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Sample records for insulin secretion insulin

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Peter R.; Bailey, Clifford J.

    1991-01-01

    Information and current ideas on the factors regulating insulin secretion, the mechanisms underlying the secretion and biological actions of insulin, and the main characteristics of diabetes mellitus are presented. (Author)

  2. Studies on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes in young Indians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, C.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. In the discrete genetic syndrome of NIDDY (non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the young), the situation is less clear and these aspects is the subject of this thesis. This study included Indian pasients with three generation transmission of NIDDM via one parent. The insulin and C-peptide responses to oral and intravenous glucose in patients with NIDDY were studied. The insulin and glucose responses to non-glucose secretogogues glucagon, tolbutamide and arginine, in NIDDY were also investigated. The following aspects with regard to insulin resistance in NIDDY were examined: glucose and free fatty acid response to intravenous insulin administration, insulin binding to circulating erythrocytes and monocytes, 125 I-insulin binding to the solubilized erythrocyte membrane receptor and 125 I-insulin binding to fibroblasts in culture

  3. Studies on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes in young Indians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, C

    1986-01-01

    Patients with Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. In the discrete genetic syndrome of NIDDY (non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the young), the situation is less clear and these aspects is the subject of this thesis. This study included Indian pasients with three generation transmission of NIDDM via one parent. The insulin and C-peptide responses to oral and intravenous glucose in patients with NIDDY were studied. The insulin and glucose responses to non-glucose secretogogues glucagon, tolbutamide and arginine, in NIDDY were also investigated. The following aspects with regard to insulin resistance in NIDDY were examined: glucose and free fatty acid response to intravenous insulin administration, insulin binding to circulating erythrocytes and monocytes, /sup 125/I-insulin binding to the solubilized erythrocyte membrane receptor and /sup 125/I-insulin binding to fibroblasts in culture.

  4. Insulin secretion and insulin action in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: which defect is primary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaven, G M

    1984-01-01

    Defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action exist in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The loss of the acute plasma insulin response to intravenous glucose is seen in patients with relatively mild degrees of fasting hyperglycemia, but patients with severe fasting hyperglycemia also demonstrate absolute hypoinsulinemia in response to an oral glucose challenge. In contrast, day-long circulating insulin levels are within normal limits even in severely hyperglycemic patients with NIDDM. The relationship between NIDDM and insulin action in NIDDM is less complex, and is a characteristic feature of the syndrome. This metabolic defect is independent of obesity, and the severity of the resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increases with magnitude of hyperglycemia. Control of hyperglycemia with exogenous insulin ameliorates the degree of insulin resistance, and reduction of insulin resistance with weight loss in obese patients with NIDDM leads to an enhanced insulin response. Since neither therapeutic intervention is capable of restoring all metabolic abnormalities to normal, these observations do not tell us which of these two defects is primarily responsible for the development of NIDDM. Similarly, the observation that most patients with impaired glucose tolerance are hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant does not prove that insulin resistance is the primary defect in NIDDM. In conclusion, reduction in both insulin secretion and action is seen in patients with NIDDM, and the relationship between these two metabolic abnormalities is very complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Insulin Share Tweet ... I start having side effects? What is my target blood sugar level? How often should I check ...

  6. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  7. The relationship between bone turnover and insulin sensitivity and secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Balkau, Beverley; Hatunic, Mensud

    2018-01-01

    Bone metabolism appears to influence insulin secretion and sensitivity, and insulin promotes bone formation in animals, but similar evidence in humans is limited. The objectives of this study are to explore if bone turnover markers were associated with insulin secretion and sensitivity and to det...

  8. Insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sae Jeong; Kim, Tae Nyun; Baik, Sei Hyun; Kim, Tae Sun; Lee, Kwan Woo; Nam, Moonsuk; Park, Yong Soo; Woo, Jeong-Teak; Kim, Young Seol; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-05-01

    The aim was to compare the insulin sensitivity and secretion index of pregnant Korean women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT; only one abnormal value according to the Carpenter and Coustan criteria), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,163 pregnant women with positive (1-hour plasma glucose ≥ 7.2 mmol/L) in a 50-g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT). The 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to stratify the participants into three groups: NGT (n = 588), GIGT (n = 294), and GDM (n = 281). The GDM group had higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity index (ISOGTT), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, homeostasis model assessment for estimation of index β-cell secretion (HOMA-B), first and second phase insulin secretion, and insulin secretion-sensitivity index (ISSI) than the NGT group (p ≤ 0.001 for all). Moreover, the GIGT group had lower ISOGTT, HOMA-B, first and second phase insulin secretion, and ISSI than the NGT group (p insulin secretion status than the 3-hour abnormal levels group. Korean women with GDM show impairments of both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In addition, GIGT is associated with both β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance.

  9. Insulin secretion and action in North Indian women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, G P; Almgren, P; Thaman, R G; Pal, A; Groop, L; Vaag, A; Prasad, R B; Brøns, C

    2017-10-01

    The relative roles(s) of impaired insulin secretion vs. insulin resistance in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus depend upon multiple risk factors and diagnostic criteria. Here, we explored their relative contribution to gestational diabetes as defined by the WHO 1999 (GDM1999) and adapted WHO 2013 (GDM2013) criteria, excluding the 1-h glucose value, in a high-risk Indian population from Punjab. Insulin secretion (HOMA2-B) and insulin action (HOMA2-IR) were assessed in 4665 Indian women with or without gestational diabetes defined by the GDM1999 or adapted GDM2013 criteria. Gestational diabetes defined using both criteria was associated with decreased insulin secretion compared with pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance. Women with gestational diabetes defined by the adapted GDM2013, but not GDM1999 criteria, were more insulin resistant than pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, and furthermore displayed lower insulin secretion than GDM1999 women. Urban habitat, illiteracy, high age and low BMI were independently associated with reduced insulin secretion, whereas Sikh religion, increasing age and BMI, as well as a family history of diabetes were independently associated with increased insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes risk factors influence insulin secretion and action in North Indian women in a differential manner. Gestational diabetes classified using the adapted GDM2013 compared with GDM1999 criteria is associated with more severe impairments of insulin secretion and action. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  10. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; de Jonge, P.; Nolan, J.J.; Mari, A.; Højlund, K.; Golay, A.; Balkau, B.; Dekker, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. Methods The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity

  11. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; De Jonge, P.; Nolan, J. J.; Mari, A.; Hojlund, K.; Golay, A.; Balkau, B.; Dekker, J. M.

    Aim. This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. Methods. The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity

  12. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, M; Pouwer, F; De Jonge, P

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk (RISC) study. Presence of significant depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score ≥ 16. Standard oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the oral glucose insulin......AIM: This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. METHODS: The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin...... sensitivity (OGIS) index. Insulin secretion was estimated using three model-based parameters of insulin secretion (beta-cell glucose sensitivity, the potentiation factor ratio, and beta-cell rate sensitivity). RESULTS: A total of 162 out of 1027 participants (16%) had significant depressive symptoms. Having...

  13. Radioimmunologic study of insulin secretion during acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkalaya, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    Insulin secretion in irradiated (750 R) albino rats has been studied radioimmunologically. The data obtained were correlated with the corticosterone and glucose contents of blood. It has been shown that there is a risk of relative incompetence of insulin secretion during the hypercorticoidism and hyperglycemia

  14. Radioimmunologic study of insulin secretion during acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalaya, A I

    1977-01-01

    Insulin secretion in irradiated (750 R) albino rats has been studied radioimmunologically. The data obtained were correlated with the corticosterone and glucose contents of blood. It has been shown that there is a risk of relative incompetence of insulin secretion during the hypercorticoidism and hyperglycemia.

  15. Insulin secretion and action in North Indian women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, G P; Almgren, P; Thaman, R G

    2017-01-01

    . RESULTS: Gestational diabetes defined using both criteria was associated with decreased insulin secretion compared with pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance. Women with gestational diabetes defined by the adapted GDM2013, but not GDM1999 criteria, were more insulin resistant than pregnant women......AIM: The relative roles(s) of impaired insulin secretion vs. insulin resistance in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus depend upon multiple risk factors and diagnostic criteria. Here, we explored their relative contribution to gestational diabetes as defined by the WHO 1999 (GDM1999...... independently associated with increased insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational diabetes risk factors influence insulin secretion and action in North Indian women in a differential manner. Gestational diabetes classified using the adapted GDM2013 compared with GDM1999 criteria is associated with more...

  16. Evaluation of insulin secretion and action in New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firshman, Anna M; Cebra, Christopher K; Schanbacher, Barbara J; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2013-01-01

    To measure and compare insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy alpacas and llamas via glucose clamping techniques. 8 llamas and 8 alpacas. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping (HEC) and hyperglycemic clamping (HGC) were performed on each camelid in a crossover design with a minimum 48-hour washout period between clamping procedures. The HEC technique was performed to measure insulin sensitivity. Insulin was infused IV at 6 mU/min/kg for 4 hours, and an IV infusion of glucose was adjusted to maintain blood glucose concentration at 150 mg/dL. Concentrations of blood glucose and plasma insulin were determined throughout. The HGC technique was performed to assess insulin secretion in response to exogenous glucose infusion. An IV infusion of glucose was administered to maintain blood glucose concentration at 320 mg/dL for 3 hours, and concentrations of blood glucose and plasma insulin were determined throughout. Alpacas and llamas were not significantly different with respect to whole-body insulin sensitivity during HEC or in pancreatic β-cell response during HGC. Alpacas and llamas had markedly lower insulin sensitivity during HEC and markedly lower pancreatic β-cell response during HGC, in comparison with many other species. New World camelids had lower glucose-induced insulin secretion and marked insulin resistance in comparison with other species. This likely contributes to the disorders of fat and glucose metabolism that are common to camelids.

  17. Effect of Avocado Soybean Unsaponifiables on Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Martínez-Abundis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in patients with obesity. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was carried out in 14 obese adult volunteers. After random allocation of the intervention, 7 patients received 300 mg of ASU or placebo during a fasting state for 3 months. A metabolic profile including IL-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels was carried out prior to the intervention. A hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was used to assess insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity phases. Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test were performed for statistical analyses. The study was approved by the local ethics committee of our institution. Results: At baseline, both groups were similar according to clinical and laboratory characteristics. There was no significant difference in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity with ASU. Conclusions: ASU administration for 3 months did not modify insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in patients with obesity.

  18. Possible modulatory effect of endogenous islet catecholamines on insulin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardino Juan J

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possible participation of endogenous islet catecholamines (CAs in the control of insulin secretion was tested. Methods Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in the presence of 3-Iodo-L-Tyrosine (MIT, a specific inhibitor of tyrosine-hydroxylase activity, in fresh and precultured islets isolated from normal rats. Incubated islets were also used to measure CAs release in the presence of low and high glucose, and the effect of α2-(yohimbine [Y] and idazoxan [I] and α1-adrenergic antagonists (prazosin [P] and terazosin [T] upon insulin secretion elicited by high glucose. Results Fresh islets incubated with 16.7 mM glucose released significantly more insulin in the presence of 1 μM MIT (6.66 ± 0.39 vs 5.01 ± 0.43 ng/islet/h, p Conclusion Our results suggest that islet-originated CAs directly modulate insulin release in a paracrine manner.

  19. effect of low glycaemic index meals on insulin secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Chicago, IL, USA). Data was presented as mean plus .... carbohydrate along a longer portion of the small intestine ... insulin secretion despite producing relatively small .... Laaksonen, D E, Lindström, J, Lakka, T.A, Eriksson,.

  20. Influence of Flavonoids on Mechanism of Modulation of Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana Mikaelly Dias; Pereira Leal, Ana Ediléia Barbosa; Silva, Juliane Cabral; Almeida, Jackson R G S; de Oliveira, Helinando Pequeno

    2017-01-01

    The development of alternatives for insulin secretion control in vivo or in vitro represents an important aspect to be investigated. In this direction, natural products have been progressively explored with this aim. In particular, flavonoids are potential candidates to act as insulin secretagogue. To study the influence of flavonoid on overall modulation mechanisms of insulin secretion. The research was conducted in the following databases and platforms: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and ScienceDirect, and the MeSH terms used for the search were flavonoids, flavones, islets of Langerhans, and insulin-secreting cells. Twelve articles were included and represent the basis of discussion on mechanisms of insulin secretion of flavonoids. Papers in ISI Web of Knowledge were in number of 1, Scopus 44, PubMed 264, ScienceDirect 511, and no papers from LILACS and SciELO databases. According to the literature, the majority of flavonoid subclasses can modulate insulin secretion through several pathways, in an indication that corresponding molecule is a potential candidate for active materials to be applied in the treatment of diabetes. The action of natural products on insulin secretion represents an important investigation topic due to their importance in the diabetes controlIn addition to their typical antioxidant properties, flavonoids contribute to the insulin secretionThe modulation of insulin secretion is induced by flavonoids according to different mechanisms. Abbreviations used: K ATP channels: ATP-sensitive K + channels, GLUT4: Glucose transporter 4, ERK1/2: Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2, L-VDCCs: L-type voltage-dependent Ca +2 channels, GLUT1: Glucose transporter 1, AMPK: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, PTP1B: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, GLUT2: Glucose transporter 2, cAMP: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, PKA: Protein kinase A, PTK: Protein tyrosine kinase, CaMK II: Ca 2+ /calmodulin

  1. Impaired insulin secretion in the spontaneous diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K; Toyota, T; Kakizaki, M; Kudo, M; Takebe, K; Goto, Y

    1982-08-01

    Dynamics of insulin and glucagon secretion were investigated by using a new model of spontaneous diabetes rats produced by the repetition of selective breeding in our laboratories. The perfusion experiments of the pancreas showed that the early phase of insulin secretion to continuous stimulation with glucose was specifically impaired, although the response of the early phase to arginine was preserved. The glucose-induced insulin secretion in the nineth generation (F8) which had a more remarkably impaired glucose tolerance was more reduced than in the sixth generation (F5). No significant difference of glucagon secretion in response to arginine or norepinephrine was noted between the diabetes rats and control ones. The present data indicate that the defective insulin secretion is a primary derangement in a diabetic state of the spontaneous diabetes rat. This defect in the early phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion suggests the specific impairment of the recognition of glucose by the pancreatic beta-cells. The spontaneous diabetes rats are very useful as a model of disease for investigating pathophysiology of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  2. Neurotrophin Signaling Is Required for Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtz, Jessica; Borden, Philip; Ceasrine, Alexis; Minichiello, Liliana; Kuruvilla, Rejji

    2016-11-07

    Insulin secretion by pancreatic islet β cells is critical for glucose homeostasis, and a blunted β cell secretory response is an early deficit in type 2 diabetes. Here, we uncover a regulatory mechanism by which glucose recruits vascular-derived neurotrophins to control insulin secretion. Nerve growth factor (NGF), a classical trophic factor for nerve cells, is expressed in pancreatic vasculature while its TrkA receptor is localized to islet β cells. High glucose rapidly enhances NGF secretion and increases TrkA phosphorylation in mouse and human islets. Tissue-specific deletion of NGF or TrkA, or acute disruption of TrkA signaling, impairs glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in mice. We show that internalized TrkA receptors promote insulin granule exocytosis via F-actin reorganization. Furthermore, NGF treatment augments glucose-induced insulin secretion in human islets. These findings reveal a non-neuronal role for neurotrophins and identify a new regulatory pathway in insulin secretion that can be targeted to ameliorate β cell dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Insulin secretion and glucose uptake by isolated islets of the hamster. Effect of insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J C; McLaughlin, W J; Walsh, M F.J.; Foa, P P [Sinai Hospital of Detroit, Mich. (USA). Dept. of Research

    1976-01-01

    Isolated pancreatic islets of normal hamsters were perfused either in a closed or in a open system. When the buffer was recirculated and the endogenous insulin was allowed to accumulate, the islets secreted significantly less insulin than when the system was open and the endogenous insulin was washed away. The addition of monocomponent insulin or of proinsulin to the perfusion buffer significantly decreased insulin secretion. The inhibitory action of proinsulin was significantly greater than that of monocomponent insulin. C peptide had no effect. When pancreatic islets were incubated in a fixed volume of stationary buffer containing unlabeled glucose (1.0 mg or 3.0 mg/ml) and glucose-U-/sup 14/C (1.0 ..mu..C/ml), the amount of insulin secreted and the /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ produced by each islet decreased progressively as the number of islets in the sample increased. Under these conditions, the concentration of insulin required to inhibit insulin secretion increased with the concentration of glucose in the medium. Proinsulin did not alter the incorporation of leucine-4.5-/sup 3/H into total extractable insulin (insulin + proinsulin). Thus, insulin and proinsulin appear to inhibit insulin release, but not insulin synthesis.

  4. Using Glucose Tolerance Tests to Model Insulin Secretion and Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shannon

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies described in this paper is to develop theoretically and to validate experimentally mathematical compartment models which can be used to predict plasma insulin levels in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. In the case of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, the C-peptide levels in the plasma were measured as part of routine glucose tolerance tests in order to estimate the prehepatic insulin secretion rates. In the case of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM, a radioactive labelled insulin was used to measure the absorption rate of insulin after a subcutaneous injection of insulin. Both models gave close fits between theoretical estimates and experimental data, and, unlike other models, it is not necessary to seed these models with initial estimates.

  5. Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion at birth in intrauterine growth retarded infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Sajita; Sridhar, M G; Bhat, Vishnu; Chaturvedula, Lata; Vinayagamoorti, R; John, Mathew

    2006-06-01

    To study insulin sensitivity, secretion and relation of insulin levels with birth weight and ponderal index in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) infants at birth. We studied 30 IUGR and 30 healthy newborns born at term by vaginal delivery in Jipmer, Pondicherry, India. Cord blood was collected at the time of delivery for measurement of plasma glucose and insulin. When compared with healthy newborns, IUGR newborns had lower plasma glucose levels (mean 2.3+/-0.98 versus 4.1+/-0.51 mmol/L, p<0.001); lower plasma insulin levels (mean 4.5+/-2.64 versus 11.03+/-1.68 microU/L, p<0.001); higher insulin sensitivity calculated using G/I ratio (mean 11.6+/-5.1 versus 6.7+/-0.31, p<0.001), HOMA IS (mean 5.5+/-6.0 versus 0.53+/-0.15, p<0.001), and QUICKI (mean 0.47+/-0.12 versus 0.34+/-0.02, p<0.001); and decreased pancreatic beta-cell function test measured as I/G (mean 0.10+/-0.037 versus 0.15+/-0.006, p<0.001). A positive correlation was identified between insulin levels and birth weight in both the healthy control group (r2 = 0.17, p = 0.024) and IUGR group (r2 = 0.13, p = 0.048). However correlation of insulin levels with ponderal index was much more confident in both healthy control (r2 = 0.90, p<0.001) and IUGR groups (r2 = 0.28, p = 0.003). Insulin status correlated both with birth weight and ponderal index more confidently in control group than in IUGR group. At birth, IUGR infants are hypoglycaemic, hypoinsulinaemic and display increased insulin sensitivity and decreased pancreatic beta-cell function. Insulin levels correlate with ponderal index much more confidently than with birth weight.

  6. Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Paska A.; Menge, Christopher; Reaven, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-κB inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity

  7. Calcineurin inhibitors acutely improve insulin sensitivity without affecting insulin secretion in healthy human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzbay, Aygen; Møller, Niels; Juhl, Claus

    2012-01-01

    and tacrolimus has been attributed to both beta cell dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This is the first trial to investigate beta cell function and insulin sensitivity using gold standard methodology in healthy human volunteers treated with clinically relevant doses...... of ciclosporin and tacrolimus. We document that both drugs acutely increase insulin sensitivity, while first phase and pulsatile insulin secretion remain unaffected. This study demonstrates that ciclosporin and tacrolimus have similar acute effects on glucose metabolism in healthy humans. AIM The introduction...... of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) ciclosporin (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) has improved the outcome of organ transplants, but complications such as new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) cause impairment of survival rates. The relative contribution of each CNI to the pathogenesis and development...

  8. Dietary Sodium Restriction Decreases Insulin Secretion Without Affecting Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Loretta M.; Yu, Chang; Wang, Thomas J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear. Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or exogenous aldosterone impairs insulin secretion in humans. Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Healthy, nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers. Interventions: Infusion of exogenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg/h for 12.5 h) or vehicle during low or high sodium intake. Low sodium (20 mmol/d; n = 12) vs high sodium (160 mmol/d; n = 17) intake for 5–7 days. Main Outcome Measures: Change in acute insulin secretory response assessed during hyperglycemic clamps while in sodium balance during a low-sodium vs high-sodium diet during aldosterone vs vehicle. Results: A low-sodium diet increased endogenous aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and acute glucose-stimulated insulin (−16.0 ± 5.6%; P = .007) and C-peptide responses (−21.8 ± 8.4%; P = .014) were decreased, whereas the insulin sensitivity index was unchanged (−1.0 ± 10.7%; P = .98). Aldosterone infusion did not affect the acute insulin response (+1.8 ± 4.8%; P = .72) or insulin sensitivity index (+2.0 ± 8.8%; P = .78). Systolic blood pressure and serum potassium were similar during low and high sodium intake and during aldosterone infusion. Conclusions: Low dietary sodium intake reduces insulin secretion in humans, independent of insulin sensitivity. PMID:25029426

  9. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in space flight: diabetogenic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly three decades of space flight research have suggested that there are subclinical diabetogenic changes that occur in microgravity. Alterations in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolism of protein and amino acids support the hypothesis that insulin plays an essential role in the maintenance of muscle mass in extended-duration space flight. Experiments in flight and after flight and ground-based bedrest studies have associated microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of diabetes, physical inactivity, and aging. We propose that these manifestations are characterized best by an etiology that falls into the clinical category of "other" causes of diabetes, including, but not restricted to, genetic beta-cell defects, insulin action defects, diseases of the endocrine pancreas, endocrinopathies, drug or chemically induced diabetes, infections, immune-mediated metabolic alteration, and a host of genetic related diseases. We present data showing alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, insulin secretion, and amino acid metabolism in pancreatic islets of Langerhans cultured in a ground-based cell culture bioreactor that mimics some of the effects of microgravity. Taken together, space flight research, ground-based studies, and bioreactor studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans support the hypothesis that the pancreas is unable to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and amino acid dysregulation during space flight. We propose that measures of insulin secretion and insulin action will be necessary to design effective countermeasures against muscle loss, and we advance the "disposition index" as an essential model to be used in the clinical management of space flight-induced muscle loss.

  10. Insulin-like growth factor-1 is a negative modulator of glucagon secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, Elettra; Mannino, Gaia C.; Fatta, Concetta Di; Fuoco, Anastasia; Spiga, Rosangela; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Glucagon secretion involves a combination of paracrine, autocrine, hormonal, and autonomic neural mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes often presents impaired glucagon suppression by insulin and glucose. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) has elevated homology with insulin, and regulates pancreatic ?-cells insulin secretion. Insulin and IGF-1 receptors share considerable structure homology and function. We hypothesized the existence of a mechanism linking the inhibition of ?-cells glucagon secretion...

  11. Importance of radioimmunoassay of insulin secretion disorder as atherogenic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, Yu A; Bespalova, V A; Vakhrusheva, L L; Kirbasova, N P; Severtseva, V V

    1984-11-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay a C-peptide levei was revealed in children, pregnant and lying-in women as well as in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. After breakfast and insulin administration wich curative purposes the IRI concentration in children increased whereas the C-peptide level changed insignificantly. Changes of the insulin secretion were more noticeable in severe diabetes mejlitus with vascular complications and in disease decompensation. The atherogenic nature of the lipid metaboiism (an increase in the cholesterol, triglyceride and ..beta..-lipoprotein levels), changes in the liver and tendency to vascular involvement are results of insulin effect inadequacy. Such metabolic derangements in pregnant women create unfavorable conditions for the development of fetus and may lead to early atherogenic processes.

  12. Hormone-sensitive lipase null mice exhibit signs of impaired insulin sensitivity whereas insulin secretion is intact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulder, Hindrik; Sörhede-Winzell, Maria; Contreras, Juan Antonio

    2003-01-01

    of increased amounts of insulin. Impaired insulin sensitivity was further indicated by retarded glucose disposal during an insulin tolerance test. A euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp revealed that hepatic glucose production was insufficiently blocked by insulin in HSL null mice. In vitro, insulin......-stimulated glucose uptake into soleus muscle, and lipogenesis in adipocytes were moderately reduced, suggesting additional sites of insulin resistance. Morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets revealed a doubling of beta-cell mass in HSL null mice, which is consistent with an adaptation to insulin resistance....... Insulin secretion in vitro, examined by perifusion of isolated islets, was not impacted by HSL deficiency. Thus, HSL deficiency results in a moderate impairment of insulin sensitivity in multiple target tissues of the hormone but is compensated by hyperinsulinemia....

  13. Specific insulin and proinsulin secretion in glucokinase-deficient individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Pardini

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucokinase (GCK is an enzyme that regulates insulin secretion, keeping glucose levels within a narrow range. Mutations in the glucokinase gene cause a rare form of diabetes called maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY. An early onset (less than 25 years, autosomal dominant inheritance and low insulin secretion stimulated by glucose characterize MODY patients. Specific insulin and proinsulin were measured in serum by immunofluorimetric assays (IFMA during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Two kindreds (SA and LZ were studied and compared to non-diabetic unrelated individuals (control group 1 matched for age and body mass index (BMI. In one kindred, some of these subjects were also obese (BMI >26 kg/m2, and other family members also presented with obesity and/or late-onset NIDDM. The MODY patients were also compared to a group of five of their first-degree relatives with obesity and/or late-onset NIDDM. The proinsulin profile was different in members of the two MODY kindreds. Fasting proinsulin and the proinsulin/insulin ratio were similar in MODY members of kindred LZ and subjects from control group 1, but were significantly lower than in MODY members of kindred SA (P<0.02 and P<0.01, for proinsulin and proinsulin/insulin ratio, respectively. Moreover, MODY members of family SA had higher levels of proinsulin and proinsulin/insulin ratio, although not significantly different, when compared to their first-degree relatives and to subjects from control group 2. In conclusion, we observed variable degrees of proinsulin levels and proinsulin/insulin ratio in MODY members of two different kindreds. The higher values of these parameters found in MODY and non-MODY members of kindred SA is probably related to the obesity and late-onset NIDDM background present in this family.

  14. Induction of insulin secretion in engineered liver cells by nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Sabire

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus results from an autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin. The lack of insulin leads to chronic hyperglycemia and secondary complications, such as cardiovascular disease. The currently approved clinical treatments for diabetes mellitus often fail to achieve sustained and optimal glycemic control. Therefore, there is a great interest in the development of surrogate beta cells as a treatment for type 1 diabetes. Normally, pancreatic beta cells produce and secrete insulin only in response to increased blood glucose levels. However in many cases, insulin secretion from non-beta cells engineered to produce insulin occurs in a glucose-independent manner. In the present study we engineered liver cells to produce and secrete insulin and insulin secretion can be stimulated via the nitric oxide pathway. Results Expression of either human insulin or the beta cell specific transcription factors PDX-1, NeuroD1 and MafA in the Hepa1-6 cell line or primary liver cells via adenoviral gene transfer, results in production and secretion of insulin. Although, the secretion of insulin is not significantly increased in response to high glucose, treatment of these engineered liver cells with L-arginine stimulates insulin secretion up to three-fold. This L-arginine-mediated insulin release is dependent on the production of nitric oxide. Conclusion Liver cells can be engineered to produce insulin and insulin secretion can be induced by treatment with L-arginine via the production of nitric oxide.

  15. A Unifying Organ Model of Pancreatic Insulin Secretion.

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    Andrea De Gaetano

    Full Text Available The secretion of insulin by the pancreas has been the object of much attention over the past several decades. Insulin is known to be secreted by pancreatic β-cells in response to hyperglycemia: its blood concentrations however exhibit both high-frequency (period approx. 10 minutes and low-frequency oscillations (period approx. 1.5 hours. Furthermore, characteristic insulin secretory response to challenge maneuvers have been described, such as frequency entrainment upon sinusoidal glycemic stimulation; substantial insulin peaks following minimal glucose administration; progressively strengthened insulin secretion response after repeated administration of the same amount of glucose; insulin and glucose characteristic curves after Intra-Venous administration of glucose boli in healthy and pre-diabetic subjects as well as in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Previous modeling of β-cell physiology has been mainly directed to the intracellular chain of events giving rise to single-cell or cell-cluster hormone release oscillations, but the large size, long period and complex morphology of the diverse responses to whole-body glucose stimuli has not yet been coherently explained. Starting with the seminal work of Grodsky it was hypothesized that the population of pancreatic β-cells, possibly functionally aggregated in islets of Langerhans, could be viewed as a set of independent, similar, but not identical controllers (firing units with distributed functional parameters. The present work shows how a single model based on a population of independent islet controllers can reproduce very closely a diverse array of actually observed experimental results, with the same set of working parameters. The model's success in reproducing a diverse array of experiments implies that, in order to understand the macroscopic behaviour of the endocrine pancreas in regulating glycemia, there is no need to hypothesize intrapancreatic pacemakers, influences between different

  16. Effect of Artemisia dracunculus Administration on Glycemic Control, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Del Villar, Miriam; Puebla-Pérez, Ana M; Sánchez-Peña, María J; González-Ortiz, Luis J; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of Artemisia dracunculus on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 24 patients with diagnosis of IGT. Before and after the intervention, glucose and insulin levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h after a 75-g dextrose load, along with glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and lipid profile. Twelve patients received A. dracunculus (1000 mg) before breakfast and dinner for 90 days; the remaining 12 patients received placebo. Area under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion, first phase of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analyses. The institutional ethics committee approved the protocol. After A. dracunculus administration, there were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (SBP; 120.0 ± 11.3 vs. 113.0 ± 11.2 mmHg, P AUC of insulin (56,136.0 ± 27,426.0 vs. 44,472.0 ± 23,370.0 pmol/L, P AUC of insulin, and total insulin secretion with a significant increase in HDL-C levels.

  17. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.M.; Van Eetvelde, M.; Bogaert, H.; Hostens, M.; Vandaele, L.; Shamsuddin, M.; Opsomer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves. Birth weight and gestational age of the calves at delivery were determined. On the next day, heart girth, wither height and diagonal length of both the calves and their dams were measured. Parity, body condition score and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open before last gestation, lactation length (LL), lenght of dry period (DP) and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation curve both quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights, were used to calculate the amount of milk produced during gestation. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. A blood sample was collected from all calves (n=481; 169 born to heifers and 312 born to cows) at least 5 h after a milk meal on day 3 of life to measure basal glucose and insulin levels. In addition, an intravenous glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test was performed in a subset of the calves (n=316). After descriptive analysis, generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors that were significantly associated with the major insulin traits (Insb, basal insulin level; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; AIR, acute insulin response; DI, disposition index) of the newborn calves. The overall average birth weight of the calves was 42.7 ± 5.92 kg. The insulin traits were significantly associated with MGEST (P=0.076) and longer DP (P=0.034). The QUICKI was estimated to be lower in calves born to the cows having passed a higher MGEST (P=0.030) and longer DP (P=0.058). Moreover, the AIR (P=0.009) and DI (P=0.049) were estimated to be lower in male compared with female calves. Furthermore, the AIR

  18. The Role of Taste in Cephalic Phase of Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dušková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a short gustatory signal of a sweet solution was tested on 15 young male volunteers. The experiment consisted of mouth rinsing with either a sucrose or aspartate solution or pure water as a placebo. Blood was then taken in short intervals of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. Blood glucose, C-peptide, insulin and cortisol were determined. While C-peptide and glucose were unaffected, a short-term increase in insulin was observed after the sucrose, but not after the aspartate or placebo. The increase in insulin was significant, though it amounted to only 0.5 mIU/l and lasted approx. 15 min reaching then the starting value. The decline of cortisol level within 20 min of the experiment was approx. 40 nmol/l, although it was also observed after aspartate or placebo mouth rinsing and was probably caused by stress factors or anticipation. In conclusion, the contribution of taste to the cephalic phase of insulin secretion is small yet significant, and mouth rinsing with 5% sucrose causes an insulin increase of just under 1 IU/l, which returns to starting level within 15 min.

  19. Impaired insulin secretion and glucose intolerance in synaptotagmin-7 null mutant mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Lao, Ye; Maximov, Anton

    2008-01-01

    and insulin release. Here, we show that synaptotagmin-7 is required for the maintenance of systemic glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Mutant mice have normal insulin sensitivity, insulin production, islet architecture and ultrastructural organization, and metabolic and calcium...... secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Of these other synaptotagmins, synaptotagmin-7 is one of the most abundant and is present in pancreatic beta-cells. To determine whether synaptotagmin-7 regulates Ca(2+)-dependent insulin secretion, we analyzed synaptotagmin-7 null mutant mice for glucose tolerance...... responses but exhibit impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion, indicating a calcium-sensing defect during insulin-containing secretory granule exocytosis. Taken together, our findings show that synaptotagmin-7 functions as a positive regulator of insulin secretion and may serve as a calcium sensor...

  20. Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in South Asian and white individuals before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca K; Brunner, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: South Asian individuals have reduced insulin sensitivity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared with white individuals. Temporal changes in glycaemic traits during middle age suggest that impaired insulin secretion is a particular feature of diabetes development among South...... Asians. We therefore aimed to examine ethnic differences in early changes in glucose metabolism prior to incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a prospective British occupational cohort, subject to 5 yearly clinical examinations, we examined ethnic differences in trajectories of fasting plasma glucose...... (FPG), 2 h post-load plasma glucose (2hPG), fasting serum insulin (FSI), 2 h post-load serum insulin (2hSI), HOMA of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-S) and secretion (HOMA2-B), and the Gutt insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120) among 120 South Asian and 867 white participants who developed diabetes during...

  1. [Changes in the secretion of somatotropin and insulin in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnini, F; Peracchi, M; Panerai, A E; Pinto, M

    1975-06-01

    Twenty hyperthyroid patients were investigated for growth hormone (GH) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) secretion in response to insulin hypoglycaemia, arginine infusion and glucose-induced hyperglycaemia. GH response to either insulin hypoglycaemia or arginine infusion was significantly reduced in these patients compared with 20 normal subjects. Thyrotoxic patients also displayed an abnormal GH pattern after a 100 g oral glucose load: in fact, serum GH underwent a paradoxical increase in spite of abnormally high levels attained by blood glucose. IRI secretion was also clearly reduced in response to arginine infusion and moderately blunted after oral glucose. In a group of patients re-evaluated under euthyroid conditions, a fair increase of GH response to the provocative stimuli jointly with the restoration of a normal suppressibility of serum GH by glucose were noted; by contrast, no significant change of IRI response to arginine or glucose took place. Likewise, the impairment of glucose tolerance was not improved. These findings indicate that an impairment of GH and IRI secretion is present in hyperthyroidism. The possibility that a potentiation of the catecholamine effects caused by the thyroid hormones is involved in this alteration deserves consideration.

  2. Heterogeneity and compartmental properties of insulin storage and secretion in rat islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, G.; Landahl, H.D.; Gishizky, M.L.; Grodsky, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate compartmental properties of insulin storage and secretion, isolated rat islets were used for pulse-labeling experiments, after which proinsulin and insulin were purified rigorously. Processing of proinsulin to insulin neared completion by 3 h without additional loss of either radioactive peptide by cellular or extracellular proteolysis. The amount of labeled hormone rapidly diminished in islets; it was secreted at a higher fractional rate than immunoreactive insulin, resulting in secreted insulin's having a higher specific activity than the average cellular insulin. Newly synthesized insulin, therefore, was secreted preferentially. Changes in the specific activity of secreted and cellular insulin with time were consistent with changes predicted for islets containing 33% of their total insulin in a glucose-labile compartment. Predictions were based on steady-state analysis of a simple storage-limited representation of B cell function. Islets from either the dorsal or ventral part of the pancreas also contained 33% of their total insulin in a glucose-labile compartment. The same compartment was mobilized by 20 mM glucose, 50 mM potassium + 2 mM glucose, or 20 MM glucose + 1 mM 3-isobutylmethylxanthine as indicated by the specific activity ratio of secreted vs. cellular insulin, even though average secretion rates with these stimuli differed by more than threefold. In the absence of calcium, the effectiveness of 20 mM glucose as a secretagogue declined markedly, and the older stored insulin was preferentially mobilized because secreted insulin had a lower rather than a higher specific activity than cellular insulin. Results provide insight into the mechanisms of nonrandom mobilization and secretion of insulin form the B cell

  3. Insulin sensitivity and secretion in Arab Americans with glucose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinitri, Francine D; Pinelli, Nicole R; Martin, Emily T; Jaber, Linda A

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the pathophysiological abnormalities in Arab Americans with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of insulin secretion (HOMA-%β), and the Matsuda Insulin Sensitivity Index composite (ISIcomposite) were calculated from the fasting and stimulated glucose and insulin concentrations measured during the oral glucose tolerance test in a population-based, representative, cross-sectional sample of randomly selected Arab Americans. In total, 497 individuals (42±14 years old; 40% males; body mass index [BMI], 29±6 kg/m(2)) were studied. Multivariate linear regression models were performed to compare HOMA-IR, HOMA-%β, and ISIcomposite among individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=191) versus isolated IFG (n=136), isolated IGT (n=22), combined IFG/IGT (n=43), and diabetes (n=105). Compared with individuals with NGT (2.9±1.6), HOMA-IR progressively increased in individuals with isolated IFG (4.8±2.7, Psex and BMI, these associations remained unchanged. Whole-body insulin sensitivity as measured by ISIcomposite was significantly lower in individuals with isolated IFG (3.9±2.3, Psex, and BMI, isolated IFG (146.6±80.2) was also significantly associated with a decline in HOMA-%β relative to NGT (P=0.005). This study suggests that differences in the underlying metabolic defects leading to diabetes in Arab Americans with IFG and/or IGT exist and may require different strategies for the prevention of diabetes.

  4. Natural history of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the progression from normal glucose tolerance to impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, Kristine; Vaag, Allan; Holst, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS), early-phase insulin release (EPIR), and insulin secretion relative to insulin action (disposition index) were estimated. RESULTS: Five years before the pre-diabetes diagnoses (i-IFG, i-IGT, and IFG/IGT), ISI, HOMA-IS, EPIR, and disposition index were lower than...

  5. Incretins, insulin secretion and Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens Møller

    2004-01-01

    the genes encoding their receptors have been deleted. In patients with Type 2 diabetes, the incretin effect is either greatly impaired or absent, and it is assumed that this could contribute to the inability of these patients to adjust their insulin secretion to their needs. In studies of the mechanism...... of the impaired incretin effect in Type 2 diabetic patients, it has been found that the secretion of GIP is generally normal, whereas the secretion of GLP-1 is reduced, presumably as a consequence of the diabetic state. It might be of even greater importance that the effect of GLP-1 is preserved whereas...... the effect of GIP is severely impaired. The impaired GIP effect seems to have a genetic background, but could be aggravated by the diabetic state. The preserved effect of GLP-1 has inspired attempts to treat Type 2 diabetes with GLP-1 or analogues thereof, and intravenous GLP-1 administration has been shown...

  6. Incretins, insulin secretion and Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, T; Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    the effect of GIP is severely impaired. The impaired GIP effect seems to have a genetic background, but could be aggravated by the diabetic state. The preserved effect of GLP-1 has inspired attempts to treat Type 2 diabetes with GLP-1 or analogues thereof, and intravenous GLP-1 administration has been shown...... the genes encoding their receptors have been deleted. In patients with Type 2 diabetes, the incretin effect is either greatly impaired or absent, and it is assumed that this could contribute to the inability of these patients to adjust their insulin secretion to their needs. In studies of the mechanism...... of the impaired incretin effect in Type 2 diabetic patients, it has been found that the secretion of GIP is generally normal, whereas the secretion of GLP-1 is reduced, presumably as a consequence of the diabetic state. It might be of even greater importance that the effect of GLP-1 is preserved whereas...

  7. Endocrine determinants of changes in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion during a weight cycle in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Karschin

    Full Text Available Changes in insulin sensitivity (IS and insulin secretion occur with perturbations in energy balance and glycemic load (GL of the diet that may precede the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Determinants of changes in IS and insulin secretion with weight cycling in non-obese healthy subjects remain unclear.In a 6wk controlled 2-stage randomized dietary intervention 32 healthy men (26±4y, BMI: 24±2kg/m2 followed 1wk of overfeeding (OF, 3wks of caloric restriction (CR containing either 50% or 65% carbohydrate (CHO and 2wks of refeeding (RF with the same amount of CHO but either low or high glycaemic index at ±50% energy requirement. Measures of IS (basal: HOMA-index, postprandial: Matsuda-ISI, insulin secretion (early: Stumvoll-index, total: tAUC-insulin/tAUC-glucose and potential endocrine determinants (ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, thyroid hormone levels, 24h-urinary catecholamine excretion were assessed.IS improved and insulin secretion decreased due to CR and normalized upon RF. Weight loss-induced improvements in basal and postprandial IS were associated with decreases in leptin and increases in ghrelin levels, respectively (r = 0.36 and r = 0.62, p<0.05. Weight regain-induced decrease in postprandial IS correlated with increases in adiponectin, fT3, TSH, GL of the diet and a decrease in ghrelin levels (r-values between -0.40 and 0.83, p<0.05 whereas increases in early and total insulin secretion were associated with a decrease in leptin/adiponectin-ratio (r = -0.52 and r = -0.46, p<0.05 and a decrease in fT4 (r = -0.38, p<0.05 for total insulin secretion only. After controlling for GL associations between RF-induced decrease in postprandial IS and increases in fT3 and TSH levels were no longer significant.Weight cycling induced changes in IS and insulin secretion were associated with changes in all measured hormones, except for catecholamine excretion. While leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin seem to be the major

  8. Mitochondrial GTP Regulates Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Kibbey, Richard G.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Romanelli, Anthony J.; Wollheim, Claes B.; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Substrate-level mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) and ATP (mtATP) synthesis occurs by nucleotide-specific isoforms of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme succinyl CoA synthetase (SCS). Unlike mtATP, each molecule of glucose metabolized produces approximately one mtGTP in pancreatic β-cells independent of coupling with oxidative phosphorylation making mtGTP a potentially important fuel signal. siRNA suppression of the GTP-producing pathway (ΔSCS-GTP) reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ...

  9. Measuring phospholipase D activity in insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and insulin-responsive muscle cells and adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzolli, Rosanna; Huang, Ping; Teng, Shuzhi; Hughes, William E

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is an enzyme producing phosphatidic acid and choline through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. The enzyme has been identified as a member of a variety of signal transduction cascades and as a key regulator of numerous intracellular vesicle trafficking processes. A role for PLD in regulating glucose homeostasis is emerging as the enzyme has recently been identified in events regulating exocytosis of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells and also in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake through controlling GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis in muscle and adipose tissue. We present methodologies for assessing cellular PLD activity in secretagogue-stimulated insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and also insulin-stimulated adipocyte and muscle cells, two of the principal insulin-responsive cell types controlling blood glucose levels.

  10. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens J

    2003-01-01

    We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...... Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux......, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but...

  11. Closing in on the Mechanisms of Pulsatile Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Richard; Satin, Leslie S; Sherman, Arthur S

    2018-03-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells occurs in a pulsatile fashion, with a typical period of ∼5 min. The basis of this pulsatility in mouse islets has been investigated for more than four decades, and the various theories have been described as either qualitative or mathematical models. In many cases the models differ in their mechanisms for rhythmogenesis, as well as other less important details. In this Perspective, we describe two main classes of models: those in which oscillations in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration drive oscillations in metabolism, and those in which intrinsic metabolic oscillations drive oscillations in Ca 2+ concentration and electrical activity. We then discuss nine canonical experimental findings that provide key insights into the mechanism of islet oscillations and list the models that can account for each finding. Finally, we describe a new model that integrates features from multiple earlier models and is thus called the Integrated Oscillator Model. In this model, intracellular Ca 2+ acts on the glycolytic pathway in the generation of oscillations, and it is thus a hybrid of the two main classes of models. It alone among models proposed to date can explain all nine key experimental findings, and it serves as a good starting point for future studies of pulsatile insulin secretion from human islets. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Mitochondrial GTP Regulates Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Richard G.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Romanelli, Anthony J.; Wollheim, Claes B.; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Substrate-level mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) and ATP (mtATP) synthesis occurs by nucleotide-specific isoforms of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme succinyl CoA synthetase (SCS). Unlike mtATP, each molecule of glucose metabolized produces approximately one mtGTP in pancreatic β-cells independent of coupling with oxidative phosphorylation making mtGTP a potentially important fuel signal. siRNA suppression of the GTP-producing pathway (ΔSCS-GTP) reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 50%, whereas suppression of the parallel ATP-producing isoform (ΔSCS-ATP) increased GSIS by two-fold in INS-1 832/13 cells and cultured rat islets. Insulin secretion correlated with increases in cytosolic calcium but not with changes in NAD(P)H or the ATP/ADP ratio. These data suggest an important role for mtGTP in mediating GSIS in β-cells by modulation of mitochondrial metabolism possibly via influencing mitochondrial calcium. Furthermore, by virtue of its tight coupling to TCA oxidation rates, mtGTP production may serve as an important molecular signal of TCA cycle activity. PMID:17403370

  13. Radioimmunologic analysis of insulin secretion during acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalaya, A I

    1975-01-01

    Rats were subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation (750 rad) and the secretory activity of the insular apparatus was studied radioimmunologically, using insulin labelled with iodine-125. The post-radiation dynamics of the insulin concentration in the blood were shown to have a phase character. The insulin level had risen after 1, 3 and 8 days. After 2 days the hormone concentration had dropped significantly and become two times lower than normal. After the other time intervals, the concentration of insulin in the blood varied within normal limits.

  14. SIRT4 Is a Lysine Deacylase that Controls Leucine Metabolism and Insulin Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kristin A; Huynh, Frank K; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    in leucine oxidation, and we show a primary role for SIRT4 in controlling this pathway in mice. Furthermore, we find that dysregulated leucine metabolism in SIRT4KO mice leads to elevated basal and stimulated insulin secretion, which progressively develops into glucose intolerance and insulin resistance....... These findings identify a robust enzymatic activity for SIRT4, uncover a mechanism controlling branched-chain amino acid flux, and position SIRT4 as a crucial player maintaining insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis during aging....

  15. Impaired crosstalk between pulsatile insulin and glucagon secretion in prediabetic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrer, Stefan; Menge, Björn A; Grüber, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglucagonemia is frequently found in patients with diabetes. Recently, a loss of the inverse relationship between pulsatile insulin and glucagon secretion has been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes. The crosstalk between pulsatile islet hormone secretion in prediabetic...

  16. Loss of inverse relationship between pulsatile insulin and glucagon secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menge, Björn A; Grüber, Lena; Jørgensen, Signe M

    2011-01-01

    In patients with type 2 diabetes, glucagon levels are often increased. Furthermore, pulsatile secretion of insulin is disturbed in such patients. Whether pulsatile glucagon secretion is altered in type 2 diabetes is not known.......In patients with type 2 diabetes, glucagon levels are often increased. Furthermore, pulsatile secretion of insulin is disturbed in such patients. Whether pulsatile glucagon secretion is altered in type 2 diabetes is not known....

  17. The Relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels, Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion in Women 3 Years after Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tänczer, Tímea; Magenheim, Rita; Fürst, Ágnes; Domján, Beatrix; Janicsek, Zsófia; Szabó, Eszter; Ferencz, Viktória; Tabák, Ádám G

    2017-12-01

    There is a direct correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, women with gestational diabetes (GDM) may have lower levels of 25(OH)D compared to controls. The present study intended to investigate 25(OH)D levels and their association with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with prior GDM and in controls 3.2 years after delivery. A total of 87 patients with prior GDM and 45 randomly selected controls (age range, 22 to 44 years) with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy nested within a cohort of all deliveries at Saint Margit Hospital, Budapest, between January 1 2005, and December 31 2006, were examined. Their 25(OH) D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin secretion were estimated using the homeostasis model asssessment (HOMA) calculator and early insulin secretion by the insulinogenic index based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. There was no significant difference in 25(OH)D levels between cases and controls (27.2±13.1 [±SD] vs. 26.9±9.8 ng/L). There was a positive association between HOMA insulin sensitivity and 25(OH)D levels (beta = 0.017; 95% CI 0.001 to 0.034/1 ng/mL) that was robust to adjustment for age and body mass index. There was a nonsignificant association between HOMA insulin secretion and 25(OH)D (p=0.099), while no association was found with the insulinogenic index. Prior GDM status was not associated with 25(OH)D levels; however, 25(OH) D levels were associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity. It is hypothesized that the association between HOMA insulin secretion and 25(OH)D levels is related to the autoregulation of fasting glucose levels because no association between 25(OH)D and insulinogenic index was found. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Synaptotagmin-7 phosphorylation mediates GLP-1-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion from β-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Bingbing; Wei, Shunhui; Petersen, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Glucose stimulates insulin secretion from β-cells by increasing intracellular Ca(2+). Ca(2+) then binds to synaptotagmin-7 as a major Ca(2+) sensor for exocytosis, triggering secretory granule fusion and insulin secretion. In type-2 diabetes, insulin secretion is impaired; this impairment...... is ameliorated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or by GLP-1 receptor agonists, which improve glucose homeostasis. However, the mechanism by which GLP-1 receptor agonists boost insulin secretion remains unclear. Here, we report that GLP-1 stimulates protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation...... of synaptotagmin-7 at serine-103, which enhances glucose- and Ca(2+)-stimulated insulin secretion and accounts for the improvement of glucose homeostasis by GLP-1. A phospho-mimetic synaptotagmin-7 mutant enhances Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis, whereas a phospho-inactive synaptotagmin-7 mutant disrupts GLP-1...

  19. Similar weight-adjusted insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in short-duration late autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA) and Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, C B; Bradley, U; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To explore insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in people with latent autoimmune diabetes in adulthood (LADA) compared with that in people with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 12 people with LADA, defined as glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody positivity and > 1 year...... of insulin independency (group A) were age-matched pairwise to people with Type 2 diabetes (group B) and to six people with Type 2 diabetes of similar age and BMI (group C). β-cell function (first-phase insulin secretion and assessment of insulin pulsatility), insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic......-euglycemic clamp) and metabolic response during a mixed meal were studied. RESULTS: Both first-phase insulin secretion and insulin release during the meal were greater (P = 0.05 and P = 0.009, respectively) in Type 2 diabetes as compared with LADA; these differences were lost on adjustment for BMI (group C...

  20. Exercise Increases Insulin Content and Basal Secretion in Pancreatic Islets in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Hung Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise appears to improve glycemic control for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D. However, the mechanism responsible for this improvement is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise has a direct effect on the insulin-producing islets. Eight-week-old mice were divided into four groups: sedentary diabetic, exercised diabetic, sedentary control, and exercised control. The exercised groups participated in voluntary wheel running for 6 weeks. When compared to the control groups, the islet density, islet diameter, and β-cell proportion per islet were significantly lower in both sedentary and exercised diabetic groups and these alterations were not improved with exercise. The total insulin content and insulin secretion were significantly lower in sedentary diabetics compared to controls. Exercise significantly improved insulin content and insulin secretion in islets in basal conditions. Thus, some improvements in exercise-induced glycemic control in T1D mice may be due to enhancement of insulin content and secretion in islets.

  1. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes.......We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...

  2. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.M.; Van Eetvelde, M.; Bogaert, H.; Hostens, M.; Vandaele, L.; Shamsuddin, M.; Opsomer, G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves

  3. Roles of circulating WNT-signaling proteins and WNT-inhibitors in human adiposity, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, R U; Karakas, S E

    2015-02-01

    Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member (WNT) signaling and WNT-inhibitors have been implicated in regulation of adipogenesis, insulin resistance, pancreatic function, and inflammation. Our goal was to determine serum proteins involved in WNT signaling (WNT5 and WISP2) and WNT inhibition (SFRP4 and SFRP5) as they relate to obesity, serum adipokines, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and inflammation in humans. Study population comprised 57 insulin resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 27 reference women. In a cross-sectional study, blood samples were obtained at fasting, during oral, and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Serum WNT5, WISP2, and SFRP4 concentrations did not differ between PCOS vs. reference women. Serum WNT5 correlated inversely with weight both in PCOS and reference women, and correlated directly with insulin response during oral glucose tolerance test in PCOS women. Serum WISP2 correlated directly with fatty acid binding protein 4. Serum SFRP5 did not differ between obese (n=32) vs. nonobese (n=25) PCOS women, but reference women had lower SFRP5 (pPCOS groups). Serum SFRP5 correlated inversely with IL-1β, TNF-α, cholesterol, and apoprotein B. These findings demonstrated that WNT5 correlated inversely with adiposity and directly with insulin response, and the WNT-inhibitor SFRP5 may be anti-inflammatory. Better understanding of the role of WNT signaling in obesity, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, lipoprotein metabolism, and inflammation is important for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Circulating interleukin-6 in relation to adiposity, insulin action, and insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Weyer, C; Hanson, K

    2001-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine produced and released in part by adipose tissue, are elevated in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because recent studies suggest that markers of inflammation predict the development of type 2 diabetes, we examined w...... whether circulating plasma IL-6 concentrations were related to direct measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction in Pima Indians, a population with high rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes....

  5. Decrease of glucose-induced insulin secretion of rat pancreatic islets after irradiation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzmann, D; Nadrowitz, R; Besch, W; Schmidt, W; Hahn, H J [Zentralinstitut fuer Diabetes, Karlsburg (German Democratic Republic); Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1983-01-01

    In vitro irradiation of rat pancreatic islets up to a dose of 2.5 Gy did neither alter glucose- nor isobutylmethyl xanthine (IBMX)-induced insulin secretion. Insulin as well as glucagon content of irradiated islets corresponded to that of the control tissue. So it was in islets irradiated with 25 Gy which were characterized by a decreased insulin secretion in the presence of glucose and IBMX, respectively. There was no indication of an enhanced hormone output in the radiation medium and it is to be suggested that higher radiation doses affect the insulin release of pancreatic islets in vitro. This must be taken into consideration for radioimmunosuppression experiments.

  6. An ancestral role for the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle S. McCommis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Transport of pyruvate into the mitochondrial matrix by the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier (MPC is an important and rate-limiting step in its metabolism. In pancreatic β-cells, mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism is thought to be important for glucose sensing and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Methods: To evaluate the role that the MPC plays in maintaining systemic glucose homeostasis, we used genetically-engineered Drosophila and mice with loss of MPC activity in insulin-producing cells. Results: In both species, MPC deficiency results in elevated blood sugar concentrations and glucose intolerance accompanied by impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In mouse islets, β-cell MPC-deficiency resulted in decreased respiration with glucose, ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channel hyperactivity, and impaired insulin release. Moreover, treatment of pancreas-specific MPC knockout mice with glibenclamide, a sulfonylurea KATP channel inhibitor, improved defects in islet insulin secretion and abnormalities in glucose homeostasis in vivo. Finally, using a recently-developed biosensor for MPC activity, we show that the MPC is rapidly stimulated by glucose treatment in INS-1 insulinoma cells suggesting that glucose sensing is coupled to mitochondrial pyruvate carrier activity. Conclusions: Altogether, these studies suggest that the MPC plays an important and ancestral role in insulin-secreting cells in mediating glucose sensing, regulating insulin secretion, and controlling systemic glycemia. Keywords: Stimulus-coupled secretion, Insulin, β-Cell, Diabetes, Pyruvate, Mitochondria, Drosophila

  7. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with improved insulin sensitivity, reduced basal insulin secretion rate and lower fasting glucagon concentration in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, F; Disse, E; Laville, M

    2012-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes with a stronger effect in women. As the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterised, we investigated its relationship with insulin resistance, insulin secretion, clearance of insulin and glucagon concentration....

  8. Insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, C.R.; Harrison, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on insulin receptors. Part A: Methods for the study of structure and function. Topics covered include: Method for purification and labeling of insulin receptors, the insulin receptor kinase, and insulin receptors on special tissues

  9. Effect of Human Myotubes-Derived Media on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Mizgier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasting to postprandial transition requires a tight adjustment of insulin secretion to its demand, so tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle glucose supply is assured while hypo-/hyperglycemia are prevented. High muscle glucose disposal after meals is pivotal for adapting to increased glycemia and might drive insulin secretion through muscle-released factors (e.g., myokines. We hypothesized that insulin influences myokine secretion and then increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. In conditioned media from human myotubes incubated with/without insulin (100 nmol/L for 24 h, myokines were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized using an antibody-based array and ELISA-based technology, respectively. C57BL6/J mice islets and Wistar rat beta cells were incubated for 24 h with control and conditioned media from noninsulin- and insulin-treated myotubes prior to GSIS determination. Conditioned media from insulin-treated versus nontreated myotubes had higher RANTES but lower IL6, IL8, and MCP1 concentration. Qualitative analyses revealed that conditioned media from noninsulin- and insulin-treated myotubes expressed 32 and 23 out of 80 myokines, respectively. Islets incubated with conditioned media from noninsulin-treated myotubes had higher GSIS versus control islets (p<0.05. Meanwhile, conditioned media from insulin-treated myotubes did not influence GSIS. In beta cells, GSIS was similar across conditions. In conclusion, factors being present in noninsulin-stimulated muscle cell-derived media appear to influence GSIS in mice islets.

  10. Momordica charantia Administration Improves Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-Navarrete, Marisol; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Pérez-Rubio, Karina G; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Villar, Miriam Méndez-Del

    2018-02-12

    An improvement in parameters of glycemic control has been observed with Momordica charantia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is unknown whether this improvement is through a modification of insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, or both. We hypothesized that M. charantia administration can improve insulin secretion and/or insulin sensitivity in patients with T2DM, without pharmacological treatment. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of M. charantia administration on insulin secretion and sensitivity. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was carried out in 24 patients who received M. charantia (2000 mg/day) or placebo for 3 months. A 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done before and after the intervention to calculate areas under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion (insulinogenic index), first phase of insulin secretion (Stumvoll index), and insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index). In the M. charantia group, there were significant decreases in weight, body mass index (BMI), fat percentage, waist circumference (WC), glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C), 2-h glucose in OGTT, and AUC of glucose. A significant increase in insulin AUC (56,562 ± 36,078 vs. 65,256 ± 42,720 pmol/L/min, P = .043), in total insulin secretion (0.29 ± 0.18 vs. 0.41 ± 0.29, P = .028), and during the first phase of insulin secretion (557.8 ± 645.6 vs. 1135.7 ± 725.0, P = .043) was observed after M. charantia administration. Insulin sensitivity was not modified with any intervention. In conclusion, M. charantia administration reduced A1C, 2-h glucose, glucose AUC, weight, BMI, fat percentage, and WC, with an increment of insulin AUC, first phase and total insulin secretion.

  11. Persistence of insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian disease after inhibition of ovarian steroid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffner, M E; Kaplan, S A; Bersch, N; Golde, D W; Landaw, E M; Chang, R J

    1986-03-01

    Six nonobese women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) showed significant hyperinsulinemia, compared with controls after oral glucose (P less than 0.05). As an indicator of insulin sensitivity, in vitro proliferation of erythrocyte progenitor cells of PCOD subjects exposed to physiologic concentrations of insulin was significantly blunted (P less than 0.001). Monocyte insulin receptor binding was not impaired in the PCOD subjects. Three of the PCOD patients were treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist for 6 months, which resulted in marked suppression of ovarian androgen secretion but no demonstrable changes in in vivo or in vitro indicators of insulin resistance. Thus insulin resistance in PCOD subjects appears to be unrelated to ovarian hyperandrogenism (or acanthosis or obesity). Although certain tissues are insulin-resistant in PCOD patients, the ovary may remain sensitive and overproduce androgens in response to high circulating insulin levels.

  12. Insulin Regulates Hepatic Triglyceride Secretion and Lipid Content via Signaling in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; O'Hare, James; Hackl, Martina; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Krššák, Martin; Scheja, Ludger; Fürnsinn, Clemens; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic steatosis is common in obesity and insulin resistance and results from a net retention of lipids in the liver. A key mechanism to prevent steatosis is to increase secretion of triglycerides (TG) packaged as VLDLs. Insulin controls nutrient partitioning via signaling through its cognate receptor in peripheral target organs such as liver, muscle, and adipose tissue and via signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) to orchestrate organ cross talk. While hepatic insulin signaling is known to suppress VLDL production from the liver, it is unknown whether brain insulin signaling independently regulates hepatic VLDL secretion. Here, we show that in conscious, unrestrained male Sprague Dawley rats the infusion of insulin into the third ventricle acutely increased hepatic TG secretion. Chronic infusion of insulin into the CNS via osmotic minipumps reduced the hepatic lipid content as assessed by noninvasive (1)H-MRS and lipid profiling independent of changes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis and food intake. In mice that lack the insulin receptor in the brain, hepatic TG secretion was reduced compared with wild-type littermate controls. These studies identify brain insulin as an important permissive factor in hepatic VLDL secretion that protects against hepatic steatosis. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S

    2004-01-01

    of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, and GIP. Insulin secretion (TIS) and insulin sensitivity (OGIS) were assessed using models describing the relationship between glucose, insulin and C-peptide data. These models allowed estimation also of the hepatic extraction of insulin. The age (54.2 +/- 9.7 [mean......Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects...... over the whole 180-minute period was higher in IGT (26.2 +/- 2.4 v 20.0 +/- 2.0 nmol/L; P =.035). Hepatic insulin extraction correlated linearly with OGIS (r = 0.71; P

  14. Autocrine effect of Zn²⁺ on the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Kira G; Daniels, Nigel A; Guo, Aili; Li, Yang V

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that zinc (Zn(2+)) is required for the process of insulin biosynthesis and the maturation of insulin secretory granules in pancreatic beta (β)-cells, and that changes in Zn(2+) levels in the pancreas have been found to be associated with diabetes. Glucose-stimulation causes a rapid co-secretion of Zn(2+) and insulin with similar kinetics. However, we do not know whether Zn(2+) regulates insulin availability and secretion. Here we investigated the effect of Zn(2+) on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. Whereas Zn(2+) alone (control) had no effect on the basal secretion of insulin, it significantly inhibited GSIS. The application of CaEDTA, by removing the secreted Zn(2+) from the extracellular milieu of the islets, resulted in significantly increased GSIS, suggesting an overall inhibitory role of secreted Zn(2+) on GSIS. The inhibitory action of Zn(2+) was mostly mediated through the activities of KATP/Ca(2+) channels. Furthermore, during brief paired-pulse glucose-stimulated Zn(2+) secretion (GSZS), Zn(2+) secretion following the second pulse was significantly attenuated, probably by the secreted endogenous Zn(2+) after the first pulse. Such an inhibition on Zn(2+) secretion following the second pulse was completely reversed by Zn(2+) chelation, suggesting a negative feedback mechanism, in which the initial glucose-stimulated Zn(2+) release inhibits subsequent Zn(2+) secretion, subsequently inhibiting insulin co-secretion as well. Taken together, these data suggest a negative feedback mechanism on GSZS and GSIS by Zn(2+) secreted from β-cells, and the co-secreted Zn(2+) may act as an autocrine inhibitory modulator.

  15. Pancreatic β-Cell Electrical Activity and Insulin Secretion: of Mice and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorsman, Patrik; Ashcroft, Frances M

    2018-01-01

    The pancreatic β-cell plays a key role in glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin, the only hormone capable of lowering the blood glucose concentration. Impaired insulin secretion results in the chronic hyperglycaemia that characterizes type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which currently afflicts >450 million people worldwide. The healthy β-cell acts as a glucose sensor matching its output to the circulating glucose concentration. It does so via metabolically induced changes in electrical activity, which culminate in an increase in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and initiation of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of insulin-containing secretory granules. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the β-cell transcriptome, electrical activity and insulin exocytosis. We highlight salient differences between mouse and human β-cells, provide models of how the different ion channels contribute to their electrical activity and insulin secretion, and conclude by discussing how these processes become perturbed in T2DM. PMID:29212789

  16. Urea impairs β cell glycolysis and insulin secretion in chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Laetitia; Nyam, Elsa; Vivot, Kevin; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E.; Dai, Xiao-Qing; Nguyen, Bich N.; Attané, Camille; Moullé, Valentine S.; MacDonald, Patrick E.; Ghislain, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of glucose homeostasis are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are associated with increased mortality, but the mechanisms of impaired insulin secretion in this disease remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that defective insulin secretion in CKD is caused by a direct effect of urea on pancreatic β cells. In a murine model in which CKD is induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (CKD mice), we observed defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo and in isolated islets. Similarly, insulin secretion was impaired in normal mouse and human islets that were cultured with disease-relevant concentrations of urea and in islets from normal mice treated orally with urea for 3 weeks. In CKD mouse islets as well as urea-exposed normal islets, we observed an increase in oxidative stress and protein O-GlcNAcylation. Protein O-GlcNAcylation was also observed in pancreatic sections from CKD patients. Impairment of insulin secretion in both CKD mouse and urea-exposed islets was associated with reduced glucose utilization and activity of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK-1), which could be reversed by inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation. Inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation also restored insulin secretion in both mouse models. These results suggest that insulin secretory defects associated with CKD arise from elevated circulating levels of urea that increase islet protein O-GlcNAcylation and impair glycolysis. PMID:27525435

  17. Novel insulin from the bullfrog: its structure and function in protein secretion by hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulsebus, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Bullfrog insulin was extracted and purified from the pancreas of Rana catesbeiana adults using gel filtration and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Amino acid analysis of bullfrog insulin revealed 52 amino acids instead of the most common number of 51. The most unique features of bullfrog insulin is a two amino acid extension on the amino terminus (A1) of the A chain. This is the only insulin to date that has an extension at this position. Bullfrog and porcine insulin increase protein secretion from bullfrog adult and three developmental stages of tadpole hepatocytes in a totally defined, serum-free culture system. The hormone slightly stimulates protein secretion by premetamorphic and early prometamorphic tadpoles. Late prometamorphic tadpoles respond to bullfrog and porcine insulin with higher concentrations of secreted protein than either of the two previous developmental stages. Insulin treated adult hepatocytes secrete significantly higher concentrations of protein than any of the tadpole stages. 35 S-methionine and 35 S-cysteine were added to the culture medium for twelve hours. Proteins secreted into the medium were separated using SDS polyacrylamide linear gradient gels. Densitometer scans of autoradiograms did not show an increases in any specific proteins, but did show a generalized increase in all secreted proteins for both adults, and tadpoles

  18. Circadian control of insulin secretion is independent of the temporal distribution of feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, Andries; Strubbe, JH

    1998-01-01

    To investigate whether there is a circadian regulation of insulin secretion, rats were adapted to a feeding regimen of six meals equally distributed over 24 h. Under these conditions basal glucose and insulin levels increased during the light phase and decreased during the dark phase. Maximal blood

  19. Stress-induced dissociations between intracellular calcium signaling and insulin secretion in pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Farhan M; Dejene, Eden A; Corbin, Kathryn L; Nunemaker, Craig S

    2015-05-01

    In healthy pancreatic islets, glucose-stimulated changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) provide a reasonable reflection of the patterns and relative amounts of insulin secretion. We report that [Ca(2+)]i in islets under stress, however, dissociates with insulin release in different ways for different stressors. Islets were exposed for 48h to a variety of stressors: cytokines (low-grade inflammation), 28mM glucose (28G, glucotoxicity), free fatty acids (FFAs, lipotoxicity), thapsigargin (ER stress), or rotenone (mitochondrial stress). We then measured [Ca(2+)]i and insulin release in parallel studies. Islets exposed to all stressors except rotenone displayed significantly elevated [Ca(2+)]i in low glucose, however, increased insulin secretion was only observed for 28G due to increased nifedipine-sensitive calcium-channel flux. Following 3-11mM glucose stimulation, all stressors substantially reduced the peak glucose-stimulated [Ca(2+)]i response (first phase). Thapsigargin and cytokines also substantially impacted aspects of calcium influx and ER calcium handling. Stressors did not significantly impact insulin secretion in 11mM glucose for any stressor, although FFAs showed a borderline reduction, which contributed to a significant decrease in the stimulation index (11:3mM glucose) observed for FFAs and also for 28G. We also clamped [Ca(2+)]i using 30mM KCl+250μM diazoxide to test the amplifying pathway. Only rotenone-treated islets showed a robust increase in 3-11mM glucose-stimulated insulin secretion under clamped conditions, suggesting that low-level mitochondrial stress might activate the metabolic amplifying pathway. We conclude that different stressors dissociate [Ca(2+)]i from insulin secretion differently: ER stressors (thapsigargin, cytokines) primarily affect [Ca(2+)]i but not conventional insulin secretion and 'metabolic' stressors (FFAs, 28G, rotenone) impacted insulin secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conditioned insulin secretion and meal feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S C; Vasselli, J R; Kaestner, E; Szakmary, G A; Milburn, P; Vitiello, M V

    1977-02-01

    Previous researchers have reported that rats placed upon a feeding regimen such that they receive only 2 hr of food per day (meal-fed rats) develop hyperinsulinemia at the time of the day associated with feeding, even in the absence of food. Controls fed ad lib had no such response. In a series of several experiments, meal-fed rats had elevated insulin levels at only the specific time of the day associated with feeding, and the increment of insulin at that time could be eliminated with atropine. Free-feeding controls, on the other hand, always had higher insulin levels than the meal-fed rats, did not have an elevation of insulin at the time of the day that the meal-fed rats normally ate, and had insulin values that were unaffected by atropine. Further experimentation showed that hyperinsulinemia could become associated with arbitrary stimuli always associated with eating for meal-fed rats. It is concluded that the hyperinsulinemia of meal-fed rats associated with their feeding time is a learned response.

  1. Sirt1 regulates insulin secretion by repressing UCP2 in pancreatic beta cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bordone

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Sir2 and insulin/IGF-1 are the major pathways that impinge upon aging in lower organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans a possible genetic link between Sir2 and the insulin/IGF-1 pathway has been reported. Here we investigate such a link in mammals. We show that Sirt1 positively regulates insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Sirt1 represses the uncoupling protein (UCP gene UCP2 by binding directly to the UCP2 promoter. In beta cell lines in which Sirt1 is reduced by SiRNA, UCP2 levels are elevated and insulin secretion is blunted. The up-regulation of UCP2 is associated with a failure of cells to increase ATP levels after glucose stimulation. Knockdown of UCP2 restores the ability to secrete insulin in cells with reduced Sirt1, showing that UCP2 causes the defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Food deprivation induces UCP2 in mouse pancreas, which may occur via a reduction in NAD (a derivative of niacin levels in the pancreas and down-regulation of Sirt1. Sirt1 knockout mice display constitutively high UCP2 expression. Our findings show that Sirt1 regulates UCP2 in beta cells to affect insulin secretion.

  2. Intracellular and extracellular adenosine triphosphate in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells (β).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjiong; Geng, Bin; Cui, Qinghua; Guan, Youfei; Yang, Jichun

    2014-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and release in mitochondria play critical roles in regulating insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction is mainly characterized by a decrease in ATP production, which is a central event in the progression of pancreatic β cell dysfunction and diabetes. ATP has been demonstrated to regulate insulin secretion via several pathways: (i) Intracellular ATP directly closes ATP-sensitive potassium channel to open L-type calcium channel, leading to an increase in free cytosolic calcium levels and exocytosis of insulin granules; (ii) A decrease in ATP production is always associated with an increase in production of reactive oxygen species, which exerts deleterious effects on pancreatic β cell survival and insulin secretion; and (iii) ATP can be co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic β cells, and the released ATP functions as an autocrine signal to modulate insulin secretory process via P2 receptors on the cell membrane. In this review, the recent findings regarding the role and mechanism of ATP synthesis and release in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells will be summarized and discussed. © 2013 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of insulin expression and secretion in genetically engineered gut K and L-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zalinah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene therapy could provide an effective treatment of diabetes. Previous studies have investigated the potential for several cell and tissue types to produce mature and active insulin. Gut K and L-cells could be potential candidate hosts for gene therapy because of their special features. Results In this study, we isolated gut K and L-cells to compare the potential of both cell types to produce insulin when exposed to similar conditions. The isolated pure K and L-cells were transfected with recombinant plasmids encoding insulin and with specific promoters for K or L-cells. Insulin expression was studied in response to glucose or meat hydrolysate. We found that glucose and meat hydrolysate efficiently induced insulin secretion from K and L-cells. However, the effects of meat hydrolysate on insulin secretion were more potent in both cells compared with glucose. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that L-cells secreted more insulin compared with K-cells regardless of the stimulator, although this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion The responses of K and L-cells to stimulation with glucose or meat hydrolysate were generally comparable. Therefore, both K and L-cells show similar potential to be used as surrogate cells for insulin gene expression in vitro. The potential use of these cells for diabetic gene therapy warrants further investigation.

  4. The RhoGAP Stard13 controls insulin secretion through F-actin remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Naumann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Actin cytoskeleton remodeling is necessary for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. A mechanistic understanding of actin dynamics in the islet is paramount to a better comprehension of β-cell dysfunction in diabetes. Here, we investigate the Rho GTPase regulator Stard13 and its role in F-actin cytoskeleton organization and islet function in adult mice. Methods: We used Lifeact-EGFP transgenic animals to visualize actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics in vivo in the mouse islets. Furthermore, we applied this model to study actin cytoskeleton and insulin secretion in mutant mice deleted for Stard13 selectively in pancreatic cells. We isolated transgenic islets for 3D-imaging and perifusion studies to measure insulin secretion dynamics. In parallel, we performed histological and morphometric analyses of the pancreas and used in vivo approaches to study glucose metabolism in the mouse. Results: In this study, we provide the first genetic evidence that Stard13 regulates insulin secretion in response to glucose. Postnatally, Stard13 expression became restricted to the mouse pancreatic islets. We showed that Stard13 deletion results in a marked increase in actin polymerization in islet cells, which is accompanied by severe reduction of insulin secretion in perifusion experiments. Consistently, Stard13-deleted mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions: Taken together, our results suggest a previously unappreciated role for the RhoGAP protein Stard13 in the interplay between actin cytoskeletal remodeling and insulin secretion. Keywords: F-actin, Insulin secretion, Islet, Pancreas, Lifeact, Stard13

  5. Insulin secretion in lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients is associated with high levels of nonglucose secretagogues and insulin resistance of beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Storgaard, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    lipodystrophy (controls). Thirty minutes before start of the clamp, a bolus of glucose was injected intravenously to stimulate endogenous insulin secretion. Insulin sensitivity index (SiRd) was estimated from glucose tracer analysis. LIPO displayed increased basal ISR (69%), clamp ISR (114%), basal insulin (130......, and glucose (all r > 0.41, P triglyceride, and glucagon (all r > 0.51, P triglyceride (r = 0.45, P ...%), and clamp insulin (32%), all P 0.65, P glucose. In control subjects, ISR(basal) correlated significantly with insulin, glucagon...

  6. Mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is essential for regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jessica N; Cousteils, Katelyn; Lou, Jennifer W; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; MacDonald, Patrick E; Joseph, Jamie W

    2014-05-09

    It is well known that mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is critical for insulin secretion; however, we know little about how pyruvate is transported into mitochondria in β-cells. Part of the reason for this lack of knowledge is that the carrier gene was only discovered in 2012. In the current study, we assess the role of the recently identified carrier in the regulation of insulin secretion. Our studies show that β-cells express both mitochondrial pyruvate carriers (Mpc1 and Mpc2). Using both pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA-mediated knockdown of the MPCs we show that this carrier plays a key role in regulating insulin secretion in clonal 832/13 β-cells as well as rat and human islets. We also show that the MPC is an essential regulator of both the ATP-regulated potassium (KATP) channel-dependent and -independent pathways of insulin secretion. Inhibition of the MPC blocks the glucose-stimulated increase in two key signaling molecules involved in regulating insulin secretion, the ATP/ADP ratio and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio. The MPC also plays a role in in vivo glucose homeostasis as inhibition of MPC by the pharmacological inhibitor α-cyano-β-(1-phenylindol-3-yl)-acrylate (UK5099) resulted in impaired glucose tolerance. These studies clearly show that the newly identified mitochondrial pyruvate carrier sits at an important branching point in nutrient metabolism and that it is an essential regulator of insulin secretion.

  7. Fetal adaptations in insulin secretion result from high catecholamines during placental insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2017-08-01

    Placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the fetus affects approximately 8% of all pregnancies and is associated with short- and long-term disturbances in metabolism. In pregnant sheep, experimental models with a small, defective placenta that restricts delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus result in IUGR. Low blood oxygen concentrations increase fetal plasma catecholamine concentrations, which lower fetal insulin concentrations. All of these observations in sheep models with placental insufficiency are consistent with cases of human IUGR. We propose that sustained high catecholamine concentrations observed in the IUGR fetus produce developmental adaptations in pancreatic β-cells that impair fetal insulin secretion. Experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis shows that chronic elevation in circulating catecholamines in IUGR fetuses persistently inhibits insulin concentrations and secretion. Elevated catecholamines also allow for maintenance of a normal fetal basal metabolic rate despite low fetal insulin and glucose concentrations while suppressing fetal growth. Importantly, a compensatory augmentation in insulin secretion occurs following inhibition or cessation of catecholamine signalling in IUGR fetuses. This finding has been replicated in normally grown sheep fetuses following a 7-day noradrenaline (norepinephrine) infusion. Together, these programmed effects will potentially create an imbalance between insulin secretion and insulin-stimulated glucose utilization in the neonate which probably explains the transient hyperinsulinism and hypoglycaemia in some IUGR infants. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  8. Decreased insulin secretion in pregnant rats fed a low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijun; Ho, Eric; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yechoor, Vijay; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2017-10-01

    Low protein (LP) diet during pregnancy leads to reduced plasma insulin levels in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Glucose is the primary insulin secretagogue, and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells contributes to compensation for insulin resistance and maintenance of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma insulin levels in pregnant rats fed LP diet are reduced due to disrupted GSIS of pancreatic islets. We first confirmed reduced plasma insulin levels, then investigated in vivo insulin secretion by glucose tolerance test and ex vivo GSIS of pancreatic islets in the presence of glucose at different doses, and KCl, glibenclamide, and L-arginine. Main findings include (1) plasma insulin levels were unaltered on day 10, but significantly reduced on days 14-22 of pregnancy in rats fed LP diet compared to those of control (CT) rats; (2) insulin sensitivity was unchanged, but glucose intolerance was more severe in pregnant rats fed LP diet; (3) GSIS in pancreatic islets was lower in LP rats compared to CT rats in the presence of glucose, KCl, and glibenclamide, and the response to L-arginine was abolished in LP rats; and (4) the total insulin content in pancreatic islets and expression of Ins2 were reduced in LP rats, but expression of Gcg was unaltered. These studies demonstrate that decreased GSIS in beta cells of LP rats contributes to reduced plasma insulin levels, which may lead to placental and fetal growth restriction and programs hypertension and other metabolic diseases in offspring. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Intracellular serotonin modulates insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells by protein serotonylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Paulmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available While serotonin (5-HT co-localization with insulin in granules of pancreatic beta-cells was demonstrated more than three decades ago, its physiological role in the etiology of diabetes is still unclear. We combined biochemical and electrophysiological analyses of mice selectively deficient in peripheral tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph1-/- and 5-HT to show that intracellular 5-HT regulates insulin secretion. We found that these mice are diabetic and have an impaired insulin secretion due to the lack of 5-HT in the pancreas. The pharmacological restoration of peripheral 5-HT levels rescued the impaired insulin secretion in vivo. These findings were further evidenced by patch clamp experiments with isolated Tph1-/- beta-cells, which clearly showed that the secretory defect is downstream of Ca(2+-signaling and can be rescued by direct intracellular application of 5-HT via the clamp pipette. In elucidating the underlying mechanism further, we demonstrate the covalent coupling of 5-HT by transglutaminases during insulin exocytosis to two key players in insulin secretion, the small GTPases Rab3a and Rab27a. This renders them constitutively active in a receptor-independent signaling mechanism we have recently termed serotonylation. Concordantly, an inhibition of such activating serotonylation in beta-cells abates insulin secretion. We also observed inactivation of serotonylated Rab3a by enhanced proteasomal degradation, which is in line with the inactivation of other serotonylated GTPases. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT regulates insulin secretion by serotonylation of GTPases within pancreatic beta-cells and suggest that intracellular 5-HT functions in various microenvironments via this mechanism in concert with the known receptor-mediated signaling.

  10. CNC-bZIP protein Nrf1-dependent regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongzhi; Fu, Jingqi; Xue, Peng; Zhao, Rui; Dong, Jian; Liu, Dianxin; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Tong, Qingchun; Teng, Weiping; Qu, Weidong; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E; Pi, Jingbo

    2015-04-01

    The inability of pancreatic β-cells to secrete sufficient insulin in response to glucose stimulation is a major contributing factor to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated both the in vitro and in vivo effects of deficiency of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1) in β-cells on β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. Silencing of Nrf1 in β-cells leads to a pre-T2D phenotype with disrupted glucose metabolism and impaired insulin secretion. Specifically, MIN6 β-cells with stable knockdown of Nrf1 (Nrf1-KD) and isolated islets from β-cell-specific Nrf1-knockout [Nrf1(b)-KO] mice displayed impaired glucose responsiveness, including elevated basal insulin release and decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Nrf1(b)-KO mice exhibited severe fasting hyperinsulinemia, reduced GSIS, and glucose intolerance. Silencing of Nrf1 in MIN6 cells resulted in oxidative stress and altered glucose metabolism, with increases in both glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis, which is associated with the elevated basal insulin release and reduced glucose responsiveness. The elevated glycolysis and reduced glucose responsiveness due to Nrf1 silencing likely result from altered expression of glucose metabolic enzymes, with induction of high-affinity hexokinase 1 and suppression of low-affinity glucokinase. Our study demonstrated a novel role of Nrf1 in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in β-cells and characterized Nrf1 as a key transcription factor that regulates the coupling of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism and GSIS. Nrf1 plays critical roles in regulating glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion, suggesting that Nrf1 may be a novel target to improve the function of insulin-secreting β-cells.

  11. Insulin Stimulates S100B Secretion and These Proteins Antagonistically Modulate Brain Glucose Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; de Souza, Daniela F; Biasibetti, Regina; Bobermin, Larissa D; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Brain metabolism is highly dependent on glucose, which is derived from the blood circulation and metabolized by the astrocytes and other neural cells via several pathways. Glucose uptake in the brain does not involve insulin-dependent glucose transporters; however, this hormone affects the glucose influx to the brain. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid levels of S100B (an astrocyte-derived protein) have been associated with alterations in glucose metabolism; however, there is no evidence whether insulin modulates glucose metabolism and S100B secretion. Herein, we investigated the effect of S100B on glucose metabolism, measuring D-(3)H-glucose incorporation in two preparations, C6 glioma cells and acute hippocampal slices, and we also investigated the effect of insulin on S100B secretion. Our results showed that: (a) S100B at physiological levels decreases glucose uptake, through the multiligand receptor RAGE and mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK signaling, and (b) insulin stimulated S100B secretion via PI3K signaling. Our findings indicate the existence of insulin-S100B modulation of glucose utilization in the brain tissue, and may improve our understanding of glucose metabolism in several conditions such as ketosis, streptozotocin-induced dementia and pharmacological exposure to antipsychotics, situations that lead to changes in insulin signaling and extracellular levels of S100B.

  12. Sodium arsenite impairs insulin secretion and transcription in pancreatic β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea; Sanchez-Soto, M. Carmen; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Hiriart, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    Human studies have shown that chronic inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is associated with a high prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism(s) underlying this effect are not well understood, and practically, there is no information available on the effects of arsenic on pancreatic β-cells functions. Thus, since insulin secreted by the pancreas plays a crucial role in maintaining glucose homeostasis, our aim was to determine if sodium arsenite impairs insulin secretion and mRNA expression in single adult rat pancreatic β-cells. Cells were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 μM sodium arsenite and incubated for 72 and 144 h. The highest dose tested (10 μM) decreased β-cell viability, by 33% and 83%, respectively. Insulin secretion and mRNA expression were evaluated in the presence of 1 and 5 μM sodium arsenite. Basal insulin secretion, in 5.6 mM glucose, was not significantly affected by 1 or 5 μM treatment for 72 h, but basal secretion was reduced when cells were exposed to 5 μM sodium arsenite for 144 h. On the other hand, insulin secretion in response to 15.6 mM glucose decreased with sodium arsenite in a dose-dependent manner in such a way that cells were no longer able to distinguish between different glucose concentrations. We also showed a significant decrease in insulin mRNA expression of cells exposed to 5 μM sodium arsenite during 72 h. Our data suggest that arsenic may contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus by impairing pancreatic β-cell functions, particularly insulin synthesis and secretion

  13. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douillet, Christelle [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Currier, Jenna [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Saunders, Jesse [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Bodnar, Wanda M. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7431 (United States); Matoušek, Tomáš [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v.i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stýblo, Miroslav, E-mail: styblo@med.unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ≤ 0.1 μM. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ► Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ► MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ∼ 0.1 μM. ► The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ► The inhibition of

  14. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douillet, Christelle; Currier, Jenna; Saunders, Jesse; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs III ) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs III ) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs III ), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs III , MAs III or DMAs III inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs III and DMAs III were more potent than iAs III as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC 50 ≤ 0.1 μM. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs III , MAs III or DMAs III could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ► Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ► MAs III and DMAs III are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC 50 ∼ 0.1 μM. ► The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ► The inhibition of insulin secretion by arsenite, MAs III or DMAs III is reversible. ► Thus

  15. Targeting development of incretin-producing cells increases insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Natalia; Reimann, Frank; van Es, Johan H

    2015-01-01

    the number of intestinal L cells, which produce GLP-1, is an alternative strategy to augment insulin responses and improve glucose tolerance. Blocking the NOTCH signaling pathway with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine increased the number of L cells in intestinal organoid-based mouse and human culture...... of the development of incretin-producing cells in the intestine has potential as a therapeutic strategy to improve glycemic control....

  16. Decrease of glucose-induced insulin secretion of pancreatic rat islets after irradiation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzmann, D; Nadrowitz, R; Besch, W; Schmidt, W; Hahn, H J

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation of pancreatic rat islets up to a dose of 2.5 Gy did neither alter glucose-nor IBMX-induced insulin secretion studied in vitro. The insulin as well as glucagon content of irradiated islets were similar as in the control tissue. This was also true in islets irradiated with 25 Gy which were characterized by a decreased insulin secretion in the presence of glucose and IBMX, respectively. Since we did not find indications of an enhanced hormone output in the radiation medium, we want to suggest that higher irradiation doses affect insulin release of pancreatic islets in vitro. This observation has to be taken into account for application of radioimmunosuppression for transplantation.

  17. Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of Lepob/ob mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Motohiro; Yahagi, Naoya; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Masaki; Ohta, Keisuke; Takanashi, Mikio; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Takase, Satoru; Nishi, Makiko; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Kubota, Midori; Ohashi, Ken; Iizuka, Yoko; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Gotoda, Takanari; Nagai, Ryozo; Shimano, Hitoshi; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2009-01-01

    It has long been a matter of debate whether the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-mediated lipolysis in pancreatic β-cells can affect insulin secretion through the alteration of lipotoxicity. We generated mice lacking both leptin and HSL (Lep ob/ob /HSL -/- ) and explored the role of HSL in pancreatic β-cells in the setting of obesity. Lep ob/ob /HSL -/- developed elevated blood glucose levels and reduced plasma insulin levels compared with Lep ob/ob /HSL +/+ in a fed state, while the deficiency of HSL did not affect glucose homeostasis in Lep +/+ background. The deficiency of HSL exacerbated the accumulation of triglycerides in Lep ob/ob islets, leading to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The deficiency of HSL also diminished the islet mass in Lep ob/ob mice due to decreased cell proliferation. In conclusion, HSL affects insulin secretary capacity especially in the setting of obesity.

  18. Nicotinamide induces differentiation of embryonic stem cells into insulin-secreting cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaca, Pilar; Berna, Genoveva; Araujo, Raquel; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Bedoya, Francisco J.; Soria, Bernat; Martin, Franz

    2008-01-01

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, nicotinamide, induces differentiation and maturation of fetal pancreatic cells. In addition, we have previously reported evidence that nicotinamide increases the insulin content of cells differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the possibility of nicotinamide acting as a differentiating agent on its own has never been completely explored. Islet cell differentiation was studied by: (i) X-gal staining after neomycin selection; (ii) BrdU studies; (iii) single and double immunohistochemistry for insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iv) insulin and C-peptide content and secretion assays; and (v) transplantation of differentiated cells, under the kidney capsule, into streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. Here we show that undifferentiated mouse ES cells treated with nicotinamide: (i) showed an 80% decrease in cell proliferation; (ii) co-expressed insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iii) had values of insulin and C-peptide corresponding to 10% of normal mouse islets; (iv) released insulin and C-peptide in response to stimulatory glucose concentrations; and (v) after transplantation into diabetic mice, normalized blood glucose levels over 7 weeks. Our data indicate that nicotinamide decreases ES cell proliferation and induces differentiation into insulin-secreting cells. Both aspects are very important when thinking about cell therapy for the treatment of diabetes based on ES cells

  19. An ancestral role for the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    OpenAIRE

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Hodges, Wesley T.; Bricker, Daniel K.; Wisidagama, Dona R.; Compan, Vincent; Remedi, Maria S.; Thummel, Carl S.; Finck, Brian N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Transport of pyruvate into the mitochondrial matrix by the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier (MPC) is an important and rate-limiting step in its metabolism. In pancreatic β-cells, mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism is thought to be important for glucose sensing and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Methods: To evaluate the role that the MPC plays in maintaining systemic glucose homeostasis, we used genetically-engineered Drosophila and mice with loss of MPC activity in insulin-prod...

  20. Effect of Magnesium Supplements on Insulin Secretion After Kidney Transplantation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laecke, Steven; Caluwe, Rogier; Huybrechts, Inge; Nagler, Evi V; Vanholder, Raymond; Peeters, Patrick; Van Vlem, Bruno; Van Biesen, Wim

    2017-08-29

    BACKGROUND Hypomagnesemia is associated with a disturbed glucose metabolism. Insulin hypo-secretion predicts diabetes in the general population and in transplant recipients. We aimed to assess whether magnesium improves insulin secretion and glycemic control after transplantation in prevalent hypomagnesemic kidney transplant recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted an open-label, randomized, parallel-group study. Eligible participants were adults more than 4 months after kidney transplantation on tacrolimus with persisting serum magnesium concentrations food-frequency questionnaire. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS Magnesium with a mean daily dose of 688±237mg in the treatment group failed to lead to significant differences between the 2 groups in FPIR, fasting glucose, HbA1c, or HOMA-IR. Persisting hypomagnesemia was very common and associated with more insulin hypo-secretion, glucose intolerance, and lower dietary magnesium intake (142±56 versus 202±90 mg; p=0.015) as compared to patients with a rise in serum magnesium over 6 months. CONCLUSIONS Magnesium supplementation does not improve insulin secretion in stable hypomagnesemic kidney transplant recipients on tacrolimus. Persisting hypomagnesemia is associated with impaired glucose tolerance, insulin hypo-secretion, and dietary factors.

  1. Acute stimulation of brain mu opioid receptors inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via sympathetic innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudurí, Eva; Beiroa, Daniel; Stegbauer, Johannes; Fernø, Johan; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic insulin-secreting β-cells express opioid receptors, whose activation by opioid peptides modulates hormone secretion. Opioid receptors are also expressed in multiple brain regions including the hypothalamus, where they play a role in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, but their potential role in central regulation of glucose metabolism is unknown. Here, we investigate whether central opioid receptors participate in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in vivo. C57BL/6J mice were acutely treated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with specific agonists for the three main opioid receptors, kappa (KOR), delta (DOR) and mu (MOR) opioid receptors: activation of KOR and DOR did not alter glucose tolerance, whereas activation of brain MOR with the specific agonist DAMGO blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), reduced insulin sensitivity, increased the expression of gluconeogenic genes in the liver and, consequently, impaired glucose tolerance. Pharmacological blockade of α2A-adrenergic receptors prevented DAMGO-induced glucose intolerance and gluconeogenesis. Accordingly, DAMGO failed to inhibit GSIS and to impair glucose tolerance in α2A-adrenoceptor knockout mice, indicating that the effects of central MOR activation on β-cells are mediated via sympathetic innervation. Our results show for the first time a new role of the central opioid system, specifically the MOR, in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of alcohol on insulin secretion and viability of human pancreatic islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. There are controversial data in the literature on the topic of effects of alcohol on insulin secretion, apoptosis, and necrosis of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The goal of this research was to determine how alcohol affects the insulin secretion and viability of human adult pancreatic islets in vitro during a seven-day incubation. Methods. Human pancreatic tissue was digested with Collagenase XI, using a non-automated method. Cultures were incubated in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium containing alcohol (10 μl of alcohol in 100 ml of medium. Insulin stimulation index (SI and viability of the islets were determined on the first, third, and seventh day of cultivation. Results. Analysis of the viability of the islets showed that there wasn’t significant difference between the control and the test group. In the test group, viability of the cultures declined with the time of incubation. SI of the test group was higher compared to the control group, by 50% and 25% on the first and third day of cultivation, respectively. On the seventh day, insulin secretion was reduced by 25%. The difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. In the test group, significant decline in insulin secretion was found on the third and seventh day of incubation (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion. Alcohol can increase or decrease insulin secretion of islets cultures, which may result in an inadequate response of pancreatic β-cells to blood glucose, leading to insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 41002

  3. Familial hyperinsulinemia associated with secretion of an abnormal insulin, and coexistence of insulin resistance in the propositus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinik, A I; Seino, S; Funakoshi, A; Schwartz, J; Matsumoto, M; Schteingart, D E; Fu, Z Z; Tsai, S T

    1986-04-01

    A 45-yr-old muscular nonobese white man who had a 9-yr history of syncopal episodes was studied on several occasions between April 1979 and August 1984. Fasting glucose concentrations ranged between 74-115 mg/dl, and those of insulin ranged between 14-64 microU/ml. Reactive hypoglycemia 3-4 h after ingestion of glucose occurred in the first 2 yr. Glucose tolerance was impaired in 1979, from February 1982 through September 1983, and again in August 1984. The maximum plasma insulin response to glucose ranged between 475-1630 microU/ml. When studied in November 1982, insulin (0.1 U/kg) caused a fall in blood glucose concentration of only 25% (normal, greater than 50%), and maximal glucose utilization during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was 7.5 mg/kg . min (normal, greater than 12 mg/kg . min). Plasma counterregulatory hormone concentrations were normal, and antibodies to insulin and the insulin receptor were absent. Binding of exogenous insulin to the patient's cellular receptors (monocytes, red blood cells, and skin fibroblasts) was normal. Insulin was purified from plasma by immunoaffinity and molecular sieve chromatography and was found to elute later than human insulin on reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. It was more hydrophobic than normal human insulin and had only 10% of the activity of normal insulin in terms of ability to bind to and stimulate glucose metabolism in isolated rat adipocytes. The abnormal insulin was identified in two of three sons and a sister, but not in the mother, brother, or niece. Sensitivity to insulin was normal in the two sons who had abnormal insulin. These results suggest that in this family the abnormal insulin was due to a biosynthetic defect, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The hyperinsulinemia was not associated with diabetes in family members who had no insulin resistance.

  4. The effect of a very low calorie diet on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, insulin clearance, incretin hormone secretion, androgen levels and body composition in obese young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille F; Jensen, Frank K; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women.......Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women....

  5. A role for SPARC in the moderation of human insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna W Harries

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We have previously shown the implication of the multifunctional protein SPARC (Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine/osteonectin in insulin resistance but potential effects on beta-cell function have not been assessed. We therefore aimed to characterise the effect of SPARC on beta-cell function and features of diabetes. METHODS: We measured SPARC expression by qRT-PCR in human primary pancreatic islets, adipose tissue, liver and muscle. We then examined the relation of SPARC with glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS in primary human islets and the effect of SPARC overexpression on GSIS in beta cell lines. RESULTS: SPARC was expressed at measurable levels in human islets, adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle, and demonstrated reduced expression in primary islets from subjects with diabetes compared with controls (p< = 0.05. SPARC levels were positively correlated with GSIS in islets from control donors (p< = 0.01. Overexpression of SPARC in cultured beta-cells resulted in a 2.4-fold increase in insulin secretion in high glucose conditions (p< = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that levels of SPARC are reduced in islets from donors with diabetes and that it has a role in insulin secretion, an effect which appears independent of SPARC's modulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance in adipose tissue.

  6. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Amy C.; Ma, Jun; Kavalier, Adam; He, Kan; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p≤0.007, and p= 0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay. PMID:22133295

  7. Altered pancreatic growth and insulin secretion in WSB/EiJ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie M Ho

    Full Text Available These data suggest that insulin secretion in WSB mice is blunted specifically in vivo, either due to a reduced insulin requirement and/or due to factors that are absent or destroyed in vitro. These studies also highlight the role of post-natal growth in determining adult β-cell mass. Mice are important animal models for the study of metabolic physiology and the genetics of complex traits. Wild-derived inbred mouse strains, such as WSB/EiJ (WSB, are unrelated to the commonly studied mouse strains and are valuable tools to identify novel genes that modify disease risk. We have previously shown that in contrast to C57BL/6J (B6 mice, WSB mice fed a high fat diet do not develop hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance, and had nearly undetectable insulin secretion in response to an intraperitoneal glucose challenge. As hyperinsulinemia may drive obesity and insulin resistance, we examined whether defects in β-cell mass or function could contribute to the low insulin levels in WSB mice. In young WSB mice, β-cell mass was similar to B6 mice. However, we found that adult WSB mice had reduced β-cell mass due to reduced pancreatic weights. Pancreatic sizes were similar between the strains when normalized to body weight, suggesting their pancreatic size is appropriate to their body size in adults, but overall post-natal pancreatic growth was reduced in WSB mice compared to B6 mice. Islet architecture was normal in WSB mice. WSB mice had markedly increased insulin secretion from isolated islets in vitro. These data suggest that insulin secretion in WSB mice is blunted specifically in vivo, either due to a reduced insulin requirement and/or due to factors that are absent or destroyed in vitro. These studies suggest that WSB mice may provide novel insight into mechanisms regulating insulin secretion and also highlight the role of post-natal growth in determining adult β-cell mass.

  8. Transfer plate radioassay using adsorbed anti-insulin antibody to detect insulin secreted by islet cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scearce, R.M.; Oie, H.K.; Gazdar, A.F.; Chick, W.L.; Eisenbarth, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of insulin synthesized by islet cell clones is described. This assay employs anti-insulin antibody adsorbed onto fenestrated polyvinyl chloride 96-well plates ('transfer plates'). The calibrated aperture in the bottom of each transfer plate well permits fluid to enter the wells when transfer plates are lowered into microculture wells containing insulin. With this assay it is possible to rapidly screen hundreds of islet cell cultures for insulin production. The authors have used this assay to facilitate cloning of the RIN rat insulinoma cell line. The assay readily detects insulin synthesis by RIN cells and [ 125 I]insulin is not displaced by culture medium from cells which do not produce insulin. The transfer plate format should be applicable to semiautomate other radioimmunoassays. (Auth.)

  9. Advanced glycation end products impair glucose-induced insulin secretion from rat pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Miura, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Park, Kyung Hwa; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Kubota, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are derivative compounds generated from non-enzymatic glycosylation and oxidation. In comparison with glucose-derived AGEs (Glu-AGEs), glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGEs) have stronger toxicity to living systems. In this study, we compared the effects of Glu-AGE and Glycer-AGE on insulin secretion. Rat pancreatic islets were isolated by collagenase digestion and primary-cultured in the presence of 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 0.1 mg/ml Glu-AGE or Glycer-AGE-albumin. After 48 h of culture, we performed an insulin secretion test and identified the defects by a battery of rescue experiments [corrected]. Also, mRNA expression of genes associated with insulin secretion was measured. Insulin secretion induced by a high glucose concentration was 164.1 ± 6.0, 124.4 ± 4.4 (P < 0.05) and 119.8 ± 7.1 (P < 0.05) μU/3 islets/h in the presence of BSA, Glu-AGE, and Glycer-AGE, respectively. Inhibition of insulin secretion by Glu-AGE or Glycer-AGE was rescued by a high extracellular potassium concentration, tolbutamide and α-ketoisocaproic acid, but not by glyceraldehyde, dihydroxacetone, methylpyruvate, glucagon-like peptide-1 and acetylcholine. Glu-AGE or Glycer-AGE reduced the expression of the malate dehydrogenase (Mdh1/2) gene, which plays a critical role in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) shuttle. Despite its reported cytotoxicity, the effects of Glycer-AGE on insulin secretion are similar to those of Glu-AGE. © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  10. Plasma kisspeptin levels are associated with insulin secretion in nondiabetic individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Andreozzi

    Full Text Available To evaluate if plasma kisspeptin concentrations are associated with insulin secretion, as suggested by recent in vitro studies, independently of confounders. 261 nondiabetic subjects were stratified into tertiles according to kisspeptin values. Insulin secretion was assessed using indexes derived from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. After adjusting for age, gender, and BMI, subjects in the highest (tertile 3 kisspeptin group exhibited significantly lower values of insulinogenic index, corrected insulin response (CIR30, and Stumvoll indexes for first-phase and second-phase insulin release as compared with low (tertile 1 or intermediate (tertile 2 kisspeptin groups. Univariate correlations between kisspeptin concentration and metabolic variables showed that kisspeptin concentration was significantly and positively correlated with age, blood pressure, and 2-h post-load glucose, and inversely correlated with BMI, and waist circumference. There was an inverse relationship between kisspeptin levels and OGTT-derived indexes of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. A multivariable regression analysis in a model including all the variables significantly correlated with kisspeptin concentration showed thar age (β = -0.338, P<0.0001, BMI (β = 0.272, P<0.0001, 2-h post-load glucose (β = -0.229, P<0.0001, and kisspeptin (β = -0.105, P = 0.03 remained associated with insulinogenic index. These factors explained 34.6% of the variance of the insulinogenic index. In conclusion, kisspeptin concentrations are associated with insulin secretion independently of important determinants of glucose homeostasis such as gender, age, adiposity, 2-h post-load glucose, and insulin sensitivity.

  11. BAG3 regulates formation of the SNARE complex and insulin secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, V; Festa, M; Rosati, A; Hahne, M; Tiberti, C; Capunzo, M; De Laurenzi, V; Turco, M C

    2015-01-01

    Insulin release in response to glucose stimulation requires exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. Glucose stimulation of beta cells leads to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, which acts on the Rho family proteins (Rho, Rac and Cdc42) that direct F-actin remodeling. This process requires docking and fusion of secretory vesicles to the release sites at the plasma membrane and is a complex mechanism that is mediated by SNAREs. This transiently disrupts the F-actin barrier and allows the redistribution of the insulin-containing granules to more peripheral regions of the β cell, hence facilitating insulin secretion. In this manuscript, we show for the first time that BAG3 plays an important role in this process. We show that BAG3 downregulation results in increased insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation and in disruption of the F-actin network. Moreover, we show that BAG3 binds to SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1, two components of the t-SNARE complex preventing the interaction between SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1. Upon glucose stimulation BAG3 is phosphorylated by FAK and dissociates from SNAP-25 allowing the formation of the SNARE complex, destabilization of the F-actin network and insulin release. PMID:25766323

  12. [Primary study on characteristics of insulin secretion rate, metabolic clearance rate and sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects from multiplex diabetic pedigrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, J; Cheng, H; Li, F

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of insulin secretion rate (ISR), metabolic clearance rate (MCR-I) and sensitivity and to explore their relationship with obesity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects from multiplex diabetic pedigrees (MDP). Fifteen subjects with normal glucose tolerance and 11 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients from MDP were included in the study. Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) was performed. Glucose, insulin (INS) and connecting-peptide (C-P) concentrations were measured. A computer procedure devised by our laboratory was used to calculate the value of ISR at each time point, then MCR-I was acquired. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated according to minimal model technique about glucose in FSIVGTT. The ISR curve in control group was biphasic, while in non-insulin. In non-insulin-dependent diabetic group, areas under the curves of C-P (AUCC) and ISR level (AUCS) measured during 0 approximately 16 min were 7.9 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 2.8 nmol.min(-1).L(-1), and 6.1 nmol +/- 2.2 nmol, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in control group 17.7 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 4.92 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) and 12.3 nmol +/- 3.9 nmol (P < 0.01). The two parameters were slightly higher than those in control group 155 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 44 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) vs 101 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 30 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) and 76 nmol +/- 26 nmol vs 54 nmol +/- 20.0 nmol (P < 0.05)measured during 16 approximately 180 min. There was no significant difference, between the two groups about the amount of insulin secretion during 3 hours (82 nmol +/- 28nmol vs 68 nmol +/- 21 nmol, P = 0.2). In control group, there were significant positive correlation, between AUCS, waist-hip ratio (WHR), and body surface area, (BSA) and significant negative correlation between MCR-I, SI and WHR, BSA (P < 0.01), and also between MCR-I and SI. In non-insulin-dependent diabetic group, AUCS were significantly correlated with body mass

  13. Alteration in insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanti, J F; Gual, P; Grémeaux, T

    2004-01-01

    Insulin resistance, when combined with impaired insulin secretion, contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is characterised by a decrease in insulin effect on glucose transport in muscle and adipose tIssue. Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS......-1) and its binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) are critical events in the insulin signalling cascade leading to insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Modification of IRS-1 by serine phosphorylation could be one of the mechanisms leading to a decrease in IRS-1 tyrosine...... to phosphorylate these serine residues have been identified. These exciting results suggest that serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 is a possible hallmark of insulin resistance in biologically insulin responsive cells or tIssues. Identifying the pathways by which "diabetogenic" factors activate IRS-1 kinases...

  14. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we...

  15. Reproducible insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreas preparations using an organ bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Asuka; Ouchi, Motoshi; Terada, Misao; Kon, Hiroe; Kishimoto, Satoko; Satoh, Keitaro; Otani, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Keitaro; Fujita, Tomoe; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Anzai, Naohiko

    2018-02-09

    Diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle-related disease that is characterized by inappropriate or diminished insulin secretion. Ex vivo pharmacological studies of hypoglycemic agents are often conducted using perfused pancreatic preparations. Pancreas preparations for organ bath experiments do not require cannulation and are therefore less complex than isolated perfused pancreas preparations. However, previous research has generated almost no data on insulin secretion from pancreas preparations using organ bath preparations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of isolated rat pancreas preparations using the organ bath technique in the quantitative analysis of insulin secretion from β-cells. We found that insulin secretion significantly declined during incubation in the organ bath, whereas it was maintained in the presence of 1 µM GLP-1. Conversely, amylase secretion exhibited a modest increase during incubation and was not altered in the presence of GLP-1. These results demonstrate that the pancreatic organ bath preparation is a sensitive and reproducible method for the ex vivo assessment of the pharmacological properties of hypoglycemic agents.

  16. Early phase glucagon and insulin secretory abnormalities, but not incretin secretion, are similarly responsible for hyperglycemia after ingestion of nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yabe, Daisuke; Kuroe, Akira; Watanabe, Koin

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Hypersecretion of glucagon and reduced insulin secretion both contribute to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the relative contributions of impaired glucagon and insulin secretions in glucose excursions at the various stages of T2DM development remain to be determined. METHODS...... secretions but not incretin secretion are involved in hyperglycemia after ingestion of nutrients in T2DM of even a short duration....

  17. Intake of Lactobacillus reuteri Improves Incretin and Insulin Secretion in Glucose-Tolerant Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Marie-Christine; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    production. Muscle and hepatic lipid contents were assessed by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and immune status, cytokines, and endotoxin were measured with specific assays. RESULTS: In glucose-tolerant volunteers, daily administration of L. reuteri SD5865 increased glucose-stimulated GLP-1 and GLP-2....... reuteri SD5865 or placebo over 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance and isoglycemic glucose infusion tests were used to assess incretin effect and GLP-1 and GLP-2 secretion, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with [6,6-(2)H2]glucose were used to measure peripheral insulin sensitivity and endogenous glucose...... cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Enrichment of gut microbiota with L. reuteri increases insulin secretion, possibly due to augmented incretin release, but does not directly affect insulin sensitivity or body fat distribution. This suggests that oral ingestion of one specific strain may serve as a novel therapeutic...

  18. Redifferentiation of insulin-secreting cells after in vitro expansion of adult human pancreatic islet tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, Andreas; Nolan, Anna L.; Blacken, Robyn A.; Habener, Joel F.

    2005-01-01

    Cellular replacement therapy holds promise for the treatment of diabetes mellitus but donor tissue is severely limited. Therefore, we investigated whether insulin-secreting cells could be differentiated in vitro from a monolayer of cells expanded from human donor pancreatic islets. We describe a three-step culture protocol that allows for the efficient generation of insulin-producing cell clusters from in vitro expanded, hormone-negative cells. These clusters express insulin at levels of up to 34% that of average freshly isolated human islets and secrete C-peptide upon membrane depolarization. They also contain cells expressing the other major islet hormones (glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide). The source of the newly differentiated endocrine cells could either be indigenous stem/progenitor cells or the proliferation-associated dedifferentiation and subsequent redifferentiation of mature endocrine cells. The in vitro generated cell clusters may be efficacious in providing islet-like tissue for transplantation into diabetic recipients

  19. p53- and ERK7-dependent ribosome surveillance response regulates Drosophila insulin-like peptide secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Hasygar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like signalling is a conserved mechanism that coordinates animal growth and metabolism with nutrient status. In Drosophila, insulin-producing median neurosecretory cells (IPCs regulate larval growth by secreting insulin-like peptides (dILPs in a diet-dependent manner. Previous studies have shown that nutrition affects dILP secretion through humoral signals derived from the fat body. Here we uncover a novel mechanism that operates cell autonomously in the IPCs to regulate dILP secretion. We observed that impairment of ribosome biogenesis specifically in the IPCs strongly inhibits dILP secretion, which consequently leads to reduced body size and a delay in larval development. This response is dependent on p53, a known surveillance factor for ribosome biogenesis. A downstream effector of this growth inhibitory response is an atypical MAP kinase ERK7 (ERK8/MAPK15, which is upregulated in the IPCs following impaired ribosome biogenesis as well as starvation. We show that ERK7 is sufficient and essential to inhibit dILP secretion upon impaired ribosome biogenesis, and it acts epistatically to p53. Moreover, we provide evidence that p53 and ERK7 contribute to the inhibition of dILP secretion upon starvation. Thus, we conclude that a cell autonomous ribosome surveillance response, which leads to upregulation of ERK7, inhibits dILP secretion to impede tissue growth under limiting dietary conditions.

  20. Insulin resistance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, Jenne D; Opsomer, Geert

    2013-07-01

    Glucose is the molecule that drives milk production, and insulin plays a pivotal role in the glucose metabolism of dairy cows. The effect of insulin on the glucose metabolism is regulated by the secretion of insulin by the pancreas and the insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscles, the adipose tissue, and the liver. Insulin resistance may develop as part of physiologic (pregnancy and lactation) and pathologic processes, which may manifest as decreased insulin sensitivity or decreased insulin responsiveness. A good knowledge of the normal physiology of insulin is needed to measure the in vivo insulin resistance of dairy cows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Insulin Secretagogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than sulfonylureas. What are the side effects and disadvantages of insulin secretagogues? Both types of insulin-releasing ... help find the cause. Questions to ask your doctor What else can I do to keep my ...

  2. Circulating Glucagon 1-61 Regulates Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Secretion and Hepatic Glucose Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J.; Kuhre, Rune E.; Hornburg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    that PG 1-61 dose-dependently increases levels of cAMP, through the glucagon receptor, and increases insulin secretion and protein levels of enzymes regulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In rats, PG 1-61 increases blood glucose and plasma insulin and decreases plasma levels of amino acids in......Glucagon is secreted from pancreatic α cells, and hypersecretion (hyperglucagonemia) contributes to diabetic hyperglycemia. Molecular heterogeneity in hyperglucagonemia is poorly investigated. By screening human plasma using high-resolution-proteomics, we identified several glucagon variants, among...... which proglucagon 1-61 (PG 1-61) appears to be the most abundant form. PG 1-61 is secreted in subjects with obesity, both before and after gastric bypass surgery, with protein and fat as the main drivers for secretion before surgery, but glucose after. Studies in hepatocytes and in β cells demonstrated...

  3. The influence of GLP-1 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Lise L; Holst, Jens Juul; Vølund, Aage

    2003-01-01

    . However, the dose-response relationship between GLP-1 and basal and glucose-stimulated prehepatic insulin secretion rate (ISR) is currently not known. Seven patients with type 2 diabetes and seven matched nondiabetic control subjects were studied. ISR was determined during a graded glucose infusion of 2...

  4. High passage MIN6 cells have impaired insulin secretion with impaired glucose and lipid oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Cheng

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability of beta-cells to secrete enough insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis. MIN6 cells secrete insulin in response to glucose and other secretagogues, but high passage (HP MIN6 cells lose their ability to secrete insulin in response to glucose. We hypothesized that metabolism of glucose and lipids were defective in HP MIN6 cells causing impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. HP MIN6 cells had no first phase and impaired second phase GSIS indicative of global functional impairment. This was coupled with a markedly reduced ATP content at basal and glucose stimulated states. Glucose uptake and oxidation were higher at basal glucose but ATP content failed to increase with glucose. HP MIN6 cells had decreased basal lipid oxidation. This was accompanied by reduced expressions of Glut1, Gck, Pfk, Srebp1c, Ucp2, Sirt3, Nampt. MIN6 cells represent an important model of beta cells which, as passage numbers increased lost first phase but retained partial second phase GSIS, similar to patients early in type 2 diabetes onset. We believe a number of gene expression changes occurred to produce this defect, with emphasis on Sirt3 and Nampt, two genes that have been implicated in maintenance of glucose homeostasis.

  5. Nuclear SREBP-1a causes loss of pancreatic β-cells and impaired insulin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yuko; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Mayumi; Kato, Toyonori; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Yahagi, Naoya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a under the control of the insulin promoter were generated to determine the role of SREBP-1a in pancreatic β-cells. Only low expressors could be established, which exhibited mild hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced plasma insulin levels compared to C57BL/6 controls. The islets isolated from the transgenic mice were fewer and smaller, and had decreased insulin content and unaltered glucagon staining. Both glucose- and potassium-stimulated insulin secretions were decreased. The transgenic islets consistently expressed genes for fatty acids and cholesterol synthesis, resulting in accumulation of triglycerides but not cholesterol. PDX-1, ΒΕΤΑ2, MafA, and IRS-2 were suppressed, partially explaining the loss and dysfunction of β-cell mass. The transgenic mice on a high fat/high sucrose diet still exhibited impaired insulin secretion and continuous β-cell growth defect. Therefore, nuclear SREBP-1a, even at a low level, strongly disrupts β-cell mass and function.

  6. Insulin Secretion and Risk for Future Diabetes in Subjects with a Nonpositive Insulinogenic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Aono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To characterize subjects with a nonpositive insulinogenic index and longitudinally observe changes in their glucose tolerance. Subjects and Methods. A historical cohort study was conducted using data from the medical checkups of public school workers. Indices of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity derived from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and the incidences of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT were compared among subgroups of subjects with different insulinogenic index (change in insulin/change in glucose over the first 30 min on the OGTT. Results. Of the 1464 nondiabetic subjects at baseline, 72 (4.9% subjects had a nonpositive insulinogenic index: 42 of those subjects had a nonpositive glucose response (ΔGlu0–30 ≤ 0 and 30 had a nonpositive insulin response (ΔIns0–30 ≤ 0. Compared with subjects who had normal glucose tolerance (NGT with insulinogenic index ≥ 0.4, subjects with a nonpositive glucose response had a higher first-phase Stumvoll and lower incidences of diabetes and IGT based on a log-rank test (p<0.05, whereas subjects with a nonpositive insulin response had lower indices of insulin secretion and a higher incidence of diabetes (p<0.05. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that in the first 30 min on the OGTT, subjects with a nonpositive insulinogenic index due to a nonpositive glucose response (ΔGlu0–30 ≤ 0 had a lower risk for future diabetes and that subjects with nonpositive insulin response (ΔIns0–30 ≤ 0 had a higher risk for future one.

  7. The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD, that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n = 42 or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy, relatively high fibre (>30 g/day diet (HPHFib (n = 47 for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method—the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST. Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8%, 4.5%; p = 0.013 in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism.

  8. Early enhancements of hepatic and later of peripheral insulin sensitivity combined with increased postprandial insulin secretion contribute to improved glycemic control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Jørgensen, Nils Bruun

    2014-01-01

    after RYGB. Participants were included after a preoperative diet induced total weight loss of -9.2±1.2%. Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity were assessed using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp combined with glucose tracer technique and beta-cell function evaluated in response...... after surgery. Insulin mediated glucose disposal and suppression of fatty acids did not improve immediately after surgery but increased at 3 months and 1 year likely related to the reduction in body weight. Insulin secretion increased after RYGB, but only in patients with type 2 diabetes and only...

  9. Histone deacetylase 3 inhibition improves glycaemia and insulin secretion in obese diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Morten; Galbo, Thomas; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2015-01-01

    Failure of pancreatic β cells to compensate for insulin resistance is a prerequisite for the development of type 2 diabetes. Sustained elevated circulating levels of free fatty acids and glucose contribute to β-cell failure. Selective inhibition of Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-3 protects pancreatic β...... cells against inflammatory and metabolic insults in vitro. Here we tested the ability of a selective HDAC3 inhibitor, BRD3308, to reduce hyperglycemia and increase insulin secretion in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. At diabetes onset, an ambulatory hyperglycemic clamp was performed. HDAC3......3 as a key therapeutic target for β-cell protection in type 2 diabetes....

  10. Intra- and Inter-islet Synchronization of Metabolically Driven Insulin Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram; Bertram, Richard; Sherman, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    mechanisms for intra-islet and inter-islet synchronization. We show that electrical coupling is sufficient to synchronize both electrical bursting activity and metabolic oscillations. We also demonstrate that islets can synchronize by mutually entraining each other by their effects on a simple model "liver......,'' which responds to the level of insulin secretion by adjusting the blood glucose concentration in an appropriate way. Since all islets are exposed to the blood, the distributed islet-liver system can synchronize the individual islet insulin oscillations. Thus, we demonstrate how intra-islet and inter...

  11. Validation of methods for measurement of insulin secretion in humans in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, L L; Christiansen, E; Vølund, A

    2000-01-01

    To detect and understand the changes in beta-cell function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, an accurate and precise estimation of prehepatic insulin secretion rate (ISR) is essential. There are two common methods to assess ISR, the deconvolution method (by Eaton and Polonsky)-considered th......To detect and understand the changes in beta-cell function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, an accurate and precise estimation of prehepatic insulin secretion rate (ISR) is essential. There are two common methods to assess ISR, the deconvolution method (by Eaton and Polonsky...... of these mathematical techniques for quantification of insulin secretion have been tested in dogs, but not in humans. In the present studies, we examined the validity of both methods to recover the known infusion rates of insulin and C-peptide mimicking ISR during an oral glucose tolerance test. ISR from both......, and a close agreement was found for the results of an oral glucose tolerance test. We also studied whether C-peptide kinetics are influenced by somatostatin infusion. The decay curves after bolus injection of exogenous biosynthetic human C-peptide, the kinetic parameters, and the metabolic clearance rate were...

  12. Circulating Glucagon 1-61 Regulates Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Secretion and Hepatic Glucose Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Wewer Albrechtsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon is secreted from pancreatic α cells, and hypersecretion (hyperglucagonemia contributes to diabetic hyperglycemia. Molecular heterogeneity in hyperglucagonemia is poorly investigated. By screening human plasma using high-resolution-proteomics, we identified several glucagon variants, among which proglucagon 1-61 (PG 1-61 appears to be the most abundant form. PG 1-61 is secreted in subjects with obesity, both before and after gastric bypass surgery, with protein and fat as the main drivers for secretion before surgery, but glucose after. Studies in hepatocytes and in β cells demonstrated that PG 1-61 dose-dependently increases levels of cAMP, through the glucagon receptor, and increases insulin secretion and protein levels of enzymes regulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In rats, PG 1-61 increases blood glucose and plasma insulin and decreases plasma levels of amino acids in vivo. We conclude that glucagon variants, such as PG 1-61, may contribute to glucose regulation by stimulating hepatic glucose production and insulin secretion.

  13. Factors influencing insulin and glucagon secretion in lean and genetically obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloff-Chain, A.; Newman, M.E.; Mansford, K.R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The control of 125 I-labelled insulin and glucagon secretion from isolated pancreatic islets of lean and genetically obese mice has been compared. The enlarged islets of obese mouse pancreas and islets of obese mice maintained on a restricted diet manifested a greater response to glucose stimulation of insulin secretion than the lean mice islets. The glucagon content of the islets, the secretion of glucagon in a medium containing 150 mg% glucose and the stimulation of glucagon secretion by arginine did not differ significantly in the two groups. Adrenaline stimulated glucagon secretion in vitro from obese mice but not from lean mice. Antiinsulin serum injections into obese mice increased the plasma glucagon levels about twofold and had no effect on glucagon levels in lean mice, although the level of hyperglycaemia was the same in both groups. It is suggested that the suppression of glucagon release by glucose requires a higher concentration of insulin in the obese mouse pancreas than in lean mice. (orig./AJ) [de

  14. Factors influencing insulin and glucagon secretion in lean and genetically obese mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beloff-Chain, A; Newman, M E; Mansford, K R.L. [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1977-01-01

    The control of /sup 125/I-labelled insulin and glucagon secretion from isolated pancreatic islets of lean and genetically obese mice has been compared. The enlarged islets of obese mouse pancreas and islets of obese mice maintained on a restricted diet manifested a greater response to glucose stimulation of insulin secretion than the lean mice islets. The glucagon content of the islets, the secretion of glucagon in a medium containing 150 mg% glucose and the stimulation of glucagon secretion by arginine did not differ significantly in the two groups. Adrenaline stimulated glucagon secretion in vitro from obese mice but not from lean mice. Antiinsulin serum injections into obese mice increased the plasma glucagon levels about twofold and had no effect on glucagon levels in lean mice, although the level of hyperglycaemia was the same in both groups. It is suggested that the suppression of glucagon release by glucose requires a higher concentration of insulin in the obese mouse pancreas than in lean mice.

  15. A case of insulin and ACTH co-secretion by a neuroendocrine tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomou, S; Khan, R; Propper, D; Berney, D; Druce, M

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old male was diagnosed with a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of uncertain primary. He defaulted from follow-up without therapy and some months later developed episodic severe hypoglycaemia, which was found to be associated with inappropriately elevated insulin and C-peptide levels. It was considered likely that the neuroendocrine tumour was the source of the insulin secretion. Diazoxide and somatostatin analogue were used to control hypoglycaemia. Much later in the course of the disease, he developed metabolic derangement, increased skin pigmentation and psychological disturbance, without frankly Cushingoid physical findings. Investigations revealed highly elevated cortisol levels (the levels having previously been normal) with markedly raised ACTH levels, consistent with the co-secretion of ACTH and insulin by the tumour. Treatment with metyrapone improved his psychological state and electrolyte imbalance. Unfortunately, despite several cycles of first-, second- and third-line chemotherapy from the start of the first hormonal presentation onwards, imaging revealed widespread progressive metastatic disease and the patient eventually passed away. This case highlights the importance of keeping in mind the biochemical heterogeneity of endocrine tumours during their treatment. The clinical presentation of insulin-secreting tumours includes symptoms of neuroglycopaenia and sympathetic overstimulation.Tumour-associated hypoglycaemia can be due to pancreatic insulinomas, and although ectopic hormone production occurs in a number of tumours, ectopic secretion of insulin is rare.A possible switch in the type of hormone produced can occur during the growth and progression of neuroendocrine tumours and, when treating neuroendocrine tumours, it is important to keep in mind their biochemical heterogeneity.

  16. Complete loss of insulin secretion capacity in type 1A diabetes patients during long-term follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Sae; Imagawa, Akihisa; Kozawa, Junji; Fukui, Kenji; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2017-10-16

    Patients with type 1 diabetes are classified into three subtypes in Japan: acute onset, fulminant and slowly progressive. Acute-onset type 1 diabetes would be equivalent to type 1A diabetes, the typical type 1 diabetes in Western countries. The insulin secretion capacity in Japanese patients with long-standing type 1A diabetes is unclear. The aim of the present study was to clarify the course of endogenous insulin secretion during long-term follow up and the factors associated with residual insulin secretion in patients with acute-onset type 1 diabetes (autoimmune). We retrospectively investigated endogenous insulin secretion capacity in 71 patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for acute-onset type 1 diabetes (autoimmune) in Japan. To assess the residual insulin secretion capacity, we evaluated randomly measured C-peptide levels and the results of glucagon stimulation test in 71 patients. In the first year of disease, the child- and adolescent-onset patients had significantly more in residual insulin secretion than the adult-onset patients (34 patients in total). C-peptide levels declined more rapidly in patients whose age of onset was ≤18 years than in patients whose age of onset was ≥19 years. Endogenous insulin secretion capacity stimulated by glucagon was completely lost in almost all patients at >15 years after onset (61 patients in total). Most patients with acute-onset type 1 diabetes (autoimmune) completely lose their endogenous insulin secretion capacity during the disease duration in Japan. Age of onset might affect the course of insulin secretion. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. LPS-Enhanced Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Is Normalized by Resveratrol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Mark K; Dudele, Anete; Poulsen, Morten M

    2016-01-01

    we test the effect of LPS and the anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol on glucose homeostasis, insulin levels and inflammation. Mice were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic mini pumps infusing either low-dose LPS or saline for 28 days. Half of the mice were treated with resveratrol delivered...... through the diet. LPS caused increased inflammation of the liver and adipose tissue (epididymal and subcutaneous) together with enlarged spleens and increased number of leukocytes in the blood. Resveratrol specifically reduced the inflammatory status in epididymal fat (reduced expression of TNFa and Il1b......, whereas the increased macrophage infiltration was unaltered) without affecting the other tissues investigated. By LC-MS, we were able to quantitate resveratrol metabolites in epididymal but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. LPS induced insulin resistance as the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during...

  18. Novel Zn2+ Modulated GPR39 Receptor Agonists Do Not Drive Acute Insulin Secretion in Rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Fjellström

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D occurs when there is insufficient insulin release to control blood glucose, due to insulin resistance and impaired β-cell function. The GPR39 receptor is expressed in metabolic tissues including pancreatic β-cells and has been proposed as a T2D target. Specifically, GPR39 agonists might improve β-cell function leading to more adequate and sustained insulin release and glucose control. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that GPR39 agonism would improve glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vivo. A high throughput screen, followed by a medicinal chemistry program, identified three novel potent Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists. These agonists were evaluated in acute rodent glucose tolerance tests. The results showed a lack of glucose lowering and insulinotropic effects not only in lean mice, but also in diet-induced obese (DIO mice and Zucker fatty rats. It is concluded that Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists do not acutely stimulate insulin release in rodents.

  19. Integrative network analysis highlights biological processes underlying GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion: A DIRECT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valborg Gudmundsdottir

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion has a considerable heritable component as estimated from twin studies, yet few genetic variants influencing this phenotype have been identified. We performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS of GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion in non-diabetic individuals from the Netherlands Twin register (n = 126. This GWAS was enhanced using a tissue-specific protein-protein interaction network approach. We identified a beta-cell protein-protein interaction module that was significantly enriched for low gene scores based on the GWAS P-values and found support at the network level in an independent cohort from Tübingen, Germany (n = 100. Additionally, a polygenic risk score based on SNPs prioritized from the network was associated (P < 0.05 with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion phenotypes in up to 5,318 individuals in MAGIC cohorts. The network contains both known and novel genes in the context of insulin secretion and is enriched for members of the focal adhesion, extracellular-matrix receptor interaction, actin cytoskeleton regulation, Rap1 and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Adipose tissue is, like the beta-cell, one of the target tissues of GLP-1 and we thus hypothesized that similar networks might be functional in both tissues. In order to verify peripheral effects of GLP-1 stimulation, we compared the transcriptome profiling of ob/ob mice treated with liraglutide, a clinically used GLP-1 receptor agonist, versus baseline controls. Some of the upstream regulators of differentially expressed genes in the white adipose tissue of ob/ob mice were also detected in the human beta-cell network of genes associated with GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion. The findings provide biological insight into the mechanisms through which the effects of GLP-1 may be modulated and highlight a potential role of the beta-cell expressed genes RYR2, GDI2, KIAA0232, COL4A1 and COL4A2 in GLP-1 stimulated

  20. Kcne2 deletion impairs insulin secretion and causes type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Min; Baik, Jasmine; Nguyen, Dara; Nguyen, Victoria; Liu, Shiwei; Hu, Zhaoyang; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2017-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a rapidly increasing threat to global public health. T2DM arises largely from obesity, poor diet, and lack of exercise, but it also involves genetic predisposition. Here we report that the KCNE2 potassium channel transmembrane regulatory subunit is expressed in human and mouse pancreatic β cells. Kcne2 deletion in mice impaired glucose tolerance as early as 5 wk of age in pups fed a Western diet, ultimately causing diabetes. In adult mice fed normal chow, skeletal muscle expression of insulin receptor β and insulin receptor substrate 1 were down-regulated 2-fold by Kcne2 deletion, characteristic of T2DM. Kcne2 deletion also caused extensive pancreatic transcriptome changes consistent with facets of T2DM, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and hyperproliferation. Kcne2 deletion impaired β-cell insulin secretion in vitro up to 8-fold and diminished β-cell peak outward K + current at positive membrane potentials, but also left-shifted its voltage dependence and slowed inactivation. Interestingly, we also observed an aging-dependent reduction in β-cell outward currents in both Kcne2 +/+ and Kcne2 - / - mice. Our results demonstrate that KCNE2 is required for normal β-cell electrical activity and insulin secretion, and that Kcne2 deletion causes T2DM. KCNE2 may regulate multiple K + channels in β cells, including the T2DM-linked KCNQ1 potassium channel α subunit.-Lee, S. M., Baik, J., Nguyen, D., Nguyen, V., Liu, S., Hu, Z., Abbott, G. W. Kcne2 deletion impairs insulin secretion and causes type 2 diabetes mellitus. © FASEB.

  1. Improvement of insulin secretion in rat models of diabetes after ACEI/ARB therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jingyan; Li Fengying; Liu Yun; Long Hongmei; Li Weiyi; Wang Xiao; Zhang Hongli; Li Guo; Luo Min

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of ACEI/ARB therapy on the secretion of insulin and glucagon as well as serum lipid peroxidation marker 8-iso PGF-2α levels in streptozoticin (STZ) induced diabetic rat models.Methods Twenty-four rat models of STZ induced diabetes were prepared (random blood sugar>16.7 mmol/L). Of which, 8 models were fed enalaprial 5mg/kg/d, 8 models were fed losartan 10μg/kg/d and 8 models left unterated. Fasting serum insulin,glucagon (with RIA) and 8-iso PGF-2α (with ELISA) levels were measured in these models and 8 control rats three weeks later. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were performed in 12 rats (3 animals in each group) six weeks later. Results: Serum levels of insulin in the treated models were higher than those in the non-treated models but without significance (P>0.05). Serum levels of glucagon and 8-iso PGF-2α levels in the treated models were significantly lower than those in the non-treated models (P 6 x ) in the treated models. Conclusion: ACEI/ARB treatment could improve the secretion of insulin in rat models of diabetes, which might be beneficial for controlling the progression of the disease. This phenomenon is consistent with the result of clinical study. (authors)

  2. Delta-like Ligand-4-Notch Signaling Inhibition Regulates Pancreatic Islet Function and Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Billiard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Notch signaling has been proposed as a therapeutic target for type-2 diabetes, liver steatosis, and atherosclerosis, its direct effect on pancreatic islets remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated a function of Dll4-Notch signaling inhibition on the biology of insulin-producing cells. We confirmed enhanced expression of key Notch signaling genes in purified pancreatic islets from diabetic NOD mice and showed that treatment with anti-Dll4 antibody specifically abolished Notch signaling pathway activation. Furthermore, we showed that Notch inhibition could drive proliferation of β-islet cells and confer protection from the development of STZ-induced diabetes. Importantly, inhibition of the Dll4 pathway in WT mice increased insulin secretion by inducing the differentiation of pancreatic β-islet cell progenitors, as well as the proliferation of insulin-secreting cells. These findings reveal a direct effect of Dll4-blockade on pancreatic islets that, in conjunction with its immunomodulatory effects, could be used for unmet medical needs hallmarked by inefficient insulin action.

  3. Does epigenetic dysregulation of pancreatic islets contribute to impaired insulin secretion and type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    β cell dysfunction is central to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D develops when β cells are not able to compensate for the increasing demand for insulin caused by insulin resistance. Epigenetic modifications play an important role in establishing and maintaining β cell identity and function in physiological conditions. On the other hand, epigenetic dysregulation can cause a loss of β cell identity, which is characterized by reduced expression of genes that are important for β cell function, ectopic expression of genes that are not supposed to be expressed in β cells, and loss of genetic imprinting. Consequently, this may lead to β cell dysfunction and impaired insulin secretion. Risk factors that can cause epigenetic dysregulation include parental obesity, an adverse intrauterine environment, hyperglycemia, lipotoxicity, aging, physical inactivity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. These risk factors can affect the epigenome at different time points throughout the lifetime of an individual and even before an individual is conceived. The plasticity of the epigenome enables it to change in response to environmental factors such as diet and exercise, and also makes the epigenome a good target for epigenetic drugs that may be used to enhance insulin secretion and potentially treat diabetes.

  4. The loss of Sirt1 in mouse pancreatic beta cells impairs insulin secretion by disrupting glucose sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, L; Dai, F F; Prentice, K J

    2013-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has emerged as a key metabolic regulator of glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. Enhanced SIRT1 activity has been shown to be protective against diabetes, although the mechanisms remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine how SIRT1 regulates insulin sec...

  5. Combined contributions of over-secreted glucagon-like peptide 1 and suppressed insulin secretion to hyperglycemia induced by gatifloxacin in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yunli, E-mail: chrisyu1255@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215004 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Xinting, E-mail: wxinting1986@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Can, E-mail: ltsan@163.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yao, Dan, E-mail: erinyao@126.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai 201203 (China); Hu, Mengyue, E-mail: juliahmy@126.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Jia, E-mail: ljbzd@163.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Hu, Nan, E-mail: hn_324@163.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Li, E-mail: liulee@cpu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdliu@cpu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2013-02-01

    Accumulating evidences have showed that gatifloxacin causes dysglycemia in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Our preliminary study demonstrated that gatifloxacin stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release and dysglycemia in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and explore the possible mechanisms. Oral administration of gatifloxacin (100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day) for 3 and 12 days led to marked elevation of GLP-1 levels, accompanied by significant decrease in insulin levels and increase in plasma glucose. Similar results were found in normal rats treated with 3-day gatifloxacin. Gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release was further confirmed in NCI-H716 cells, which was abolished by diazoxide, a K{sub ATP} channel opener. QT-PCR analysis showed that gatifloxacin also upregulated expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA. To clarify the contradiction on elevated GLP-1 without insulinotropic effect, effects of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin on insulin release were investigated using INS-1 cells. We found that short exposure (2 h) to GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion and biosynthesis, whereas long exposure (24 h and 48 h) to high level of GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. Moreover, we also confirmed gatifloxacin acutely stimulated insulin secretion while chronically inhibited insulin biosynthesis. All the results gave an inference that gatifloxacin stimulated over-secretion of GLP-1, in turn, high levels of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin synergistically impaired insulin release, worsening hyperglycemia. -- Highlights: ► Gatifloxacin induced hyperglycemia both in diabetic rats and normal rats. ► Gatifloxacin enhanced GLP-1 secretion but inhibited insulin secretion in rats. ► Long-term exposure to high GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. ► GLP-1 over-secretion may be

  6. Combined contributions of over-secreted glucagon-like peptide 1 and suppressed insulin secretion to hyperglycemia induced by gatifloxacin in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yunli; Wang, Xinting; Liu, Can; Yao, Dan; Hu, Mengyue; Li, Jia; Hu, Nan; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidences have showed that gatifloxacin causes dysglycemia in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Our preliminary study demonstrated that gatifloxacin stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release and dysglycemia in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and explore the possible mechanisms. Oral administration of gatifloxacin (100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day) for 3 and 12 days led to marked elevation of GLP-1 levels, accompanied by significant decrease in insulin levels and increase in plasma glucose. Similar results were found in normal rats treated with 3-day gatifloxacin. Gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release was further confirmed in NCI-H716 cells, which was abolished by diazoxide, a K ATP channel opener. QT-PCR analysis showed that gatifloxacin also upregulated expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA. To clarify the contradiction on elevated GLP-1 without insulinotropic effect, effects of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin on insulin release were investigated using INS-1 cells. We found that short exposure (2 h) to GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion and biosynthesis, whereas long exposure (24 h and 48 h) to high level of GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. Moreover, we also confirmed gatifloxacin acutely stimulated insulin secretion while chronically inhibited insulin biosynthesis. All the results gave an inference that gatifloxacin stimulated over-secretion of GLP-1, in turn, high levels of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin synergistically impaired insulin release, worsening hyperglycemia. -- Highlights: ► Gatifloxacin induced hyperglycemia both in diabetic rats and normal rats. ► Gatifloxacin enhanced GLP-1 secretion but inhibited insulin secretion in rats. ► Long-term exposure to high GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. ► GLP-1 over-secretion may be involved in

  7. Integrative network analysis highlights biological processes underlying GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion: A DIRECT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Valborg; Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Allebrandt, Karla Viviani

    2018-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulated insulin secretion has a considerable heritable component as estimated from twin studies, yet few genetic variants influencing this phenotype have been identified. We performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of GLP-1 stimulated insulin...... secretion in non-diabetic individuals from the Netherlands Twin register (n = 126). This GWAS was enhanced using a tissue-specific protein-protein interaction network approach. We identified a beta-cell protein-protein interaction module that was significantly enriched for low gene scores based on the GWAS...... P-values and found support at the network level in an independent cohort from Tübingen, Germany (n = 100). Additionally, a polygenic risk score based on SNPs prioritized from the network was associated (P

  8. Activation of PPARd and RXRa stimulates fatty acid oxidatin and insulin secretion inpancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Michael; Ravnskjær, Kim; Frigerio, Francesca

    as a central effector of unsaturated fatty acids in pancreatic ß-cells. Interestingly, activation of PPARd increases basal as well as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of INS-1E cells. This increase is further potentiated by RXR agonists. This observation suggests that PPARd may mediate some of the positive......ACTIVATION OF PPARd AND RXRa STIMULATES FATTY ACID OXIDATION AND INSULIN SECRETION IN PANCREATIC b-CELLS Michael Boergesen1, Kim Ravnskjaer2, Francesca Frigerio3, Allan E. Karlsen4, Pierre Maechler3 and Susanne Mandrup1 1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern...... of genes as PPARd specific agonists and stimulates ß-oxidation. Importantly, oleate-induction of gene expression and ß-oxidation in INS-1E cells is abolished by knock-down of PPARd using adenoviral transfer of shRNA. Thus, PPARd appears to be a central regulator of fatty acid metabolism as well...

  9. OPA1 deficiency promotes secretion of FGF21 from muscle that prevents obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renata Oliveira; Tadinada, Satya M; Zasadny, Frederick M; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; Olvera, Angela; Jeffers, Jennifer; Souvenir, Rhonda; Mcglauflin, Rose; Seei, Alec; Funari, Trevor; Sesaki, Hiromi; Potthoff, Matthew J; Adams, Christopher M; Anderson, Ethan J; Abel, E Dale

    2017-07-14

    Mitochondrial dynamics is a conserved process by which mitochondria undergo repeated cycles of fusion and fission, leading to exchange of mitochondrial genetic content, ions, metabolites, and proteins. Here, we examine the role of the mitochondrial fusion protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) in differentiated skeletal muscle by reducing OPA1 gene expression in an inducible manner. OPA1 deficiency in young mice results in non-lethal progressive mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of muscle mass. Mutant mice are resistant to age- and diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance, by mechanisms that involve activation of ER stress and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) from skeletal muscle, resulting in increased metabolic rates and improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. OPA1-elicited mitochondrial dysfunction activates an integrated stress response that locally induces muscle atrophy, but via secretion of FGF21 acts distally to modulate whole-body metabolism. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is not involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis or insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gustavsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin secretion is a complex and highly regulated process. It is well established that cytoplasmic calcium is a key regulator of insulin secretion, but how elevated intracellular calcium triggers insulin granule exocytosis remains unclear, and we have only begun to define the identities of proteins that are responsible for sensing calcium changes and for transmitting the calcium signal to release machineries. Synaptotagmins are primarily expressed in brain and endocrine cells and exhibit diverse calcium binding properties. Synaptotagmin-1, -2 and -9 are calcium sensors for fast neurotransmitter release in respective brain regions, while synaptotagmin-7 is a positive regulator of calcium-dependent insulin release. Unlike the three neuronal calcium sensors, whose deletion abolished fast neurotransmitter release, synaptotagmin-7 deletion resulted in only partial loss of calcium-dependent insulin secretion, thus suggesting that other calcium-sensors must participate in the regulation of insulin secretion. Of the other synaptotagmin isoforms that are present in pancreatic islets, the neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is expressed at the highest level after synaptotagmin-7. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we tested whether synaptotagmin-9 participates in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release by using pancreas-specific synaptotagmin-9 knockout (p-S9X mice. Deletion of synaptotagmin-9 in the pancreas resulted in no changes in glucose homeostasis or body weight. Glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion in vivo and from isolated islets were not affected in the p-S9X mice. Single-cell capacitance measurements showed no difference in insulin granule exocytosis between p-S9X and control mice. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, synaptotagmin-9, although a major calcium sensor in the brain, is not involved in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic β-cells.

  11. Neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is not involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis or insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wang, Xiaorui; Wang, Yue; Seah, Tingting; Xu, Jun; Radda, George K; Südhof, Thomas C; Han, Weiping

    2010-11-09

    Insulin secretion is a complex and highly regulated process. It is well established that cytoplasmic calcium is a key regulator of insulin secretion, but how elevated intracellular calcium triggers insulin granule exocytosis remains unclear, and we have only begun to define the identities of proteins that are responsible for sensing calcium changes and for transmitting the calcium signal to release machineries. Synaptotagmins are primarily expressed in brain and endocrine cells and exhibit diverse calcium binding properties. Synaptotagmin-1, -2 and -9 are calcium sensors for fast neurotransmitter release in respective brain regions, while synaptotagmin-7 is a positive regulator of calcium-dependent insulin release. Unlike the three neuronal calcium sensors, whose deletion abolished fast neurotransmitter release, synaptotagmin-7 deletion resulted in only partial loss of calcium-dependent insulin secretion, thus suggesting that other calcium-sensors must participate in the regulation of insulin secretion. Of the other synaptotagmin isoforms that are present in pancreatic islets, the neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is expressed at the highest level after synaptotagmin-7. In this study we tested whether synaptotagmin-9 participates in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release by using pancreas-specific synaptotagmin-9 knockout (p-S9X) mice. Deletion of synaptotagmin-9 in the pancreas resulted in no changes in glucose homeostasis or body weight. Glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion in vivo and from isolated islets were not affected in the p-S9X mice. Single-cell capacitance measurements showed no difference in insulin granule exocytosis between p-S9X and control mice. Thus, synaptotagmin-9, although a major calcium sensor in the brain, is not involved in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic β-cells.

  12. Effects of Steaming Time and Frequency for Manufactured Red Liriope platyphylla on the Insulin Secretion Ability and Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Il; Lee, Hye Ryun; Goo, Jun Seo; Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, So Hee; Hwang, In Sik; Lee, Young Ju; Prak, So Hae; Lee, Hee Seob; Lee, Jong Sup; Jang, In Surk; Son, Hong Ju; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2011-06-01

    In oriental medicine, Liriope platyphylla (LP) has long been regarded as a curative herb useful for the treatment of diabetes, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders. The principal objective of this study was to assess the effects of steaming time and frequency for manufactured Red LP (RLP) on insulin secretion ability and insulin receptor signaling pathway. To achieve our goal, several types of LPs manufactured under different conditions were applied to INS cells and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic ICR mice, after which alterations in insulin concentrations were detected in the culture supernatants and sera. The optimal concentration for the investigation of insulin secretion ability was found to be 50 ug/mL of LP. At this concentration, maximum insulin secretion was observed in the INS cells treated with LP extract steamed for 3 h (3-SLP) with two repeated steps (3 h steaming and 24 h air-dried) carried out 9 times (9-SALP); no significant changes in viability were detected in any of the treated cells. Additionally, the expression and phosphorylation levels of most components in the insulin receptor signaling pathway were increased significantly in the majority of cells treated with steaming-processed LP as compared to the cells treated with LP prepared without steaming. With regard to glucose transporter (GLUT) expression, alterations of steaming time induced similar responses on the expression levels of GLUT-2 and GLUT-3. However, differences in steaming frequency were also shown to induce dose-dependent responses in the expression level of GLUT-2 only; no significant differences in GLUT-3 expression were detected under these conditions. Furthermore, these responses observed in vitro were similarly detected in STZ-induced diabetic mice. 24-SLP and 9-SALP treatment applied for 14 days induced the down-regulation of glucose concentration and upregulation of insulin concentration. Therefore, these results indicated that the steaming processed LP may

  13. Superoxide generation is diminished during glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1E cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr; Hlavatá, Lydie; Špaček, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 275, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 310-310 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /33./ and IUBMB Conference /11./. 28.06.2008-03.07.2008, Athens] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7917; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * superoxide production * glucose-stimulated insulin secretion * INS-1E cells Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  14. Dual role of proapoptotic BAD in insulin secretion and beta cell survival

    OpenAIRE

    Danial, Nika N.; Walensky, Loren D.; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Choi, Cheol Soo; Fisher, Jill K.; Molina, Anthony J. A.; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Pitter, Kenneth L.; Bird, Gregory H.; Wikstrom, Jakob D.; Deeney, Jude T.; Robertson, Kirsten; Morash, Joel; Kulkarni, Ameya; Neschen, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    The proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAD resides in a glucokinase-containing complex that regulates glucose-driven mitochondrial respiration. Here, we present genetic evidence of a physiologic role for BAD in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by beta cells. This novel function of BAD is specifically dependent upon the phosphorylation of its BH3 sequence, previously defined as an essential death domain. We highlight the pharmacologic relevance of phosphorylated BAD BH3 by using cell-permeab...

  15. Leucine metabolism in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jichun; Chi, Yujing; Burkhardt, Brant R.; Guan, Youfei; Wolf, Bryan A

    2010-01-01

    Leucine, a the branched-chain amino acids that must be supplied in daily diet, plays an important role in controlling protein synthesis and regulating cell metabolism in various cell types. In pancreatic β cells, leucine acutely stimulates insulin secretion by serving as both metabolic fuel and allosteric activator of glutamate dehydrogenase to enhance glutaminolysis. Leucine has also been shown to regulate gene transcription and protein synthesis in pancreatic islet β cells via both mTOR-dep...

  16. Design and clinical pilot testing of the model-based dynamic insulin sensitivity and secretion test (DISST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Thomas F; Chase, J Geoffrey; McAuley, Kirsten A; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Docherty, Paul D; Berkeley, Juliet E; Williams, Sheila M; Hann, Christopher E; Mann, Jim I

    2010-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a significant risk factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This article presents pilot study results of the dynamic insulin sensitivity and secretion test (DISST), a high-resolution, low-intensity test to diagnose insulin sensitivity (IS) and characterize pancreatic insulin secretion in response to a (small) glucose challenge. This pilot study examines the effect of glucose and insulin dose on the DISST, and tests its repeatability. DISST tests were performed on 16 subjects randomly allocated to low (5 g glucose, 0.5 U insulin), medium (10 g glucose, 1 U insulin) and high dose (20 g glucose, 2 U insulin) protocols. Two or three tests were performed on each subject a few days apart. Average variability in IS between low and medium dose was 10.3% (p=.50) and between medium and high dose 6.0% (p=.87). Geometric mean variability between tests was 6.0% (multiplicative standard deviation (MSD) 4.9%). Geometric mean variability in first phase endogenous insulin response was 6.8% (MSD 2.2%). Results were most consistent in subjects with low IS. These findings suggest that DISST may be an easily performed dynamic test to quantify IS with high resolution, especially among those with reduced IS. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Effects of acute and chronic attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia on postglucose-load endothelial function in insulin resistant individuals: is stimulation of first phase insulin secretion beneficial for the endothelial function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Major-Pedersen, A; Ihlemann, N; Hermann, T S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine if attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia, by acutely and chronically enhancing postprandial insulin secretion in insulin-resistant individuals, improves the endothelial dysfunction. We assessed postoral glucose-load endothelial function in 56 insulin....... We found no relationship between postprandial hyperglycemia and post-OGL FMD....

  18. Reactive oxygen species as a signal in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Jingbo; Bai, Yushi; Zhang, Qiang; Wong, Victoria; Floering, Lisa M; Daniel, Kiefer; Reece, Jeffrey M; Deeney, Jude T; Andersen, Melvin E; Corkey, Barbara E; Collins, Sheila

    2007-07-01

    One of the unique features of beta-cells is their relatively low expression of many antioxidant enzymes. This could render beta-cells susceptible to oxidative damage but may also provide a system that is sensitive to reactive oxygen species as signals. In isolated mouse islets and INS-1(832/13) cells, glucose increases intracellular accumulation of H2O2. In both models, insulin secretion could be stimulated by provision of either exogenous H2O2 or diethyl maleate, which raises intracellular H2O2 levels. Provision of exogenous H2O2 scavengers, including cell permeable catalase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, inhibited glucose-stimulated H2O2 accumulation and insulin secretion (GSIS). In contrast, cell permeable superoxide dismutase, which metabolizes superoxide into H2O2, had no effect on GSIS. Because oxidative stress is an important risk factor for beta-cell dysfunction in diabetes, the relationship between glucose-induced H2O2 generation and GSIS was investigated under various oxidative stress conditions. Acute exposure of isolated mouse islets or INS-1(832/13) cells to oxidative stressors, including arsenite, 4-hydroxynonenal, and methylglyoxal, led to decreased GSIS. This impaired GSIS was associated with increases in a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, these findings suggest that H2O2 derived from glucose metabolism is one of the metabolic signals for insulin secretion, whereas oxidative stress may disturb its signaling function.

  19. Geniposide regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion possibly through controlling glucose metabolism in INS-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Liu

    Full Text Available Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS is essential to the control of metabolic fuel homeostasis. The impairment of GSIS is a key element of β-cell failure and one of causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Although the KATP channel-dependent mechanism of GSIS has been broadly accepted for several decades, it does not fully describe the effects of glucose on insulin secretion. Emerging evidence has suggested that other mechanisms are involved. The present study demonstrated that geniposide enhanced GSIS in response to the stimulation of low or moderately high concentrations of glucose, and promoted glucose uptake and intracellular ATP levels in INS-1 cells. However, in the presence of a high concentration of glucose, geniposide exerted a contrary role on both GSIS and glucose uptake and metabolism. Furthermore, geniposide improved the impairment of GSIS in INS-1 cells challenged with a high concentration of glucose. Further experiments showed that geniposide modulated pyruvate carboxylase expression and the production of intermediates of glucose metabolism. The data collectively suggest that geniposide has potential to prevent or improve the impairment of insulin secretion in β-cells challenged with high concentrations of glucose, likely through pyruvate carboxylase mediated glucose metabolism in β-cells.

  20. Impact of 9 days of bed rest on hepatic and peripheral insulin action, insulin secretion, and whole-body lipolysis in healthy young male offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alibegovic, Amra C; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P

    2009-01-01

    decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in both groups. Hepatic insulin resistance was elevated in FDR subjects prior to bed rest and was significantly augmented by bed rest in FDR (P ... deteriorates with 9 days of bed rest, converging toward similar degrees of whole-body insulin resistance. FDR subjects exhibit hepatic insulin resistance (HIR), which, in contrast to CON subjects, deteriorates in response to physical inactivity. FDR subjects exhibit reduced insulin secretion when seen...... subjects, with no significant differences between the groups. Insulin resistance induced by bed rest was fully accounted for by the impairment of nonoxidative glucose metabolism in both groups (overall P resistant FDR and healthy CON subjects...

  1. Effects of the beta-carbolines, harmane and pinoline, on insulin secretion from isolated human islets of Langerhans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E Jane; Hudson, Alan L; Parker, Christine A; Morgan, Noel G

    2003-12-15

    It is well known that certain imidazoline compounds can stimulate insulin secretion and this has been attributed to the activation of imidazoline I(3) binding sites in the pancreatic beta-cell. Recently, it has been proposed that beta-carbolines may be endogenous ligands having activity at imidazoline sites and we have, therefore, studied the effects of beta-carbolines on insulin secretion. The beta-carbolines harmane, norharmane and pinoline increased insulin secretion two- to threefold from isolated human islets of Langerhans. The effects of harmane and pinoline were dose-dependent (EC(50): 5 and 25 microM, respectively) and these agents also blocked the inhibitory effects of the potassium channel agonist, diazoxide, on glucose-induced insulin release. Stimulation of insulin secretion by harmane was glucose-dependent but, unlike the imidazoline I(3) receptor agonist efaroxan, it increased the rate of insulin release beyond that elicited by 20 mM glucose (20 mM glucose alone: 253+/-34% vs. basal; 20 mM glucose plus 100 microM harmane: 327+/-15%; P<0.01). Stimulation of insulin secretion by harmane was attenuated by the imidazoline I(3) receptor antagonist KU14R (2 (2-ethyl 2,3-dihydro-2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazole) and was reduced when islets were treated with efaroxan for 18 h, prior to the addition of harmane. The results reveal that beta-carbolines can potentiate the rate of insulin secretion from human islets and suggest that these agents may be useful prototypes for the development of novel insulin secretagogues.

  2. Insulin elevates leptin secretion and mRNA levels via cyclic AMP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes deprived of glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Tsubai

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Insulin alone stimulates leptin secretion and elevates leptin mRNA levels via cAMP under the lack of glucose metabolism, while glucose is a significant and ambivalent effector on the insulin effects of leptin.

  3. RFX6 Regulates Insulin Secretion by Modulating Ca2+ Homeostasis in Human β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development and function of pancreatic β cells involve the regulated activity of specific transcription factors. RFX6 is a transcription factor essential for mouse β cell differentiation that is mutated in monogenic forms of neonatal diabetes. However, the expression and functional roles of RFX6 in human β cells, especially in pathophysiological conditions, are poorly explored. We demonstrate the presence of RFX6 in adult human pancreatic endocrine cells. Using the recently developed human β cell line EndoC-βH2, we show that RFX6 regulates insulin gene transcription, insulin content, and secretion. Knockdown of RFX6 causes downregulation of Ca2+-channel genes resulting in the reduction in L-type Ca2+-channel activity that leads to suppression of depolarization-evoked insulin exocytosis. We also describe a previously unreported homozygous missense RFX6 mutation (p.V506G that is associated with neonatal diabetes, which lacks the capacity to activate the insulin promoter and to increase Ca2+-channel expression. Our data therefore provide insights for understanding certain forms of neonatal diabetes.

  4. Observations on the insulin-secretion function in the offsprings of patients with type II diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shujie; Tian Xiaoping; Wu Yan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the disturbance of insulin-secretion function in the offsprings of patients with type II diabetes. Methods: Blood sugar (with oxidase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels were measured after overnight fasting and repeatedly measured 2h after 75g glucose per oral in the following subjects: 1) Group A, 23 non-obese offsprings of type II diabetics 2) group B, 18 obese offsprings (BMI ≥25kg/m 2 ) and 3) 27 controls. Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function index (HCI) were calculated from the data (glucose and insulin levels) obtained. Results: For Group A subjects, the fasting blood sugar (FPG) levels were significantly higher and HBCI significantly lower than those in te controls (both P<0.05). For Group B obese subjects, in addition to the above two parameters (with HBCI P<0.01), 2h PG levels as well as HOMA-IR were also significantly higher (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Present study showed that in the offsprings of diabetics, HBCI was already lowered before definite impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) could be demonstrated, especially in the obese ones. (authors)

  5. Observations on the insulin-secretion function in the offsprings of patients with type II diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shujie, Xu; Xiaoping, Tian; Yan, Wu [The First People' s Hospital of Lianyungang (China)

    2004-10-01

    Objective: To investigate the disturbance of insulin-secretion function in the offsprings of patients with type II diabetes. Methods: Blood sugar (with oxidase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels were measured after overnight fasting and repeatedly measured 2h after 75g glucose per oral in the following subjects: 1) Group A, 23 non-obese offsprings of type II diabetics 2) group B, 18 obese offsprings (BMI {>=}25kg/m{sup 2} ) and 3) 27 controls. Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and {beta}-cell function index (HCI) were calculated from the data (glucose and insulin levels) obtained. Results: For Group A subjects, the fasting blood sugar (FPG) levels were significantly higher and HBCI significantly lower than those in te controls (both P<0.05). For Group B obese subjects, in addition to the above two parameters (with HBCI P<0.01), 2h PG levels as well as HOMA-IR were also significantly higher (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Present study showed that in the offsprings of diabetics, HBCI was already lowered before definite impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) could be demonstrated, especially in the obese ones. (authors)

  6. Zinc Status Affects Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen B. Fung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05 and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048. Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (−19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL, showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05. Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient.

  7. Insulin Secretion and Incretin Hormone Concentration in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hoon Yu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe examined the change in the levels of incretin hormone and effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 on insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes (pGDM.MethodsA 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was conducted on 34 women with pGDM. In addition, 11 women with normal glucose tolerance, matched for age, height and weight, were also tested. The insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon concentrations were measured, and their anthropometric and biochemical markers were also measured.ResultsAmong 34 women with pGDM, 18 had normal glucose tolerance, 13 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and 1 had diabetes. No significant differences were found in GLP-1 concentration between the pGDM and control group. However, a significantly high level of glucagon was present in the pGDM group at 30 minutes into the OGTT. The GIP concentration was elevated at 30 minutes and 60 minutes in the pGDM group. With the exception of the 30-minute timepoint, women with IGT had significantly high blood glucose from 0 to 120 minutes. However, there was no significant difference in insulin or GLP-1 concentration. The GIP level was significantly high from 0 to 90 minutes in patients diagnosed with IGT.ConclusionGLP-1 secretion does not differ between pGDM patients and normal women. GIP was elevated, but that does not seem to induce in increase in insulin secretion. Therefore, we conclude that other factors such as heredity and environment play important roles in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Impaired Sympathoadrenal Axis Function Contributes to Enhanced Insulin Secretion in Prediabetic Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eliza Andreazzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of sympathoadrenal axis activity in obesity onset was investigated using the experimental model of treating neonatal rats with monosodium L-glutamate. To access general sympathetic nervous system activity, we recorded the firing rates of sympathetic superior cervical ganglion nerves in animals. Catecholamine content and secretion from isolated adrenal medulla were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed, and isolated pancreatic islets were stimulated with glucose and adrenergic agonists. The nerve firing rate of obese rats was decreased compared to the rate for lean rats. Basal catecholamine secretion decreased whereas catecholamine secretion induced by carbachol, elevated extracellular potassium, and caffeine in the isolated adrenal medulla were all increased in obese rats compared to control. Both glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia were observed in obese rats. Adrenaline strongly inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion in obese animals. These findings suggest that low sympathoadrenal activity contributes to impaired glycaemic control in prediabetic obese rats.

  9. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) suppresses ghrelin levels in humans via increased insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Dirk; Holst, Jens Juul; Gethmann, Arnica

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide predominantly secreted by the stomach. Ghrelin plasma levels rise before meal ingestion and sharply decline afterwards, but the mechanisms controlling ghrelin secretion are largely unknown. Since meal ingestion also elicits the secretion...... of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), we examined whether exogenous GLP-1 administration reduces ghrelin secretion in humans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 14 healthy male volunteers were given intravenous infusions of GLP-1(1.2 pmol x kg(-1) min(-1)) or placebo over 390 min. After 30 min, a solid test...... meal was served. Venous blood was drawn frequently for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1 and ghrelin. RESULTS: During the infusion of exogenous GLP-1 and placebo, GLP-1 plasma concentrations reached steady-state levels of 139+/-15 pmol/l and 12+/-2 pmol/l, respectively (p

  10. Huntingtin-interacting protein 14 is a type 1 diabetes candidate protein regulating insulin secretion and β-cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, Lukas Adrian; Størling, Zenia Marian; Ortis, Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex disease characterized by the loss of insulin-secreting β-cells. Although the disease has a strong genetic component, and several loci are known to increase T1D susceptibility risk, only few causal genes have currently been identified. To identify disease...... genes in T1D, including the INS gene. An unexpected top-scoring candidate gene was huntingtin-interacting protein (HIP)-14/ZDHHC17. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic sections demonstrated that HIP14 is almost exclusively expressed in insulin-positive cells in islets of Langerhans. RNAi...... knockdown experiments established that HIP14 is an antiapoptotic protein required for β-cell survival and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IFN-γ) that mediate β-cell dysfunction in T1D down-regulated HIP14 expression in insulin-secreting INS-1 cells and in isolated...

  11. Dual role of proapoptotic BAD in insulin secretion and beta cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial, Nika N; Walensky, Loren D; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Choi, Cheol Soo; Fisher, Jill K; Molina, Anthony J A; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Pitter, Kenneth L; Bird, Gregory H; Wikstrom, Jakob D; Deeney, Jude T; Robertson, Kirsten; Morash, Joel; Kulkarni, Ameya; Neschen, Susanne; Kim, Sheene; Greenberg, Michael E; Corkey, Barbara E; Shirihai, Orian S; Shulman, Gerald I; Lowell, Bradford B; Korsmeyer, Stanley J

    2008-02-01

    The proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAD resides in a glucokinase-containing complex that regulates glucose-driven mitochondrial respiration. Here, we present genetic evidence of a physiologic role for BAD in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by beta cells. This novel function of BAD is specifically dependent upon the phosphorylation of its BH3 sequence, previously defined as an essential death domain. We highlight the pharmacologic relevance of phosphorylated BAD BH3 by using cell-permeable, hydrocarbon-stapled BAD BH3 helices that target glucokinase, restore glucose-driven mitochondrial respiration and correct the insulin secretory response in Bad-deficient islets. Our studies uncover an alternative target and function for the BAD BH3 domain and emphasize the therapeutic potential of phosphorylated BAD BH3 mimetics in selectively restoring beta cell function. Furthermore, we show that BAD regulates the physiologic adaptation of beta cell mass during high-fat feeding. Our findings provide genetic proof of the bifunctional activities of BAD in both beta cell survival and insulin secretion.

  12. OXIDATIVE STRESS: ITS ROLE IN INSULIN SECRETION, HORMONE RECEPTION BY ADIPOCYTES AND LIPOLYSIS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the pathogenetic components of many diseases during which generation of reactive oxigen species increases and the capacity of the antioxidant protection system diminishes. In the research of the last decades special attention has been given to adipose tissue, production of adipokines by it and their role in development of immunoresistance associated with formation of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes.Search for methods of therapeutic correction of adipokine secretion disorders, their influence on metabolism of separate cells and the organism on the whole as well as development of new approaches to correction of disorders in cell sensitivity to insulin are extremely topical nowadays. Systematization and consolidation of accumulated data allow to determine the strategies of further research more accurately; as a result, we have attempted to summarize and analyze the accumulated data on the role of adipose tissue in oxidative stress development.On the basis of literature data and the results of the personal investigations, the role of adipose tissue in forming oxidative stress in diabetes has been analyzed in the article. Brief description of adipose tissue was given as a secretory organ regulating metabolic processes in adipocytes and influencing functions of various organs and systems of the body. Mechanisms of disorder in insulin secretion as well as development of insulin sesistance in type I diabetes were described along with the contribution of lipolysis in adipose tissue to these processes.

  13. Opiate-prostaglandin interactions in the regulation of insulin secretion from rat islets of Langerhans in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, I.C.; Tadayyon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The inadequate insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation in non-insulin dependent diabetes has been attributed to many factors including high PGE 2 levels blunting the secretory response, and to the existence of inhibitory opiate activity in vivo. The purpose of the present work was to see if there was a connection between these two independent theories. Radioimmunoassayable PGE 2 in islets of Langerhans was found to be proportional to islet number and protein content and was typically 4 to 5pg/μg islet protein. Indomethacin sodium salicylate and chlorpropamide all lowered islet PGE 2 levels and stimulated insulin release in vitro. Dynorphin stimulated insulin release at a concentration of 6 x 10 -9 M, while lowering islet PGE 2 . Conversely, at a higher concentration, dynorphin had no stimulatory effect on insulin secretion and did not lower PGE 2 levels in islets or in the incubation media. The stimulatory effects of dynorphin and sodium salicylate on insulin secretion were blocked by exogenous PGE 2 . PGE 2 at a lower concentration did not exert any inhibitory effect on dynorphin- or sodium salicylate-induced insulin release. This concentration of exogenous PGE 2 stimulated insulin release in the presence of 6mM glucose

  14. GLP-1 Restores Altered Insulin and Glucagon Secretion in Posttransplantation Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halden, Thea A S; Egeland, Erlend J; Åsberg, Anders

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Development of posttransplantation diabetes (PTDM) is characterized by reduced insulin secretion and sensitivity. We aimed to investigate whether hyperglucagonemia could play a role in PTDM and to examine the insulinotropic and glucagonostatic effects of the incretin hormone glucagon...... h of infusion, a 2-h hyperglycemic clamp (fasting plasma glucose + 5 mmol/L) was established. Five grams of arginine was given as an intravenous bolus 10 min before termination of the clamp. RESULTS: Fasting concentrations of glucagon (P = 0.92) and insulin (P = 0.23) were similar between the groups...... to arginine (P = 0.01) but similar glucagon and proinsulin responses compared with control subjects. In the preclamp phase, GLP-1 lowered fasting plasma glucose to the same extent in both groups but reduced glucagon only in PTDM patients. During hyperglycemic clamp, GLP-1 reduced glucagon concentrations...

  15. Cephalic phase secretion of insulin and other enteropancreatic hormones in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veedfald, Simon; Plamboeck, Astrid; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2016-01-01

    Enteropancreatic hormone secretion is thought to include a cephalic phase, but the evidence in humans is ambiguous. We studied vagally induced gut hormone responses with and without muscarinic blockade in 10 glucose-clamped healthy men (age: 24.5 ± 0.6 yr, means ± SE; body mass index: 24.0 ± 0.5 kg...... and abolished the MSF response. Neither insulin, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), nor glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels changed in response to MSF or atropine. Glucagon and ghrelin levels were markedly attenuated by atropine prior to and during the clamp: at t = 105 min...... and 3.7 ± 21 pg/ml (means ± SE), P phase response was absent for insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, GIP, and ghrelin....

  16. Significance of glucagon for insulin secretion and hepatic glycogenolysis during exercise in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H; Holst, J J

    1981-01-01

    The significance of glucagon and of the sympatho-adrenal system for insulin secretion and hepatic glycogen depletion during exercise was studied. Male rats were either adrenodemedullated and chemically sympathectomized with 6-hydroxydopamine (SX) or sham-treated (C). During light ether anesthesia......, cardiac blood for glucose analysis and a biopsy of the liver were obtained, and either antigen-stripped glucagon antibodies (A) or control gamma globulins (N) in saline were injected through the cardiac cannula. Subsequently, the rats swam in tepid water (33-34 degree C) for 100 minutes with a tail weight...... attached (2% of body weight). Then cardiac blood was drawn for analysis of glucose, insulin and glucagon, and a sample of the liver was collected. In both CA and CN rats, the blood glucose concentration tended to increase (p less than 0.1) during exercise, whereas hepatic glycogen depletion and the plasma...

  17. Subcellular localization, mobility, and kinetic activity of glucokinase in glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, M; Aiston, S; Agius, L

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the subcellular localization, mobility, and activity of glucokinase in MIN6 cells, a glucose-responsive insulin-secreting beta-cell line. Glucokinase is present in the cytoplasm and a vesicular/granule compartment that is partially colocalized with insulin granules. The granular staining of glucokinase is preserved after permeabilization of the cells with digitonin. There was no evidence for changes in distribution of glucokinase between the cytoplasm and the granule compartment during incubation of the cells with glucose. The rate of release of glucokinase and of phosphoglucoisomerase from digitonin-permeabilized cells was slower when cells were incubated at an elevated glucose concentration (S0.5 approximately 15 mmol/l). This effect of glucose was counteracted by competitive inhibitors of glucokinase (5-thioglucose and mannoheptulose) but was unaffected by fructose analogs and may be due to changes in cell shape or conformation of the cytoskeleton that are secondary to glucose metabolism. Based on the similar release of glucokinase and phosphoglucoisomerase, we found no evidence for specific binding of cytoplasmic digitonin-extractable glucokinase. The affinity of beta-cells for glucose is slightly lower than that in cell extracts and, unlike that in hepatocytes, is unaffected by fructose, tagatose, or a high-K+ medium, which is consistent with the lack of change in glucokinase distribution or release. We conclude that glucokinase is present in two locations, cytoplasm and the granular compartment, and that it does not translocate between them. This conclusion is consistent with the lack of adaptive changes in the glucose phosphorylation affinity. The glucokinase activity associated with the insulin granules may have a role in either direct or indirect coupling between glucose phosphorylation and insulin secretion.

  18. Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: an analysis from the Whitehall II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabák, A.G.; Jokela, M.; Akbaraly, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the timing of changes in glucose metabolism before occurrence of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to characterise trajectories of fasting and postload glucose, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We analysed data...... from our prospective occupational cohort study (Whitehall II study) of 6538 (71% male and 91% white) British civil servants without diabetes mellitus at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 9.7 years, 505 diabetes cases were diagnosed (49.1% on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test). We...... assessed retrospective trajectories of fasting and 2-h postload glucose, homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) insulin sensitivity, and HOMA beta-cell function from up to 13 years before diabetes diagnosis (diabetic group) or at the end of follow-up (non-diabetics). FINDINGS: Multilevel models adjusted...

  19. Glycated albumin suppresses glucose-induced insulin secretion by impairing glucose metabolism in rat pancreatic β-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycated albumin (GA is an Amadori product used as a marker of hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of GA on insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. Methods Islets were collected from male Wistar rats by collagenase digestion. Insulin secretion in the presence of non-glycated human albumin (HA and GA was measured under three different glucose concentrations, 3 mM (G3, 7 mM (G7, and 15 mM (G15, with various stimulators. Insulin secretion was measured with antagonists of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS, and the expression of iNOS-mRNA was investigated by real-time PCR. Results Insulin secretion in the presence of HA and GA was 20.9 ± 3.9 and 21.6 ± 5.5 μU/3 islets/h for G3 (P = 0.920, and 154 ± 9.3 and 126.1 ± 7.3 μU/3 islets/h (P = 0.046, for G15, respectively. High extracellular potassium and 10 mM tolbutamide abrogated the inhibition of insulin secretion by GA. Glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, methylpyruvate, GLP-1, and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, did not abrogate the inhibition. Real-time PCR showed that GA did not induce iNOS-mRNA expression. Furthermore, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase, aminoguanidine, and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester did not abrogate the inhibition of insulin secretion. Conclusion GA suppresses glucose-induced insulin secretion from rat pancreatic β-cells through impairment of intracellular glucose metabolism.

  20. Neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is not involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis or insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wang, Xiaorui; Wang, Yue

    2010-01-01

    the identities of proteins that are responsible for sensing calcium changes and for transmitting the calcium signal to release machineries. Synaptotagmins are primarily expressed in brain and endocrine cells and exhibit diverse calcium binding properties. Synaptotagmin-1, -2 and -9 are calcium sensors for fast......BACKGROUND: Insulin secretion is a complex and highly regulated process. It is well established that cytoplasmic calcium is a key regulator of insulin secretion, but how elevated intracellular calcium triggers insulin granule exocytosis remains unclear, and we have only begun to define...... neurotransmitter release in respective brain regions, while synaptotagmin-7 is a positive regulator of calcium-dependent insulin release. Unlike the three neuronal calcium sensors, whose deletion abolished fast neurotransmitter release, synaptotagmin-7 deletion resulted in only partial loss of calcium...

  1. Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bin Samad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P<0.05. Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL was also reestablished (P<0.05. Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P<0.01. This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P<0.05. Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P<0.05. Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver.

  2. Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 2 Hypomorphism in Mice Leads to Defects in Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Vigueira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carrier-facilitated pyruvate transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane plays an essential role in anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2 (Mpc2 is believed to be a component of the complex that facilitates mitochondrial pyruvate import. Complete MPC2 deficiency resulted in embryonic lethality in mice. However, a second mouse line expressing an N-terminal truncated MPC2 protein (Mpc2Δ16 was viable but exhibited a reduced capacity for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation. Metabolic studies demonstrated exaggerated blood lactate concentrations after pyruvate, glucose, or insulin challenge in Mpc2Δ16 mice. Additionally, compared with wild-type controls, Mpc2Δ16 mice exhibited normal insulin sensitivity but elevated blood glucose after bolus pyruvate or glucose injection. This was attributable to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and was corrected by sulfonylurea KATP channel inhibitor administration. Collectively, these data are consistent with a role for MPC2 in mitochondrial pyruvate import and suggest that Mpc2 deficiency results in defective pancreatic β cell glucose sensing.

  3. Effects of GCK, GCKR, G6PC2 and MTNR1B variants on glucose metabolism and insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from GCK, GCKR, G6PC2 and MTNR1B were found to modulate the fasting glucose levels. The current study aimed to replicate this association in the Chinese population and further analyze their effects on biphasic insulin secretion. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SNPs from GCK, GCKR, G6PC2 and MTNR1B were genotyped in the Shanghai Chinese, including 3,410 type 2 diabetes patients and 3,412 controls. The controls were extensively phenotyped for the traits related to glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. We replicated the association between GCK rs1799884, G6PC2 rs16856187 and MTNR1B rs10830963 and fasting glucose in our samples (p = 0.0003-2.0x10(-8. GCK rs1799884 and G6PC2 rs16856187 showed association to HOMA-beta, insulinogenic index and both first- and second-phases insulin secretion (p = 0.0030-0.0396. MTNR1B rs10830963 was associated to HOMA-beta, insulinogenic index and first-phase insulin secretion (p = 0.0102-0.0426, but not second-phase insulin secretion (p = 0.9933. Combined effect analyses showed individuals carrying more risk allele for high fasting glucose tended to have a higher glucose levels at both fasting and 2 h during OGTTs (p = 1.7x10(-13 and 0.0009, respectively, as well as lower HOMA-beta, insulinogenic index and both first- and second-phases insulin secretion (p = 0.0321-1.1x10(-7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that SNPs from GCK, G6PC2 and MTNR1B modulated the fasting glucose levels in the normoglycaemic population while SNPs from G6PC2 and GCKR was associated with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, we found GCK and G6PC2 genetic variants were associated to both first- and second-phases insulin secretion while MTNR1B genetic variant was associated with first-phase insulin secretion, but not second-phase insulin secretion.

  4. Deletion of GPR40 Impairs Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion In Vivo in Mice Without Affecting Intracellular Fuel Metabolism in Islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alquier, Thierry; Peyot, Marie-Line; Latour, M. G.; Kebede, Melkam; Sorensen, Christina M.; Gesta, Stephane; Kahn, C. R.; Smith, Richard D.; Jetton, Thomas L.; Metz, Thomas O.; Prentki, Marc; Poitout, Vincent J.

    2009-11-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 mediates fatty-acid potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but its contribution to insulin secretion in vivo and mechanisms of action remain uncertain. This study was aimed to ascertain whether GPR40 controls insulin secretion in vivo and modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. We observed that glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, assessed by hyperglycemic clamps, was decreased by approximately 60% in GPR40 knock-out (KO) fasted and fed mice, without changes in insulin sensitivity assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Glucose and palmitate metabolism were not affected by GPR40 deletion. Lipid profiling revealed a similar increase in triglyceride and decrease in lysophosphatidylethanolamine species in WT and KO islets in response to palmitate. These results demonstrate that GPR40 regulates insulin secretion in vivo not only in response to fatty acids but also to glucose and arginine, without altering intracellular fuel metabolism.

  5. 1-Hour OGTT Plasma Glucose as a Marker of Progressive Deterioration of Insulin Secretion and Action in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ghio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering old GDM diagnostic criteria, alterations in insulin secretion and action are present in women with GDM as well as in women with one abnormal value (OAV during OGTT. Our aim is to assess if changes in insulin action and secretion during pregnancy are related to 1-hour plasma glucose concentration during OGTT. We evaluated 3 h/100 g OGTT in 4,053 pregnant women, dividing our population on the basis of 20 mg/dL increment of plasma glucose concentration at 1 h OGTT generating 5 groups (<120 mg/dL, =661; 120–139 mg/dL, =710; 140–159 mg/dL, =912; 160–179 mg/dL, =885; and ≥180 mg/dL, =996. We calculated incremental area under glucose (AUCgluc and insulin curves (AUCins, indexes of insulin secretion (HOMA-B, and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-R, AUCins/AUCgluc. AUCgluc and AUCins progressively increased according to 1-hour plasma glucose concentrations (both <0.0001 for trend. HOMA-B progressively declined (<0.001, and HOMA-R progressively increased across the five groups. AUCins/AUCgluc decreased in a linear manner across the 5 groups (<0.001. Analysing the groups with 1-hour value <180 mg/dL, defects in insulin secretion (HOMA-B: −29.7% and sensitivity (HOMA-R: +15% indexes were still apparent (all <0.001. Progressive increase in 1-hour OGTT is associated with deterioration of glucose tolerance and alterations in indexes of insulin action and secretion.

  6. Activation of transmembrane bile acid receptor TGR5 stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Divya P.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Grider, John R.; Murthy, Karnam S.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► G protein coupled receptor TGR5 is expressed in mouse and human islets. ► TGR5 is coupled to activation of Gs and Ca 2+ release via cAMP/Epac/PLC-ε pathway. ► Activation of TGR5 by bile salts and selective ligands causes insulin secretion. ► TGR5 could be a potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. -- Abstract: Bile acids act as signaling molecules and stimulate the G protein coupled receptor, TGR5, in addition to nuclear farnesoid X receptor to regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Bile acid induced activation of TGR5 in the enteroendocrine cells promotes glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, which has insulinotropic effect in the pancreatic β cells. In the present study, we have identified the expression of TGR5 in pancreatic β cell line MIN6 and also in mouse and human pancreatic islets. TGR5 selective ligands, oleanolic acid (OA) and INT-777 selectively activated Gα s and caused an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca 2+ . OA and INT-777 also increased phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and the increase was blocked by NF449 (a selective Gα s inhibitor) or (U73122) (PI hydrolysis inhibitor). OA, INT-777 and lithocholic acid increased insulin release in MIN6 and human islets and the increase was inhibited by treatment with NF449, (U73122) or BAPTA-AM (chelator of calcium), but not with myristoylated PKI (PKA inhibitor), suggesting that the release is dependent on G s /cAMP/Ca 2+ pathway. 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP, a cAMP analog, which activates Epac, but not PKA also stimulated PI hydrolysis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the TGR5 expressed in the pancreatic β cells regulates insulin secretion and highlights the importance of ongoing therapeutic strategies targeting TGR5 in the control of glucose homeostasis.

  7. Decrement of postprandial insulin secretion determines the progressive nature of type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Wan Sub; Kim, Soo Kyung; Kim, Hae Jin; Kang, Eun Seok; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lim, Sung Kil; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2006-10-01

    Type-2 diabetes is a progressive disease. However, little is known about whether decreased fasting or postprandial pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness is more prominent with increased duration of diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between insulin secretion both during fasting and 2 h postprandial, and the duration of diabetes in type-2 diabetic patients. Cross-sectional clinical investigation. We conducted a meal tolerance test in 1466 type-2 diabetic patients and calculated fasting (M0) and postprandial (M1) beta-cell responsiveness. The fasting C-peptide, postprandial C-peptide, M0, and M1 values were lower, but HbA1c values were higher, in patients with diabetes duration > 10 years than those in other groups. There was no difference in the HbA1c levels according to the tertiles of their fasting C-peptide level. However, in a group of patients with highest postprandial C-peptide tertile, the HbA1c values were significantly lower than those in other groups. After adjustment of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), the duration of diabetes was found to be negatively correlated with fasting C-peptide (gamma = -0.102), postprandial C-peptide (gamma = -0.356), M0 (gamma = -0.263), and M1 (gamma = -0.315; P multiple regression analysis, M0, M1, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) emerged as predictors of HbAlc after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI (R2 = 0.272, 0.080, and 0.056 respectively). With increasing duration of diabetes, the decrease of postprandial insulin secretion is becoming more prominent, and postprandial beta-cell responsiveness may be a more important determinant for glycemic control than fasting beta-cell responsiveness.

  8. Association of type 2 diabetes candidate polymorphisms in KCNQ1 with incretin and insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müssig, Karsten; Staiger, Harald; Machicao, Fausto

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes. This linkage appears to be mediated by altered beta-cell function. In an attempt to study underlying mechanisms, we examined the effect of four KCNQ1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on insulin secretion upon different...... stimuli. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We genotyped 1,578 nondiabetic subjects at increased risk of type 2 diabetes for rs151290, rs2237892, rs2237895, and rs2237897. All participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and gastric inhibitory peptide secretion...... was measured in 170 participants. In 519 participants, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed, in 314 participants an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and in 102 subjects a hyperglycemic clamp combined with GLP-1 and arginine stimuli. RESULTS: rs151290 was nominally associated with 30-min...

  9. Expansion and conversion of human pancreatic ductal cells into insulin-secreting endocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghyeob; Sugiyama, Takuya; Liu, Yinghua; Wang, Jing; Gu, Xueying; Lei, Ji; Markmann, James F; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Szot, Gregory L; Bottino, Rita; Kim, Seung K

    2013-11-19

    Pancreatic islet β-cell insufficiency underlies pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus; thus, functional β-cell replacement from renewable sources is the focus of intensive worldwide effort. However, in vitro production of progeny that secrete insulin in response to physiological cues from primary human cells has proven elusive. Here we describe fractionation, expansion and conversion of primary adult human pancreatic ductal cells into progeny resembling native β-cells. FACS-sorted adult human ductal cells clonally expanded as spheres in culture, while retaining ductal characteristics. Expression of the cardinal islet developmental regulators Neurog3, MafA, Pdx1 and Pax6 converted exocrine duct cells into endocrine progeny with hallmark β-cell properties, including the ability to synthesize, process and store insulin, and secrete it in response to glucose or other depolarizing stimuli. These studies provide evidence that genetic reprogramming of expandable human pancreatic cells with defined factors may serve as a general strategy for islet replacement in diabetes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00940.001.

  10. Host Genotype and Gut Microbiome Modulate Insulin Secretion and Diet-Induced Metabolic Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreznar, Julia H; Keller, Mark P; Traeger, Lindsay L; Rabaglia, Mary E; Schueler, Kathryn L; Stapleton, Donald S; Zhao, Wen; Vivas, Eugenio I; Yandell, Brian S; Broman, Aimee Teo; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Attie, Alan D; Rey, Federico E

    2017-02-14

    Genetic variation drives phenotypic diversity and influences the predisposition to metabolic disease. Here, we characterize the metabolic phenotypes of eight genetically distinct inbred mouse strains in response to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. We found significant variation in diabetes-related phenotypes and gut microbiota composition among the different mouse strains in response to the dietary challenge and identified taxa associated with these traits. Follow-up microbiota transplant experiments showed that altering the composition of the gut microbiota modifies strain-specific susceptibility to diet-induced metabolic disease. Animals harboring microbial communities with enhanced capacity for processing dietary sugars and for generating hydrophobic bile acids showed increased susceptibility to metabolic disease. Notably, differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion between different mouse strains were partially recapitulated via gut microbiota transfer. Our results suggest that the gut microbiome contributes to the genetic and phenotypic diversity observed among mouse strains and provide a link between the gut microbiome and insulin secretion. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in KATP channel-mediated insulin secretion in INS-1 insulinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Seon; Zheng Haifeng; Kim, Sung Joon; Park, Jong-Wan; Park, Kyong Soo; Ho, Won-Kyung; Chun, Yang-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) has been known to participate in cellular responses to xenobiotic and hypoxic stresses, as a common partner of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor-1/2α. Recently, it was reported that ARNT is essential for adequate insulin secretion in response to glucose input and that its expression is downregulated in the pancreatic islets of diabetic patients. In the present study, the authors addressed the mechanism by which ARNT regulates insulin secretion in the INS-1 insulinoma cell line. In ARNT knock-down cells, basal insulin release was elevated, but insulin secretion was not further stimulated by a high-glucose challenge. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that glucose-dependent membrane depolarization was impaired in these cells. Furthermore, K ATP channel activity and expression were reduced. Of two K ATP channel subunits, Kir6.2 was found to be positively regulated by ARNT at the mRNA and protein levels. Based on these results, the authors suggest that ARNT expresses K ATP channel and by so doing regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

  12. In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2005-01-01

    In healthy, nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance, fasting insulin is inversely correlated to the posthepatic insulin clearance rate (MCRi) and the hepatic insulin extraction (HEXi). We investigated whether similar early mechanisms to facilitate glucose homeostasis exist in nondiabetic...... endogenous insulin secretion, which was estimated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations. Hepatic extraction of insulin was calculated as 1 minus the ratio of fasting posthepatic insulin delivery rate to fasting endogenous insulin secretion rate. Compared with controls, LIPO displayed increased fasting...... insulin (130%, P Hepatic extraction of insulin was similar between groups (LIPO, 55%; controls, 57%; P > .8). In LIPO, HEXi and MCRi correlated inversely with fasting insulin (r = -0.56, P

  13. Quantification of beta-cell function during IVGTT in Type II and non-diabetic subjects: assessment of insulin secretion by mathematical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, L L; Vølund, A; Madsbad, Sten

    2001-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We compared four methods to assess their accuracy in measuring insulin secretion during an intravenous glucose tolerance test in patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and with varying beta-cell function and matched control subjects. METHODS: Eight control...... subjects and eight Type II diabetic patients underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test with tolbutamide and an intravenous bolus injection of C-peptide to assess C-peptide kinetics. Insulin secretion rates were determined by the Eaton deconvolution (reference method), the Insulin SECretion method...... (ISEC) based on population kinetic parameters as well as one-compartment and two-compartment versions of the combined model of insulin and C-peptide kinetics. To allow a comparison of the accuracy of the four methods, fasting rates and amounts of insulin secreted during the first phase (0-10 min...

  14. Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    Insulin resistance (IR) is escalating with alarming pace and is no longer restricted to westernized countries. As a forerunner for some of the most serious threats to human health including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2-diabetes, the need for new treatment modalities...... interventions. We further show that improving the inflammatory toning, using fish oil as fat source, protects mice against diet induced obesity and -inflammation while preserving insulin sensitivity, even in the absence of free fatty acid receptor 4. Conversely, HFD-induced intestinal dysbiosis is associated...

  15. Effects of experimentally induced mild hyperthyroidism on growth hormone and insulin secretion and sex steroid levels in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, J C; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Veldhuis, J D; Rood, J C; Tulley, R

    1997-12-01

    Although triiodothyronine (T3) exerts major regulatory actions in both animals and humans, most clinical studies of T3 administration have been relatively short-term. The present study examined the effects of more than 2 months (63 days) of low-dose T3 treatment on overnight pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion, short-term insulin secretion, and of sex steroid levels in seven healthy, lean men studied at an inpatient metabolic unit. At baseline, there were strong correlations between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and several measures of GH production, including total GH production (r = .99), GH interburst interval (r = -.75), and GH mass (r = .82). SHBG was also inversely correlated with basal insulin secretion (r = -.74). There was a 42% increase in serum levels of total testosterone (18.5 +/- 1.3 to 26.3 +/- 1.8 nmol/L, P = .005) and a 150% increase in SHBG (18.0 +/- 2.2 to 44.9 +/- 7.0 nmol/L, P = .008) following T3 treatment. Estradiol and free testosterone levels were unchanged by treatment, although free testosterone decreased from 142.8 +/- 18.4 to 137.3 +/- 19.5 pmol/L. T3 treatment significantly reduced the GH interburst interval (P secretion. There were no statistically significant effects of T3 treatment on insulin secretion, although insulin peak amplitude, mass secreted per burst, and total production all decreased. We conclude that experimentally induced T3 excess in healthy men produces significant and sustained changes in sex hormone levels and GH secretion. Furthermore, there are strong associations between SHBG and both GH and insulin secretion independent of thyroid hormone excess that require additional study.

  16. Common variants related to serum uric acid concentrations are associated with glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Sun

    Full Text Available Elevated serum uric acid concentration is an independent risk factor and predictor of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Whether the uric acid-associated genes have an impact on T2D remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of the uric acid-associated genes on the risk of T2D as well as glucose metabolism and insulin secretion.We recruited 2,199 normal glucose tolerance subjects from the Shanghai Diabetes Study I and II and 2,999 T2D patients from the inpatient database of Shanghai Diabetes Institute. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs mapped in or near 11 loci (PDZK1, GCKR, LRP2, SLC2A9, ABCG2, LRRC16A, SLC17A1, SLC17A3, SLC22A11, SLC22A12 and SF1 were genotyped and serum biochemical parameters related to uric acid and T2D were determined.SF1 rs606458 showed strong association to T2D in both males and females (p = 0.034 and 0.0008. In the males, LRRC16A was associated with 2-h insulin and insulin secretion (p = 0.009 and 0.009. SLC22A11 was correlated with HOMA-B and insulin secretion (p = 0.048 and 0.029. SLC2A9 rs3775948 was associated with 2-h glucose (p = 0.043. In the females, LRP2 rs2544390 and rs1333049 showed correlations with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and insulin secretion (p = 0.028, 0.033 and 0.052 and p = 0.034, 0.047 and 0.038, respectively. SLC2A9 rs11722228 was correlated with 2-h glucose, 2-h insulin and insulin secretion (p = 0.024, 0.049 and 0.049, respectively.Our results indicated that the uric acid-associated genes have an impact on the risk of T2D, glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in a Chinese population.

  17. Insulin secretion enhancing activity of roselle calyx extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisetmuen, Eamruthai; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Yutanawiboonchai, Wiboonchai; Itharat, Arunporn

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Our recent study revealed the antihyperglycemic activity of an ethanolic extract of roselle calyxes (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in diabetic rats. The present study had, therefore, an objective to investigate the mechanism underlying this activity. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were induced to be diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Normal rats as well as diabetic rats were administered with the ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyxes (HS-EE) at 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg/day, respectively, for 6 weeks. Then, blood glucose and insulin levels, at basal and glucose-stimulated secretions, were measured. The pancreas was dissected to examine histologically. Results: HS-EE 1.0 g/kg/day significantly decreased the blood glucose level by 38 ± 12% in diabetic rats but not in normal rats. In normal rats, treatment with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE increased the basal insulin level significantly as compared with control normal rats (1.28 ± 0.25 and 0.55 ± 0.05 ng/ml, respectively). Interestingly, diabetic rats treated with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE also showed a significant increase in basal insulin level as compared with the control diabetic rats (0.30 ± 0.05 and 0.15 ± 0.01 ng/ml, respectively). Concerning microscopic histological examination, HS-EE 1.0 g/kg significantly increased the number of islets of Langerhans in both normal rats (1.2 ± 0.1 and 2.0 ± 0.1 islet number/10 low-power fields (LPF) for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively) and diabetic rats (1.0 ± 0.3 and 3.9 ± 0.6 islet number/10 LPF for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively). Conclusion: The antidiabetic activity of HS-EE may be partially mediated via the stimulating effect on insulin secretion. PMID:23798879

  18. Effects of the pesticide amitraz and its metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas: involvement of alpha2D-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Basha, E A; Yibchok-Anun, S; Hopper, D L; Hsu, W H

    1999-11-01

    The study purpose was to investigate the direct effect of amitraz, a formamidine insecticide/acaricide, and its active metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas. Amitraz and BTS 27271 (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) inhibited insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Amitraz increased glucagon secretion at 10 micromol/L, whereas BTS 27271 increased glucagon secretion at 1 and 10 micromol/L. Amitraz- and BTS 27271-induced decreases in insulin secretion and increases in glucagon secretion were not abolished during the 10-minute washout period. During the arginine treatment, both amitraz and BTS 27271 groups (0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) had lower insulin secretion and higher glucagon secretion than the control group. Idazoxan, an alpha2A/2D-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist, prevented the inhibitory effect of amitraz on insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, but prazosin, an alpha1- and alpha2B/2C-AR antagonist, failed to antagonize the effect of amitraz. These results demonstrate that (1) amitraz and BTS 27271 inhibit insulin and stimulate glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas, (2) amitraz inhibits insulin secretion by activation of alpha2D-ARs, since rats have alpha2D- but not alpha2A-ARs, and (3) amitraz and BTS 27271 may have a high binding affinity to the alpha2D-ARs of pancreatic islets.

  19. Common variant in MTNR1B associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired early insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, Valeriya; Nagorny, Cecilia L F; Erdos, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have shown that variation in MTNR1B (melatonin receptor 1B) is associated with insulin and glucose concentrations. Here we show that the risk genotype of this SNP predicts future type 2 diabetes (T2D) in two large prospective studies. Specifically, the risk genotype...... was associated with impairment of early insulin response to both oral and intravenous glucose and with faster deterioration of insulin secretion over time. We also show that the MTNR1B mRNA is expressed in human islets, and immunocytochemistry confirms that it is primarily localized in beta cells in islets....... Nondiabetic individuals carrying the risk allele and individuals with T2D showed increased expression of the receptor in islets. Insulin release from clonal beta cells in response to glucose was inhibited in the presence of melatonin. These data suggest that the circulating hormone melatonin, which...

  20. Effect Of Aqueous And Hydroalcoholic Extract Of Beberis Vulgaris On Insulin Secretion From Islets Of Langerhans Isolated From Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahangarpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: considering the use of Beberis vulgaris in traditional medicine as a blood sugar depressant, in this study, the effect of Beberis vulgaris extracts were investigated on the level of insulin secretion from islets isolated of langerhans in male mice. Methods: This experimental study was carried out on 90 adult male mice, NMARI strains weighing 20-25 g. Pancreatic islets from normal mice were isolated by collagenase digestion method. Then the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extract of Beberis vulgaris at 0.05, 0.1, and 1 mg/ml concentrations and glyburide at 1 and 10 μM concentrations were applied on islets isolated in three different concentration of glucose solution (2.8, 5.6 and 16.7 mM. Insulin secretion from hand-picked islets were evaluated in the static incubation system. The level of Insulin secretion was measured by the ELISA insulin kit. Data were analyzed with variance analysis. Results: Insulin secretion was significantly increased at 16.7 mM glucose concentration in comparison with 2.8 and 5.6 mM glucose concentration (p<0.05. Incubation of pancreatic islets isolated at 2.8 and 5.6 mM glucose concentration and low concentrations of extract (0.05 and 0.1mg/ml significantly increased the insulin secretion (p<0.05. Glyburide at 10 μM concentration was more effective than aqueous and hydro alcoholic extract of Beberis vulgaris at 16.7 mM glucose. Conclusion: The present study supported the anti-diabetic effect of Beberis vulgaris extracts in vitro with low glucose concentration and it suggests that one of the anti diabetic mechanisms of this plant is via pancreatic islets.

  1. A Genome-Wide Association Study of IVGTT-Based Measures of First Phase Insulin Secretion Refines the Underlying Physiology of Type 2 Diabetes Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Andrew R; Jonsson, Anna; Jackson, Anne U

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the physiological mechanisms by which common variants predispose to type 2 diabetes requires large studies with detailed measures of insulin secretion and sensitivity. Here we performed the largest genome-wide association study of first-phase insulin secretion, as measured by intrav...

  2. Effects of 12 weeks' treatment with a proton pump inhibitor on insulin secretion, glucose metabolism and markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, K D; Brøns, Charlotte; Færch, Kai Erik Vinther

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor treatment may increase insulin secretion and improve glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. In a randomised double-blind prospective placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial study, we examined the effect of esomeprazole on insulin secretion, HbA(1c...

  3. Radioimmunoassay of seric C-peptide. Practical value in the study of insulin secretion. Results of 140 stimulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafflart, Jean.

    1977-10-01

    C-peptide, which appears as a by-product of insulin synthesis, is secreted with this latter in equimolar quantities but is not degraded in the liver. It thus reflects indirectly the insulin secreted. After the structure of C-peptide was determined in 1971 by OYER it was synthesized by YANAIHARA and a radioimmunoassay was developed by KANEKO in 1974. This work was made possible by the recent commercialisation of a Japanese analysis kit, the 'DAIICHI' kit, and its availability through GUERBET TESTS. Part one describes the structural, physiological and immuno properties of C-peptide and its method of determination. Part two is devoted to a review of foreign publications on the practical interest of the C-peptide measurement. Part three gives the results of 140 oral or venous stimulation tests where blood sugar, blood insulin and C-peptide are measured in parallel. The different diabetic pathologies are explored and compared against normal subjects. The purpose of this work is to establish the value of C-peptide as a reflection of insulin secretion on the one hand, and that of a parallel insulin and C-peptide determination on the other [fr

  4. Increased androgen levels in rats impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdong; Wang, Xiaping; Zhu, Yunxia; Chen, Fang; Sun, Yujie; Han, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Although insulin resistance is recognized to contribute to the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pancreatic beta cell dysfunction plays an essential role in the progression from PCOS to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of insulin secretory abnormalities in PCOS has received little attention. In addition, the precise changes in beta cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we therefore attempted to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in beta cell alterations in a rat model of PCOS. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in islets isolated from DHT-treated and control rats. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ATP production, and mitochondrial copy number were assayed to evaluate mitochondrial function. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is significantly decreased in islets from DHT-treated rats. On the other hand, significant reductions are observed in the expression levels of several key genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and in mitochondrial OCR and ATP production in DHT-treated rat islets. Meanwhile, we found that androgens can directly impair beta cell function by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro in an androgen receptor dependent manner. For the first time, our study demonstrates that increased androgens in female rats can impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion partly through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women with PCOS: excess activation of the androgen receptor by androgens may provoke beta cell dysfunction via mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relaxation response induces temporal transcriptome changes in energy metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammatory pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Bhasin

    Full Text Available The relaxation response (RR is the counterpart of the stress response. Millennia-old practices evoking the RR include meditation, yoga and repetitive prayer. Although RR elicitation is an effective therapeutic intervention that counteracts the adverse clinical effects of stress in disorders including hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits remain undetermined. To assess rapid time-dependent (temporal genomic changes during one session of RR practice among healthy practitioners with years of RR practice and also in novices before and after 8 weeks of RR training, we measured the transcriptome in peripheral blood prior to, immediately after, and 15 minutes after listening to an RR-eliciting or a health education CD. Both short-term and long-term practitioners evoked significant temporal gene expression changes with greater significance in the latter as compared to novices. RR practice enhanced expression of genes associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, insulin secretion and telomere maintenance, and reduced expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress-related pathways. Interactive network analyses of RR-affected pathways identified mitochondrial ATP synthase and insulin (INS as top upregulated critical molecules (focus hubs and NF-κB pathway genes as top downregulated focus hubs. Our results for the first time indicate that RR elicitation, particularly after long-term practice, may evoke its downstream health benefits by improving mitochondrial energy production and utilization and thus promoting mitochondrial resiliency through upregulation of ATPase and insulin function. Mitochondrial resiliency might also be promoted by RR-induced downregulation of NF-κB-associated upstream and downstream targets that mitigates stress.

  6. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is expressed in pancreatic islet β-cells and regulates insulin secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qing [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Che, Yongzhe [School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Qiang; Zhang, Shangrong [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Gao, Ying-Tang [Key Laboratory of Artificial Cell, Third Central Clinical College of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300170 (China); Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xudong; Xi, Wang; Zuo, Weiyan [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Shu Jie, E-mail: shujieli@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-12-25

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a potent acid extruder that participates in the extrusion of the intracellular acid. Here, we showed for the first time, Hv1 is highly expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islet β-cells, as well as β-cell lines. Imaging studies demonstrated that Hv1 resides in insulin-containing granules in β-cells. Knockdown of Hv1 with RNA interference significantly reduces glucose- and K{sup +}-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets and INS-1 (832/13) β-cells and has an impairment on glucose- and K{sup +}-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis. Our data demonstrated that the expression of Hv1 in pancreatic islet β-cells regulates insulin secretion through regulating Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis.

  7. Endogenous incretin hormone augmentation of acute insulin secretion in normoglycemic relatives of type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Frank P; Rantzau, Christian; Henriksen, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The pathophysiological role of gut incretin hormone argumentation on acute insulin release in the genesis of type 2 diabetes (TDM2) is uncertain. We examined retrospectively at 0 year and 10 years the endogenous incretin hormone action (IHA) on acute insulin release and glucose...

  8. Dissociation between insulin secretion and DNA synthesis in cultured pancreatic islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1985-01-01

    -Tdr incorporation. However, long-term exposure to IBMX did not result in increased DNA content of the islets. Inhibition of the DNA synthesis by 5 mM hydroxyurea resulted in a marked reduction in DNA content of the islets but no decrease in either insulin release or insulin content when expressed per ng DNA...

  9. Parasympathetic blockade attenuates augmented pancreatic polypeptide but not insulin secretion in Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Stefan, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    was administered for 120 min at the following doses: 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 micro g. kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1). h(-1). Areas under the curve for early (AUC(0-30 min)) and total (AUC(0-120 min)) postprandial insulin and PP secretory responses were calculated. Early postprandial insulin and PP secretory responses were...

  10. Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus: Sex Differences in Insulin Action and Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ananda; Dube, Simmi; Basu, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Sex difference plays a substantial role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in healthy glucose-tolerant humans. The factors which may contribute to the sex-related differences in glucose metabolism include differences in lifestyle (diet and exercise), sex hormones, and body composition. Several epidemiological and observational studies have noted that impaired glucose tolerance is more common in women than men. Some of these studies have attributed this to differences in body composition, while others have attributed impaired insulin sensitivity as a cause of impaired glucose tolerance in women. We studied postprandial glucose metabolism in 120 men and 90 women after ingestion of a mixed meal. Rates of meal glucose appearance, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disappearance were calculated using a novel triple-tracer isotope dilution method. Insulin action and secretion were calculated using validated physiological models. While rate of meal glucose appearance was higher in women than men, rates of glucose disappearance were higher in elderly women than elderly men while young women had lower rates of glucose disappearance than young men. Hence, sex has an impact on postprandial glucose metabolism, and sex differences in carbohydrate metabolism may have important implications for approaches to prevent and manage diabetes in an individual.

  11. Glucose-stimulated prehepatic insulin secretion is associated with circulating alanine, triglyceride, glucagons, lactate and TNF-alfa in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, SB

    2006-01-01

    with the remaining HIV-infected patients (all Ptriglyceride, alanine, glucagon, lactate and TNF-alpha may be associated with alterations in the first-phase prehepatic insulin secretion response to intravenous glucose in normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients.......OBJECTIVES: We examined whether insulin-resistant lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients with known high fasting prehepatic insulin secretion rates (FISRs) displayed alterations in first-phase prehepatic insulin response to intravenous glucose (ISREG0-10 min). METHODS: Eighteen normoglycaemic...... lipodystrophic HIV-infected (LIPO) patients and 25 normoglycaemic nonlipodystrophic HIV-infected patients (controls) were included in the study. The prehepatic insulin secretion rate was estimated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations, and insulin sensitivity (SIRd) was estimated by the glucose clamp...

  12. Glucose-stimulated prehepatic insulin secretion is associated with circulating alanine, triglyceride, glucagon, lactate and TNF-alpha in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S B; Andersen, O; Pedersen, S B

    2006-01-01

    with the remaining HIV-infected patients (all Ptriglyceride, alanine, glucagon, lactate and TNF-alpha may be associated with alterations in the first-phase prehepatic insulin secretion response to intravenous glucose in normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients.......OBJECTIVES: We examined whether insulin-resistant lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients with known high fasting prehepatic insulin secretion rates (FISRs) displayed alterations in first-phase prehepatic insulin response to intravenous glucose (ISREG0-10 min). METHODS: Eighteen normoglycaemic...... lipodystrophic HIV-infected (LIPO) patients and 25 normoglycaemic nonlipodystrophic HIV-infected patients (controls) were included in the study. The prehepatic insulin secretion rate was estimated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations, and insulin sensitivity (SIRd) was estimated by the glucose clamp...

  13. Anti-insulin antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. ... different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or ...

  14. Cardiovascular side-effects and insulin secretion after intravenous administration of radiolabeled Exendin-4 in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydén, Anneli; Nyman, Görel; Nalin, Lovisa; Andreasson, Susanne; Korsgren, Olle; Eriksson, Olof; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Radiolabeled Exendin-4, a synthetic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, is used as a tracer for diagnostic purposes of β-cells and in experimental animal research. Exendin-4 can be radiolabeled with 68 Ga, 111 In or 99m Tc and used for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging to diagnose insulinomas, visualization of pancreatic β-cell mass and transplanted Islets of Langerhans. In humans, Exendin-4 is widely used as a therapeutic agent for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The compound, which is administered subcutaneously (SC) may cause nausea, vomiting and a minor increase in the heart rate (HR). However, possible side-effects on cardiovascular functions after intravenous (IV) administration have not been reported. This study describes the Exendin-4 dose at which cardiovascular side-effects occur in pigs and cynomolgus monkeys. The IV effect of the tracer on insulin secretion is also investigated in pigs. Methods: Seven clinically healthy littermate pigs (40 days old) were used; three of them were made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ). All pigs underwent PET imaging under general anesthesia to examine the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in β-cells with radiolabeled Exendin-4. A baseline tracer dose IV [ 68 Ga]Exendin-4 (0.025 ± 0.010 μg/kg) followed by a competition dose IV [ 68 Ga]Exendin-4 (3.98 ± 1.33 μg/kg) 60 min later were administered. Blood samples were taken and analyzed for insulin secretion by using ELISA. Cardiovascular and respiratory variables were monitored throughout the experiment. Results: Immediately after administration of the high dose [ 68 Ga]Exendin-4 the HR rose from 122 ± 14 to 227 ± 40 bpm (p < 0.01) and from 100 ± 5 to 181 ± 13 bpm (p < 0.01) in healthy non-diabetic and diabetes-induced pigs, respectively. The tachycardia was observed for > 2 h and one healthy non-diabetic pig suffered cardiac arrest 3 h after the IV [ 68 Ga]Exendin-4

  15. Adipokines and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes various adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Recent studies have shown that these factors might provide a molecular link between increased adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity. Since hepatic insulin resistance plays the key role in the whole body insulin resistance, clarification of the regulatory processes about hepatic insulin resistance by adipokines in rodents and human would seem essential in order to understand the mechanism of type 2 diabetes and for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat it. PMID:23762871

  16. Control of the intracellular redox state by glucose participates in the insulin secretion mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rebelato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS due to chronic exposure to glucose has been associated with impaired beta cell function and diabetes. However, physiologically, beta cells are well equipped to deal with episodic glucose loads, to which they respond with a fine tuned glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. In the present study, a systematic investigation in rat pancreatic islets about the changes in the redox environment induced by acute exposure to glucose was carried out. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Short term incubations were performed in isolated rat pancreatic islets. Glucose dose- and time-dependently reduced the intracellular ROS content in pancreatic islets as assayed by fluorescence in a confocal microscope. This decrease was due to activation of pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP. Inhibition of PPP blunted the redox control as well as GSIS in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of low doses of ROS scavengers at high glucose concentration acutely improved beta cell function. The ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine increased the intracellular calcium response to glucose that was associated with a small decrease in ROS content. Additionally, the presence of the hydrogen peroxide-specific scavenger catalase, in its membrane-permeable form, nearly doubled glucose metabolism. Interestingly, though an increase in GSIS was also observed, this did not match the effect on glucose metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: The control of ROS content via PPP activation by glucose importantly contributes to the mechanisms that couple the glucose stimulus to insulin secretion. Moreover, we identified intracellular hydrogen peroxide as an inhibitor of glucose metabolism intrinsic to rat pancreatic islets. These findings suggest that the intracellular adjustment of the redox environment by glucose plays an important role in the mechanism of GSIS.

  17. Glutathione peroxidase mimic ebselen improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in murine islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Yun, Jun-Won; Lei, Xin Gen

    2014-01-10

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) mimic ebselen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic copper diisopropylsalicylate (CuDIPs) were used to rescue impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in islets of GPX1 and(or) SOD1-knockout mice. Ebselen improved GSIS in islets of all four tested genotypes. The rescue in the GPX1 knockout resulted from a coordinated transcriptional regulation of four key GSIS regulators and was mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α)-mediated signaling pathways. In contrast, CuDIPs improved GSIS only in the SOD1 knockout and suppressed gene expression of the PGC-1α pathway. Islets from the GPX1 and(or) SOD1 knockout mice provided metabolically controlled intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide conditions for the present study to avoid confounding effects. Bioinformatics analyses of gene promoters and expression profiles guided the search for upstream signaling pathways to link the ebselen-initiated H2O2 scavenging to downstream key events of GSIS. The RNA interference was applied to prove PGC-1α as the main mediator for that link. Our study revealed a novel metabolic use and clinical potential of ebselen in rescuing GSIS in the GPX1-deficient islets and mice, along with distinct differences between the GPX and SOD mimics in this regard. These findings highlight the necessities and opportunities of discretional applications of various antioxidant enzyme mimics in treating insulin secretion disorders. REBOUND TRACK: This work was rejected during standard peer review and rescued by Rebound Peer Review (Antioxid Redox Signal 16: 293-296, 2012) with the following serving as open reviewers: Regina Brigelius-Flohe, Vadim Gladyshev, Dexing Hou, and Holger Steinbrenner.

  18. The T-allele of TCF7L2 rs7903146 associates with a reduced compensation of insulin secretion for insulin resistance induced by 9 days of bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alibegovic, Amra C; Sonne, Mette P; Højbjerre, Lise

    2010-01-01

    of FPIR in response to insulin resistance induced by bed rest was lower in carriers of the T-allele (P hepatic insulin resistance......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the type 2 diabetes-associated T-allele of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 associates with impaired insulin secretion to compensate for insulin resistance induced by bed rest. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 38....... The genetic analyses were done assuming a dominant model of inheritance. RESULTS: The first-phase insulin response (FPIR) was significantly lower in carriers of the T-allele compared with carriers of the CC genotype before bed rest, with and without correction for insulin resistance. The incremental rise...

  19. Activation of transmembrane bile acid receptor TGR5 stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta} cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Divya P.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA (United States); Mirshahi, Faridoddin [Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA (United States); Grider, John R. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA (United States); Murthy, Karnam S., E-mail: skarnam@vcu.edu [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA (United States); Sanyal, Arun J., E-mail: asanyal@mcvh-vcu.edu [Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G protein coupled receptor TGR5 is expressed in mouse and human islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 is coupled to activation of Gs and Ca{sup 2+} release via cAMP/Epac/PLC-{epsilon} pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of TGR5 by bile salts and selective ligands causes insulin secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 could be a potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. -- Abstract: Bile acids act as signaling molecules and stimulate the G protein coupled receptor, TGR5, in addition to nuclear farnesoid X receptor to regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Bile acid induced activation of TGR5 in the enteroendocrine cells promotes glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, which has insulinotropic effect in the pancreatic {beta} cells. In the present study, we have identified the expression of TGR5 in pancreatic {beta} cell line MIN6 and also in mouse and human pancreatic islets. TGR5 selective ligands, oleanolic acid (OA) and INT-777 selectively activated G{alpha}{sub s} and caused an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca{sup 2+}. OA and INT-777 also increased phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and the increase was blocked by NF449 (a selective G{alpha}{sub s} inhibitor) or (U73122) (PI hydrolysis inhibitor). OA, INT-777 and lithocholic acid increased insulin release in MIN6 and human islets and the increase was inhibited by treatment with NF449, (U73122) or BAPTA-AM (chelator of calcium), but not with myristoylated PKI (PKA inhibitor), suggesting that the release is dependent on G{sub s}/cAMP/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, a cAMP analog, which activates Epac, but not PKA also stimulated PI hydrolysis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the TGR5 expressed in the pancreatic {beta} cells regulates insulin secretion and highlights the importance of ongoing therapeutic strategies targeting TGR5 in the control of glucose homeostasis.

  20. Drp1 guarding of the mitochondrial network is important for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Florian; Schultz, Julia; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone, E-mail: simone.baltrusch@med.uni-rostock.de

    2016-06-10

    Mitochondria form a tubular network in mammalian cells, and the mitochondrial life cycle is determined by fission, fusion and autophagy. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) has a pivotal role in these processes because it alone is able to constrict mitochondria. However, the regulation and function of Drp1 have been shown to vary between cell types. Mitochondrial morphology affects mitochondrial metabolism and function. In pancreatic beta cells mitochondrial metabolism is a key component of the glucose-induced cascade of insulin secretion. The goal of the present study was to investigate the action of Drp1 in pancreatic beta cells. For this purpose Drp1 was down-regulated by means of shDrp1 in insulin-secreting INS1 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. In INS1 cells reduced Drp1 expression resulted in diminished expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial fusion, namely mitofusin 1 and 2, and optic atrophy protein 1. Diminished mitochondrial dynamics can therefore be assumed. After down-regulation of Drp1 in INS1 cells and spread mouse islets the initially homogenous mitochondrial network characterised by a moderate level of interconnections shifted towards high heterogeneity with elongated, clustered and looped mitochondria. These morphological changes were found to correlate directly with functional alterations. Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP generation were significantly reduced in INS1 cells after Drp1down-regulation. Finally, a significant loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was demonstrated in INS1 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. In conclusion, Drp1 expression is important in pancreatic beta cells to maintain the regulation of insulin secretion. -- Highlights: •Down-regulation of Drp1 in INS1 cells reduces mitochondrial fusion protein expression. •Mitochondrial membrane potential in INS1 cells is diminished after Drp1 down-regulation. •Mitochondria become elongated after down-regulation of Drp1 in beta cells. •Down-regulation of

  1. Insulin secretion and signaling in response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinéad M

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine systemic insulin response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and transcript abundance of genes of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, during both dietary restriction and re-alimentation-induced compensatory growth. Holstein Friesian bulls were blocked to one of two groups: 1) restricted feed allowance for 125 days (period 1) (RES, n = 15) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (period 2) or 2) ad libitum access to feed throughout (periods 1 and 2) (ADLIB, n = 15). On days 90 and 36 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, a GTT was performed. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, and RNA-Seq analysis was performed. RES displayed a lower growth rate during period 1 (RES: 0.6 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.9 kg/day; P alimentation (RES: 2.5 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.4 kg/day; P alimentation (P > 0.05). Genes differentially expressed in the insulin signaling pathway suggested a greater sensitivity to insulin in skeletal muscle, with pleiotropic effects of insulin signaling interrupted during dietary restriction. Collectively, these results indicate increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction; however, no overall role for insulin was apparent in expressing compensatory growth. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Expression and functional assessment of candidate type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes identify four new genes contributing to human insulin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou K. Ndiaye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified >100 loci independently contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D risk. However, translational implications for precision medicine and for the development of novel treatments have been disappointing, due to poor knowledge of how these loci impact T2D pathophysiology. Here, we aimed to measure the expression of genes located nearby T2D associated signals and to assess their effect on insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Methods: The expression of 104 candidate T2D susceptibility genes was measured in a human multi-tissue panel, through PCR-free expression assay. The effects of the knockdown of beta-cell enriched genes were next investigated on insulin secretion from the human EndoC-βH1 beta-cell line. Finally, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq so as to assess the pathways affected by the knockdown of the new genes impacting insulin secretion from EndoC-βH1, and we analyzed the expression of the new genes in mouse models with altered pancreatic beta-cell function. Results: We found that the candidate T2D susceptibility genes' expression is significantly enriched in pancreatic beta cells obtained by laser capture microdissection or sorted by flow cytometry and in EndoC-βH1 cells, but not in insulin sensitive tissues. Furthermore, the knockdown of seven T2D-susceptibility genes (CDKN2A, GCK, HNF4A, KCNK16, SLC30A8, TBC1D4, and TCF19 with already known expression and/or function in beta cells changed insulin secretion, supporting our functional approach. We showed first evidence for a role in insulin secretion of four candidate T2D-susceptibility genes (PRC1, SRR, ZFAND3, and ZFAND6 with no previous knowledge of presence and function in beta cells. RNA-seq in EndoC-βH1 cells with decreased expression of PRC1, SRR, ZFAND6, or ZFAND3 identified specific gene networks related to T2D pathophysiology. Finally, a positive correlation between the expression of Ins2 and the

  3. Vitamin D deficiency impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increases insulin resistance by reducing PPAR-γ expression in nonobese Type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna

    2016-01-01

    Human studies have provided relatively strong associations of poor vitamin D status with Type 2 diabetes but do not explain the nature of the association. Here, we explored the physiological pathways that may explain how vitamin D status modulates energy, lipid and glucose metabolisms in nonobese Type 2 diabetic rats. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were fed high-fat diets containing 25 (VD-low), 1000 (VD-normal) or 10,000 (VD-high) cholecalciferol-IU/kg diet for 8 weeks. Energy expenditure, insulin resistance, insulin secretory capacity and lipid metabolism were measured. Serum 25-OH-D levels, an index of vitamin D status, increased dose dependently with dietary vitamin D. VD-low resulted in less fat oxidation without a significant difference in energy expenditure and less lean body mass in the abdomen and legs comparison to the VD-normal group. In comparison to VD-low, VD-normal had lower serum triglycerides and intracellular fat accumulation in the liver and skeletal muscles which was associated with down-regulation of the mRNA expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase and up-regulation of gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. In euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance was exacerbated in the VD-low group but not in the VD-normal group, possibly through decreasing hepatic insulin signaling and PPAR-γ expression in the adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes 1,25-(OH)2-D (10 nM) increased triglyceride accumulation by elevating PPAR-γ expression and treatment with a PPAR-γ antagonist blocked the triglyceride deposition induced by 1,25-(OH)2-D treatment. VD-low impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in hyperglycemic clamp and decreased β-cell mass by decreasing β-cell proliferation. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency resulted in the dysregulation of glucose metabolism in GK rats by simultaneously increasing insulin

  4. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    (HI), 40 mU/m(2) x min], 3-(3)H-glucose, indirect calorimetry, and iv glucose tolerance test. Free fatty acid concentrations were similar during basal steady state but 3.7- to 13-fold higher during clamps. P-glucagon increased and the insulin/glucagon ratio decreased at both LI and HI during...... not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes....

  5. Biotin enhances ATP synthesis in pancreatic islets of the rat, resulting in reinforcement of glucose-induced insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Komai, Michio; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Kagawa, Yasuo; Furukawa, Yuji

    2004-02-13

    Previous studies showed that biotin enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. Changes in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in the pancreatic islets participate in the regulation of insulin secretion by glucose. In the present study we investigated whether biotin regulates the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in glucose-stimulated islets. When islets were stimulated with glucose plus biotin, the ATP/ADP ratio increased to approximately 160% of the ATP/ADP ratio in islets stimulated with glucose alone. The rate of glucose oxidation, assessed by CO(2) production, was also about 2-fold higher in islets treated with biotin. These increasing effects of biotin were proportional to the effects seen in insulin secretion. There are no previous reports of vitamins, such as biotin, directly affecting ATP synthesis. Our data indicate that biotin enhances ATP synthesis in islets following the increased rate of substrate oxidation in mitochondria and that, as a consequence of these events, glucose-induced insulin release is reinforced by biotin.

  6. Exenatide augments first- and second-phase insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehse, Frauke; Trautmann, Michael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: First-phase insulin secretion (within 10 min after a sudden rise in plasma glucose) is reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The incretin mimetic exenatide has glucoregulatory activities in DM2, including glucose-dependent enhancement of insulin secretion. OBJECTIVE: The objective...... of the study was to determine whether exenatide can restore a more normal pattern of insulin secretion in subjects with DM2. DESIGN: Fasted subjects received iv insulin infusion to reach plasma glucose 4.4-5.6 mmol/liter. Subjects received iv exenatide (DM2) or saline (DM2 and healthy volunteers), followed...... by iv glucose challenge. PATIENTS: Thirteen evaluable DM2 subjects were included in the study: 11 males, two females; age, 56 +/- 7 yr; body mass index, 31.7 +/- 2.4 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 6.6 +/- 0.7% (mean +/- sd) treated with diet/exercise (n = 1), metformin (n = 10), or acarbose (n = 2). Controls...

  7. Rising Intracellular Zinc by Membrane Depolarization and Glucose in Insulin-Secreting Clonal HIT-T15 Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira G. Slepchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn2+ appears to be intimately involved in insulin metabolism since insulin secretion is correlated with zinc secretion in response to glucose stimulation, but little is known about the regulation of zinc homeostasis in pancreatic beta-cells. This study set out to identify the intracellular zinc transient by imaging free cytosolic zinc in HIT-T15 beta-cells with fluorescent zinc indicators. We observed that membrane depolarization by KCl (30–60 mM was able to induce a rapid increase in cytosolic concentration of zinc. Multiple zinc transients of similar magnitude were elicited during repeated stimulations. The amplitude of zinc responses was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or zinc. However, the half-time of the rising slope was significantly slower after removing extracellular zinc with zinc chelator CaEDTA, suggesting that extracellular zinc affect the initial rising phase of zinc response. Glucose (10 mM induced substantial and progressive increases in intracellular zinc concentration in a similar way as KCl, with variation in the onset and the duration of zinc mobilization. It is known that the depolarization of beta-cell membrane is coupled with the secretion of insulin. Rising intracellular zinc concentration may act as a critical signaling factor in insulin metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells.

  8. Rising intracellular zinc by membrane depolarization and glucose in insulin-secreting clonal HIT-T15 beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Kira G; Li, Yang V

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+)) appears to be intimately involved in insulin metabolism since insulin secretion is correlated with zinc secretion in response to glucose stimulation, but little is known about the regulation of zinc homeostasis in pancreatic beta-cells. This study set out to identify the intracellular zinc transient by imaging free cytosolic zinc in HIT-T15 beta-cells with fluorescent zinc indicators. We observed that membrane depolarization by KCl (30-60 mM) was able to induce a rapid increase in cytosolic concentration of zinc. Multiple zinc transients of similar magnitude were elicited during repeated stimulations. The amplitude of zinc responses was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or zinc. However, the half-time of the rising slope was significantly slower after removing extracellular zinc with zinc chelator CaEDTA, suggesting that extracellular zinc affect the initial rising phase of zinc response. Glucose (10 mM) induced substantial and progressive increases in intracellular zinc concentration in a similar way as KCl, with variation in the onset and the duration of zinc mobilization. It is known that the depolarization of beta-cell membrane is coupled with the secretion of insulin. Rising intracellular zinc concentration may act as a critical signaling factor in insulin metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells.

  9. L-cysteine reversibly inhibits glucose-induced biphasic insulin secretion and ATP production by inactivating PKM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Daiki; Horiuchi, Yuta; Kano, Fumi; Noguchi, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Taichi; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-03-10

    Increase in the concentration of plasma L-cysteine is closely associated with defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, which results in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged L-cysteine treatment on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells and from mouse pancreatic islets, and found that the treatment reversibly inhibited glucose-induced ATP production and resulting GSIS without affecting proinsulin and insulin synthesis. Comprehensive metabolic analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that prolonged L-cysteine treatment decreased the levels of pyruvate and its downstream metabolites. In addition, methyl pyruvate, a membrane-permeable form of pyruvate, rescued L-cysteine-induced inhibition of GSIS. Based on these results, we found that both in vitro and in MIN6 cells, L-cysteine specifically inhibited the activity of pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), an isoform of pyruvate kinases that catalyze the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. L-cysteine also induced PKM2 subunit dissociation (tetramers to dimers/monomers) in cells, which resulted in impaired glucose-induced ATP production for GSIS. DASA-10 (NCGC00181061, a substituted N,N'-diarylsulfonamide), a specific activator for PKM2, restored the tetramer formation and the activity of PKM2, glucose-induced ATP production, and biphasic insulin secretion in L-cysteine-treated cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion due to exposure to L-cysteine resulted from its direct binding and inactivation of PKM2 and suggest that PKM2 is a potential therapeutic target for T2D.

  10. BMT decreases HFD-induced weight gain associated with decreased preadipocyte number and insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Katiraei

    Full Text Available Experimental bone marrow transplantation (BMT in mice is commonly used to assess the role of immune cell-specific genes in various pathophysiological settings. The application of BMT in obesity research is hampered by the significant reduction in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. We set out to characterize metabolic tissues that may be affected by the BMT procedure and impair the HFD-induced response. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent syngeneic BMT using lethal irradiation. After a recovery period of 8 weeks they were fed a low-fat diet (LFD or HFD for 16 weeks. HFD-induced obesity was reduced in mice after BMT as compared to HFD-fed control mice, characterized by both a reduced fat (-33%; p<0.01 and lean (-11%; p<0.01 mass, while food intake and energy expenditure were unaffected. As compared to control mice, BMT-treated mice had a reduced mature adipocyte volume (approx. -45%; p<0.05 and reduced numbers of preadipocytes (-38%; p<0.05 and macrophages (-62%; p<0.05 in subcutaneous, gonadal and visceral white adipose tissue. In BMT-treated mice, pancreas weight (-46%; p<0.01 was disproportionally decreased. This was associated with reduced plasma insulin (-68%; p<0.05 and C-peptide (-37%; p<0.01 levels and a delayed glucose clearance in BMT-treated mice on HFD as compared to control mice. In conclusion, the reduction in HFD-induced obesity after BMT in mice is at least partly due to alterations in the adipose tissue cell pool composition as well as to a decreased pancreatic secretion of the anabolic hormone insulin. These effects should be considered when interpreting results of experimental BMT in metabolic studies.

  11. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-cholesterol, are associated with insulin secretion in non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Andrea; Baldi, Simona; Bonnet, Fabrice; Petrie, John; Trifirò, Silvia; Tricò, Domenico; Mari, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Experimental data support the notion that lipoproteins might directly affect beta cell function, however clinical data are sparse and inconsistent. We aimed at verifying whether, independently of major confounders, serum lipids are associated with alterations in insulin secretion or clearance non-diabetic subjects. Cross sectional and observational prospective (3.5yrs), multicentre study in which 1016 non-diabetic volunteers aged 30-60yrs. and with a wide range of BMI (20.0-39.9kg/m 2 ) were recruited in a setting of University hospital ambulatory care (RISC study). baseline fasting lipids, fasting and OGTT-induced insulin secretion and clearance (measured by glucose and C-peptide modeling), peripheral insulin sensitivity (by the euglycemic clamp). Lipids and OGTT were repeated in 980 subjects after 3.5years. LDL-cholesterol did not show independent associations with fasting or stimulated insulin secretion or clearance. After accounting for potential confounders, HDL-cholesterol displayed negative and triglycerides positive independent associations with fasting and OGTT insulin secretion; neither with insulin clearance. Low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides were associated with an increase in glucose-dependent and a decrease in non-glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Over 3.5years both an HDL-cholesterol decline and a triglycerides rise were associated with an increase in fasting insulin secretion independent of changes in body weight or plasma glucose. LDL-cholesterol does not seem to influence any major determinant of insulin bioavailability while low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides might contribute to sustain the abnormalities in insulin secretion that characterize the pre-diabetic state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation of the secretion of insulin and C-peptide in cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modnikov, O P; Lomtev, N G [Kirgizskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Onkologii i Radiologii, Frunze (USSR)

    1983-08-01

    Insulin and C-peptide levels were studied with a radioimmunoassay in the peripheral blood serum of 44 patients with gastric and cervical cancer and 22 healthy persons. Hyperfunction of the pancreatic insular apparatus was shown in cancer patients which was expressed in a statistically significant increase in the C-peptide level. In gastric cancer patients hyperfunction of the insular apparatus was accompanied by hypoinsulinemia, and in cervical cancer patients by hormoinsulinemia. An analysis has shown that the ratio insulin/C-peptide in gastric and cervical cancer patients was about the same and significantly lower than the control. A conclusion has been made that in spite of difference in the initial insulin concentration, the same phenomenon - acceleration of the metabolic clearance of insulin - occurs in patients with cancer of the above sites. The C-peptide level decreased, the ratio insulin/C-peptide increased, i.e. hyperfunction of the insular apparatus disappeared and the metabolic clearance of insulin slowed down.

  13. The effect of 30 months of low-dose replacement therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on insulin and C-peptide kinetics, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and body composition in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Maghsoudi, S; Fisker, S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term (30 months) metabolic effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) given in a mean dose of 6.7 microg/kg x day (= 1.6 IU/day), in 11 patients with adult GH deficiency. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test and an iv...... (frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test) glucose tolerance test, and body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Treatment with rhGH induced persistent favorable changes in body composition, with a 10% increase in lean body mass (P ... in glucose tolerance, beta-cell response was still inappropriate. Our conclusion is that long-term rhGH-replacement therapy in GH deficiency adults induced a significant deterioration in glucose tolerance, profound changes in kinetics of C-peptide, and insulin and prehepatic insulin secretion, despite...

  14. Genetic Markers of Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion Are Associated With Spontaneous Postnatal Growth and Response to Growth Hormone Treatment in Short SGA Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; Day, Felix

    2015-01-01

    with spontaneous postnatal weight gain (regression coefficient [B]: 0.12 SD scores per allele; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.23; P = .03) and also in response to GH therapy with first-year height velocity (B: 0.18 cm/y per allele; 95% CI, 0.02-0.35; P = .03) and change in IGF-1 (B: 0.17 SD scores per allele......PURPOSE: The wide heterogeneity in the early growth and metabolism of children born small for gestational age (SGA), both before and during GH therapy, may reflect common genetic variations related to insulin secretion or sensitivity. METHOD: Combined multiallele single nucleotide polymorphism......; 95% CI, 0.00-0.32; P = .03). The association with first-year height velocity was independent of reported predictors of response to GH therapy (adjusted P = .04). The insulin secretion allele score (GS-InSec) was positively associated with spontaneous postnatal height gain (B: 0.15; 95% CI, 0...

  15. Hyperinsulinemia in the physiologic range is not superior to short-term fasting in suppressing insulin secretion in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincelli, A I; Brunani, A; Caumo, A; Scacchi, M; Pasqualinotto, L; Tibaldi, A; Dubini, A; Bonadonna, S; Cavagnini, F

    2001-01-01

    The negative-feedback control exerted by plasma insulin on beta-cell insulin release in normal-weight and obese subjects is still a matter of debate. Subjects submitted to a euglycemic insulin clamp undergo a suppression of insulin secretion that is due to both the infused insulin and the 2- to 3-hour fast during the procedure. We elected to elucidate the role of physiologic hyperinsulinemia per se in the insulin negative autofeedback in obese men. Ten men with massive uncomplicated obesity (age, 18 to 37 years; body mass index [BMI], 41 +/- 1.15 kg/m2) and 6 normal-weight healthy men (age, 22 to 30 years; BMI, 22 +/- 0.28 kg/m2) underwent 2 studies in random order: (1) a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp with an insulin infusion rate of 1 mU/kg/min and (2) a control study with saline infusion. Serum C-peptide concentrations were significantly higher in obese versus control subjects at baseline (2.54 +/- 0.178 v 1.63 +/- 0.256 ng/mL, P < .05). Exogenous insulin infusion significantly suppressed serum C-peptide at steady state ([SS] last 30 minutes of insulin or saline infusion) in controls (mean of the last 4 measurements from 120 minutes to 150 minutes, 0.86 +/- 0.306 ng/mL, P < .05 vbaseline) but not in obese patients (2.03 +/- 0.26 ng/mL, nonsignificant [NS] v baseline). During the saline infusion studies, C-peptide levels slightly and similarly declined over time in both groups (2.71 +/- 0.350 at baseline v 2.31 +/- 0.300 ng/mL at SS in obese patients, NS, and 1.96 +/- 0.189 v 1.62 +/- 0.150 ng/mL in controls, NS). This study shows that in obese men hyperinsulinemia within the postprandial range is not superior to a 2.5-hour fast for the suppression of beta-cell activity, suggesting an impairment of the insulin negative autofeedback in this clinical condition.

  16. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributes to Impaired Insulin Secretion in INS-1 Cells with Dominant-negative Mutations of HNF-1α and in HNF-1α-deficient Islets*

    OpenAIRE

    Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Kibbey, Richard G.; Kirkpatrick, Clare L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Pontoglio, Marco; Yaniv, Moshe; Wollheim, Claes B.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Cline, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young-type 3 (MODY-3) has been linked to mutations in the transcription factor hepatic nuclear factor (HNF)-1α, resulting in deficiency in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In INS-1 cells overexpressing doxycycline-inducible HNF-1α dominant-negative (DN-) gene mutations, and islets from Hnf-1α knock-out mice, insulin secretion was impaired in response to glucose (15 mm) and other nutrient secretagogues. Decreased rates of insulin secretion in response to glu...

  17. Impaired insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism in glucose-tolerant women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Vestergaard, H; Kühl, Carl Erik

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes.......Our purpose was to investigate insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes....

  18. Insulin and GH secretion in adolescent girls with irregular cycles: polycystic vs multifollicular ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, P; Rossodivita, A; Fulghesu, A M; Cucinelli, F; Barini, A; Apa, R; Belosi, C; Lanzone, A

    2003-04-01

    In the present study insulin (I) and GH secretion was studied in a group of twenty-five young adolescent girls (mean age: 15 +/- 0.23 yr) with cycle irregularity associated to clinical signs of hyperandrogenism in comparison with that observed in eleven normal matched subjects with regular menses. All patients underwent basal hormone measurements and, on two consecutive days, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a GHRH iv test. Therefore, all subjects had a transabdominal US scan for the measurement of ovarian volume and the characterization of ovarian morphology. On the basis of the US examination we found patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO-like group) and subjects with multifollicular ovaries (MFO group). PCO-like group exhibited T (pirregular menses showed plasma concentrations of AUC for I (AUC-I) significantly higher in respect to control group (7359.4 +/- 709 vs 5447 +/- 431 microIU/ml x 180 min, p<0.01) as well as both PCO-like group and MFO group did (p<0.001 and p<0.01) respectively. MFO group showed higher values of the AUC for GH (AUC-GH) (2809 +/- 432 ng/ml x 120 min) in respect to controls (1708 +/- 208 ng/ml x 120 min, p<0.05) and PCO-like subjects (p<0.001), who on the contrary showed the lowest AUC-GH values (618 +/- 119 ng/ml x 120 min). In conclusion, PCO-like patients associated hyperinsulinemia with a blunted GH secretion while MFO patients had higher GH secretion associated with higher AUC-I values in a way suggesting an immature and still developing reproductive system.

  19. Plasma Asprosin Concentrations Are Increased in Individuals with Glucose Dysregulation and Correlated with Insulin Resistance and First-Phase Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuren Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adipokines are reported to participate in many common pathologic processes of glucose dysregulation, such as insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and chronic inflammation. Objective. To detect the concentrations of plasma asprosin in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (nT2DM and its relationship to parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and pancreatic β-cell function. Methods. 143 eligible participants were included and were divided into three groups including normal glucose regulation (NGR, n=52, IGR (n=40, and nT2DM group (n=51. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT and clinical and biochemical parameters were measured in all participants. Results. Plasma asprosin levels were higher in IGR (82.40 ± 91.06 ng/mL, P<0.001 and nT2DM (73.25 ± 91.69 ng/mL, P<0.001 groups compared with those in the NGR (16.22 ± 9.27 ng/mL group, especially in IGR subjects. Correlation analysis showed that plasma asprosin levels were positively correlated with waist circumference (Wc, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, postchallenge plasma glucose (2hPG, HbA1c, triglyceride (TG, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β, area under the curve of the first-phase (0–10 min insulin secretion (AUC, acute insulin response (AIR, and glucose disposition index (GDI (all P<0.05. Multiple logistical regression analyses revealed that plasma asprosin concentrations were significantly correlated with IGR and nT2DM after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and WHR. Conclusions. Circulating asprosin might be a predictor of early diagnosis in DM and might be a potential therapeutic target for prediabetes and T2DM.

  20. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  1. Interleukin-33-Activated Islet-Resident Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Insulin Secretion through Myeloid Cell Retinoic Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmas, Elise; Lehmann, Frank M; Dror, Erez; Wueest, Stephan; Thienel, Constanze; Borsigova, Marcela; Stawiski, Marc; Traunecker, Emmanuel; Lucchini, Fabrizio C; Dapito, Dianne H; Kallert, Sandra M; Guigas, Bruno; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Maechler, Pierre; Girard, Jean-Philippe; Konrad, Daniel; Wolfrum, Christian; Böni-Schnetzler, Marianne; Finke, Daniela; Donath, Marc Y

    2017-11-21

    Pancreatic-islet inflammation contributes to the failure of β cell insulin secretion during obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the nature and function of resident immune cells in this context or in homeostasis. Here we show that interleukin (IL)-33 was produced by islet mesenchymal cells and enhanced by a diabetes milieu (glucose, IL-1β, and palmitate). IL-33 promoted β cell function through islet-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that elicited retinoic acid (RA)-producing capacities in macrophages and dendritic cells via the secretion of IL-13 and colony-stimulating factor 2. In turn, local RA signaled to the β cells to increase insulin secretion. This IL-33-ILC2 axis was activated after acute β cell stress but was defective during chronic obesity. Accordingly, IL-33 injections rescued islet function in obese mice. Our findings provide evidence that an immunometabolic crosstalk between islet-derived IL-33, ILC2s, and myeloid cells fosters insulin secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. FTO Inhibits Insulin Secretion and Promotes NF-κB Activation through Positively Regulating ROS Production in Pancreatic β cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Qi Fan

    Full Text Available FTO (Fat mass and obesity-associated is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes incurrence. Pancreas islet β cells dysfunction and insulin resistance are major causes of type 2 diabetes. However, whether FTO plays an important functional role in pancreatic β cells as well as the related molecular mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, the tissue expression profile of FTO was firstly determined using quantitative PCR and western blot. FTO is widely expressed in various tissues and presented with relative high expression in pancreas tissue, especially in endocrine pancreas. FTO overexpression in MIN6 cells achieved by lentivirus delivery significantly inhibits insulin secretion in the presence of glucose stimulus as well as KCl. FTO silence has no effect on insulin secretion of MIN6 cells. However, FTO overexpression doesn't affect the transcription of insulin gene. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS production and NF-κB activation are significantly promoted by FTO overexpression. Inhibition of intracellular ROS production by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC can alleviate NF-κB activation and restore the insulin secretion mediated by FTO overexpression. A whole transcript-microarray is employed to analyze the differential gene expression mediated by FTO overexpression. The genes which are modulated by FTO are involved in many important biological pathways such as G-protein coupled receptor signaling and NF-κB signaling. Therefore, our study indicates that FTO may contribute to pancreas islet β cells dysfunction and the inhibition of FTO activity is a potential target for the treatment of diabetes.

  3. Suppression of the Nuclear Factor Eny2 Increases Insulin Secretion in Poorly Functioning INS-1E Insulinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dames

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eny2, the mammalian ortholog of yeast Sus1 and drosophila E(y2, is a nuclear factor that participates in several steps of gene transcription and in mRNA export. We had previously found that Eny2 expression changes in mouse pancreatic islets during the metabolic adaptation to pregnancy. We therefore hypothesized that the protein contributes to the regulation of islet endocrine cell function and tested this hypothesis in rat INS-1E insulinoma cells. Overexpression of Eny2 had no effect but siRNA-mediated knockdown of Eny2 resulted in markedly increased glucose and exendin-4-induced insulin secretion from otherwise poorly glucose-responsive INS-1E cells. Insulin content, cellular viability, and the expression levels of several key components of glucose sensing remained unchanged; however glucose-dependent cellular metabolism was higher after Eny2 knockdown. Suppression of Eny2 enhanced the intracellular incretin signal downstream of cAMP. The use of specific cAMP analogues and pathway inhibitors primarily implicated the PKA and to a lesser extent the EPAC pathway. In summary, we identified a potential link between the nuclear protein Eny2 and insulin secretion. Suppression of Eny2 resulted in increased glucose and incretin-induced insulin release from a poorly glucose-responsive INS-1E subline. Whether these findings extend to other experimental conditions or to in vivo physiology needs to be determined in further studies.

  4. Enterovirus infection of human islets of Langerhans affects β-cell function resulting in disintegrated islets, decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion and loss of Golgi structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodik, M; Skog, O; Lukinius, A; Isaza-Correa, J M; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, B N G; Frisk, G

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetes (T1D), most insulin-producing β cells are destroyed, but the trigger is unknown. One of the possible triggers is a virus infection and the aim of this study was to test if enterovirus infection affects glucose stimulated insulin secretion and the effect of virus

  5. The zinc transporter ZNT3 co-localizes with insulin in INS-1E pancreatic beta cells and influences cell survival, insulin secretion capacity, and ZNT8 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smidt, Kamille; Larsen, Agnete; Brønden, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Zinc trafficking in pancreatic beta cells is tightly regulated by zinc transporting (ZNTs) proteins. The role of different ZNTs in the beta cells is currently being clarified. ZNT8 transports zinc into insulin granules and is critical for a correct insulin crystallization and storage in the granu......Zinc trafficking in pancreatic beta cells is tightly regulated by zinc transporting (ZNTs) proteins. The role of different ZNTs in the beta cells is currently being clarified. ZNT8 transports zinc into insulin granules and is critical for a correct insulin crystallization and storage...

  6. Degludec insulin: A novel basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Baruah, Manash; Kalra, Bharti

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews a novel insulin analogue, degludec, which has the potential to emerge as an ideal basal insulin. It reviews the limitations of existing basal insulin and analogues, and highlights the need for a newer molecule. The paper discusses the potential advantages of degludec, while reviewing its pharmacologic and clinical studies done so far. The paper assesses the potential role of insulin degludec and degludec plus in clinical diabetes practice.

  7. Co-culture of clonal beta cells with GLP-1 and glucagon-secreting cell line impacts on beta cell insulin secretion, proliferation and susceptibility to cytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alastair D; Vasu, Srividya; Moffett, R Charlotte; Flatt, Peter R

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the direct effects on insulin releasing MIN6 cells of chronic exposure to GLP-1, glucagon or a combination of both peptides secreted from GLUTag L-cell and αTC1.9 alpha-cell lines in co-culture. MIN6, GLUTag and αTC1.9 cell lines exhibited high cellular hormone content and release of insulin, GLP-1 and glucagon, respectively. Co-culture of MIN6 cells with GLUTag cells significantly increased cellular insulin content, beta-cell proliferation, insulin secretory responses to a range of established secretogogues and afforded protection against exposure cytotoxic concentrations of glucose, lipid, streptozotocin or cytokines. Benefits of co-culture of MIN6 cells with αTC1.9 alphacells were limited to enhanced beta-cell proliferation with marginal positive actions on both insulin secretion and cellular protection. In contrast, co-culture of MIN6 with GLUTag cells plus αTC1.9 cells, markedly enhanced both insulin secretory responses and protection against beta-cell toxins compared with co-culture with GLUTag cells alone. These data indicate important long-term effects of conjoint GLP-1 and glucagon exposure on beta-cell function. This illustrates the possible functional significance of alpha-cell GLP-1 production as well as direct beneficial effects of dual agonism at beta-cell GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. L-leucine methyl ester stimulates insulin secretion and islet glutamate dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, P; Kofod, Hans; Lernmark, A

    1983-01-01

    Column perifusion of collagenase-isolated mouse pancreatic islets was used to study the dynamics of insulin release in experiments lasting for several hours. The methyl esters of L-leucine and L-arginine were synthesized. Whereas L-arginine methyl ester (L-arginine OMe) had no effect, L-leucine OMe...... stimulated the release of insulin. The effect of L-leucine OMe was maximal at 5 mmol/liter. Whereas the Km for glucose-stimulated insulin release was unaffected by 1 mmol/liter L-leucine OMe, the maximal release of D-glucose was increased by the amino acid derivative that appeared more effective than L......-leucine. L-Leucine OMe was also a potent stimulus of insulin release from the perfused mouse pancreas. In the presence of 10 mmol/liter L-glutamine, 1 mmol/liter L-leucine OMe induced a 50- to 75-fold increase in insulin release. A similar stimulatory effect was also observed in column-perifused RIN 5F cells...

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the bovine mammary gland: Receptors, endogenous secretion, and appearance in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first study to characterize both insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in bovine milk, to characterize the IGF-I receptor in the dry and lactating mammary gland, and to report de novo synthesis and secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP from normal mammary tissue. Immunoreactive IGF-I was principally associated with 45 kDa IGFBP in milk. Multiparous cows had a higher IGF-I concentration of 307 ng/ml than primiparous cows at 147 ng/ml. IGF-I concentration on day 56 of lactation was 34 ng/ml for combined parity groups. At parturition, IGF-I mass in blood and milk pools was 1.4 and 1.2 mg, respectively. Binding of 125 I-IGF-I was specific for IGF-I with anIC 50 of 2.2 ng which was a 10- and 1273-fold greater affinity than IGF-II and insulin, respectively. Association constants, as determined by Scatchard analysis, were similar for both pregnant and lactating cows at 3.5 and 4.0 L/nM, respectively. In addition, estimated mean receptor concentration was 0.25 and 0.23 pM/mg protein for pregnant and lactating cows, respectively. In a survey of mammary microscomes prepared from 48 cows, 125 I-IGF-I binding declined with progressing lactation and a similar trend was observed during pregnancy

  10. Insulin and C-peptide secretion in non-obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabeer, S; Jialal, I; Norman, R J; Naidoo, C; Reddi, K; Joubert, S M

    1989-09-01

    Plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and C-peptide responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) were assessed in 11 non-obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and 11 reference subjects matched for age, height and weight. Also, 6 patients with PCOD and 6 normal women were subjected to intravenous glucose tolerance testing (ivGTT) On oGTT, all subjects exhibited normal glucose tolerance; however, PCOD patients had significantly higher mean plasma glucose levels at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min and higher mean incremental glucose areas. In addition the patients with polycystic ovaries showed higher mean basal IRI and C-peptide levels, higher mean glucose stimulated IRI and C-peptide levels and higher mean incremental IRI and C-peptide values. The molar ratios of C-peptide/IRI were significantly lower in the PCOD group at all time intervals after glucose stimulation when compared to the normal women. During ivGTT, there were significantly higher mean glucose levels at 5, 40, 50 and 60 min in the PCOD group when compared to the reference group. The IRI response to intravenous glucose in the PCOD women was similar to the reference group. The findings on oGTT suggest that non-obese patients with PCOD have increased pancreatic IRI secretion as well as impaired hepatic extraction of the hormone.

  11. Inhibition of cholinergic potentiation of insulin secretion from pancreatic islets by chronic elevation of glucose and fatty acids: Protection by casein kinase 2 inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai M. Doliba

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: These results show that chronic FA treatment decreases acetylcholine potentiation of insulin secretion and that this effect is strictly glucose dependent and might involve CK2 phosphorylation of β-cell M3 muscarinic receptors.

  12. GPR142 Controls Tryptophan-Induced Insulin and Incretin Hormone Secretion to Improve Glucose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua V Lin

    Full Text Available GPR142, a putative amino acid receptor, is expressed in pancreatic islets and the gastrointestinal tract, but the ligand affinity and physiological role of this receptor remain obscure. In this study, we show that in addition to L-Tryptophan, GPR142 signaling is also activated by L-Phenylalanine but not by other naturally occurring amino acids. Furthermore, we show that Tryptophan and a synthetic GPR142 agonist increase insulin and incretin hormones and improve glucose disposal in mice in a GPR142-dependent manner. In contrast, Phenylalanine improves in vivo glucose disposal independently of GPR142. Noteworthy, refeeding-induced elevations in insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are blunted in Gpr142 null mice. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate GPR142 is a Tryptophan receptor critically required for insulin and incretin hormone regulation and suggest GPR142 agonists may be effective therapies that leverage amino acid sensing pathways for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Downregulation of lncRNA TUG1 Affects Apoptosis and Insulin Secretion in Mouse Pancreatic β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-dan Yin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (IncRNAs perform specific biological functions in diverse processes. Recent studies have reported that IncRNAs may be involved in β cell function. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of IncRNA TUG1 in mouse pancreatic β cell functioning both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: qRT-PCR analyses were performed to detect the expression of lncRNA TUG1 in different tissues. RNAi, MTT, TUNEL and Annexin V-FITC assays and western blot, GSIS, ELISA and immunochemistry analyses were performed to detect the effect of lncRNA TUG1 on cell apoptosis and insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. Results: lncRNA TUG1 was highly expressed in pancreatic tissue compared with other organ tissues, and expression was dynamically regulated by glucose in Nit-1 cells. Knockdown of lncRNA TUG1 expression resulted in an increased apoptosis ratio and decreased insulin secretion in β cells both in vitro and in vivo . Immunochemistry analyses suggested decreased relative islet area after treatment with lncRNA TUG1 siRNA. Conclusion: Downregulation of lncRNA TUG1 expression affected apoptosis and insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells in vitro and in vivo. lncRNA TUG1 may represent a factor that regulates the function of pancreatic β cells.

  14. Downregulation of lncRNA TUG1 affects apoptosis and insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dan-dan; Zhang, Er-bao; You, Liang-hui; Wang, Ning; Wang, Lin-tao; Jin, Fei-yan; Zhu, Ya-nan; Cao, Li-hua; Yuan, Qing-xin; De, Wei; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (IncRNAs) perform specific biological functions in diverse processes. Recent studies have reported that IncRNAs may be involved in β cell function. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of IncRNA TUG1 in mouse pancreatic β cell functioning both in vitro and in vivo. qRT-PCR analyses were performed to detect the expression of lncRNA TUG1 in different tissues. RNAi, MTT, TUNEL and Annexin V-FITC assays and western blot, GSIS, ELISA and immunochemistry analyses were performed to detect the effect of lncRNA TUG1 on cell apoptosis and insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. lncRNA TUG1 was highly expressed in pancreatic tissue compared with other organ tissues, and expression was dynamically regulated by glucose in Nit-1 cells. Knockdown of lncRNA TUG1 expression resulted in an increased apoptosis ratio and decreased insulin secretion in β cells both in vitro and in vivo . Immunochemistry analyses suggested decreased relative islet area after treatment with lncRNA TUG1 siRNA. Downregulation of lncRNA TUG1 expression affected apoptosis and insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells in vitro and in vivo. lncRNA TUG1 may represent a factor that regulates the function of pancreatic β cells. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues, increased hepatic glucose production, increased lipolysis in adipose tissue, and altered insulin secretion. Studies of individuals with insulin resistance, both with established T2D and high-risk individuals, have consistently demonstrated a diverse array of defects in mitochondrial function (i.e., bioenergetics, biogenesis and dynamics). However, it remains uncertain whether mitochondrial dysfunction is primary (critical initiating defect) or secondary to the subtle derangements in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and defective insulin secretion present early in the course of disease development. In this chapter, we will present the evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and review the potential for mitochondrial targets as a therapeutic approach for T2D.

  16. An extract from date seeds stimulates endogenous insulin secretion in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed F. El Fouhil

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of an extract from date seeds has been tested successfully on the glycemic control of type I diabetes mellitus in rats. A suggestion that date seed extract could stimulate certain cells to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells has been proposed. In order to investigate such a possibility, this study was conducted to measure C-peptide levels in the serum of type 1 diabetic rats treated with date seed extract. Methods: Two hundred rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I served as the control. Group II was given daily ingestions of 10 ml of date seed extract. Groups III and IV were made diabetic by streptozotocin injection and were given daily subcutaneous injections of 3 IU/day of insulin for 8 weeks. Group IV received, in addition, daily ingestions of 10 ml of seed extract. At the end of experiment, blood samples were collected from each rat, and blood glucose and serum Cpeptide levels were measured. Results: No significant differences in the means of blood glucose and serum C-peptide levels were observed between groups I (control group and II (date seed extract-treated control group. Group IV (date seed extract-insulin-treated diabetic group showed a statistically significant reduction in the mean blood glucose level compared to Group III (insulin-treated diabetic group. The mean serum C-peptide level was significantly higher in group IV compared to group III. Conclusion: Biochemical results suggested an increase in endogenous insulin secretion in the case of type 1 diabetic rats treated with date seed extract, which might be the cause of its hypoglycemic effect.

  17. Differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro of islets from human, nonhuman primate, and porcine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kate R; Balamurugan, A N; Cline, Gary W; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Hooper, Rebecca L; Weegman, Bradley P; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Taylor, Michael J; Graham, Melanie L; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Papas, Klearchos K

    2013-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is considered a potential cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes. It is currently being evaluated in diabetic nonhuman primates (NHP) to assess safety and efficacy of the islet product. However, due to a variety of distinct differences between the respective species, including the insulin secretory characteristics of islets, the suitability and predictive value of the preclinical model in the extrapolation to the clinical setting remain a critical issue. Islets isolated from human (n = 3), NHP (n = 2), adult pig (AP, n = 3), and juvenile pig (JP, n = 4) pancreata were perifused with medium at basal glucose (2.5 mm) followed by high glucose (16.7 mm) concentrations. The total glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was calculated from generated insulin secretion profiles. Nonhuman primate islets exhibited GSIS 3-fold higher than AP islets, while AP and JP islets exhibited GSIS 1/3 and 1/30 of human islets, respectively. The insulin content of NHP and AP islets was similar to that of human islets, whereas that of JP islets was 1/5 of human islets. Despite the fact that human, NHP, and AP islets contain similar amounts of insulin, the much higher GSIS for NHP islets than for AP and JP islets suggests the need for increased dosing of islets from JP and AP in pig-to-NHP transplantation. Porcine islet xenotransplantation to humans may require significantly higher dosing given the lower GSIS of AP islets compared to human islets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Aβ-Induced Insulin Resistance and the Effects of Insulin on the Cholesterol Synthesis Pathway and Aβ Secretion in Neural Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najem, Dema; Bamji-Mirza, Michelle; Yang, Ze; Zhang, Wandong

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity, tau pathology, insulin resistance, neuroinflammation, and dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis, all of which play roles in neurodegeneration. Insulin has polytrophic effects on neurons and may be at the center of these pathophysiological changes. In this study, we investigated possible relationships among insulin signaling and cholesterol biosynthesis, along with the effects of Aβ42 on these pathways in vitro. We found that neuroblastoma 2a (N2a) cells transfected with the human gene encoding amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) (N2a-AβPP) produced Aβ and exhibited insulin resistance by reduced p-Akt and a suppressed cholesterol-synthesis pathway following insulin treatment, and by increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor subunit-1 at serine 612 (p-IRS-S612) as compared to parental N2a cells. Treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with Aβ42 also increased p-IRS-S612, suggesting that Aβ42 is responsible for insulin resistance. The insulin resistance was alleviated when N2a-AβPP cells were treated with higher insulin concentrations. Insulin increased Aβ release from N2a-AβPP cells, by which it may promote Aβ clearance. Insulin increased cholesterol-synthesis gene expression in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, including 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) through sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2). While Aβ42-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited increased HMGCR expression and c-Jun phosphorylation as pro-inflammatory responses, they also showed down-regulation of neuro-protective/anti-inflammatory DHCR24. These results suggest that Aβ42 may cause insulin resistance, activate JNK for c-Jun phosphorylation, and lead to dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis, and that enhancing insulin signaling may relieve the insulin-resistant phenotype and the dysregulated cholesterol-synthesis pathway to promote A

  19. Arsenite reduces insulin secretion in rat pancreatic β-cells by decreasing the calcium-dependent calpain-10 proteolysis of SNAP-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea; Burns, Anna L.; Salazar, Ana Maria; Sordo, Monserrat; Hiriart, Marcia; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been consistently observed among residents of high arsenic exposure areas. We have previously shown that in rat pancreatic β-cells, low arsenite doses impair the secretion of insulin without altering its synthesis. To further study the mechanism by which arsenite reduces insulin secretion, we evaluated the effects of arsenite on the calcium-calpain pathway that triggers insulin exocytosis in RINm5F cells. Cell cycle and proliferation analysis were also performed to complement the characterization. Free [Ca 2+ ]i oscillations needed for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were abated in the presence of subchronic low arsenite doses (0.5-2 μM). The global activity of calpains increased with 2 μM arsenite. However, during the secretion of insulin stimulated with glucose (15.6 mM), 1 μM arsenite decreased the activity of calpain-10, measured as SNAP-25 proteolysis. Both proteins are needed to fuse insulin granules with the membrane to produce insulin exocytosis. Arsenite also induced a slowdown in the β cell line proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, reflected by a reduction of dividing cells and in their arrest in G2/M. Data obtained showed that one of the mechanisms by which arsenite impairs insulin secretion is by decreasing the oscillations of free [Ca 2+ ]i, thus reducing calcium-dependent calpain-10 partial proteolysis of SNAP-25. The effects in cell division and proliferation observed with arsenite exposure can be an indirect consequence of the decrease in insulin secretion

  20. Possible contribution of taurine to distorted glucagon secretion in intra-islet insulin deficiency: a metabolome analysis using a novel α-cell model of insulin-deficient diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Bessho

    Full Text Available Glycemic instability is a serious problem in patients with insulin-deficient diabetes, and it may be due in part to abnormal endogenous glucagon secretion. However, the intracellular metabolic mechanism(s involved in the aberrant glucagon response under the condition of insulin deficiency has not yet been elucidated. To investigate the metabolic traits that underlie the distortion of glucagon secretion under insulin deficient conditions, we generated an αTC1-6 cell line with stable knockdown of the insulin receptor (IRKD, i.e., an in vitro α-cell model for insulin-deficient diabetes, which exhibits an abnormal glucagon response to glucose. A comprehensive metabolomic analysis of the IRKD αTC1-6 cells (IRKD cells revealed some candidate metabolites whose levels differed markedly compared to those in control αTC1-6 cells, but also which could affect the glucagon release in IRKD cells. Of these candidates, taurine was remarkably increased in the IRKD cells and was identified as a stimulator of glucagon in αTC1-6 cells. Taurine also paradoxically exaggerated the glucagon secretion at a high glucose concentration in IRKD cells and islets with IRKD. These results indicate that the metabolic alterations induced by IRKD in α-cells, especially the increase of taurine, may lead to the distorted glucagon response in IRKD cells, suggesting the importance of taurine in the paradoxical glucagon response and the resultant glucose instability in insulin-deficient diabetes.

  1. Effect of physical training on insulin secretion and action in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2010-01-01

    in CON but not in FDR, whereas glucose-mediated GU increased (P groups. Adipose tissue GU was not affected by training, but it was higher (abdominal, P Training increased skeletal muscle lipolysis (P ...- to sevenfold. We conclude that insulin-secretory capacity is lower in FDR than in CON and that there is dissociation between training-induced changes in insulin secretion and insulin-mediated GU. Maximal GU rates are similar between groups and increases with physical training.......Physical training affects insulin secretion and action, but there is a paucity of data on the direct effects in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and on the effect of training in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied insulin action at the whole body level...

  2. Insulin secretion after short- and long-term low-grade free fatty acid infusion in men with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Jensen, Christine B; Vaag, Allan A

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of a low-grade short- and long-term 20% Intralipid infusion (0.4 mL(-1) x kg(-1) x h(-1)) on insulin secretion and insulin action in 15 elderly obese men; 7 glucose intolerant first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] relatives) and 8...... healthy controls of similar age and body mass index (BMI). Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and a graded glucose infusion (dose-response test [DORE]) were performed to determine first phase insulin response and to explore the dose response relationship between glucose concentration and insulin...... secretion rates (ISR). ISR were calculated by deconvolution of plasma C-peptide concentrations. Insulin action was determined by performing a 120-minute hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. All tests were performed 3 times, preceded by 0, 2, or 24 hours Intralipid infusion. Disposition indices (DI) were...

  3. Larval hemolymph of rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, enhances insulin secretion through ATF3 gene expression in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Whan; Suh, Hyun-Woo; Yoo, Bo-Kyung; Kwon, Kisang; Yu, Kweon; Choi, Ji-Young; Kwon, O-Yu

    2018-05-22

    In this study, we show that INS-1 pancreatic β-cells treated for 2 h with hemolymph of larvae of rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, secreted about twice as much insulin compared to control cells without such treatment. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was the highest upregulated gene in DNA chip analysis. The A. dichotoma hemolymph dose-dependently induced increased expression levels of genes encoding ATF3 and insulin. Conversely, treatment with ATF3 siRNA inhibited expression levels of both genes and curbed insulin secretion. These results suggest that the A. dichotoma hemolymph has potential for treating and preventing diabetes or diabetes-related complications.

  4. Increased secretion of insulin and proliferation of islet {beta}-cells in rats with mesenteric lymph duct ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagino, Ko; Yokozawa, Junji; Sasaki, Yu; Matsuda, Akiko; Takeda, Hiroaki [Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kawata, Sumio, E-mail: Sumio_Kawata@pref.hyogo.lg.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Hyogo Prefectural Nishinomiya Hospital, 13-9 Rokutanji-cho, Nishinomiya 662-0918 (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was increased during the OGTT or IVGTT in mesenteric lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation of islet {beta}-cells was upregulated in lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenteric lymph duct flow has a role in glucose metabolism. -- Abstract: Background and aims: It has been suggested that intestinal lymph flow plays an important role in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism after meals. In this study, we investigated the influence of ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct on glucose metabolism and islet {beta}-cells in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 weeks old) were divided into two groups: one underwent ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct above the cistern (ligation group), and the other underwent a sham operation (sham group). After 1 and 2 weeks, fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and the active form of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. At 2 weeks after the operation, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were performed. After the rats had been sacrificed, the insulin content of the pancreas was measured and the proliferation of {beta}-cells was assessed immunohistochemically using antibodies against insulin and Ki-67. Results: During the OGTT, the ligation group showed a significant decrease in the plasma glucose concentration at 120 min (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in the plasma insulin concentration by more than 2-fold at 15 min (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the plasma GIP concentration was significantly decreased at 60 min (p < 0.01) in the ligated group, while the active form of GLP-1 showed a significantly higher level at 90 min (1.7-fold; p < 0.05) and 120 min (2.5-fold; p < 0.01). During the IVGTT, the plasma insulin concentration in the ligation group was significantly higher at 2

  5. Increased secretion of insulin and proliferation of islet β-cells in rats with mesenteric lymph duct ligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagino, Ko; Yokozawa, Junji; Sasaki, Yu; Matsuda, Akiko; Takeda, Hiroaki; Kawata, Sumio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Insulin secretion was increased during the OGTT or IVGTT in mesenteric lymph duct-ligated rats. ► Proliferation of islet β-cells was upregulated in lymph duct-ligated rats. ► Mesenteric lymph duct flow has a role in glucose metabolism. -- Abstract: Background and aims: It has been suggested that intestinal lymph flow plays an important role in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism after meals. In this study, we investigated the influence of ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct on glucose metabolism and islet β-cells in rats. Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley rats (10 weeks old) were divided into two groups: one underwent ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct above the cistern (ligation group), and the other underwent a sham operation (sham group). After 1 and 2 weeks, fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and the active form of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. At 2 weeks after the operation, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were performed. After the rats had been sacrificed, the insulin content of the pancreas was measured and the proliferation of β-cells was assessed immunohistochemically using antibodies against insulin and Ki-67. Results: During the OGTT, the ligation group showed a significant decrease in the plasma glucose concentration at 120 min (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in the plasma insulin concentration by more than 2-fold at 15 min (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the plasma GIP concentration was significantly decreased at 60 min (p < 0.01) in the ligated group, while the active form of GLP-1 showed a significantly higher level at 90 min (1.7-fold; p < 0.05) and 120 min (2.5-fold; p < 0.01). During the IVGTT, the plasma insulin concentration in the ligation group was significantly higher at 2 min (more than 1.4-fold; p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the ratios of

  6. Effect of mufa enriched extra virgin olive oil on glycemic status and insulin secretion in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveed, A.K.; Yousaf, M.J.; Khan, S.; Ahmed, T.; Azeem, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of monounsaturated fatty acid enriched extra virgin olive oil on glycemic status and insulin secretion in diabetic rats. Study Design: Randomized Control Trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health, Islamabad from March 2010 to June 2011. Material and Methods: Eighty albino rats of Sprague-dawley strain weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into two groups of 40 rats each. Rats were made diabetic by injecting streptozotocin. Group 1 and Group II were given normal rodent diet and extra virgin olive oil supplemented diet respectively for 06 weeks. At the end of experimentation, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin were measured. Results: There was significant decrease of fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and significant increase of serum insulin of group II rats when it was compared with group I (control). Conclusion: Monounsaturated fatty acids enriched extra virgin olive oil can significantly improve glycemic status and serum insulin in diabetic rats. (author)

  7. DEFECTS IN INSULIN-SECRETION IN NIDDM - B-CELL GLUCOSE INSENSITIVITY OR GLUCOSE TOXICITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANHAEFTEN, TW

    In NIDDM, first-phase insulin release to glucose is (almost) absent. However, in contrast to older studies which suggested that in NIDDM the B-cell is ''blind'' for glucose, recent evidence indicates that the B-cell is not insensitive for glucose as far as second phase release is concerned. This

  8. Interactions of obesity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in familial hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruhama, Y; Abe, R; Okuguchi, F; Oikawa, S; Ohneda, A; Goto, Y

    1978-06-01

    Plasma lipids and lipoproteins, glucose tolerance, plasma insulin response to glucose load, and liver function were examined in 81 relatives of 12 index cases with primary endogenous hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis, as well as in 90 nonrelatives, including the spouses, as controls. Insulin hypersecretion (with or without glucose intolerance), endogenous hypertriglyceridemia, and abnormal liver function suggesting hepatic steatosis were shown to exist in the relatives mostly in combined fashion. Correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the combined disorder developed on the basis of obesity. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was significantly high in the relatives (14.8 per cent) as compared with the normal Japanese population (3.5 per cent). Although the vertical transmission of the combined disorder was noted in almost all pedigrees, the frequency distribution analysis of insulin response, glucose tolerance, and plasma triglyceride showed the histograms of these variables similarly skewed to the right as compared with those of the controls, with no apparent bimodality. In view of the hitherto suggested role of insulin in triglyceride metabolism, it is concluded that hyperinsulinemia coupled with obesity seems to be the basic trait of this form of familial hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis, though the mode of transmission remains to be elucidated.

  9. Gliclazide mainly affects insulin secretion in second phase of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, JJM; van Haeften, TW

    We studied the effect of the acute administration of gliclazide at 160 mg on insulin release during hyperglycaemic clamps in 12 type 2 diabetes patients, age 50 +/- 9.0 years, diabetes duration 55 +/- 4.8 years, fasting blood glucose 9.6 +/- 2.1 mmol/L (means +/- SD). After a 210 min of

  10. Mathematical Beta Cell Model for Insulin Secretion following IVGTT and OGTT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Karlsson, Mats

    2006-01-01

    estimates. For the IVGTT, A correlates well ( r=0.96) with the 10 min area under the curve of insulin above baseline, whereas k represents a new and possibly more fundamental first phase index. For the useful second phase index , a correlation of 0.75 was found between IVGTT and OGTT estimates....

  11. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb’s cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, Gary W.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. ► Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. ► Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. ► Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with 31 P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by 13 C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U- 13 C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM

  12. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, Gary W., E-mail: gary.cline@yale.edu [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Papas, Klearchos K. [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with {sup 31}P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by {sup 13}C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found

  13. Maternal Moderate Physical Training during Pregnancy Attenuates the Effects of a Low-Protein Diet on the Impaired Secretion of Insulin in Rats: Potential Role for Compensation of Insulin Resistance and Preventing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Góis Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregestational and gestational low-to-moderate physical training on insulin secretion in undernourished mothers were evaluated. Virgin female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: control (C, n=5; trained (T, n=5; low-protein diet (LP, n=5; trained with a low-protein diet (T + LP, n=5. Trained rats ran on a treadmill over a period of 4 weeks before mate (5 days week−1 and 60 min day−1, at 65% of VO2max. At pregnancy, the intensity and duration of the exercise were reduced. Low-protein groups were provided with an 8% casein diet, and controls were provided with a 17% casein diet. At third day after delivery, mothers and pups were killed and islets were isolated by collagenase digestion of pancreas and incubated for a further 1 h with medium containing 5.6 or 16.7 mM glucose. T mothers showed increased insulin secretion by isolated islets incubated with 16.7 mM glucose, whereas LP group showed reduced secretion of insulin by isolated islets when compared with both C and LP + T groups. Physical training before and during pregnancy attenuated the effects of a low-protein diet on the secretion of insulin, suggesting a potential role for compensation of insulin resistance and preventing gestational diabetes mellitus.

  14. Insulin and the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosu Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The brain represents an important site for the action of insulin. Besides the traditionally known importance in glucoregulation, insulin has significant neurotrophic properties and influences the brain activity: insulin influences eating behavior, regulates the storage of energy and several aspects concerning memory and knowledge. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinism could be associated with brain aging, vascular and metabolic pathologies. Elucidating the pathways and metabolism of brain insulin could have a major impact on future targeted therapies.

  15. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before...... and after weight loss. Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen age-matched nonobese women served as controls. The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...

  16. Phenolic Compounds from Fermented Berry Beverages Modulated Gene and Protein Expression To Increase Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic β-Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle H; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2016-03-30

    Berries are a rich source of bioactive phenolic compounds that are able to bind and inhibit the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), a current target for type-2 diabetes therapy. The objectives were to determine the role of berry phenolic compounds to modulate incretin-cleaving DPP-IV and its substrate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, and genes and proteins involved in the insulin secretion pathway using cell culture. Anthocyanins (ANC) from 50% blueberry-50% blackberry (Blu-Bla) and 100% blackberry (Bla) fermented beverages at 50 μM cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents increased (p beverages have the potential to modulate DPP-IV and its substrate GLP-1, to increase insulin secretion, and to upregulate expression of mRNA of insulin-receptor associated genes and proteins in pancreatic β-cells.

  17. Fuel-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Depends upon Mitochondria Activation and the Integration of Mitochondrial and Cytosolic Substrate Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Cline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pancreatic islet β-cell is uniquely specialized to couple its metabolism and rates of insulin secretion with the levels of circulating nutrient fuels, with the mitochondrial playing a central regulatory role in this process. In the β-cell, mitochondrial activation generates an integrated signal reflecting rates of oxidativephosphorylation, Kreb's cycle flux, and anaplerosis that ultimately determines the rate of insulin exocytosis. Mitochondrial activation can be regulated by proton leak and mediated by UCP2, and by alkalinization to utilize the pH gradient to drive substrate and ion transport. Converging lines of evidence support the hypothesis that substrate cycles driven by rates of Kreb's cycle flux and by anaplerosis play an integral role in coupling responsive changes in mitochondrial metabolism with insulin secretion. The components and mechanisms that account for the integrated signal of ATP production, substrate cycling, the regulation of cellular redox state, and the production of other secondary signaling intermediates are operative in both rodent and human islet β-cells.

  18. Development of the insulin secretion mechanism in fetal and neonatal rat pancreatic B-cells: response to glucose, K+, theophylline, and carbamylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Mendonça

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the development of the insulin secretion mechanism in the pancreas of fetal (19- and 21-day-old, neonatal (3-day-old, and adult (90-day-old rats in response to stimulation with 8.3 or 16.7 mM glucose, 30 mM K+, 5 mM theophylline (Theo and 200 µM carbamylcholine (Cch. No effect of glucose or high K+ was observed on the pancreas from 19-day-old fetuses, whereas Theo and Cch significantly increased insulin secretion at this age (82 and 127% above basal levels, respectively. High K+ also failed to alter the insulin secretion in the pancreas from 21-day-old fetuses, whereas 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose significantly stimulated insulin release by 41 and 54% above basal levels, respectively. Similar results were obtained with Theo and Cch. A more marked effect of glucose on insulin secretion was observed in the pancreas of 3-day-old rats, reaching 84 and 179% above basal levels with 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose, respectively. At this age, both Theo and Cch increased insulin secretion to close to two-times basal levels. In islets from adult rats, 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose, Theo, and Cch increased the insulin release by 104, 193, 318 and 396% above basal levels, respectively. These data indicate that pancreatic B-cells from 19-day-old fetuses were already sensitive to stimuli that use either cAMP or IP3 and DAG as second messengers, but insensitive to stimuli such as glucose and high K+ that induce membrane depolarization. The greater effect of glucose on insulin secretion during the neonatal period indicates that this period is crucial for the maturation of the glucose-sensing mechanism in B-cells.

  19. Collagen and Stretch Modulate Autocrine Secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins from Differentiated Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Fenwick-Smith, Daniela; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1995-01-01

    Stretch-induced skeletal muscle growth may involve increased autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) since IGF-1 is a potent growth factor for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and stretch elevates IGF-1 mRNA levels in vivo. In tissue cultures of differentiated avian pectoralis skeletal muscle cells, nanomolar concentrations of exogenous IGF-1 stimulated growth in mechanically stretched but not static cultures. These cultures released up to 100 pg of endogenously produced IGF-1/micro-g of protein/day, as well as three major IGF binding proteins of 31, 36, and 43 kilodaltons (kDa). IGF-1 was secreted from both myofibers and fibroblasts coexisting in the muscle cultures. Repetitive stretch/relaxation of the differentiated skeletal muscle cells stimulated the acute release of IGF-1 during the first 4 h after initiating mechanical activity, but caused no increase in the long-term secretion over 24-72 h of IGF-1, or its binding proteins. Varying the intensity and frequency of stretch had no effect on the long-term efflux of IGF-1. In contrast to stretch, embedding the differentiated muscle cells in a three-dimensional collagen (Type I) matrix resulted in a 2-5-fold increase in long-term IGF-1 efflux over 24-72 h. Collagen also caused a 2-5-fold increase in the release of the IGF binding proteins. Thus, both the extracellular matrix protein type I collagen and stretch stimulate the autocrine secretion of IGF-1, but with different time kinetics. This endogenously produced growth factor may be important for the growth response of skeletal myofibers to both types of external stimuli.

  20. Effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in multi-ethnic vitamin D-deficient adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gagnon

    Full Text Available To examine whether combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function, inflammation and metabolic markers.6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial.Ninety-five adults with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] ≤55 nmol/L at risk of type 2 diabetes (with prediabetes or an AUSDRISK score ≥15 were randomized. Analyses included participants who completed the baseline and final visits (treatment n = 35; placebo n = 45.Daily calcium carbonate (1,200 mg and cholecalciferol [2,000-6,000 IU to target 25(OHD >75 nmol/L] or matching placebos for 6 months.Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda index, insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, area under the curve (AUC for C-peptide and β-cell function (Matsuda index x AUC for C-peptide derived from a 75 g 2-h OGTT; anthropometry; blood pressure; lipid profile; hs-CRP; TNF-α; IL-6; adiponectin; total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin.Participants were middle-aged adults (mean age 54 years; 69% Europid at risk of type 2 diabetes (48% with prediabetes. Compliance was >80% for calcium and vitamin D. Mean serum 25(OHD concentration increased from 48 to 95 nmol/L in the treatment group (91% achieved >75 nmol/L, but remained unchanged in controls. There were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function, or in inflammatory and metabolic markers between or within the groups, before or after adjustment for potential confounders including waist circumference and season of recruitment. In a post hoc analysis restricted to participants with prediabetes, a significant beneficial effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S and Matsuda was observed.Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 6 months may not change OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function in multi-ethnic adults with low vitamin D status at risk of type 2 diabetes

  1. The comprehensive electrophysiological study of curcuminoids on delayed-rectifier K+ currents in insulin-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Yang, Chia-Jung; Lee, Yu-Chi; Chen, Pei-Chun; Liu, Yen-Chin; Wu, Sheng-Nan

    2018-01-15

    Curcumin (CUR) has been demonstrated to induce insulin release from pancreatic β-cells; however, how curcuminoids (including demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC)) exert any possible effects on membrane ion currents inherently in insulin-secreting cells remains largely unclear. The effects of CUR and other structurally similar curcuminoids on ion currents in rat insulin-secreting (INS-1) insulinoma cells were therefore investigated in this study. The effects of these compounds on ionic currents and membrane potential were studied by patch-clamp technique. CUR suppressed the amplitude of delayed-rectifier K + current (I K(DR) ) in a time-, state- and concentration-dependent manner in these cells and the inhibition was not reversed by diazoxide, nicorandil or chlorotoxin. The value of dissociation constant for CUR-induced suppression of I K(DR) in INS-1 cells was 1.26μM. Despite the inability of CUR to alter the activation rate of I K(DR) , it accelerated current inactivation elicited by membrane depolarization. Increasing CUR concentrations shifted the inactivation curve of I K(DR) to hyperpolarized potential and slowed the recovery of I K(DR) inactivation. CUR, DMC, and BDMC all exerted depressant actions on I K(DR) amplitude to a similar magnitude, although DMC and BDMC did not increase current inactivation clearly. CUR slightly suppressed the peak amplitude of voltage-gated Na + current. CUR, DMC and BDMC depolarized the resting potential and increased firing frequency of action potentials. The CUR-mediated decrease of I K(DR) and the increase of current inactivation also occurred in βTC-6 INS-1 cells. Taken these results together, these effects may be one of the possible mechanisms contributing their insulin-releasing effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms of estradiol-induced insulin secretion by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30/GPER in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Geetanjali; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2011-08-01

    Sexual dimorphism and supplementation studies suggest an important role for estrogens in the amelioration of glucose intolerance and diabetes. Because little is known regarding the signaling mechanisms involved in estradiol-mediated insulin secretion, we investigated the role of the G protein-coupled receptor 30, now designated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), in activating signal transduction cascades in β-cells, leading to secretion of insulin. GPER function in estradiol-induced signaling in the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 was assessed using small interfering RNA and GPER-selective ligands (G-1 and G15) and in islets isolated from wild-type and GPER knockout mice. GPER is expressed in MIN6 cells, where estradiol and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 mediate calcium mobilization and activation of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Both estradiol and G-1 induced insulin secretion under low- and high-glucose conditions, which was inhibited by pretreatment with GPER antagonist G15 as well as depletion of GPER by small interfering RNA. Insulin secretion in response to estradiol and G-1 was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK activation and further modulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. In islets isolated from wild-type mice, the GPER antagonist G15 inhibited insulin secretion induced by estradiol and G-1, both of which failed to induce insulin secretion in islets obtained from GPER knockout mice. Our results indicate that GPER activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK in response to estradiol treatment plays a critical role in the secretion of insulin from β-cells. The results of this study suggest that the activation of downstream signaling pathways by the GPER-selective ligand G-1 could represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of diabetes.

  3. Mechanisms of Estradiol-Induced Insulin Secretion by the G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor GPR30/GPER in Pancreatic β-Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Geetanjali

    2011-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism and supplementation studies suggest an important role for estrogens in the amelioration of glucose intolerance and diabetes. Because little is known regarding the signaling mechanisms involved in estradiol-mediated insulin secretion, we investigated the role of the G protein-coupled receptor 30, now designated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), in activating signal transduction cascades in β-cells, leading to secretion of insulin. GPER function in estradiol-induced signaling in the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 was assessed using small interfering RNA and GPER-selective ligands (G-1 and G15) and in islets isolated from wild-type and GPER knockout mice. GPER is expressed in MIN6 cells, where estradiol and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 mediate calcium mobilization and activation of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Both estradiol and G-1 induced insulin secretion under low- and high-glucose conditions, which was inhibited by pretreatment with GPER antagonist G15 as well as depletion of GPER by small interfering RNA. Insulin secretion in response to estradiol and G-1 was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK activation and further modulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. In islets isolated from wild-type mice, the GPER antagonist G15 inhibited insulin secretion induced by estradiol and G-1, both of which failed to induce insulin secretion in islets obtained from GPER knockout mice. Our results indicate that GPER activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK in response to estradiol treatment plays a critical role in the secretion of insulin from β-cells. The results of this study suggest that the activation of downstream signaling pathways by the GPER-selective ligand G-1 could represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:21673097

  4. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Gary W; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K

    2011-11-11

    Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with (31)P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by (13)C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-(13)C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM was found to be congruous with the correlation in KRB. Together, these results suggest that signaling mechanisms associated with both TCA cycle flux and with anaplerotic flux, but not ATP production, may be responsible for the enhanced rates of insulin secretion in more complex, and physiologically-relevant media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  5. GPR142 Controls Tryptophan-Induced Insulin and Incretin Hormone Secretion to Improve Glucose Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hua V.; Efanov, Alexander M.; Fang, Xiankang; Beavers, Lisa S.; Wang, Xuesong; Wang, Jingru; Gonzalez Valcarcel, Isabel C.; Ma, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    GPR142, a putative amino acid receptor, is expressed in pancreatic islets and the gastrointestinal tract, but the ligand affinity and physiological role of this receptor remain obscure. In this study, we show that in addition to L-Tryptophan, GPR142 signaling is also activated by L-Phenylalanine but not by other naturally occurring amino acids. Furthermore, we show that Tryptophan and a synthetic GPR142 agonist increase insulin and incretin hormones and improve glucose disposal in mice in a G...

  6. Impact of taurine depletion on glucose control and insulin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Ito, Hiromi; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Taurine, an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in mammalian tissue, and its tissue content is altered by diet, disease and aging. The effectiveness of taurine administration against obesity and its related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, has been well documented. However, the impact of taurine depletion on glucose metabolism and fat deposition has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine depletion (in the taurine transporter (TauT) knockout mouse model) on blood glucose control and high fat diet-induced obesity. TauT-knockout (TauTKO) mice exhibited lower body weight and abdominal fat mass when maintained on normal chow than wild-type (WT) mice. Blood glucose disposal after an intraperitoneal glucose injection was faster in TauTKO mice than in WT mice despite lower serum insulin levels. Islet beta-cells (insulin positive area) were also decreased in TauTKO mice compared to WT mice. Meanwhile, overnutrition by high fat (60% fat)-diet could lead to obesity in TauTKO mice despite lower body weight under normal chow diet condition, indicating nutrition in normal diet is not enough for TauTKO mice to maintain body weight comparable to WT mice. In conclusion, taurine depletion causes enhanced glucose disposal despite lowering insulin levels and lower body weight, implying deterioration in tissue energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another ou...

  8. The amino acid transporters of the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle and their impact on insulin and glucagon secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eJenstad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular communication is pivotal in optimising and synchronising cellular responses to keep internal homeostasis and to respond adequately to external stimuli. In the central nervous system (CNS, glutamatergic and GABAergic signals are postulated to be dependent on the glutamate/GABA-glutamine (GGG cycle for vesicular loading of neurotransmitters, for inactivating the signal and for the replenishment of the neurotransmitters. Islets of Langerhans release the hormones insulin and glucagon, but share similarities with CNS cells in for example transcriptional control of development and differentiation, and chromatin methylation. Interestingly, proteins involved in the CNS in secretion of the neurotransmitters and emitting their responses as well as the regulation of these processes, are also found in islet cells. Moreover, high levels of glutamate, GABA and glutamine and their respective vesicular and plasma membrane transporters have been shown in the islet cells and there is emerging support for these amino acids and their transporters playing important roles in the maturation and secretion of insulin and glucagon. In this review, we will discuss the feasibility of recent data in the field in relation to the biophysical properties of the transporters (Slc1, Slc17, Slc32 and Slc38 and physiology of hormone secretion in islets of Langerhans.

  9. Immediate enhancement of first-phase insulin secretion and unchanged glucose effectiveness in patients with type 2 diabetes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Christoffer; Bojsen-Moller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    effectiveness with Bergman's minimal model. In the fasting state, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-S and β-cell function by HOMA-β. Moreover, mixed meal tests and OGTTs were performed. In patients with type 2 diabetes, glucose levels normalized after RYGB, first-phase insulin secretion in response...... to iv glucose increased two-fold and HOMA-β improved already 1 week postoperatively, with further enhancements at 3 months. Insulin sensitivity increased in the liver (HOMA-S) at 1 week and at 3 months in peripheral tissues (Si), whereas glucose effectiveness did not improve significantly. During oral...... first-phase insulin secretion to iv glucose and increased HOMA-β. A major role for improved glucose effectiveness after RYGB was not supported by this study....

  10. A New Method for Generating Insulin-Secreting Cells from Human Pancreatic Epithelial Cells After Islet Isolation Transformed by NeuroD1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Chen, Shuyuan; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Takita, Morihito; Sugimoto, Koji; Itoh, Takeshi; Chujo, Daisuke; Iwahashi, Shuichi; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The generation of insulin-secreting cells from nonendocrine pancreatic epithelial cells (NEPEC) has been demonstrated for potential clinical use in the treatment of diabetes. However, previous methods either had limited efficacy or required viral vectors, which hinder clinical application. In this study, we aimed to establish an efficient method of insulin-secreting cell generation from NEPEC without viral vectors. We used nonislet fractions from both research-grade human pancreata from brain-dead donors and clinical pancreata after total pancreatectomy with autologous islet transplantation to treat chronic pancreatitis. It is of note that a few islets could be mingled in the nonislet fractions, but their influence could be limited. The NeuroD1 gene was induced into NEPEC using an effective triple lipofection method without viral vectors to generate insulin-secreting cells. The differentiation was promoted by adding a growth factor cocktail into the culture medium. Using the research-grade human pancreata, the effective method showed high efficacy in the differentiation of NEPEC into insulin-positive cells that secreted insulin in response to a glucose challenge and improved diabetes after being transplanted into diabetic athymic mice. Using the clinical pancreata, similar efficacy was obtained, even though those pancreata suffered chronic pancreatitis. In conclusion, our effective differentiation protocol with triple lipofection method enabled us to achieve very efficient insulin-secreting cell generation from human NEPEC without viral vectors. This method offers the potential for supplemental insulin-secreting cell transplantation for both allogeneic and autologous islet transplantation. PMID:24845703

  11. High Serum Advanced Glycation End Products Are Associated with Decreased Insulin Secretion in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Okura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are important in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. They directly cause insulin secretory defects in animal and cell culture models and may promote insulin resistance in nondiabetic subjects. We have developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for measuring AGEs in human serum. Here, we use this method to investigate the relationship between AGEs and insulin secretion and resistance in patients with T2DM. Methods. Our study involved 15 participants with T2DM not on medication and 20 nondiabetic healthy participants. We measured the AGE carboxyethyllysine (CEL, carboxymethyllysine (CML, and methyl-glyoxal-hydro-imidazolone (MG-H1. Plasma glucose and insulin were measured in these participants during a meal tolerance test, and the glucose disposal rate was measured during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Results. CML and CEL levels were significantly higher in T2DM than non-DM participants. CML showed a significant negative correlation with insulin secretion, HOMA-%B, and a significant positive correlation with the insulin sensitivity index in T2DM participants. There was no correlation between any of the AGEs measured and glucose disposal rate. Conclusions. These results suggest that AGE might play a role in the development or prediction of insulin secretory defects in type 2 diabetes.

  12. Corydalis edulis Maxim. Promotes Insulin Secretion via the Activation of Protein Kinase Cs (PKCs) in Mice and Pancreatic β Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiao; Zhao, Yunfang; Lun, Qixing; Song, Yuelin; Shi, Shepo; Gu, Xiaopan; Pan, Bo; Qu, Changhai; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2017-01-16

    Corydalis edulis Maxim., a widely grown plant in China, had been proposed for the treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we found that C. edulis extract (CE) is protective against diabetes in mice. The treatment of hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice with a high dose of CE reduced serum glucose by 28.84% and serum total cholesterol by 17.34% and increased insulin release. We also found that CE significantly enhanced insulin secretion in a glucose-independent manner in hamster pancreatic β cell (HIT-T15). Further investigation revealed that CE stimulated insulin exocytosis by a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent signaling pathway and that CE selectively activated novel protein kinase Cs (nPKCs) and atypical PKCs (aPKCs) but not conventional PKCs (cPKCs) in HIT-T15 cells. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to identify the PKC pathway as a direct target and one of the major mechanisms underlying the antidiabetic effect of CE. Given the good insulinotropic effect of this herbal medicine, CE is a promising agent for the development of new drugs for treating diabetes.

  13. Shared Genetic Control of Brain Activity During Sleep and Insulin Secretion: A Laboratory-Based Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Gamazon, Eric R; Tasali, Esra; Cox, Nancy J; Van Cauter, Eve; Davis, Lea K

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a large body of experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked sleep duration and quality to glucose homeostasis, although the mechanistic pathways remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether genetic variation influencing both sleep and glucose regulation could underlie their functional relationship. We hypothesized that the genetic regulation of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep, a highly heritable trait with fingerprint reproducibility, is correlated with the genetic control of metabolic traits including insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. We tested our hypotheses through univariate and bivariate heritability analyses in a three-generation pedigree with in-depth phenotyping of both sleep EEG and metabolic traits in 48 family members. Our analyses accounted for age, sex, adiposity, and the use of psychoactive medications. In univariate analyses, we found significant heritability for measures of fasting insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, for time spent in slow-wave sleep, and for EEG spectral power in the delta, theta, and sigma ranges. Bivariate heritability analyses provided the first evidence for a shared genetic control of brain activity during deep sleep and fasting insulin secretion rate. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. DHEA supplementation in ovariectomized rats reduces impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion induced by a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Veras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S are steroids produced mainly by the adrenal cortex. There is evidence from both human and animal models suggesting beneficial effects of these steroids for obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and osteoporosis, conditions associated with the post-menopausal period. Accordingly, we hypothesized that DHEA supplementation in ovariectomized (OVX female rats fed a high-fat diet would maintain glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS and pancreatic islet function. OVX resulted in a 30% enlargement of the pancreatic islets area compared to the control rats, which was accompanied by a 50% reduction in the phosphorylation of AKT protein in the pancreatic islets. However, a short-term high-fat diet induced insulin resistance, accompanied by impaired GSIS in isolated pancreatic islets. These effects were reversed by DHEA treatment, with improved insulin sensitivity to levels similar to the control group, and with increased serine phosphorylation of the AKT protein. These data confirm the protective effect of DHEA on the endocrine pancreas in a situation of diet-induced overweight and low estrogen concentrations, a phenotype similar to that of the post-menopausal period.

  15. Disruption of KEX1 gene reduces the proteolytic degradation of secreted two-chain Insulin glargine in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Suma; Krishnaiah, Sateesh M; Shyam Mohan, Anil H; Mallikarjun, Niveditha; Govindappa, Nagaraja; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Sastry, Kedarnath N

    2016-02-01

    Insulin glargine is a slow acting analog of insulin used in diabetes therapy. It is produced by recombinant DNA technology in different hosts namely E. coli and Pichia pastoris. In our previous study, we have described the secretion of fully folded two-chain Insulin glargine into the medium by over-expression of Kex2 protease. The enhanced levels of the Kex2 protease was responsible for the processing of the glargine precursor with in the host. Apart from the two-chain glargine product we observed a small proportion of arginine clipped species. This might be due to the clipping of arginine present at the C-terminus of the B-chain as it is exposed upon Kex2 cleavage. The carboxypeptidase precursor Kex1 is known to be responsible for clipping of C-terminal lysine or arginine of the proteins or peptides. In order to address this issue we created a Kex1 knock out in the host using Cre/loxP mechanism of targeted gene deletion. When two-chain glargine was expressed in the Kex1 knock out host of P. pastoris GS115 the C-terminal clipped species reduced by ∼80%. This modification further improved the process by reducing the levels of product related impurities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Insulin hypersecretion together with high luteinizing hormone concentration augments androgen secretion in oral glucose tolerance test in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Jaatinen, T A; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1993-08-01

    Female hyperandrogenism is often associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. We evaluated the hormone responses in an oral glucose tolerance test to investigate the interactions of gonadotrophins, insulin, C-peptide and androgens in women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). In 28 patients with ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance were mainly associated with obesity. Both basal and cumulative sum of insulin to C-peptide ratios were high in obese subjects, suggesting decreasing hepatic removal of insulin caused by obesity. Nevertheless, in some lean PCOD women, despite normal fasting insulin concentrations, insulin hypersecretion existed. The mean concentration of testosterone decreased significantly during the oral glucose tolerance test both in PCOD and control women, and of androstenedione in the PCOD patients only. However, an increase in androgen responses was found in a subgroup of PCOD patients, who had both elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hyperinsulinaemic response to oral glucose. In the remaining PCOD patients an inverse correlation between LH and insulin was found. The patients with hyperinsulinaemia together with LH hypersecretion may represent a subgroup of PCOD with deranged regulation of androgen secretion.

  17. Giving an insulin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand. The bubbles will float to the top. Push the bubbles back into the insulin bottle, then pull back to ... hand. The bubbles will float to the top. Push the bubbles back into the insulin bottle, then pull back to ...

  18. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Baby is Born Monogenic Diabetes Insulin Resistance & Prediabetes Insulin resistance and prediabetes occur when your body ... will stay in the healthy range. What is prediabetes? Prediabetes means your blood glucose levels are higher ...

  19. Integrative analysis of a cross-loci regulation network identifies App as a gene regulating insulin secretion from pancreatic islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhidong Tu

    Full Text Available Complex diseases result from molecular changes induced by multiple genetic factors and the environment. To derive a systems view of how genetic loci interact in the context of tissue-specific molecular networks, we constructed an F2 intercross comprised of >500 mice from diabetes-resistant (B6 and diabetes-susceptible (BTBR mouse strains made genetically obese by the Leptin(ob/ob mutation (Lep(ob. High-density genotypes, diabetes-related clinical traits, and whole-transcriptome expression profiling in five tissues (white adipose, liver, pancreatic islets, hypothalamus, and gastrocnemius muscle were determined for all mice. We performed an integrative analysis to investigate the inter-relationship among genetic factors, expression traits, and plasma insulin, a hallmark diabetes trait. Among five tissues under study, there are extensive protein-protein interactions between genes responding to different loci in adipose and pancreatic islets that potentially jointly participated in the regulation of plasma insulin. We developed a novel ranking scheme based on cross-loci protein-protein network topology and gene expression to assess each gene's potential to regulate plasma insulin. Unique candidate genes were identified in adipose tissue and islets. In islets, the Alzheimer's gene App was identified as a top candidate regulator. Islets from 17-week-old, but not 10-week-old, App knockout mice showed increased insulin secretion in response to glucose or a membrane-permeant cAMP analog, in agreement with the predictions of the network model. Our result provides a novel hypothesis on the mechanism for the connection between two aging-related diseases: Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes.

  20. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and α-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin

  1. Classifying insulin regimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neu, A; Lange, K; Barrett, T

    2015-01-01

    Modern insulin regimens for the treatment of type 1 diabetes are highly individualized. The concept of an individually tailored medicine accounts for a broad variety of different insulin regimens applied. Despite clear recommendations for insulin management in children and adolescents with type 1...

  2. Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance, a state characterized by impaired responsiveness of liver, muscle and adipose tissue to insulin. One class of lipids involved in the development of insulin resistance are the (glyco)sphingolipids. Ceramide, the most simple

  3. The level of menadione redox-cycling in pancreatic β-cells is proportional to the glucose concentration: role of NADH and consequences for insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart, Emma; Palo, Meridith; Womack, Trayce; Smith, Peter J S; Gray, Joshua P

    2012-01-15

    Pancreatic β-cells release insulin in response to elevation of glucose from basal (4-7mM) to stimulatory (8-16mM) levels. Metabolism of glucose by the β-cell results in the production of low levels of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), a newly recognized coupling factor linking glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. However, high and toxic levels of H(2)O(2) inhibit insulin secretion. Menadione, which produces H(2)O(2) via redox cycling mechanism in a dose-dependent manner, was investigated for its effect on β-cell metabolism and insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13, a rat β-cell insulinoma cell line, and primary rodent islets. Menadione-dependent redox cycling and resulting H(2)O(2) production under stimulatory glucose exceeded several-fold those reached at basal glucose. This was paralleled by a differential effect of menadione (0.1-10μM) on insulin secretion, which was enhanced at basal, but inhibited at stimulatory glucose. Redox cycling of menadione and H(2)O(2) formation was dependent on glycolytically-derived NADH, as inhibition of glycolysis and application of non-glycogenic insulin secretagogues did not support redox cycling. In addition, activity of plasma membrane electron transport, a system dependent in part on glycolytically-derived NADH, was also inhibited by menadione. Menadione-dependent redox cycling was sensitive to the NQO1 inhibitor dicoumarol and the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, suggesting a role for NQO1 and other oxidoreductases in this process. These data may explain the apparent dichotomy between the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H(2)O(2) and menadione on insulin secretion. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Insulin signaling pathways in lepidopteran steroidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy eSmith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Molting and metamorphosis are stimulated by the secretion of ecdysteroid hormones from the prothoracic glands. Insulin-like hormones have been found to enhance prothoracic gland activity, providing a mechanism to link molting to nutritional state. In silk moths (Bombyx mori, the prothoracic glands are directly stimulated by insulin and the insulin-like hormone bombyxin. Further, in Bombyx , the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH appears to act at least in part through the insulin-signaling pathway. In the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta, while insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, neither insulin nor bombyxin II stimulate ecdysone secretion. Involvement of the insulin-signaling pathway in Manduca prothoracic glands was explored using two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, LY294002 and wortmannin. PI3K inhibitors block the phosphorylation of Akt and 4EBP but have no effect on ecdysone secretion, or on the phosphorylation of the MAPkinase, ERK. Inhibitors that block phosphorylation of ERK, including the MEK inhibitor U0126, and high doses of the RSK inhibitor SL0101, effectively inhibit ecdysone secretion. The results highlight differences between the two lepidopteran insects most commonly used to directly study ecdysteroid secretion. In Bombyx, the PTTH and insulin-signaling pathways intersect; both insulin and PTTH enhance the phosphorylation of Akt and stimulate ecdysteroid secretion, and inhibition of PI3K reduces ecdysteroid secretion. By contrast, in Manduca, the action of PTTH is distinct from insulin. The results highlight species differences in the roles of translational regulators such as 4EBP, and members of the MAPkinase pathway such as ERK and RSK, in the effects of nutritionally-sensitive hormones such as insulin on ecdysone secretion and molting.

  5. Insulin structure and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Langkjoer, L

    1993-01-01

    Insulin is composed of 51 amino acids in two peptide chains (A and B) linked by two disulfide bonds. The three-dimensional structure of the insulin molecule (insulin monomer), essentially the same in solution and in solid phase, exists in two main conformations. These differ in the extent of helix in the B chain which is governed by the presence of phenol or its derivatives. In acid and neutral solutions, in concentrations relevant for pharmaceutical formulation, the insulin monomer assembles to dimers and at neutral pH, in the presence of zinc ions, further to hexamers. Many crystalline modifications of insulin have been identified but only those with the hexamer as the basic unit are utilized in preparations for therapy. The insulin hexamer forms a relatively stable unit but some flexibility remains within the individual molecules. The intrinsic flexibility at the ends of the B chain plays an important role in governing the physical and chemical stability of insulin. A variety of chemical changes of the primary structure (yielding insulin derivatives), and physical modifications of the secondary to quaternary structures (resulting in "denaturation," aggregation, and precipitation) are known to affect insulin and insulin preparations during storage and use (Fig. 8). The tendency of insulin to undergo structural transformation resulting in aggregation and formation of insoluble insulin fibrils has been one of the most intriguing and widely studied phenomena in relation to insulin stability. Although the exact mechanism of fibril formation is still obscure, it is now clear that the initial step is an exposure of certain hydrophobic residues, normally buried in the three-dimensional structure, to the surface of the insulin monomer. This requires displacement of the COOH-terminal B-chain residues from their normal position which can only be accomplished via monomerization of the insulin. Therefore, most methods stabilizing insulin against fibrillation share the

  6. Unprecedented high insulin secretion in a healthy human subject after intravenous glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Lund, Asger; Madsbad, Sten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gut-derived incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, are released in response to ingestion of nutrients. Both hormones are highly insulinotropic in strictly glucose-dependent fashions and glucagon-like peptide-1 is often referred...... to as one of the most insulinotropic substances known. CASE PRESENTATION: Plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured in a healthy Caucasian male (age: 53 years; body mass index: 28.6 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose: 5.7 mM; 2 h plasma glucose value following 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test: 3...

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin in pancreatic islets of horses with and without insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Kim M; Ehrensing, Gordon; Odoi, Agricola; Boston, Raymond C; Frank, Nicholas

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin expression within pancreatic islets of horses with and without insulin resistance. ANIMALS 10 insulin-resistant horses and 13 insulin-sensitive horses. PROCEDURES For each horse, food was withheld for at least 10 hours before a blood sample was collected for determination of serum insulin concentration. Horses with a serum insulin concentration horses with a serum insulin concentration > 20 μU/mL underwent a frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test to determine sensitivity to insulin by minimal model analysis. Horses with a sensitivity to insulin horses were euthanized with a barbiturate overdose, and pancreatic specimens were harvested and immunohistochemically stained for determination of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin expression in pancreatic islets. Islet hormone expression was compared between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive horses. RESULTS Cells expressing insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin made up approximately 62%, 12%, and 7%, respectively, of pancreatic islet cells in insulin-resistant horses and 64%, 18%, and 9%, respectively, of pancreatic islet cells in insulin-sensitive horses. Expression of insulin and somatostatin did not differ between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive horses, but the median percentage of glucagon-expressing cells in the islets of insulin-resistant horses was significantly less than that in insulin-sensitive horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, in insulin-resistant horses, insulin secretion was not increased but glucagon production might be downregulated as a compensatory response to hyperinsulinemia.

  8. Effect of taurine on the insuline secretion isolated by the pancreatic tissue of intact and irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshina, G.A.; Silaeva, T.Yu.

    1976-01-01

    The whole-body irradiation of rats (700 rads) inhibits the secretory activity of insular pancreatic tissue. Administration of taurine (200 mg/kg), on the fifth day after irradiation, five times every second day normalizes the secretory function of pancreatic islands. In the experiments in vitro, taurine (1.5 and 3.0 mg/ml) stimulated hormone secretion. The stimulating action of the amino acid manifests itself when β-receptors are blocked by obsidane (0.5 μg/ml). It is suggested that insuline secretion by β-cells of pancreas is restored and enhanced by taurine not merely through the adenylatecyclase system; other ways are also possible

  9. Effect of taurine on the insuline secretion isolated by the pancreatic tissue of intact and irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokshina, G A; Silaeva, T Yu [Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Biologii i Biofiziki

    1976-05-01

    The whole-body irradiation of rats (700 rads) inhibits the secretory activity of insular pancreatic tissue. Administration of taurine (200 mg/kg), on the fifth day after irradiation, five times every second day normalizes the secretory function of pancreatic islands. In the experiments in vitro, taurine (1.5 and 3.0 mg/ml) stimulated hormone secretion. The stimulating action of the amino acid manifests itself when ..beta..-receptors are blocked by obsidane (0.5 ..mu..g/ml). It is suggested that insuline secretion by ..beta..-cells of pancreas is restored and enhanced by taurine not merely through the adenylatecyclase system; other ways are also possible.

  10. M19 modulates skeletal muscle differentiation and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells through modulation of respiratory chain activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Cambier

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction due to nuclear or mitochondrial DNA alterations contributes to multiple diseases such as metabolic myopathies, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes and cancer. Nevertheless, to date, only half of the estimated 1,500 mitochondrial proteins has been identified, and the function of most of these proteins remains to be determined. Here, we characterize the function of M19, a novel mitochondrial nucleoid protein, in muscle and pancreatic β-cells. We have identified a 13-long amino acid sequence located at the N-terminus of M19 that targets the protein to mitochondria. Furthermore, using RNA interference and over-expression strategies, we demonstrate that M19 modulates mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP production, and could therefore regulate the respiratory chain activity. In an effort to determine whether M19 could play a role in the regulation of various cell activities, we show that this nucleoid protein, probably through its modulation of mitochondrial ATP production, acts on late muscle differentiation in myogenic C2C12 cells, and plays a permissive role on insulin secretion under basal glucose conditions in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells. Our results are therefore establishing a functional link between a mitochondrial nucleoid protein and the modulation of respiratory chain activities leading to the regulation of major cellular processes such as myogenesis and insulin secretion.

  11. Alkali pH directly activates ATP-sensitive K+ channels and inhibits insulin secretion in beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; Karaman, Gunce; Wheeler, Michael B

    2006-11-17

    Glucose stimulation of pancreatic beta-cells is reported to lead to sustained alkalization, while extracellular application of weak bases is reported to inhibit electrical activity and decrease insulin secretion. We hypothesize that beta-cell K(ATP) channel activity is modulated by alkaline pH. Using the excised patch-clamp technique, we demonstrate a direct stimulatory action of alkali pH on recombinant SUR1/Kir6.2 channels due to increased open probability. Bath application of alkali pH similarly activates native islet beta-cell K(ATP) channels, leading to an inhibition of action potentials, and hyperpolarization of membrane potential. In situ pancreatic perfusion confirms that these cellular effects of alkali pH are observable at a functional level, resulting in decreases in both phase 1 and phase 2 glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our data are the first to report a stimulatory effect of a range of alkali pH on K(ATP) channel activity and link this to downstream effects on islet beta-cell function.

  12. Reevaluation of Fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) as drug target for the stimulation of insulin secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Robert; Kaiser, Gabriele; Gerst, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The role of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) in glucose homeostasis is still incompletely understood. Small receptor agonists stimulating insulin secretion are under investigation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, genome-wide association studies did not discover diabetes...... risk variants in FFAR1. We reevaluated the role of FFAR1 in insulin secretion using a specific agonist, FFAR1-knockout mice and human islets. Nondiabetic individuals were metabolically phenotyped and genotyped. In vitro experiments indicated that palmitate and a specific FFAR1-agonist, TUG-469......, stimulate glucose-induced insulin secretion through FFAR1. The pro-apoptotic effect of chronic exposure of beta-cells to palmitate was independent of FFAR1. TUG-469 was protective, while inhibition of FFAR1 promoted apoptosis. In accordance with the pro-apoptotic effect of palmitate, in vivo crosssectional...

  13. Overexpression of the ped/pea-15 Gene Causes Diabetes by Impairing Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Addition to Insulin Action

    OpenAIRE

    Vigliotta, Giovanni; Miele, Claudia; Santopietro, Stefania; Portella, Giuseppe; Perfetti, Anna; Maitan, Maria Alessandra; Cassese, Angela; Oriente, Francesco; Trencia, Alessandra; Fiory, Francesca; Romano, Chiara; Tiveron, Cecilia; Tatangelo, Laura; Troncone, Giancarlo; Formisano, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    Overexpression of the ped/pea-15 gene is a common feature of type 2 diabetes. In the present work, we show that transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing ped/pea-15 exhibited mildly elevated random-fed blood glucose levels and decreased glucose tolerance. Treatment with a 60% fat diet led ped/pea-15 transgenic mice to develop diabetes. Consistent with insulin resistance in these mice, insulin administration reduced glucose levels by only 35% after 45 min, compared to 70% in control mice. In...

  14. Insulin and the Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Suchita; Prakash, Y S; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-01-01

    , molecular understanding is necessary. Insulin resistance is a strong, independent risk factor for asthma development, but it is unknown whether a direct effect of insulin on the lung is involved. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the effect of insulin on cellular components of the lung...... and highlights the molecular consequences of insulin-related metabolic signaling cascades that could adversely affect lung structure and function. Examples include airway smooth muscle proliferation and contractility and regulatory signaling networks that are associated with asthma. These aspects of insulin...

  15. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributes to Impaired Insulin Secretion in INS-1 Cells with Dominant-negative Mutations of HNF-1α and in HNF-1α-deficient Islets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Kibbey, Richard G.; Kirkpatrick, Clare L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Pontoglio, Marco; Yaniv, Moshe; Wollheim, Claes B.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Cline, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young-type 3 (MODY-3) has been linked to mutations in the transcription factor hepatic nuclear factor (HNF)-1α, resulting in deficiency in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In INS-1 cells overexpressing doxycycline-inducible HNF-1α dominant-negative (DN-) gene mutations, and islets from Hnf-1α knock-out mice, insulin secretion was impaired in response to glucose (15 mm) and other nutrient secretagogues. Decreased rates of insulin secretion in response to glutamine plus leucine and to methyl pyruvate, but not potassium depolarization, indicate defects specific to mitochondrial metabolism. To identify the biochemical mechanisms responsible for impaired insulin secretion, we used 31P NMR measured mitochondrial ATP synthesis (distinct from glycolytic ATP synthesis) together with oxygen consumption measurements to determine the efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial uncoupling was significantly higher in DN-HNF-1α cells, such that rates of ATP synthesis were decreased by approximately one-half in response to the secretagogues glucose, glutamine plus leucine, or pyruvate. In addition to closure of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels with mitochondrial ATP synthesis, mitochondrial production of second messengers through increased anaplerotic flux has been shown to be critical for coupling metabolism to insulin secretion. 13C-Isotopomer analysis and tandem mass spectrometry measurement of Krebs cycle intermediates revealed a negative impact of DN-HNF-1α and Hnf-1α knock-out on mitochondrial second messenger production with glucose but not amino acids. Taken together, these results indicate that, in addition to reduced glycolytic flux, uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation contributes to impaired nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion with either mutations or loss of HNF-1α. PMID:19376774

  16. Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cell Islets from Male Rats Requires Ca2+ Release via ROS-Stimulated Ryanodine Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Llanos

    Full Text Available Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS from pancreatic β-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]. Glucose uptake into β-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in β-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated β-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that β-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of β-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated β-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose to β-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS.

  17. Insulin aspart in diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2008-01-01

    in insulin requirements during pregnancy necessitate short-acting insulins for postprandial control of hyperglycemia. The fast-acting insulin analogue insulin aspart has been tested in a large, randomized trial of pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes and offers benefits in control of postprandial...... hyperglycemia with a tendency towards fewer episodes of severe hypoglycemia compared with human insulin. Treatment with insulin aspart was associated with a tendency toward fewer fetal losses and preterm deliveries than treatment with human insulin. Insulin aspart could not be detected in the fetal circulation...... and no increase in insulin antibodies was found. Thus, the use of insulin aspart in pregnancy is regarded safe....

  18. Metformin and insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneri, R.; Gullo, D.; Pezzino, V.

    1984-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of metformin (N,N-dimethylbiguanide), a biguanide known to be less toxic than phenformin, on insulin binding to its receptors, both in vitro and in vivo. Specific 125 I-insulin binding to cultured IM-9 human lymphocytes and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was determined after preincubation with metformin. Specific 125 I-insulin binding to circulating monocytes was also evaluated in six controls, eight obese subjects, and six obese type II diabetic patients before and after a short-term treatment with metformin. Plasma insulin levels and blood glucose were also measured on both occasions. Metformin significantly increased insulin binding in vitro to both IM-9 lymphocytes and MCF-7 cells; the maximum increment was 47.1% and 38.0%, respectively. Metformin treatment significantly increased insulin binding in vivo to monocytes of obese subjects and diabetic patients. Scatchard analysis indicated that the increased binding was mainly due to an increase in receptor capacity. Insulin binding to monocytes of normal controls was unchanged after metformin as were insulin levels in all groups; blood glucose was significantly reduced after metformin only in diabetic patients. These data indicate that metformin increases insulin binding to its receptors in vitro and in vivo. The effect in vivo is observed in obese subjects and in obese type II diabetic patients, paralleling the clinical effectiveness of this antidiabetic agent, and is not due to receptor regulation by circulating insulin, since no variation in insulin levels was recorded

  19. Toward understanding insulin fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Andersen, L; Laursen, E D; Meyn, G; Rasmussen, E

    1997-05-01

    Formation of insulin fibrils is a physical process by which partially unfolded insulin molecules interact with each other to form linear aggregates. Shielding of hydrophobic domains is the main driving force for this process, but formation of intermolecular beta-sheet may further stabilize the fibrillar structure. Conformational displacement of the B-chain C-terminal with exposure of nonpolar, aliphatic core residues, including A2, A3, B11, and B15, plays a crucial role in the fibrillation process. Recent crystal analyses and molecular modeling studies have suggested that when insulin fibrillates this exposed domain interacts with a hydrophobic surface domain formed by the aliphatic residues A13, B6, B14, B17, and B18, normally buried when three insulin dimers form a hexamer. In rabbit immunization experiments, insulin fibrils did not elicit an increased immune response with respect to formation of IgG insulin antibodies when compared with native insulin. In contrast, the IgE response increased with increasing content of insulin in fibrillar form. Strategies and practical approaches to prevent insulin from forming fibrils are reviewed. Stabilization of the insulin hexameric structure and blockage of hydrophobic interfaces by addition of surfactants are the most effective means of counteracting insulin fibrillation.

  20. Sex-specific effects of naturally occurring variants in the dopamine receptor D2 locus on insulin secretion and Type 2 diabetes susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guigas, B; de Leeuw van Weenen, J E; van Leeuwen, N

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Modulation of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) activity affects insulin secretion in both rodents and isolated pancreatic β-cells. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DRD2/ANKK1 locus may affect susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes in humans. METHODS: Four potentially....... In addition, 340 Dutch subjects underwent a 2-h hyperglycaemic clamp to investigate insulin secretion. Since sexual dimorphic associations related to DRD2 polymorphisms have been previously reported, we also performed a gender-stratified analysis. RESULTS: rs1800497 at the DRD2/ANKK1 locus was associated...

  1. Vitamin D supplementation has no effect on insulin sensitivity or secretion in vitamin D-deficient, overweight or obese adults: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Aya; Naderpoor, Negar; de Courten, Maximilian Pj; Teede, Helena; Kellow, Nicole; Walker, Karen; Scragg, Robert; de Courten, Barbora

    2017-06-01

    Background: Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a potential strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes. Existing clinical trials have been limited by short duration, low doses of vitamin D, variability in participants' vitamin D-deficiency status, and the use of surrogate measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Objective: To address existing knowledge gaps, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation that is provided in a sufficient dose and duration to vitamin D-deficient individuals would improve insulin sensitivity or secretion as measured with the use of gold-standard methods. We hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation would improve insulin sensitivity and secretion compared with placebo. Design: Sixty-five overweight or obese, vitamin D-deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration ≤50 nmol/L) adults were randomly assigned to receive either a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU cholecalciferol followed by 4000 IU cholecalciferol/d or a matching placebo for 16 wk. Before and after the intervention, participants received gold-standard assessments of body composition (via dual X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (via hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps), and insulin secretion [via intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests (IVGTTs)]. Results: Fifty-four participants completed the study [35 men and 19 women; mean ± SD age: 31.9 ± 8.5 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 30.9 ± 4.4]. 25(OH)D increased with vitamin D supplementation compared with placebo (57.0 ± 21.3 compared with 1.9 ± 15.1 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.02). Vitamin D and placebo groups did not differ in change in insulin sensitivity (0.02 ± 2.0 compared with -0.03 ± 2.8 mg · kg -1 · min -1 , respectively; P = 0.9) or first-phase insulin secretion (-21 ± 212 compared with 24 ± 184 mU/L, respectively; P = 0.9). Results remained nonsignificant after adjustment for age, sex

  2. Meal composition affects insulin secretion in women with type 2 diabetes: a comparison with healthy controls. The Hoorn prandial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alssema, M; Schindhelm, R K; Rijkelijkhuizen, J M; Kostense, P J; Teerlink, T; Nijpels, G; Heine, R J; Dekker, J M

    2009-03-01

    Early insulin secretion following a meal is representative for normal physiology and may depend on meal composition. To compare the effects of a fat-rich and a carbohydrate-rich mixed meal on insulinogenic index as a measure of early insulin secretion in normoglycemic women (NGM) and in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and to assess the relationship of anthropometric and metabolic factors with insulinogenic index. Postmenopausal women, 76 with NGM and 64 with DM2, received a fat-rich meal and a carbohydrate-rich meal on separate occasions. Early insulin response was estimated as insulinogenic index ( big up tri, Deltainsulin(0-30 min)/ big up tri, Deltaglucose(0-30 min)) for each meal. Associations of fasting and postprandial triglycerides, body mass index, waist and hip circumference and alanine aminotransferase with insulinogenic indices were determined. Women with NGM present with higher insulinogenic index than women with DM2. The insulinogenic index following the fat-rich meal ( big up tri, DeltaI(30)/ big up tri, DeltaG(30) (fat)) was higher than the index following the carbohydrate-rich meal (big up tri, DeltaI(30)/ big up tri, DeltaG(30) (CH)) (Pwomen with DM2, and not significant in women with NGM). In women with DM2, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was positively associated with big up tri, DeltaI(30)/ big up tri, DeltaG(30) (CH). In women with NGM, waist circumference was independently and inversely associated with big up tri, DeltaI(30)/ big up tri, DeltaG(30) (fat) and with big up tri, DeltaI(30)/ big up tri, DeltaG(30) (CH); hip circumference was positively associated with big up tri, DeltaI(30)/ big up tri, DeltaG(30) (fat). The insulinogenic index following the fat-rich meal was higher than following the isocaloric carbohydrate-rich meal, which might favorably affect postprandial glucose excursions, especially in women with DM2. The association between a larger waist circumference and a lower meal-induced insulinogenic

  3. 1,5-anhydroglucitol is associated with early-phase insulin secretion in chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojing; Hao, Yaping; Hu, Xiang; Luo, Yuqi; Deng, Zixuan; Zhou, Jian; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the correlations of 1,5-anhydroglucitol (l,5-AG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and glycated albumin (GA) with insulin sensitivity and secretion. In total, 302 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (166 men, 136 women) were enrolled in this study. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β) were calculated to determine the basal insulin sensitivity and secretion. The insulinogenic index (IGI) was used to evaluate early-phase insulin secretion. 1,5-AG and GA were assayed via the enzymatic method, and HbA1c was detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Among all 302 subjects, the serum 1,5-AG level was 13.1±7.2 μg/mL, and the HbA1c and GA levels [median (interquartile range)] were 6.7% (6.2-7.3%) and 17.7% (16.0-19.5%), respectively. Increased 1,5-AG quartiles were accompanied by trends toward a decreased HOMA-IR and an increased HOMA-β and IGI (for all trends, P1). 1,5-AG was negatively associated with HOMA-IR (r=-0.200, P1) and positively associated with HOMA-β and IGI (r=0.210 and 0.413, respectively; both P1). 1,5-AG was independently related to HOMA-IR and HOMA-β and exhibited an independent positive association with IGI (standardized β=0.242, P1). Additionally, both HbA1c and GA were independently correlated with HOMA-IR and HOMA-β. 1,5-AG is not only correlated with basal insulin sensitivity and secretion, but also closely associated with early-phase insulin secretion in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Blood Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Octreotide Administration in Horses With Insulin Dysregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, N.; Hermida, P.; Sanchez?Londo?o, A.; Singh, R.; Gradil, C.M.; Uricchio, C.K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. Hypothesis We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. Animals Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. Methods Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups. Octreotide (1....

  5. Insulin-Mimetic Action of Rhoifolin and Cosmosiin Isolated from Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Leaves: Enhanced Adiponectin Secretion and Insulin Receptor Phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerra Koteswara Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (red wendun leaves have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting these actions and its active compounds. Two flavone glycosides, rhoifolin and cosmosiin were isolated for the first time from red wendun leaves and, identified these leaves are rich source for rhoifolin (1.1%, w/w. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, rhoifolin and cosmosiin showed dose-dependent response in concentration range of o.oo1–5 μM and 1–20 μM, respectively, in biological studies beneficial to diabetes. Particularly, rhoifolin and cosmosiin at 0.5 and 20 μM, respectively showed nearly similar response to that 10 nM of insulin, on adiponectin secretion level. Furthermore, 5 μM of rhoifolin and 20 μM of cosmosiin showed equal potential with 10 nM of insulin to increase the phosphorylation of insulin receptor-β, in addition to their positive effect on GLUT4 translocation. These findings indicate that rhoifolin and cosmosiin from red wendun leaves may be beneficial for diabetic complications through their enhanced adiponectin secretion, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor-β and GLUT4 translocation.

  6. Effect of single physical exercise at 35% VO2 max. intensity on secretion activity of pancreas β-cells and 125J-insulin binding and degradation ability by erythrocyte receptors in children with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczesniak, L.; Rychlewski, T.; Banaszak, F.; Kasprzak, Z.; Walczak, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this report we showed research results of effect of single physical exercise on cycloergometer at 35% VO 2 max. intensity on 125 J-insulin binding and degradation ability by erythrocyte receptors in children with diabetes mellitus, secreting and non-secreting endogenous insulin. Insulin secretion was evaluated by measurement of C-peptide by Biodet test (Serono) of sensitivity threshold at 0.3 μg/ml. We indicated in children non-secreting endogenous insulin (n=32) there is statistically essential lower 125 J-insulin binding with erythrocyte receptor in comparison to children group with C-peptide. Physical exercise on cycloergometer at 35% VO 2 max. intensity caused different reaction in range of physiological indices, like acid-base parameters, level of glucose and 125 J-insulin binding and degradation. In children devoid of endogenous insulin we indicated statistically nonessential changes in 125 J-insulin degradation by non-impaired erythrocytes and by hemolizate, as well. 125 J-insulin binding after physical exercise increased in both groups, though change amplitude was different. Obtained research results allowed us to conclude, in children with I-type diabetes, that in dependence of impairment degree of pancreas βcells sensitivity of insulin receptor and/or number of receptors on erythrocyte surface is different

  7. A matlab framework for estimation of NLME models using stochastic differential equations: applications for estimation of insulin secretion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Stig B; Klim, Søren; Dammann, Bernd; Kristensen, Niels R; Madsen, Henrik; Overgaard, Rune V

    2007-10-01

    The non-linear mixed-effects model based on stochastic differential equations (SDEs) provides an attractive residual error model, that is able to handle serially correlated residuals typically arising from structural mis-specification of the true underlying model. The use of SDEs also opens up for new tools for model development and easily allows for tracking of unknown inputs and parameters over time. An algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of the model has earlier been proposed, and the present paper presents the first general implementation of this algorithm. The implementation is done in Matlab and also demonstrates the use of parallel computing for improved estimation times. The use of the implementation is illustrated by two examples of application which focus on the ability of the model to estimate unknown inputs facilitated by the extension to SDEs. The first application is a deconvolution-type estimation of the insulin secretion rate based on a linear two-compartment model for C-peptide measurements. In the second application the model is extended to also give an estimate of the time varying liver extraction based on both C-peptide and insulin measurements.

  8. The level of menadione redox-cycling in pancreatic β-cells is proportional to the glucose concentration: Role of NADH and consequences for insulin secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heart, Emma [Cellular Dynamics Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Palo, Meridith; Womack, Trayce [Department of Science, United States Coast Guard Academy, New London, CT, 06320 (United States); Smith, Peter J.S. [Cellular Dynamics Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton (United Kingdom); Gray, Joshua P., E-mail: Joshua.p.gray@uscga.edu [Cellular Dynamics Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Department of Science, United States Coast Guard Academy, New London, CT, 06320 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Pancreatic β-cells release insulin in response to elevation of glucose from basal (4–7 mM) to stimulatory (8–16 mM) levels. Metabolism of glucose by the β-cell results in the production of low levels of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), such as hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), a newly recognized coupling factor linking glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. However, high and toxic levels of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} inhibit insulin secretion. Menadione, which produces H{sub 2}O{sub 2} via redox cycling mechanism in a dose-dependent manner, was investigated for its effect on β-cell metabolism and insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13, a rat β-cell insulinoma cell line, and primary rodent islets. Menadione-dependent redox cycling and resulting H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production under stimulatory glucose exceeded several-fold those reached at basal glucose. This was paralleled by a differential effect of menadione (0.1–10 μM) on insulin secretion, which was enhanced at basal, but inhibited at stimulatory glucose. Redox cycling of menadione and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation was dependent on glycolytically-derived NADH, as inhibition of glycolysis and application of non-glycogenic insulin secretagogues did not support redox cycling. In addition, activity of plasma membrane electron transport, a system dependent in part on glycolytically-derived NADH, was also inhibited by menadione. Menadione-dependent redox cycling was sensitive to the NQO1 inhibitor dicoumarol and the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, suggesting a role for NQO1 and other oxidoreductases in this process. These data may explain the apparent dichotomy between the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and menadione on insulin secretion. -- Highlights: ► Menadione stimulation or inhibition of insulin secretion is dependent upon applied glucose levels. ► Menadione-dependent H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production is proportional to applied glucose levels. ► Quinone-mediated redox cycling

  9. The level of menadione redox-cycling in pancreatic β-cells is proportional to the glucose concentration: Role of NADH and consequences for insulin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart, Emma; Palo, Meridith; Womack, Trayce; Smith, Peter J.S.; Gray, Joshua P.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cells release insulin in response to elevation of glucose from basal (4–7 mM) to stimulatory (8–16 mM) levels. Metabolism of glucose by the β-cell results in the production of low levels of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), a newly recognized coupling factor linking glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. However, high and toxic levels of H 2 O 2 inhibit insulin secretion. Menadione, which produces H 2 O 2 via redox cycling mechanism in a dose-dependent manner, was investigated for its effect on β-cell metabolism and insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13, a rat β-cell insulinoma cell line, and primary rodent islets. Menadione-dependent redox cycling and resulting H 2 O 2 production under stimulatory glucose exceeded several-fold those reached at basal glucose. This was paralleled by a differential effect of menadione (0.1–10 μM) on insulin secretion, which was enhanced at basal, but inhibited at stimulatory glucose. Redox cycling of menadione and H 2 O 2 formation was dependent on glycolytically-derived NADH, as inhibition of glycolysis and application of non-glycogenic insulin secretagogues did not support redox cycling. In addition, activity of plasma membrane electron transport, a system dependent in part on glycolytically-derived NADH, was also inhibited by menadione. Menadione-dependent redox cycling was sensitive to the NQO1 inhibitor dicoumarol and the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, suggesting a role for NQO1 and other oxidoreductases in this process. These data may explain the apparent dichotomy between the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H 2 O 2 and menadione on insulin secretion. -- Highlights: ► Menadione stimulation or inhibition of insulin secretion is dependent upon applied glucose levels. ► Menadione-dependent H 2 O 2 production is proportional to applied glucose levels. ► Quinone-mediated redox cycling is dependent on glycolysis

  10. Flexibility in insulin prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage.

  11. Insulin sensitivity and albuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Stefan; Rutters, Femke; Nijpels, Giel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests an association between insulin sensitivity and albuminuria, which, even in the normal range, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated whether insulin sensitivity is associated with albuminuria in healthy subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHODS: We investigated 1,415 healthy, nondiabetic participants (mean age 43.9 ± 8.3 years; 54.3% women) from the RISC (Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease) study, of whom 852 participated in a follow-up examination after 3 years. At baseline, insulin sensitivity...... was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, expressed as the M/I value. Oral glucose tolerance test-based insulin sensitivity (OGIS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were determined at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS...

  12. Insulin aspart pharmacokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Roge, Rikke Meldgaard; Ma, Zhulin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insulin aspart (IAsp) is used by many diabetics as a meal-time insulin to control postprandial glucose levels. As is the case with many other insulin types, the pharmacokinetics (PK), and consequently the pharmacodynamics (PD), is associated with clinical variability, both between...... to investigate and quantify the properties of the subcutaneous depot. Data from Brange et al. (1990) are used to determine the effects of insulin chemistry in subcutis on the absorption rate. Intravenous (i.v.) bolus and infusion PK data for human insulin are used to understand and quantify the systemic...... distribution and elimination (Porksen et al., 1997; Sjostrand et al., 2002). PK and PD profiles for type 1 diabetics from Chen et al. (2005) are analyzed to demonstrate the effects of IAsp antibodies in terms of bound and unbound insulin. PK profiles from Thorisdottir et al. (2009) and Ma et al. (2012b...

  13. Diabetes, insulin and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic and hormonal adaptations to single exercise sessions and to exercise training in normal man and in patients with insulin-dependent as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are reviewed. In insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes good metabolic control is best obtained...... by a regular pattern of life which will lead to a fairly constant demand for insulin from day to day. Exercise is by nature a perturbation that makes treatment of diabetes difficult: Muscle contractions per se tend to decrease the plasma glucose concentration whereas the exercise-induced response of the so......-called counter-regulatory hormones tend to increase plasma glucose by increasing hepatic glucose production and adipose tissue lipolysis. If the pre-exercise plasma insulin level is high, hypoglycaemia may develop during exercise whereas hyperglycaemia and ketosis may develop if pre-exercise plasma insulin...

  14. Liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analogue, improves pancreatic B-cell function and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion during hyperglycaemia in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Brock, Birgitte; Perrild, Hans

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effect of liraglutide, a once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue on pancreatic B-cell function. methods: Patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 39) were randomized to treatment with 0.65, 1.25 or 1.9 mg/day liraglutide or placebo for 14 weeks. First- and second-phase insulin...... release were measured by means of the insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Arginine-stimulated insulin secretion was measured during a hyperglycaemic clamp (20 mmol/l). Glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity were estimated by means of the insulin...

  15. Olive Component Oleuropein Promotes β-Cell Insulin Secretion and Protects β-Cells from Amylin Amyloid-Induced Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Velander, Paul; Liu, Dongmin; Xu, Bin

    2017-09-26

    Oleuropein, a natural product derived from olive leaves, has reported anti-diabetic functions. However, detailed molecular mechanisms for how it affects β-cell functions remain poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that oleuropein promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in β-cells. The effect is dose-dependent and stimulates the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. We further demonstrated that oleuropein inhibits the cytotoxicity induced by amylin amyloids, a hallmark feature of type 2 diabetes. We demonstrated that these dual functions are structure-specific: we identified the 3-hydroxytyrosol moiety of oleuropein as the main functional entity responsible for amyloid inhibition, but the novel GSIS function requires the entire structure scaffold of the molecule.

  16. Calcium has a permissive role in interleukin-1beta-induced c-jun N-terminal kinase activation in insulin-secreting cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Zaitsev, Sergei V; Kapelioukh, Iouri L

    2005-01-01

    The c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway mediates IL-1beta-induced apoptosis in insulin-secreting cells, a mechanism relevant to the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells in type 1 and 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms that contribute to IL-1beta activation of JNK in beta-cells are la...

  17. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 inhibits insulin secretion from rodent beta cells through regulation of calbindin1 expression and reduced voltage-dependent calcium currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte L.; Jacobsen, Maria L. B.; Wendt, Anna

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes is characterised by progressive loss of pancreatic beta cell mass and function. Therefore, it is of therapeutic interest to identify factors with the potential to improve beta cell proliferation and insulin secretion. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) expression...

  18. Glucose triggers protein kinase A-dependent insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic islets through activation of the K+ATP channel-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thams, Peter; Anwar, Mohammad R; Capito, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    pancreatic islets was determined by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: In islets cultured at 5.5 mmol/l glucose, and then perifused in physiological Krebs-Ringer medium, the PKA inhibitors, H89 (10 micromol/l) and PKI 6-22 amide (30 micromol/l) did not inhibit glucose (16.7 mmol/l)-induced insulin secretion...

  19. Sex-specific effects of naturally occurring variants in the dopamine receptor D2 locus on insulin secretion and Type 2 diabetes susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guigas, B.; Leeuw van Weenen, J.E. de; van Leeuwen, N.; Simonis-Bik, A.M.; Haeften, T.W. van; Nijpels, G.; Houwing-Duistermaat, J.J.; Beekman, M.; Deelen, J.; Havekes, L.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Vogelzangs, N.; Riet, E. van 't; Dehghan, A.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Grarup, N.; Jørgensen, T.; Witte, D.R.; Lauritzen, T.; Hansen, T.; Pedersen, O.; Hottenga, J.; Romijn, J.A.; Diamant, M.; Kramer, M.H.H.; Heine, R.J.; Willemsen, G.; Dekker, J.M.; Eekhoff, E.M.; Pijl, H.; Geus, E.J. de; Slagboom, P.E.; Hart, L.M. 't

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Modulation of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) activity affects insulin secretion in both rodents and isolated pancreatic β-cells. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DRD2/ANKK1 locus may affect susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes in humans. Methods: Four potentially

  20. The influence of GLP-1 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: effects on beta-cell sensitivity in type 2 and nondiabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Lise L; Holst, Jens J; Vølund, Aage

    2003-01-01

    . However, the dose-response relationship between GLP-1 and basal and glucose-stimulated prehepatic insulin secretion rate (ISR) is currently not known. Seven patients with type 2 diabetes and seven matched nondiabetic control subjects were studied. ISR was determined during a graded glucose infusion of 2...

  1. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of insulinoma INS-1E cells is associated with elevation of both respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špaček, Tomáš; Šantorová, Jitka; Zacharovová, K.; Berková, Z.; Hlavatá, Lydie; Saudek, F.; Ježek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 8 (2008), s. 1522-1535 ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : in situ mitochondrial membrane potential * in situ mitochondrial respiration * glucose-stimulated insulin secretion Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.178, year: 2008

  2. Developmental programming of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): prenatal androgens establish pancreatic islet α/β cell ratio and subsequent insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, S; Grace, C; Mattei, A A; Siemienowicz, K; Brownlee, W; MacCallum, J; McNeilly, A S; Duncan, W C; Rae, M T

    2016-06-06

    Exogenous androgenic steroids applied to pregnant sheep programmes a PCOS-like phenotype in female offspring. Via ultrasound guidance we applied steroids directly to ovine fetuses at d62 and d82 of gestation, and examined fetal (day 90 gestation) and postnatal (11 months old) pancreatic structure and function. Of three classes of steroid agonists applied (androgen - Testosterone propionate (TP), estrogen - Diethystilbesterol (DES) and glucocorticoid - Dexamethasone (DEX)), only androgens (TP) caused altered pancreatic development. Beta cell numbers were significantly elevated in prenatally androgenised female fetuses (P = 0.03) (to approximately the higher numbers found in male fetuses), whereas alpha cell counts were unaffected, precipitating decreased alpha:beta cell ratios in the developing fetal pancreas (P = 0.001), sustained into adolescence (P = 0.0004). In adolescence basal insulin secretion was significantly higher in female offspring from androgen-excess pregnancies (P = 0.045), and an exaggerated, hyperinsulinaemic response to glucose challenge (P = 0.0007) observed, whereas prenatal DES or DEX treatment had no effects upon insulin secretion. Postnatal insulin secretion correlated with beta cell numbers (P = 0.03). We conclude that the pancreas is a primary locus of androgenic stimulation during development, giving rise to postnatal offspring whose pancreas secreted excess insulin due to excess beta cells in the presence of a normal number of alpha cells.

  3. Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP inhibits Cdk5/p25 activity induced by high glucose in pancreatic beta cells and recovers insulin secretion from p25 damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Zheng

    Full Text Available Cdk5/p25 hyperactivity has been demonstrated to lead to neuron apoptosis and degenerations. Chronic exposure to high glucose (HG results in hyperactivity of Cdk5 and reduced insulin secretion. Here, we set out to determine whether abnormal upregulation of Cdk5/p25 activity may be induced in a pancreatic beta cell line, Min6 cells. We first confirmed that p25 were induced in overexpressed p35 cells treated with HG and increased time course dependence. Next, we showed that no p25 was detected under short time HG stimulation (4-12 hrs, however was detectable in the long exposure in HG cells (24 hrs and 48 hrs. Cdk5 activity in the above cells was much higher than low glucose treated cells and resulted in more than 50% inhibition of insulin secretion. We confirmed these results by overexpression of p25 in Min6 cells. As in cortical neurons, CIP, a small peptide, inhibited Cdk5/p25 activity and restored insulin secretion. The same results were detected in co-infection of dominant negative Cdk5 (DNCdk5 with p25. CIP also reduced beta cells apoptosis induced by Cdk5/p25. These studies indicate that Cdk5/p25 hyperactivation deregulates insulin secretion and induces cell death in pancreatic beta cells and suggests that CIP may serve as a therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes.

  4. Insulin, cognition, and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholerton, Brenna; Baker, Laura D.; Craft, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive disorders of aging represent a serious threat to the social and economic welfare of current society. It is now widely recognized that pathology related to such conditions, particularly Alzheimer’s disease, likely begins years or decades prior to the onset of clinical dementia symptoms. This revelation has led researchers to consider candidate mechanisms precipitating the cascade of neuropathological events that eventually lead to clinical Alzheimer’s disease. Insulin, a hormone with potent effects in the brain, has recently received a great deal of attention for its potential beneficial and protective role in cognitive function. Insulin resistance, which refers to the reduced sensitivity of target tissues to the favorable effects of insulin, is related to multiple chronic conditions known to impact cognition and increase dementia risk. With insulin resistance-associated conditions reaching epidemic proportions, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive disorders will continue to rise exponentially. Fortunately, these chronic insulin-related conditions are amenable to pharmacological intervention. As a result, novel therapeutic strategies that focus on increasing insulin sensitivity in the brain may be an important target for protecting or treating cognitive decline. The following review will highlight our current understanding of the role of insulin in brain, potential mechanisms underlying the link between insulin resistance and dementia, and current experimental therapeutic strategies aimed at improving cognitive function via modifying the brain’s insulin sensitivity. PMID:24070815

  5. Insulin and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Fatemeh; Toth, Cory

    2013-03-01

    Mainly known for its role in peripheral glucose homeostasis, insulin has also significant impact within the brain, functioning as a key neuromodulator in behavioral, cellular, biochemical and molecular studies. The brain is now regarded as an insulin-sensitive organ with widespread, yet selective, expression of the insulin receptor in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, amygdala and cerebral cortex. Insulin receptor signaling in the brain is important for neuronal development, glucoregulation, feeding behavior, body weight, and cognitive processes such as with attention, executive functioning, learning and memory. Emerging evidence has demonstrated insulin receptor signaling to be impaired in several neurological disorders. Moreover, insulin receptor signaling is recognized as important for dendritic outgrowth, neuronal survival, circuit development, synaptic plasticity and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor trafficking. We review the multiple roles of insulin in the brain, as well as its endogenous trafficking to the brain or its exogenous intervention. Although insulin can be directly targeted to the brain via intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intraparenchymal delivery, these invasive techniques are with significant risk, necessitating repeated surgical intervention and providing potential for systemic hypoglycemia. Another method, intranasal delivery, is a non-invasive, safe, and alternative approach which rapidly targets delivery of molecules to the brain while minimizing systemic exposure. Over the last decades, the delivery of intranasal insulin in animal models and human patients has evolved and expanded, permitting new hope for associated neurodegenerative and neurovascular disorders.

  6. Gastric emptying, glucose responses, and insulin secretion after a liquid test meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willms, B; Werner, J; Holst, J J

    1996-01-01

    yr; body mass index, 30.0 +/- 5.2 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 10.5 +/- 1.2%) were studied in the fasting state (plasma glucose, 11.1 +/- 1.1 mmol/L). A liquid meal of 400 mL containing 8% amino acids and 50 g sucrose (327 Kcal) was administered at time zero by a nasogastric tube. Gastric volume......The aim of the study was to investigate whether inhibition of gastric emptying of meals plays a role in the mechanism of the blood glucose-lowering action of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide [GLP-1-(7-36) amide] in type 2 diabetes. Eight poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients (age, 58 +/- 6...... to normal fasting values (5.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/L) within 3-4 h, whereas insulin was stimulated in most, but not all, patients, and glucagon remained at the basal level or was slightly suppressed. In conclusion, GLP-1-(7-36) amide inhibits gastric emptying in type 2 diabetic patients. Together...

  7. Insulin analogs with improved pharmacokinetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange; Vølund

    1999-02-01

    The aim of insulin replacement therapy is to normalize blood glucose in order to reduce the complications of diabetes. The pharmacokinetics of the traditional insulin preparations, however, do not match the profiles of physiological insulin secretion. The introduction of the rDNA technology 20 years ago opened new ways to create insulin analogs with altered properties. Fast-acting analogs are based on the idea that an insulin with less tendency to self-association than human insulin would be more readily absorbed into the systemic circulation. Protracted-acting analogs have been created to mimic the slow, steady rate of insulin secretion in the fasting state. The present paper provides a historical review of the efforts to change the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of insulin in order to improve insulin therapy. The available clinical studies of the new insulins are surveyed and show, together with modeling results, that new strategies for optimal basal-bolus treatment are required for utilization of the new fast-acting analogs.

  8. Pancreatic Endoderm-Derived From Diabetic Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generates Glucose-Responsive Insulin-Secreting Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Bahareh; Shamsara, Mehdi; Amirabad, Leila Mohammadi; Massumi, Mohammad; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-10-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can potentially serve as an invaluable source for cell replacement therapy and allow the creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells without the controversial use of embryos and avoids any immunological incompatibility. The generation of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells from pluripotent stem cells in vitro provides an unprecedented cell source for personal drug discovery and cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. A new five-step protocol was introduced in this study, effectively induced hiPSCs to differentiate into glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells. This process mimics in vivo pancreatic organogenesis by directing cells through stages resembling definitive endoderm, primitive gut-tube endoderm, posterior foregut, pancreatic endoderm, and endocrine precursor. Each stage of differentiation were characterized by stage-specific markers. The produced cells exhibited many properties of functional β-cells, including expression of critical β-cells transcription factors, the potency to secrete C-peptide in response to high levels of glucose and the presence of mature endocrine secretory granules. This high efficient differentiation protocol, established in this study, yielded 79.18% insulin-secreting cells which were responsive to glucose five times higher than the basal level. These hiPSCs-derived glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells might provide a promising approach for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2616-2625, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Methylglyoxal Impairs Insulin Secretion of Pancreatic β-Cells through Increased Production of ROS and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Mediated by Upregulation of UCP2 and MAPKs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshuang Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal (MG is a highly reactive glucose metabolic intermediate and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products. MG level is elevated in hyperglycemic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Substantial evidence has shown that MG is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetic complications. We investigated the impact of MG on insulin secretion by MIN6 and INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms of this effect. Our study demonstrates that MG impaired insulin secretion by MIN6 or ISN-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. It increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and apoptosis rate in MIN6 or ISN-1 cells and inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and ATP production. Furthermore, the expression of UCP2, JNK, and P38 as well as the phosphorylation JNK and P38 was increased by MG. These effects of MG were attenuated by MG scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. Collectively, these data indicate that MG impairs insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells through increasing ROS production. High levels of ROS can damage β-cells directly via JNK/P38 upregulation and through activation of UCP2 resulting in reduced MMP and ATP production, leading to β-cell dysfunction and impairment of insulin production.

  10. Fifty Years of Insulin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has since saved millions of lives throughout the world. The year 197I is the 50th anniversary of Banting's historic discovery. The story of insulin ... He found no evidence of injury. An impaired ... Prize in medicine for his discovery of insulin.

  11. [Comparison between basal insulin glargine and NPH insulin in patients with diabetes type 1 on conventional intensive insulin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesić, Milica; Zivić, Sasa; Radenković, Sasa; Velojić, Milena; Dimić, Dragan; Antić, Slobodan

    2007-04-01

    Insulin glargine is a long-acting insulin analog that mimics normal basal insulin secretion without pronounced peaks. The aim of this study was to compare insulin glargine with isophane insulin (NPH insulin) for basal insulin supply in patients with type 1 diabetes. A total of 48 type 1 diabetics on long term conventional intensive insulin therapy (IT) were randomized to three different regimens of basal insulin substitution: 1. continuation of NPH insulin once daily at bedtime with more intensive selfmonitoring (n = 15); 2. NPH insulin twice daily (n = 15); 3. insulin glargine once daily (n = 18). Meal time insulin aspart was continued in all groups. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was lower in the glargine group (7.30+/-0.98 mmol/1) than in the twice daily NPH group (7.47+/-1.06 mmol/1), but without significant difference. FBG was significantly higher in the once daily NPH group (8.44+/-0.85 mmol/l; p < 0.05). HbAlc after 3 months did not change in the once daily NPH group, but decreased in the glargine group (from 7.72+/-0.86% to 6.87+/-0.50%), as well as in the twice daily NPH group (from 7.80+/-0.83% to 7.01+/-0.63%). Total daily insulin doses were similar in all groups but only in the glargine group there was an increase of basal and decrease of meal related insulin doses. The frequency of mild hypoglycemia was significantly lower in the glargine group (6.56+/-2.09) than in both NPH groups (9.0+/-1.65 in twice daily NPH group and 8.13+/-1.30 in other NPH group) (episodes/patients-month, p < 0.05). Basal insulin supplementation in type 1 diabetes mellitus with either twice daily NPH insulin or glargine can result in similar glycemic control when combined with meal time insulin aspart. However, with glargine regimen FBG, HbAlc and frequency of hypoglycemic event are lower. These facts contribute to better patients satisfaction with insulin glargine versus NPH insulin in IIT in type 1 diabetics.

  12. Comparison between basal insulin glargine and NPH insulin in patients with diabetes type 1 on conventional intensive insulin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Insulin glargine is a long-acting insulin analog that mimics normal basal insulin secretion without pronounced peaks. The aim of this study was to compare insulin glargine with isophane insulin (NPH insulin for basal insulin supply in patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods. A total of 48 type 1 diabetics on long term conventional intensive insulin therapy (IIT were randomized to three different regimens of basal insulin substitution: 1. continuation of NPH insulin once daily at bedtime with more intensive selfmonitoring (n = 15; 2. NPH insulin twice daily (n = 15; 3. insulin glargine once daily (n = 18. Meal time insulin aspart was continued in all groups. Results. Fasting blood glucose (FBG was lower in the glargine group (7.30±0.98 mmol/l than in the twice daily NPH group (7.47±1.06 mmol/l, but without significant difference. FBG was significantly higher in the once daily NPH group (8.44±0.85 mmol/l; p < 0.05. HbA1c after 3 months did not change in the once daily NPH group, but decreased in the glargine group (from 7.72±0.86% to 6.87±0.50%, as well as in the twice daily NPH group (from 7.80±0.83% to 7.01±0.63%. Total daily insulin doses were similar in all groups but only in the glargine group there was an increase of basal and decrease of meal related insulin doses. The frequency of mild hypoglycemia was significantly lower in the glargine group (6.56±2.09 than in both NPH groups (9.0±1.65 in twice daily NPH group and 8.13±1.30 in other NPH group (episodes/patients-month, p < 0.05. Conclusion. Basal insulin supplementation in type 1 diabetes mellitus with either twice daily NPH insulin or glargine can result in similar glycemic control when combined with meal time insulin aspart. However, with glargine regimen FBG, HbA1c and frequency of hypoglycemic event are lower. These facts contribute to better patients satisfaction with insulin glargine versus NPH insulin in IIT in type 1 diabetics.

  13. Metformin reduces insulin resistance and the tendency toward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2018-05-11

    May 11, 2018 ... insulin concentrations, in addition to urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio, Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) for ... affecting the insulin synthesis and secretion of ... Likewise, no dog with increased Blood Urea Nitrogen.

  14. Insulin Resistance of Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zeitler, Philip S

    2016-07-01

    Puberty is a time of considerable metabolic and hormonal change. Notably, puberty is associated with a marked decrease in insulin sensitivity, on par with that seen during pregnancy. In otherwise healthy youth, there is a nadir in insulin sensitivity in mid-puberty, and then it recovers at puberty completion. However, there is evidence that insulin resistance (IR) does not resolve in youth who are obese going into puberty and may result in increased cardiometabolic risk. Little is known about the underlying pathophysiology of IR in puberty, and how it might contribute to increased disease risk (e.g., type 2 diabetes). In this review, we have outlined what is known about the IR in puberty in terms of pattern, potential underlying mechanisms and other mediating factors. We also outline other potentially related metabolic changes that occur during puberty, and effects of underlying insulin resistant states (e.g., obesity) on pubertal changes in insulin sensitivity.

  15. Variance of the SGK1 gene is associated with insulin secretion in different European populations: results from the TUEF, EUGENE2, and METSIM studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Björn; Weyrich, Peter; Stancáková, Alena

    2008-01-01

    gene (SGK) variations and insulin secretion traits. The German TUEF project provided the screening population (N = 725), and four tagging SNPs (rs1763527, rs1743966, rs1057293, rs9402571) were investigated. EUGENE2 (N = 827) served as a replication cohort for the detected associations. Finally...... secretion only remained significant in lean TUEF participants (BMIEUGENE2 rs9402571 minor allele carriers, who had a significantly higher AUC(Ins)/AUC(Glc) (TT: 226+/-7, XG: 246+/-9; p = 0.019). Accordingly, the METSIM trial revealed a lower prevalence of type...... 2 diabetes (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.71-1.01; p = 0.065, dominant model) in rs9402571 minor allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: The rs9402571 SGK genotype associates with increased insulin secretion in lean non-diabetic TUEF/EUGENE2 participants and with lower diabetes prevalence in METSIM. Our study in three...

  16. High-fat diet with stress impaired islets' insulin secretion by reducing plasma estradiol and pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels in rats' proestrus phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, M; Zardooz, H; Khodagholi, F; Rostamkhani, F; Shaerzadeh, F

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether two estrus phases (proestrus and diestrus) in female rats may influence the metabolic response to a high-fat diet and/or stress, focusing on pancreatic insulin secretion and content. Animals were divided into high-fat and normal diet groups, then each group was subdivided into stress and non-stress groups, and finally, each one of these was divided into proestrus and diestrus subgroups. At the end of high-fat diet treatment, foot-shock stress was applied to the animals. Then, blood samples were taken to measure plasma factors. Finally, the pancreas was removed for determination of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) protein levels and assessment of insulin content and secretion of the isolated islets. In the normal and high-fat diet groups, stress increased plasma corticosterone concentration in both phases. In both study phases, high-fat diet consumption decreased estradiol and increased leptin plasma levels. In the high-fat diet group in response to high glucose concentration, a reduction in insulin secretion was observed in the proestrus phase compared with the same phase in the normal diet group in the presence and absence of stress. Also, high-fat diet decreased the insulin content of islets in the proestrus phase compared with the normal diet. High-fat diet and/or stress caused a reduction in islet GLUT2 protein levels in both phases. In conclusion, it seems possible that high-fat diet alone or combined with foot-shock, predispose female rats to impaired insulin secretion, at least in part, by interfering with estradiol levels in the proestrus phase and decreasing pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels.

  17. Impact of objectively measured sedentary behaviour on changes in insulin resistance and secretion over 3 years in the RISC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahjibi, E; Heude, B; Dekker, J M

    2013-01-01

    The importance of reducing sedentary time is increasingly being recognized in the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Despite this, the prospective association between sedentary time and physical activity with insulin sensitivity and cardiometabolic risk factors has been little stu...

  18. Glucose, other secretagogues, and nerve growth factor stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in the insulin-secreting beta-cell line, INS-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Sekine, N; Roche, E

    1995-01-01

    The signaling pathways whereby glucose and hormonal secretagogues regulate insulin-secretory function, gene transcription, and proliferation of pancreatic beta-cells are not well defined. We show that in the glucose-responsive beta-cell line INS-1, major secretagogue-stimulated signaling pathways...... converge to activate 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Thus, glucose-induced insulin secretion was found to be associated with a small stimulatory effect on 44-kDa MAP kinase, which was synergistically enhanced by increased levels of intracellular cAMP and by the hormonal secretagogues......-1. Phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C, stimulated 44-kDa MAP kinase by both Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent pathways. Nerve growth factor, independently of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, efficiently stimulated 44-kDa MAP kinase without causing insulin release, indicating that activation...

  19. Sensitive and specific markers for insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and inappropriate gonadotrophin secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ayadhi MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jamal Golbahar,1,2,* Maha Al-Ayadhi,2,* Negalla Mohan Das,2 Khalid Gumaa,2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, Al-Jawhara Centre for Genetic Diagnosis and Research, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, AGU, Manama, Bahrain *These authors contributed equally to this articleBackground: In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, despite a high prevalence of insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and disturbances in the secretion of gonadotrophin, the principal causes of biochemical abnormalities and the best endocrine markers for PCOS have not been fully identified.Subjects and methods: Serum levels of insulin, glucose, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, total testosterone, estrogen, sex hormone-binding capacity (SHBG, and other related indices such as homeostasis model assessment, insulin glucose ratios, LH/FSH ratios, and the free androgen index (FAI were determined and compared in women with PCOS (n = 50 and women without PCOS (n = 50.Results: In multivariate logistic regression analyses, among all insulin resistance indices, only hyperinsulinemia (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–5.2; P = 0.008 was significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for body mass index (BMI, hyperandrogenemia, and LH/FSH ratios. The LH/FSH ratio (OR = 5.4; CI: 1.2–23.0, P = 0.03 was the only marker among those indices for inappropriate gonadotrophin secretion that significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for BMI and hyperinsulinemia. Among those indices for hyperandrogenemia, FAI (OR = 1.1; CI: 1.0–2.7; P = 0.02 and SHBG (OR = 1.2; CI: 1.2–3.4; P = 0.03 were significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for BMI and hyperinsulinemia. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the best predictive markers for PCOS were insulin (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.944; CI: 0.887–0

  20. The influence of INS VNTR class III allele on auxological parameters, glucose, insulin, lipids, and adipocytokines secretion in prepubertal children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawerska, Renata; Szałapska, Małgorzata; Borowiec, Maciej; Antosik, Karolina; Młynarski, Wojciech; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats (INS VNTR) class III allele has been implicated in lower birth weight, obesity, and insulin resistance. We assessed its influence on birth weight in the Polish population and on the current body mass and metabolic profile in prepubertal children born small for gestational age (SGA). DNA for genotyping of INS VNTR was available for 123 subjects born SGA and 132 born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). We identified two alleles: class I and class III. Next, in 112 prepubertal (aged: 6.8 ± 1.38 years) SGA children, the auxological measurements, fasting serum C-peptide, triglycerides, cholesterol, ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) concentrations, as well as glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were assessed and insulin resistance indices were calculated. The results were analysed depending on INS VNTR variants. The occurrence of individual INS VNTR variants were similar in the SGA and AGA groups. In prepubertal SGA children, we did not observe any statistical differences as regards birth weight, body mass, lipids, or adipocytokine concentrations among I/I, I/III, and III/III class groups. The concentration of insulin in 120' of OGTT was significantly higher in class III homozygous than in class I homozygous individuals. Variant INS VNTR class III was shown not to be associated in any essential way with birth weight in the Polish population. Among prepubertal SGA children, the presence of INS VNTR class III is related to higher insulin secretion during OGTT. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (6): 585-591).

  1. Differential effects of insulin injections and insulin infusions on levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that while injections of insulin cause an increase in fat mass, infusions of insulin increase fat mass. The aim of this paper was to test the hypothesis that if an increase in glycogen is an indicator of an impending increase in adipose mass, then insulin infusions should not increase glycogen, while insulin ...

  2. Prescribing insulin in type 1 diabetes mellitus: an update for general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pancreas in a non-diabetic patient constantly secretes a small amount of insulin (basal secretion). After meals, a larger amount of insulin is secreted (bolus secretion) to cope with the increased blood glucose that occurs following a meal. The goal of insulin therapy in diabetics is to mimic this secretion pattern to provide ...

  3. Influence of insulin sensitivity and secretion on glycated albumin and hemoglobin A1c in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jiemin; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Yuqian; Tao, Minfang; Jia, Weiping

    2013-06-01

    To examine the differential effects of insulin sensitivity and secretion on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA) at 24-32weeks of pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cross-sectional, sequential case series study was performed in pregnant women with an abnormal 50-g oral glucose-screening test. Hemoglobin A1c and GA measurements were taken during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA-%β), insulin sensitivity index (ISOGTT), and modified insulinogenic index were calculated to assess insulin sensitivity and secretory function. A total of 713 pregnant women were enrolled. The GDM group had lower ISOGTT and insulinogenic index scores, and a higher HOMA-IR score. Hemoglobin A1c was positively correlated with HOMA-IR. Glycated albumin was negatively correlated with insulinogenic index and HOMA-%β. Multiple regression analysis revealed that HbA1c was independently associated with diastolic pressure, 0- and 120-minute glucose, and HOMA-IR; GA was independently associated with 0- and 120-minute glucose. Compared with HbA1c, GA is more closely correlated with fasting and postprandial glucose, regardless of insulin resistance and blood pressure, and might be a better monitoring index in women with GDM. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Combining GLP-1 receptor agonists with insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Vilsbøll, T

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the emergent trend towards diagnosis in younger patients and the progressive nature of this disease, many more patients than before now require insulin to maintain glycaemic control. However, there is a degree of inertia among...... physicians and patients regarding the initiation and intensification of insulin therapy, in part due to concerns about the associated weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) increase insulin release and suppress glucagon secretion in a glucose......, compared with insulin, the antihyperglycaemic efficacy of GLP-1RAs is limited. The combination of a GLP-1RA and insulin might thus be highly effective for optimal glucose control, ameliorating the adverse effects typically associated with insulin. Data from clinical studies support the therapeutic...

  5. Insulin resistance alters islet morphology in nondiabetic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezza, Teresa; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Sorice, Gian Pio

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by poor glucose uptake in metabolic tissues and manifests when insulin secretion fails to cope with worsening insulin resistance. In addition to its effects on skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue metabolism, it is evident that insulin resistance also affects...... pancreatic β-cells. To directly examine the alterations that occur in islet morphology as part of an adaptive mechanism to insulin resistance, we evaluated pancreas samples obtained during pancreatoduodenectomy from nondiabetic subjects who were insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive. We also compared...... insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and incretin levels between the two groups. We report an increased islet size and an elevated number of β- and α-cells that resulted in an altered β-cell-to-α-cell area in the insulin- resistant group. Our data in this series of studies suggest that neogenesis from...

  6. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya; Hirose, Takahisa; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2009-01-01

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.

  7. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hirose, Takahisa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Beta Cell Biology and Regeneration, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Fujitani, Yoshio, E-mail: fujitani@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, Hirotaka, E-mail: hwatada@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-18

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.

  8. PPAR-γ activation increases insulin secretion through the up-regulation of the free fatty acid receptor GPR40 in pancreatic β-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Sup Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ and their synthetic ligands have direct effects on pancreatic β-cells. We investigated whether PPAR-γ activation stimulates insulin secretion through the up-regulation of GPR40 in pancreatic β-cells. METHODS: Rat insulinoma INS-1 cells and primary rat islets were treated with rosiglitazone (RGZ and/or adenoviral PPAR-γ overexpression. OLETF rats were treated with RGZ. RESULTS: PPAR-γ activation with RGZ and/or adenoviral PPAR-γ overexpression increased free fatty acid (FFA receptor GPR40 expression, and increased insulin secretion and intracellular calcium mobilization, and was blocked by the PLC inhibitors, GPR40 RNA interference, and GLUT2 RNA interference. As a downstream signaling pathway of intracellular calcium mobilization, the phosphorylated levels of CaMKII and CREB, and the downstream IRS-2 and phospho-Akt were significantly increased. Despite of insulin receptor RNA interference, the levels of IRS-2 and phospho-Akt was still maintained with PPAR-γ activation. In addition, the β-cell specific gene expression, including Pdx-1 and FoxA2, increased in a GPR40- and GLUT2-dependent manner. The levels of GPR40, phosphorylated CaMKII and CREB, and β-cell specific genes induced by RGZ were blocked by GW9662, a PPAR-γ antagonist. Finally, PPAR-γ activation up-regulated β-cell gene expressions through FoxO1 nuclear exclusion, independent of the insulin signaling pathway. Based on immunohistochemical staining, the GLUT2, IRS-2, Pdx-1, and GPR40 were more strongly expressed in islets from RGZ-treated OLETF rats compared to control islets. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that PPAR-γ activation with RGZ and/or adenoviral overexpression increased intracellular calcium mobilization, insulin secretion, and β-cell gene expression through GPR40 and GLUT2 gene up-regulation.

  9. Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché increases insulin secretion in RINm5F cells through an influx of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Perez, Maria Elizabeth; Ortega-Camarillo, Clara; Del Carmen Escobar-Villanueva, Maria; Blancas-Flores, Gerardo; Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco Javier

    2016-07-21

    Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché(C. ficifolia) is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to control type 2 diabetes (T2D). The hypoglycemic effect of the fruit of C. ficifolia has been demonstrated in different experimental models and in T2D patients. It has been proposed that D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is the active compound of the fruit. Additionally, it has been reported that C. ficifolia increases the mRNA expression of insulin and Kir 6.2 (a component of the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(+)ATP) channel, which is activated by sulphonylurea) in RINm5F cells. However, it remains unclear whether C. ficifolia and DCI causes the secretion of insulin by increasing the concentration of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) through K(+)ATP channel blockage or from the reservoir in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The aqueous extract of C. ficifolia was obtained and standardized with regard to its DCI content. RINm5F pancreatic β-cells were incubated with different concentrations (50, 100, 200 and 400μM) of DCI alone or C. ficifolia (9, 18, 36 and 72µg of extract/mL), and the [Ca(2+)]i of the cells was quantified. The cells were preloaded with the Ca(2+) fluorescent dye fluo4-acetoxymethyl ester (AM) and visualized by confocal microscopy. Insulin secretion was measured by an ELISA method. Subsequently, the effect of C. ficifolia on the K(+)ATP channel was evaluated. In this case, the blocker activator diazoxide was used to inhibit the C. ficifolia-induced calcium influx. In addition, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-receptor-selective inhibitor 2-amino-thoxydiphenylborate (2-APB) was used to inhibit the influx of calcium from the ER that was induced by C. ficifolia. It was found that DCI alone did not increase [Ca(2+)]i or insulin secretion. In contrast, treatment with C. ficifolia increased [Ca(2+)]i 10-fold compared with the control group. Insulin secretion increased by 46.9%. In the presence of diazoxide, C. ficifolia decreased [Ca(2+)]i by 50%, while insulin secretion

  10. Correlations between insulin sensitivity and bone mineral density in non-diabetic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Rohold, A.; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate relationships between bone mineral density (BMD), insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, controlling for body composition, in view of data suggesting that hyperglycaemia [corrected] leads to decreased osteoblast proliferation and a negative calcium balance and that insulin...

  11. Effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on counterregulatory hormone responses, cognitive functions, and insulin secretion during hyperinsulinemic, stepped hypoglycemic clamp experiments in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; Heimesaat, Markus M; Behle, Kai

    2002-01-01

    and neuroglucopenic symptoms were assessed, and cognitive function was tested at each plateau. Insulin secretion rates were estimated by deconvolution (two-compartment model of C-peptide kinetics). At insulin concentrations of approximately 45 mU/liter, glucose infusion rates were similar with and without GLP-1 (P......Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and analogues are being evaluated as a new therapeutic principle for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 suppresses glucagon secretion, which could lead to disturbances of hypoglycemia counterregulation. This has, however, not been tested. Nine healthy volunteers.......97). The other counterregulatory hormones and autonomic or neuroglucopenic symptom scores increased, and cognitive functions decreased with decreasing glucose concentrations, but there were no significant differences comparing experiments with GLP-1 or placebo, except for a significant reduction of GH responses...

  12. Radioreceptor assay for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Radioreceptor assay of insulin was discussed from the aspects of the measuring method, its merits and problems to be solved, and its clinical application. Rat liver 10 x g pellet was used as receptor site, and enzymatic degradation of insulin by the system contained in this fraction was inhibited by adding 1 mM p-CMB. /sup 125/I-labelled porcine insulin was made by lactoperoxidase method under overnight incubation at 4/sup 0/C and later purification by Sephadex G-25 column and Whatman CF-11 cellulose powder. Dog pancreatic vein serum insulin during and after the glucose load was determined by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay resulting that both measurements accorded considerably. Radioreceptor assay would clarify the pathology of disorders of glucose metabolism including diabetes.

  13. AMPK and insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is considered "a metabolic master-switch" in skeletal muscle reducing ATP- consuming processes whilst stimulating ATP regeneration. Within recent years, AMPK has also been proposed as a potential target to attenuate insulin resistance, although the exact...... role of AMPK is not well understood. Here we hypothesized that mice lacking a2AMPK activity in muscle would be more susceptible to develop insulin resistance associated with ageing alone or in combination with high fat diet. Young (~4 month) or old (~18 month) wild type and muscle specific a2AMPK...... kinase-dead mice on chow diet as well as old mice on 17 weeks of high fat diet were studied for whole body glucose homeostasis (OGTT, ITT and HOMA-IR), insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle. We demonstrate that high fat diet in old mice results in impaired glucose homeostasis...

  14. Insulin and insulin signaling play a critical role in fat induction of insulin resistance in mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jie; Hong, Tao; Yang, Xuefeng; Mei, Shuang; Liu, Zhenqi; Liu, Hui-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The primary player that induces insulin resistance has not been established. Here, we studied whether or not fat can cause insulin resistance in the presence of insulin deficiency. Our results showed that high-fat diet (HFD) induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. The HFD-induced insulin resistance was prevented largely by the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced moderate insulin deficiency. The STZ-induced insulin deficiency prevented the HFD-induced ectopic fat accumulation and oxidative stress in liver and gastrocnemius. The STZ-induced insulin deficiency prevented the HFD- or insulin-induced increase in hepatic expression of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL), which are necessary for fatty acid activation. HFD increased mitochondrial contents of long-chain acyl-CoAs, whereas it decreased mitochondrial ADP/ATP ratio, and these HFD-induced changes were prevented by the STZ-induced insulin deficiency. In cultured hepatocytes, we observed that expressions of ACSL1 and -5 were stimulated by insulin signaling. Results in cultured cells also showed that blunting insulin signaling by the PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 prevented fat accumulation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance induced by the prolonged exposure to either insulin or oleate plus sera that normally contain insulin. Finally, knockdown of the insulin receptor prevented the oxidative stress and insulin resistance induced by the prolonged exposure to insulin or oleate plus sera. Together, our results show that insulin and insulin signaling are required for fat induction of insulin resistance in mice and cultured mouse hepatocytes. PMID:21586696

  15. Insulin degludec versus insulin glargine in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinman, Bernard; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena; Cariou, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    To compare ultra-long-acting insulin degludec with glargine for efficacy and safety in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs).......To compare ultra-long-acting insulin degludec with glargine for efficacy and safety in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs)....

  16. Insulin and Glucagon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Holland, William; Gromada, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    In August 2016, several leaders in glucagon biology gathered for the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Hagedorn Workshop in Oxford, England. A key point of discussion focused on the need for basal insulin to allow for the therapeutic benefit of glucagon blockade in the treatment...... of the discussion as a consensus was reached. Agents that antagonize glucagon may be of great benefit for the treatment of diabetes; however, sufficient levels of basal insulin are required for their therapeutic efficacy....

  17. Sweet taste receptor expressed in pancreatic beta-cells activates the calcium and cyclic AMP signaling systems and stimulates insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Nakagawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+](c and cAMP ([cAMP](c were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca(2+](c. The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca(2+](c response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca(2+](c was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a G(q inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP](c, which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in beta-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca(2+ and cAMP-dependent mechanisms.

  18. Metformin Ameliorates Dysfunctional Traits of Glibenclamide- and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion by Suppression of Imposed Overactivity of the Islet Nitric Oxide Synthase-NO System.

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    Ingmar Lundquist

    Full Text Available Metformin lowers diabetic blood glucose primarily by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increasing peripheral glucose uptake. However, possible effects by metformin on beta-cell function are incompletely understood. We speculated that metformin might positively influence insulin secretion through impacting the beta-cell nitric oxide synthase (NOS-NO system, a negative modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin release. In short-time incubations with isolated murine islets either glibenclamide or high glucose augmented insulin release associated with increased NO production from both neural and inducible NOS. Metformin addition suppressed the augmented NO generation coinciding with amplified insulin release. Islet culturing with glibenclamide or high glucose revealed pronounced fluorescence of inducible NOS in the beta-cells being abolished by metformin co-culturing. These findings were reflected in medium nitrite-nitrate levels. A glucose challenge following islet culturing with glibenclamide or high glucose revealed markedly impaired insulin response. Metformin co-culturing restored this response. Culturing murine islets and human islets from controls and type 2 diabetics with high glucose or high glucose + glibenclamide induced a pronounced decrease of cell viability being remarkably restored by metformin co-culturing. We show here, that imposed overactivity of the beta-cell NOS-NO system by glibenclamide or high glucose leads to insulin secretory dysfunction and reduced cell viability and also, importantly, that these effects are relieved by metformin inhibiting beta-cell NO overproduction from both neural and inducible NOS thus ameliorating a concealed negative influence by NO induced by sulfonylurea treatment and/or high glucose levels. This double-edged effect of glibenclamide on the beta-cellsuggests sulfonylurea monotherapy in type 2 diabetes being avoided.

  19. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice...... in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine...... regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice....

  20. MED25 is a mediator component of HNF4α-driven transcription leading to insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hee Han

    Full Text Available Unique nuclear receptor Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α (HNF4α is an essential transcriptional regulator for early development and proper function of pancreatic ß-cells, and its mutations are monogenic causes of a dominant inherited form of diabetes referred to as Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young 1 (MODY1. As a gene-specific transcription factor, HNF4α exerts its function through various molecular interactions, but its protein recruiting network has not been fully characterized. Here we report the identification of MED25 as one of the HNF4α binding partners in pancreatic ß-cells leading to insulin secretion which is impaired in MODY patients. MED25 is one of the subunits of the Mediator complex that is required for induction of RNA polymerase II transcription by various transcription factors including nuclear receptors. This HNF4α-MED25 interaction was initially identified by a yeast-two-hybrid method, confirmed by in vivo and in vitro analyses, and proven to be mediated through the MED25-LXXLL motif in a ligand-independent manner. Reporter-gene based transcription assays and siRNA/shRNA-based gene silencing approaches revealed that this interaction is crucial for full activation of HNF4α-mediated transcription, especially expression of target genes implicated in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Selected MODY mutations at the LXXLL motif binding pocket disrupt these interactions and cause impaired insulin secretion through a 'loss-of-function' mechanism.

  1. Combined lipidomic and proteomic analysis of isolated human islets exposed to palmitate reveals time-dependent changes in insulin secretion and lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Roomp

    Full Text Available Studies on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have linked the accumulation of lipid metabolites to the development of beta-cell dysfunction and impaired insulin secretion. In most in vitro models of T2DM, rodent islets or beta-cell lines are used and typically focus is on specific cellular pathways or organs. Our aim was to, firstly, develop a combined lipidomics and proteomics approach for lipotoxicity in isolated human islets and, secondly, investigate if the approach could delineate novel and/ or confirm reported mechanisms of lipotoxicity. To this end isolated human pancreatic islets, exposed to chronically elevated palmitate concentrations for 0, 2 and 7 days, were functionally characterized and their levels of multiple targeted lipid and untargeted protein species determined. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the islets increased on day 2 and decreased on day 7. At day 7 islet insulin content decreased and the proinsulin to insulin content ratio doubled. Amounts of cholesterol, stearic acid, C16 dihydroceramide and C24:1 sphingomyelin, obtained from the lipidomic screen, increased time-dependently in the palmitate-exposed islets. The proteomic screen identified matching changes in proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis indicating up-regulated cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis in the islets. Furthermore, proteins associated with immature secretory granules were decreased when palmitate exposure time was increased despite their high affinity for cholesterol. Proteins associated with mature secretory granules remained unchanged. Pathway analysis based on the protein and lipid expression profiles implicated autocrine effects of insulin in lipotoxicity. Taken together the study demonstrates that combining different omics approaches has potential in mapping of multiple simultaneous cellular events. However, it also shows that challenges exist for effectively combining lipidomics and proteomics in primary cells. Our

  2. Clustering effects on postprandial insulin secretion and sensitivity in response to meals with different fatty acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Beatriz; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Varela, Lourdes M; Villar, Jose; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G; Lopez, Sergio

    2014-07-25

    Dietary fatty acids play a role in glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to assess the individual relationship between dietary saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids with postprandial β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with normal and high fasting triglycerides. We assessed postprandial β-cell function (by the insulinogenic index and the ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the time-concentration curve) and insulin sensitivity (by the oral glucose and the minimal model insulin sensitivity indices) over four nonconsecutive, randomly assigned, high-fat meals containing a panel of SFA (palmitic and stearic acids), MUFA (palmitoleic and oleic acids) and PUFA (linoleic and α-linolenic acids) in 14 subjects with normal and in 14 subjects with high fasting triglycerides. The proportions of each fatty acid in the meals and the values for surrogate measures of postprandial β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were subjected to a Pearson correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis, which revealed two classes of dietary fatty acids for regulating postprandial glucose homeostasis. We successfully discriminated the adverse effects of SFA palmitic acid from the beneficial effects of MUFA oleic acid on postprandial β-cell function (r ≥ 0.84 for SFA palmitic acid and r ≥ -0.71 for MUFA oleic acid; P < 0.05) and insulin sensitivity (r ≥ -0.92 for SFA palmitic acid and r ≥ 0.89 for MUFA oleic acid; P < 0.001) both in subjects with normal and high fasting triglycerides. In conclusion, dietary MUFA oleic acid, in contrast to SFA palmitic acid, favours the tuning towards better postprandial glycaemic control in subjects with normal and high fasting triglycerides.

  3. Dietary fiber, plasma insulin, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M J

    1978-10-01

    The relationship between obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia is briefly reviewed. The possibility is considered that excess insulin secretion is the cause rather than the result of insulin resistance and obesity. Glucose administration is one of the most frequently studied of those factors known to stimulate insulin secretion. Much less well documented is the fact that meals of equal protein, fat, and carbohydrate content may cause different responses of plasma glucose and insulin. An experiment is reported in which the effects of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber meal administered to seven healthy young adults were compared with the effects of a meal equally high in carbohydrate but composed largely of glucose in liquid formula form. The high-fiber meal caused an insulin rise less than half that caused by the liquid formula meal although the plasma glucose response to the two meals was not significantly different. The hypothesis is proposed that a high-carbohydrate, fiber-depleted diet, high in simple sugars, by repeatedly stimulating an excessive insulin response, may lead to insulin resistance and obesity in susceptible individuals and may play a role in the common occurrence of obesity in industrialized societies.

  4. Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Indicators of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Black and White Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobene, Andrea J; Kindler, Joseph M; Jenkins, Nathan T; Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Grider, Arthur; Lewis, Richard D

    2017-07-01

    Background: Zinc is a micronutrient involved in the production of, and peripheral sensitivity to, pancreatic β cell-derived insulin. To our knowledge, the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes, and potential risk of diabetes, in otherwise healthy children in the United States has not been investigated. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes in black and white girls in the early stages of adolescence. A secondary objective was to determine relations between baseline zinc concentrations and insulin outcomes. Methods: Healthy black and white girls aged 9-11 y were randomly assigned to daily supplementation of zinc (9 mg elemental Zn/d; n = 75; blacks: n = 35) or placebo ( n = 72; blacks: n = 32) for 4 wk. Fasting serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide were assessed at baseline and at 4 wk. C-peptide and glucose values were used to calculate the computer model-derived homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Changes in outcome measures were compared by using repeated-measures, mixed-model ANOVA. Results: Baseline plasma zinc was not correlated with C-peptide ( r = -0.07), insulin ( r = -0.06), or HOMA2-IR ( r = -0.09) (all P > 0.05) after controlling for race and age. Treatment × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P > 0.05). Although the treatment × race × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P = 0.08), black girls who received the placebo experienced slight increases in C-peptide (15.7%) and HOMA2-IR (17.7%) ( P = 0.06). Conclusions: Four weeks of zinc supplementation had no effect on insulin outcomes in healthy black and white early-adolescent girls, although C-peptide and HOMA2-IR tended to increase in black girls who received placebo. Additional trials that are appropriately powered should further explore the effect of zinc on markers of diabetes risk, and whether race affects this

  5. Proghrelin-derived peptides influence the secretion of insulin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin: a study on isolated islets from mouse and rat pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qader, S.S.; Hakanson, R.; Lundquist, I.

    2008-01-01

    ghrelin, and to the 23-amino acid peptide obestatin, claimed to be a physiological opponent of acyl ghrelin. This study examines the effects of the proghrelin products, alone and in combinations, on the secretion of insulin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and somatostatin from isolated islets...... times higher concentration than acyl ghrelin (corresponding to the ratio of the two peptides in circulation), desacyl ghrelin abolished the effects of acyl ghrelin but not those of obestatin. Acyl ghrelin and obestatin affected the secretion of glucagon, PP and somatostatin at physiologically relevant...

  6. The GLP-1 analogue liraglutide improves first-phase insulin secretion and maximal beta-cell secretory capacity over 14 weeks of therapy in subjects with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten; Vilsbøll, Tina; Brock, Birgitte

    Aims: We investigated the clinical effect of liraglutide, a long- acting GLP-1 analogue, on insulin secretion in Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Thirty-nine subjects (28 completed) from a randomised trial received a hyperglycaemic clamp (20 mM) with intravenous arginine stimulation, and an insulin...... group. Conclusion: In subjects with Type 2 diabetes, 14 weeks’ once-daily liraglutide (1.25 and 1.9 mg/day) markedly improves beta-cell function, significantly increases first-phase insulin secretion and maximal beta-cell secretory capacity....

  7. Bridging the gap between protein carboxyl methylation and phospholipid methylation to understand glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2008-01-15

    Recent findings have implicated post-translational modifications at C-terminal cysteines [e.g., methylation] of specific proteins [e.g., G-proteins] in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS]. Furthermore, methylation at the C-terminal leucine of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A [PP2Ac] has also been shown to be relevant for GSIS. In addition to these two classes of protein methyl transferases, a novel class of glucose-activated phospholipid methyl transferases have also been identified in the beta cell. These enzymes catalyze three successive methylations of phosphatidylethanolamine to yield phosphatidylcholine. The "newly formed" phosphatidylcholine is felt to induce alterations in the membrane fluidity, which might favor vesicular fusion with the plasma membrane for the exocytosis of insulin. The objectives of this commentary are to: (i) review the existing evidence on the regulation, by glucose and other insulin secretagogues, of post-translational carboxylmethylation [CML] of specific proteins in the beta cell; (ii) discuss the experimental evidence, which implicates regulation, by glucose and other insulin secretagogues, of phosphatidylethanolamine methylation in the islet beta cell; (iii) propose a model for potential cross-talk between the protein and lipid methylation pathways in the regulation of GSIS and (iv) highlight potential avenues for future research, including the development of specific pharmacological inhibitors to further decipher regulatory roles for these methylation reactions in islet beta cell function.

  8. Synapses of Amphids Defective (SAD-A) Kinase Promotes Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion through Activation of p21-activated Kinase (PAK1) in Pancreatic β-Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jia; Sun, Chao; Faruque, Omar; Ye, Guangming; Li, Jia; Liang, Qiangrong; Chang, Zhijie; Yang, Wannian; Han, Xiao; Shi, Yuguang

    2012-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1) is implicated in regulation of insulin exocytosis as an effector of Rho GTPases. PAK1 is activated by the onset of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through phosphorylation of Thr-423, a major activation site by Cdc42 and Rac1. However, the kinase(s) that phosphorylates PAK1 at Thr-423 in islet β-cells remains elusive. The present studies identified SAD-A (synapses of amphids defective), a member of AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinases exclusively expressed in brain and pancreas, as a key regulator of GSIS through activation of PAK1. We show that SAD-A directly binds to PAK1 through its kinase domain. The interaction is mediated by the p21-binding domain (PBD) of PAK1 and requires both kinases in an active conformation. The binding leads to direct phosphorylation of PAK1 at Thr-423 by SAD-A, triggering the onset of GSIS from islet β-cells. Consequently, ablation of PAK1 kinase activity or depletion of PAK1 expression completely abolishes the potentiating effect of SAD-A on GSIS. Consistent with its role in regulating GSIS, overexpression of SAD-A in MIN6 islet β-cells significantly stimulated cytoskeletal remodeling, which is required for insulin exocytosis. Together, the present studies identified a critical role of SAD-A in the activation of PAK1 during the onset of insulin exocytosis. PMID:22669945

  9. Synapses of amphids defective (SAD-A) kinase promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through activation of p21-activated kinase (PAK1) in pancreatic β-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jia; Sun, Chao; Faruque, Omar; Ye, Guangming; Li, Jia; Liang, Qiangrong; Chang, Zhijie; Yang, Wannian; Han, Xiao; Shi, Yuguang

    2012-07-27

    The p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1) is implicated in regulation of insulin exocytosis as an effector of Rho GTPases. PAK1 is activated by the onset of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through phosphorylation of Thr-423, a major activation site by Cdc42 and Rac1. However, the kinase(s) that phosphorylates PAK1 at Thr-423 in islet β-cells remains elusive. The present studies identified SAD-A (synapses of amphids defective), a member of AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinases exclusively expressed in brain and pancreas, as a key regulator of GSIS through activation of PAK1. We show that SAD-A directly binds to PAK1 through its kinase domain. The interaction is mediated by the p21-binding domain (PBD) of PAK1 and requires both kinases in an active conformation. The binding leads to direct phosphorylation of PAK1 at Thr-423 by SAD-A, triggering the onset of GSIS from islet β-cells. Consequently, ablation of PAK1 kinase activity or depletion of PAK1 expression completely abolishes the potentiating effect of SAD-A on GSIS. Consistent with its role in regulating GSIS, overexpression of SAD-A in MIN6 islet β-cells significantly stimulated cytoskeletal remodeling, which is required for insulin exocytosis. Together, the present studies identified a critical role of SAD-A in the activation of PAK1 during the onset of insulin exocytosis.

  10. Black Seed Thymoquinone Improved Insulin Secretion, Hepatic Glycogen Storage, and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. A. Abdelrazek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the metabolic diseases having several complications. Nigella sativa oil (NSO might have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetic complications. Thirty-two mature male Wistar rats were equally divided into four experimental groups: control, control NSO 2 mL/kg, streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic, and diabetic (STZ-induced treated with oral NSO 2 mg/kg for 30 days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, insulin, and lipid profile levels were determined. Pancreatic and hepatic tissues were used for catalase and GSH. Histopathology, hepatic glycogen contents, insulin immunohistochemistry, and pancreatic islet morphometry were performed. NSO 2 mL/kg was noticed to decrease (P<0.05 FBG and increase (P<0.05 insulin levels in diabetic rats than in diabetic nontreated animals. Lipid profile showed significant (P<0.5 improvement in diabetic rats that received NSO 2 mL/kg than in the diabetic group. Both pancreatic and hepatic catalase and GSH activities revealed a significant (P<0.05 increment in the diabetic group treated with NSO than in the diabetic animals. NSO improved the histopathological picture and hepatic glycogen contents of the diabetic group as well as increased (P<0.05 insulin immunoreactive parts % and mean pancreatic islet diameter. NSO exerts ameliorative and therapeutic effects on the STZ-induced diabetic male Wistar rats.

  11. Early differential defects of insulin secretion and action in 19-year-old caucasian men who had low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Dela, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have linked low birth weight (LBW) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated hepatic and peripheral insulin action including intracellular glucose metabolism in 40 19-year-old men (20 LBW, 20 matched control subjects), using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique at two...

  12. Improved insulin sensitivity after exercise: focus on insulin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    After a single bout of exercise, the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake is markedly improved locally in the previously active muscles. This makes exercise a potent stimulus counteracting insulin resistance characterizing type 2 diabetes (T2D). It is believed that at least part...... of the mechanism relates to an improved ability of insulin to stimulate translocation of glucose transporters (GLUT4) to the muscle membrane after exercise. How this is accomplished is still unclear; however, an obvious possibility is that exercise interacts with the insulin signaling pathway to GLUT4...... translocation allowing for a more potent insulin response. Parallel to unraveling of the insulin signaling cascade, this has been investigated within the past 25 years. Reviewing existing studies clearly indicates that improved insulin action can occur independent of interactions with proximal insulin signaling...

  13. Restoring Mitochondrial Function: A Small Molecule-mediated Approach to Enhance Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Cholesterol Accumulated Pancreatic beta cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asalla, Suman; Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S.; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kandagatla, Bhaskar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Kalivendi, Shasi Vardhan; Rao, Swetha Pavani; Row, Anupama; Ibrahim, A.; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2016-06-01

    Dyslipidemia, particularly the elevated serum cholesterol levels, aggravate the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In the present study we explored the relationship between fasting blood sugar and serum lipid parameters in human volunteers which revealed a significant linear effect of serum cholesterol on fasting blood glucose. Short term feeding of cholesterol enriched diet to rodent model resulted in elevated serum cholesterol levels, cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islets and hyperinsulinemia with modest increase in plasma glucose level. To explore the mechanism, we treated cultured BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta cells with soluble cholesterol. Our data shows that cholesterol treatment of cultured pancreatic beta cells enhances total cellular cholesterol. While one hour cholesterol exposure enhances insulin exocytosis, overnight cholesterol accumulation in cultured pancreatic beta cells affects cellular respiration, and inhibits Glucose stimulated insulin secretion. We further report that (E)-4-Chloro-2-(1-(2-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) hydrazono) ethyl) phenol (small molecule M1) prevents the cholesterol mediated blunting of cellular respiration and potentiates Glucose stimulated insulin secretion which was abolished in pancreatic beta cells on cholesterol accumulation.

  14. The Role of Insulin, Insulin Growth Factor, and Insulin-Degrading Enzyme in Brain Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Messier, Claude; Teutenberg, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Most brain insulin comes from the pancreas and is taken up by the brain by what appears to be a receptor-based carrier. Type 2 diabetes animal models associated with insulin resistance show reduced insulin brain uptake and content. Recent data point to changes in the insulin receptor cascade in obesity-related insulin resistance, suggesting that brain insulin receptors also become less sensitive to insulin, which could reduce synaptic plasticity. Insulin transport to the brain is reduced in a...

  15. Chemical and thermal stability of insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huus, Kasper; Havelund, Svend; Olsen, Helle B

    2006-01-01

    To study the correlation between the thermal and chemical stability of insulin formulations with various insulin hexamer ligands.......To study the correlation between the thermal and chemical stability of insulin formulations with various insulin hexamer ligands....

  16. Effect of single physical exercise at 35% VO{sub 2} max. intensity on secretion activity of pancreas {beta}-cells and {sup 125}J-insulin binding and degradation ability by erythrocyte receptors in children with diabetes mellitus; Einfluss der einmaligen Koerperanstrengung von 35% VO{sub 2} max. auf Sekretionsfaehigkeit von B-Zellen der Bauchspeicheldruese und auf Bindungs-und Degradationsfaehigkeit von {sup 125}J-Insulin durch Erythrozytenrezeptoren bei Kindern mit Diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczesniak, L; Rychlewski, T [Lehrstuhl fuer Physiologie, Biochemie und Hygiene, Akademie fuer Koerpererziehung, Poznan (Poland); Banaszak, F; Kasprzak, Z; Walczak, M [3. Klinik von Kinderkrankheiten, Medizinische Akademie, Poznan (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    In this report we showed research results of effect of single physical exercise on cycloergometer at 35% VO{sub 2} max. intensity on {sup 125}J-insulin binding and degradation ability by erythrocyte receptors in children with diabetes mellitus, secreting and non-secreting endogenous insulin. Insulin secretion was evaluated by measurement of C-peptide by Biodet test (Serono) of sensitivity threshold at 0.3 {mu}g/ml. We indicated in children non-secreting endogenous insulin (n=32) there is statistically essential lower {sup 125}J-insulin binding with erythrocyte receptor in comparison to children group with C-peptide. Physical exercise on cycloergometer at 35% VO{sub 2} max. intensity caused different reaction in range of physiological indices, like acid-base parameters, level of glucose and {sup 125}J-insulin binding and degradation. In children devoid of endogenous insulin we indicated statistically nonessential changes in {sup 125}J-insulin degradation by non-impaired erythrocytes and by hemolizate, as well. {sup 125}J-insulin binding after physical exercise increased in both groups, though change amplitude was different. Obtained research results allowed us to conclude, in children with I-type diabetes, that in dependence of impairment degree of pancreas {beta}cells sensitivity of insulin receptor and/or number of receptors on erythrocyte surface is different.

  17. GLP-1-(9-36) amide reduces blood glucose in anesthetized pigs by a mechanism that does not involve insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F; Plamboeck, Astrid; Møller, Søren

    2002-01-01

    impossible to assess its true efficacy in vivo. In chloralose-anesthetized pigs given valine-pyrrolidide (to block endogenous DPP IV activity), the independent effects of GLP-1-(7-36) amide on glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose were assessed, and the metabolite generated by DPP IV, GLP-1......-(9-36) amide, was investigated for any ability to influence these responses. GLP-1-(7-36) amide enhanced insulin secretion (P amide was without effect, either alone or when coinfused with GLP-1-(7-36) amide. In contrast, GLP-1-(9-36) amide did affect glucose responses (P...... amide (73 +/- 19 mmol x l(-1) x min; P amide (62 +/- 13 mmol x l(-1) x min; P amide + GLP-1-(9-36) amide (50 +/-13 mmol x l(-1) x min; P

  18. Release of immunoreactive and radioactively prelabelled endogenous (pro-)insulin from isolated islets of rat pancreas in the presence of exogenous insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, H [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Zentrum fuer Innere Medizin; Pfeiffer, E F

    1977-01-01

    To study the influence of insulin on its secretion, collagenase-isolated islets of rat pancreas were prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)leucine for 2 h. After washing the islets, (pro-)insulin release was stimulated by glucose in the presence or absence of exogenous insulin (up to 2.5 mu./ml. Hormone release was unchanged by the presence of exogenous insulin as judged by determination of both immunoreactive insulin and radioactivity incorporated into the proinsulin and insulin fractions of the medium. No direct feedback mechanism for insulin secretion was apparent from this study.

  19. Future of newer basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu, S. V.; Velmurugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Basal insulin have been developed over the years. In recent times newer analogues have been added to the armanentarium for diabetes therapy. This review specifically reviews the current status of different basal insulins

  20. Insulin C-peptide test

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-peptide ... the test depends on the reason for the C-peptide measurement. Ask your health care provider if ... C-peptide is measured to tell the difference between insulin the body produces and insulin someone injects ...

  1. Essential roles of aspartate aminotransferase 1 and vesicular glutamate transporters in β-cell glutamate signaling for incretin-induced insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Murao

    Full Text Available Incretins (GLP-1 and GIP potentiate insulin secretion through cAMP signaling in pancreatic β-cells in a glucose-dependent manner. We recently proposed a mechanistic model of incretin-induced insulin secretion (IIIS that requires two critical processes: 1 generation of cytosolic glutamate through the malate-aspartate (MA shuttle in glucose metabolism and 2 glutamate transport into insulin granules by cAMP signaling to promote insulin granule exocytosis. To directly prove the model, we have established and characterized CRISPR/Cas9-engineered clonal mouse β-cell lines deficient for the genes critical in these two processes: aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AST1, gene symbol Got1, a key enzyme in the MA shuttle, which generates cytosolic glutamate, and the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and VGLUT3, gene symbol Slc17a7, Slc17a6, and Slc17a8, respectively, which participate in glutamate transport into secretory vesicles. Got1 knockout (KO β-cell lines were defective in cytosolic glutamate production from glucose and showed impaired IIIS. Unexpectedly, different from the previous finding that global Slc17a7 KO mice exhibited impaired IIIS from pancreatic islets, β-cell specific Slc17a7 KO mice showed no significant impairment in IIIS, as assessed by pancreas perfusion experiment. Single Slc17a7 KO β-cell lines also retained IIIS, probably due to compensatory upregulation of Slc17a6. Interestingly, triple KO of Slc17a7, Slc17a6, and Slc17a8 diminished IIIS, which was rescued by exogenously introduced wild-type Slc17a7 or Slc17a6 genes. The present study provides direct evidence for the essential roles of AST1 and VGLUTs in β-cell glutamate signaling for IIIS and also shows the usefulness of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for studying β-cells by simultaneous disruption of multiple genes.

  2. Indian culinary plants enhance glucose-induced insulin secretion and glucose consumption in INS-1 β-cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Bains, Kiran; Singh, Harjinder

    2011-12-01

    Six Indian plants, commonly used as culinary plants, herbs or spices (kikar; jamun; neem; harad; fenugreek; bitter gourd), were screened and compared for their antidiabetic potential in vitro. Aqueous plant extracts were prepared and assessed for their effect on the insulin secretion activity of rat pancreatic INS-1 β-cells and glucose consumption in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes in order to study their specific mechanisms of action. The effect of the plant extract concentration (25-1000μg/ml) on insulin release and glucose consumption was also studied. All the extracts had a significant stimulatory effect on the insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. In the presence of kikar extract (100μg/ml), an increase of 228% in insulin release was recorded compared to the control (5.6mM glucose) whereas that was 270% and 367% in the presence of kikar and jamun extracts (500μg/ml), respectively. 3T3-L1 cells treated with jamun extract (100μg/ml) exhibited the highest increase in glucose consumption by the cells (94%, compared with the control) followed by harad (53%) and fenugreek (50%) extracts. A significant inhibitory effect of the fenugreek, kikar and jamun extracts on glucose diffusion across a dialysis membrane suggested that these extracts could partly act by decreasing glucose absorption in the small intestine. The results showed that a combination of these plants in diet could help in the management of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Insulin Resistance in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineley, Kelly T; Jahrling, Jordan B; Denner, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is a key hormone regulating metabolism. Insulin binding to cell surface insulin receptors engages many signaling intermediates operating in parallel and in series to control glucose, energy, and lipids while also regulating mitogenesis and development. Perturbations in the function of any of these intermediates, which occur in a variety of diseases, cause reduced sensitivity to insulin and insulin resistance with consequent metabolic dysfunction. Chronic inflammation ensues which exacerbates compromised metabolic homeostasis. Since insulin has a key role in learning and memory as well as directly regulating ERK, a kinase required for the type of learning and memory compromised in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), insulin resistance has been identified as a major risk factor for the onset of AD. Animal models of AD or insulin resistance or both demonstrate that AD pathology and impaired insulin signaling form a reciprocal relationship. Of note are human and animal model studies geared toward improving insulin resistance that have led to the identification of the nuclear receptor and transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) as an intervention tool for early AD. Strategic targeting of alternate nodes within the insulin signaling network has revealed disease-stage therapeutic windows in animal models that coalesce with previous and ongoing clinical trial approaches. Thus, exploiting the connection between insulin resistance and AD provides powerful opportunities to delineate therapeutic interventions that slow or block the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:25237037

  4. Molecular mechanism of insulin resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Free fatty acids are known to play a key role in promoting loss of insulin sensitivity, thereby causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism involved is still unclear. In searching for the cause of the mechanism, it has been found that palmitate inhibits insulin receptor (IR) gene expression, ...

  5. Insulin som trickster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2011-01-01

    grænser nedbrydes i en konstant penetrering af huden, når blodsukkeret måles eller insulinen indsprøjtes. Insulin analyseres som en tricksterfigur, der udøver et grænsearbejde på kroppen, leger med dens kategorier og vender forholdet mellem gift og medicin, frihed og ufrihed, kunstighed og naturlighed...

  6. Diabetes and Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are usually used twice daily before breakfast and dinner. They can be used alone or in combination with oral medicines. The type of insulin your doctor prescribes will depend on the type of diabetes you have, your lifestyle (when and what you eat, how much you exercise), your age, and your ...

  7. Polyethyleneglycol RIA (radioimmunoassay) insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Insulin is a polypeptide hormone of M.W. 6,000 composed of two peptide chains, A and B, jointed by two cross-linked disulphide bonds and synthesized by the beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. Insulin influences most of the metabolic functions of the body. Its best known action is to lower the blood glucose concentration by increasing the rate at which glucose is converted to glycogen in the liver and muscles and to fat in adipose tissue, by stimulating the rate of glucose metabolism and by depressing gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates the synthesis of proteins, DNA and RNA in cells generally, and promotes the uptake of aminoacids and their incorporation into muscle protein. It increases the uptake of glucose in adipose tissue and its conversion into fat and inhibits lipolysis. Insulin primary action is on the cell membrane, where it probably facilitates the transport of glucose and aminoacids into the cells. At the same time it may activate intracellular enzymes such as glycogen synthetase, concerned with glycogen synthesis. (Author) [es

  8. Improved insulin sensitivity and secretion in prediabetic patients with adrenal insufficiency on dual-release hydrocortisone treatment: a 36-month retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnotta, Valentina; Ciresi, Alessandro; Pillitteri, Giuseppe; Giordano, Carla

    2018-05-01

    Dual-release hydrocortisone (DR-HC) provides physiological cortisol exposure, leading to an improvement of anthropometric and metabolic parameters. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of DR-HC on insulin secretion and sensitivity and cardiometabolic risk, indirectly expressed by the visceral adiposity index (VAI). Retrospective analysis of 49 patients, 13 with primary and 36 with secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI), respectively, on conventional glucocorticoid treatment at baseline and switched to DR-HC for 36 months. Overall, 24 patients had AI-pre-diabetes (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and the combination), and 25 had AI-normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Clinical and metabolic parameters, including VAI, insulin secretion and sensitivity indexes (fasting insulinaemia, AUC 2 h insulinaemia , oral disposition index [Dio] and ISI-Matsuda), were evaluated. In patients with AI-NGT and AI-prediabetes, a significant decrease in BMI (P = .017 and P 36 and P = .043) was, respectively, observed. In addition, in prediabetic patients, only we found a significant decrease in insulinaemia (P = .014), AUC 2 h insulinaemia (P = .038) and VAI (P = .001), in concomitance with a significant increase in DIo (P = .041) and ISI-Matsuda (P = .038). Long-term DR-HC therapy is associated with an improvement in insulin secretion and sensitivity in patients with prediabetes. However, all patients appear to benefit from the treatment in terms of improvement of metabolic and anthropometric parameters. Larger studies are required to confirm our preliminary data. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated exendin-4 expressed in chloroplasts lowers blood glucose level in mice and stimulates insulin secretion in beta-TC6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Nityanandam, Ramya; New, James S; Daniell, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) increases insulin secretion but is rapidly degraded (half-life: 2 min in circulation). GLP-1 analogue, exenatide (Byetta) has a longer half-life (3.3-4 h) with potent insulinotropic effects but requires cold storage, daily abdominal injections with short shelf life. Because patients with diabetes take >60 000 injections in their life time, alternative delivery methods are highly desired. Exenatide is ideal for oral delivery because insulinotropism is glucose dependent, with reduced risk of hypoglycaemia even at higher doses. Therefore, exendin-4 (EX4) was expressed as a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-fusion protein in tobacco chloroplasts to facilitate bioencapsulation within plant cells and transmucosal delivery in the gut via GM1 receptors present in the intestinal epithelium. The transgene integration was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Expression level of CTB-EX4 reached up to 14.3% of total leaf protein (TLP). Lyophilization of leaf material increased therapeutic protein concentration by 12- to 24-fold, extended their shelf life up to 15 months when stored at room temperature and eliminated microbes present in fresh leaves. The pentameric structure, disulphide bonds and functionality of CTB-EX4 were well preserved in lyophilized materials. Chloroplast-derived CTB-EX4 showed increased insulin secretion similar to the commercial EX4 in beta-TC6, a mouse pancreatic cell line. Even when 5000-fold excess dose of CTB-EX4 was orally delivered, it stimulated insulin secretion similar to the intraperitoneal injection of commercial EX4 but did not cause hypoglycaemia in mice. Oral delivery of the bioencapsulated EX4 should eliminate injections, increase patient compliance/convenience and significantly lower their cost. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Bridging the Gap Between Protein Carboxyl Methylation and Phospholipid Methylation to Understand Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion From the Pancreatic β Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2007-01-01

    Recent findings have implicated post-translational modifications at C-terminal cysteines [e.g., methylation] of specific proteins [e.g., G-proteins] in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS]. Furthermore, methylation at the C-terminal leucine of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A [PP2Ac] has also been shown to be relevant for GSIS. In addition to these two classes of protein methyl transferases, a novel class of glucose-activated phospholipid methyl transferases have also be...

  11. Blood Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Octreotide Administration in Horses With Insulin Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, N; Hermida, P; Sanchez-Londoño, A; Singh, R; Gradil, C M; Uricchio, C K

    2017-07-01

    Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups. Octreotide (1.0 μg/kg IV) was then administered, and blood was collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minute, and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hour for measurement of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Mean AUC values for glucose and insulin did not differ between normal (n = 5) and ID (n = 7) groups after octreotide injection. Significant time (P glucose and insulin concentrations. A group × time interaction (P = .091) was detected for insulin concentrations after administration of octreotide, but the group (P = .33) effect was not significant. Octreotide suppresses insulin secretion, resulting in hyperglycemia, and then concentrations increase above baseline as glycemic control is restored. Our hypothesis that octreotide causes insulin concentrations to decrease in horses was supported, but differences between N and ID groups did not reach statistical significance when blood glucose and insulin responses were compared. The utility of an octreotide response test remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Selective Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shi-Xiong; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.; Fazakerley, Daniel J.; Ng, Yvonne; Pant, Himani; Li, Jia; Meoli, Christopher C.; Coster, Adelle C. F.; Stöckli, Jacqueline; James, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Aside from glucose metabolism, insulin regulates a variety of pathways in peripheral tissues. Under insulin-resistant conditions, it is well known that insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is impaired, and many studies attribute this to a defect in Akt signaling. Here we make use of several insulin resistance models, including insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes and fat explants prepared from high fat-fed C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice, to comprehensively distinguish defective from unaffected aspects of insulin signaling and its downstream consequences in adipocytes. Defective regulation of glucose uptake was observed in all models of insulin resistance, whereas other major actions of insulin such as protein synthesis and anti-lipolysis were normal. This defect corresponded to a reduction in the maximum response to insulin. The pattern of change observed for phosphorylation in the Akt pathway was inconsistent with a simple defect at the level of Akt. The only Akt substrate that showed consistently reduced phosphorylation was the RabGAP AS160 that regulates GLUT4 translocation. We conclude that insulin resistance in adipose tissue is highly selective for glucose metabolism and likely involves a defect in one of the components regulating GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface in response to insulin. PMID:25720492

  13. The H+/K+ ATPase Inhibitor SCH-28080 Inhibits Insulin Secretion and Induces Cell Death in INS-1E Rat Insulinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jakab

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS of pancreatic β-cells involves glucose uptake and metabolism, closure of KATP channels and depolarization of the cell membrane potential (Vmem, activation of voltage-activated Ca2+ currents (ICav and influx of Ca2+, which eventually triggers hormone exocytosis. Beside this classical pathway, KATP-independent mechanisms such as changes in intracellular pH (pHi or cell volume, which also affect β-cell viability, can elicit or modify insulin release. In β-cells the regulation of pHi is mainly accomplished by Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs. To investigate if other proton extrusion mechanisms than NHEs are involved in pH regulation, we tested for the presence of the non-gastric H+/K+ ATPase in rat insulinoma cells and assessed effects of the H+/K+ ATPase inhibitor SCH-28080 on insulin secretion, cell viability and apoptosis. Methods: In INS-1E cell cultures, H+/K+ ATPase gene and protein expression was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting. Intracellular pH (pHi recovery after acute acidic load was measured by NH4Cl prepulsing using BCECF. Insulin secretion was determined by ELISA from the cell culture supernatant. Vmem, K+ and Ca2+ currents were recorded using patch clamp. Overall cell responses were determined using resazurin (viability and cytotoxicity assays. The mean cell volume (MCV, cell granularity (side-scatter; SSC, phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, cell membrane integrity, caspase activity and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm were measured by flow cytometry. Results: We found that the α-subunit of the non-gastric H+/K+ ATPase (HKα2 is expressed on mRNA and protein level. However, compared to rat colon tissue, in INS-1E cells mRNA abundance was very low. In NH4Cl prepulsing experiments no K+-dependent pHi recovery was observed under Na+-free extracellular conditions. Nonetheless within 1 h, 20 µM SCH-28080 inhibited GSIS by ∼50%, while basal release

  14. Insulin resistance and chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matulewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is a condition of reduced biological response to insulin. Growing evidence indicates the role of the chronic low-grade inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Adipose tissue in obesity is characterized by increased lipolysis with the excessive release of free fatty acids, and is also a source of proinflammatory cytokines. Both these factors may inhibit insulin action. Proinflammatory cytokines exert their effect by stimulating major inflammatory NFκB and JNK pathways within the cells. Inflammatory processes in other insulin responsive tissues may also play a role in inducing insulin resistance. This paper is an overview of the chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and endothelial cells during the development of insulin resistance.

  15. Insulin Biosynthetic Interaction Network Component, TMEM24, Facilitates Insulin Reserve Pool Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pottekat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin homeostasis in pancreatic β cells is now recognized as a critical element in the progression of obesity and type II diabetes (T2D. Proteins that interact with insulin to direct its sequential synthesis, folding, trafficking, and packaging into reserve granules in order to manage release in response to elevated glucose remain largely unknown. Using a conformation-based approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have generated the insulin biosynthetic interaction network (insulin BIN, a proteomic roadmap in the β cell that describes the sequential interacting partners of insulin along the secretory axis. The insulin BIN revealed an abundant C2 domain-containing transmembrane protein 24 (TMEM24 that manages glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from a reserve pool of granules, a critical event impaired in patients with T2D. The identification of TMEM24 in the context of a comprehensive set of sequential insulin-binding partners provides a molecular description of the insulin secretory pathway in β cells.

  16. L-rhamnose as a source of colonic propionate inhibits insulin secretion but does not influence measures of appetite or food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, Julia; Frost, Gary S; Swann, Jonathan R; Costabile, Adele; Robertson, M Denise

    2016-03-01

    Activation of free fatty acid receptor (FFAR)2 and FFAR3 via colonic short-chain fatty acids, particularly propionate, are postulated to explain observed inverse associations between dietary fiber intake and body weight. Propionate is reported as the predominant colonic fermentation product from l-rhamnose, a natural monosaccharide that resists digestion and absorption reaching the colon intact, while effects of long-chain inulin on appetite have not been extensively investigated. In this single-blind randomized crossover study, healthy unrestrained eaters (n = 13) ingested 25.5 g/d l-rhamnose, 22.4 g/d inulin or no supplement (control) alongside a standardized breakfast and lunch, following a 6-d run-in to investigate if appetite was inhibited. Postprandial qualitative appetite, breath hydrogen, and plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids were assessed for 420 min, then an ad libitum meal was provided. Significant treatment x time effects were found for postprandial insulin (P = 0.009) and non-esterified fatty acids (P = 0.046) with a significantly lower insulin response for l-rhamnose (P = 0.023) than control. No differences between treatments were found for quantitative and qualitative appetite measures, although significant treatment x time effects for meal desire (P = 0.008) and desire to eat sweet (P = 0.036) were found. Breath hydrogen was significantly higher with inulin (P = 0.001) and l-rhamnose (P = 0.009) than control, indicating colonic fermentation. These findings suggest l-rhamnose may inhibit postprandial insulin secretion, however neither l-rhamnose or inulin influenced appetite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cholinergic signaling mediates the effects of xenin-25 on secretion of pancreatic polypeptide but not insulin or glucagon in humans with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyan Wang

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that infusion of an intestinal peptide called xenin-25 (Xen amplifies the effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP on insulin secretion rates (ISRs and plasma glucagon levels in humans. However, these effects of Xen, but not GIP, were blunted in humans with type 2 diabetes. Thus, Xen rather than GIP signaling to islets fails early during development of type 2 diabetes. The current crossover study determines if cholinergic signaling relays the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in humans as in mice. Fasted subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were studied. On eight separate occasions, each person underwent a single graded glucose infusion- two each with infusion of albumin, Xen, GIP, and GIP plus Xen. Each infusate was administered ± atropine. Heart rate and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP levels were measured. ISRs were calculated from C-peptide levels. All peptides profoundly increased PP responses. From 0 to 40 min, peptide(s infusions had little effect on plasma glucose concentrations. However, GIP, but not Xen, rapidly and transiently increased ISRs and glucagon levels. Both responses were further amplified when Xen was co-administered with GIP. From 40 to 240 min, glucose levels and ISRs continually increased while glucagon concentrations declined, regardless of infusate. Atropine increased resting heart rate and blocked all PP responses but did not affect ISRs or plasma glucagon levels during any of the peptide infusions. Thus, cholinergic signaling mediates the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in mice but not humans.

  18. In vitro expansion and differentiation of rat pancreatic duct-derived stem cells into insulin secreting cells using a dynamicthree-dimensional cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X C; Liu, H; Li, H; Cheng, Y; Yang, L; Liu, Y F

    2016-06-27

    In this study, a dynamic three-dimensional cell culture technology was used to expand and differentiate rat pancreatic duct-derived stem cells (PDSCs) into islet-like cell clusters that can secrete insulin. PDSCs were isolated from rat pancreatic tissues by in situ collagenase digestion and density gradient centrifugation. Using a dynamic three-dimensional culture technique, the cells were expanded and differentiated into functional islet-like cell clusters, which were characterized by morphological and phenotype analyses. After maintaining 1 x 108 isolated rat PDSCs in a dynamic three-dimensional cell culture for 7 days, 1.5 x 109 cells could be harvested. Passaged PDSCs expressed markers of pancreatic endocrine progenitors, including CD29 (86.17%), CD73 (90.73%), CD90 (84.13%), CD105 (78.28%), and Pdx-1. Following 14 additional days of culture in serum-free medium with nicotinamide, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), and b fibroblast growth factor (FGF), the cells were differentiated into islet-like cell clusters (ICCs). The ICC morphology reflected that of fused cell clusters. During the late stage of differentiation, representative clusters were non-adherent and expressed insulin indicated by dithizone (DTZ)-positive staining. Insulin was detected in the extracellular fluid and cytoplasm of ICCs after 14 days of differentiation. Additionally, insulin levels were significantly higher at this time compared with the levels exhibited by PDSCs before differentiation (P cell culture system, PDSCs can be expanded in vitro and can differentiate into functional islet-like cell clusters.

  19. Bimodal effect on pancreatic β-cells of secretory products from normal or insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzakri, Karim; Plomgaard, Peter; Berney, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance with a relative deficiency in insulin secretion. This study explored the potential communication between insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle and primary (human and rat) β-cells.......Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance with a relative deficiency in insulin secretion. This study explored the potential communication between insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle and primary (human and rat) β-cells....

  20. The ethyl acetate fraction of corn silk exhibits dual antioxidant and anti-glycation activities and protects insulin-secreting cells from glucotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chuan; Yuan, Wei; Roan, Hsiao-Yuh; Chang, Jia-Ling; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lee, Yu-Ching; Tsay, Huey Jen; Liu, Hui-Kang

    2016-11-03

    In this study, we aimed to develop a Stigmata Maydis (corn silk) fraction with dual bio-activities against oxidative stress and protein glycation to protect β-cells from diabetes-induced failure. Corn silk fractions were prepared by partition and chemically characterised by thin-layer chromatography. Free radical scavenging assay, glycation assay, and cell-based viability test (neutral red) were employed to decide the best fraction. Cell death analysis was executed by annexin V/ Propidium iodide staining. Cell proliferation was measured by WST-1. Finally, β-cell function was evaluated by β-cell marker gene expression (RT-PCR) and acute insulin secretion test. Four corn silk fractions were prepared from an ethanolic crude extract of corn silk. In vitro assays indicate ethyl acetate fraction (YMS-EA) was the most potent fraction. YMS-EA also attenuated the hydrogen peroxide- or methylglyoxal-induced induction of reactive oxygen species, reduction of cell viability, and inhibition of cell proliferation. However, YMS-EA was unable to prevent hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis or advanced glycation end-products-induced toxicity. Under hyperglycemic conditions, YMS-EA effectively reduced ROS levels, improved mRNA expression of insulin, glucokinase, and PDX-1, and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The similarity of bioactivities among apigenin, luteolin, and YMS-EA indicated that dual activities of YMS-EA might be derived from those compounds. We concluded that YMS-EA fraction could be developed as a preventive food agent against the glucotoxicity to β-cells in Type 2 diabetes.

  1. Chronic suppression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 in beta-cells impairs insulin secretion via inhibition of glucose rather than lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnebaum, Sarah M; Joseph, Jamie W; Ilkayeva, Olga; Burgess, Shawn C; Lu, Danhong; Becker, Thomas C; Sherry, A Dean; Newgard, Christopher B

    2008-05-23

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) currently is being investigated as a target for treatment of obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To investigate the effects of ACC1 inhibition on insulin secretion, three small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes targeting ACC1 (siACC1) were transfected into the INS-1-derived cell line, 832/13; the most efficacious duplex was also cloned into an adenovirus and used to transduce isolated rat islets. Delivery of the siACC1 duplexes decreased ACC1 mRNA by 60-80% in 832/13 cells and islets and enzyme activity by 46% compared with cells treated with a non-targeted siRNA. Delivery of siACC1 decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 70% in 832/13 cells and by 33% in islets. Surprisingly, siACC1 treatment decreased glucose oxidation by 49%, and the ATP:ADP ratio by 52%, accompanied by clear decreases in pyruvate cycling activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Exposure of siACC1-treated cells to the pyruvate cycling substrate dimethylmalate restored GSIS to normal without recovery of the depressed ATP:ADP ratio. In siACC1-treated cells, glucokinase protein levels were decreased by 25%, which correlated with a 36% decrease in glycogen synthesis and a 33% decrease in glycolytic flux. Furthermore, acute addition of the ACC1 inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) to beta-cells suppressed [(14)C]glucose incorporation into lipids but had no effect on GSIS, whereas chronic TOFA administration suppressed GSIS and glucose metabolism. In sum, chronic, but not acute, suppression of ACC1 activity impairs GSIS via inhibition of glucose rather than lipid metabolism. These findings raise concerns about the use of ACC inhibitors for diabetes therapy.

  2. Chronic Suppression of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 in β-Cells Impairs Insulin Secretion via Inhibition of Glucose Rather Than Lipid Metabolism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnebaum, Sarah M.; Joseph, Jamie W.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Burgess, Shawn C.; Lu, Danhong; Becker, Thomas C.; Sherry, A. Dean; Newgard, Christopher B.

    2008-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) currently is being investigated as a target for treatment of obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To investigate the effects of ACC1 inhibition on insulin secretion, three small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes targeting ACC1 (siACC1) were transfected into the INS-1-derived cell line, 832/13; the most efficacious duplex was also cloned into an adenovirus and used to transduce isolated rat islets. Delivery of the siACC1 duplexes decreased ACC1 mRNA by 60–80% in 832/13 cells and islets and enzyme activity by 46% compared with cells treated with a non-targeted siRNA. Delivery of siACC1 decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 70% in 832/13 cells and by 33% in islets. Surprisingly, siACC1 treatment decreased glucose oxidation by 49%, and the ATP:ADP ratio by 52%, accompanied by clear decreases in pyruvate cycling activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Exposure of siACC1-treated cells to the pyruvate cycling substrate dimethylmalate restored GSIS to normal without recovery of the depressed ATP:ADP ratio. In siACC1-treated cells, glucokinase protein levels were decreased by 25%, which correlated with a 36% decrease in glycogen synthesis and a 33% decrease in glycolytic flux. Furthermore, acute addition of the ACC1 inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) to β-cells suppressed [14C]glucose incorporation into lipids but had no effect on GSIS, whereas chronic TOFA administration suppressed GSIS and glucose metabolism. In sum, chronic, but not acute, suppression of ACC1 activity impairs GSIS via inhibition of glucose rather than lipid metabolism. These findings raise concerns about the use of ACC inhibitors for diabetes therapy. PMID:18381287

  3. Influence of High Aspect Ratio Vessel Cell Culture on TNF-Alpha, Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans from Wistar Furth Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Brian W.a; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    1999-01-01

    The present studies were carried out to determine the influence of a ground based microgravity paradigm, utilizing the High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) cell culture upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. An additional aim was to elucidate alterations in insulin secretion and glucose utilization using the HARV low shear, gravity averaged vector, cell culture technique. Islets were isolated (1726 +/- 117, 150 micron islet equivalent units) from Wistar Furth rats and assigned to four treatment groups: 1) HARV, 2) HARV plus LPS, 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS. Following 48 hours of culture, insulin concentration was increased in both HARV and static cultures (palpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) and was measured at selected time points for 48 hours. TNF-alpha was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (palpha is associated with a decreased insulin secretion is intriguing, both as it relates to in-flight investigations, and as it may provide insight into the pathophysiology of Type I and Type 11 diabetes. Glucose concentration in islet medium was lesser throughout the experiment in static cultures, suggesting a decreased reliance upon glucose as a metabolic substrate in the islets cultured in HARVS. In conclusion, the present studies demonstrate alterations in LPS induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF production in the microgravity HARV paradigm. Additionally, alterations in fuel homeostasis may be promulgated by HARV culture. The clinical and physiological significance of these observations remains to be determined.

  4. New Insulin Delivery Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Kreugel, Gillian; Grassi, Giorgio; Halimi, Serge; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Laurence J; Smith, Mike J; Wellhoener, Regine; Bode, Bruce W; Hirsch, Irl B; Kalra, Sanjay; Ji, Linong; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    Many primary care professionals manage injection or infusion therapies in patients with diabetes. Few published guidelines have been available to help such professionals and their patients manage these therapies. Herein, we present new, practical, and comprehensive recommendations for diabetes injections and infusions. These recommendations were informed by a large international survey of current practice and were written and vetted by 183 diabetes experts from 54 countries at the Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy: Expert Recommendations (FITTER) workshop held in Rome, Italy, in 2015. Recommendations are organized around the themes of anatomy, physiology, pathology, psychology, and technology. Key among the recommendations are that the shortest needles (currently the 4-mm pen and 6-mm syringe needles) are safe, effective, and less painful and should be the first-line choice in all patient categories; intramuscular injections should be avoided, especially with long-acting insulins, because severe hypoglycemia may result; lipohypertrophy is a frequent complication of therapy that distorts insulin absorption, and, therefore, injections and infusions should not be given into these lesions and correct site rotation will help prevent them; effective long-term therapy with insulin is critically dependent on addressing psychological hurdles upstream, even before insulin has been started; inappropriate disposal of used sharps poses a risk of infection with blood-borne pathogens; and mitigation is possible with proper training, effective disposal strategies, and the use of safety devices. Adherence to these new recommendations should lead to more effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Insulin resistance: definition and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovitz, H E

    2001-01-01

    Insulin resistance is defined clinically as the inability of a known quantity of exogenous or endogenous insulin to increase glucose uptake and utilization in an individual as much as it does in a normal population. Insulin action is the consequence of insulin binding to its plasma membrane receptor and is transmitted through the cell by a series of protein-protein interactions. Two major cascades of protein-protein interactions mediate intracellular insulin action: one pathway is involved in regulating intermediary metabolism and the other plays a role in controlling growth processes and mitoses. The regulation of these two distinct pathways can be dissociated. Indeed, some data suggest that the pathway regulating intermediary metabolism is diminished in type 2 diabetes while that regulating growth processes and mitoses is normal.--Several mechanisms have been proposed as possible causes underlying the development of insulin resistance and the insulin resistance syndrome. These include: (1) genetic abnormalities of one or more proteins of the insulin action cascade (2) fetal malnutrition (3) increases in visceral adiposity. Insulin resistance occurs as part of a cluster of cardiovascular-metabolic abnormalities commonly referred to as "The Insulin Resistance Syndrome" or "The Metabolic Syndrome". This cluster of abnormalities may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, accelerated atherosclerosis, hypertension or polycystic ovarian syndrome depending on the genetic background of the individual developing the insulin resistance.--In this context, we need to consider whether insulin resistance should be defined as a disease entity which needs to be diagnosed and treated with specific drugs to improve insulin action.

  6. Pitfalls of Insulin Pump Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to raise awareness about the importance of ensuring that insulin pumps internal clocks are set up correctly at all times. This is a very important safety issue because all commercially available insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled (though this is controversial), nor equipped with automatically adjusting internal clocks. Special attention is paid to how basal and bolus dose errors can be introduced by daylight savings time changes, travel across time zones, and am-pm clock errors. Correct setting of insulin pump internal clock is crucial for appropriate insulin delivery. A comprehensive literature review is provided, as are illustrative cases. Incorrect setting can potentially result in incorrect insulin delivery, with potential harmful consequences, if too much or too little insulin is delivered. Daylight saving time changes may not significantly affect basal insulin delivery, given the triviality of the time difference. However, bolus insulin doses can be dramatically affected. Such problems may occur when pump wearers have large variations in their insulin to carb ratio, especially if they forget to change their pump clock in the spring. More worrisome than daylight saving time change is the am-pm clock setting. If this setting is set up incorrectly, both basal rates and bolus doses will be affected. Appropriate insulin delivery through insulin pumps requires correct correlation between dose settings and internal clock time settings. Because insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled or automatically time-adjusting, extra caution should be practiced by patients to ensure correct time settings at all times. Clinicians and diabetes educators should verify the date/time of insulin pumps during patients’ visits, and should remind their patients to always verify these settings. PMID:25355713

  7. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Borck, Patrícia Cristine; Dos Santos-Silva, Junia Carolina Rebelo; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Zoppi, Cláudio Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2017-09-01

    Taurine (Tau) restores β-cell function in obesity; however, its action is lost in malnourished obese rodents. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the lack of effects of Tau in this model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (CD) (14% protein) or a protein-restricted diet (RD) (6% protein) for 6 wk. Afterward, mice received a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 wk [CD + HFD (CH) and RD + HFD (RH)] with or without 5% Tau supplementation after weaning on their drinking water [CH + Tau (CHT) and RH + Tau (RHT)]. The HFD increased insulin secretion through mitochondrial metabolism in CH and RH. Tau prevented all those alterations in CHT only. The expression of the taurine transporter (Tau-T), as well as Tau content in pancreatic islets, was increased in CH but had no effect on RH. Protein malnutrition programs β cells and impairs Tau-induced restoration of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis. This may be associated with modulation of the expression of Tau-T in pancreatic islets, which may be responsible for the absence of effect of Tau in protein-malnourished obese mice.-Branco, R. C. S., Camargo, R. L., Batista, T. M., Vettorazzi, J. F., Borck, P. C., dos Santos-Silva, J. C. R., Boschero, A. C., Zoppi, C. C., Carneiro, E. M. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion. © FASEB.

  8. Insulin pumps and insulin quality--requirements and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Havelund, S

    1983-01-01

    In developing insulin solution suitable for delivery devices the chemical and biological stability, as well as the physical stability, must be taken into consideration. Addition of certain mono- and disaccharides increases the physical stability of neutral insulin solutions, but concurrently the chemical and biological stability decrease to an unacceptable degree. Addition of Ca-ions in low concentrations offers a physiologically acceptable method for stabilizing neutral insulin solutions against heat precipitation without affecting the quality, including the chemical and biological stability.

  9. Combining insulins for optimal blood glucose control in type 1 and 2 diabetes: focus on insulin glulisine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ulrich

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Heather Ulrich1,4, Benjamin Snyder1,Satish K Garg1,2,31Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes; 2Department of Medicine; 3Pediatrics; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USAAbstract: Normalization of blood glucose is essential for the prevention of diabetes mellitus (DM-related microvascular and macrovascular complications. Despite substantial literature to support the benefits of glucose lowering and clear treatment targets, glycemic control remains suboptimal for most people with DM in the United States. Pharmacokinetic limitations of conventional insulins have been a barrier to achieving treatment targets secondary to adverse effects such as hypoglycemia and weight gain. Recombinant DNA technology has allowed modification of the insulin molecule to produce insulin analogues that overcome these pharmacokinetic limitations. With time action profiles that more closely mimic physiologic insulin secretion, rapid acting insulin analogues (RAAs reduce post-prandial glucose excursions and hypoglycemia when compared to regular human insulin (RHI. Insulin glulisine (Apidra® is a rapid-acting insulin analogue created by substituting lysine for asparagine at position B3 and glutamic acid for lysine at position B29 on the B chain of human insulin. The quick absorption of insulin glulisine more closely reproduces physiologic first-phase insulin secretion and its rapid acting profile is maintained across patient subtypes. Clinical trials have demonstrated comparable or greater efficacy of insulin glulisine versus insulin lispro or RHI, respectively. Efficacy is maintained even when insulin glulisine is administered post-meal. In addition, glulisine appears to have a more rapid time action profile compared with insulin lispro across various body mass indexes (BMIs. The safety and tolerability profile of insulin glulisine is also comparable to that of insulin

  10. Reversible immortalization of Nestin-positive precursor cells from pancreas and differentiation into insulin-secreting cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Pei; Li, Li; Qi, Hui [The Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Jinan University, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Zhou, Han-xin [Department of General Surgery, First Hospital (Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital) of Shenzhen University, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Deng, Chun-yan [The Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Jinan University, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Li, Fu-rong, E-mail: frli62@yahoo.com [The Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Jinan University, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Shenzhen Institution of Gerontology, 518020 Shenzhen (China)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NPPCs from mouse pancreas were isolated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tet-on system for SV40 large in NPPCs was used to get RINPPCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RINPPCs can undergo at least 80 population doublings without senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RINPPCs can be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combination of GLP-1 and sodium butyrate promoted the differentiation process. -- Abstract: Pancreatic stem cells or progenitor cells posses the ability of directed differentiation into pancreatic {beta} cells. However, these cells usually have limited proliferative capacity and finite lifespan in vitro. In the present study, Nestin-positive progenitor cells (NPPCs) from mouse pancreas that expressed the pancreatic stem cells or progenitor cell marker Nestin were isolated to obtain a sufficient number of differentiated pancreatic {beta} cells. Tet-on system for SV40 large T-antigen expression in NPPCs was used to achieve reversible immortalization. The reversible immortal Nestin-positive progenitor cells (RINPPCs) can undergo at least 80 population doublings without senescence in vitro while maintaining their biological and genetic characteristics. RINPPCs can be efficiently induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells that contain a combination of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and sodium butyrate. The results of the present study can be used to explore transplantation therapy of type I diabetes mellitus.

  11. Insulin resistance in obesity can be reliably identified from fasting plasma insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, K. W.; Gilijamse, P. W.; Koopman, K. E.; de Weijer, B. A.; Brands, M.; Kootte, R. S.; Romijn, J. A.; Ackermans, M. T.; Nieuwdorp, M.; Soeters, M. R.; Serlie, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the major contributor to cardiometabolic complications of obesity. We aimed to (1) establish cutoff points for insulin resistance from euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (EHCs), (2) identify insulin-resistant obese subjects and (3) predict insulin resistance from routinely

  12. Hyperinsulinism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): role of insulin clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, M C; Vesco, R; Vigneri, E; Ciresi, A; Giordano, C

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinism are the predominant metabolic defects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, hyperinsulinism, as well as being compensatory, can also express a condition of reduced insulin clearance. Our aim was to evaluate the differences in insulin action and metabolism between women with PCOS (with normal glucose tolerance) and age- and BMI-matched women with prediabetes (without hyperandrogenism and ovulatory disorders). 22 women with PCOS and 21 age/BMI-matched women with prediabetes were subjected to a Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and an Oral Glucose tolerance Test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the glucose infusion rate during clamp (M value); insulin secretion by Insulinogenic index, Oral Disposition Index (DIo) and AUC(2h-insulin) during OGTT; and insulin clearance by the metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI) during clamp. Women with PCOS showed significantly higher levels of AUC(2h-insulin) (p PCOS [420 (IQR 227-588) vs. 743 (IQR 597-888) ml m(-2) min(-1): p PCOS group, a strong independent inverse correlation was only observed between MCRI and AUC(2h-insulin) (PCOS: β:-0.878; p PCOS there is peripheral insulin sensitivity similar to that of women with prediabetes. What sets PCOS apart is the hyperinsulinism, today still simplistically defined "compensatory"; actually this is mainly related to decreased insulin clearance whose specific causes and dynamics have yet to be clarified.

  13. Insulin autoimmune syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Oliveira Moreira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS, Hirata disease is a rare cause of hypoglycemia in Western countries. It is characterized by hypoglycemic episodes, elevated insulin levels, and positive insulin antibodies. Our objective is to report a case of IAS identified in South America. CASE REPORT: A 56-year-old Caucasian male patient started presenting neuroglycopenic symptoms during hospitalization due to severe trauma. Biochemical evaluation confirmed hypoglycemia and abnormally high levels of insulin. Conventional imaging examinations were negative for pancreatic tumor. Insulin antibodies were above the normal range. Clinical remission of the episodes was not achieved with verapamil and steroids. Thus, a subtotal pancreatectomy was performed due to the lack of response to conservative treatment and because immunosuppressants were contraindicated due to bacteremia. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse hypertrophy of beta cells. The patient continues to have high insulin levels but is almost free of hypoglycemic episodes.

  14. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  15. Studies on insulin receptor, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yukio

    1979-01-01

    The present study was designed for the purpose of establishing a method of insulin radioreceptor assay using plasma membranes of guinea pigs as receptor sites. The results obtained are as follows: 1) Insulin receptor in the renal plasma membranes of guinea pigs showed a significantly high affinity to porcine insulin compared with that in the plasma membranes of guinea pig liver or rat kidney and liver. 2) In the insulin radioreceptor assay, an optimum condition was observed by the incubation at 4 0 C for 24 - 48 hours with 100 μg membrane protein of guinea pig kidney and 0.08 ng of 125 I-insulin. This assay method was specific for insulin and showed an accurate biological activity of insulin. 3) The recovery rate of insulin radioreceptor assay was 98.4% and dilution check up to 16 times did not influence on the result. An average of coefficient variation was 3.92% within assay. All of these results indicated the method to be satisfactory. 4) Glucose induced insulin release by perfusion method in isolated Langerhans islets of rats showed an identical pattern of reaction curves between radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay, although the values of radioreceptor assay was slightly low. 5) Insulin free serum produced by ultra filtration method was added to the standard assay medium. By this procedure, direct measurement of human serum by radioreceptor assay became possible. 6) The value of human serum insulin receptor binding activity by the radioreceptor assay showed a high correlation with that of insulin radioimmunoassay in sera of normal, borderline or diabetic type defined by glucose tolerance test. (author)

  16. Protein Crystal Recombinant Human Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Recombiant Human Insulin; space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). On STS-60, Spacehab II indicated that space-grown crystals are larger and of greater optical clarity than their earth-grown counterparts. Recombiant Human Insulin facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  17. TLR4 and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J. Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is a key feature of insulin resistance and obesity. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4, involved in modulating innate immunity, is an important mediator of insulin resistance and its comorbidities. TLR4 contributes to the development of insulin resistance and inflammation through its activation by elevated exogenous ligands (e.g., dietary fatty acids and enteric lipopolysaccharide and endogenous ligands (e.g., free fatty acids which are elevated in obese states. TLR4, expressed in insulin target tissues, activates proinflammatory kinases JNK, IKK, and p38 that impair insulin signal transduction directly through inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS on serine residues. TLR4 activation also leads to increased transcription of pro-inflammatory genes, resulting in elevation of cytokine, chemokine, reactive oxygen species, and eicosanoid levels that promote further insulin-desensitization within the target cell itself and in other cells via paracrine and systemic effects. Increased understanding of cell type-specific TLR4-mediated effects on insulin action present the opportunity and challenge of developing related therapeutic approaches for improving insulin sensitivity while preserving innate immunity.

  18. Absence of down-regulation of the insulin receptor by insulin. A possible mechanism of insulin resistance in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, A P; Flint, D J

    1983-01-01

    Insulin resistance occurs in rat adipocytes during pregnancy and lactation despite increased or normal insulin binding respectively; this suggests that a post-receptor defect exists. The possibility has been examined that, although insulin binding occurs normally, internalization of insulin or its receptor may be impaired in these states. Insulin produced a dose-dependent reduction in the number of insulin receptors on adipocytes from virgin rats maintained in culture medium, probably due to ...

  19. Store-operated Ca2+ Entry Mediated by Orai1 and TRPC1 Participates to Insulin Secretion in Rat β-Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Jessica; Le Gal, Loïc; Saurwein, Lisa; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Raddatz, Eric; Allagnat, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCs) are voltage-independent Ca2+ channels activated upon depletion of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores. Early studies suggest the contribution of such channels to Ca2+ homeostasis in insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells. However, their composition and contribution to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) remains unclear. In this study, endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ depletion triggered by acetylcholine (ACh) or thapsigargin stimulated the formation of a ternary complex composed of Orai1, TRPC1, and STIM1, the key proteins involved in the formation of SOCs. Ca2+ imaging further revealed that Orai1 and TRPC1 are required to form functional SOCs and that these channels are activated by STIM1 in response to thapsigargin or ACh. Pharmacological SOCs inhibition or dominant negative blockade of Orai1 or TRPC1 using the specific pore mutants Orai1-E106D and TRPC1-F562A impaired GSIS in rat β-cells and fully blocked the potentiating effect of ACh on secretion. In contrast, pharmacological or dominant negative blockade of TRPC3 had no effect on extracellular Ca2+ entry and GSIS. Finally, we observed that prolonged exposure to supraphysiological glucose concentration impaired SOCs function without altering the expression levels of STIM1, Orai1, and TRPC1. We conclude that Orai1 and TRPC1, which form SOCs regulated by STIM1, play a key role in the effect of ACh on GSIS, a process that may be impaired in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26494622

  20. Beta-cell specific deletion of Dicer1 leads to defective insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalis, Martins; Bolmeson, Caroline; Esguerra, Jonathan L.S.

    2011-01-01

    -cells specific disruption of the Dicer1 gene using the Cre-lox system controlled by the rat insulin promoter (RIP). In contrast to their normoglycaemic control littermates (RIP-Cre(+/-) Dicer1(¿/wt)), RIP-Cre(+/-)Dicer1(flox/flox) mice (RIP-Cre Dicer1(¿/¿)) developed progressive hyperglycaemia and full...... revealed altered islet morphology, marked decreased ß-cell mass, reduced numbers of granules within the ß-cells and reduced granule docking in adult RIP-Cre Dicer1(¿/¿) mice. ß-cell specific Dicer1 deletion did not appear to disrupt fetal and neonatal ß-cell development as 2-week old RIP-Cre Dicer1...

  1. The Ia-2β intronic miRNA, miR-153, is a negative regulator of insulin and dopamine secretion through its effect on the Cacna1c gene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanyu; Abuhatzira, Liron; Carmona, Gilberto N; Vadrevu, Suryakiran; Satin, Leslie S; Notkins, Abner L

    2015-10-01

    miR-153 is an intronic miRNA embedded in the genes that encode IA-2 (also known as PTPRN) and IA-2β (also known as PTPRN2). Islet antigen (IA)-2 and IA-2β are major autoantigens in type 1 diabetes and are important transmembrane proteins in dense core and synaptic vesicles. miR-153 and its host genes are co-regulated in pancreas and brain. The present experiments were initiated to decipher the regulatory network between miR-153 and its host gene Ia-2β (also known as Ptprn2). Insulin secretion was determined by ELISA. Identification of miRNA targets was assessed using luciferase assays and by quantitative real-time PCR and western blots in vitro and in vivo. Target protector was also employed to evaluate miRNA target function. Functional studies revealed that miR-153 mimic suppresses both glucose- and potassium-induced insulin secretion (GSIS and PSIS, respectively), whereas miR-153 inhibitor enhances both GSIS and PSIS. A similar effect on dopamine secretion also was observed. Using miRNA target prediction software, we found that miR-153 is predicted to target the 3'UTR region of the calcium channel gene, Cacna1c. Further studies confirmed that Cacna1c mRNA and protein are downregulated by miR-153 mimics and upregulated by miR-153 inhibitors in insulin-secreting freshly isolated mouse islets, in the insulin-secreting mouse cell line MIN6 and in the dopamine-secreting cell line PC12. miR-153 is a negative regulator of both insulin and dopamine secretion through its effect on Cacna1c expression, which suggests that IA-2β and miR-153 have opposite functional effects on the secretory pathway.

  2. Cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and brain angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Le; Hu, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Insulin performs unique non-metabolic functions within the brain. Broadly speaking, two major areas of these functions are those related to brain endothelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and those related to behavioral effects, like cognition in disease states (Alzheimer's disease, AD) and in health. Recent studies showed that both these functions are associated with brain angiogenesis. These findings raise interesting questions such as how they are linked to each other and whether modifying brain angiogenesis by targeting certain insulin signaling pathways could be an effective strategy to treat dementia as in AD, or even to help secure healthy longevity. The two canonical downstream pathways involved in mediating the insulin signaling pathway, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, in the brain are supposed to be similar to those in the periphery. PI3K and MAPK pathways play important roles in angiogenesis. Both are involved in stimulating hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in angiogenesis and could be activated by the insulin signaling pathway. This suggests that PI3K and MAPK pathways might act as cross-talk between the insulin signaling pathway and the angiogenesis pathway in brain. But the cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and the detailed mechanism in the connection of insulin signaling pathway, brain angiogenesis pathway, and healthy aging or dementias are still mostly not clear and need further studies.

  3. Balanites aegyptiaca ameliorates insulin secretion and decreases pancreatic apoptosis in diabetic rats: Role of SAPK/JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Kamel M A; Mahmoud, Mohamed O; Hassan, Hossam M; Abdel-Razik, Abdel-Razik H; Aziz, Lourin N; Rateb, Mostafa E

    2018-06-01

    SAPK-JNK pathway performs a significant role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Balanites aegyptiaca (BA) is used as an anti-diabetic agent in folk medicine however its hypoglycemic mechanism is not fully elucidated. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of crude extract, butanol, and dichloromethane fractions from BA on the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK-JNK) pathway in experimental diabetic rats. Six groups of male Wistar rats were included: normal control, diabetic, diabetic rats treated with crude, butanol or dichloromethane fraction from BA (50 mg/kg BW) and diabetic rats treated with gliclazide as a reference drug for one month. Our results suggested a protective role of treatment of diabetic rats with BA against oxidative stress-induced SAPK-JNK pathway. Moreover, BA treatment produced a reduction in plasma glucose, HbA 1c , lactic acid, lipid profile, malondialdehyde levels and produced an increase in insulin, reduced glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities compared with untreated diabetic rats. Moreover, it decreased apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, protein 53 and increased insulin receptor substrate 1 in rat pancreas while it increased glucose transporter 4 in rat muscle. Analysis of BA extracts by LC-HRMS revealed the presence of different saponins with reported hypoglycemic effect. In conclusion, BA exerted hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, insulinotropic and antioxidant effects. Additionally, it reduced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells and increased glucose uptake in muscle. These results suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of BA is due to the inhibition of the SAPK-JNK pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The evolutionary benefit of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, Maarten R.; Soeters, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance is perceived as deleterious, associated with conditions as the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and critical illness. However, insulin resistance is evolutionarily well preserved and its persistence suggests that it benefits survival. Insulin resistance is important in

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Arsen'evich Tkachuk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is a phenomenon associated with an impaired ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake by target cells and to reduce the blood glucose level. A response increase in insulin secretion by the pancreas and hyperinsulinemia are compensatory reactions of the body. The development of IR leads to the inability of target cells to respond to insulin that results in developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and metabolic syndrome. For this reason, the metabolic syndrome is defined in practice as a combination of IR with one or more pathologies such as T2DM, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and some others. However, a combination of high blood glucose and insulin levels always serves as its physiological criterion.IR should be considered as a systemic failure of the endocrine regulation in the body. Physiological causes of IR are diverse. The main ones are nutritional overload and accumulation of certain lipids and their metabolites in cells, low physical activity, chronic inflammation and stress of various nature, including oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress (impairment of damaged protein degradation in the cell. Recent studies have demonstrated that these physiological mechanisms likely act through a single intracellular scenario. This is the impairment of signal transduction from the insulin receptor to its targets via the negative feedback mechanism in intracellular insulin-dependent signaling cascades.This review describes the physiological and intracellular mechanisms of insulin action and focuses on their abnormalities upon IR development. Finally, feasible trends in early molecular diagnosis and therapy of IR are discussed.

  6. Insulin resistance, insulin sensitization and inflammation in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhindsa G

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 5-10% of women of reproductive age have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. While insulin resistance is not part of the diagnostic criteria for PCOS, its importance in the pathogenesis of PCOS cannot be denied. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance independent of total or fat-free body mass. Post-receptor defects in the action of insulin have been described in PCOS which are similar to those found in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Treatment with insulin sensitizers, metformin and thiazolidinediones, improve both metabolic and hormonal patterns and also improve ovulation in PCOS. Recent studies have shown that PCOS women have higher circulating levels of inflammatory mediators like C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor- , tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 . It is possible that the beneficial effect of insulin sensitizers in PCOS may be partly due to a decrease in inflammation.

  7. The interplay between noncoding RNAs and insulin in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Xu, Jia; Du, Xiao; Fu, Xianghui

    2018-04-10

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs and circular RNAs, regulate various biological processes and are involved in the initiation and progression of human diseases. Insulin, a predominant hormone secreted from pancreatic β cells, is an essential factor in regulation of systemic metabolism through multifunctional insulin signaling. Insulin production and action are tightly controlled. Dysregulations of insulin production and action can impair metabolic homeostasis, and eventually lead to the development of multiple metabolic diseases, especially diabetes. Accumulating data indicates that ncRNAs modulate β cell mass, insulin synthesis, secretion and signaling, and their role in diabetes is dramatically emerging. This review summarizes our current knowledge of ncRNAs as regulators of insulin, with particular emphasis on the implications of this interplay in the development of diabetes. We outline the role of ncRNAs in pancreatic β cell mass and function, which is critical for insulin production and secretion. We also highlight the involvement of ncRNAs in insulin signaling in peripheral tissues including liver, muscle and adipose, and discuss ncRNA-mediated inter-organ crosstalk under diabetic conditions. A more in-depth understanding of the interplay between ncRNAs and insulin may afford valuable insights and novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of diabetes, as well as other human diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Paediatrics, insulin resistance and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlais, Matko; Coward, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    Systemic insulin resistance is becoming more prevalent in the young due to modern lifestyles predisposing to the metabolic syndrome and obesity. There is also evidence that there are critical insulin-resistant phases for the developing child, including puberty, and that renal disease per se causes systemic insulin resistance. This review considers the factors that render children insulin resistant, as well as the accumulating evidence that the kidney is an insulin-responsive organ and could be affected by insulin resistance.

  9. Differences in beta-cell function and insulin secretion in Black vs. White obese adolescents: Do incretin hormones play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black youth are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) than their White peers. Previously we demonstrated that for the same degree of insulin sensitivity, Black youth have an upregulated beta-cell function and insulin hypersecretion, in response to intravenous (IV) glucose, compared with Whites. T...

  10. Prolactin effect on the insulin content of albino rats in different physiological states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, Y.M.; Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; El-Mougi, S.M.; El-Sayed, F.B.; Kuwait Univ.)

    1980-01-01

    The metabolic action of prolactin on insulin levels in plasma and pancreas has been studied. Prolactin was injected in a single dose or single daily doses on 4 successive days into albino rats in six different physiological states. Insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay using 125 I insulin. From the results it is concluded that prolactin injected i.p. influences the output of insulin and stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin into the plasma. (author)

  11. Insulin Signaling and Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Christian; Abel, E. Dale

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is associated with generalized insulin resistance. Moreover, insulin resistant states such as type 2 diabetes and obesity increases the risk of heart failure even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes alters the systemic and neurohumoral milieu leading to changes in metabolism and signaling pathways in the heart that may contribute to myocardial dysfunction. In addition, changes in insulin signaling within cardiomyocytes develop in the failing heart. The changes range from activation of proximal insulin signaling pathways that may contribute to adverse left ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial dysfunction to repression of distal elements of insulin signaling pathways such as forkhead (FOXO) transcriptional signaling or glucose transport which may also impair cardiac metabolism, structure and function. This article will review the complexities of insulin signaling within the myocardium and ways in which these pathways are altered in heart failure or in conditions associated with generalized insulin resistance. The implications of these changes for therapeutic approaches to treating or preventing heart failure will be discussed. PMID:27034277

  12. Preserved glucagon-like peptide-1 responses to oral glucose, but reduced incretin effect, insulin secretion and sensitivity in young Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeow, Toh Peng; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    are scarce. We examined the insulin resistance, β-cell function (BC), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 hormone and incretin effect in Asian YT2DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This case-control study recruited 25 Asian YT2DM and 15 healthy controls, matched for gender, ethnicity and body mass index. Serum......OBJECTIVE: Youth onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (YT2DM) is a globally rising phenomenon with substantial Asians representation. The understanding of its pathophysiology is derived largely from studies in the obese African-American and Caucasian populations, while studies on incretin effect...... glucose, insulin, C peptide and GLP-1 were sampled during 2-hour oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and 1-hour intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs). Insulin sensitivity was derived from the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI), Oral Glucose Insulin Sensitivity Index (OGIS...

  13. The interplay between cyclic AMP and insulin during obesity development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Kamil

    Insulin and cAMP signalling are related to two opposite metabolic responses. Insulin secretion is elicited in response to food availability and trigger catabolic processes like lipogenesis and glycogen synthesis with a purpose of energy storage. On the other hand cAMP signalling is associated...

  14. Enrichment of human embryonic stem cell-derived NKX6.1-expressing pancreatic progenitor cells accelerates the maturation of insulin-secreting cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Alireza; Bruin, Jennifer E; Xu, Jean; Narayan, Kavitha; Fox, Jessica K; O'Neil, John J; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2013-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are considered a potential alternative to cadaveric islets as a source of transplantable cells for treating patients with diabetes. We previously described a differentiation protocol to generate pancreatic progenitor cells from hESCs, composed of mainly pancreatic endoderm (PDX1/NKX6.1-positive), endocrine precursors (NKX2.2/synaptophysin-positive, hormone/NKX6.1-negative), and polyhormonal cells (insulin/glucagon-positive, NKX6.1-negative). However, the relative contributions of NKX6.1-negative versus NKX6.1-positive cell fractions to the maturation of functional β-cells remained unclear. To address this question, we generated two distinct pancreatic progenitor cell populations using modified differentiation protocols. Prior to transplant, both populations contained a high proportion of PDX1-expressing cells (~85%-90%) but were distinguished by their relatively high (~80%) or low (~25%) expression of NKX6.1. NKX6.1-high and NKX6.1-low progenitor populations were transplanted subcutaneously within macroencapsulation devices into diabetic mice. Mice transplanted with NKX6.1-low cells remained hyperglycemic throughout the 5-month post-transplant period whereas diabetes was reversed in NKX6.1-high recipients within 3 months. Fasting human C-peptide levels were similar between groups throughout the study, but only NKX6.1-high grafts displayed robust meal-, glucose- and arginine-responsive insulin secretion as early as 3 months post-transplant. NKX6.1-low recipients displayed elevated fasting glucagon levels. Theracyte devices from both groups contained almost exclusively pancreatic endocrine tissue, but NKX6.1-high grafts contained a greater proportion of insulin-positive and somatostatin-positive cells, whereas NKX6.1-low grafts contained mainly glucagon-expressing cells. Insulin-positive cells in NKX6.1-high, but not NKX6.1-low grafts expressed nuclear MAFA. Collectively, this study demonstrates that a pancreatic endoderm

  15. Studies on insulin receptor, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yukio

    1979-01-01

    The present study is to investigate an influence of starvation and high fat diet on insulin receptor of the plasma membrane by means of radioreceptor assay using 125 I-labelled insulin. Male guinea pigs of Hartley strain were employed for the starvation study, and 125 I-insulin binding capacity on the plasma membrane of the liver and kidney was determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours of the fast after the last meal. Male rats of Wistar strain were employed for the high fat study where the diet containing 35% of butter was fed ad libitum for 38 or 68 days. The animals were killed at the fast of 12 hours, and 125 I-insulin binding capacity on the plasma membrane of the liver was determined. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1) An increase in 125 I-insulin binding capacity on the plasma membrane of the liver and kidney was observed by the starvation for 24 to 72 hours. 2) The mechanism of the increase by starvation was considered to be different by the organs; it was due to an increase in number of insulin receptor in the liver, and due to an increase in affinity of insulin receptor in the kidney. 3) In non-obese rats fed with high fat diet, the number of insulin receptor on the liver plasma membrane showed a decrease, and this observation clearly indicated that the decrease in number of the receptor did not depend on the obesity. 4) Obese rats also fed with high fat diet presented a decrease in number of insulin receptor without an elevation of insulin levels in the circulating blood. This indicated that at least in the obese rats fed with high fat diet, the decrease in number of the receptor was not due to hyperinsulinemia. (author)

  16. Dieta hiperlipídica e capacidade secretória de insulina em ratos High-fat diet and secretory capacity of insulin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Garcia de Oliveira Duarte

    2006-06-01

    the effects of continuous feeding of rats with a palatable high-fat diet on: body weight gain, adiposity, liver and muscle glycogen content, blood glucose and insulin levels, and pancreatic morphology and insulin secretion by in vitro isolated pancreatic beta cells. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (21 days old were fed with a palatable high-fat diet or a chow diet during 15wk. Body weight and food intake were recorded daily whereas blood glucose and insulin were analyzed weekly. After they were killed, pancreas, liver, gastrocnemius muscle and adipose tissues were removed and weighted. Morphology analysis of pancreatic tissue sections was performed using light microscopy. Serum insulin and the insulin secreted by isolated pancreatic islets, incubated for 90min under different concentrations of glucose, were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The palatable high-fat diet increased adiposity, body weight gain and liver glycogen content when compared with the animals fed with a chow diet. Blood glucose and insulin levels did not differ between groups. The insulin secretion from isolated islets increased in the high-fat diet group only at physiological concentrations of glucose (G= 8.3mM. The size of the pancreas of rats receiving the high-fat diet decreased, although the number of beta cells increased. In addition, the lumen of pancreatic vessels was narrower compared with control islets. CONCLUSION: The obesity resulting from a high-fat diet did not alter the blood glucose and insulin levels of fasted rats. Despite the morphological alterations of the pancreas, normal blood glucose concentration in rats receiving a high-fat diet remained at physiological range due to a preserved secretory capacity of the pancreatic islets.

  17. [News and perspectives in insulin treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluzík, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Insulin therapy is a therapeutic cornerstone in patients with type 1 diabetes and also in numerous patients with type 2 diabetes especially with longer history of diabetes. The initiation of insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes patients is often delayed which is at least partially due to suboptimal pharmacokinetic characteristics of available insulins. The development of novel insulins with more favorable characteristics than those of current insulins is therefore still ongoing. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge of novel insulins that have been recently introduced to the market or are getting close to routine clinical use. We will also focus on the perspectives of insulin therapy in the long-term run including the alternative routes of insulin administration beyond its classical subcutaneous injection treatment.Key words: alternative routes of insulin administration - diabetes mellitus - hypoglycemia - insulin - insulin analogues.

  18. Economic benefits of improved insulin stability in insulin pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Richard C; van Amerongen, Derek; Bazalo, Gary; Aagren, Mark; Bouchard, Jonathan R

    2011-05-01

    Insulin pump users discard unused medication and infusion sets according to labeling and manufacturer's instructions. The stability labeling for insulin aspart (rDNA origin] (Novolog) was increased from two days to six. The associated savings was modeled from the perspective of a hypothetical one-million member health plan and the total United States population. The discarded insulin volume and the number of infusion sets used under a two-day stability scenario versus six were modeled. A mix of insulin pumps of various reservoir capacities with a range of daily insulin dosages was used. Average daily insulin dose was 65 units ranging from 10 to 150 units. Costs of discarded insulin aspart [rDNA origin] were calculated using WAC (Average Wholesale Price minus 16.67%). The cost of pump supplies was computed for the two-day scenario assuming a complete infusion set change, including reservoirs, every two days. Under the six-day scenario complete infusion sets were discarded every six days while cannulas at the insertion site were changed midway between complete changes. AWP of least expensive supplies was used to compute their costs. For the hypothetical health plan (1,182 pump users) the annual reduction in discarded insulin volume between scenarios was 19.8 million units. The corresponding cost reduction for the plan due to drug and supply savings was $3.4 million. From the U.S. population perspective, savings of over $1 billion were estimated. Using insulin that is stable for six days in pump reservoirs can yield substantial savings to health plans and other payers, including patients.

  19. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells: Viable therapy for type III.C. a diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition from acute pancreatitis to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is a rare manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma because of impaired glucose tolerance and suppresses insulin secretion. We report the case of a 26-year-old male with pancreatic diabetes caused by parathyroid adenoma induced chronic pancreatitis. He had serum C-peptide 0.12 ng/ml, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody 5.0 IU/ml, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C 8.9%, and required 72 IU/day of biphasic-isophane insulin injection for uncontrolled hyperglycemia. We treated him with his own adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem-cells (IS-ADMSC along with his bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSC. Autologous IS-ADMSC + BM-HSC were infused into subcutaneous tissue, portal and thymic circulation without any conditioning. Over a follow-up of 27 months, the patient is maintaining fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels of 132 and 165 mg/dl, respectively, with HbA1C 6.8% and requiring 36 IU/day of biphasic-isophane insulin. Co-infusion of IS-ADMSC + BM-HSC offers a safe and viable therapy for type III.C.a Diabetes Mellitus.

  20. Role of insulin in the hyperandrogenemia of lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Carpentier, André

    2007-10-01

    To determine the effect of reducing insulin secretion on hyperandrogenemia in lean normoinsulinemic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and normal metabolic insulin sensitivity. Transversal assessment at baseline and prospective follow-up of lean PCOS group after 8 days of diazoxide, which reduces insulin secretion, and 1 month of leuprolide, which suppresses LH. Clinical research center of an academic hospital. Nine lean women (body mass index PCOS and normal insulin levels, as well as 17 lean healthy women. Lean PCOS women were reassessed after 8 days of diazoxide and after 1 month of leuprolide, which suppresses LH. Androgen levels and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (metabolic insulin sensitivity), determined by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (M-value). Mean M-value of lean PCOS women (48.5 micromol/kg.min) was similar to lean control subjects (52.9 micromol/kg.min). They also had comparable anthropometric measures, lipids, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. The LH did not change significantly after diazoxide, but was almost suppressed after leuprolide in the PCOS group. Androstenedione decreased significantly after diazoxide and even more after leuprolide. However, free T significantly decreased only after diazoxide in lean PCOS women. Diazoxide also increased SHBG significantly in this group. In women with typical PCOS and normal insulin levels and metabolic insulin sensitivity, reducing insulin secretion significantly decreased androgen and increased SHBG levels. These results suggest that insulin contributes to hyperandrogenemia even in PCOS women with normal metabolic insulin sensitivity, which might be due to increased sensitivity of their androgenic insulin pathway.

  1. Increase in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had a strong impact on the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese individuals with impaired insulin secretion: the Saku study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Akiko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Soyano, Fumie; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Sonoda, Nao; Godai, Kayo; Ohno, Yuko; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Deura, Kijyo

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of increase in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) on the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese individuals with impaired insulin secretion (IIS). This study included 2,209 participants aged 30-69 without diabetes at baseline who underwent comprehensive medical check-ups between April 2006 and March 2007 at Saku Central Hospital. Participants were classified into eight groups according to the combination of baseline IIS status (non-IIS and IIS) and category of HOMA-IR change between the baseline and follow-up examinations (decrease, no change/small increase, moderate increase, and large increase). Type 2 diabetes was determined from fasting and 2 h post-load plasma glucose concentrations at the follow-up examination between April 2009 and March 2011. At baseline, 669 individuals (30.3%) were classified as having IIS. At follow-up, 74 individuals developed type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for confounding factors including baseline HOMA-IR values, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for type 2 diabetes in the non-IIS with a decrease (mean change in HOMA-IR: -0.47), non-IIS with a moderate increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.28), non-IIS with a large increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.83), IIS with a decrease (mean change in HOMA-IR: -0.36), IIS with no change/small increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.08), IIS with a moderate increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.27), and IIS with a large increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.73) groups, relative to the non-IIS with no change/small increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.08) group were 0.23 (0.04, 1.11), 1.22 (0.26, 5.72), 2.01 (0.70, 6.46), 1.37 (0.32, 4.28), 3.60 (0.83, 15.57), 5.24 (1.34, 20.52), and 7.01 (1.75, 24.18), respectively. Moderate and large increases in HOMA-IR had a strong impact on the development of type 2 diabetes among individuals with IIS in this Japanese population.

  2. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide secretion in obese and non obese women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabeer, S; Naidoo, C; Joubert, S M

    1990-06-01

    Plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and C-peptide responses during oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) were evaluated in 10 non obese women with polycystic ovarian disease (NOB-PCOD) and 10 obese women with polycystic ovarian disease (OB-PCOD). Mean plasma glucose response at 120 minutes in OB-PCOD showed impaired glucose tolerance. Also in this group, 1 patient had frank diabetes mellitus, whilst 3 other patients had impaired glucose tolerance 1 NOB-PCOD patient had impaired glucose tolerance. Mean plasma glucose levels and mean incremental glucose areas were higher in the OB-PCOD at all time intervals and reached statistical significance at 60 and 90 minutes. Mean plasma IRI levels were also higher in OB-PCOD at all time intervals, and reached statistically significant higher levels at 0, 60 and 90 minutes. Mean serum C-peptide valves were also higher at all time intervals in OB-PCOD. The relationship between acanthosis nigricans, obesity and PCOD was also analysed. It is evident from this study that obesity has a significant negative impact on the overall carbohydrate status in women with PCOD.

  3. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 secretions in eating disorders: Correlations with psychopathological aspects of the disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Francesca; Santonastaso, Paolo; Caregaro, Lorenza; Favaro, Angela

    2018-05-01

    Hormonal alterations in Eating Disorders (ED) may result from the biochemical stress of malnutrition/starvation. The correlations between some hormonal impairments, particularly of the somatotropic axis, and the psychopathological aspects of ED are still undefined. We measured the plasma concentrations of the somatotropic hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in 136 patients with various forms of ED, 65 with restricted Anorexia Nervosa (ANR), 19 with bingeing-purging Anorexia Nervosa (ANBP), 12 with purging-non binging Anorexia Nervosa (ANP), 26 with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 8 with ED not otherwise specified-anorexic type (EDNOS-AN), 7 with ED not otherwise specified-bulimic type (EDNOS-BN) and in 30 healthy controls. Psychological assessment of patients and controls was performed using two outpatient rating scales, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Significant negative or positive correlations were observed between GH-IGF-1 concentrations and impairments on several EDI-2 subscales (drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, interoceptive awareness, sense of ineffectiveness, interpersonal distrust, maturity fear) and on SCL-90 subitems (depression, hostility, obsessivity compulsivity, anxiety), suggesting a possible hormonal modulatory effect on specific aspects of ED psychopathology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake by muscle involves the central nervous system in insulin-sensitive mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, Claudia P.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Geerling, Janine J.; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin inhibits endogenous glucose production (EGP) and stimulates glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. We examined the contribution of central insulin signaling on circulating insulin-stimulated

  5. Stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake by muscle involves the central nervous system in insulin-sensitive mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, C.P.; Biermasz, N.R.; Geerling, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Insulin inhibits endogenous glucose production (EGP) and stimulates glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. We examined the contribution of central insulin signaling on circulating insulin-stimulated

  6. Immunocytochemical detection of glucagon and insulin cells in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu urs

    throughout the pancreas during the reproductive cycle, while insulin-IR cells were found to be pulsating in their secretion. Mean size ..... The interaction effect between the species .... Singh D P 1974 Analysis of environmental factors regulating.

  7. A model of insulin fibrils derived from the x-ray crystal structure of a monomeric insulin (despentapeptide insulin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Dodson, G G; Edwards, D J; Holden, P H; Whittingham, J L

    1997-04-01

    The crystal structure of despentapeptide insulin, a monomeric insulin, has been refined at 1.3 A spacing and subsequently used to predict and model the organization in the insulin fibril. The model makes use of the contacts in the densely packed despentapeptide insulin crystal, and takes into account other experimental evidence, including binding studies with Congo red. The dimensions of this model fibril correspond well with those measured experimentally, and the monomer-monomer contacts within the fibril are in accordance with the known physical chemistry of insulin fibrils. Using this model, it may be possible to predict mutations in insulin that might alleviate problems associated with fibril formation during insulin therapy.

  8. Insulin: its role in the central control of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwowska, Joanna H; Fergani, Chrysanthi; Gawałek, Monika; Skowronska, Bogda; Fichna, Piotr; Lehman, Michael N

    2014-06-22

    Insulin has long been recognized as a key regulator of energy homeostasis via its actions at the level of the brain, but in addition, plays a role in regulating neural control of reproduction. In this review, we consider and compare evidence from animal models demonstrating a role for insulin for physiological control of reproduction by effects on GnRH/LH secretion. We also review the role that insulin plays in prenatal programming of adult reproduction, and consider specific candidate neurons in the adult hypothalamus by which insulin may act to regulate reproductive function. Finally, we review clinical evidence of the role that insulin may play in adult human fertility and reproductive disorders. Overall, while insulin appears to have a significant impact on reproductive neuroendocrine function, there are many unanswered questions regarding its precise sites and mechanisms of action, and their impact on developing and adult reproductive neuroendocrine function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral insulin delivery: existing barriers and current counter-strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedawy, Ahmed; Martinez, Jorge; Al-Salami, Hani; Dass, Crispin R

    2018-02-01

    The chronic and progressive nature of diabetes is usually associated with micro- and macrovascular complications where failure of pancreatic β-cell function and a general condition of hyperglycaemia is created. One possible factor is failure of the patient to comply with and adhere to the prescribed insulin due to the inconvenient administration route. This review summarizes the rationale for oral insulin administration, existing barriers and some counter-strategies trialled. Oral insulin mimics the physiology of endogenous insulin secreted by pancreas. Following the intestinal absorption of oral insulin, it reaches the liver at high concentration via the portal vein. Oral insulin on the other hand has the potential to protect pancreatic β-cells from autoimmune destruction. Structural modification, targeting a particular tissue/receptor, and the use of innovative pharmaceutical formulations such as nanoparticles represent strategies introduced to improve oral insulin bioavailability. They showed promising results in overcoming the hurdles facing oral insulin delivery, although delivery is far from ideal. The use of advanced pharmaceutical technologies and further research in particulate carrier system delivery predominantly nanoparticle utilization would offer useful tools in delivering insulin via the oral route which in turn would potentially improve diabetic patient compliance to insulin and the overall management of diabetes. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. New ways of insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, L

    2010-02-01

    When Exubera (EXU), the first inhaled insulin formulation to make it through the clinical development process, was introduced to the market some years ago it was hoped that this would be the first in a series of novel insulin formulations applied by this route. In addition, it was hoped that inhaled insulin would pave the way for other alternative routes of insulin administration (ARIA), i.e. oral insulin, nasal insulin or transdermal insulin to mention only some of the different attempts that have been studied in the last 90 years. The failure of EXU, i.e. its withdrawal from the market due to insufficient market success, was followed by the cessation of nearly all other attempts to develop inhaled insulin formulations. Currently there is only one company (MannKind) which moves sturdily ahead with their Technosphere insulin. This company has submitted an NDA for their product recently and hopes to bring it to the market by the end of 2010 or early 2011. Even if the product is able to pass the approval hurdles in the USA and Europe, this does not guarantee that it will become a market success. Many diabetologists were sceptical about the need/advantages of inhaled insulin/EXU from the start and the introduction of this product has raised even more scepticism. Reports about 'side effects' (development of lung cancer in patients treated with EXU) of inhaled insulin are also not helpful, even if the causality of the appearance of cancer with this type of insulin therapy is not proven. One of the very negative consequences of stopping EXU are the huge financial losses to Pfizer. The managers in charge in other pharmaceutical companies and also most venture capitalists are reluctant to invest in ARIA nowadays. This in turn means that many of the small companies that try to develop new forms of insulin administration have issues when they try to find a big brother and/or sufficient financial support. Clearly the economic crisis has further aggravated this issue. One can

  11. Structural Perspectives of Insulin Receptor Isoform-Selective Insulin Analogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiráček, Jiří; Žáková, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, Jul 27 (2017), č. článku 167. ISSN 1664-2392 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19018S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : insulin receptor * insulin binding * analog * diabetes * glucose Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.675, year: 2016 http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fendo.2017.00167/full

  12. Variants within the calpain-10 gene on chromosome 2q37 (NIDDM1) and relationships to type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and impaired acute insulin secretion among Scandinavian Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren K; Urhammer, Søren A; Berglund, Lars Erik

    2002-01-01

    subjects compared with 200 glucose-tolerant control subjects (0.06 vs. 0.05; odds ratio 1.32 [95% CI 0.58-3.30]). In glucose-tolerant subjects, neither the single-nucleotide polymorphisms individually nor the 112/121 combination were associated with alterations in plasma glucose, serum insulin, or serum C...

  13. Continuation versus discontinuation of insulin secretagogues when initiating insulin in type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinnen, S. G.; Dain, M.-P.; Mauricio, D.; DeVries, J. H.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Holleman, F.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the combined use of basal insulin, metformin and insulin secretagogues with a combination of basal insulin and metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes starting basal insulin analogue therapy. This analysis was part of a 24-week trial, in which 964 insulin-naive patients with type 2

  14. Effects of dexamethasone and insulin on the synthesis of triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholine and the secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins and lysophosphatidylcholine by monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiapane, E H; Brindley, D N

    1986-01-01

    Rat hepatocytes in monolayer culture were preincubated for 19 h with 1 microM-dexamethasone, and the incubation was continued for a further 23 h with [14C]oleate, [3H]glycerol and 1 microM-dexamethasone. Dexamethasone increased the secretion of triacylglycerol into the medium in particles that had the properties of very-low-density lipoproteins. The increased secretion was matched by a decrease in the triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine that remained in the hepatocytes. Preincubating the hepatocytes for the total 42 h period with 36 nM-insulin decreased the amount of triacylglycerol in the medium and in the cells after the final incubation for 23 h with radioactive substrates. However, insulin had no significant effect on the triacylglycerol content of the cell and medium when it was present only in the final 23 h incubation. Insulin antagonized the effects of dexamethasone in stimulating the secretion of triacylglycerol from the hepatocytes, especially when it was present throughout the total 42 h period. The labelling of lysophosphatidylcholine in the medium when hepatocytes were incubated with [14C]oleate and [3H]glycerol was greater than that of phosphatidylcholine. The appearance of this lipid in the medium, unlike that of triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine, was not stimulated by dexamethasone, or inhibited by colchicine. However, the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine in the medium was decreased when the hepatocytes were incubated with both dexamethasone and insulin. These findings are discussed in relation to the control of the synthesis of glycerolipids and the secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins and lysophosphatidylcholine by the liver, particularly in relation to the interactions of glucocorticoids and insulin. PMID:3513755

  15. The glucagon-like peptide-1 metabolite GLP-1-(9-36) amide reduces postprandial glycemia independently of gastric emptying and insulin secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Gethmann, Arnica; Nauck, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) lowers glycemia by modulating gastric emptying and endocrine pancreatic secretion. Rapidly after its secretion, GLP-1-(7-36) amide is degraded to the metabolite GLP-1-(9-36) amide. The effects of GLP-1-(9-36) amide in humans are less well characterized. Fourteen...... healthy volunteers were studied with intravenous infusion of GLP-1-(7-36) amide, GLP-1-(9-36) amide, or placebo over 390 min. After 30 min, a solid test meal was served, and gastric emptying was assessed. Blood was drawn for GLP-1 (total and intact), glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon measurements....... Administration of GLP-1-(7-36) amide and GLP-1-(9-36) amide significantly raised total GLP-1 plasma levels. Plasma concentrations of intact GLP-1 increased to 21 +/- 5 pmol/l during the infusion of GLP-1-(7-36) amide but remained unchanged during GLP-1-(9-36) amide infusion [5 +/- 3 pmol/l; P

  16. New ways of insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, L

    2011-02-01

    The predominant number of papers published from the middle of 2009 to the middle of 2010 about alternative routes of insulin administration (ARIA) were still about inhaled insulin. Long-term experience with Exubera was the topic of a number of publications that are also of relevance for inhaled insulin in general. The clinical trials performed with AIR insulin by Eli Lilly were published in a supplement issue of one diabetes technology journal and most of these will be presented. A number of other publications (also one in a high ranked journal) about their inhaled insulin were from another company: MannKind. The driving force behind Technosphere insulin (TI) - which is the only one still in clinical development - is Al Mann; he has put a lot of his personal fortune in this development. We will know the opinion of the regulatory authorities about TI in the near future; however, I am personally relatively confident that the Food and Drug Administration will provide TI with market approval. The more critical question for me is: will diabetologists and patients jump on this product once it becomes commercially available? Will it become a commercial success? In view of many negative feelings in the scientific community about inhaled insulin, it might be of help that MannKind publish their studies with TI systematically. Acknowledging being a believer in this route of insulin administration myself, one has to state that Exubera and AIR insulin had not offered profound advantages in terms of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties in comparison with subcutaneously (SC) applied regular human insulin (RHI) and rapid-acting insulin analogues. The time-action profiles of these inhaled insulins were more or less comparable with that of rapid-acting insulin analogues. This is clearly different with TI which exhibits a strong metabolic effect shortly after application and a rapid decline in the metabolic effect thereafter; probably the duration of action is

  17. Metabolic surgery for non-obese type 2 diabetes: incretins, adipocytokines, and insulin secretion/resistance changes in a 1-year interventional clinical controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloneze, Bruno; Geloneze, Sylka Rodovalho; Chaim, Elinton; Hirsch, Fernanda Filgueira; Felici, Ana Claudia; Lambert, Giselle; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Pareja, José Carlos

    2012-07-01

    To compare duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) with standard medical care in nonobese patients with type 2 diabetes and evaluate surgically induced endocrine and metabolic changes. Eighteen patients submitted to a DJB procedure met the following criteria: overweight, diabetes diagnosis less than 15 years, current insulin treatment, residual β-cell function, and absence of autoimmunity. Patients who refused surgical treatment received standard medical care (control group). At baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, insulin sensitivity and production of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-insulinotropic polypeptide were assessed during a meal tolerance test. Fasting adipocytokines and dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 concentrations were measured. The mean age of the patients was 50 (5) years, time of diagnosis: 9 (2) years, time of insulin usage: 6 (5) months, fasting glucose: 9.9 (2.5) mmol/dL, and HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) level: 8.9% (1.2%). Duodenal-jejunal bypass group showed greater reductions in fasting glucose (22% vs 6% in control group, P < 0.05) and daily insulin requirement (93% vs 15%, P < 0.01). Twelve patients from DJB group stopped using insulin and showed improvements in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function (P < 0.01), and reductions in glucose-insulinotropic polypeptide levels (P < 0.001), glucagon during the first 30 minutes after meal (P < 0.05), and leptin levels (P < 0.05). Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 levels increased after surgery (P < 0.01), but glucagon-like peptide-1 levels did not change. Duodenal-jejunal bypass improved insulin sensitivity and β-cell function and reduced glucose-insulinotropic polypeptide, leptin, and glucagon production. Hence, DJB resulted in better glycemic control and reduction in insulin requirement but DJB did not result in remission of diabetes.

  18. Oral Insulin - Fact or Fiction?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    attempts have explored the following options, either singly, or together: • Protecting ... derivative of insulin has been seen to maintain its biological activity and also have .... that in the short future any oral preparation that can achieve consistent ...

  19. FGF-2b and h-PL Transform Duct and Non-Endocrine Human Pancreatic Cells into Endocrine Insulin Secreting Cells by Modulating Differentiating Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Donadel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a multifactorial disease orphan of a cure. Regenerative medicine has been proposed as novel strategy for DM therapy. Human fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2b controls β-cell clusters via autocrine action, and human placental lactogen (hPL-A increases functional β-cells. We hypothesized whether FGF-2b/hPL-A treatment induces β-cell differentiation from ductal/non-endocrine precursor(s by modulating specific genes expression. Methods: Human pancreatic ductal-cells (PANC-1 and non-endocrine pancreatic cells were treated with FGF-2b plus hPL-A at 500 ng/mL. Cytofluorimetry and Immunofluorescence have been performed to detect expression of endocrine, ductal and acinar markers. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and annexin-V quantified cells proliferation and apoptosis. Insulin secretion was assessed by RIA kit, and electron microscopy analyzed islet-like clusters. Results: Increase in PANC-1 duct cells de-differentiation into islet-like aggregates was observed after FGF-2b/hPL-A treatment showing ultrastructure typical of islets-aggregates. These clusters, after stimulation with FGF-2b/hPL-A, had significant (p < 0.05 increase in insulin, C-peptide, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, somatostatin, glucagon, and glucose transporter 2 (Glut-2, compared with control cells. Markers of PANC-1 (Cytokeratin-19, MUC-1, CA19-9 were decreased (p < 0.05. These aggregates after treatment with FGF-2b/hPL-A significantly reduced levels of apoptosis. Conclusions: FGF-2b and hPL-A are promising candidates for regenerative therapy in DM by inducing de-differentiation of stem cells modulating pivotal endocrine genes.

  20. Pivotal role of leptin in insulin effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Ceddia

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The OB protein, also known as leptin, is secreted by adipose tissue, circulates in the blood, probably bound to a family of binding proteins, and acts on central neural networks regulating ingestive behavior and energy balance. The two forms of leptin receptors (long and short forms have been identified in various peripheral tissues, a fact that makes them possible target sites for a direct acti