schiltz, Laura; Jarvis, William R; Harpster-Hagen, Amanda; Hughes, Jillian; Parker, Albert
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a multimodal hand hygiene intervention program in reducing health care insurance claims for hygiene preventable infections (eg, cold and influenza), absenteeism, and subjective impact on employees. A 13.5-month prospective, randomized cluster controlled trial was executed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer in strategic workplace locations and personal use (intervention group) and brief hand hygiene education (both groups). Four years of retrospective data were collected for all participants. Hygiene-preventable health care claims were significantly reduced in the intervention group by over 20% (P Employee survey data showed significant improvements in hand hygiene behavior and perception of company concern for employee well-being. Providing a comprehensive, targeted, yet simple to execute hand hygiene program significantly reduced the incidence of health care claims and increased employee workplace satisfaction.
health industry acting as insurance brokers and broker organisations and these make private health care cost expensive and has made it unaffordable unless innovative policies are instituted to curtail this trend. With South Africa's estimated population of fifty-two million, the private health sector provides health care to ...
... Health Insurance Providers Fee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... insurance for United States health risks. This fee is imposed by section 9010 of the Patient Protection and... insurance for United States health risks. DATES: Written or electronic comments must be received by June 3...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI, implemented in 1995, substantially increased the number of health care facilities that can deliver free prenatal care. Because of the increase in such facilities, it is usually assumed that women would have more choices regarding prenatal care facilities and thus experience reduction in travel cost. Nevertheless, there has been no research exploring these issues in the literature. This study compares how Taiwan's NHI program may have influenced choice of prenatal care facility and perception regarding convenience in transportation for obtaining such care for women in rural and non-rural areas in Taiwan. Methods Based on data collected by a national survey conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes (NHRI in 2000, we tried to compare how women chose prenatal care facility before and after Taiwan's National Health Insurance program was implemented. Basing our analysis on how women answered questionnaire items regarding "the type of major health care facility used and convenience of transportation to and from prenatal care facility," we investigated whether there were disparities in how women in rural and non-rural areas chose prenatal care facilities and felt about the transportation, and whether the NHI had different influences for the two groups of women. Results After NHI, women in rural areas were more likely than before to choose large hospitals for prenatal care services. For women in rural areas, the relative probability of choosing large hospitals to choosing non-hospital settings in 1998–1999 was about 6.54 times of that in 1990–1992. In contrast, no such change was found in women in non-rural areas. For a woman in a non-rural area, she was significantly more likely to perceive the transportation to and from prenatal care facilities to be very convenient between 1998 and 1999 than in the period between 1990 and 1992. No such improvement was found for women in
...] Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Renewal, Expansion, and Renaming of the...'s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) about options for selecting health care coverage under these and... needs are for experts in health disparities, State Health Insurance Assistance Programs (SHIPs), health...
Enthoven, A C; Kronick, R
Roughly 35 million Americans have no health care coverage. Health care expenditures are out of control. The problems of access and cost are inextricably related. Important correctable causes include cost-unconscious demand, a system not organized for quality and economy, market failure, and public funds not distributed equitably or effectively to motivate widespread coverage. We propose Public Sponsor agencies to offer subsidized coverage to those otherwise uninsured, mandated employer-provided health insurance, premium contributions from all employers and employees, a limit on tax-free employer contributions to employee health insurance, and "managed competition". Our proposed new government revenues equal proposed new outlays. We believe our proposal will work because efficient managed care does exist and can provide satisfactory care for a cost far below that of the traditional fee-for-service third-party payment system. Presented with an opportunity to make an economically responsible choice, people choose value for money; the dynamic created by these individual choices will give providers strong incentives to render high-quality, economical care. We believe that providers will respond to these incentives.
Willemse-Duijmelinck, Daniëlle M I D; van de Ven, Wynand P M M; Mosca, Ilaria
Nearly everyone with a supplementary insurance (SI) in the Netherlands takes out the voluntary SI and the mandatory basic insurance (BI) from the same health insurer. Previous studies show that many high-risks perceive SI as a switching cost for BI. Because consumers' current insurer provides them with a guaranteed renewability, SI is a switching cost if insurers apply selective underwriting to new applicants. Several changes in the Dutch health insurance market increased insurers' incentives to counteract adverse selection for SI. Tools to do so are not only selective underwriting, but also risk rating and product differentiation. If all insurers use the latter tools without selective underwriting, SI is not a switching cost for BI. We investigated to what extent insurers used these tools in the periods 2006-2009 and 2014-2015. Only a few insurers applied selective underwriting: in 2015, 86% of insurers used open enrolment for all their SI products, and the other 14% did use open enrolment for their most common SI products. As measured by our indicators, the proportion of insurers applying risk rating or product differentiation did not increase in the periods considered. Due to the fear of reputation loss insurers may have used 'less visible' tools to counteract adverse selection that are indirect forms of risk rating and product differentiation and do not result in switching costs. So, although many high-risks perceive SI as a switching cost, most insurers apply open enrolment for SI. By providing information to high-risks about their switching opportunities, the government could increase consumer choice and thereby insurers' incentives to invest in high-quality care for high-risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Johnston, Stephen S; Udall, Margarita; Alvir, Jose; McMorrow, Donna; Fowler, Robert; Mullins, Daniel
To describe the characteristics, treatment, and health care expenditures of Medicare Supplemental-insured patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN), post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), or fibromyalgia. Retrospective cohort study. United States clinical practice, as reflected within a database comprising administrative claims from 2.3 million older adults participating in Medicare supplemental insurance programs. Selected patients were aged ≥65 years, continuously enrolled in medical and prescription benefits throughout years 2008 and 2009, and had ≥1 medical claim with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for DPN, PHN, or fibromyalgia, followed within 60 days by a medication or pain intervention procedure used in treating pDPN, PHN, or fibromyalgia during 2008-2009. Utilization of, and expenditures on, pain-related and all-cause pharmacotherapy and medical interventions in 2009. The study included 25,716 patients with pDPN (mean age 75.2 years, 51.2% female), 4,712 patients with PHN (mean age 77.7 years, 63.9% female), and 25,246 patients with fibromyalgia (mean age 74.4 years, 73.0% female). Patients typically had numerous comorbidities, and many were treated with polypharmacy. Mean annual expenditures on total pain-related health care and total all-cause health care, respectively, (in 2010 USD) were: $1,632, $24,740 for pDPN; $1,403, $16,579 for PHN; and $1,635, $18,320 for fibromyalgia. In age-stratified analyses, pain-related health care expenditures decreased as age increased. The numerous comorbidities, polypharmacy, and magnitude of expenditures in this sample of Medicare supplemental-insured patients with pDPN, PHN, or fibromyalgia underscore the complexity and importance of appropriate management of these chronic pain patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mathur, Tanuj; Das, Gurudas; Gupta, Hemendra
Most studies have associated "un-affordability" as a plausible cause for the lower take-up of private voluntary health insurance plans. However, others refuted this claim on the pretext that when people can afford "inpatient-care" from pocket then insurance premium cost is far less than those payments. Thus, economic factors remain insufficient in clearly explaining the reason for poor private voluntary health insurance take-up. An attempt is being made by shifting the focus towards non-economic factors and understanding the role of perception and health insurance literacy in transforming people preferences to invest in private voluntary health insurance plans. The study findings will conspicuously support decision-makers in developing strategy to increase the private voluntary health insurance take-up.
Long, Qian; Zhang, Tuohong; Xu, Ling; Tang, Shenglan; Hemminki, Elina
To investigate factors influencing maternal health care utilisation in western rural China and its relation to income before (2002) and after (2007) introducing a new rural health insurance system (NCMS). Data from cross-sectional household-based health surveys carried out in ten western rural provinces of China in 2003 and 2008 were used in the study. The study population comprised women giving birth in 2002 or 2007, with 917 and 809 births, respectively. Correlations between outcomes and explanatory variables were studied by logistic regression models and a log-linear model. Between 2002 and 2007, having no any pre-natal visit decreased from 25% to 12% (difference 13%, 95% CI 10-17%); facility-based delivery increased from 45% to 80% (difference 35%, 95% CI 29-37%); and differences in using pre-natal and delivery care between the income groups narrowed. In a logistic regression analysis, women with lower education, from minority groups, or high parity were less likely to use pre-natal and delivery care in 2007. The expenditure for facility-based delivery increased over the period, but the out-of-pocket expenditure for delivery as a percentage of the annual household income decreased. In 2007, it was 14% in the low-income group. NCMS participation was found positively correlated with lower out-of-pocket expenditure for facility-based delivery (coefficient -1.14 P < 0.05) in 2007. Facility-based delivery greatly increased between 2002 and 2007, coinciding with the introduction of the NCMS. The rural poor were still facing substantial payment for facility-based delivery, although NCMS participation reduced the out-of-pocket expenditure on average. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
James M Dupree
Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of h...
Paez, Kathryn A.; Mallery, Coretta J.; Noel, HarmoniJoie; Pugliese, Christopher; McSorley, Veronica E.; Lucado, Jennifer L.; Ganachari, Deepa
Understanding health insurance is central to affording and accessing health care in the United States. Efforts to support consumers in making wise purchasing decisions and using health insurance to their advantage would benefit from the development of a valid and reliable measure to assess health insurance literacy. This article reports on the development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM), a self-assessment measure of consumers' ability to select and use private health insurance. The authors developed a conceptual model of health insurance literacy based on formative research and stakeholder guidance. Survey items were drafted using the conceptual model as a guide then tested in two rounds of cognitive interviews. After a field test with 828 respondents, exploratory factor analysis revealed two HILM scales, choosing health insurance and using health insurance, each of which is divided into a confidence subscale and likelihood of behavior subscale. Correlations between the HILM scales and an objective measure of health insurance knowledge and skills were positive and statistically significant which supports the validity of the measure. PMID:25315595
Boudreaux, Michel; Barath, Deanna; Blewett, Lynn A
Prior to the Affordable Care Act, as many as 1.3 million veterans lacked health insurance. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, veterans now have new pathways to coverage through Medicaid expansion in those states that chose to expand Medicaid and through private coverage options offered through the Health Insurance Marketplace. We examined the impact of the ACA on health insurance coverage for veterans in expansion and non-expansion states and for urban and rural veterans. We examined changes in veterans' health insurance coverage following the first year of the ACA, focusing on whether they lived in an urban or rural area and whether they live in a Medicaid expansion state. We used data on approximately 200,000 non-elderly community-dwelling veterans, obtained from the 2013-2014 American Community Survey and estimated differences in the adjusted probability of being uninsured between 2013 and 2014 for both urban and rural areas. Adjusted probabilities were computed by fitting logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, race, marital status, poverty status, education, and employment. There were an estimated 10.1 million U.S. non-elderly veterans in 2013; 82% lived in predominantly urban areas (8.3 million), and the remaining 18% (1.8 million) lived in predominately rural areas. Most veterans lived in the South (43.6%), and rural veterans were more likely to be Southerners than their urban counterparts. On every marker of economic well-being, rural veterans fared worse than urban veterans. They had a statistically significant higher chance of having incomes below 138% of FPG (20.0% versus 17.0%), of being out of the labor force (29.1% versus 23.0%), and of having no more than a high school education (39.6% versus 28.8%). Rural veterans were also more likely to experience at least one functional limitation. Overall, veterans in Medicaid expansion states experienced a significantly larger increase in insurance compared to veterans living in non
Guy, Gery P; Adams, E Kathleen; Atherly, Adam
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) will substantially increase public health insurance eligibility and alter the costs of insurance coverage. Using Current Population Survey (CPS) data from the period 2000-2008, we examine the effects of public and private health insurance premiums on the insurance status of low-income childless adults, a population substantially affected by the ACA. Results show higher public premiums to be associated with a decrease in the probability of having public insurance and an increase in the probability of being uninsured, while increased private premiums decrease the probability of having private insurance. Eligibility for premium assistance programs and increased subsidy levels are associated with lower rates of uninsurance. The magnitudes of the effects are quite modest and provide important implications for insurance expansions for childless adults under the ACA.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act requires the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to develop quality data collection and reporting tools such as a Quality...
Weel, C. van; Schers, H.J.; Timmermans, A.
This article analyzes Dutch experiences of health care reform--in particular in primary care--with emphasis on lessons for current United States health care reforms. Recent major innovations were the introduction of private insurance based on the principles of primary care-led health care and
In many welfare states, tightening financial constraints suggest excluding some medical services, including new ones, from social security coverage. This may create opportunities for private health insurance. This study analyses the performance of supplementary private health insurance (SPHI) in markets for excluded services in terms of population covered, risk selection and insurer profits. Using a utility-based simulation model, the insurance market is described as a composite of sub-market...
A new document which groups together the general principles, the contributions, benefits, reimbursement procedures and other information making up the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme has been established. It was approved by the Director-General on 7th July 2000 and is being distributed to all contributing members of the Scheme. It has been dispatched by internal mail to members of the personnel and by postal mail to pensioners. These Rules will enter into force on 1st September 2000. Please make sure that you have received your copy. Should this not be the case, an additional copy may be obtained by telephoning 78003
A new document which groups together the general principles, the contributions, benefits, reimbursement procedures and other information making up the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme has been established. It was approved by the Director-General on 7th July 2000 and is being distributed to all contributing members of the Scheme. It has been dispatched by internal mail to members of the personnel and by postal mail to pensioners. These Rules will enter into force on 1st September 2000. Please make sure that you have received your copy. Should this not be the case, an additional copy may be obtained by telephoning 78003.
Easter, Sarah Rae; Rosenthal, Emily W; Morton-Eggleston, Emma; Nour, Nawal; Tuomala, Ruth; Zera, Chloe A
To investigate the association among public health insurance, preconception care, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with pregestational diabetes. This is a retrospective cohort of pregnant women with pregestational type 1 or type 2 diabetes from 2006 to 2011 in Massachusetts-a state with universal insurance coverage since 2006. Women delivering after 24 weeks of gestation and receiving endocrinology and obstetric care in a multidisciplinary clinic were included. Rates of preconception consultation, our primary outcome of interest, were then compared between publicly and privately insured women. We used univariate analysis followed by logistic regression to compare receipt of preconception consultation and other secondary diabetes care measures and pregnancy outcomes according to insurance status. Fifty-four percent (n=106) of 197 women had public insurance. Publicly insured women were younger (median age 30.4 compared with 35.3 years, P<.01) with lower rates of college education (12.3% compared with 45.1%, P<.01). Women with public insurance were less likely to receive a preconception consult (5.7% compared with 31.9%, P<.01), had lower rates of hemoglobin A1C less than 6% at the onset of pregnancy (37.2% compared with 58.4%, P=.01), and experienced higher rates of pregnancies affected by congenital anomalies (10.4% compared with 2.2%, P=.02) compared with those with private insurance. In adjusted analyses controlling for educational attainment, maternal age, and body mass index, women with public insurance were less likely to receive a preconception consult (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.21, 95% CI 0.08-0.58), although the odds of achieving the target hemoglobin A1C (adjusted OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.20-1.02) and congenital anomaly (adjusted OR 2.23, 95% CI 0.37-13.41) were similar after adjustment. Despite continuous access to health insurance, publicly insured women were less likely than privately insured women to receive a preconception consult-an evidence
Jaff, Jennifer C; Arnold, Janis; Bousvaros, Athos
In addition to their physical challenges, children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) living in the United States face a number of administrative and regulatory hurdles that affect their quality of life. This article, written by a physician, attorney/patient advocate, and social worker, discusses a number of these challenges and describes how the provider can help his or her patient overcome them. Specifically, the article discusses 4 areas in detail: appeals of denials of coverage from insurance companies and third party payors; assisting children with IBD with classroom and school accommodations; assisting uninsured children in obtaining Social Security benefits; and aiding a parent to care for their child using the Family and Medical Leave Act. Although this article has a pediatric focus, adults have similar advocacy needs. Case examples and sample letters to third-party payors, schools, and employers are included in this article.
Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Tindana, Paulina; Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Nartey, Harry; Akazili, James
Background In 2005, the World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) urged member states to aim at achieving affordable universal coverage and access to key promotive, preventive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative health interventions for all their citizens on the basis of equity and solidarity. Since then, some African countries, including Ghana, have taken steps to introduce national health insurance reforms as one of the key strategies towards achieving universa...
Full Text Available This paper describes a multistate project that addressed the growing need for health insurance information for individuals by focusing on the Affordable Care Act (ACA and health insurance education and outreach efforts in targeted areas of the country in federally-facilitated marketplaces with high numbers of uninsured and underinsured individuals. Specifically, the project provided ACA and health insurance information to individuals in formal and informal settings to assist them in choosing a health insurance plan through the Marketplace. Education and outreach activities included group workshops and presentations, Q&A sessions, and panel discussions; one-on-one in-person consultations, phone consultations, and email consultations; and information provided through websites, blog posts, Facebook posts, tweets, YouTube videos, email blasts, newsletters, newspaper articles, and radio and TV programs. Health insurance enrollment assistance was provided by volunteers and some Extension educators or referrals were made to Navigators or Certified Application Counselors for enrollment assistance.
Chandoevwit, Worawan; Phatchana, Phasith
The Thai elderly are eligible for the Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CS) or Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) depending on their pre-retirement or their children work status. This study aimed to investigate the disparity in inpatient care expenditures in the last year of life among Thai elderly individuals who used the two public health insurance schemes. Using death registration and inpatient administrative data from 2007 to 2011, our subpopulation group included the elderly with four chronic disease groups: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, heart disease, and cancer. Among 1,242,150 elderly decedents, about 40% of them had at least one of the four chronic disease conditions and were hospitalized in their last year of life. The results showed that the means of inpatient care expenditures in the last year of life paid by CS and UCS per decedent were 99,672 Thai Baht and 52,472 Thai Baht, respectively. On average, UCS used higher healthcare resources by diagnosis-related group relative weight measure per decedent compared with CS. In all cases, the rates of payment for inpatient treatment per diagnosis-related group adjusted relative weight were higher for CS than UCS. This study found that the disparities in inpatient care expenditures in the last year of life stemmed mainly from the difference in payment rates. To mitigate this disparity, unified payment rates for various types of treatment that reflect costs of hospital care across insurance schemes were recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS-9953-PN] Health Insurance Exchanges; Application by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care To Be... Federal Register announcing the result of our determination. (Health Insurance Exchanges; Application by...
Flores, Glenn; Lin, Hua; Walker, Candy; Lee, Michael; Portillo, Alberto; Henry, Monica; Fierro, Marco; Massey, Kenneth
Minority children have the highest US uninsurance rates; Latino and African-American children account for 53 % of uninsured American children, despite comprising only 48 % of the total US child population. The study aim was to examine parental awareness of and the reasons for lacking health insurance in Medicaid/CHIP-eligible minority children, and the impact of the children's uninsurance on health, access to care, unmet needs, and family financial burden. For this cross-sectional study, a consecutive series of uninsured, Medicaid/CHIP-eligible Latino and African-American children was recruited at 97 urban Texas community sites, including supermarkets, health fairs, and schools. Measures/outcomes were assessed using validated instruments, and included sociodemographic characteristics, uninsurance duration, reasons for the child being uninsured, health status, special healthcare needs, access to medical and dental care, unmet needs, use of health services, quality of care, satisfaction with care, out-of-pocket costs of care, and financial burden. The mean time uninsured for the 267 participants was 14 months; 5 % had never been insured. The most common reason for insurance loss was expired and never reapplied (30 %), and for never being insured, high insurance costs. Only 49 % of parents were aware that their uninsured child was Medicaid/CHIP eligible. Thirty-eight percent of children had suboptimal health, and 2/3 had special healthcare needs, but 64 % have no primary-care provider; 83 % of parents worry about their child's health more than others. Unmet healthcare needs include: healthcare, 73 %; mental healthcare, 70 %; mobility aids/devices, 67 %; dental, 61 %; specialty care, 57 %; and vision, 46 %. Due to the child's health, 35 % of parents had financial problems, 23 % cut work hours, and 10 % ceased work. Higher proportions of Latinos lack primary-care providers, and higher proportions of African-Americans experience family financial burden. Half of parents
Fenny, Ama P; Asante, Felix A; Enemark, Ulrika; Hansen, Kristian S
Health insurance is attracting more and more attention as a means for improving health care utilization and protecting households against impoverishment from out-of-pocket expenditures. Currently about 52 percent of the resources for financing health care services come from out of pocket sources or user fees in Africa. Therefore, Ghana serves as in interesting case study as it has successfully expanded coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). The study aims to establish the treatment-seeking behaviour of households in Ghana under the NHI policy. The study relies on household data collected from three districts in Ghana covering the 3 ecological zones namely the coastal, forest and savannah.Out of the 1013 who sought care in the previous 4 weeks, 60% were insured and 71% of them sought care from a formal health facility. The results from the multinomial logit estimations show that health insurance and travel time to health facility are significant determinants of health care demand. Overall, compared to the uninsured, the insured are more likely to choose formal health facilities than informal care including self-medication when ill. We discuss the implications of these results as the concept of the NHIS grows widely in Ghana and serves as a good model for other African countries.
M. van Dijk (Machiel); M. Pomp (Marc); R.C.H.M. Douven (Rudy); T. Laske-Aldershof (Trea); F.T. Schut (Erik); W. de Boer (Willem); A. Boo (Anne)
textabstractAim: To estimate the price sensitivity of consumer choice of health insurance firm. Method: Using paneldata of the flows of insured betweenpairs of Dutch sickness funds during the period 1993-2002, we estimate the sensitivity of these flows to differences in insurance premium. Results:
... health insurance kicks in. As a general rule, insurance plans with low premiums have high deductibles, and plans with high premiums ... other plans due to hardship. This type of insurance can have low premiums but very high deductibles. Plans generally cover less ...
Wherry, Laura R; Kenney, Genevieve M; Sommers, Benjamin D
Over the past 30 years, there have been major expansions in public health insurance for low-income children in the United States through Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and other state-based efforts. In addition, many low-income parents have gained Medicaid coverage since 2014 under the Affordable Care Act. Most of the research to date on health insurance coverage among low-income populations has focused on its effect on health care utilization and health outcomes, with much less attention to the financial protection it offers families. We review a growing body of evidence that public health insurance provides important financial benefits to low-income families. Expansions in public health insurance for low-income children and adults are associated with reduced out of pocket medical spending, increased financial stability, and improved material well-being for families. We also review the potential poverty-reducing effects of public health insurance coverage. When out of pocket medical expenses are taken into account in defining the poverty rate, Medicaid plays a significant role in decreasing poverty for many children and families. In addition, public health insurance programs connect families to other social supports such as food assistance programs that also help reduce poverty. We conclude by reviewing emerging evidence that access to public health insurance in childhood has long-term effects for health and economic outcomes in adulthood. Exposure to Medicaid and CHIP during childhood has been linked to decreased mortality and fewer chronic health conditions, better educational attainment, and less reliance on government support later in life. In sum, the nation's public health insurance programs have many important short- and long-term poverty-reducing benefits for low-income families with children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The health insurance business in India has seen a growth of over 25% per annum in the last few years with the expansion of the private health insurance sector. The premium incomes of health insurance have crossed the Rs 8,000 crore mark with the share of private companies increasing to over 41%. This is despite the fact that from the perspective of patients, health insurance is not a good deal, especially when they need it most. This raises a number of ethical issues regarding how the health insurance business runs and how medical practice adjusts to it for profiteering. This article uses the personal experience of the author to argue that health insurance in an unregulated environment can only lead to unethical practices, further victimising the patient. Further, publicly financed healthcare which operates in an environment regulating both public and private healthcare provisioning is the only way to assure access to ethical and equitable healthcare to people.
Kerssens, J.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Objective: To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change health insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to
Pan, Jay; Tian, Sen; Zhou, Qin; Han, Wei
Equity is one of the essential objectives of the social health insurance. This article evaluates the benefit distribution of the China's Urban Residents' Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI), covering 300 million urban populations. Using the URBMI Household Survey data fielded between 2007 and 2011, we estimate the benefit distribution by the two-part model, and find that the URBMI beneficiaries from lower income groups benefited less than that of higher income groups. In other words, government subsidy that was supposed to promote the universal coverage of health care flew more to the rich. Our study provides new evidence on China's health insurance system reform, and it bears meaningful policy implication for other developing countries facing similar challenges on the way to universal coverage of health insurance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hidalgo, Hector; Chipulu, Maxwell; Ojiako, Udechukwu
The objective of this study is to identify how risk and social variables are likely to be impacted by an increase in private sector participation in health insurance provision. The study focuses on the Chilean health insurance industry, traditionally dominated by the public sector. Predictive risk modelling is conducted using a database containing over 250,000 health insurance policy records provided by the Superintendence of Health of Chile. Although perceived with suspicion in some circles, risk segmentation serves as a rational approach to risk management from a resource perspective. The variables that have considerable impact on insurance claims include the number of dependents, gender, wages and the duration a claimant has been a customer. As shown in the case study, to ensure that social benefits are realised, increased private sector participation in health insurance must be augmented by regulatory oversight and vigilance. As it is clear that a "community-rated" health insurance provision philosophy impacts on insurance firm's ability to charge "market" prices for insurance provision, the authors explore whether risk segmentation is a feasible means of predicting insurance claim behaviour in Chile's private health insurance industry.
Pardo, Karim; Andia, Marcelino; Rodriguez, Amado; Pérez, Walter; Moscoso, Betsy
To describe the main characteristics of the general salaries situation and the incentive policies of health care workers of Peru, comparing them by their origin institution and type of contract. A mixed design study was done including both quantitative and qualitative components during 2008 and 2009 with both professional and technical personnel of the Ministry of Health (MINSA) and the Social Insurance (EsSalud) in Peru. The salary structure was primarily evaluated considering incentives, bonuses and other remunerations according to position, type of contract and work place. Remuneration and bonus policies at the national level are determined by the responsibilities and amount of time served. The type of contract is determined by the programs of the public system (DL 276) and the private system (DL 728), also by the Special Program of Contract Services Administration (CAS) and exclusively in MINSA contracting is determined by local health administration Committees (CLAS). The salary structure differs between both types of institutions, especially with respect to incentives and benefits. An special economic incentive for assistance (AETA) is unique to MINSA, but the proportion of assistance varies by region. The professionals of MINSA have lower salaries than those of EsSalud, in all types of contracts. A professional contracted through CAS generally has a lower salary than staff peers in MINSA, though this situation is reversed in EsSalud. The lowest salaries are found in contracts made through CLAS. The structure and salary amounts differ between MINSA and EsSalud, just as they differ by existing contracting types.
Drewry, Jonathan; Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha; Bronstein, Janet; Foster, E Michael; Kotelchuck, Milton
The 2002 "unborn child ruling" resulted in State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) expansion for states to cover prenatal care for low-income women without health insurance. Foreign-born Latinas who do not qualify for Medicaid coverage theoretically should have benefited most from the policy ruling given their documented low rates of prenatal care utilization. This study compares prenatal care utilization and subsequent birth outcomes among foreign-born Latinas in six states that used the unborn child ruling to expand coverage to those in ten states that did not implement the expansion. This policy analysis examines cross-sectional pooled US natality data from the pre-enactment years (2000-2003) versus post-enactment years (2004-2007) to estimate the effect of the UCR on prenatal care utilization and birth outcome measures for foreign-born Latinas. Then using a difference-in-difference estimator, we assessed these differences across time for states that did or did not enact the unborn child ruling. Analyses were then replicated on a high-risk subset of the population (single foreign-born Latinas with lower levels of education). The SCHIP unborn child ruling policy expansion increased PNCU over time in the six enacting states. Foreign-born Latinas in expansion enacting states experienced increases in prenatal care utilization though only the high-risk subset were statistically significant. Birth outcomes did not change. The SCHIP unborn child ruling policy was associated with enhanced PNC for a subset of high-risk foreign-born Latinas.
Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Mehrara, Mohsen; Sari, Ali Akbari; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Moeini, Maryam
Objective: The substantial level of out-of-pocket expenditure for health care by the population causes policy makers to draw particular attention to the proposal of a social health insurance for uninsured members of the community. Hence, it is essential to gather reliable information about the amount of Willingness To Pay (WTP) for health insurance. We assessed the WTP for health insurance in Iran in order to suggest an affordable social health insurance. Method: The study sample included 300 household heads in all Iranian provinces. The double bounded dichotomous choice approach was used to elicit the WTP. Result: The average WTP for social health insurance per person per month was 137 000 Rial (5.5 $US). Household heads with higher levels of education, income and those who worked had more WTP for the health insurance. Besides, the WTP increased in direct proportion to the number of insured members of each household and in inverse proportion to the family size. Conclusions: From a policy point of view, the WTP value can be used as a premium in a society. An important finding of this study is that although households’ Willingness To Pay is not more than the total insurance premium, households are willing to pay more than the premium they ought to pay for health insurance coverage. That is, total insurance premium is 150 000 Rials and households ought to pay approximately half of this sum. This can afford policy makers the ideal opportunity to provide good insurance coverage for medical services according to the need of society. PMID:25168979
Margolis, Jay M; Juneau, Paul; Sadosky, Alesia; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Bryce, Thomas N; Nieshoff, Edward C
To evaluate health care resource use, costs, and cost drivers among patients with neuropathic pain (NeP) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in a commercially insured population. Retrospective longitudinal cohort study comparing SCI patients with and without NeP. Truven Health MarketScan commercial claims database from 2005 through 2012. Commercially insured SCI patients with NeP (n=3524) propensity score matched to SCI patients without NeP (n=3524). Not applicable. Health care resource utilization and expenditures for the 12 months after NeP onset (index event; identified through International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis 338.0x or use of NeP-specific antiepileptic drugs or NeP-specific antidepressants) in patients with SCI compared with matched patients without NeP. Utilization over 12 months postindex among patients with SCI-associated NeP was higher than among SCI-only patients for inpatient admissions (27.4% vs 22.1%), emergency department visits (36.7% vs 26.4%), and office visits per patient (mean ± SD: 13.0±9.5 vs 9.5±8.3); all P values were patient with SCI-associated NeP during the 12-month postindex period. Patients with evidence of NeP secondary to SCI have significantly higher health care utilization and total costs compared with SCI patients without evidence of NeP. Factors contributing to NeP in patients with SCI need to be clinically assessed to determine the optimal approach for treating these individuals. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meng, Qingyue; Fang, Hai; Liu, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Beibei; Xu, Jin
Fragmentation in social health insurance schemes is an important factor for inequitable access to health care and financial protection for people covered by different health insurance schemes in China. To fulfil its commitment of universal health coverage by 2020, the Chinese Government needs to prioritise addressing this issue. After analysing the situation of fragmentation, this Review summarises efforts to consolidate health insurance schemes both in China and internationally. Rural migrants, elderly people, and those with non-communicable diseases in China will greatly benefit from consolidation of the existing health insurance schemes with extended funding pools, thereby narrowing the disparities among health insurance schemes in fund level and benefit package. Political commitments, institutional innovations, and a feasible implementation plan are the major elements needed for success in consolidation. Achievement of universal health coverage in China needs systemic strategies including consolidation of the social health insurance schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.
Objective To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change heaith insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to
McIntosh, Belinda J.; Compton, Michael T.; Druss, Benjamin G.
A growing trend in college and university health care is the requirement that students demonstrate proof of health insurance prior to enrollment. An increasing number of schools are contracting with insurance companies to provide students with school-based options for health insurance. Although this is advantageous to students in some ways, tying…
Greene, Robert; Dasso, Edwin; Ho, Sam; Frank, Jerry; Scandrett, Graeme; Genaidy, Ash
The U.S. health care system is currently heading toward unsustainable health care expenditures and increased dissatisfaction with health outcomes. The objective of this population-based study is to uncover practical insights regarding patients with 1 or more chronic illnesses. A cross-sectional investigation was designed to gather data from health records drawn from diverse US geographic markets. A database of 9.74 million fully-insured, working individuals was used, together with members in the same households. Among nearly 3.43 million patients with claims, 2.22 million had chronic conditions. About 24.3% had 1 chronic condition and 40.4% had multi-morbidity. Health care expenditures for chronic conditions accounted for 92% of all costs (52% for chronic costs and 40% for nonchronic costs). Psychiatry, orthopedics-rheumatology, endocrinology, and cardiology areas accounted for two thirds of these chronic condition costs; nonchronic condition costs were dominated by otolaryngology, gastroenterology, dermatology, orthopedics-rheumatology conditions, and preventive services. About 50.1% of all households had 2 or more members with chronic conditions. In summary, multi-morbidity is prevalent not only among those older than age 65 years but also in younger and working individuals, and commonly occurs among several members of a household. The authors suggest that the disease-focused model of medicine should change to a more holistic illness-wellness model, emphasizing not only the physical but also the mental and social elements that can influence individual health. In that way the chronic care model could be broadened in context and content to improve the health of patients and households.
Tamez, S; Bodek, C; Eibenschutz, C
During the late 70's and early 80's in Mexico, as in the rest of Latin-America, sanitary policies were directed to support the growth of the private sector of health care at the expense of the public sector. This work analyzes the evolution of the health insurance market as a part of the privatization process of health care. The analysis based on economic data, provides the political profile behind the privatization process as well as the changes in the relations between the State and the health sector. The central hypothesis is that the State promotes and supports the growth of the private market of medical care via a series of legal, fiscal and market procedures. It also discusses the State roll in the legal changes related to the national insurance activity. A comparative analysis is made about the evolution of the insurance industry in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico during the period 1986-1992, with a particular enfasis in the last country. One of the principal results is that the Premium/GNP and Premium/per capita, display a general growth in the 4 countries. This growth is faster for Mexico for each one) because the privatization process occurred only during the most recent years. For the 1984-1991 period in Mexico the direct premium as percentage of the GNP raised from 0.86% to 1.32%. If one focussed only in the insurance for health and accidents branches the rice goes form 8.84% in 1984 to 19.08% in 1991. This indicates that the insurance industry is one of the main targets of the privatization process of the health care system in Mexico. This is also shown by the State support to fast expansion of the big medical industrial complex of the country. Considering this situation in the continuity of the neoliberal model of Mexico, this will profound the inequity and inequality.
Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to: 1 compare the effect of premium earnings products of health insurances after the launching of national social health insurance (JKN-BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial for health; 2 analyze the internal and external factors of private/commercial health insurance companies; 3 formulate a marketing strategyy for health insurance product after the operation of JKN-BPJS for health. It is a challenge for commercial health insurance to survive and thrive with the existence of JKN-BPJS for health which is compulsory to Indonesia’s citizens to be a member. The research begins by analyzing premium earnings of the commercial health insurance company one year before and after the implementation of JKN-BPJS for health, the intensive interviews and questionnaires to the chosen resource person (purposive samplings, the analysis on Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, Matrix IE and SWOT are used in the research. Then it is continued by arranging a strategic priority using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The result from the research is there is totally no decreasing premium earnings for the commercial health insurance company although the growth trend shows a slight drop. The appropriate strategy for the health insurance company in the commercial sector is the differentiation where the implication is involving customer service quality improvement, product innovation, and technology and infrastructure development. Keywords: commercial health insurance company, Marketing Strategy, AHP Analysis, national social health insurance
Bes, Romy E; Wendel, Sonja; Curfs, Emile C; Groenewegen, Peter P; de Jong, Judith D
In a demand oriented health care system based on managed competition, health insurers have incentives to become prudent buyers of care on behalf of their enrolees. They are allowed to selectively contract care providers. This is supposed to stimulate competition between care providers and both increase the quality of care and contain costs in the health care system. However, health insurers are reluctant to implement selective contracting; they believe their enrolees will not accept this. One reason, insurers believe, is that enrolees do not trust their health insurer. However, this has never been studied. This paper aims to study the role played by enrolees' trust in the health insurer on their acceptance of selective contracting. An online survey was conducted among 4,422 people insured through a large Dutch health insurance company. Trust in the health insurer, trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer and acceptance of selective contracting were measured using multiple item scales. A regression model was constructed to analyse the results. Trust in the health insurer turned out to be an important prerequisite for the acceptance of selective contracting among their enrolees. The association of trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer with acceptance of selective contracting is stronger for older people than younger people. Furthermore, it was found that men and healthier people accepted selective contracting by their health insurer more readily. This was also true for younger people with a low level of trust in their health insurer. This study provides insight into factors that influence people's acceptance of selective contracting by their health insurer. This may help health insurers to implement selective contracting in a way their enrolees will accept and, thus, help systems of managed competition to develop.
Background In a demand oriented health care system based on managed competition, health insurers have incentives to become prudent buyers of care on behalf of their enrolees. They are allowed to selectively contract care providers. This is supposed to stimulate competition between care providers and both increase the quality of care and contain costs in the health care system. However, health insurers are reluctant to implement selective contracting; they believe their enrolees will not accept this. One reason, insurers believe, is that enrolees do not trust their health insurer. However, this has never been studied. This paper aims to study the role played by enrolees’ trust in the health insurer on their acceptance of selective contracting. Methods An online survey was conducted among 4,422 people insured through a large Dutch health insurance company. Trust in the health insurer, trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer and acceptance of selective contracting were measured using multiple item scales. A regression model was constructed to analyse the results. Results Trust in the health insurer turned out to be an important prerequisite for the acceptance of selective contracting among their enrolees. The association of trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer with acceptance of selective contracting is stronger for older people than younger people. Furthermore, it was found that men and healthier people accepted selective contracting by their health insurer more readily. This was also true for younger people with a low level of trust in their health insurer. Conclusion This study provides insight into factors that influence people’s acceptance of selective contracting by their health insurer. This may help health insurers to implement selective contracting in a way their enrolees will accept and, thus, help systems of managed competition to develop. PMID:24083663
Lofgren, Curt; Thanh, Nguyen X; Chuc, Nguyen Tk; Emmelin, Anders; Lindholm, Lars
The inequity caused by health financing in Vietnam, which mainly relies on out-of-pocket payments, has put pre-payment reform high on the political agenda. This paper reports on a study of the willingness to pay for health insurance among a rural population in northern Vietnam, exploring whether the Vietnamese are willing to pay enough to sufficiently finance a health insurance system. Using the Epidemiological Field Laboratory for Health Systems Research in the Bavi district (FilaBavi), 2070 households were randomly selected for the study. Existing FilaBavi interviewers were trained especially for this study. The interview questionnaire was developed through a pilot study followed by focus group discussions among interviewers. Determinants of households' willingness to pay were studied through interval regression by which problems such as zero answers, skewness, outliers and the heaping effect may be solved. Households' average willingness to pay (WTP) is higher than their costs for public health care and self-treatment. For 70-80% of the respondents, average WTP is also sufficient to pay the lower range of premiums in existing health insurance programmes. However, the average WTP would only be sufficient to finance about half of total household public, as well as private, health care costs. Variables that reflect income, health care need, age and educational level were significant determinants of households' willingness to pay. Contrary to expectations, age was negatively related to willingness to pay. Since WTP is sufficient to cover household costs for public health care, it depends to what extent households would substitute private for public care and increase utilization as to whether WTP would also be sufficient enough to finance health insurance. This study highlights potential for public information schemes that may change the negative attitude towards health insurance, which this study has uncovered. A key task for policy makers is to win the trust of the
[Ambulatory care of patients with asthma in Germany and disease management program for asthma from the view of statutory health insured patients. A postal survey of statutory health insured patients].
Bücker, B; Löscher, S; Schürer, C; Schaper, K; Abholz, H-H; Wilm, S
In spite of a decline in mortality due to asthma in Germany various studies point towards deficits in asthma care. Our investigation should collect data about ambulatory care from the view of statutory health insured patients (SHI), who participate in the disease management program asthma (DMP-P) or do not (NP). Primary question was, if there is a difference between asthma control. Secondary questions referred to process parameters. The postal inquiry was conducted in 2010 with 8000 randomly selected members of a SHI company with asthma (4000 DMP-P and 4000 NP). The descriptive evaluation of categorical items was performed with cross-tables. The absolute risk reduction (ARR) and 97.5 %-confidence interval (CI; multiple level 5 %) was used to evaluate the primary question. Secondary questions were analysed by ARR and 95 %-CI. The response rate of the questionnaire accounted for 31.1 % (2565). 49.2 % of all respondents lived with an uncontrolled asthma with no differences between DMP-P and NP (ARR -2.7 %, 97.5 %-CI -7.9 -2.4 %). Results did not alter after adjustment for sex and age. The secondary questions revealed significant differences (DMP-P vs. NP) in participation in asthma trainings 50.6 vs. 32.3 %, use of a peak-flow-meter 49.3 vs. 25.3 % and asthma action plan within reach 21.7 vs. 11.0 %. Half of all respondents lives selfreported - even in the DMP-group - with an uncontrolled asthma. Process parameters showed better results in the DMP-group. It can be considered, that the DMP has its desired effect on patient-centered care, but does not lead to a better therapeutic outcome. Explanations can only be assumed: insufficient impact of the process parameters on the outcome, patient behavior, that minimizes a possible effect, or selection effects, if patients, who were more sick and at the same time more motivated, were mainly included in the DMP. These aspects should be addressed in studies with a prospective design. © Georg Thieme
Barnes, Andrew J; Hanoch, Yaniv
As coverage is expanded in health systems that rely on consumers to choose health insurance plans that best meet their needs, interest in whether consumers possess sufficient understanding of health insurance to make good coverage decisions is growing. The recent IJHPR article by Green and colleagues-examining understanding of supplementary health insurance (SHI) among Israeli consumers-provides an important and timely answer to the above question. Indeed, their study addresses similar problems to the ones identified in the US health care market, with two notable findings. First, they show that overall-regardless of demographic variables-there are low levels of knowledge about SHI, which the literature has come to refer to more broadly as "health insurance literacy." Second, they find a significant disparity in health insurance literacy between different SES groups, where Jews were significantly more knowledgeable about SHI compared to their Arab counterparts.The authors' findings are consistent with a growing body of literature from the U.S. and elsewhere, including our own, presenting evidence that consumers struggle with understanding and using health insurance. Studies in the U.S. have also found that difficulties are generally more acute for populations considered the most vulnerable and consequently most in need of adequate and affordable health insurance coverage.The authors' findings call attention to the need to tailor communication strategies aimed at mitigating health insurance literacy and, ultimately, access and outcomes disparities among vulnerable populations in Israel and elsewhere. It also raises the importance of creating insurance choice environments in health systems relying on consumers to make coverage decisions that facilitate the decision process by using "choice architecture" to, among other things, simplify plan information and highlight meaningful differences between coverage options.
Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan
This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.
The National Employer Health Insurance Survey (NEHIS) was developed to produce estimates on employer-sponsored health insurance data in the United States. The NEHIS was the first Federal survey to represent all employers in the United States by State and obtain information on all...
Furl, Renae; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Lyden, Elizabeth; Swindells, Susan
The introduction of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has provided unprecedented opportunities for uninsured people with HIV infection to access health insurance, and to examine the impact of this change in access. AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) have been directed to pursue uninsured individuals to enroll in the ACA as both a cost-saving strategy and to increase patient access to care. We evaluated the impact of ADAP-facilitated health insurance enrollment on health outcomes, and demographic and clinical factors that influenced whether or not eligible patients enrolled. During the inaugural open enrollment period for the ACA, 284 Nebraska ADAP recipients were offered insurance enrollment; 139 enrolled and 145 did not. Comparisons were conducted and multivariate models were developed considering factors associated with enrollment and differences between the insured and uninsured groups. Insurance enrollment was associated with improved health outcomes after controlling for other variables, and included a significant association with undetectable viremia, a key indicator of treatment success (p insurance. The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for new interventions to improve HIV health outcomes for disproportionately impacted populations. This study provides evidence to prioritize future ADAP-facilitated insurance enrollment strategies to reach minority populations and unstably housed individuals.
This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.
Davis, J B
This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.
Pan, Jay; Lei, Xiaoyan; Liu, Gordon G
Whether health insurance matters for health has long been a central issue for debate when assessing the full value of health insurance coverage in both developed and developing countries. In 2007, the government-led Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) program was piloted in China, followed by a nationwide implementation in 2009. Different premium subsidies by government across cities and groups provide a unique opportunity to employ the instrumental variables estimation approach to identify the causal effects of health insurance on health. Using a national panel survey of the URBMI, we find that URBMI beneficiaries experience statistically better health than the uninsured. Furthermore, the insurance health benefit appears to be stronger for groups with disadvantaged education and income than for their counterparts. In addition, the insured receive more and better inpatient care, without paying more for services. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Health insurance literacy is an emerging concept in the health education and health promotion field. The passage of the Affordable Care Act highlighted the link between health insurance and health outcomes. However, the law does not specifically address how the public should be educated on choosing an appropriate health insurance plan. Research shows adults, regardless of previous health insurance status, are likely confused and uncertain about their selection. The University of Maryland Extension developed and created health insurance Smart Choice Health Insurance™ to reduce confusion and increase confidence and capability to make this decision. Andragogy, an adult learning theory, was used to guide the development of the program and help ensure best practices are used to achieve desired outcomes. Using the six principles of andragogy, the team incorporated reality-based case studies, allowed adults time to practice, and emphasized choice making and many other elements to create an atmosphere conducive to adult learning. Results from Smart Choice indicate the program is successful in reducing confusion and increasing confidence. Furthermore, feedback from participants and trained educators indicates that adults were engaged in the program and found the materials useful. Based on program success, creation of new health insurance literacy programs grounded in adult education principles is under way.
Aryeetey, G.C.; Westeneng, J.; Spaan, E.J.; Jehu-Appiah, C.; Agyepong, I.A.; Baltussen, R.M.
BACKGROUND: Ghana since 2004, begun implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to minimize financial barriers to health care at point of use of service. Usually health insurance is expected to offer financial protection to households. This study aims to analyze the effect health
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service...
Ammar, Walid; Awar, May
The Ministry of Labor (MOL) has submitted to the Council of Ministers a social security reform plan. The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) considers that health financing should be dealt with as part of a more comprehensive health reform plan that falls under its prerogatives. While a virulent political discussion is taking place, major stakeholders' inputs are very limited and civil society is totally put away from the whole policy making process. The role of the media is restricted to reproducing political disputes, without meaningful substantive debate. This paper discusses health insurance reform from labor market as well as public health perspectives, and aims at launching a serious public debate on this crucial issue that touches the life of every citizen.
Salim, Anas Mustafa Ahmed; Hamed, Fatima Hashim Mahmoud
It has been 20 years since the introduction of health insurance in Sudan. This study was the first one that explored health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of the insurers. This was a qualitative, exploratory, interview study. The sampling frame was the list of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance institutions in Sudan. Participants were selected from the four Social Health Insurance institutions and from five Private Health Insurance companies. The study was conducted in January and February 2017. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of key executives from the different health insurers. Ideas and themes were identified and analysed using thematic analysis. The result showed that universal coverage was not achieved despite long time presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan. All participants described their services as comprehensive. All participants have good perception of the quality of the services they provide, although none of them investigated customer satisfaction. The main challenges facing Social Health Insurance are achieving universal coverage, ensuring sustainability and recruitment of the informal sector and self-employed population. Consumers' affordability of the premiums is the main obstacle for Private Health Insurance, while rising healthcare cost due to economic inflation is a challenge facing both Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance. In spite of the presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan, the country is still far from achieving universal coverage. Moreover, the sustainability of health insurance is questionable. The main reasons include low governmental financial resources and lack of affordability by beneficiaries especially for Private Health Insurance. This necessitates finding solutions to improve them or trying other types of health insurance. The quality of services provided by Social
Schnitzer, Susanne; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Kohler, Martin; Peschke, Dirk; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Schenk, Liane
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age on care dependency risk 1 year after stroke. Two research questions are addressed: (1) How strong is the association between age and care dependency risk 1 year after stroke and (2) can this association be explained by burden of disease? The study is based on claims data from a German statutory health insurance fund. The study population was drawn from all continuously insured members with principal diagnoses of ischaemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, or transient ischaemic attack in 2007 who survived for 1 year after stroke and who were not dependent on care before their first stroke (n = 2864). Data were collected over a 1-year period. People are considered to be dependent on care if they, due to a physical, mental or psychological illness or disability, require substantial assistance in carrying out activities of daily living for a period of at least 6 months. Burden of disease was assessed by stroke subtype, history of stroke, comorbidities as well as geriatric multimorbidity. Regression models were used for data analysis. 21.6 % of patients became care dependent during the observation period. Post-stroke care dependency risk was significantly associated with age. Relative to the reference group (0-65 years), the odds ratio of care dependency was 11.30 (95 % CI: 7.82-16.34) in patients aged 86+ years and 5.10 (95 % CI: 3.88-6.71) in patients aged 76-85 years. These associations were not explained by burden of disease. On the contrary, age effects became stronger when burden of disease was included in the regression model (by between 1.1 and 28 %). Our results show that age has an effect on care dependency risk that cannot be explained by burden of disease. Thus, there must be other underlying age-dependent factors that account for the remaining age effects (e.g., social conditions). Further studies are needed to explore the causes of the strong age effects observed.
Kevin Lang; Hong Kang
We develop a model in which firms hire heterogeneous workers but must offer all workers insurance benefits under similar terms. In equilibrium, some firms offer free health insurance, some require an employee premium payment and some do not offer insurance. Making the employee contribution pre-tax lowers the cost to workers of a given employee premium and encourages more firms to charge. This increases the offer rate, lowers the take-up rate, increases (decreases) coverage among high (low) de...
... Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax... categories of immigrants described in the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act. One...
Full Text Available Our paper empirically examines how the decision to purchase private insurance and hospitalization are made based on household income, socio-demographic factors, and private health insurance factors in both Japan and the USA. Using these two data-sets, we found some similarities and dissimilarities between Japan and the United States. As income of households rises, households have a positive effect on purchasing health insurance as a normal good. Another similarity between the two countries is seen in the income effect on risk of hospitalization, which is negative for both Japanese and US cases. For dissimilarity, the insurance premium effect on risk of hospitalization is positive for the Japanese case, while negative for the US case. Since the Japanese insurance data had variables such as payments per day of hospitalization if household gets hospitalized, insurance payments upon death of an insured person, and annuity payments at maturity, we tested to see if these characteristics affect the risk of hospitalization for households; we do not eliminate a possibility of adverse selection. For the US pure health issuance characteristics, an increase in premium of health insurance policies cause individuals to substitute more health capital investment which causes lower risk of hospitalization.
Mohammadi, Effat; Raissi, Ahmad Reza; Barooni, Mohsen; Ferdoosi, Massoud; Nuhi, Mojtaba
paying the insurance premiums within 6-10% of their income and employment status, are entitled to use the services. Providing services to the insured are performed by indirect forms. Payments to the service providers for the fee of inpatient and outpatient services are conservative and the related diagnostic groups system. Paying attention to the importance of modification of the fragmented health insurance system and financing the country's healthcare can reduce much of the failure of the health system, including the access of the public to health services. The countries according to the degree of development, governmental, and private insurance companies and existing rules must use the appropriate structure, comprehensive approach to the structure, and financing of the health social insurance on the investigated basis and careful attention to the intersections and differentiation. Studied structures, using them in the proposed approach and taking advantages of the perspectives of different beneficiaries about discussed topics can be important and efficient in order to achieve the goals of the health social insurance.
Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme was established under Act 35 of 1999 by the Federal Government of Nigeria and is aimed at providing easy access to health care for all Nigerians at an affordable cost through various prepayment systems. It is totally committed to achieving universal coverage and ...
Adverse selection as it relates to health care policy will be a key economic issue in many upcoming elections. In this article, the author lays out a 30-minute classroom experiment designed for students to experience the kind of elevated prices and market collapse that can result from adverse selection in health insurance markets. The students…
Ghana is one of the first sub-Saharan African countries to introduce national health insurance to ensure more equity in access to health care. The response of the population has been disappointing, however. This study describes and examines an experiment with so called 'problem-solving groups' that
Peterson, Lauren; Comfort, Alison; Hatt, Laurel; van Bastelaer, Thierry
As a growing number of low- and middle-income countries commit to achieving universal health coverage, one key challenge is how to extend coverage to informal sector workers. Micro health insurance (MHI) provides a potential model to finance health services for this population. This study presents lessons from a pilot study of a mandatory MHI plan offered by a private insurance company and distributed through a microfinance bank to urban, informal sector workers in Lagos, Nigeria. Study methods included a survey of microfinance clients, key informant interviews, and a review of administrative records. Demographic, health care seeking, and willingness-to-pay data suggested that microfinance clients, particularly women, could benefit from a comprehensive MHI plan that improved access to health care and reduced out-of-pocket spending on health services. However, administrative data revealed declining enrollment, and key informant interviews further suggested low use of the health insurance plan. Key implementation challenges, including changes to mandatory enrollment requirements, insufficient client education and marketing, misaligned incentives, and weak back-office systems, undermined enrollment and use of the plan. Mandatory MHI plans, intended to mitigate adverse selection and facilitate private insurers' entry into new markets, present challenges for covering informal sector workers, including when distributed through agents such as a microfinance bank. Properly aligning the incentives of the insurer and the agent are critical to effectively distribute and service insurance. Further, an urban environment presents unique challenges for distributing MHI, addressing client perceptions of health insurance, and meeting their health care needs. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nyman, John A
An important source of value is missing from the conventional welfare analysis of moral hazard, namely, the effect of income transfers (from those who purchase insurance and remain healthy to those who become ill) on purchases of medical care. Income transfers are contained within the price reduction that is associated with standard health insurance. However, in contrast to the income effects contained within an exogenous price decrease, these income transfers act to shift out the demand for medical care. As a result, the consumer's willingness to pay for medical care increases and the resulting additional consumption is welfare increasing.
Schnitzer, Susanne; Deutschbein, Johannes; Nolte, Christian H; Kohler, Martin; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Schenk, Liane
The study explores the association between sex and care dependency risk one year after stroke. The study uses claims data from a German statutory health insurance fund. Patients were included if they received a diagnosis of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke between 1 January and 31 December 2007 and if they survived for one year after stroke and were not dependent on care before the event (n = 1851). Data were collected over a one-year period. Care dependency was defined as needing substantial assistance in activities of daily living for a period of at least six months. Geriatric conditions covered ICD-10 symptom complexes that characterize geriatric patients (e.g. urinary incontinence, cognitive deficits, depression). Multivariate regression analyses were performed. One year after the stroke event, women required nursing care significantly more often than men (31.2% vs. 21.3%; odds ratio for need of assistance: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.36-2.07). Adjusted for age, the odds ratio decreased by 65.7% to 1.23 (n.s.). Adjusted for geriatric conditions, the odds ratio decreased further and did not remain significant (adjusted OR: 1.18 (CI: 0.90-1.53). It may be assumed that women have a higher risk of becoming care-dependent after stroke than men because they are older and suffer more often from geriatric conditions such as urinary incontinence at onset of stroke. Preventive strategies should therefore focus on geriatric conditions in order to reduce the post-stroke care dependency risk for women.
Analysis of the evidence-practice gap to facilitate proper medical care for the elderly: investigation, using databases, of utilization measures for National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB).
Nakayama, Takeo; Imanaka, Yuichi; Okuno, Yasushi; Kato, Genta; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Goto, Rei; Tanaka, Shiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Fukuma, Shingo; Muto, Manabu; Yanagita, Motoko; Yamamoto, Yosuke
As Japan becomes a super-aging society, presentation of the best ways to provide medical care for the elderly, and the direction of that care, are important national issues. Elderly people have multi-morbidity with numerous medical conditions and use many medical resources for complex treatment patterns. This increases the likelihood of inappropriate medical practices and an evidence-practice gap. The present study aimed to: derive findings that are applicable to policy from an elucidation of the actual state of medical care for the elderly; establish a foundation for the utilization of National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB), and present measures for the utilization of existing databases in parallel with NDB validation.Cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies were conducted using the NDB built by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan, private health insurance claims databases, and the Kyoto University Hospital database (including related hospitals). Medical practices (drug prescription, interventional procedures, testing) related to four issues-potential inappropriate medication, cancer therapy, chronic kidney disease treatment, and end-of-life care-will be described. The relationships between these issues and clinical outcomes (death, initiation of dialysis and other adverse events) will be evaluated, if possible.
Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah M S
The authors examine the role and nature of the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union and review the impact of public policy, at both the national and E.U. levels, on the development of this market in recent years. The conceptual framework, based on a model of industrial analysis, allows a wide range of policy questions regarding market structure, conduct, and performance. By analyzing these three aspects of the market for voluntary health insurance, the authors are also able to raise questions about the equity and efficiency of voluntary health insurance as a means of funding health care in the European Union. The analysis suggests that the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union suffers from significant information failures that seriously limit its potential for competition or efficiency and also reduce equity. Substantial deregulation of the E.U. market for voluntary health insurance has stripped regulatory bodies of their power to protect consumers and poses interesting challenges for national regulators, particularly if the market is to expand in the future. In a deregulated environment, it is questionable whether this method of funding health care will encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of resources.
Full Text Available Introduction. Length of stay (LOS in the intensive care unit (ICU of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH patients is one of the most important issues. The disease severity, psychosocial factors, and institutional factors will influence the length of ICU stay. This study is used in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD to define the threshold of a prolonged ICU stay in sICH patients. Methods. This research collected the demographic data of sICH patients in the NHIRD from 2005 to 2009. The threshold of prolonged ICU stay was calculated using change point analysis. Results. There were 1599 sICH patients included. A prolonged ICU stay was defined as being equal to or longer than 10 days. There were 436 prolonged ICU stay cases and 1163 nonprolonged cases. Conclusion. This study showed that the threshold of a prolonged ICU stay is a good indicator of hospital utilization in ICH patients. Different hospitals have their own different care strategies that can be identified with a prolonged ICU stay. This indicator can be improved using quality control methods such as complications prevention and efficiency of ICU bed management. Patients’ stay in ICUs and in hospitals will be shorter if integrated care systems are established.
Cobos Muñoz, Daniel; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Cianci, Fiona; Pérez-Lu, José Enrique; Lama, Aldo; García, Patricia J
Prepaid contributory systems are increasingly being recognized as key mechanisms in achieving universal health coverage in low and middle-income countries. Peru created the Seguro Integral de Salud (SIS) to increase health service use amongst the poor by removing financial barriers. The SIS transfers funds on a fee-for-service basis to the regional health offices to cover recurrent cost (excluding salaries) of pre-specified packages of interventions. We aim to estimate the full cost of antenatal care (ANC) provision in the Ventanilla District (Callao-Peru) and to compare the actual cost to the reimbursement rates provided by SIS. The economic costs of ANC provision in 2011 in 8 of the 15 health centres in Ventanilla District were estimated from a provider perspective and the actual costs of those services covered by the SIS fee of $3.8 for each ANC visit were calculated. A combination of step-down and bottom-up costing methodologies was used. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the uncertainty around estimated parameters and model assumptions. Results are reported in 2011 US$. The total economic cost of ANC provision in all 8 health centres was $569,933 with an average cost per ANC visit of $31.3 (95 % CI $29.7-$33.5). Salaries comprised 74.4 % of the total cost. The average cost of the services covered by the SIS fee was $3.4 (95 % CI $3.0-$3.8) per ANC visit. Sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of the cost of an ANC visit being above the SIS reimbursed fee is 1.4 %. Our analysis suggests that the fee reimbursed by the SIS will cover the cost that it supposed to cover. However, there are significant threats to medium and longer term sustainability of this system as fee transfers represent a small fraction of the total cost of providing ANC. Increasing ANC coverage requires the other funding sources of the Regional Health Office (DIRESA) to adapt to increasing demand.
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...
Most theoretical and empirical work on efficient health insurance has been based on models with linear insurance schedules (a constant co-insurance parameter). In this paper, dynamic optimization techniques are used to analyse the properties of optimal non-linear insurance schedules in a model similar to one originally considered by Spence and Zeckhauser (American Economic Review, 1971, 61, 380-387) and reminiscent of those that have been used in the literature on optimal income taxation. The results of a preliminary numerical example suggest that the welfare losses from the implicit subsidy to employer-financed health insurance under US tax law may be a good deal smaller than previously estimated using linear models.
Health care systems often face competing goals and priorities, which make reforms challenging. This study analyzed factors influencing the success of a health care system based on urban health insurance reform evolution in China, and offers recommendations for improvement. Findings based on health insurance reform strategies and mechanisms that did or did not work can effectively inform improvement of health insurance system design and practice, and overall health care system performance, including equity, efficiency, effectiveness, cost, finance, access, and coverage, both in China and other countries. This study is the first to use historical comparison to examine the success and failure of China's health care system over time before and after the economic reform in the 1980s. This study is also among the first to analyze the determinants of Chinese health system effectiveness by relating its performance to both technical reasons within the health system and underlying nontechnical characteristics outside the health system, including socioeconomics, politics, culture, values, and beliefs. In conclusion, a health insurance system is successful when it fits its social environment, economic framework, and cultural context, which translates to congruent health care policies, strategies, organization, and delivery. No health system can survive without its deeply rooted socioeconomic environment and cultural context. That is why one society should be cautious not to radically switch from a successful model to an entirely different one over time. There is no perfect health system model suitable for every population-only appropriate ones for specific nations and specific populations at the right place and right time. (Population Health Management 2016;19:291-297).
Cohodes, Sarah; Kleiner, Samuel; Lovenheim, Michael F.; Grossman, Daniel
Public health insurance programs comprise a large share of federal and state government expenditure, and these programs are due to be expanded as part of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. Despite a large literature on the effects of these programs on health care utilization and health outcomes, little prior work has examined the long-term effects of…
Medicaid/CHIP Program; Medicaid Program and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); Changes to the Medicaid Eligibility Quality Control and Payment Error Rate Measurement Programs in Response to the Affordable Care Act. Final rule.
This final rule updates the Medicaid Eligibility Quality Control (MEQC) and Payment Error Rate Measurement (PERM) programs based on the changes to Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) eligibility under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This rule also implements various other improvements to the PERM program.
Full Text Available Background: Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. Objectives: This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in three randomly selected districts in Karnataka, India in the first half of the year 2011. The hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression analysis on the data collected from randomly selected 1146 households consisting of 4961 individuals. Results: Insured individuals were seeking care at private hospitals than public hospitals due to the reduction in financial barrier. Moreover, equity in health seeking behaviour among insured individuals was observed. Conclusion : Our finding does represent a desirable result for health policy makers and micro finance institutions to advocate for the inclusion of health insurance in their portfolio, at least from the HSB perspective.
Savitha, S; Kiran, Kb
Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness in Karnataka, India. The study was conducted in three randomly selected districts in Karnataka, India in the first half of the year 2011. The hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression analysis on the data collected from randomly selected 1146 households consisting of 4961 individuals. Insured individuals were seeking care at private hospitals than public hospitals due to the reduction in financial barrier. Moreover, equity in health seeking behaviour among insured individuals was observed. Our finding does represent a desirable result for health policy makers and micro finance institutions to advocate for the inclusion of health insurance in their portfolio, at least from the HSB perspective.
Ankrah Odame, Emmanuel; Akweongo, Patricia; Yankah, Ben; Asenso-Boadi, Francis; Agyepong, Irene
Sustainability of public social welfare programmes has long been of concern in development circles. An important aspect of sustainability is the ability to sustain the recurrent financial costs of programmes. A free maternal care programme (FMCP) was launched under the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2008 with a start-up grant from the British Government. This article examines claims expenditure under the programme and the implications for the financial sustainability of the programme, and the lessons for donor and public financing of social welfare programmes. Records of reimbursement claims for services and medicines by women benefitting from the policy in participating facilities in one sub-metropolis in Ghana were analysed to gain an understanding of the expenditure on this programme at facility level. National level financial inflow and outflow (expenditure) data of the NHIS, related to implementation of this policy for 2008 and 2009, were reviewed to put the facility-based data in the national perspective. A total of US$936 450.94 was spent in 2009 by the scheme on FMCP in the sub-metropolis. The NHIS expenditure on the programme for the entire country in 2009 was US$49.25 million, exceeding the British grant of US$10.00 million given for that year. Subsequently, the programme has been entirely financed by the National Health Insurance Fund. The rapidly increasing, recurrent demands on this fund from the maternal delivery exemption programme-without a commensurate growth on the amounts generated annually-is an increasing threat to the sustainability of the fund. Provision of donor start-up funding for programmes with high recurrent expenditures, under the expectation that government will take over and sustain the programme, must be accompanied by clear long-term analysis and planning as to how government will sustain the programme.
New versions of the following forms for claims and requests to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) have been released: form for claiming reimbursement of medical expenses, form for requesting advance reimbursement, and dental estimate form (for treatments foreseen to exceed 800 CHF). The new forms are available in French and English. They can either be completed electronically before being printed and signed, or completed in paper form. New detailed instructions can be found at the back of the claim form; CHIS members are invited to read them carefully. The electronic versions (PDF) of all the forms are available on the CHIS website and on the UNIQA Member Portal. CHIS Members are requested to use these new forms forthwith and to discard any previous version. Questions regarding the above should be addressed directly to UNIQA (72730 or 022.718 63 00 or email@example.com).
Dao, Amy; Mulligan, Jessica
This article introduces a special issue of Medical Anthropology Quarterly on health insurance and health reform. We begin by reviewing anthropological contributions to the study of financial models for health care and then discuss the unique contributions offered by the articles of this collection. The contributors demonstrate how insurance accentuates--but does not resolve tensions between granting universal access to care and rationing limited resources, between social solidarity and individual responsibility, and between private markets and public goods. Insurance does not have a single meaning, logic, or effect but needs to be viewed in practice, in context, and from multiple vantage points. As the field of insurance studies in the social sciences grows and as health reforms across the globe continue to use insurance to restructure the organization of health care, it is incumbent on medical anthropologists to undertake a renewed and concerted study of health insurance and health systems. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. 403.220... Programs § 403.220 Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. (a) Membership. The Supplemental Health Insurance... determines whether or not a State regulatory program for Medicare supplemental health insurance policies...
Goldman, Dana; Leibowitz, Arleen; Robalino, David
Objective: To determine the sensitivity of employees’ health insurance decisions—including the decision to not choose health maintenance organization or fee-for-service coverage—during periods of rapidly escalating healthcare costs. Study Design: A retrospective cohort study of employee plan choices at a single large firm with a “cafeteria-style” benefits plan wherein employees paid all the additional cost of purchasing more generous insurance. Methods: We modeled the probabil...
Daysal, N. Meltem
In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the health of the insured, focusing on one health outcome -- the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California (1999-2006). My...... results indicate that uninsured patients have an economically significant effect that increases the mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I show that these results are not driven by alternative explanations, including reverse causality, patient composition effects, sample selection...... of care to insured heart attack patients in response to reduced revenues, the evidence I have suggests a modest increase in the quantity of cardiac services without a corresponding increase in hospital staff....
Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue
Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012).In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies and Interrupted time series (ITS) studies that
Liu, Xiaoting; Wong, Hung; Liu, Kai
Against the achievement of nearly universal coverage for social health insurance for the elderly in China, a problem of inequity among different insurance schemes on health outcomes is still a big challenge for the health care system. Whether various health insurance schemes have divergent effects on health outcome is still a puzzle. Empirical evidence will be investigated in this study. This study employs a nationally representative survey database, the National Survey of the Aged Population in Urban/Rural China, to compare the changes of health outcomes among the elderly before and after the reform. A one-way ANOVA is utilized to detect disparities in health care expenditures and health status among different health insurance schemes. Multiple Linear Regression is applied later to examine the further effects of different insurance plans on health outcomes while controlling for other social determinants. The one-way ANOVA result illustrates that although the gaps in insurance reimbursements between the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) and the other schemes, the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) and Urban Residents Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) decreased, out-of-pocket spending accounts for a larger proportion of total health care expenditures, and the disparities among different insurances enlarged. Results of the Multiple Linear Regression suggest that UEBMI participants have better self-reported health status, physical functions and psychological wellbeing than URBMI and NCMS participants, and those uninsured. URBMI participants report better self-reported health than NCMS ones and uninsured people, while having worse psychological wellbeing compared with their NCMS counterparts. This research contributes to a transformation in health insurance studies from an emphasis on the opportunity-oriented health equity measured by coverage and healthcare accessibility to concern with outcome-based equity composed of health expenditure and health
Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan
Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.
Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan
Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure. PMID:23783222
Full Text Available Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.
Kim, Hye Yeong; Lee, Jinhyung
The widespread adoption of health information technology (IT) will help contain health care costs by decreasing inefficiencies in healthcare delivery. Theoretically, health IT could lower hospitals' malpractice insurance premiums (MIPs) and improve the quality of care by reducing the number and size of malpractice. This study examines the relationship between health IT investment and MIP using California hospital data from 2006 to 2007. To examine the effect of hospital IT on malpractice insurance expense, a generalized estimating equation (GEE) was employed. It was found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. Health IT was reported to reduce medical error and improve efficiency. Thus, it may reduce malpractice claims from patients, which will reduce malpractice insurance expenses for hospitals. However, health IT adoption could lead to increases in MIPs. For example, we expect increases in MIPs of about 1.2% and 1.5%, respectively, when health IT and labor increase by 10%. This study examined the effect of health IT investment on MIPs controlling other hospital and market, and volume characteristics. Against our expectation, we found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. There may be some possible reasons that the real effect of health IT on MIPs was not observed; barriers including communication problems among health ITs, shorter sample period, lower IT investment, and lack of a quality of care measure as a moderating variable.
Ranson, Michael Kent
To assess the Self Employed Women's Association's Medical Insurance Fund in Gujarat in terms of insurance coverage according to income groups, protection of claimants from costs of hospitalization, time between discharge and reimbursement, and frequency of use. One thousand nine hundred and thirty claims submitted over six years were analysed. Two hundred and fifteen (11%) of 1927 claims were rejected. The mean household income of claimants was significantly lower than that of the general population. The percentage of households below the poverty line was similar for claimants and the general population. One thousand seven hundred and twelve (1712) claims were reimbursed: 805 (47%) fully and 907 (53%) at a mean reimbursement rate of 55.6%. Reimbursement more than halved the percentage of catastrophic hospitalizations (>10% of annual household income) and hospitalizations resulting in impoverishment. The average time between discharge and reimbursement was four months. The frequency of submission of claims was low (18.0/1000 members per year: 22-37% of the estimated frequency of hospitalization). The findings have implications for community-based health insurance schemes in India and elsewhere. Such schemes can protect poor households against the uncertain risk of medical expenses. They can be implemented in areas where institutional capacity is too weak to organize nationwide risk-pooling. Such schemes can cover poor people, including people and households below the poverty line. A trade off exists between maintaining the scheme's financial viability and protecting members against catastrophic expenditures. To facilitate reimbursement, administration, particularly processing of claims, should happen near claimants. Fine-tuning the design of a scheme is an ongoing process - a system of monitoring and evaluation is vital.
... 1545-BK59 Fees on Health Insurance Policies and Self-Insured Plans for the Patient-Centered Outcomes... certain health insurance policies and plan sponsors of certain self-insured health plans to fund the... health insurance policies) or R. Lisa Mojiri-Azad at (202) 622-6080 (regarding self- insured health...
Vardell, Emily Johanna
The concept of health insurance literacy, which can be defined as "the extent to which consumers can make informed purchase and use decisions" (Kim, Braun, & Williams, 2013, p. 3), has only recently become a focus of health literacy research. Though employees have been making health insurance decisions for many years, the Affordable…
Palmisano, Donald J; Emmons, David W; Wozniak, Gregory D
Recent reports showing an increase in the number of uninsured individuals in the United States have given heightened attention to increasing health insurance coverage. The American Medical Association (AMA) has proposed a system of tax credits for the purchase of individually owned health insurance and enhancements to individual and group health insurance markets as a means of expanding coverage. Individually owned insurance would enable people to maintain coverage without disruption to existing patient-physician relationships, regardless of changes in employers or in work status. The AMA's plan would empower individuals to choose their health plan and give patients and their physicians more control over health care choices. Employers could continue to offer employment-based coverage, but employees would not be limited to the health plans offered by their employer. With a tax credit large enough to make coverage affordable and the ability to choose their own coverage, consumers would dramatically transform the individual and group health insurance markets. Health insurers would respond to the demands of individual consumers and be more cautious about increasing premiums. Insurers would also tailor benefit packages and develop new forms of coverage to better match the preferences of individuals and families. The AMA supports the development of new health insurance markets through legislative and regulatory changes to foster a wider array of high-quality, affordable plans.
Portela, Maria; Sommers, Benjamin Daniel
Context: Puerto Rico is the U.S.’s largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens. Yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of U.S. health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This paper presents an overview of Puerto Rico’s health care system and a comparative analysis of coverage and access to care in Puerto Rico versus the mainland U.S. Methods: We analyzed 2011-2012 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance System, and 2012 d...
Carroll, Anne; Corman, Hope; Curtis, Marah A; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E
To assess the extent to which housing instability is associated with gaps in health insurance coverage of preschool-age children. Secondary analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children born in the United States in 2001, was conducted to investigate associations between unstable housing-homelessness, multiple moves, or living with others and not paying rent-and children's subsequent health insurance gaps. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potentially confounding factors. Ten percent of children were unstably housed at age 2, and 11% had a gap in health insurance between ages 2 and 4. Unstably housed children were more likely to have gaps in insurance compared to stably housed children (16% vs 10%). Controlling for potentially confounding factors, the odds of a child insurance gap were significantly higher in unstably housed families than in stably housed families (adjusted odds ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.61). The association was similar in alternative model specifications. In a US nationally representative birth cohort, children who were unstably housed at age 2 were at higher risk, compared to their stably housed counterparts, of experiencing health insurance gaps between ages 2 and 4 years. The findings from this study suggest that policy efforts to delink health insurance renewal processes from mailing addresses, and potentially routine screenings for housing instability as well as referrals to appropriate resources by pediatricians, would help unstably housed children maintain health insurance. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS-9953-FN] Health Insurance Exchanges; Approval of an Application by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory...\\ Health Insurance Exchanges; Application by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care To Be...
Kerssens, J.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Allowing consumers greater choice of health plans is believed to be the key to high quality and low costs in social health insurance. This study investigates consumer preferences (361 persons, response rate 43%) for hypothetical health plans with differed in 12 characteristics (premium, deductibles,
Doncho M. Donev
Full Text Available This article gives an insight to the current health insurance system in the Republic of Macedonia. Special emphasis is given to the specificities and practice of both obligatory and voluntary health insurance, to the scope of the insured persons and their benefits and obligations, the way of calculating and payment of the contributions and the other sources of revenues for health insurance, user participation in health care expenses, payment to the health care providers and some other aspects of realization of health insurance in practice. According to the Health Insurance Law, which was adopted in March 2000, a person can become an insured to the Health Insurance Fund on various modalities. More than 90% of the citizens are eligible to the obligatory health insurance, which provides a broad scope of basic health care benefits. Till end of 2008 payroll contributions were equal to 9.2%, and from January 1st, 2009 are equal to 7.5% of gross earned wages and almost 60% of health sector revenues are derived from them. Within the autonomy and scope of activities of the Health Insurance Fund the structures of the revenues and expenditures are presented. Health financing and reform of the payment to health care providers are of high importance within the ongoing health care reform in Macedonia. It is expected that the newly introduced methods of payments at the primary health care level (capitation and at the hospital sector (global budgeting, DRGs will lead to increased equity, efficiency and quality of health care in hospitals and overall system
Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T
In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yoshida, Masahiro; Takada, Tadahiro; Kawarada, Yoshifumi; Hirata, Koichi; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Sekimoto, Miho; Hirota, Masahiko; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Takeda, Kazunori; Isaji, Shuji; Koizumi, Masaru; Otsuki, Makoto; Matsuno, Seiki
The health insurance system in Japan is based upon the Universal Medical Care Insurance System, which gives all citizens the right to join an insurance scheme of their own choice, as guaranteed by the provisions of Article 25 of the Constitution of Japan, which states: ?All people shall have the right to maintain the minimum standards of wholesome and cultured living.? The health care system in Japan includes national medical insurance, nursing care for the elderly, and government payments fo...
Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith
This policy brief analyzes the 2014 premiums associated with qualified health plans (QHPs) made available through new health insurance marketplaces (HIMs), an implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. We report differences in premiums by insurance rating areas while controlling for other important factors such as the actuarial value of the plan (metal level), cost-of-living differences, and state-level decisions over type of rating area. While market equilibrium, based on experience and understanding of the characteristics of the new market, should not be expected this soon, preliminary results give policymakers key issues to monitor.
Ye, Ting; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Liang
Background: Health insurance coverage is of great importance; yet, it is unclear whether there is some geographic variation in health insurance benefit for urban and rural patients covered by a same basic health insurance, especially in China.Objective: To identify the potential geographic variation in health insurance benefit and its possible socioeconomic and geographical factors at the town level.Methods: All the beneficiaries underthe health insurance who had the in-hospital experience in...
Gomez, Gabriela B; Foster, Nicola; Brals, Daniella; Nelissen, Heleen E; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A; Hendriks, Marleen E; Boers, Alexander C; van Eck, Diederik; Rosendaal, Nicole; Adenusi, Peju; Agbede, Kayode; Akande, Tanimola M; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Wit, Ferdinand W; Hankins, Catherine A; Schultsz, Constance
While the Nigerian government has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, further investments are needed to achieve the targets of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, including Universal Health Coverage. Economic evaluations of innovative interventions can help inform investment decisions in resource-constrained settings. We aim to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of maternal care provided within the new Kwara State Health Insurance program (KSHI) in rural Nigeria. We used a decision analytic model to simulate a cohort of pregnant women. The primary outcome is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the KSHI scenario compared to the current standard of care. Intervention cost from a healthcare provider perspective included service delivery costs and above-service level costs; these were evaluated in a participating hospital and using financial records from the managing organisations, respectively. Standard of care costs from a provider perspective were derived from the literature using an ingredient approach. We generated 95% credibility intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the base case separately through a scenario analysis. Finally, we assessed the sustainability and feasibility of this program's scale up within the State's healthcare financing structure through a budget impact analysis. The KSHI scenario results in a health benefit to patients at a higher cost compared to the base case. The mean ICER (US$46.4/disability-adjusted life year averted) is considered very cost-effective compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of one gross domestic product per capita (Nigeria, US$ 2012, 2,730). Our conclusion was robust to uncertainty in parameters estimates (PSA: median US$49.1, 95% credible interval 21
Gabriela B Gomez
Full Text Available While the Nigerian government has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, further investments are needed to achieve the targets of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, including Universal Health Coverage. Economic evaluations of innovative interventions can help inform investment decisions in resource-constrained settings. We aim to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of maternal care provided within the new Kwara State Health Insurance program (KSHI in rural Nigeria.We used a decision analytic model to simulate a cohort of pregnant women. The primary outcome is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of the KSHI scenario compared to the current standard of care. Intervention cost from a healthcare provider perspective included service delivery costs and above-service level costs; these were evaluated in a participating hospital and using financial records from the managing organisations, respectively. Standard of care costs from a provider perspective were derived from the literature using an ingredient approach. We generated 95% credibility intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the base case separately through a scenario analysis. Finally, we assessed the sustainability and feasibility of this program's scale up within the State's healthcare financing structure through a budget impact analysis. The KSHI scenario results in a health benefit to patients at a higher cost compared to the base case. The mean ICER (US$46.4/disability-adjusted life year averted is considered very cost-effective compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of one gross domestic product per capita (Nigeria, US$ 2012, 2,730. Our conclusion was robust to uncertainty in parameters estimates (PSA: median US$49.1, 95% credible
Katz, M H; Chang, S W; Buchbinder, S P; Hessol, N A; O'Malley, P; Doll, L S
Among 178 HIV-infected men from the San Francisco City Clinic Cohort (SFCCC), we examined the association between health insurance and use of outpatient services and treatment. For men with private insurance, we also assessed the frequency of avoiding the use of health insurance. Men without private insurance reported fewer outpatient visits than men with fee-for-service or managed-care plans. Use of zidovudine for eligible men was similar for those with fee-for-service plans (74%), managed-care plans (77%), or no insurance (61%). Use of Pneumocytstis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis was similar for those with fee-for-service (93%) and managed-care plans (83%) but lower for those with no insurance (63%). Of 149 men with private insurance, 31 (21%) reported that they had avoided using their health insurance for medical expenses in the previous year. In multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of avoiding the use of insurance were working for a small company and living outside the San Francisco Bay Area. Having private insurance resulted in higher use of outpatient services, but the type of private insurance did not appear to affect the use of service or treatment. Fears of loss of coverage and confidentiality may negate some benefits of health insurance for HIV-infected persons.
Full Text Available The promising financing scheme of health insurance in Ukraine should be found at the present stage of its development. The health care system in Ukraine is cumbersome and outdated. It is based on the Semashko model with rigid management and financing procedures. The disadvantages accumulated in the national health care system due to lack of modernization, disregard of the population needs, non-use of modern global trends, the inefficient operation of the system and the high level of corruption cause the underlying situation. The decision of new government policy in the sector is introduction of new financial mechanisms, in order to ensure human rights in the health sector. Methodology. The study is based on a comparison of systems of financing of medicine in Ukraine and in other countries, provided advantages and disadvantages of each model. Results showed that the availability of medical services is the key problem in any society. The availability of health care services is primarily determined by the proportion of services guaranteed by the government (government guarantees. In some countries such as the United States, practically the whole medicine is funded by voluntary health insurance (VHI. In Europe the mandatory health insurance (MHI and government funding are the most significant source of funds. Practical importance. The improvement of the demographic situation, the preservation and improvement of public health, improvement of social equity and citizens' rights in respect of medical insurance. Value/originality. Premiums for health insurance are the source of funding. Based on the new model requirements it is necessary to create an appropriate regulation, which would determine its organizational and regulatory framework. This process is primarily determined by identification and setting rules governing the relationship between patients, health care providers and insurers, creation of the conditions and the implementation of quality
Full Text Available By the introduction of a public, mandatory program of Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI on April 1, 2000, Japan has moved towards a system of social care for the frail and elderly. The program covers care that is both home-based and institutional. Fifty percent of the insurance is financed from the general tax and the other fifty percent from the premiums of the insured. The eligibility process begins with the individual or his/her family applying to the insurer (usually municipal government. A two-step assessment process to determine the limit of benefit follows this. The first step is an on-site assessment using a standardised questionnaire comprising 85 items. These items are analysed by an official computer program in order to determine either the applicant's eligibility or not. If the applicant is eligible it determines which of 6 levels of dependency is applicable. The Japanese LTCI scheme has thus formalised the care management process. A care manager is entrusted with the entire responsibility of planning all care and services for individual clients. The introduction of LTCI is introducing two fundamental structural changes in the Japanese health system; the development of an Integrated Delivery System (IDS and greater informatisation of the health system.
Satisfaction with Quality of Care Received by Patients without National Health Insurance Attending a Primary Care Clinic in a Resource-Poor Environment of a Tertiary Hospital in Eastern Nigeria in the Era of Scaling up the Nigerian Formal Sector Health Insurance Scheme
Iloh, GUP; Ofoedu, JN; Njoku, PU; Okafor, GOC; Amadi, AN; Godswill-Uko, EU
Background: The increasing importance of the concept of patients’ satisfaction as a valuable tool for assessing quality of care is a current global healthcare concerns as regards consumer-oriented health services. Aim: This study assessed satisfaction with quality of care received by patients without national health insurance (NHI) attending a primary care clinic in a resource-poor environment of a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria. Subject and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 400 non-NHI patients from April 2011 to October 2011 at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria. Adult patients seen within the study period were selected by systematic sampling using every second non-NHI patient that registered to see the physicians and who met the selection criteria. Data were collected using pretested, structured interviewer administered questionnaire designed on a five points Likert scale items with 1 and 5 indicating the lowest and highest levels of satisfaction respectively. Satisfaction was measured from the following domains: patient waiting time, patient–staff communication, patient-staff relationship, and cost of care, hospital bureaucracy and hospital environment. Operationally, patients who scored 3 points and above in the assessed domain were considered satisfied while those who scored less than 3 points were dissatisfied. Results: The overall satisfaction score of the respondents was 3.1. Specifically, the respondents expressed satisfaction with patient–staff relationship (3.9), patient–staff communication (3.8), and hospital environment (3.6) and dissatisfaction with patient waiting time (2.4), hospital bureaucracy (2.5), and cost of care (2.6). Conclusion: The overall non-NHI patient's satisfaction with the services provided was good. The hospital should set targets for quality improvement in the current domains of satisfaction while the cost of care has implications for government
Human Resources Division
Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...
... eliminating annual and lifetime dollar limits would result in dramatic premium hikes for student plans and.... Industry and university commenters noted that student health insurance coverage benefits typically... duplication of benefits and makes student plans more affordable. Industry commenters noted that student health...
Full Text Available This paper captures the correlation between the choices of health insurance and pension insurance using the bivariate probit model and then studies the effect of wealth and health on insurance choice. Our empirical evidence shows that people who participate in a health care program are more likely to participate in a pension plan at the same time, while wealth and health have different effects on the choices of the health care program and the pension program. Generally, the higher an individual’s wealth level is, the more likelihood he will participate in a health care program; but wealth has no effect on the participation of pension. Health status has opposite effects on choices of health care programs and pension plans; the poorer an individual’s health is, the more likely he is to participate in health care programs, while the better health he enjoys, the more likely he is to participate in pension plans. When the investigation scope narrows down to commercial insurance, there is only a significant effect of health status on commercial health insurance. The commercial insurance choice and the insurance choice of the agricultural population are more complicated.
Zallman, Leah; Nardin, Rachel; Sayah, Assaad; McCormick, Danny
Under the Massachusetts health reform, low income residents (those with incomes below 150 % of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL]) were eligible for Medicaid and health insurance exchange-based plans with minimal cost-sharing and no premiums. Those with slightly higher incomes (150 %-300 % FPL) were eligible for exchange-based plans that required cost-sharing and premium payments. We conducted face to face surveys in four languages with a convenience sample of 976 patients seeking care at three hospital emergency departments five years after Massachusetts reform. We compared perceived affordability of insurance, financial burden, and satisfaction among low cost sharing plan recipients (recipients of Medicaid and insurance exchange-based plans with minimal cost-sharing and no premiums), high cost sharing plan recipients (recipients of exchange-based plans that required cost-sharing and premium payments) and the commercially insured. We found that despite having higher incomes, higher cost-sharing plan recipients were less satisfied with their insurance plans and perceived more difficulty affording their insurance than those with low cost-sharing plans. Higher cost-sharing plan recipients also reported more difficulty affording medical and non-medical health care as well as insurance premiums than those with commercial insurance. In contrast, patients with low cost-sharing public plans reported higher plan satisfaction and less financial concern than the commercially insured. Policy makers with responsibility for the benefit design of public insurance available under health care reforms in the U.S. should calibrate cost-sharing to income level so as to minimize difficulty affording care and financial burdens.
Alang, Sirry M; McAlpine, Donna D; Henning-Smith, Carrie E
Structural resources, including access to health insurance, are understudied in relation to the stress process. Disability increases the likelihood of mental health problems, but health insurance may moderate this relationship. We explore health insurance coverage as a moderator of the relationship between disability and psychological distress. A pooled sample from 2008-2010 (N=57,958) was obtained from the Integrated Health Interview Series. Chow tests were performed to assess insurance group differences in the association between disability and distress. Results indicated higher levels of distress associated with disability among uninsured adults compared to their peers with public or private insurance. The strength of the relationship between disability and distress was weaker for persons with public compared to private insurance. As the Affordable Care Act is implemented, decision-makers should be aware of the potential for insurance coverage, especially public, to ameliorate secondary conditions such as psychological distress among persons who report a physical disability.
Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue
Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012). In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA
Barnes, Kayleigh; Mukherji, Arnab; Mullen, Patrick; Sood, Neeraj
This paper estimates the impact of social health insurance on financial risk by utilizing data from a natural experiment created by the phased roll-out of a social health insurance program for the poor in India. We estimate the distributional impact of insurance on of out-of-pocket costs and incorporate these results with a stylized expected utility model to compute associated welfare effects. We adjust the standard model, accounting for conditions of developing countries by incorporating consumption floors, informal borrowing, and asset selling which allow us to separate the value of financial risk reduction from consumption smoothing and asset protection. Results show that insurance reduces out-of-pocket costs, particularly in higher quantiles of the distribution. We find reductions in the frequency and amount of money borrowed for health reasons. Finally, we find that the value of financial risk reduction outweighs total per household costs of the insurance program by two to five times. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Goldberg, L G; Greenberg, W
In our previous paper, we showed that market forces can play a significant role in controlling health care costs and that a considerable amount of cost containment effort was pursued by third-party insurers in Oregon in the 1930s and 1940s. Although physicians were able to thwart this cost-control effort, a 1986 Supreme Court decision, FTC v. Indiana Federation of Dentists, found that a boycott of insurers by dentists violated Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. Further investigation of recent developments, including the recent Wickline v. California decision, indicates that the primary barriers to cost containment today are not obstructive tactics by providers or provider-controlled health insurance plans. Rather, the primary barriers are increases in the development and diffusion of new technology and society's apparent preference for paying for new tests and procedures regardless of economic efficiency.
This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...
Matthews, Gregory; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Terzian, Mary
Health insurance, and especially coverage for children, has been a subject of recent political debate in Washington State, as well as on the national stage. Policy makers and health care providers can use high-quality state-level data to assess which children lack health insurance and devise possible solutions to address this need. Illustrating…
Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G
Two important individual health insurance markets-Medicare Advantage and the Marketplaces-are tightly regulated but rely on competition among insurers to supply and price health insurance products. Many local health insurance markets have little competition, which increases prices to consumers. Furthermore, both markets are highly subsidized in ways that can exacerbate the impact of market power-that is, the ability to set price above cost-on health insurance prices. Policy makers need to foster robust competition in both sectors and avoid designing subsidies that make the market-power problem worse. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Westeneng, Judith; Spaan, Ernst; Jehu-Appiah, Caroline; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Baltussen, Rob
Ghana since 2004, begun implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to minimize financial barriers to health care at point of use of service. Usually health insurance is expected to offer financial protection to households. This study aims to analyze the effect health insurance on household out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE), catastrophic expenditure (CE) and poverty. We conducted two repeated household surveys in two regions of Ghana in 2009 and 2011. We first analyzed the effect of OOPE on poverty by estimating poverty headcount before and after OOPE were incurred. We also employed probit models and use of instrumental variables to analyze the effect of health insurance on OOPE, CE and poverty. Our findings showed that between 7-18 % of insured households incurred CE as a result of OOPE whereas this was between 29-36 % for uninsured households. In addition, between 3-5 % of both insured and uninsured households fell into poverty due to OOPE. Our regression analyses revealed that health insurance enrolment reduced OOPE by 86 % and protected households against CE and poverty by 3.0 % and 7.5 % respectively. This study provides evidence that high OOPE leads to CE and poverty in Ghana but enrolment into the NHIS reduces OOPE, provides financial protection against CE and reduces poverty. These findings support the pro-poor policy objective of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme and holds relevance to other low and middle income countries implementing or aiming to implement insurance schemes.
Vercruysse, W.; Dhaene, J.; Denuit, M.; Pitacco, E.; Antonio, K.
For lifelong health insurance covers, medical inflation not incorporated in the level premiums determined at policy issue requires an appropriate increase of these premiums and/or the corresponding reserves during the term of the contract. In this paper, we investigate appropriate premium indexing
Association du personnel
In the last issue of Echo, we highlighted CERN’s obligation to guarantee a social security scheme for all employees, pensioners and their families. In that issue we talked about the first component: pensions. This time we shall discuss the other component: the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS).
During the 1990s, Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and collective enterprises continually decreased coverage of public health insurance to their employees. This paper investigates this changing pattern of health insurance coverage in China using panel data from the China Nutrition and Health Survey (1991-2000). It is the first attempt in this literature that tries to identify precisely the effects of specific policies and reforms on health insurance coverage in the transitional period of China. The fixed effects linear model clustering at the province level is used for estimation, and results are compared to alternative models, including pooled OLS, random effects GLS model and fixed effects logit model. Strong empirical evidence is found that unemployment as a side effect of the Open Door Policy, and the deregulation of SOE and collective enterprises were the main causes for the decreasing trend. For example, urban areas that were highly affected by the Open Door Policy were associated with 17 percentage points decrease in the insurance coverage. Moreover, I found evidence that the gaps between SOE and non-SOE employees, collective and non-collective employees, urban and rural employees have considerably decreased during the ten years.
Bes, R.E.; Wendel, S.; Curfs, E.C.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Jong, J.D. de
Background: In a demand oriented health care system based on managed competition, health insurers have incentives to become prudent buyers of care on behalf of their enrolees. They are allowed to selectively contract care providers. This is supposed to stimulate competition between care providers
Bes, R.E.; Wendel, S.; Curfs, E.C.; Groenewegen, P.P.; de Jong, J.D
Background In a demand oriented health care system based on managed competition, health insurers have incentives to become prudent buyers of care on behalf of their enrolees. They are allowed to selectively contract care providers. This is supposed to stimulate competition between care providers and
Stevenson, David G; Frank, Richard G; Tau, Jocelyn
To increase the role of private insurance in financing long-term care, tax incentives for long-term care insurance have been implemented at both the federal and state levels. To date, there has been surprisingly little study of these initiatives. Using a panel of national data, we find that market take-up for long-term care insurance increased over the last decade, but state tax incentives were responsible for only a small portion of this growth. Ultimately, the modest ability of state tax incentives to lower premiums implies that they should be viewed as a small piece of the long-term care financing puzzle.
Yee, Tracy; Christianson, Jon B; Ginsburg, Paul B
Over the past decade, large employers increasingly have bypassed traditional health insurance for their workers, opting instead to assume the financial risk of enrollees' medical care through self-insurance. Because self-insurance arrangements may offer advantages--such as lower costs, exemption from most state insurance regulation and greater flexibility in benefit design--they are especially attractive to large firms with enough employees to spread risk adequately to avoid the financial fallout from potentially catastrophic medical costs of some employees. Recently, with rising health care costs and changing market dynamics, more small firms--100 or fewer workers--are interested in self-insuring health benefits, according to a new qualitative study from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Self-insured firms typically use a third-party administrator (TPA) to process medical claims and provide access to provider networks. Firms also often purchase stop-loss insurance to cover medical costs exceeding a predefined amount. Increasingly competitive markets for TPA services and stop-loss insurance are making self-insurance attractive to more employers. The 2010 national health reform law imposes new requirements and taxes on health insurance that may spur more small firms to consider self-insurance. In turn, if more small firms opt to self-insure, certain health reform goals, such as strengthening consumer protections and making the small-group health insurance market more viable, may be undermined. Specifically, adverse selection--attracting sicker-than-average people--is a potential issue for the insurance exchanges created by reform.
Zweifel, Peter; Breuer, Michael
Uniform, risk-independent insurance premiums are accepted as part of 'managed competition' in health care. However, they are not compatible with optimality of health insurance contracts in the presence of both ex ante and ex post moral hazard. They have adverse effects on insurer behaviour even if risk adjustment is taken into account. Risk-based premiums combined with means-tested, tax-financed transfers are advocated as an alternative.
Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Asfaw, Abay; van der Gaag, Jacques
This study analyzes the willingness to pay for health insurance and hence the potential market for new low-cost health insurance product in Namibia, using the double bounded contingent valuation (DBCV) method. The findings suggest that 87 percent of the uninsured respondents are willing to join the proposed health insurance scheme and on average are willing to insure 3.2 individuals (around 90 percent of the average family size). On average respondents are willing to pay NAD 48 per capita per month and respondents in the poorest income quintile are willing to pay up to 11.4 percent of their income. This implies that private voluntary health insurance schemes, in addition to the potential for protecting the poor against the negative financial shock of illness, may be able to serve as a reliable income flow for health care providers in this setting.
Kerssens, Jan J; Groenewegen, Peter P
Allowing consumers greater choice of health plans is believed to be the key to high quality and low costs in social health insurance. This study investigates consumer preferences (361 persons, response rate 43%) for hypothetical health plans which differed in 12 characteristics (premium, deductibles, no-claim discount, extension of insurance and financial services, red tape involved, medical help-desk, choice of family physicians and hospitals, dental benefits, physical therapy benefits, benefits for prescription drugs and homeopathy). In 90% the health plan with the most attractive characteristics was preferred, indicating a predominantly rational kind of choice. The most decisive characteristics for preference were: complete dental benefits, followed by zero deductibles, and free choice of hospitals.
Hägglin, Catharina; Boman, Ulla Wide
Severe dental fear/phobia (DF) is a problem for both dental care providers and for patients who often suffer from impaired oral health and from social and emotional distress.The aim of this paper was to present the Swedish model for DF treatment within the National Health Insurance System, and to describe the dental phobia treatment and its outcome at The Dental Fear Research and Treatment Clinic (DFRTC) in Gothenburg. A literature review was made of relevant policy documents on dental phobia treatment from the National Health Insurance System and for Västra Götaland region on published outcome studies from DFRTC. The treatment manual of DFRTC was also used. In Sweden, adult patients with severe DF are able to undergo behavioral treatment within the National Health Insurance System if the patient and caregivers fulfil defined criteria that must be approved for each individual case. At DFRTC dental phobia behavioral treatment is given by psychologists and dentists in an integrated model. The goal is to refer patients for general dental care outside the DFRTC after completing treatment. The DF treatment at DFRTC has shown positive effects on dental fear, attendance and acceptance of dental treatment for 80% of patients. Follow-up after 2 and 10 years confirmed these results and showed improved oral health. In addition, positive psychosomatic and psychosocial side-effects were reported, and benefits also for society were evident in terms of reduced sick-leave. In conlusion, in Sweden a model has been developed within the National Health Insurance System helping individuals with DF. Behavioral treatment conducted at DFRTC has proven successful in helping patients cope with dental care, leading to regular attendance and better oral health.
Woode, Maame Esi
The goal of this study was to look at the educational spill-over effects of health insurance on schooling with a focus on the Rwandan Community Based Health Insurance Programme, the Mutual Health Insurance scheme. Using a two-person general equilibrium overlapping generations model, this paper theoretically analyses the possible effect of health insurance on the relationship between parental health shocks and child schooling. Individuals choose whether or not they want to incur a medical cost by seeking care in order to reduce the effect of health shocks on their labour market availability and productivity. The theoretical results show that, health shocks negatively affect schooling irrespective of insurance status. However, if the health shock is severe (incapacitating) or sudden in nature, there is a discernible mitigating effect of health insurance on the negative impact of parental ill health on child schooling. The results are tested empirically using secondary data from the third Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey (EICV) for Rwanda, collected in 2011. A total of 2401 children between the ages of 13 and 18 are used for the analysis. This age group is selected due to the age of compulsory education in Rwanda. Based on average treatment effect on treated we find a statistically significant difference in attendance between children with MHI affiliated parents and those with uninsured parents of about 0.044. The negative effect of a father being severely ill is significant only for uninsured household. For the case of the mother, this effect is felt by female children with uninsured parents only when the illness is sudden. The observed effects are more pronounced for older children. While the father's ill health (sever or sudden) significantly and negatively affects their working hours, health insurance plays appears to increase their working hours. The effects of health insurance extend beyond health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Web site discusses and provides downloadable data on state and program type, number of children ever enrolled, and the percentage of growth compared to the...
Full Text Available Because great interest in an efficient range of effective medicinal innovations and achievements has arisen, many countries have introduced procedures to regulate the adoption of innovative non-medicinal technologies into the benefit catalogue of solidly financed health care insurances. With this as a background, this report will describe procedures for the adoption of innovative non-medicinal technologies by solidly financed health care insurances in Germany, England, Australia and Switzerland. This report was commissioned by the German Agency for Health Technology Assessment at the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information.In order to find the relevant literature and information, systematic literature research, a hand search and a written survey were carried out. All the selected documents (chosen according to defined criteria for inclusion and exclusion were qualitatively evaluated, summarized and presented on a chart using a framework developed for this purpose. All the countries in this report require that some innovative non-medicinal technologies undergo evaluation by a central governing body. This evaluation is a prerequisite for adoption into the benefit catalogue. The process of evaluation can differ (e. g. the people and institutions concerned, the division of the synthesis of evidence and overall evaluation, processing the evidence. Similarities do exist, such as the size and composition of the governing bodies or the overreaching criteria according to which institutions must make their recommendations. This is how all the countries examined in this report determine how the benefits and effectiveness of the innovations, as well as their cost-effectiveness, can be chosen as criteria for the evaluation. Furthermore, there are many criteria which differ from country to country (social and ethical aspects, possible effects on the health system, etc. and which are also relevant to an evaluation. The preferred types of
Schoen, Cathy; Collins, Sara R
The five largest US commercial health insurance companies together enroll 125 million members, or 43 percent of the country's insured population. Over the past decade these insurers have become increasingly dependent for growth and profitability on public programs, according to an analysis of corporate reports. In 2016 Medicare and Medicaid accounted for nearly 60 percent of the companies' health care revenues and 20 percent of their comprehensive plan membership. Although headlines have focused on losses in the state Marketplaces created by the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the Marketplaces represent only a small fraction of insurers' members. Overall, the five largest insurers have remained profitable since passage of the ACA as a result of profits in other market segments. Notably, companies with significant Medicare or Medicaid enrollment have continued to insure beneficiaries in states where the insurers do not participate in Marketplaces. Given the insurers' dependence on public programs, there is potential to improve access if federal or state governments, or both, required insurers that participate in Medicare or Medicaid to also participate in the Marketplaces in the same geographic area. Such requirements could ensure more viable and less volatile insurance, benefiting people insured within each market as well as those who cycle on and off public and private insurance.
Cheng, Scott; Tsai, Kai-ya; Nascimento, Lori M; Cousineau, Michael R
To determine whether enrollment events may serve as a venue to identify eligible individuals, enroll them into health insurance programs, and educate them about the changes the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will bring about. More than 2900 surveys were administered to attendees of 7 public health insurance enrollment events in California. Surveys were used to identify whether participants had any change in understanding of health reform after participating in the event. More than half of attendees at nearly all events had no knowledge about health reform before attending the event. On average, more than 80% of attendees knew more about health reform following the event and more than 80% believed that the law would benefit their families. Enrollment events can serve as an effective method to educate the public on health reform. Further research is recommended to explore in greater detail the impact community enrollment events can have on expanding public understanding of health reform.
Okorafor, Okore Apia
A recent health reform proposal in South Africa proposes universal access to a comprehensive package of healthcare services in the public sector, through the implementation of a national health insurance (NHI) scheme. Implementation of the scheme is likely to involve the introduction of a payroll tax. It is implied that the introduction of the payroll tax will significantly reduce the size of the private health insurance market. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of an NHI payroll tax on the demand for private health insurance in South Africa, and to explore the broader implications for health policy. The study applies probit regression analysis on household survey data to estimate the change in demand for private health insurance as a result of income shocks arising from the proposed NHI. The introduction of payroll taxes for the proposed NHI was estimated to result in a reduction to private health insurance membership of 0.73%. This suggests inelasticity in the demand for private health insurance. In the literature on the subject, this inelasticity is usually due to quality differences between alternatives. In the South African context, there may be other factors at play. An NHI tax may have a very small impact on the demand for private health insurance. Although additional financial resources will be raised through a payroll tax under the proposed NHI reform, systemic problems within the South African health system can adversely affect the ability of the NHI to translate additional finances into better quality healthcare. If these systemic challenges are not adequately addressed, the introduction of a payroll tax could introduce inefficiencies within the South African health system.
Belcher, J R; Palley, H A
This article explores the unequal access to health care in the context of efforts by the American Medical Association (AMA) and its allies to maintain a market-maximizing health care system. The coalition between the AMA and its traditional allies is breaking down, in part, because of converging developments creating an atmosphere which may be more conducive to national health care reform and the development of a reformed health care delivery system that will be accessible, adequate, and equitable in meeting the health care and related social service needs of the American people.
Braun, Robert T; Hanoch, Yaniv; Barnes, Andrew J
Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), millions of Americans have been enrolling in the health insurance marketplaces. Nearly 20% of them are tobacco users. As part of the ACA, tobacco users may face up to 50% higher premiums that are not eligible for tax credits. Tobacco users, along with the uninsured and racial/ethnic minorities targeted by ACA coverage expansions, are among those most likely to suffer from low health literacy - a key ingredient in the ability to understand, compare, choose, and use coverage, referred to as health insurance literacy. Whether tobacco users choose enough coverage in the marketplaces given their expected health care needs and are able to access health care services effectively is fundamentally related to understanding health insurance. However, no studies to date have examined this important relationship. Data were collected from 631 lower-income, minority, rural residents of Virginia. Health insurance literacy was assessed by asking four factual questions about the coverage options presented to them. Adjusted associations between tobacco use and health insurance literacy were tested using multivariate linear regression, controlling for numeracy, risk-taking, discount rates, health status, experiences with the health care system, and demographics. Nearly one third (31%) of participants were current tobacco users, 80% were African American and 27% were uninsured. Average health insurance literacy across all participants was 2.0 (SD 1.1) out of a total possible score of 4. Current tobacco users had significantly lower HIL compared to non-users (-0.22, p financial burdens on them and potentially limiting access to tobacco cessation and treatment programs and other needed health services.
This thesis is about promoting a sustainable National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana through improved client-centred quality care and effective community engagement in quality care assessment. The thesis comprises of two main parts. Part one reports on findings from baseline surveys
Schwierz, Christoph; Wübker, Achim; Wübker, Ansgar; Kuchinke, Björn A
This paper shows that patients with private health insurance (PHI) are being offered significantly shorter waiting times than patients with statutory health insurance (SHI) in German acute hospital care. This behavior may be driven by the higher expected profitability of PHI relative to SHI holders. Further, we find that hospitals offering private insurees shorter waiting times when compared with SHI holders have a significantly better financial performance than those abstaining from or with less discrimination.
Dafny, Leemore S
Research shows consolidation in the private health insurance industry leads to premium increases, even though insurers with larger local market shares generally obtain lower prices from health care providers. Additional research is needed to understand how to protect against harms and unlock benefits from scale. Data on enrollment, premiums, and costs of commercial health insurance--by insurer, plan, customer segment, and local market--would help us understand whether, when, and for whom consolidation is harmful or beneficial. Such transparency is common where there is a strong public interest and substantial public regulation, both of which characterize this vital sector.
Full Text Available Health financing is a core necessity for sustainable healthcare delivery. Access inequalities due to financial restrictions in low-middle income countries, and in Africa especially, significantly affect disease rates and health statistics in these regions. This paper focuses on the role of a national health insurance cover as a funding medium in Nigeria, highlighting the theoretical premise of health insurance, its driving forces, key benefits and key limitations particular to the country under scrutiny. Emphasis is laid on its overall effect on the pressing public health issue of health inequality.
Little is known about how health insurance affects labor market decisions for young adults. This is despite the fact that expanding coverage for people in their early 20s is an important component of the Affordable Care Act. This paper studies how having an outside source of health insurance affects wages by using variation in health insurance access that comes from states extending dependent coverage to young adults. Using American Community Survey and Census data, I find evidence that extending health insurance to young adults raises their wages. The increases in wages can be explained by increases in human capital and the increased flexibility in the labor market that comes from people no longer having to rely on their own employers for health insurance. The estimates from this paper suggest the Affordable Care Act will lead to wage increases for young adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fairlie, Robert W; Kapur, Kanika; Gates, Susan
The focus on employer-provided health insurance in the United States may restrict business creation. We address the limited research on the topic of "entrepreneurship lock" by using recent panel data from matched Current Population Surveys. We use difference-in-difference models to estimate the interaction between having a spouse with employer-based health insurance and potential demand for health care. We find evidence of a larger negative effect of health insurance demand on business creation for those without spousal coverage than for those with spousal coverage. We also take a new approach in the literature to examine the question of whether employer-based health insurance discourages business creation by exploiting the discontinuity created at age 65 through the qualification for Medicare. Using a novel procedure of identifying age in months from matched monthly CPS data, we compare the probability of business ownership among male workers in the months just before turning age 65 and in the months just after turning age 65. We find that business ownership rates increase from just under age 65 to just over age 65, whereas we find no change in business ownership rates from just before to just after for other ages 55-75. We also do not find evidence from the previous literature and additional estimates that other confounding factors such as retirement, partial retirement, social security and pension eligibility are responsible for the increase in business ownership in the month individuals turn 65. Our estimates provide some evidence that "entrepreneurship lock" exists, which raises concerns that the bundling of health insurance and employment may create an inefficient level of business creation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Bose-Kolanu, Anjali; Germann, Antonio; Bor, David H; Himmelstein, David U
Physician opinion can influence the prospects for health care reform, yet there are few recent data on physician views on reform proposals or access to medical care in the United States. To assess physician views on financing options for expanding health care coverage and on access to health care. Nationally representative mail survey conducted between March 2007 and October 2007 of U.S. physicians engaged in direct patient care. Rated support for reform options including financial incentives to induce individuals to purchase health insurance and single-payer national health insurance; rated views of several dimensions of access to care. 1,675 of 3,300 physicians responded (50.8%). Only 9% of physicians preferred the current employer-based financing system. Forty-nine percent favored either tax incentives or penalties to encourage the purchase of medical insurance, and 42% preferred a government-run, taxpayer-financed single-payer national health insurance program. The majority of respondents believed that all Americans should receive needed medical care regardless of ability to pay (89%); 33% believed that the uninsured currently have access to needed care. Nearly one fifth of respondents (19.3%) believed that even the insured lack access to needed care. Views about access were independently associated with support for single-payer national health insurance. The vast majority of physicians surveyed supported a change in the health care financing system. While a plurality support the use of financial incentives, a substantial proportion support single payer national health insurance. These findings challenge the perception that fundamental restructuring of the U.S. health care financing system receives little acceptance by physicians.
Singh, Kavita; Osei-Akoto, Isaac; Otchere, Frank; Sodzi-Tettey, Sodzi; Barrington, Clare; Huang, Carolyn; Fordham, Corinne; Speizer, Ilene
Ghana is attracting global attention for efforts to provide health insurance to all citizens through the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). With the program's strong emphasis on maternal and child health, an expectation of the program is that members will have increased use of relevant services. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative data from a baseline assessment for the Maternal and Newborn errals Evaluation from the Northern and Central Regions to describe women's experiences with the NHIS and to study associations between insurance and skilled facility delivery, antenatal care and early care-seeking for sick children. The assessment included a quantitative household survey (n = 1267 women), a quantitative community leader survey (n = 62), qualitative birth narratives with mothers (n = 20) and fathers (n = 18), key informant interviews with health care workers (n = 5) and focus groups (n = 3) with community leaders and stakeholders. The key independent variables for the quantitative analyses were health insurance coverage during the past three years (categorized as all three years, 1-2 years or no coverage) and health insurance during the exact time of pregnancy. Quantitative findings indicate that insurance coverage during the past three years and insurance during pregnancy were associated with greater use of facility delivery but not ANC. Respondents with insurance were also significantly more likely to indicate that an illness need not be severe for them to take a sick child for care. The NHIS does appear to enable pregnant women to access services and allow caregivers to seek care early for sick children, but both the quantitative and qualitative assessments also indicated that the poor and least educated were less likely to have insurance than their wealthier and more educated counterparts. Findings from the qualitative interviews uncovered specific challenges women faced regarding registration for the NHIS and other
Hall, Mark A; McCue, Michael J; Palazzolo, Jennifer R
Many insurers incurred financial losses in individual markets for health insurance during 2014, the first year of Affordable Care Act mandated changes. This analysis looks at key financial ratios of insurers to compare profitability in 2014 and 2013, identify factors driving financial performance, and contrast the financial performance of health insurers operating in state-run exchanges versus the federal exchange. Overall, the median loss of sampled insurers was -3.9%, no greater than their loss in 2013. Reduced administrative costs offset increases in medical losses. Insurers performed better in states with state-run exchanges than insurers in states using the federal exchange in 2014. Medical loss ratios are the underlying driver more than administrative costs in the difference in performance between states with federal versus state-run exchanges. Policy makers looking to improve the financial performance of the individual market should focus on features that differentiate the markets associated with state-run versus federal exchanges.
One popular explanation for this low rate of employee coverage is the presence of numerous state regulations which mandate that group health insurance plans must include certain benefits. By raising the minimum costs of providing any health insurance coverage, these mandated benefits make it impossible for firms which would have desired to offer minimal health insurance at a low cost to do so. I use data on insurance coverage among employees in small firms to investigate whether this problem ...
Mohan, Arun V; McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Boyd, J Wesley
Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions.
Ahlin, Tanja; Nichter, Mark; Pillai, Gopukrishnan
The percentage of India's national budget allocated to the health sector remains one of the lowest in the world, and healthcare expenditures are largely out-of-pocket (OOP). Currently, efforts are being made to expand health insurance coverage as one means of addressing health disparity and reducing catastrophic health costs. In this review, we document reasons for rising interest in health insurance and summarize the country's history of insurance projects to date. We note that most of these projects focus on in-patient hospital costs, not the larger burden of out-patient costs. We briefly highlight some of the more popular forms that government, private, and community-based insurance schemes have taken and the results of quantitative research conducted to assess their reach and cost-effectiveness. We argue that ethnographic case studies could add much to existing health service and policy research, and provide a better understanding of the life cycle and impact of insurance programs on both insurance holders and healthcare providers. Drawing on preliminary fieldwork in South India and recognizing the need for a broad-based implementation science perspective (studying up, down and sideways), we identify six key topics demanding more in-depth research, among others: (1) public awareness and understanding of insurance; (2) misunderstanding of insurance and how this influences health care utilization; (3) differences in behavior patterns in cash and cashless insurance systems; (4) impact of insurance on quality of care and doctor-patient relations; (5) (mis)trust in health insurance schemes; and (6) health insurance coverage of chronic illnesses, rehabilitation and OOP expenses.
Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K
HIPCs, or health care purchasing cooperatives, are attracting widespread interest as a key element of the managed competition approach to health reform. HIPCs perform several useful roles for individuals and small employers unable to obtain health insurance coverage in the current system by spreading risk more evenly and purchasing coverage in a given region or market area. While HIPCs are generally associated with managed competition, they are also compatible with reform strategies that require employers to pay for coverage or those that provide incentives for expanded coverage.
Shiva Raj Mishra
Full Text Available The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9% and rural (59% discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015, the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.
Full Text Available The need for health care reforms and alternative financing mechanism in many low and middle-income countries has been advocated. This led to the introduction of the national health insurance scheme (NHIS in Nigeria, at first with the enrollment of formal sector employees. A qualitative study was conducted to assess enrollee’s perception on the quality of health care before and after enrollment. Initial results revealed that respondents (heads of households have generally viewed the NHIS favorably, but consistently expressed dissatisfaction over the terms of coverage. Specifically, because the NHIS enrollment covers only the primary insured person, their spouse and only up to four biological children (child defined as <18 years of age, in a setting where extended family is common. Dissatisfaction of enrollees could affect their willingness to participate in the insurance scheme, which may potentially affect the success and future extension of the scheme.
孝感市医保经办机构在与商保公司开展“大病保险”经办合作中，让商保公司重点做好医疗监管和费用审核，加强了医保管理力量，发现了大量违规案件，为维护医保基金安全、提升基金使用效率发挥了积极作用。但也存在着双方配合的默契度不高、商保队伍不稳定等问题，亟待加强合同管理，改进商保的用人机制，加强培训，提升商保工作人员的业务沟通能力。%The Medical Insurance Bureau of Xiaogan City and the commercial insurance company has carried out cooperation in the management of “insurance for serious diseases. It is very important to make the commercial insurance company play main roles in completing medical supervision and cost audit. As the result, it has intensified the power of medical insurance management, and found a large number of violations. It has played a positive role in maintaining the security of the medical health care insurance fund and raising the fund utilization rate. However, there are still problems such as lack of tacit mutual understanding between the two sides and lack of instability of the personnel in commercial company. Therefore, it is urgent to improve personnel contract management, mechanism of employment, personnel training and personnel communication capability in commercial company.
Tel : 7-3635
Please note that, from 1 July 2002, the tariff agreement between CERN and the Hôpital de la Tour will no longer be in force. As a result the members of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme will no longer obtain a 5% discount for quick payment of bills. More information on the termination of the agreement and the implications for our Health Insurance Scheme will be provided in the next issue of the CHIS Bull', due for publication in the first half of July. It will be sent to your home address, so, if you have moved recently, please check that your divisional secretariat has your current address. Tel.: 73635 The Organization's Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) has launched its own Web pages, located on the Website of the Social & Statutory Conditions Group of HR Division (HR-SOC). The address is short and easy-to-remember www.cern.ch/chis The pages currently available concentrate on providing basic information. Over the coming months it is planned to fill out the details and introduce new topics. Please give us ...
... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services... regulations published July 19, 2010 with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered... plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The text of those...
Bauer, Jan; Schiller, Jörg; Schreckenberger, Christopher
is dominating in this market, with respect to both the decision to buy a CompLTCI policy and the decision about the extent of CompLTCI coverage. We identify occupational status, residential location and the holding of further supplementary health insurance policies as unused observables contributing...... to selection effects in this market. Our results suggest that non-linearitiesin the relationship of potential sources of selection to insurance coverage and risk should be considered. A panel data analysis shows that an increase in health insurance payouts is positively correlated with the uptake of Comp......In this paper, we analyze selection effects in the German market for private complementary longterm care insurance contracts (CompLTCI) within a static and dynamic framework. Using data on more than 98,000 individuals from a German insurance company, we provide evidence that advantageous selection...
Plakun, Eric M
This column compares a clinical perspective on the continuum of care for mental health and substance use disorders with a different perspective derived from publicly available insurance company documents and experience dealing with managed care utilization reviewers. The latter perspective tends to determine the need for access to levels of care based on the need for crisis stabilization, whereas the generally accepted clinical standard is more nuanced than the need for crisis stabilization alone. The column proposes that this discrepancy in perspectives makes a substantial contribution to disagreements between treating clinicians, such as therapists, and insurance utilization reviewers concerning the medical necessity of various requested levels of care.
K.P.M. Winssen van (Kayleigh)
markdownabstractThe health insurance density in the Netherlands is among the highest in the world. This is shown by the fact that, in 2016, only 12 per cent of the Dutch insured opted for a reduction of health insurance coverage in the form of a voluntary deductible, while, at the same time, 84 per
Korenman, Sanders D; Remler, Dahlia K
We develop and implement what we believe is the first conceptually valid health-inclusive poverty measure (HIPM) - a measure that includes health care or insurance in the poverty needs threshold and health insurance benefits in family resources - and we discuss its limitations. Building on the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, we construct a pilot HIPM for the under-65 population under ACA-like health reform in Massachusetts. This pilot demonstrates the practicality, face validity and value of a HIPM. Results suggest that public health insurance benefits and premium subsidies accounted for a substantial, one-third reduction in the health inclusive poverty rate. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hone, Thomas; Habicht, Jarno; Domente, Silviu; Atun, Rifat
Moldova is the poorest country in Europe. Economic constraints mean that Moldova faces challenges in protecting individuals from excessive costs, improving population health and securing health system sustainability. The Moldovan government has introduced a state benefit package and expanded health insurance coverage to reduce the burden of health care costs for citizens. This study examines the effects of expanded health insurance by examining factors associated with health insurance coverage, likelihood of incurring out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for medicines or services, and the likelihood of forgoing health care when unwell. Using publically available databases and the annual Moldova Household Budgetary Survey, we examine trends in health system financing, health care utilization, health insurance coverage, and costs incurred by individuals for the years 2006-2012. We perform logistic regression to assess the likelihood of having health insurance, incurring a cost for health care, and forgoing health care when ill, controlling for socio-economic and demographic covariates. Private expenditure accounted for 55.5% of total health expenditures in 2012. 83.2% of private health expenditures is OOP payments-especially for medicines. Healthcare utilization is in line with EU averages of 6.93 outpatient visits per person. Being uninsured is associated with groups of those aged 25-49 years, the self-employed, unpaid family workers, and the unemployed, although we find lower likelihood of being uninsured for some of these groups over time. Over time, the likelihood of OOP for medicines increased (odds ratio OR = 1.422 in 2012 compared to 2006), but fell for health care services (OR = 0.873 in 2012 compared to 2006). No insurance and being older and male, was associated with increased likelihood of forgoing health care when sick, but we found the likelihood of forgoing health care to be increasing over time (OR = 1.295 in 2012 compared to 2009). Moldova has
W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand); F.T. Schut (Erik)
textabstractIn 1988 the Dutch government launched a proposal for a national health insurance based on regulated competition. The mandatory benefits package should be offered by competing insurers and should cover both non-catastrophic risks (like hospital care, physician services and drugs) and
Robert T. Braun
Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA, millions of Americans have been enrolling in the health insurance marketplaces. Nearly 20% of them are tobacco users. As part of the ACA, tobacco users may face up to 50% higher premiums that are not eligible for tax credits. Tobacco users, along with the uninsured and racial/ethnic minorities targeted by ACA coverage expansions, are among those most likely to suffer from low health literacy – a key ingredient in the ability to understand, compare, choose, and use coverage, referred to as health insurance literacy. Whether tobacco users choose enough coverage in the marketplaces given their expected health care needs and are able to access health care services effectively is fundamentally related to understanding health insurance. However, no studies to date have examined this important relationship. Methods Data were collected from 631 lower-income, minority, rural residents of Virginia. Health insurance literacy was assessed by asking four factual questions about the coverage options presented to them. Adjusted associations between tobacco use and health insurance literacy were tested using multivariate linear regression, controlling for numeracy, risk-taking, discount rates, health status, experiences with the health care system, and demographics. Results Nearly one third (31% of participants were current tobacco users, 80% were African American and 27% were uninsured. Average health insurance literacy across all participants was 2.0 (SD 1.1 out of a total possible score of 4. Current tobacco users had significantly lower HIL compared to non-users (−0.22, p < 0.05 after adjustment. Participants who were less educated, African American, and less numerate reported more difficulty understanding health insurance (p < 0.05 each. Conclusions Tobacco users face higher premiums for health coverage than non-users in the individual insurance marketplace. Our results suggest they may be
A new health insurance option for Associated Members of the Personnel (including users): Allianz Worldwide Care Healthcare Plan for CERN MPAs. Based on a survey conducted by the Users’ Office and a request by the Advisory Committee of CERN Users (ACCU), CERN has looked into health insurance products on the market and has identified a health insurance for MPAs and their accompanying family members which covers the financial consequences of illness and accidents and which is deemed adequate in CERN’s Host States. This insurance may be a useful option for MPAs who may not have adequate coverage in place from their home institution or who choose not to or cannot enrol in the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). For the time being the insurance company can only offer limited duration policies to MPAs. We hope that this restriction can be removed in the future. The health insurance is offered by the insurance company Allianz WorldWide Care for a monthly fee of 139 euros per insure...
Community Based Health Insurance Knowledge and Willingness to Pay; A Survey of a Rural Community in ... Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2012) > ... and is the most appropriate insurance model for rural areas where incomes are unstable.
Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance
.... Being uninsured is associated with a range of adverse health, social, and economic consequences for individuals and their families, for the health care systems in their communities, and for the nation as a whole...
David M Dror
Full Text Available Background & objectives: The evidence-base of the impact of community-based health insurance (CBHI on access to healthcare and financial protection in India is weak. We investigated the impact of CBHI in rural Uttar Pradesh and Bihar s0 tates of India on insured households′ self-medication and financial position. Methods: Data originated from (i household surveys, and (ii the Management Information System of each CBHI. Study design was "staggered implementation" cluster randomized controlled trial with enrollment of one-third of the treatment group in each of the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. Around 40-50 per cent of the households that were offered to enroll joined. The benefits-packages covered outpatient care in all three locations and in-patient care in two locations. To overcome self-selection enrollment bias, we constructed comparable control and treatment groups using Kernel Propensity Score Matching (K-PSM. To quantify impact, both difference-in-difference (DiD, and conditional-DiD (combined K-PSM with DiD were used to assess robustness of results. Results: Post-intervention (2013, self-medication was less practiced by insured HHs. Fewer insured households than uninsured households reported borrowing to finance care for non-hospitalization events. Being insured for two years also improved the HH′s location along the income distribution, namely insured HHs were more likely to experience income quintile-upgrade in one location, and less likely to experience a quintile-downgrade in two locations. Interpretation & conclusions: The realized benefits of insurance included better access to healthcare, reduced financial risks and improved economic mobility, suggesting that in our context health insurance creates welfare gains. These findings have implications for theoretical, ethical, policy and practice considerations.
Hamidi, Samer; Shaban, Sami; Mahate, Ashraf A; Younis, Mustafa Z
The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has taken concrete steps to reform health insurance by improving the access to health providers as well as freedom of choice. The growing cost of health care and the impact of the global financial crisis have meant that countries are no longer able to solely bear the cost. As a result many countries have sought to overhaul their health care system so as to share the burden of provision with the private sector whether it is health care plan providers or employers. This article explores and discusses how the policy issues inherent in private health care schemes have been dealt with by the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Data was collected in early 2013 on health care plans in Abu Dhabi from government sources. The Abu Dhabi model has private sector involvement but the government sets prices and benefits. The Abu Dhabi model adequately deals with the problem of adverse selection through making insurance coverage a mandatory requirement. There are issues with moral hazards, which are a combination of individual and medical practitioner behavior that might affect the efficiency of the system. Over time there is a general increase in the usage of medical services, which may be reflective of greater awareness of the policy and its benefits as well as lifestyle change. Although the current health care system level of usage is adequate for the current population, as the level of usage increases, the government may face a financial burden. Therefore, the government needs to place safeguards in order to limit its exposure. The market for medical treatment needs to be made more competitive to reduce monopolistic behavior. The government needs to make individuals aware of a healthier lifestyle and encourage precautionary actions.
Dror, David M; Radermacher, Ralf; Khadilkar, Shrikant B; Schout, Petra; Hay, François-Xavier; Singh, Arbind; Koren, Ruth
Microinsurance--low-cost health insurance based on a community, cooperative, or mutual and self-help arrangements-can provide financial protection for poor households and improve access to health care. However, low benefit caps and a low share of premiums paid as benefits--both designed to keep these arrangements in business--perversely limited these schemes' ability to extend coverage, offer financial protection, and retain members. We studied three schemes in India, two of which are member-operated and one a commercial scheme, using household surveys of insured and uninsured households and interviews with managers. All three enrolled poor households and raised their use of hospital services, as intended. Financial exposure was greatest, and protection was least, in the commercial scheme, which imposed the lowest caps on benefits and where income was the lowest.
Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J
This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce.
Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.
This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce, and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce. PMID:23147653
Bingley, Paul; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Jørgensen, Michael
There are large differences in labor force participation rates by health status. We examine to what extent these differences are determined by the provisions of Disability Insurance and other pension programs. Using administrative data for Denmark we find that those in worse health and with less...... schooling are more likely to receive DI. The gradient of DI participation across health quintiles is almost twice as steep as for schooling - moving from having no high school diploma to college completion. Using an option value model that accounts for different pathways to retirement, applied to a period...... spanning a major pension reform, we find that pension program incentives in general are important determinants of retirement age. Individuals in poor health and with low schooling are significantly more responsive to economic incentives than those who are in better health and with more schooling. Similar...
Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Anku, Prince Justin; Amo, Hannah Fosuah; Effah, Mavis Osei
National health insurance schemes (NHIS) in developing countries and perhaps in developed countries as well is a considered a pro-poor intervention by helping to bridge the financial burden of access to quality health care. Perceptions of quality of health service could have immense impacts on enrolment. This paper shows how perception of service quality under Ghana's insurance programme contributes to health insurance subscription. The study used the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) dataset. Both descriptive proportions and binary logistic regression techniques were applied to generate results that informed the discussion. Our results show that a high proportion of females (33 %) and males (35 %) felt that the quality of health provided to holders of the NHIS card was worse. As a result, approximately 30 % of females and 22%who perceived health care as worse by holding an insurance card did not own an insurance policy. While perceptions of differences in quality among females were significantly different (AOR = 0.453 [95 % CI = 0.375, 0.555], among males, the differences in perceptions of quality of health services under the NHIS were independent in the multivariable analysis. Beyond perceptions of quality, being resident in the Upper West region was an important predictor of health insurance ownership for both males and females. For such a social and pro-poor intervention, investing in quality of services to subscribers, especially women who experience enormous health risks in the reproductive period can offer important gains to sustaining the scheme as well as offering affordable health services.
Wickizer, T M; Feldstein, P J
A critical unresolved health policy question is whether competition stimulated by managed care organizations can slow the rate of growth in health care expenditures. We analyzed the competitive effects of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) on the growth in fee-for-service indemnity insurance premiums over the period 1985-1992 using premium data on 95 groups that had policies with a single, large, private insurance carrier. We used multiple regressions to estimate the effect of HMO market penetration on insurance premium growth rates. HMO penetration had a statistically significant (p market whose HMO penetration rate increased by 25% (e.g., from 10% to 12.5%), the real rate of growth in premiums would be approximately 5.9% instead of 7.0%. Our findings indicate that competitive strategies, relying on managed care, have significant potential to reduce health insurance premium growth rates, thereby resulting in substantial cost savings over time.
Liu, Liqun; Rettenmaier, Andrew J; Saving, Thomas R
This paper analyzes the welfare gain from replacing the tax exclusion of employer-provided health insurance with a lump-sum tax credit. It differs from earlier studies in that we look at the welfare cost of health insurance tax exclusion as coming directly from excessive health insurance rather than from overconsumption of medical care and that we account for the labor market effect of the tax exclusion on welfare. Both differences work to produce a smaller tax reform welfare gain. For a set of mid-range parameter values, the welfare gain is about 21% of current health insurance tax expenditures. In addition, government tax expenditures would fall by 38%, and health insurance spending would fall by 77% after the reform.
Shan, Linghan; Li, Ye; Ding, Ding; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Chaojie; Jiao, Mingli; Hao, Yanhua; Han, Yuzhen; Gao, Lijun; Hao, Jiejing; Wang, Lan; Xu, Weilan; Ren, Jiaojiao
Deteriorations in the patient-provider relationship in China have attracted increasing attention in the international community. This study aims to explore the role of trust in patient satisfaction with hospital inpatient care, and how patient-provider trust is shaped from the perspectives of both patients and providers. We adopted a mixed methods approach comprising a multivariate logistic regression model using secondary data (1200 people with inpatient experiences over the past year) from the fifth National Health Service Survey (NHSS, 2013) in Heilongjiang Province to determine the associations between patient satisfaction and trust, financial burden and perceived quality of care, followed by in-depth interviews with 62 conveniently selected key informants (27 from health and 35 from non-health sectors). A thematic analysis established a conceptual framework to explain deteriorating patient-provider relationships. About 24% of respondents reported being dissatisfied with hospital inpatient care. The logistic regression model indicated that patient satisfaction was positively associated with higher level of trust (OR = 14.995), lower levels of hospital medical expenditure (OR = 5.736-1.829 as compared with the highest quintile of hospital expenditure), good staff attitude (OR = 3.155) as well as good ward environment (OR = 2.361). But patient satisfaction was negatively associated with medical insurance for urban residents and other insurance status (OR = 0.215-0.357 as compared with medical insurance for urban employees). The qualitative analysis showed that patient trust-the most significant predictor of patient satisfaction-is shaped by perceived high quality of service delivery, empathic and caring interpersonal interactions, and a better designed medical insurance that provides stronger financial protection and enables more equitable access to health care. At the core of high levels of patient dissatisfaction with hospital care is the lack of trust. The
Kanika Kapur; Jeannette Rogowski
This paper examines the role of employer provided health insurance in the retirement decisions of dual working couples. The near elderly have high-expected medical expenditures; therefore, availability of health insurance is an important factor in their retirement decisions. We determine if access to retiree health insurance for early retirement enables couples to time their retirement together %u2013 a behavior called %u201Cjoint retirement.%u201D We find that wives%u2019 retiree health insu...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 46 [REG-136008-11] RIN 1545-BK59 Fees on Health Insurance Policies and Self-Insured Plans for the Patient-Centered Outcomes... on issuers of certain health insurance policies and plan sponsors of certain self-insured health...
Pourat, Nadereh; Finocchio, Len
Poor oral health has important implications for the healthy development of children. Children in Medicaid, especially Latinos and African Americans, experience high rates of tooth decay, yet they visit dentists less often than privately insured children. Even Latino and African American children with private insurance are less likely than white children to visit dentists and have longer intervals between dental visits. Furthermore, Latino and African American children in Medicaid are more likely than white children in Medicaid to have longer intervals between visits. These findings raise concerns about Medicaid's ability to address disparities in dental care access and, more broadly, in health care.
This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the
This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the
the other to the population as cliemele of that system. Recently the ... divides from which inequalities in this sector emanate are those of .... power for private health care, and fewer srill are insured .... Nurses are mainly employed in public sector.
Merchant, Raina M; Finne, Kristen; Lardy, Barbara; Veselovskiy, German; Korba, Caey; Margolis, Gregg S; Lurie, Nicole
Health insurance plans serve a critical role in public health emergencies, yet little has been published about their collective emergency preparedness practices and policies. We evaluated, on a national scale, the state of health insurance plans' emergency preparedness and policies. A survey of health insurance plans. We queried members of America's Health Insurance Plans, the national trade association representing the health insurance industry, about issues related to emergency preparedness issues: infrastructure, adaptability, connectedness, and best practices. Of 137 health insurance plans queried, 63% responded, representing 190.6 million members and 81% of US plan enrollment. All respondents had emergency plans for business continuity, and most (85%) had infrastructure for emergency teams. Some health plans also have established benchmarks for preparedness (eg, response time). Regarding adaptability, 85% had protocols to extend claim filing time and 71% could temporarily suspend prior medical authorization rules. Regarding connectedness, many plans shared their contingency plans with health officials, but often cited challenges in identifying regulatory agency contacts. Some health insurance plans had specific policies for assisting individuals dependent on durable medical equipment or home healthcare. Many plans (60%) expressed interest in sharing best practices. Health insurance plans are prioritizing emergency preparedness. We identified 6 policy modifications that health insurance plans could undertake to potentially improve healthcare system preparedness: establishing metrics and benchmarks for emergency preparedness; identifying disaster-specific policy modifications, enhancing stakeholder connectedness, considering digital strategies to enhance communication, improving support and access for special-needs individuals, and developing regular forums for knowledge exchange about emergency preparedness.
Fang, Hai; Jin, Yinzi; Zhao, Miaomiao; Zhang, Huyang; A Rizzo, John; Zhang, Donglan; Hou, Zhiyuan
Background: In China, rapid urbanization has caused migration from rural to urban areas, and raised the prevalence of hypertension. However, public health insurance is not portable from one place to another, and migration may limit the effectiveness of this non-portable health insurance on healthcare. Our study aims to investigate whether migration limits the effectiveness of health insurance on hypertension management in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the national baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011, including 4926 hypertensive respondents with public health insurance. Outcome measures included use of primary care, hypertension awareness, medication use, blood pressure monitoring, physician advice, and blood pressure control. Multivariate logistic regressions were estimated to examine whether the effects of rural health insurance on hypertension management differed between those who migrated to urban areas and those who did not migrate and lived in rural areas. Results: Among hypertensive respondents, 60.7% were aware of their hypertensive status. Compared to rural residents, the non-portable feature of rural health insurance significantly reduced rural-to-urban migrants' probabilities of using primary care by 7.8 percentage points, hypertension awareness by 8.8 percentage points, and receiving physician advice by 18.3 percentage points. Conclusions: In China, migration to urban areas limited the effectiveness of rural health insurance on hypertension management due to its non-portable nature. It is critical to improve the portability of rural health insurance, and to extend urban health insurance and primary care coverage to rural-to-urban migrants to achieve better chronic disease management.
Jain, Ankit; Swetha, Selva; Johar, Zeena; Raghavan, Ramesh
To understand the acceptability of, and willingness to pay for, community health insurance coverage among residents of rural India. We conducted a mixed methods study of 33 respondents located in 8 villages in southern India. Interview domains focused on health-seeking behaviors of the family for primary healthcare, household expenditures on primary healthcare, interest in pre-paid health insurance, and willingness to pay for such a product. Most respondents reported that they would seek care only when symptoms were manifest; only 6 respondents recognized the importance of preventative services. None reported impoverishment due to health expenditures. Few viewed health insurance as necessary either because they did not wish to be early adopters, because they had alternate sources of financial support, or because of concerns with the design of insurance coverage or the provider. Those who were interested reported being willing to pay Rs. 1500 ($27) as the modal annual insurance premium. Penetration of community health insurance programs in rural India will require education of the consumer base, careful attention to premium rate setting, and deeper understanding of social networks that may act as financial substitutes for health insurance. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grunow, Martina; Nuscheler, Robert
We investigate risk selection between public and private health insurance in Germany. With risk-rated premiums in the private system and community-rated premiums in the public system, advantageous selection in favor of private insurers is expected. Using 2000 to 2007 data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), we find such selection. While private insurers are unable to select the healthy upon enrollment, they profit from an increase in the probability to switch from private to public health insurance of those individuals who have experienced a negative health shock. To avoid distorted competition between the two branches of health care financing, risk-adjusted transfers from private to public insurers should be instituted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cebi, Merve; Woodbury, Stephen A
The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 enacted a refundable tax credit for low-income working families who purchased health insurance coverage for their children. This health insurance tax credit (HITC) existed during tax years 1991, 1992, and 1993, and was then rescinded. A difference-in-differences estimator applied to Current Population Survey data suggests that adoption of the HITC, along with accompanying increases in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), was associated with a relative increase of about 4.7 percentage points in the private health insurance coverage of working single mothers with high school or less education. Also, a difference-in-difference-in-differences estimator, which attempts to net out the possible influence of the EITC increases but which requires strong assumptions, suggests that the HITC was responsible for about three-quarters (3.6 percentage points) of the total increase. The latter estimate implies a price elasticity of health insurance take-up of -0.42. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Li, Xiaoxue; Ye, Jinqi
This study examines how regulations in private health insurance markets affect coverage of public insurance. We focus on mental health parity laws, which mandate private health insurance to provide equal coverage for mental and physical health services. The implementation of mental health parity laws may improve a quality dimension of private health insurance but at increased costs. We graphically develop a conceptual framework and then empirically examine whether the regulations shift individuals from private to public insurance. We exploit state-by-year variation in policy implementation in 1999-2008 and focus on a sample of veterans, who have better access to public insurance than non-veterans. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we find that the parity laws reduce employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage by 2.1% points. The drop in ESI is largely offset by enrollment gains in public insurance, namely through the Veterans Affairs (VA) benefit and Medicaid/Medicare programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article explores the relationship between the components of the services provided by complementary voluntary health insurance (CVHI), to which users ascribe different levels of importance. Research model that consists of four constructs (importance of quality service, additional coverage, price discounts of CVHI and insurance company reputation) and an indicator of the importance of insurance premium of CVHI was tested with structural equation modelling (SEM) on the sample of 300 Sloveni...
On May 16, the HR department published in the CERN Bulletin an article concerning cross-border workers (“frontaliers”) and the exercise of the right of choice in health insurance: « In view of the Agreement concluded on 7 July 2016 between Switzerland and France regarding the choice of health insurance system* for persons resident in France and working in Switzerland ("frontaliers"), the Swiss authorities have indicated that those persons who have not “formally exercised their right to choose a health insurance system before 30 September 2017 risk automatically becoming members of the Swiss LAMal system” and having to “pay penalties to their insurers that may amount to several years’ worth of contributions”. Among others, this applies to spouses of members of the CERN personnel who live in France and work in Switzerland. » But the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), provides insuranc...
Further development of nursing care insurance must consider both ethical aspects and scarcity of resources. An economy that serves human life has two principal targets: safeguarding the basis of existence and extension of the fulfillment of life. From an ethical perspective welfare and personal responsibility have to be equilibrated by promoting individuality and self-responsibility and maintaining relatives' willingness to become a caregiver. Discussing the role of prevention and rehabilitation in nursing care it is argued that the legally committed primacy of prevention and rehabilitation over care has still not been put into practise due to unresolved problems at the interface of health insurance and nursing care insurance as well as at the interface of inpatient and outpatient providers. Moreover, it seems necessary to strengthen prevention and rehabilitation in the context of care. A comprehensive understanding of individual demands for help, support, and care requires a revision of the common definition of need for care in terms of activities of daily living which neglects particularly psycho-social needs. Case management is a suitable approach to provide adequate and coordinated support as a prerequisite for quality of life in people in need for care. Overcoming compartmentalization of inpatient and outpatient sectors and crosslinking of services are described as essential challenges for future provision of nursing care insurance. Intensification of counseling and advice for patients and relatives, extension and diversification of local providers, upgrading of ambulant services, daily care and short-term care, diversification of nursing homes and other housing arrangements, further development of hospices and palliative care, and acceptance of institutions for the elderly as indispensable components of the future care system are discussed as specific tasks in the further development of nursing care insurance.
Pearson, William S; Cramer, Ryan; Tao, Guoyu; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L; Hoover, Karen W
To survey patients of publicly funded sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics across the United States about their willingness to use health insurance for their visit. In 2013, we identified STD clinics in 21 US metropolitan statistical areas with the highest rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance reports. Patients attending the identified STD clinics completed a total of 4364 surveys (response rate = 86.6%). Nearly half of the insured patients were willing to use their health insurance. Patients covered by government insurance were more likely to be willing to use their health insurance compared with those covered by private insurance (odds ratio [OR] = 3.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.79, 4.65), and patients covered by their parents' insurance were less likely to be willing to use their insurance compared with those covered by private insurance (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.52, 1.00). Reasons for unwillingness to use insurance were privacy and out-of-pocket cost. Before full implementation of the Affordable Care Act, privacy and cost were barriers to using health insurance for STD services. Barriers to using health insurance for STD services could be reduced through addressing issues of stigma associated with STD care and considering alternative payment sources for STD services.
A newly introduced comprehensive consultation fee in the national health insurance system in Japan: a promotive effect of multidisciplinary medical care in the field of radiation oncology--results from a questionnaire survey.
Igaki, Hiroshi; Onishi, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Dokiya, Takushi; Nemoto, Kenji; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Hiraoka, Masahiro
The consultation fee for outpatient radiotherapy was newly introduced in the national health insurance system in Japan in April 2012. We conducted a survey on the use of this consultation fee and its effect on clinical practices. The health insurance committee of the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology conducted a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire form was mailed to 160 councilors of the Society, the target questionees. A total of 94 answers (58% of the target questionees) sent back were used for analyses. The analyses revealed that 75% of the hospitals charged most of the patients who receive radiotherapy in an outpatient setting a consultation fee. The introduction of the consultation fee led to some changes in radiation oncology clinics, as evidenced by the response of 'more careful observations by medical staff' in 37% of questionees and a 12% increase in the number of full-time radiation oncology nurses. It was also shown that the vast majority (92%) of radiation oncologists expected a positive influence of the consultation fee on radiation oncology clinics in Japan. Our questionnaire survey revealed the present status of the use of a newly introduced consultation fee for outpatient radiotherapy, and the results suggested its possible effect on promoting a multidisciplinary medical care system in radiation oncology departments in Japan.
A newly introduced comprehensive consultation fee in the national health insurance system in Japan. A promotive effect of multidisciplinary medical care in the field of radiation oncology. Results from a questionnaire survey
Igaki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Onishi, Hiroshi
The consultation fee for outpatient radiotherapy was newly introduced in the national health insurance system in Japan in April 2012. We conducted a survey on the use of this consultation fee and its effect on clinical practices. The health insurance committee of the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology conducted a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire form was mailed to 160 councilors of the Society, the target questionees. A total of 94 answers (58% of the target questionees) sent back were used for analyses. The analyses revealed that 75% of the hospitals charged most of the patients who receive radiotherapy in an outpatient setting a consultation fee. The introduction of the consultation fee led to some changes in radiation oncology clinics, as evidenced by the response of 'more careful observations by medical staff' in 37% of questionees and a 12% increase in the number of full-time radiation oncology nurses. It was also shown that the vast majority (92%) of radiation oncologists expected a positive influence of the consultation fee on radiation oncology clinics in Japan. Our questionnaire survey revealed the present status of the use of a newly introduced consultation fee for outpatient radiotherapy, and the results suggested its possible effect on promoting a multidisciplinary medical care system in radiation oncology departments in Japan. (author)
Greer, Scott L.
Health insurance exchanges are a key component of the Affordable Care Act. Each exchange faces the challenge of minimizing friction with existing policies, coordinating churn between programs, and maximizing take-up. State-run exchanges would likely be better positioned to address these issues than a federally run exchange, yet only one third of states chose this path. Policymakers must ensure that their exchange—whether state or federally run—succeeds. Whether this happens will greatly depend on the political dynamics in each state. PMID:23763405
Barker, Abigail R; Kemper, Leah M; McBride, Timothy D; Meuller, Keith J
Since 2014, when the Health Insurance Marketplaces (HIMs) authorized by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) were implemented, considerable premium changes have been observed in the marketplaces across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This policy brief assesses the changes in average HIM plan premiums from 2014 to 2016, before accounting for subsidies, with an emphasis on the widening variation across rural and urban places. Since this brief focuses on premiums without accounting for subsidies, this is not intended to be an analysis of the "affordability" of ACA premiums, as that would require assessment of premiums, cost-sharing adjustments, and other factors.
Objective. To determine the attitudes of South African general practitioners (GPs) to national health insurance (NHI), social health insurance (SHI) and other related health system reforms. Design. A national survey using postal questionnaires and telephonic follow-up of non-responders. Setting. GPs throughout South Africa.
... Health Insurance Providers Fee; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of providing health insurance for United States health risks. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Charles J. Langley, Jr. at (202...
Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.
This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health…
Hartnedy, J A
Why does health insurance cost so much? According to the vice president at the insurance company that pioneered high-deductible health insurance to go with medical savings accounts, a big factor is that insurance companies are being asked to solve social problems. Mr Hartnedy offers a solution to America's healthcare-delivery plight that includes empowerment of individuals and preservation of choice.
Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Angell, Marcia; Young, Quentin D
The United States spends more than twice as much on health care as the average of other developed nations, all of which boast universal coverage. Yet more than 41 million Americans have no health insurance. Many more are underinsured. Confronted by the rising costs and capabilities of modern medicine, other nations have chosen national health insurance (NHI). The United States alone treats health care as a commodity distributed according to the ability to pay, rather than as a social service to be distributed according to medical need. In this market-driven system, insurers and providers compete not so much by increasing quality or lowering costs, but by avoiding unprofitable patients and shifting costs back to patients or to other payers. This creates the paradox of a health care system based on avoiding the sick. It generates huge administrative costs that, along with profits, divert resources from clinical care to the demands of business. In addition, burgeoning satellite businesses, such as consulting firms and marketing companies, consume an increasing fraction of the health care dollar. We endorse a fundamental change in US health care--the creation of an NHI program. Such a program, which in essence would be an expanded and improved version of traditional Medicare, would cover every American for all necessary medical care. An NHI program would save at least 200 billion dollars annually (more than enough to cover all of the uninsured) by eliminating the high overhead and profits of the private, investor-owned insurance industry and reducing spending for marketing and other satellite services. Physicians and hospitals would be freed from the concomitant burdens and expenses of paperwork created by having to deal with multiple insurers with different rules, often designed to avoid payment. National health insurance would make it possible to set and enforce overall spending limits for the health care system, slowing cost growth over the long run. An NHI program
J.C. Herbert Emery
Full Text Available Surprisingly little attention has been paid to how we pay for health care affects how much we spend on health care. In this paper, the author discusses how non-contributory finance and effective subsidization of public health care spending with federal cost sharing crowded out demand for private insurance as voters opted for high levels of public health spending.
Rüefli, Christian; Sager, Fritz
In 1996, the new Swiss law on health care insurance (KVG) introduced the coverage of certain preventive measures. This provided an opportunity to include research-based public health issues in federal health policy. The present article examines the problems with which the realization of those goals in a Federalist health care system with strong cantonal autonomy as it is found in Switzerland was confronted. Comparative qualitative case studies design (vaccination of school age children and screening-mammography). Switzerland's federalist health care system strongly hinders the realisation of the Confederation's public health goals. Prevention falls into the cantons' autonomy and the federal KVG (Krankenversicherungsgesetz; Health insurance law) only regulates the coverage of the services provided, but does not contain any instruments to assure implementation in consistency with the policy goals. Under those circumstances, conflicts of interest between the implementing actors, varying cantonal preferences, and scarce resources block the implementation of public health goals. The results imply stronger leadership of the Confederation in prevention policy and an improved consideration of implementation aspects in approving new measures to obligatory insurance coverage.
Ellis, Randall P; Albert Ma, Ching-To
Because less healthy employees value health insurance more than the healthy ones, when health insurance is newly offered job turnover rates for healthier employees decline less than turnover rates for the less healthy. We call this adverse job turnover, and it implies that a firm's expected health costs will increase when health insurance is first offered. Health insurance premiums may fail to adjust sufficiently fast because state regulations restrict annual premium changes, or insurers are reluctant to change premiums rapidly. Even with premiums set at the long run expected costs, some firms may be charged premiums higher than their current expected costs and choose not to offer insurance. High administrative costs at small firms exacerbate this dynamic selection problem. Using 1998-1999 MEDSTAT MarketScan and 1997 Employer Health Insurance Survey data, we find that expected employee health expenditures at firms that offer insurance have lower within-firm and higher between-firm variance than at firms that do not. Turnover rates are systematically higher in industries in which firms are less likely to offer insurance. Simulations of the offer decision capturing between-firm health-cost heterogeneity and expected turnover rates match the observed pattern across firm sizes well. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zarkin, G A; Garfinkel, S A
Workplace drug and alcohol abuse imposes substantial costs on employers. In response, employers have implemented a variety of programs to decrease substance abuse in the workplace, including drug testing, health and wellness programs, and employee assistance programs (EAPs). This paper focuses on the relationship between enterprises' organizational and health insurance characteristics and the firms' decisions to provide EAPs. Using data from the 1989 Survey of Health Insurance Plans (SHIP), sponsored by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), we estimated the prevalence of EAPs by selected organizational and health insurance characteristics for those firms that offer health insurance to their workers. In addition, we estimated logistic models of the enterprises' decisions to provide EAPs as functions of the extent of state substance abuse and mental health insurance mandates, state-level demographic variables, and organizational and health insurance characteristics. Our results suggest that state mandates and demographic variables, as well as organizational and health insurance characteristics, are important explanatory variables of enterprises' decisions to provide EAPs.
Alhassan, R.K.; Duku, S.O.; Janssens, W.; Nketiah-Amponsah, E.; Spieker, N.; Van Ostenberg, P.; Arhinful, D.K.; Pradhan, M.P.; Rinke de Wit, T.F.
Background: Quality care in health facilities is critical for a sustainable health insurance system because of its influence on clients' decisions to participate in health insurance and utilize health services. Exploration of the different dimensions of healthcare quality and their associations will
Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Duku, Stephen Opoku; Janssens, Wendy; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; van Ostenberg, Paul; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Pradhan, Menno; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.
Background Quality care in health facilities is critical for a sustainable health insurance system because of its influence on clients' decisions to participate in health insurance and utilize health services. Exploration of the different dimensions of healthcare quality and their associations will
Alhassan, R.K.; Duku, S.O.; Janssens, W.; Nketiah-Amponsah, E.; Spieker, N.; van Ostenberg, P.; Arhinful, D.K.; Pradhan, M.; Rinke de Wit, T.F.
Background Quality care in health facilities is critical for a sustainable health insurance system because of its influence on clients’ decisions to participate in health insurance and utilize health services. Exploration of the different dimensions of healthcare quality and their associations will
In the wake of the Internet, E-commerce, and particularly the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, data security has risen to the top of health care information technology priorities. What is the correct mix of data security tools, policies, and technologies for the doctor, the hospital, the insurer, the vendor, and everyone else who does business in the health care industry?
Sach Tracey H; Whynes David K; Yu Chai
Abstract Background Equitable financing is a key objective of health care systems. Its importance is evidenced in policy documents, policy statements, the work of health economists and policy analysts. The conventional categorisations of finance sources for health care are taxation, social health insurance, private health insurance and out-of-pocket payments. There are nonetheless increasing variations in the finance sources used to fund health care. An understanding of the equity implication...
In this podcast women will learn how the Health Insurance Marketplace meets the needs of women. The Marketplace allows women to find quality health coverage and gives women more choice and control over their health coverage.
Pendzialek, Jonas B; Simic, Dusan; Stock, Stephanie
This paper investigates consumer preferences in the German statutory health insurance market. It further aims to test whether preferences differ by age and health status. Evidence is provided by a discrete choice experiment conducted in 2014 using the six most important attributes in sickness fund competition and ten random generated choice sets per participant. Price is found to be the most important attribute followed by additional benefits, managed care programmes, and distance to nearest branch. Other positive attributes of sickness funds are found to balance out a higher price, which would allow a sickness fund to position itself as high quality. However, significant differences in preferences were found between age and health status group. In particular, compromised health is associated with higher preference for illness-related additional benefits and less distance to the lowest branch, but lower preference for a lower price. Based on these differences, a distinct sickness fund offer could be constructed that would allow passive risk selection.
Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares Gamba; Enemark, Ulrika
cross-subsidisation across the funds. This paper analyses whether the risk distribution varies across the Community Health Fund (CHF) and National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in two districts in Tanzania. Specifically we aim to 1) identify risk factors associated with increased utilisation of health...... services and 2) compare the distribution of identified risk factors among the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. METHODS: Data was collected from a survey of 695 households. A multivariate logisitic regression model was used to identify risk factors for increased health care utilisation. Chi-square tests...... were performed to test whether the distribution of identified risk factors varied across the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. RESULTS: There was a higher concentration of identified risk factors among CHF households compared to those of the NHIF. Non-member households have a similar wealth status...
Danis, Marion; Goold, Susan Dorr; Parise, Carol; Ginsburg, Marjorie
To demonstrate that employees can gain understanding of the financial constraints involved in designing health insurance benefits. While employees who receive their health insurance through the workplace have much at stake as the cost of health insurance rises, they are not necessarily prepared to constructively participate in prioritizing their health insurance benefits in order to limit cost. Structured group exercises. Employees of 41 public and private organizations in Northern California. Administration of the CHAT (Choosing Healthplans All Together) exercise in which participants engage in deliberation to design health insurance benefits under financial constraints. Change in priorities and attitudes about the need to exercise insurance cost constraints. Participants (N = 744) became significantly more cognizant of the need to limit insurance benefits for the sake of affordability and capable of prioritizing benefit options. Those agreeing that it is reasonable to limit health insurance coverage given the cost increased from 47% to 72%. It is both possible and valuable to involve employees in priority setting regarding health insurance benefits through the use of structured decision tools.
Lavarreda, Shana Alex; Cabezas, Livier
Lack of job-based health insurance does not affect just workers, but entire families who depend on job-based coverage for their health care. This policy brief shows that in 2007 one-fifth of all Californians ages 0-64 who lived in households where at least one family member was employed did not have access to job-based coverage. Among adults with no access to job-based coverage through their own or a spouse's job, nearly two-thirds remained uninsured. In contrast, the majority of children with no access to health insurance through a parent obtained public health insurance, highlighting the importance of such programs. Low-income, Latino and small business employees were more likely to have no access to job-based insurance. Provisions enacted under national health care reform (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010) will aid some of these populations in accessing health insurance coverage.
Liu, Yiyan; Jin, Ginger Zhe
We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium increase, and 2) each health plan has an incentive to increase the employer's premium contribution to that plan. Both incentives are found to contribute to premium growth. Counterfactual simulation shows that average premium would have been 10% less than observed and the federal government would have saved 15% per year on its premium contribution had the subsidy policy change not occurred in the FEHBP. We discuss the potential of similar incentives in other government-subsidized insurance systems such as the Medicare Part D and the Health Insurance Marketplace under the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dahlen, Heather M
I examined how labor market and health insurance outcomes were affected by the loss of dependent coverage eligibility under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). I used National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data and regression discontinuity models to measure the percentage-point change in labor market and health insurance outcomes at age 26 years. My sample was restricted to unmarried individuals aged 24 to 28 years and to a period of time before the ACA's individual mandate (2011-2013). I ran models separately for men and women to determine if there were differences based on gender. Aging out of this provision increased employment among men, employer-sponsored health insurance offers for women, and reports that health insurance coverage was worse than it was 1 year previously (overall and for young women). Uninsured rates did not increase at age 26 years, but there was an increase in the purchase of non-group health coverage, indicating interest in remaining insured after age 26 years. Many young adults will turn to state and federal health insurance marketplaces for information about health coverage. Because young adults (aged 18-29 years) regularly use social media sites, these sites could be used to advertise insurance to individuals reaching their 26th birthdays.
Winetrobe, H; Rice, E; Rhoades, H; Milburn, N
Homeless young adults are a vulnerable population with great healthcare needs. Under the Affordable Care Act, homeless young adults are eligible for Medicaid, in some states, including California. This study assesses homeless young adults' health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization prior to Medicaid expansion. All homeless young adults accessing services at a drop-in center in Venice, CA, were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire; 70% of eligible clients participated (n = 125). Within this majority White, heterosexual, male sample, 70% of homeless young adults did not have health insurance in the prior year, and 39% reported their last healthcare visit was at an emergency room. Past year unmet healthcare needs were reported by 31%, and financial cost was the main reported barrier to receiving care. Multivariable logistic regression found that homeless young adults with health insurance were almost 11 times more likely to report past year healthcare utilization. Health insurance coverage is the sole variable significantly associated with healthcare utilization among homeless young adults, underlining the importance of insurance coverage within this vulnerable population. Service providers can play an important role by assisting homeless young adults with insurance applications and facilitating connections with regular sources of health care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Atanasov, Pavel; Baker, Tom
What are the barriers to voluntary take-up of high-deductible plans? We address this question using a large-scale employer survey conducted after an open-enrollment period in which a new high-deductible plan was first introduced. Only 3% of the employees chose this plan, despite the respondents' recognition of its financial advantages. Employees who believed that the high-deductible plan provided access to top physicians in the area were three times more likely to choose it than employees who did not share this belief. A framed field experiment using a similar choice menu showed that displaying additional financial information did not increase high-deductible plan take-up. However, when plans were presented as identical except for the deductible, respondents were highly likely to choose the high-deductible plan, especially in a two-way choice. These results suggest that informing plan choosers about high-deductible plans' health access provisions may affect choice more strongly than focusing on their financial advantages. © The Author(s) 2014.
A CERN pensioner, member of the Organization's Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), recently provided fake documents in support of claims for medical expenses, in order to receive unjustified reimbursement from the CHIS. The Administrator of the CHIS, UNIQA, suspected a case of fraud: Accordingly, an investigation and interview of the person concerned was carried out and brought the Organization to the conclusion that fraud had actually taken place. Consequently and in accordance with Article VIII 3.12 of the CHIS Rules, it was decided to exclude this member permanently from the CHIS. The Organization takes the opportunity to remind Scheme members that any fraud or attempt to fraud established within the framework of the CHIS exposes them to: - disciplinary action, according to the Staff Rules and Regulations, for CERN members of the personnel; - definitive exclusion from the CHIS for members affiliated on a voluntary basis. Human Resources Division Tel. 73635
Lotfi, Farhad; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Hadian, Mohammad
Background: Asymmetric information is one of the most important issues in insurance market which occurred due to inherent characteristics of one of the agents involved in insurance contracts; hence its management requires designing appropriate policies. This phenomenon can lead to the failure of insurance market via its two consequences, namely, adverse selection and moral hazard. Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the status of asymmetric information in Iran’s health insurance market with respect to the demand for outpatient services. Materials/sPatients and Methods: This research is a cross sectional study conducted on households living in Iran. The data of the research was extracted from the information on household’s budget survey collected by the Statistical Center of Iran in 2012. In this study, the Generalized Method of Moment model was used and the status of adverse selection and moral hazard was evaluated through calculating the latent health status of individuals in each insurance category. To analyze the data, Excel, Eviews and stata11 software were used. Results: The estimation of parameters of the utility function of the demand for outpatient services (visit, medicine, and Para-clinical services) showed that households were more risk averse in the use of outpatient care than other goods and services. After estimating the health status of households based on their health insurance categories, the results showed that rural-insured people had the best health status and people with supplementary insurance had the worst health status. In addition, the comparison of the conditional distribution of latent health status approved the phenomenon of adverse selection in all insurance groups, with the exception of rural insurance. Moreover, calculation of the elasticity of medical expenses to reimbursement rate confirmed the existence of moral hazard phenomenon. Conclusions: Due to the existence of the phenomena of adverse selection and moral hazard
Hong, Yong-Rock; Holcomb, Derek; Ballard, Michael; Schwartz, Laurel
Winds of change have been blowing in the U.S. healthcare system since passage of the Affordable Care Act. Examining differences between individuals covered by different types of insurance is essential if healthcare executives are to develop new strategies in response to the emerging health insurance market. In this study, we used multigroup path analysis models to examine the moderating effects of health insurance on direct and indirect associations with general health status, satisfaction with received care, financial burden, and perceived value of the healthcare system. Data were obtained from the 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and analyzed according to the types of insurance: private, public, and military. With the satisfactory fit of the model (χ = 2,532.644, df = 96, p spending.
Goldman, Dana P; Leibowitz, Arleen A; Robalino, David A
To determine the sensitivity of employees' health insurance decisions--including the decision to not choose health maintenance organization or fee-for-service coverage--during periods of rapidly escalating healthcare costs. A retrospective cohort study of employee plan choices at a single large firm with a "cafeteria-style" benefits plan wherein employees paid all the additional cost of purchasing more generous insurance. We modeled the probability that an employee would drop coverage or switch plans in response to employee premium increases using data from a single large US company with employees across 47 states during the 3-year period of 1989 through 1991, a time of large premium increases within and across plans. Premium increases induced substantial plan switching. Single employees were more likely to respond to premium increases by dropping coverage, whereas families tended to switch to another plan. Premium increases of 10% induced 7% of single employees to drop or severely cut back on coverage; 13% to switch to another plan; and 80% to remain in their existing plan. Similar figures for those with fa