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Sample records for insulin resistance homa

  1. [Reliability of HOMA-IR for evaluation of insulin resistance during perioperative period].

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    Fujino, Hiroko; Itoda, Shoko; Sako, Saori; Matsuo, Kazuki; Sakamoto, Eiji; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2013-02-01

    Hyperglycemia due to increase in insulin resistance (IR) is often observed after surgery in spite of normal insulin secretion. To evaluate the degree of IR, the golden standard method is the normoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique (glucose clamp: GC). The GC using the artificial pancreas, STG-22 (Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan), was established as a more reliable method, since it was evaluated during steady-state period under constant insulin infusion. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), however, is frequently employed in daily practice because of its convenience. We, therefore, investigated the reliability of HOMA-IR in comparison with the glucose clamp using the STG-22. Eight healthy patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery were employed in this study after obtaining written informed consent. Their insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR and the GC using the STG-22 before and after surgery. HOMA-IR increased from 0.81 +/- 0.48 to 1.17 +/- 0.50, although there were no significant differences between before and after surgery. On the other hand, M-value by GC significantly decreased after surgery from 8.82 +/- 2.49 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) to 3.84 +/- 0.79 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) (P = 0.0003). In addition, no significant correlation was found between the values of HOMA-IR and the M-value by GC. HOMA-IR may not be reliable to evaluate IR for perioperative period.

  2. Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (homa-ir): a better marker for evaluating insulin resistance than fasting insulin in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

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    Majid, H.; Khan, A.H.; Masood, Q.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the utility of HOMA-IR in assessing insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compare it with fasting insulin for assessing insulin resistance (IR). Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Section of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2009 to September 2012. Methodology: Medical chart review of all women diagnosed with PCOS was performed. Of the 400 PCOS women reviewed, 91 met the inclusion criteria. Insulin resistance was assessed by calculating HOMA-IR using the formula (fasting glucose x fasting insulin)/405, taking normal value =12 micro IU/ml. Results: A total of 91 premenopausal women diagnosed with PCOS were included. Mean age was 30 +-5.5 years. Mean HOMA-IR of women was 3.1 +-1.7, respectively with IR in 69% (n=63) women, while hyperinsulinemia was present in 60% (n=55) women (fasting Insulin 18.5 +-5.8 micro IU/ml). Hyperandrogenism was present in 53.8% (n=49), whereas 38.5% (n=35) women had primary infertility or subfertility, while 65.9% (n=60) had menstrual irregularities; and higher frequencies were observed in women with IR. Eight subjects with IR and endocrine abnormalities were missed by fasting insulin. Conclusion: Insulin resistance is common in PCOS and it is likely a pathogenic factor for development of PCOS. HOMA-IR model performed better than hyperinsulinemia alone for diagnosing IR. (author)

  3. Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR): A Better Marker for Evaluating Insulin Resistance Than Fasting Insulin in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

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    Majid, Hafsa; Masood, Qamar; Khan, Aysha Habib

    2017-03-01

    To assess the utility of HOMA-IR in assessing insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compare it with fasting insulin for assessing insulin resistance (IR). Observational study. Section of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2009 to September 2012. Medical chart review of all women diagnosed with PCOS was performed. Of the 400 PCOS women reviewed, 91 met the inclusion criteria. Insulin resistance was assessed by calculating HOMA-IR using the formula (fasting glucose x fasting insulin)/405, taking normal value HOMA-IR of women was 3.1 ±1.7, respectively with IR in 69% (n=63) women, while hyperinsulinemia was present in 60% (n=55) women (fasting Insulin 18.5 ±5.8 µIU/ml). Hyperandrogenism was present in 53.8% (n=49), whereas 38.5% (n=35) women had primary infertility or subfertility, while 65.9% (n=60) had menstrual irregularities; and higher frequencies were observed in women with IR. Eight subjects with IR and endocrine abnormalities were missed by fasting insulin. Insulin resistance is common in PCOS and it is likely a pathogenic factor for development of PCOS. HOMAIR model performed better than hyperinsulinemia alone for diagnosing IR.

  4. The definition of insulin resistance using HOMA-IR for Americans of Mexican descent using machine learning.

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    Qu, Hui-Qi; Li, Quan; Rentfro, Anne R; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    The lack of standardized reference range for the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index has limited its clinical application. This study defines the reference range of HOMA-IR index in an adult Hispanic population based with machine learning methods. This study investigated a Hispanic population of 1854 adults, randomly selected on the basis of 2000 Census tract data in the city of Brownsville, Cameron County. Machine learning methods, support vector machine (SVM) and Bayesian Logistic Regression (BLR), were used to automatically identify measureable variables using standardized values that correlate with HOMA-IR; K-means clustering was then used to classify the individuals by insulin resistance. Our study showed that the best cutoff of HOMA-IR for identifying those with insulin resistance is 3.80. There are 39.1% individuals in this Hispanic population with HOMA-IR>3.80. Our results are dramatically different using the popular clinical cutoff of 2.60. The high sensitivity and specificity of HOMA-IR>3.80 for insulin resistance provide a critical fundamental for our further efforts to improve the public health of this Hispanic population.

  5. HOMA-AD in Assessing Insulin Resistance in Lean Noncirrhotic HCV Outpatients.

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    Michalczuk, Matheus Truccolo; Kappel, Camila Rippol; Birkhan, Oscar; Bragança, Ana Carolina; Alvares-da-Silva, Mário Reis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. There is an association between HCV and insulin resistance (IR), which is currently assessed by HOMA-IR. There is evidence that HOMA-adiponectin (HOMA-AD) is more accurate, but its role in HCV patients is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate IR in an HCV sample and controls, in order to compare the accuracy of HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD. Methods. Ninety-four HCV outpatients aged IR was estimated by HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD. Results. The groups were similar regarding sex and BMI, but the HCV patients were older. The median insulin level was higher in the HCV group (8.6 mU/mL (6.5-13.7) versus 6.5 (4.3-10.7), P = 0.004), as was median HOMA-IR (1.94 (1.51 to 3.48) versus 1.40 (1.02 to 2.36), P = 0.002) and the prevalence of IR (38.3% versus 10.3% (P = 0.009)). No differences were found in adiponectin levels (P = 0.294) and HOMA-AD (P = 0.393). Conclusion. IR is highly prevalent even in low-risk HCV outpatients. Adiponectin is not influenced by the presence of HCV. HOMA-AD does not seem to be useful in assessing IR in HCV patients.

  6. Insulin resistance determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and associations with metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and teenagers.

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    Yin, Jinhua; Li, Ming; Xu, Lu; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Hong; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the association between the degree of insulin resistance and the different components of the metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and adolescents. Moreover, to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at MS risk. 3203 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was identified by a modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definition. HOMA-IR index was calculated and the normal reference ranges were defined from the healthy participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to find the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR for diagnosis of MS. With the increase of insulin resistance (quintile of HOMA-IR value), the ORs of suffering MS or its related components were significantly increased. Participants in the highest quintile of HOMA-IR were about 60 times more likely to be classified with metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest quintile group. Similarly, the mean values of insulin and HOMA-IR increased with the number of MS components. The present HOMA-IR cutoff point corresponding to the 95th percentile of our healthy reference children was 3.0 for whole participants, 2.6 for children in prepubertal stage and 3.2 in pubertal period, respectively. The optimal point for diagnosis of MS was 2.3 in total participants, 1.7 in prepubertal children and 2.6 in pubertal adolescents, respectively, by ROC curve, which yielded high sensitivity and moderate specificity for a screening test. According to HOMA-IR > 3.0, the prevalence of insulin resistance in obese or MS children were 44.3% and 61.6% respectively. Our data indicates insulin resistance is common among Chinese obese children and adolescents, and is strongly related to MS risk, therefore requiring consideration early in life. As a reliable measure of insulin resistance and assessment of MS risk, the optimal HOMA-IR cut

  7. Fasting serum insulin and the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the monitoring of lifestyle interventions in obese persons.

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    Vogeser, Michael; König, Daniel; Frey, Ingrid; Predel, Hans-Georg; Parhofer, Klaus Georg; Berg, Aloys

    2007-09-01

    Lifestyle changes with increased physical activity and balanced energy intake are recognized as the principal interventions in obesity and insulin resistance. Only few prospective studies, however, have so far addressed the potential role of routine biochemical markers of insulin sensitivity in the monitoring of respective interventions. Fasting insulin and glucose was measured in 33 obese individuals undergoing a lifestyle modification program (MOBILIS) at baseline and after 1 year. The HOMA-IR index (homeostasis model of insulin resistance) was calculated as [fasting serum glucose*fasting serum insulin/22.5], with lower values indicating a higher degree of insulin sensitivity. While the median body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference decreased by 10% and 11%, respectively, the HOMA-IR index decreased in an over-proportional manner by 45% within 1 year (BMI baseline, median 35.7, interquartile range (IQR) 33.7-37.7; after 1 year, median 32.2, IQR 29.6-35.1. HOMA-IR baseline, median 2.9, IQR 1.5-4.6; after 1 year 1.6, IQR 0.9-2.7). In contrast to HOMA-IR and fasting serum insulin, no significant changes in fasting serum glucose were observed. Baseline and post-intervention HOMA-IR showed a high degree of inter-individual variation with eight individuals maintaining high HOMA-IR values despite weight loss after 1 year of intervention. Individual changes in the carbohydrate metabolism achieved by a lifestyle intervention program were displayed by fasting serum insulin concentrations and the HOMA-IR but not by fasting glucose measurement alone. Therefore, assessment of the HOMA-IR may help to individualize lifestyle interventions in obesity and to objectify improvements in insulin sensitivity after therapeutic lifestyle changes.

  8. New measure of insulin sensitivity predicts cardiovascular disease better than HOMA estimated insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Venkataraman

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Accurate assessment of insulin sensitivity may better identify individuals at increased risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a combination of anthropometric, biochemical and imaging measures can better estimate insulin sensitivity index (ISI and provide improved prediction of cardio-metabolic risk, in comparison to HOMA-IR. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Healthy male volunteers (96 Chinese, 80 Malay, 77 Indian, 21 to 40 years, body mass index 18-30 kg/m(2. Predicted ISI (ISI-cal was generated using 45 randomly selected Chinese through stepwise multiple linear regression, and validated in the rest using non-parametric correlation (Kendall's tau τ. In an independent longitudinal cohort, ISI-cal and HOMA-IR were compared for prediction of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD, using ROC curves. SETTING: The study was conducted in a university academic medical centre. OUTCOME MEASURES: ISI measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp, along with anthropometric measurements, biochemical assessment and imaging; incident diabetes and CVD. RESULTS: A combination of fasting insulin, serum triglycerides and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR provided the best estimate of clamp-derived ISI (adjusted R(2 0.58 versus 0.32 HOMA-IR. In an independent cohort, ROC areas under the curve were 0.77±0.02 ISI-cal versus 0.76±0.02 HOMA-IR (p>0.05 for incident diabetes, and 0.74±0.03 ISI-cal versus 0.61±0.03 HOMA-IR (p<0.001 for incident CVD. ISI-cal also had greater sensitivity than defined metabolic syndrome in predicting CVD, with a four-fold increase in the risk of CVD independent of metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Triglycerides and WHR, combined with fasting insulin levels, provide a better estimate of current insulin resistance state and improved identification of individuals with future risk of CVD, compared to HOMA-IR. This may be useful for estimating insulin sensitivity and cardio-metabolic risk in clinical and

  9. Evaluation of fasting plasma insulin concentration as an estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic individuals: comparison with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).

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    Abbasi, Fahim; Okeke, QueenDenise; Reaven, Gerald M

    2014-04-01

    Insulin-mediated glucose disposal varies severalfold in apparently healthy individuals, and approximately one-third of the most insulin resistant of these individuals is at increased risk to develop various adverse clinical syndromes. Since direct measurements of insulin sensitivity are not practical in a clinical setting, several surrogate estimates of insulin action have been proposed, including fasting plasma insulin (FPI) concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculated by a formula employing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and FPI concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare FPI as an estimate of insulin-mediated glucose disposal with values generated by HOMA-IR in 758 apparently healthy nondiabetic individuals. Measurements were made of FPG, FPI, triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test. FPI and HOMA-IR were highly correlated (r = 0.98, P HOMA-IR (r = 0.64). Furthermore, the relationship between FPI and TG (r = 0.35) and HDL-C (r = -0.40) was comparable to that between HOMA-IR and TG (r = 0.39) and HDL-C (r = -0.41). In conclusion, FPI and HOMA-IR are highly correlated in nondiabetic individuals, with each estimate accounting for ~40% of the variability (variance) in a direct measure of insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Calculation of HOMA-IR does not provide a better surrogate estimate of insulin action, or of its associated dyslipidemia, than measurement of FPI.

  10. Validation of HOMA-IR in a model of insulin-resistance induced by a high-fat diet in Wistar rats.

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    Antunes, Luciana C; Elkfury, Jessica L; Jornada, Manoela N; Foletto, Kelly C; Bertoluci, Marcello C

    2016-04-01

    Objective The present study aimed to validate homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in relation to the insulin tolerance test (ITT) in a model of insulin-resistance in Wistar rats induced by a 19-week high-fat diet. Materials and methods A total of 30 male Wistar rats weighing 200-300 g were allocated into a high-fat diet group (HFD) (55% fat-enriched chow, ad lib, n = 15) and a standard-diet group (CD) standard chow, ad lib, n = 15), for 19 weeks. ITT was determined at baseline and in the 19th week. HOMA-IR was determined between the 18-19th week in three different days and the mean was considered for analysis. Area under the curve (AUC-ITT) of the blood glucose excursion along 120 minutes after intra-peritoneal insulin injection was determined and correlated with the corresponding fasting values for HOMA-IR. Results AUC-ITT and HOMA-IR were significantly greater after 19th week in HFD compared to CD (p HOMA-IR was strongly correlated (Pearson's) with AUC-ITT r = 0.637; p HOMA-IR and AUC-ITT showed similar sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion HOMA-IR is a valid measure to determine insulin-resistance in Wistar rats. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2016;60(2):138-42.

  11. The Homeostasis Model Assessment-adiponectin (HOMA-AD) is the most sensitive predictor of insulin resistance in obese children.

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    Makni, Emna; Moalla, Wassim; Lac, Gérard; Aouichaoui, Chirine; Cannon, Daniel; Elloumi, Mohamed; Tabka, Zouhair

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of three indices i.e. adiponectin/leptin ratio, HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD in assessing insulin resistance among obese children. One hundred and twenty-two obese children (57 girls, 65 boys): mean age 13.7±1.3 years, BMI 30.1±4.5kg/m(2), eight tanner stage I, 48 tanner stage II-III, 66 tanner stage IV-V, participated in this study. They were classified into four groups according to sex and the presence of metabolic syndrome characteristics: with metabolic syndrome (MS; 21 girls and 36 boys) and controls without metabolic syndrome (CON, 36 girls and 29 boys). The correlations between these three indices of insulin resistance and the MS criteria were analyzed using linear and multiple regressions and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves analysis. The majority of anthropometric and biological parameters as well as adiponectin/leptin ratio, HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD were significantly different between MS and CON in both sexes. Both HOMA-AD and HOMA-IR were significantly correlated with the majority of metabolic syndrome components than was the adiponectin/leptin ratio in MS of both sexes. In boys and girls with and without MS, multiple regression analyses highlighted that both HOMA-AD and adiponectin/leptin ratio (r=-0.99 and r=-0.54 for MS girls and boys respectively, 0.05HOMA-AD and HOMA-IR (r=0.66 and r=0.31 for MS girls and boys respectively, 0.05HOMA-IR. Additionally, the area under the ROC curves for predicting insulin resistance were 0.69 (CI 95%, 0.60-0.77), 0.68 (CI 95%, 0.59-0.76) and 0.71 (CI 95%, 0.62-0.79) for adiponectin/leptin ratio, HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD, respectively. The current study strengthens the validity of the HOMA-AD as an adequate tool for determining insulin resistance among obese children with MS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

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    Geloneze, Bruno; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Stabe, Christiane França Camargo; Pareja, José Carlos; Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez de Lima; Queiroz, Elaine Cristina de; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. In the healthy group, HOMA-IR indexes were associated with central obesity, triglycerides and total cholesterol (p 2.7 and HOMA2-IR > 1.8; and, for MS were: HOMA1-IR > 2.3 (sensitivity: 76.8%; specificity: 66.7%) and HOMA2-IR > 1.4 (sensitivity: 79.2%; specificity: 61.2%). The cut-off values identified for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes have a clinical and epidemiological application for identifying IR and MS in Westernized admixtured multi-ethnic populations.

  13. Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: HOMA-IR cut-off levels in the prepubertal and pubertal periods.

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    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz; Kendirici, Mustafa; Keskin, Mehmet; Kondolot, Meda

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism for the physiological increase in insulin levels in puberty is not clearly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese children and adolescents according to gender and pubertal status. Two hundred and eight obese children and adolescents (141 girls, 127 boys) aged between 5 and 18 years were included in the study. The children were divided into prepubertal and pubertal groups. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out in all children. A total insulin level exceeding 300 μU/mL in the blood samples, collected during the test period, was taken as the insulin resistance criterion. Cut-off values for HOMA-IR were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the prepubertal period, the rate of insulin resistance was found to be 37% in boys and 27.8% in girls,while in the pubertal period, this rate was 61.7% in boys and 66.7% in girls. HOMA-IR cut-off values for insulin resistance in the prepubertal period were calculated to be 2.67 (sensitivity 88.2%, specificity 65.5%) in boys and 2.22 (sensitivity 100%, specificity 42.3%) in girls, and in the pubertal period, they were 5.22 (sensitivity 56%, specificity 93.3%) in boys and 3.82 (sensitivity 77.1%, specificity 71.4%) in girls. Since gender, obesity and pubertal status are factors affecting insulin resistance, cut-off values which depend on gender and pubertal status, should be used in evaluation of insulin resistance.

  14. [Normal plasma insulin and HOMA values among Chilean children and adolescents].

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    Barja, Salesa; Arnaiz, Pilar; Domínguez, Angélica; Villarroel, Luis; Cassis, Berta; Castillo, Oscar; Salomó, Gianina; Farías, Marcelo; Goycoolea, Manuela; Quiroga, Teresa; Mardones, Francisco

    2011-11-01

    Plasma insulin and HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) index, used to determine insulin resistance, do not have local standard values for children and adolescents in Chile. To establish the normal reference intervals for insulin and HOMA in children and adolescents aged 10-15 years, according to sex and puberal maturation. A cross-sectional study of 2,153 children and adolescents from Puente Alto County was performed, during 2009 and 2010. Anthropometry and self-report of puberal maturation were assessed. Fasting glucose (hexoquinase) and insulin blood levels (chemiluminiscence), were determined and HOMA index was calculated. Percentile distributions of these variables were calculated. The reference group included only subjects with normal body mass index and fasting blood glucose (n = 1,192). Girls had higher insulin and HOMA values than boys (12.5 ± 6.0 and 9.1 ± 4.9 μϋ/mL (p HOMA mean values than subjects with Tanner III and IV (9.0 ± 4.3 and 12.5 ± 6.2μϋ/ml (p HOMA distributions according to sex and maturation, was selected as the upper cut-off point to identify individuals with insulin resistance. HOMA cutoff point for Tanner I and II boys was 3.2, for Tanner I and II girls was 4.1, for Tanner III and IV boys was 4.2 and for Tanner III and IV girls was 5.0.

  15. Relationship of visfatin level to pancreatic endocrine hormone level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index in overweight women who performed hydraulic resistance exercise.

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    Ha, Chang Ho; Swearingin, Brenda; Jeon, Yong Kyun

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the correlation of visfatin level to pancreatic endocrine hormone level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and HOMA β-cell index in hydraulic resistance exercise. Furthermore, it investigated the relationship between visfatin level and other variables affected by exercise in overweight women. [Subjects and Methods] The exercise group trained for 12 weeks, 70 minutes/day, 5 days/week. Visfatin level, pancreatic endocrine hormone level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index were measured before and after the intervention. Based on the blood insulin and glucose concentrations, HOMA-IR index, the indicator of insulin resistance, and HOMA β-cell index, the indicator of insulin secretion level, were assessed. [Results] Interaction effects on visfatin level, insulin level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index were observed. Interaction effects on glucagon and glucose levels were not observed between the intervention groups. The correlations of visfatin level to insulin, glucagon, and glucose levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA β-cell indexes were not significant for any of the subjects. [Conclusion] Therefore, the 12-week resistance exercise affected body composition, visfatin level, insulin level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index. Finally, visfatin was not related to insulin, glucagon, and glucose levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA β-cell indexes.

  16. New measure of insulin sensitivity predicts cardiovascular disease better than HOMA estimated insulin resistance.

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    Venkataraman, Kavita; Khoo, Chin Meng; Leow, Melvin K S; Khoo, Eric Y H; Isaac, Anburaj V; Zagorodnov, Vitali; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, Sendhil S; Chong, Yap Seng; Gluckman, Peter; Lee, Jeannette; Salim, Agus; Tai, E Shyong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of insulin sensitivity may better identify individuals at increased risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. To examine whether a combination of anthropometric, biochemical and imaging measures can better estimate insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and provide improved prediction of cardio-metabolic risk, in comparison to HOMA-IR. Healthy male volunteers (96 Chinese, 80 Malay, 77 Indian), 21 to 40 years, body mass index 18-30 kg/m(2). Predicted ISI (ISI-cal) was generated using 45 randomly selected Chinese through stepwise multiple linear regression, and validated in the rest using non-parametric correlation (Kendall's tau τ). In an independent longitudinal cohort, ISI-cal and HOMA-IR were compared for prediction of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), using ROC curves. The study was conducted in a university academic medical centre. ISI measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp, along with anthropometric measurements, biochemical assessment and imaging; incident diabetes and CVD. A combination of fasting insulin, serum triglycerides and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) provided the best estimate of clamp-derived ISI (adjusted R(2) 0.58 versus 0.32 HOMA-IR). In an independent cohort, ROC areas under the curve were 0.77±0.02 ISI-cal versus 0.76±0.02 HOMA-IR (p>0.05) for incident diabetes, and 0.74±0.03 ISI-cal versus 0.61±0.03 HOMA-IR (pHOMA-IR. This may be useful for estimating insulin sensitivity and cardio-metabolic risk in clinical and epidemiological settings.

  17. Estimating Rate of Insulin Resistance in Patients with Preeclampsia Using HOMA-IR Index and Comparison with Nonpreeclampsia Pregnant Women

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    Farideh Rezaei Abhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the experiments conducted on 675 women who were 20 weeks past their pregnancy, 375 cases with preeclampsia were selected and assigned to the case group. 35 other pregnant women were put in the control group. Diagnosis criteria for the participants included blood pressure above 140/90 and proteinuria above 300 mg or above +1. Both groups were matched according to age, parity, gestational age, and BMI. Homa-Irand rate of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and patients were followed up. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR revealed that the average insulin resistance increased during pregnancy among both the case and control groups. There was a significant difference between insulin resistance of these two groups in both first trimester and third trimester and after developing preeclampsia (P < 0.001, P = 0.021. Insulin-resistance of the group with preeclampsia was higher in first trimester prior to diagnosis as well as the third trimester after diagnosis compared to natural pregnancy under similar conditions. Measurement of insulin resistance in first trimester may be useful in predicting the risk of preeclampsia.

  18. Estimating rate of insulin resistance in patients with preeclampsia using HOMA-IR index and comparison with nonpreeclampsia pregnant women.

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    Abhari, Farideh Rezaei; Ghanbari Andarieh, Maryam; Farokhfar, Asadollah; Ahmady, Soleiman

    2014-01-01

    Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the experiments conducted on 675 women who were 20 weeks past their pregnancy, 375 cases with preeclampsia were selected and assigned to the case group. 35 other pregnant women were put in the control group. Diagnosis criteria for the participants included blood pressure above 140/90 and proteinuria above 300 mg or above +1. Both groups were matched according to age, parity, gestational age, and BMI. Homa-Irand rate of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and patients were followed up. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR) revealed that the average insulin resistance increased during pregnancy among both the case and control groups. There was a significant difference between insulin resistance of these two groups in both first trimester and third trimester and after developing preeclampsia (P < 0.001, P = 0.021). Insulin-resistance of the group with preeclampsia was higher in first trimester prior to diagnosis as well as the third trimester after diagnosis compared to natural pregnancy under similar conditions. Measurement of insulin resistance in first trimester may be useful in predicting the risk of preeclampsia.

  19. Evaluation of insulin resistance improvement after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass surgery with HOMA-IR.

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    Zhu, Yubing; Sun, Zhipeng; Du, Yanmin; Xu, Guangzhong; Gong, Ke; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Nengwei

    2017-01-01

    Our purpose was to explore the remission of insulin resistance after bariatric surgery to discover the mechanism of diabetes remission excluding dietary factors. A retrospective case control study was conducted on patients with type 2 diabetes, who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) or laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (LGB) in Beijing Shijitan Hospital from April 1, 2012 to April 1, 2013. The laboratory and anthropometric data was analyzed pre-surgery and during a 2-year follow-up. HOMA-IR was calculated and evaluated. The two surgical procedures were compared. No significant difference in complete remission rate was observed between the two groups (LGB group: 62.1%, LSG group: 60.0%, p = 0.892). HOMA-IR was reduced to a stable level at the 3 rd month after surgery. The cut-off value of HOMA-IR was 2.38 (sensitivity: 0.938, specificity: 0.75) and 2.33 (sensitivity: 0.941, specificity: 0.778) respectively for complete remission after LSG or LGB surgery. Insulin resistance was improved while GLP-1 and Ghrelin was changed significantly in patients with type 2 diabetes prior to weight loss either in the LSG or LGB group. HOMA-IR decreased to less than the cut-off value at the 3 rd month and was closely related to complete remission. The mechanism of bariatric surgery was not due just to simply dietary factors or body weight loss but also the remission of insulin resistance.

  20. The HOMA-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD Closely Mirrors the HOMA-IR Index in the Screening of Insulin Resistance in the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS.

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    Brunna Sullara Vilela

    Full Text Available The major adverse consequences of obesity are associated with the development of insulin resistance (IR and adiposopathy. The Homeostasis Model Assessment-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD was proposed as a modified version of the HOMA1-IR, which incorporates adiponectin in the denominator of the index.To evaluate the performance of the HOMA-AD index compared with the HOMA1-IR index as a surrogate marker of IR in women, and to establish the cutoff value of the HOMA-AD.The Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS is a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The data from 1,061 subjects met the desired criteria: 18-65 years old, BMI: 18.5-49.9 Kg/m² and without diabetes. The IR was assessed by the indexes HOMA1-IR and HOMA-AD (total sample and by the hyperglycemic clamp (n = 49. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the IDF criteria.For the IR assessed by the clamp, the HOMA-AD demonstrated a stronger coefficient of correlation (r = -0.64 compared with the HOMA1-IR (r = -0.56; p 0.05. The optimal cutoff identified for the HOMA-AD for the diagnosis of IR was 0.95.The HOMA-AD index was demonstrated to be a useful surrogate marker for detecting IR among adult women and presented a similar performance compared with the HOMA1-IR index. These results may assist physicians and researchers in determining which method to use to evaluate IR in light of the available facilities.

  1. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Geloneze, B; Vasques, ACJ; Stabe, CFC; Pareja, JC; Rosado, LEFPD; de Queiroz, EC; Tambascia, MA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 9011 percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  2. The HOMA-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) Closely Mirrors the HOMA-IR Index in the Screening of Insulin Resistance in the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Roberta Soares Lara; Forti, Adriana Costa e; Pareja, José Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background The major adverse consequences of obesity are associated with the development of insulin resistance (IR) and adiposopathy. The Homeostasis Model Assessment-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) was proposed as a modified version of the HOMA1-IR, which incorporates adiponectin in the denominator of the index. Objectives To evaluate the performance of the HOMA-AD index compared with the HOMA1-IR index as a surrogate marker of IR in women, and to establish the cutoff value of the HOMA-AD. Subjects/Methods The Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS) is a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The data from 1,061 subjects met the desired criteria: 18–65 years old, BMI: 18.5–49.9 Kg/m² and without diabetes. The IR was assessed by the indexes HOMA1-IR and HOMA-AD (total sample) and by the hyperglycemic clamp (n = 49). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the IDF criteria. Results For the IR assessed by the clamp, the HOMA-AD demonstrated a stronger coefficient of correlation (r = -0.64) compared with the HOMA1-IR (r = -0.56); p 0.05). The optimal cutoff identified for the HOMA-AD for the diagnosis of IR was 0.95. Conclusions The HOMA-AD index was demonstrated to be a useful surrogate marker for detecting IR among adult women and presented a similar performance compared with the HOMA1-IR index. These results may assist physicians and researchers in determining which method to use to evaluate IR in light of the available facilities. PMID:27490249

  3. The HOMA-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) Closely Mirrors the HOMA-IR Index in the Screening of Insulin Resistance in the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Brunna Sullara; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Cassani, Roberta Soares Lara; Forti, Adriana Costa E; Pareja, José Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The major adverse consequences of obesity are associated with the development of insulin resistance (IR) and adiposopathy. The Homeostasis Model Assessment-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) was proposed as a modified version of the HOMA1-IR, which incorporates adiponectin in the denominator of the index. To evaluate the performance of the HOMA-AD index compared with the HOMA1-IR index as a surrogate marker of IR in women, and to establish the cutoff value of the HOMA-AD. The Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS) is a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The data from 1,061 subjects met the desired criteria: 18-65 years old, BMI: 18.5-49.9 Kg/m² and without diabetes. The IR was assessed by the indexes HOMA1-IR and HOMA-AD (total sample) and by the hyperglycemic clamp (n = 49). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the IDF criteria. For the IR assessed by the clamp, the HOMA-AD demonstrated a stronger coefficient of correlation (r = -0.64) compared with the HOMA1-IR (r = -0.56); p HOMA1-IR, the HOMA-AD showed higher values of the AUC for the identification of IR based on the clamp test (AUC: 0.844 vs. AUC: 0.804) and on the metabolic syndrome (AUC: 0.703 vs. AUC: 0.689), respectively; p HOMA-AD in comparison with the HOMA1-IR in the diagnosis of IR and metabolic syndrome (p > 0.05). The optimal cutoff identified for the HOMA-AD for the diagnosis of IR was 0.95. The HOMA-AD index was demonstrated to be a useful surrogate marker for detecting IR among adult women and presented a similar performance compared with the HOMA1-IR index. These results may assist physicians and researchers in determining which method to use to evaluate IR in light of the available facilities.

  4. Estimation of insulin resistance in non-diabetic normotensive Saudi adults by QUICKI, HOMA-IR and modified QUICKI: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahijri, Suhad M; Alissa, Eman M; Akbar, Daad H; Ghabrah, Tawfik M

    2010-01-01

    Identification of insulin resistance (IR) in the general population is important for developing strategies to reduce the prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). We used the original and a modified version of the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI, M-QUICKI), and the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) to divide non-diabetic normotensive adults into high- (HIR) and low-insulin-resistant (LIR) subgroups to investigate similarities and differences in their characteristics. Three hundred fifty-seven healthy adults aged 18-50 years were recruited randomly from health centers in Jeddah in a cross-sectional study design. Anthropometric and demographic information was taken. Insulin, glucose, lipid profile and free fatty acid were determined in fasting blood samples. M-QUICKI, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were calculated. Reported cut-off points were used to identify HIR subjects, who were then matched for age and sex to others in the study population, resulting in 3 HIR and 3 LIR subgroups. Two hundred nine subjects satisfied the selection criteria. M-QUICKI correlated significantly (P=.01) with HOMA-IR and QUICKI values. Increased adiposity was the common characteristic of the three HIR subgroups. HIR subgroups identified using M-QUICKI (97 subjects) and HOMA (25 subjects), but not QUICKI (135 subjects), had statistically different biochemical characteristics compared to corresponding LIR sub-groups. Adiposity, but not sex, is a risk factor for IR in the studied population. Further studies are needed to choose the most appropriate index for detecting IR in community-based surveys.

  5. Higher HOMA-IR index and correlated factors of insulin resistance in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wei, Ri-Bao; Wang, Yuan-da; Zhang, Xue-Guang; Rong, Na; Tang, Li; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the index of homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients, and to explore the possible correlated factors contributing to insulin resistance (IR) within these patients. There were 255 IgAN patients and 45 membranous nephropathy (MN) patients in our database. We identified 89 IgAN subjects and 21 MN subjects without diabetes and undergoing glucocorticoid therapy for at least 6 months. Data regarding physical examination, blood chemistry and renal pathology were collected from 89 IgAN subjects and 21 MN subjects. Then 62 IgAN patients and 19 MN patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage 1 - 2 were selected for the comparison of HOMA-IR index, 89 IgAN patients were selected for multiple regression analysis to test for correlated factors of HOMA-IR index with IgAN patients. Comparison between IgAN and MN show that HOMA-IR index was significantly higher in IgAN patients with CKD Stage 1 - 2. After logarithmic transformation with urine protein (UPr), Ln(UPr) (b = 0.186, p = 0.008), eGFR (b = -0.005, p = 0.014), > 50% of glomeruli with mesangial hypercellularity (b = 0.285, p = 0.027) and body mass index (BMI) (b = 0.039, p = 0.008) were correlated factors of HOMA-IR index in the multiple regression analysis. IgAN patients had higher HOMA-IR index compared with MN in the stages of CKD 1 - 2. For IgAN patients, more UPr, lower eGFR, > 50% of glomeruli with mesangial hypercellularity and higher BMI were correlated with IR.

  6. Serum Interleukin-6, insulin, and HOMA-IR in male individuals with colorectal adenoma.

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    Sasaki, Yu; Takeda, Hiroaki; Sato, Takeshi; Orii, Tomohiko; Nishise, Shoichi; Nagino, Ko; Iwano, Daisuke; Yaoita, Takao; Yoshizawa, Kazuya; Saito, Hideki; Tanaka, Yasuhisa; Kawata, Sumio

    2012-01-15

    It is widely acknowledged that chronic low-grade inflammation plays a key role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The level of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6), one of the major proinflammatory adipokines, is correlated with obesity and insulin resistance, which are known to be risk factors for colorectal adenoma. We examined the association between the circulating level of IL-6 and the presence of colorectal adenoma. In a total colonoscopy-based cross-sectional study conducted between January and December 2008, serum levels of IL-6 were measured in samples of venous blood obtained from 336 male participants attending health checkups (118 individuals with colorectal adenoma and 218 age-matched controls) after an overnight fast. In the colorectal adenoma group, the median levels of serum IL-6 (1.24 vs. 1.04 pg/mL; P = 0.01), triglyceride, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were to be significantly higher than those in the control group. When restricted to individuals with adenoma, levels of IL-6 were positively correlated with body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Multiple logistic analyses adjusted to include insulin or HOMA-IR showed that high levels of IL-6 were associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma. There was no significant interaction of IL-6 with HOMA-IR to modify this association. Our findings suggest that increased serum levels of IL-6 are positively associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma in men, independently of insulin and HOMA-IR. ©2011 AACR.

  7. The relationship between visfatin and HOMA-IR in hypertensive patients, and the effect of antihypertensive drugs on visfatin and HOMA-IR in hypertensive patients with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jianjun; Chen, Xiaoni; Chen, Xiaoping; Wang, Si; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Kai; He, Sen; Peng, Yong; Jiang, Lingyun; Li, Longxin; Wan, Liyan

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the correlation between serum visfatin and insulin resistance (IR) in non-diabetic essential hypertensive (EH) patients with and without IR, and to evaluate the effect of antihypertensive treatment on serum visfatin and IR in these patients. A total of 81 non-diabetic EH patients, including 54 with IR and 27 without IR, were enrolled. After two weeks wash-out, patients with IR were randomly assigned to telmisartan (group T) or amlodipine (group A) for 6 months. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment for measurement of routine biochemical parameters, visfatin and insulin resistance (measured by HOMA-IR). Visfatin was independently correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.845, P=0.000). After 6 months of treatment, both drugs lowered HOMA-IR, more significantly so in group T than group A (P=0.010). Serum visfatin levels increased in group T but decreased in group A. Serum visfatin levels were higher in non-diabetic EH patients with IR compared with those without IR. Visfatin is independently correlated with HOMA-IR. Telmisartan lowers HOMA-IR to a greater extent than amlodipine. Interestingly, serum visfatin increased with telmisartan yet decreased with amlodipine treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Third Exposure to a Reduced Carbohydrate Meal Lowers Evening Postprandial Insulin and GIP Responses and HOMA-IR Estimate of Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Ju; Borer, Katarina T

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease mortality. Postprandial hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia also occur in metabolically healthy subjects consuming high-carbohydrate diets particularly after evening meals and when carbohydrate loads follow acute exercise. We hypothesized the involvement of dietary carbohydrate load, especially when timed after exercise, and mediation by the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) in this phenomenon, as this incretin promotes insulin secretion after carbohydrate intake in insulin-sensitive, but not in insulin-resistant states. Four groups of eight metabolically healthy weight-matched postmenopausal women were provided with three isocaloric meals (a pre-trial meal and two meals during the trial day) containing either 30% or 60% carbohydrate, with and without two-hours of moderate-intensity exercise before the last two meals. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, GIP, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFAs), and D-3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured during 4-h postprandial periods and 3-h exercise periods, and their areas under the curve (AUCs) were analyzed by mixed-model ANOVA, and insulin resistance during fasting and meal tolerance tests within each diet was estimated using homeostasis-model assessment (HOMA-IR). The third low-carbohydrate meal, but not the high-carbohydrate meal, reduced: (1) evening insulin AUC by 39% without exercise and by 31% after exercise; (2) GIP AUC by 48% without exercise and by 45% after exercise, and (3) evening insulin resistance by 37% without exercise and by 24% after exercise. Pre-meal exercise did not alter insulin-, GIP- and HOMA-IR- lowering effects of low-carbohydrate diet, but exacerbated evening hyperglycemia. Evening postprandial insulin and GIP responses and insulin resistance declined by over 30% after three meals that limited daily carbohydrate intake to

  9. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in the differentiation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ana Lúcia Farias de Azevedo; Carvalho, Luciana de; Oliveira, Ana Claudia; Santos, Virgínia Nascimento dos; Vieira, Jose Gilberto; Parise, Edison Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Due to its good correlation to glycemic clamp, HOMA-IR has been widely utilized as insulin resistance index in clinical and epidemiological studies involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers. However, values used for this parameter have shown large variability. To identify the HOMA-IR cut value that best distinguishes non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients from a control group. One hundred sixteen non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were studied, diagnosed by clinical, biochemical, and liver image or biopsy criteria, and 88 healthy individuals, without any liver disease and testing for oral glucose tolerance within normality. These groups did not differ in age and gender. All were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test and blood samples were collected for glucose and insulin measurements by immunofluorometric method. HOMA-IR was calculated according to the formula: fasting insulin (microU/L) x fasting glucose (nmol/L)/22.5. NAFLD patients showed higher insulin, glycemia, and HOMA-IR values than control group, even when excluding glucose intolerant and diabetes mellitus patients by their glycemic curves. HOMA-IR 75th percentile for control group was 1.78 and the best area under the curve index was obtained for HOMA-IR values of 2.0 [AUC= 0.840 (0.781-0.899 CI 95%), sensitivity (Se): 85%, specificity (Sp): 83%] while value 2.5 showed best specificity without important loss in sensitivity [AUC=0,831 (0.773-0.888) Se = 72%, Sp = 94%]. HOMA-IR values above or equal to 2.0 or 2.5 show enhanced diagnostic value in distinguishing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers from control group individuals.

  10. Efek Hipoglikemik Kecambah Beras Merah pada Tikus yang Diinduksi STZ-NA dengan Parameter Kadar Insulin, Indeks HOMA-IR dan HOMA β

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    Nurhidajah Nurhidajah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of germination of grains such as rice, could increase some nutritional values of  amino acids and dietary fiber. Red rice and its sprouts are believed to be able to decrease blood glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of red rice sprouts in STZ-NA induced diabetic rats on blood glucose level, insulin level, and HOMA-IR and HOMA-β index. This experimental study was conducted based on randomized post test only control group design using 24 male Wistar rats aged 2.5 months. Rats were divided into 4 groups, one group without induction of STZ-NA fed with a standard diet (control and three groups of STZ- NA induced with a standard diet, red rice and red rice germ. Experiments were conducted for 6 weeks. The results showed that sprouted red rice lowered blood glucose levels by 61.88 % and the value of HOMA-IR (insulin resistance parameters by 56.82%. Insulin level increased by 16.35 % and HOMA-β by 763.6 %. This study showed that red rice germ was able to decrease blood glucose levels and increase insulin resistance of DM rats and the strength of the pancreatic beta cells.   ABSTRAK Proses perkecambahan biji-bijian seperti beras, dapat meningkatkan beberapa nilai gizi seperti asam amino dan serat pangan. Beras merah dan kecambahnya diyakini mampu menurunkan glukosa darah pada penderita diabetes melitus (DM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi efek hipoglikemik kecambah beras merah pada tikus diabetes yang diinduksi STZ-NA terhadap kadar glukosa darah, insulin, serta indeks HOMA-IR dan HOMA β. Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimental in vivo pada hewan coba tikus Wistar jantan usia 2,5 bulan sebanyak 24 ekor dengan desain penelitian randomized post test only control group. Tikus dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok, masing-masing 1 kelompok tanpa induksi STZ-NA dengan diet standar dan 3 kelompok diinduksi STZ-NA dengan diet standar, beras merah dan kecambah beras merah

  11. Meta-analyses of the Association of Sleep Apnea with Insulin Resistance, and the Effects of CPAP on HOMA-IR, Adiponectin, and Visceral Adipose Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Imran H; Hoyos, Camilla M; Phillips, Craig L; Magalang, Ulysses J

    2015-04-15

    We sought to conduct an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on insulin resistance, as measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), visceral abdominal fat (VAF), and adiponectin. Additionally, we performed a separate meta-analysis and meta-regression of studies on the association of insulin resistance and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). All included studies were searched from PubMed (from conception to March 15, 2014). Data were pooled across all included RCTs as the mean difference in HOMA-IR and VAF, and as the standardized mean difference in the case of adiponectin analysis. From the included case-control studies, data on the difference of HOMA-IR between cases and controls were pooled across all studies, as the standardized mean difference (SMD). There was a significant difference in HOMA-IR (-0.43 [95% CIs: -0.75 to -0.11], p = 0.008) between CPAP treated and non CPAP treated participants. However, there was no significant difference in VAF or adiponectin; (-47.93 [95% CI: -112.58 to 16.72], p = 0.14) and (-0.06 [95% CI: -0.28 to 0.15], p = 0.56), respectively. Meta-analysis of 16 case-control studies showed a pooled SMD in HOMA-IR of 0.51 (95% CI: 0.28 to 0.75), p ≤ 0.001, between cases and controls. The results of our meta-analyses show that CPAP has a favorable effect on insulin resistance. This effect is not associated with any significant changes in total adiponectin levels or amount of VAF. Our findings also confirm a significant association between OSA and insulin resistance. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  12. Whole-Body and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Reynoso, Lorena del Rocío; Pisarchyk, Liudmila; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Garay-Sevilla, Ma. Eugenia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance may be assessed as whole body or hepatic. Objective To study factors associated with both types of insulin resistance. Methods Cross-sectional study of 182 obese children. Somatometric measurements were registered, and the following three adiposity indexes were compared: BMI, waist-to-height ratio and visceral adiposity. Whole-body insulin resistance was evaluated using HOMA-IR, with 2.5 as the cut-off point. Hepatic insulin resistance was considered for IGFBP-1 level quartiles 1 to 3 (HOMA-IR was negatively associated with IGFBP-1 and positively associated with BMI, triglycerides, leptin and mother's BMI. Girls had increased HOMA-IR. IGFBP-1 was negatively associated with waist-to-height ratio, age, leptin, HOMA-IR and IGF-I. We did not find HOMA-IR or IGFBP-1 associated with fatty liver. Conclusion In school-aged children, BMI is the best metric to predict whole-body insulin resistance, and waist-to-height ratio is the best predictor of hepatic insulin resistance, indicating that central obesity is important for hepatic insulin resistance. The reciprocal negative association of IGFBP-1 and HOMA-IR may represent a strong interaction of the physiological processes of both whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:25411786

  13. Higher glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in childhood predict adverse cardiovascular risk in early adulthood: the Pune Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Katre, Prachi A; Joshi, Suyog M; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Bhat, Dattatray S; Lubree, Himangi G; Memane, Nilam; Kinare, Arun S; Pandit, Anand N; Bhave, Sheila A; Bavdekar, Ashish; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-07-01

    The Pune Children's Study aimed to test whether glucose and insulin measurements in childhood predict cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood. We followed up 357 participants (75% follow-up) at 21 years of age who had undergone detailed measurements at 8 years of age (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and other indices). Oral glucose tolerance, anthropometry, plasma lipids, BP, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at 21 years. Higher fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR at 8 years predicted higher glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, BP, lipids and IMT at 21 years. A 1 SD change in 8 year variables was associated with a 0.10-0.27 SD change at 21 years independently of obesity/adiposity at 8 years of age. A greater rise in glucose-insulin variables between 8 and 21 years was associated with higher cardiovascular risk factors, including PWV. Participants whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the highest quartile (n = 31) had a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile compared with those whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the lowest quartile (n = 28). Prepubertal glucose-insulin metabolism is associated with adult cardiovascular risk and markers of atherosclerosis. Our results support interventions to improve glucose-insulin metabolism in childhood to reduce cardiovascular risk in later life.

  14. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) cut-off values and the metabolic syndrome in a general adult population: effect of gender and age: EPIRCE cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Otero-González, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Alvarez, María Xosé; Gude, Francisco; García, Fernando; De Francisco, Angel; Quintela, Arturo González

    2013-10-16

    Insulin resistance has been associated with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations and higher cardio metabolic risk. There is great variability in the threshold homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels to define insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of age and gender in the estimation of HOMA-IR optimal cut-off values to identify subjects with higher cardio metabolic risk in a general adult population. It included 2459 adults (range 20-92 years, 58.4% women) in a random Spanish population sample. As an accurate indicator of cardio metabolic risk, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), both by International Diabetes Federation criteria and by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were used. The effect of age was analyzed in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus separately. ROC regression methodology was used to evaluate the effect of age on HOMA-IR performance in classifying cardio metabolic risk. In Spanish population the threshold value of HOMA-IR drops from 3.46 using 90th percentile criteria to 2.05 taking into account of MetS components. In non-diabetic women, but no in men, we found a significant non-linear effect of age on the accuracy of HOMA-IR. In non-diabetic men, the cut-off values were 1.85. All values are between 70th-75th percentiles of HOMA-IR levels in adult Spanish population. The consideration of the cardio metabolic risk to establish the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, to define insulin resistance instead of using a percentile of the population distribution, would increase its clinical utility in identifying those patients in whom the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors imparts an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. The threshold levels must be modified by age in non-diabetic women.

  15. Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR 2) in Mild Subclinical Hypothyroid Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Shreejita; Jaseem, T; Ambalavanan, Jayachidambaram; Hegde, Anupama

    2018-04-01

    Despite various studies with conflicting results, the effect of thyroid hormones on lipids and insulin levels in dysthyroidism is of great interest. This case control study was aimed to perceive the existence of IR and dyslipidemia in mild subclinical hypothyroid subjects (TSH ≤ 9.9 µIU/ml) as compared to their age and gender matched euthyroid controls. Basic demographic information like height, weight was recorded. Serum samples of all the subjects were assayed for thyroid profile, lipid profile, blood glucose, HbA1C and insulin. BMI and insulin resistance was calculated. Compared to controls patients with mild subclinical hypothyroidism demonstrated hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia observed by the higher LDL cholesterol. A significantly positive correlation was observed for HOMA-IR with TSH and LDL cholesterol. Hence, even in the mild subclinical hypothyroid state assessment of thyroid function should be combined with estimation of plasma glucose, insulin and serum lipids to monitor and prevent its associated effects.

  16. Relationship between high white blood cell count and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean children and adolescents: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-M; Lee, D-C; Lee, Y-J

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that insulin resistance is associated with inflammation. However, few studies have investigated the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and insulin resistance, as measured by a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a general pediatric population. This study aimed to examine the association between WBC count and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. In total, 2761 participants (1479 boys and 1282 girls) aged 10-18 years were selected from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR value greater than the 90th percentile. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for insulin resistance were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. The mean values of most cardiometabolic variables tended to increase proportionally with WBC count quartiles. The prevalence of insulin resistance significantly increased in accordance with WBC count quartiles in both boys and girls. Compared to individuals in the lowest WBC count quartile, the odds ratio for insulin resistance for individuals in the highest quartile was 2.84 in boys and 3.20 in girls, after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference. A higher WBC count was positively associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in Korean children and adolescents. This study suggests that WBC count could facilitate the identification of children and adolescents with insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Higher fetal insulin resistance in Chinese pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with maternal insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuwei Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. MEASUREMENTS: Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (an indicator of fetal β-cell function were calculated in maternal and cord blood respectively. RESULTS: Both maternal and fetal levels of insulin, proinsulin and HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the control group (maternal insulin, 24.8 vs. 15.4 µU/mL, P = 0.004, proinsulin, 23.3 vs. 16.2 pmol/L, P = 0.005, and HOMA-IR, 5.5 vs. 3.5, P = 0.041, respectively; fetal: insulin, 15.1 vs. 7.9 µU/mL, P<0.001, proinsulin, 25.8 vs. 15.1 pmol/L, P = 0.015, and HOMA-IR, 2.8 vs. 1.4, P = 0.017, respectively. Fetal HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios was significantly correlated to maternal HOMA-IR (r = 0.307, P = 0.019, in the pregnant women with GDM. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal insulin resistance was higher in Chinese pregnant women with GDM than control subjects, and correlated with maternal insulin resistance.

  18. Acculturation and psychosocial stress show differential relationships to insulin resistance (HOMA) and body fat distribution in two groups of blacks living in the US Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Eugene S.; Thurland, Anne; LaPorte, Ronald E.; Chambers, Earle C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether acculturation and psychosocial stress exert differential effects on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born African Americans and African-Caribbean immigrants living in the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Data collected from a non-diabetic sample of 183 USVI-born African Americans and 296 African-Caribbean immigrants age > 20 on the island of St. Croix, USVI were studied. Information on demographic characteristics, acculturation and psychosocial stress was collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum glucose and insulin were measured from fasting blood samples. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method. The results showed that in multivariate regression analyses, controlling for age, education, gender, BMI, waist circumference, family history of diabetes, smoking and alcohol consumption, acculturation was independently related to logarithm of HOMA (InHOMA) scores among USVI-born African Americans, but not among African-Caribbean immigrants. In contrast, among USVI-born African Americans psychosocial stress was not significantly related to InHOMA, while among African-Caribbean immigrants psychosocial stress was independently related to InHOMA in models that included BMI, but not in those which included waist circumference. This study suggests that acculturation and psychosocial stress may have a differential effect on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born and immigrant blacks living in the US Virgin Islands. PMID:12911254

  19. Obese adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have more severe insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR score than obese girls without PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawathiparnich, Pairunyar; Weerakulwattana, Linda; Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Likitmaskul, Supawadee

    2005-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in Thai children is increasing. These individuals are at increased risks of metabolic syndrome that includes insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), dyslipidemia and hypertension. PCOS has been known to be associated with insulin resistance. To compare the insulin sensitivity between obese adolescent girls with PCOS and those without PCOS. We reviewed demographic and hormonal data of 6 obese adolescent girls with PCOS and compared with 6 age, weight and BMI-matched non-PCOS controls. Each subject underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (HOMA-IR score) in obese adolescent girls with PCOS was significantly higher than in girls without PCOS with median and range as follows (16.5 [3.8, 21.8] vs. 4.1 [3.3, 6.9], p = 0.04). Our study demonstrates that obese adolescent girls with PCOS have more severe insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR score than girls without PCOS independent of the degree of obesity. Since insulin resistance is a metabolic precursor of future cardiovascular diseases, obese adolescent girls with PCOS might be at greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease in later adulthood than their non-PCOS counterparts.

  20. Higher fetal insulin resistance in Chinese pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with maternal insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuwei; Huang, Ruiping; Yu, Bin; Cao, Fang; Wang, Huiyan; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Hong; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition) were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention) and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (an indicator of fetal β-cell function) were calculated in maternal and cord blood respectively. Both maternal and fetal levels of insulin, proinsulin and HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the control group (maternal insulin, 24.8 vs. 15.4 µU/mL, P = 0.004, proinsulin, 23.3 vs. 16.2 pmol/L, P = 0.005, and HOMA-IR, 5.5 vs. 3.5, P = 0.041, respectively; fetal: insulin, 15.1 vs. 7.9 µU/mL, Pinsulin ratios was significantly correlated to maternal HOMA-IR (r = 0.307, P = 0.019), in the pregnant women with GDM. Fetal insulin resistance was higher in Chinese pregnant women with GDM than control subjects, and correlated with maternal insulin resistance.

  1. Related Factors of Insulin Resistance in Korean Children: Adiposity and Maternal Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Sook Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased adiposity and unhealthy lifestyle augment the risk for type 2 diabetes in children with familial predisposition. Insulin resistance (IR is an excellent clinical marker for identifying children at high risk for type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to investigate parental, physiological, behavioral and socio-economic factors related to IR in Korean children. This study is a cross-sectional study using data from 111 children aged 7 years and their parents. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated using fasting glucose and insulin level as a marker of IR. All children’s adiposity indices (r = 0.309–0.318, all P-value = 0.001 and maternal levels of fasting insulin (r = 0.285, P-value = 0.003 and HOMA-IR (r = 0.290, P-value = 0.002 were positively correlated with children’s HOMA-IR level. There was no statistical difference of children’s HOMA-IR level according to children’s lifestyle habits and socioeconomic status of families. An increase of 1 percentage point in body fat was related to 2.7% increase in children’s HOMA-IR (P-value < 0.001 and an increase of 1% of maternal level of HOMA-IR was related to 0.2% increase in children’s HOMA-IR (P-value = 0.002. This study shows that children’s adiposity and maternal IR are positively associated with children’s IR.

  2. Early insulin sensitivity after restrictive bariatric surgery, inconsistency between HOMA-IR and steady-state plasma glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dielen, Francois M H; Nijhuis, Jeroen; Rensen, Sander S M; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Wiebolt, Janneke; Koks, Afra; Prakken, Fred J; Buurman, Wim A; Greve, Jan Willem M

    2010-01-01

    The low-grade inflammatory condition present in morbid obesity is thought to play a causative role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance (IR). Bariatric surgery fails to improve this inflammatory condition during the first months after surgery. Considering the close relation between inflammation and IR, we conducted a study in which insulin sensitivity was measured during the first months after bariatric surgery. Different methods to measure IR shortly after bariatric surgery have given inconsistent data. For example, the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) levels have been reported to decrease rapidly after bariatric surgery, although clamp techniques have shown sustained insulin resistance. In the present study, we evaluated the use of steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) levels to assess insulin sensitivity 2 months after bariatric surgery. Insulin sensitivity was measured using HOMA-IR and SSPG levels in 11 subjects before surgery and at 26% excess weight loss (approximately 2 months after restrictive bariatric surgery). The SSPG levels after 26% excess weight loss did not differ from the SSPG levels before surgery (14.3 +/- 5.4 versus 14.4 +/- 2.7 mmol/L). In contrast, the HOMA-IR values had decreased significantly (3.59 +/- 1.99 versus 2.09 +/- 1.02). During the first months after restrictive bariatric surgery, we observed a discrepancy between the HOMA-IR and SSPG levels. In contrast to the HOMA-IR values, the SSPG levels had not improved, which could be explained by the ongoing inflammatory state after bariatric surgery. These results suggest that during the first months after restrictive bariatric surgery, HOMA-IR might not be an adequate marker of insulin sensitivity. Copyright 2010 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Dioscorea esculenta and Eubacterium rectale on insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1 Expression in skeletal muscle and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sunarti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Low expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1 is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Dioscorea esculenta and Eubacterium rectale on the Irs1 expression in the skeletal muscle and the homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR of diabetic rats. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were divided into five groups i.e. non diabetic rats Group 1; diabetic rats as Group 2; diabetic rats + D. esculenta as Group 3; diabetic rats + E.rectale as Group 4 and diabetic rats + both E. rectale and D. esculenta as Group 5. Rats were made diabetic with induction of intraperitoneally injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. After four weeks of the interventions, the blood and skeletal muscles were taken. The Irs1 expression was analyzed with immunohistochemical staining, plasma glucose levels was analyzed using a spectrophotometer, and insulin was analyzed using ELISA methods. All intervention groups reduced plasma glucose levels and HOMA-IRs (p<0.001 and increased Irs1 expression. The greatest reduction of  plasma glucose levels and increase of Irs1 expression in the skeletal muscle were found in Group 4, however, the lowest of HOMA-IR was seen in Group 5. These results suggested that D.esculenta, E.rectale, and the combination reduced plasma glucose levels and HOMA-IR by increasing Irs1 expression in skeletal muscle.

  4. Lipid metabolism disturbances contribute to insulin resistance and decrease insulin sensitivity by malathion exposure in Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasram, Mohamed Montassar; Bouzid, Kahena; Douib, Ines Bini; Annabi, Alya; El Elj, Naziha; El Fazaa, Saloua; Abdelmoula, Jaouida; Gharbi, Najoua

    2015-04-01

    Several studies showed that organophosphorus pesticides disturb glucose homeostasis and can increase incidence of metabolic disorders and diabetes via insulin resistance. The current study investigates the influence of malathion on glucose metabolism regulation, in vivo, during subchronic exposure. Malathion was administered orally (200 mg/kg), once a day for 28 consecutive days. Plasma glucose, insulin and Glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly increased while hepatic glycogen content was decreased in intoxicated animals compared with the control group. Furthermore, there was a significant disturbance of lipid content in subchronic treated and post-treated rats deprived of malathion for one month. In addition, we used the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-β). Our results show that malathion increases insulin resistance biomarkers and decreases insulin sensitivity indices. Statistical analysis demonstrates that there was a positive and strong significant correlation between insulin level and insulin resistance indices, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β. Similarly, a negative and significant correlation was also found between insulin level and insulin sensitivity indices. For the first time, we demonstrate that malathion induces insulin resistance in vivo using homeostasis model assessment and these changes were detectable one month after the end of exposure. To explain insulin resistance induced by malathion we focus on lipid metabolism disturbances and their interaction with many proteins involved in insulin signaling pathways.

  5. [Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values in Chilean elderly subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, María Luisa; Lera, Lydia; Sánchez, Hugo; Uauy, Ricardo; Albala, Cecilia

    2009-11-01

    The homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) estimates insulin resistance using basal insulin and glucose values and has a good concordance with values obtained with the euglycemic clamp. However it has a high variability that depends on environmental, genetic and physiologic factors. Therefore it is imperative to establish normal HOMA values in different populations. To report HOMA-IR values in Chilean elderly subjects and to determine the best cutoff point to diagnose insulin resistance. Cross sectional study of 1003 subjects older than 60 years of whom 803 (71% women) did not have diabetes. In 154 subjects, an oral glucose tolerance test was also performed. Insulin resistance (IR) was defined as the HOMA value corresponding to percentile 75 of subjects without over or underweight. The behavior of HOMA-IR in metabolic syndrome was studied and receiver operating curves (ROC) were calculated, using glucose intolerance defined as a blood glucose over 140 mg/dl and hyperinsulinemia, defined as a serum insulin over 60 microU/ml, two hours after the glucose load. Median HOMA-IR values were 1.7. Percentile 75 in subjects without obesity or underweight was 2.57. The area under the ROC curve, when comparing HOMA-IR with glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia, was 0.8 (95% confidence values 0.72-0.87), with HOMA-IR values ranging from 2.04 to 2.33. HOMA-IR is a useful method to determine insulin resistance in epidemiological studies. The HOMA-IR cutoff point for insulin resistance defined in thi spopulation was 2.6.

  6. Insulin resistance in Nigerians with essential hypertension | Akande ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to determine insulin resistance (IR). Results: The hypertensive subjects had significantly higher fasting insulin and HOMA-IR compared with normotensives (p =0.02 and 0.04) respectively. There were significant correlations between HOMA-IR, BMI, waist and hip ...

  7. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in obese Czech children: the importance of early detection of insulin resistance using homeostatic indexes HOMA-IR and QUICKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastucha, D; Filipčíková, R; Horáková, D; Radová, L; Marinov, Z; Malinčíková, J; Kocvrlich, M; Horák, S; Bezdičková, M; Dobiáš, M

    2013-01-01

    Common alimentary obesity frequently occurs on a polygenic basis as a typical lifestyle disorder in the developed countries. It is associated with characteristic complex metabolic changes, which are the cornerstones for future metabolic syndrome development. The aims of our study were 1) to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome (based on the diagnostic criteria defined by the International Diabetes Federation for children and adolescents) in Czech obese children, 2) to evaluate the incidence of insulin resistance according to HOMA-IR and QUICKI homeostatic indexes in obese children with and without metabolic syndrome, and 3) to consider the diagnostic value of these indexes for the early detection of metabolic syndrome in obese children. We therefore performed anthropometric and laboratory examinations to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the group of 274 children with obesity (128 boys and 146 girls) aged 9-17 years. Metabolic syndrome was found in 102 subjects (37 %). On the other hand, the presence of insulin resistance according to QUICKI HOMA-IR >3.16 in 53 % of obese subjects. This HOMA-IR limit was exceeded by 70 % children in the MS(+) group, but only by 43 % children in the MS(-) group (p<0.0001). However, a relatively high incidence of insulin resistance in obese children without metabolic syndrome raises a question whether the existing diagnostic criteria do not falsely exclude some cases of metabolic syndrome. On the basis of our results we suggest to pay a preventive attention also to obese children with insulin resistance even if they do not fulfill the actual diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome.

  8. The surgical treatment of type II diabetes mellitus: changes in HOMA Insulin resistance in the first year following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Garth H; Wasielewski, Annette; Saunders, John K

    2009-09-01

    Bariatric operations significantly improve glucose metabolism, decrease insulin resistance, and lead to clinical resolution of type II diabetes mellitus in many patients. The mechanisms that achieve these clinical outcomes, however, remain ill defined. Moreover, the relative impact of various operations on insulin resistance remains vigorously contested. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to compare directly the impact of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and insulin resistance in comparable groups of morbidly obese patients. Data were entered prospectively into our bariatric surgery database and reviewed retrospectively. Patients selected operations. Principle outcome variables were percent excess weight loss (%EWL), HbA1c, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA IR). The number of follow-up visits for 111 LAGB patients was 263 with a median of 162 days (17-1,016) and 291 follow-up visits for 104 LRYGB patients for a median of 150 days (8-1,191). Preoperative height, weight, body mass index, age, sex, race, comorbidities, fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and HOMA IR were similar for both groups. In particular, the number of patients who were diabetics and those receiving insulin and other hypoglycemic agents were similar among the two groups. The LAGB patients lost significantly less weight than the LRYGB patients (24.6% compared to 44.0% EWL). LAGB reduced HbA1c from 5.8% (2-13.8) to 5.6% (0.3-12.3). LRYGB reduced HbA1c from 5.9% (2.0-12.3) to 5.4% (0.1-9.8). LAGB reduced HOMA IR from 3.6 (0.8-39.2) to 2.3 (0-55) and LRYGB reduced HOMA IR from 4.4 (0.6-56.5) to 1.4 (0.3-15.2). Postoperative HOMA IR correlated best with %EWL. Indeed, regression equations were essentially identical for LAGB and LRYGB for drop in %EWL versus postoperative HOMA IR. Percent excess weight loss significantly predicts postoperative insulin resistance (HOMA IR

  9. Correlation between Interleukin-6 (IL-6, High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP, Endothelin-1 (ET-1, Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA and Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in Central Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Hidayat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that obesity was closely related to insulin resistance via several pathways such as inflammation, oxidative stress, lipolysis, and endothelial dysfunction. This study was carried out to observe the correlation between inflammation (IL-6 and hsCRP, lipolysis process (ET-1, and endothelial dysfunction (ADMA and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in centrally obese men. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study on 62 male subjects aged 30–60 years old with waist circumference (WC >90 cm. IL-6, ET-1 and ADMA levels were measured using ELISA method, while hsCRP and insulin were measured using chemiluminescence method. All blood testings were conducted in Prodia Clinical Laboratory. RESULTS: The results showed that WC was significantly correlated with hsCRP (r=0.294, p=0.022, ET-1 (r=0.257, p=0.047 and ADMA (r=0.338, p=0.009. We also found a significant correlation between hsCRP with HOMA-IR (r=0.324, p=0.021, ADMA with HOMA-IR (r=0.280, p=0.045 and IL-6 with hsCRP (r=0.437, p=0.003. CONCLUSIONS: hsCRP and ADMA have significant correlation with HOMA-IR in centrally obese men. HOMA-IR significantly increases in subjects with ADMA above median and either IL-6 or hsCRP above median, as compared to those in the other groups. Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are important causal pathways of insulin resistance state in centrally obese men. KEYWORDS: obesity, IL-6, hsCRP, ET-1, ADMA, HOMA-IR.

  10. Homa1-ir And Homa2-ir Indexes In Identifying Insulin Resistance And Metabolic Syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (brams) [Índices Homa1-ir E Homa2-ir Para Identificação De Resistência à Insulina E Síndrome Metabólica - Estudo Brasileiro De Síndrome Metabólica (brams)

    OpenAIRE

    Geloneze B.; Vasques A.C.J.; Stabe C.F.C.; Pareja J.C.; de Lima Rosado L.E.F.P.; de Queiroz E.C.; Tambascia M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  11. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Bone Structure in Nondiabetic Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Finkelstein, Joel S; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    computed tomography was used to assess bone density and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia. Fasting insulin and glucose was measured and insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with higher values indicating greater insulin resistance....... RESULTS: There was a negative association between HOMA-IR and bone size and a positive association between HOMA-IR and total vBMD, trabecular vBMD, trabecular thickness and cortical thickness at the radius and tibia. These relationships remained even after adjusting for body weight and other potential...

  12. Effect of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Mouhamed, D; Ezzaher, A; Neffati, F; Douki, W; Gaha, L; Najjar, M F

    2016-02-01

    Smoking is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism(s) of the effects of smoking on CVD are not clearly understood; however, a number of atherogenic characteristics, such as insulin resistance have been reported. We aim to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance and to determine the correlation between this parameter with smoking status characteristics. This study was conducted on 138 non-smokers and 162 smokers aged respectively 35.6±16.0 and 38.5±21.9 years. All subjects are not diabetic. Fasting glucose was determined by enzymatic methods and insulin by chemiluminescence method. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated using the Homeostasis Model of Assessment equation: HOMA-IR=[fasting insulin (mU/L)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)]/22.5. IR was defined as the upper quartile of HOMA-IR. Values above 2.5 were taken as abnormal and reflect insulin resistance. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had significantly higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR index. These associations remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (age, gender, BMI and alcohol consumption). A statistically significant association was noted between the smoking status parameters, including both the number of cigarettes smoked/day and the duration of smoking, and fasting insulin levels as well for HOMA-IR index. Among smokers, we noted a positive correlation between HOMA-IR index and both plasma thiocyanates and urinary cotinine. Our results show that smokers have a high risk to developing an insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, compared with a matched group of non-smokers, and may help to explain the high risk of cardiovascular diseases in smokers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  13. Variability of HOMA and QUICKI insulin sensitivity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žarković, Miloš; Ćirić, Jasmina; Beleslin, Biljana; Stojković, Mirjana; Savić, Slavica; Stojanović, Miloš; Lalić, Tijana

    2017-07-01

    Assessment of insulin sensitivity based on a single measurement of insulin and glucose, is both easy to understand and simple to perform. The tests most often used are HOMA and QUICKI. The aim of this study was to assess the biological variability of estimates of insulin sensitivity using HOMA and QUICKI indices. After a 12-h fast, blood was sampled for insulin and glucose determination. Sampling lasted for 90 min with an intersample interval of 2 min. A total of 56 subjects were included in the study, and in nine subjects sampling was done before and after weight reduction, so total number of analyzed series was 65. To compute the reference value of the insulin sensitivity index, averages of all 46 insulin and glucose samples were used. We also computed point estimates (single value estimates) of the insulin sensitivity index based on the different number of insulin/glucose samples (1-45 consecutive samples). To compute the variability of point estimates a bootstrapping procedure was used using 1000 resamples for each series and for each number of samples used to average insulin and glucose. Using a single insulin/glucose sample HOMA variability was 26.18 ± 4.31%, and QUICKI variability was 3.30 ± 0.54%. For 10 samples variability was 11.99 ± 2.22% and 1.62 ± 0.31% respectively. Biological variability of insulin sensitivity indices is significant, and it can be reduced by increasing the number of samples. Oscillations of insulin concentration in plasma are the major cause of variability of insulin sensitivity indices.

  14. Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romualdo, Monica Cristina dos Santos; Nóbrega, Fernando José de; Escrivão, Maria Arlete Meil Schimith

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of insulin resistance and its association with other metabolic abnormalities in obese children and adolescents. Retrospective study of 220 children and adolescents aged 5-14 years. Anthropometric measurements were performed (weight, height, and waist circumference) and clinical (gender, age, pubertal stage, and degree of obesity) and biochemical (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and fractions, triglycerides) data were analyzed. Insulin resistance was identified by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The analysis of the differences between the variables of interest and the HOMA-IR quartiles was performed by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Insulin resistance was diagnosed in 33.20% of the sample. It was associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; p=0.044), waist circumference measurement (p=0.030), and the set of clinical and metabolic (p=0.000) alterations. Insulin-resistant individuals had higher mean age (p=0.000), body mass index (BMI; p=0.000), abdominal circumference (p=0.000), median triglycerides (p=0.001), total cholesterol (p≤0.042), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; p≤0.027); and lower HDL-C levels (p=0.005). There was an increase in mean BMI (p=0.000), abdominal circumference (p=0.000), and median triglycerides (p=0.002) as the values of HOMA -IR increased, with the exception of HDL-C, which decreased (p=0.001). Those with the highest number of simultaneous alterations were between the second and third quartiles of the HOMA-IR index (p=0.000). The results confirmed that insulin resistance is present in many obese children and adolescents, and that this condition is associated with alterations that represent an increased risk for developing metabolic disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical and Biochemical Profiles according to Homeostasis Model Assessment-insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Eun; Park, Soo Yeon; Park, So Yun; Lee, Sa Ra; Chung, Hye Won; Jeong, Kyungah

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and biochemical profiles according to homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. In 458 PCOS patients diagnosed by the Rotterdam European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) criteria, measurements of somatometry, blood test of hormones, glucose metabolic and lipid profiles, and transvaginal or transrectal ultrasonogram were carried out. HOMA-IR was then calculated and compared with the clinical and biochemical profiles related to PCOS. The patients were divided into 4 groups by quartiles of HOMA-IR. The mean level of HOMA-IR was 2.18 ± 1.73. Among the four groups separated according to HOMA-IR, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, lipid accumulation product (LAP) index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), Apoprotein B, free testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were found to be significantly different. TG, LAP index, glucose metabolic profiles, and hs-CRP were positively correlated with HOMA-IR after adjustment for BMI. Our results suggest that the clinical and biochemical profiles which are applicable as cardiovascular risk factors are highly correlated with HOMA-IR in Korean women with PCOS.

  16. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance and risk of hypertension in the general population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Han, Lili; Hu, Dayi

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the association of fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance with subsequent risk of hypertension have yielded conflicting results. To quantitatively assess the association of fasting insulin concentrations or homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with incident hypertension in a general population by performing a meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases until August 31, 2016 for prospective observational studies investigating the elevated fasting insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR with subsequent risk of hypertension in the general population. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hypertension was calculated for the highest versus the lowest category of fasting insulin or HOMA-IR. Eleven studies involving 10,230 hypertension cases were identified from 55,059 participants. Meta-analysis showed that the pooled adjusted RR of hypertension was 1.54 (95% CI 1.34-1.76) for fasting insulin concentrations and 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.62) for HOMA-IR comparing the highest to the lowest category. Subgroup analysis results showed that the association of fasting insulin concentrations with subsequent risk of hypertension seemed more pronounced in women (RR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.60) than in men (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.17-1.88). This meta-analysis suggests that elevated fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment is independently associated with an exacerbated risk of hypertension in the general population. Early intervention of hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance may help clinicians to identify the high risk of hypertensive population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Linking lifestyle factors and insulin resistance, based on fasting plasma insulin and HOMA-IR in middle-aged Japanese men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Toshie; Fukumoto, Jin; Abe, Masao; Takemura, Shigeki; Mihn, Pham Ngoc; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kiyohara, Chikako

    2014-09-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is regarded as one of the earliest features of many metabolic diseases, and major efforts are aimed at improving insulin function to confront this issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, green tea and coffee consumption to IR. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1542 male self defense officials. IR was defined as the highest quartile of the fasting plasma insulin (≥ 50 pmol/L) or the homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (HOMA-IR ≥ 1.81). An unconditional logistic model was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between IR and influential factors. Stratified analysis by obesity status (BMI IR was significantly positively related to BMI and glucose tolerance, negatively related to alcohol use. Independent of obesity status, significant trends were observed between IR and alcohol use. Drinking 30 mL or more of ethanol per day reduced IR by less than 40%. Strong physical activity was associated with decreased risk of IR based on fasting plasma insulin only in the obese. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with the risk of IR based on HOMA-IR in the non-obese group. Higher coffee consumption may be protective against IR among only the non-obese. Further studies are warranted to examine the effect modification of the obesity status on the coffee-IR association.

  18. Relationship of visfatin level to pancreatic endocrine hormone level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index in overweight women who performed hydraulic resistance exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Chang Ho; Swearingin, Brenda; Jeon, Yong Kyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the correlation of visfatin level to pancreatic endocrine hormone level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and HOMA β-cell index in hydraulic resistance exercise. Furthermore, it investigated the relationship between visfatin level and other variables affected by exercise in overweight women. [Subjects and Methods] The exercise group trained for 12 weeks, 70 minutes/day, 5 days/week. Visfatin level, pancreatic endocrine h...

  19. Insulin Resistance Predicts Mortality in Nondiabetic Individuals in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Ausk, Karlee J.; Boyko, Edward J.; Ioannou, George N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance is a suspected causative factor in a wide variety of diseases. We aimed to determine whether insulin resistance, estimated by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), is associated with all-cause or disease-specific mortality among nondiabetic persons in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We determined the association between HOMA-IR and death certificate–based mortality among 5,511 nondiabetic, adult participants of the third U.S. Nati...

  20. Cognitively impaired elderly exhibit insulin resistance and no memory improvement with infused insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Robert N; Johnson, David K; Thyfault, John P; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although its role in AD etiology is unclear. We assessed insulin resistance using fasting and insulin-stimulated measures in 51 elderly subjects with no dementia (ND; n = 37) and with cognitive impairment (CI; n = 14). CI subjects exhibited either mild CI or AD. Fasting insulin resistance was measured using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to calculate glucose disposal rate into lean mass, the primary site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Because insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier, we also assessed whether insulin infusion would improve verbal episodic memory compared to baseline. Different but equivalent versions of cognitive tests were administered in counterbalanced order in the basal and insulin-stimulated state. Groups did not differ in age or body mass index. Cognitively impaired subjects exhibited greater insulin resistance as measured at fasting (HOMA-IR; ND: 1.09 [1.1] vs. CI: 2.01 [2.3], p = 0.028) and during the hyperinsulinemic clamp (glucose disposal rate into lean mass; ND: 9.9 (4.5) vs. AD 7.2 (3.2), p = 0.040). Cognitively impaired subjects also exhibited higher fasting insulin compared to ND subjects, (CI: 8.7 [7.8] vs. ND: 4.2 [3.8] μU/mL; p = 0.023) and higher fasting amylin (CI: 24.1 [39.1] vs. 8.37 [14.2]; p = 0.050) with no difference in fasting glucose. Insulin infusion elicited a detrimental effect on one test of verbal episodic memory (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test) in both groups (p insulin resistance was observed in cognitively impaired subjects compared to ND controls, insulin infusion did not improve memory. Furthermore, a significant correlation between HOMA-IR and glucose disposal rate was present only in ND (p = 0.0002) but not in cognitively impaired (p = 0.884) subjects, indicating potentially important

  1. Influence of Grand Multiparity on the Levels of Insulin, Glucose and HOMA-IR in Comparison with Nulliparity and Primiparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldin Ahmed Abdelsalam, Kamal; Alobeid M Elamin, Abdelsamee

    2017-01-01

    It is to compare the levels of fasting glucose and insulin as well as insulin resistance in grand multiparas with primiparity and nulliparity. Fasting blood samples were collected from 100 non-pregnant ladies as control group, 100 primiparity pregnant women and 100 grand multiparity pregnant women. Glucose (FBS) and insulin (FSI) concentrations were measured by Hitachi 912 full automated Chemistry Analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Germany) as manufacturer procedure. Insulin resistance was calculated following the formula: FBG (mg dL-1)×FSI (μU mL-1)/405. This study found a significant reduction in glucose level in primiparity when compared to control group but it was increased significantly in multiparity comparing to primiparity and control. Insulin level showed significant high concentrations in pregnant women and increased significantly in grand multiparas comparing to primiparas and controls. As a result of that, HOMA-IR was increased significantly by increasing of parity. Also, there was a significant increase in fasting insulin and a decrease in insulin sensitivity with parity with association to age and obesity. Grand multiparity is associated with an increased risk of subsequent clinical insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).

  2. Gamma glutamyl transferase is an independent determinant for the association of insulin resistance with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Bangladeshi adults: Association of GGT and HOMA-IR with NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Israt Ara; Rahman Shah, Md Mijanur; Rahman, Mohammad Khalilur; Ali, Liaquat

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and is frequently associated with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) syndrome. Recently serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) has been considered as surrogate marker of NAFLD leading to oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. In the present study we examined the association of serum GGT and HOMA-IR with NAFLD in Bangladeshi adult subjects. Under a cross-sectional analytical design a total of 110 subjects were recruited who came for their routine health check up in the BIHS Hospital, Darussalam, Dhaka, Bangladesh. After whole abdomen ultrasonography, 62 were diagnosed as non-NAFLD and 48 were NAFLD subjects. Serum glucose was measured by glucose-oxidase method, lipid profile and liver enzymes by enzymatic colorimetric method, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), serum insulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HOMA-IR was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). NAFLD subjects had significantly higher levels of GGT and HOMA-IR as compared to their non-NAFLD counterparts. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant positive association of HOMA-IR with GGT after adjusting the effects of waist circumference (WC) and HbA1c. In binary logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR and GGT were found to be significant determinants of NAFLD after adjusting the effects of WC and HbA1c. These results suggest that elevated levels of GGT and insulin resistance are more likely to develop NAFLD and thus support a role of these determinants in the pathogenesis of NAFLD in Bangladeshi adult subjects. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HOMA, BMI, and Serum Leptin Levels Variations during Antiviral Treatment Suggest Virus-Related Insulin Resistance in Noncirrhotic, Nonobese, and Nondiabetic Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Alessandro; Malfatti, Federica; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Marenco, Simona; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Labanca, Sara; Cordera, Renzo; Testa, Roberto; Picciotto, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and viral load decay in nondiabetic and noncirrhotic genotype 1 chronic HCV patients during peginterferon and ribavirin treatment and the possible influence of BMI and leptin as metabolic confounders. Methods. 75 consecutive noncirrhotic, nonobese, and nondiabetic patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C treated with peginterferon alpha 2a plus ribavirin were evaluated. HOMA-IR, serum leptin, and BMI were measured in all patients at baseline and at weeks 12 and 48, whereas viral load was measured at the same time points and then 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. HOMA-IR was significantly associated with both BMI and leptin at baseline. During peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment, there was a significant reduction of HOMA-IR at weeks 12 and 48 from baseline (P = 0.033 and 0.048, resp.) in patients who achieved an early viral load decay (EVR), a trend not observed in patients who not achieved EVR. No variations during treatment were observed regarding BMI and leptin irrespective of EVR. Conclusion. The early reduction of HOMA-IR but not of BMI and leptin during antiviral treatment in noncirrhotic, chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients who achieved EVR suggests a viral genesis of insulin resistance in patients with nonmetabolic phenotype.

  4. HOMA, BMI, and Serum Leptin Levels Variations during Antiviral Treatment Suggest Virus-Related Insulin Resistance in Noncirrhotic, Nonobese, and Nondiabetic Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grasso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and viral load decay in nondiabetic and noncirrhotic genotype 1 chronic HCV patients during peginterferon and ribavirin treatment and the possible influence of BMI and leptin as metabolic confounders. Methods. 75 consecutive noncirrhotic, nonobese, and nondiabetic patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C treated with peginterferon alpha 2a plus ribavirin were evaluated. HOMA-IR, serum leptin, and BMI were measured in all patients at baseline and at weeks 12 and 48, whereas viral load was measured at the same time points and then 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. HOMA-IR was significantly associated with both BMI and leptin at baseline. During peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment, there was a significant reduction of HOMA-IR at weeks 12 and 48 from baseline (P=0.033 and 0.048, resp. in patients who achieved an early viral load decay (EVR, a trend not observed in patients who not achieved EVR. No variations during treatment were observed regarding BMI and leptin irrespective of EVR. Conclusion. The early reduction of HOMA-IR but not of BMI and leptin during antiviral treatment in noncirrhotic, chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients who achieved EVR suggests a viral genesis of insulin resistance in patients with nonmetabolic phenotype.

  5. Study of prevalence and effects of insulin resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, A F; Baddour, M M; Elshazly, M A; Fadally, G; Hanafi, N F; Assar, S L

    2016-02-01

    There is strong epidemiological evidence linking hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and diabetes. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of insulin resistance in Egyptian patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 infection, to assess factors associated with insulin resistance and to test the impact of insulin resistance on outcomes of treatment with pegylated interferon/ribavirin. Insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessmentinsulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score > 3.0] was detected in 31 of 100 nondiabetic patients. The relationship between elevated HOMA-IR and baseline viral load and degree of fibrosis was statistically significant (r = 0.218 and r = 0.223). Follow-up of patients with complete early virological response until the end of treatment showed a statistically significant decrease in HOMA-IR score. Out of 29 liver tissue sections examined, 14 had a low level of expression of insulin receptor type 1 by immunohistochemical studies. This study confirms that insulin resistance affects treatment outcome, and thus HOMA-IR testing before initiation of therapy may be a cost-effective tool.

  6. Variability in HOMA-IR, lipoprotein profile and selected hormones in young active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keska, Anna; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18-23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake.

  7. Sleep duration and insulin resistance in healthy black and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Dahl, Ronald E; Owens, Jane F; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica

    2012-10-01

    Poor sleep may play a role in insulin resistance and diabetes risk. Yet few studies of sleep and insulin resistance have focused on the important developmental period of adolescence. To address this gap, we examined the association of sleep and insulin resistance in healthy adolescents. Cross-sectional. Community setting in one high school. 245 (137 African Americans, 116 males) high school students. Participants provided a fasting blood draw and kept a sleep log and wore a wrist actigraph for one week during the school year. Participants' families were from low to middle class based on family Hollingshead scores. Total sleep time across the week averaged 7.4 h by diary and 6.4 h by actigraph; homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ([HOMA-IR] unadjusted) averaged 4.13. Linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference showed that the shorter the sleep, the higher the HOMA-IR, primarily due to sleep duration during the week. No evidence was found for long sleep being associated with elevated HOMA-IR. Fragmented sleep was not associated with HOMA-IR but was associated with glucose levels. Reduced sleep duration is associated with HOMA-IR in adolescence. Long sleep duration is not associated. Interventions to extend sleep duration may reduce diabetes risk in youth.

  8. Analysis of the effect of diabetes type 2 duration on beta cell secretory function and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ljiljana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes type 2 is a chronic metabolic disorder. Pathogenesis of diabetes type 2 results from the impaired insulin secretion, impaired insulin action and increased endogenous glucose production. Diabetes evolves through several phases characterized by qualitative and quantitative changes of beta cell secretory function. The aim of our study was to analyze the impact of diabetes duration on beta cell secretory function and insulin resistance. The results indicated significant negative correlation of diabetes duration and fasting insulinemia, as well as beta cell secretory function assessed by HOMA β index. Our study also found significant negative correlation of diabetes duration and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA IR index. Significant positive correlation was established between beta cell secretory capacity (fasting insulinemia and HOMA β and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA IR index, independently of diabetes duration. These results indicate that: beta cell secretory capacity, assessed by HOMA β index, significantly decreases with diabetes duration. In parallel with decrease of fasting insulinemia, reduction of insulin resistance assessed by HOMA IR index was found as well.

  9. The Association Between IGF-I and Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Nele; Thuesen, Betina; Jørgensen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVEIGF-I has an almost 50% amino acid sequence homology with insulin and elicits nearly the same hypoglycemic response. Studies showed that low and high IGF-I levels are related to impaired glucose tolerance and to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate...... the association between IGF-I level and insulin resistance in a Danish general population.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSIncluded were 3,354 adults, aged 19-72 years, from the cross-sectional Health2006 study. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as the index to estimate insulin...... with intermediate (Q3) IGF-I levels. These associations remained statistically significant after the exclusion of subjects with type 2 diabetes and by using the updated computer HOMA2-IR model.CONCLUSIONSLow- and high-normal IGF-I levels are both related to insulin resistance. The biological mechanism...

  10. Limitations of insulin resistance assessment in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Krzysztof C; Płusajska, Justyna; Horzelski, Wojciech; Bieniek, Ewa; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    Background Though insulin resistance (IR) is common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there is no agreement as to what surrogate method of assessment of IR is most reliable. Subjects and methods In 478 women with PCOS, we compared methods based on fasting insulin and either fasting glucose (HOMA-IR and QUICKI) or triglycerides (McAuley Index) with IR indices derived from glucose and insulin during OGTT (Belfiore, Matsuda and Stumvoll indices). Results There was a strong correlation between IR indices derived from fasting values HOMA-IR/QUICKI, r = −0.999, HOMA-IR/McAuley index, r = −0.849 and between all OGTT-derived IR indices (e.g. r = −0.876, for IRI/Matsuda, r = −0.808, for IRI/Stumvoll, and r = 0.947, for Matsuda/Stumvoll index, P IR indices derived from fasting vs OGTT-derived variables, ranging from r = −0.881 (HOMA-IR/Matsuda), through r = 0.58, or r = −0.58 (IRI/HOMA-IR, IRI/QUICKI, respectively) to r = 0.41 (QUICKI/Stumvoll), and r = 0.386 for QUICKI/Matsuda indices. Detailed comparison between HOMA-IR and IRI revealed that concordance between HOMA and IRI was poor for HOMA-IR/IRI values above 75th and 90th percentile. For instance, only 53% (70/132) women with HOMA-IR >75th percentile had IRI value also above 75th percentile. There was a significant, but weak correlation of all IR indices with testosterone concentrations. Conclusions Significant number of women with PCOS can be classified as being either insulin sensitive or insulin resistant depending on the method applied, as correlation between various IR indices is highly variable. Clinical application of surrogate indices for assessment of IR in PCOS must be therefore viewed with an extreme caution. PMID:29436386

  11. Uric acid concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and birthweight in normotensive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughon, S Katherine; Catov, Janet; Roberts, James M

    2009-12-01

    We sought to investigate whether uric acid concentrations are increased in pregnant women with insulin resistance and to correlate both with fetal growth. Uric acid, glucose, and insulin were measured in plasma at 20.4 (+/-2.0) weeks' gestation in 263 women. The association between uric acid and insulin resistance, as estimated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), was analyzed and related to birthweights. In 212 (80.6%) women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy, HOMA increased 1.23 U per 1-mg/dL increase in uric acid (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.42; P=.003). Infants born to normotensive women in the upper quartile of uric acid and lowest HOMA quartile weighed 435.6 g less than infants of women with highest uric acid and HOMA quartiles (Pinsulin resistance in midpregnancy. Hyperuricemia was associated with lower birthweight in normotensive women, and this effect was attenuated by insulin resistance.

  12. Fatty Acids, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Arner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although elevated free fatty acid (FFA levels in obesity have been considered to be of importance for insulin resistance, a recent meta-analysis suggested normal FFA levels in obese subjects. We investigated fasting circulating FFA and glycerol levels in a large cohort of non-obese and obese subjects. Methods: Subjects recruited for a study on obesity genetics were investigated in the morning after an overnight fast (n = 3,888. Serum FFA (n = 3,306, plasma glycerol (n = 3,776, and insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-IR,n = 3,469 were determined. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and insulin resistance as HOMA-IR ≥ 2.21. Results: In obese subjects, circulating FFA and glycerol levels were higher than in non-obese individuals (by 26% and 47%, respectively; both p Conclusion: Circulating FFA and glycerol levels are markedly elevated in obesity but only marginally influenced by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whether these differences persist during diurnal variations in circulating FFA/glycerol, remains to be established.

  13. Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance in the prediction of myocardial infarction and mortality at long-term follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. L.; Pareek, M.; Leosdottir, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the additional prognostic value of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), and homeostasis model assessment derived insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for predicting incident myocardial infarction (MI) and all-cause mortality, independently of traditional...... measured at baseline. Subsequently, HOMA-IR was derived using the computerized HOMA calculator and ranked into quartiles due to the non-normal distribution and presumably non-linear biological effect of insulin resistance. Prognostic values of FBG, FPI, HOMA-IR, and traditional risk factors were tested.......1-48.3] years, whereas median [IQR] HOMA-IR was 0.9 [0.4-1.4]. Over a median follow-up time of 20 years, 1448 events occurred (11.3 per 1000 person-years). The simple prediction model, i.e. the model with traditional CV risk factors only, included age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total...

  14. Serum AMH levels and insulin resistance in women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmay, Sezai; Aydogan Mathyk, Begum; Sofiyeva, Nigar; Atakul, Nil; Azemi, Aslı; Erel, Tamer

    2018-05-01

    To compare the serum AMH levels between women with and without insulin resistance (IR) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). 293 women with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria were enrolled into our study. Insulin resistance was diagnosed according to the Homeostatic model assessment insulin resistant (HOMA-IR) formula and the cut-off point was set to more than 2.5. Women were grouped according to the presence of insulin resistance (IR) (HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5). Serum AMH and other hormones were compared between the IR (+) and IR (-) groups. Additionally, AMH percentiles were (75) constructed; HOMA-IR and BMI values in women with/without IR were compared in different percentiles. Further, HOMA-IR, BMI and AMH values were measured across different PCOS phenotypes. The prevalence of IR was 45%. The prevalence of IR was 57% in women with BMI ≥ 25. Serum AMH levels were not significantly different among women with and without IR. Also, HOMA-IR values were not significant among different AMH percentiles. However, in each AMH percentile BMI were found to be higher in women with IR than in women without IR. The median HOMA-IR values were the highest in women with BMI ≥ 25 in both IR (+) and IR (-) groups. No significant difference was found among PCOS phenotypes in terms of HOMA-IR and BMI. Positive correlations were found between BMI, free testosterone and HOMA-IR. However, no correlation was found between AMH and HOMA-IR. The serum AMH levels between women with IR and without IR in PCOS were not significantly different. Also, we did not reveal a correlation between serum AMH levels and IR in women with PCOS. IR was not correlated with different PCOS phenotypes either. We found a positive correlation between BMI and IR. IR should be investigated in women with PCOS having a BMI ≥ 25, independent of their phenotype or AMH levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between elevated triglyceride levels with the increase of HOMA-IR and HOMA-β in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Castañeda-Chacón, Argelia; Rodriguez-Morán, Martha; Aradillas-García, Celia; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that mildly elevated triglyceride levels are associated with the increase of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight, we conducted a cross-sectional population study. Based on fasting triglyceride levels, participants were allocated into groups with and without triglyceride levels ≥1.2 mmol/L. Normal weight was defined by body mass index between the 15th and 85th percentiles, for age and gender. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion were estimated using HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices. A total of 1660 children and adolescents were enrolled, of them 327 (19.7%) with mildly elevated triglycerides. The multivariate linear regression analysis showed that mildly elevated triglyceride levels in children were associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.214, p HOMA-β (β = 0.139, p = 0.001), systolic (β = 0.094, p = 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.102, p = 0.007), whereas in adolescents, HOMA-IR (β = 0.267, p HOMA-β (β = 0.154, p HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.

  16. Therapeutic fasting in patients with metabolic syndrome and impaired insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Rainer; Pflugbeil, Christine; Michalsen, Andreas; Uehleke, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether a short- to mid-term fasting therapy (7-18 days) might improve insulin resistance according to the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), measured during mid-term (80 days) follow-up observation in patients with metabolic syndrome. In this open label observational study in inpatients, criteria of metabolic syndrome were defined. Before medically controlled Buchinger fasting, a wash-out period for hypoglycemic agents was conducted. Further evaluation was carried out on day 80. 25 patients (13 males, 12 females, mean age 61.3 years) were included in this study (mean fasting duration 11.5 days). Out of 16 inpatients with type 2 diabetes, 4 had been treated with metformin, 3 with insulin, and 1 with glimepiride before the intervention. After therapy, body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR were all significantly reduced. Compared to baseline, HOMA-IR decreased by 33% in all patients, by 38% in patients with type 2 diabetes, and by 23% in patients without diabetes. At day 80, BMI further improved, while other parameters showed complete (insulin) or partial (glucose, HOMA-IR) rebound. At this time, HOMA-IR values showed an only insignificant improvement in 15% of all patients, in 20% of patients with type 2 diabetes, and in 6% of patients without diabetes. There was no correlation between change in BMI and change in HOMA-IR (r(2) = 0.008, baseline minus day 80). No serious side effects were observed. Fasting as a safe and acceptable procedure may cause short- and mid-term improvement of increased insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Patients with type 2 diabetes benefit more than those without diabetes. A possible clinical significance of this effect should be explored in larger and controlled clinical trials. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. Birth-weight, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR in newborns at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Castañeda-Chacón, Argelia; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2012-07-07

    Recent studies have demonstrated that low and high birth-weight at birth are risk factors of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if the abnormal birth-weight is related with hyperinsulinemia and elevated index of the Homeostasis Model assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) at birth, in at term newborns. Newborns with gestational age between 38 and 41 weeks, products of normal pregnancies of healthy mothers aged 18 to 39 years, were eligible to participate. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) newborns were compared with appropriate-for-gestational (AGA) age newborns. Incomplete or unclear data about mother's health status, diabetes, gestational diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and other conditions that affect glucose metabolism were exclusion criteria. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by serum insulin levels ≥13.0 μU/mL and IR by HOMA-IR ≥2.60. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) that computes the association between birth-weight (independent variable) with hyperinsulinemia and HOMA-IR index (dependent variables). A total of 107 newborns were enrolled; 13, 22, and 72 with SGA, LGA, and AGA, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia was identified in 2 (15.4%), 6 (27.3%), and 5 (6.9%) with SGA, LGA, and AGA (p=0.03), whereas IR in 3 (23.1%), 8 (36.4%), and 10 (13.9%) newborns with SGA, LGA and AGA (p=0.06). The LGA showed a strong association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 5.02; CI 95%, 1.15-22.3; p=0.01) and HOMA-IR (OR 3.54; CI 95%, 1.03-12.16; p=0.02); although without statistical significance, the SGA showed a tendency of association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 2.43; CI 95%, 0.43-17.3 p=0.29) and HOMA-IR (OR 1.86; CI 95%, 0.33-9.37; p=0.41). Our results suggest that LGA is associated with hyperinsulinemia and elevated HOMA-IR at birth whereas the SGA show a tendency of association.

  18. Effects of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance on cerebral 18F-FDG distribution in cognitively normal older subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Airin; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Background Increasing plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance can alter the distribution pattern of fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the brain and relatively reduce 18F-FDG uptake in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related hypometabolic regions, leading to the appearance of an AD-like pattern. However, its relationship with plasma insulin levels is unclear. We aimed to compare the effects of plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images. Methods Fifty-nine cognitively normal older subjects (age = 75.7 ± 6.4 years) underwent 18F-FDG positron emission tomography along with measurement of plasma glucose and insulin levels. As an index of insulin resistance, the Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Results Plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels, and HOMA-IR were 102.2 ± 8.1 mg/dL, 4.1 ± 1.9 μU/mL, and 1.0 ± 0.5, respectively. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis showed a negative correlation of 18F-FDG uptake with plasma glucose levels in the precuneus and lateral parietotemporal regions (cluster-corrected p < 0.05), and no correlation with plasma insulin levels or HOMA-IR. In the significant cluster, 18F-FDG uptake decreased by approximately 4–5% when plasma glucose levels increased by 20 mg/dL. In the precuneus region, volume-of-interest analysis confirmed a negative correlation of 18F-FDG uptake with plasma glucose levels (r = -0.376, p = 0.002), and no correlation with plasma insulin levels (r = 0.156, p = 0.12) or HOMA-IR (r = 0.096, p = 0.24). Conclusion This study suggests that, of the three parameters, plasma glucose levels have the greatest effect on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images. PMID:28715453

  19. Effects of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance on cerebral 18F-FDG distribution in cognitively normal older subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ishibashi

    Full Text Available Increasing plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance can alter the distribution pattern of fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG in the brain and relatively reduce 18F-FDG uptake in Alzheimer's disease (AD-related hypometabolic regions, leading to the appearance of an AD-like pattern. However, its relationship with plasma insulin levels is unclear. We aimed to compare the effects of plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images.Fifty-nine cognitively normal older subjects (age = 75.7 ± 6.4 years underwent 18F-FDG positron emission tomography along with measurement of plasma glucose and insulin levels. As an index of insulin resistance, the Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated.Plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels, and HOMA-IR were 102.2 ± 8.1 mg/dL, 4.1 ± 1.9 μU/mL, and 1.0 ± 0.5, respectively. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis showed a negative correlation of 18F-FDG uptake with plasma glucose levels in the precuneus and lateral parietotemporal regions (cluster-corrected p < 0.05, and no correlation with plasma insulin levels or HOMA-IR. In the significant cluster, 18F-FDG uptake decreased by approximately 4-5% when plasma glucose levels increased by 20 mg/dL. In the precuneus region, volume-of-interest analysis confirmed a negative correlation of 18F-FDG uptake with plasma glucose levels (r = -0.376, p = 0.002, and no correlation with plasma insulin levels (r = 0.156, p = 0.12 or HOMA-IR (r = 0.096, p = 0.24.This study suggests that, of the three parameters, plasma glucose levels have the greatest effect on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images.

  20. Population-based cross-sectional study on insulin resistance and insulin-secretory capacity in Japanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Rimei; Sano, Hironari; Onda, Yoshiko; Tsujino, Daisuke; Ando, Kiyotaka; Ebara, Futoshi; Matsudaira, Toru; Ishikawa, Shinichiro; Sakamoto, Takuya; Tajima, Naoko; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2017-09-01

    Little information is available regarding the status of insulin resistance (IR) and insulin deficiency (ID), as well as their relationship with obesity in children using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) in a population-based setting. The study included a total of 445 ninth-grade children participating in health check-up programs implemented in Tsunan Town, Niigata, Japan (boys/girls, 252/193 [participation rates: 98.1/95.5%]). HOMA of insulin resistance ≥2.5 was defined as IR, and HOMA of β-cell function insulin resistance, HOMA of β-cell function, Disposition Index and body mass index in boys were 1.2 (0.8-1.7), 64 (44-93), 52 (43-64) and 19.2 (18.0-20.7) kg/m 2 , respectively, vs 1.5 (1.0-2.0), 86 (63-120), 60 (50-74) and 20.4 (18.9-22.0) kg/m 2 , respectively, in girls. The HOMA of insulin resistance, HOMA of β-cell function and Disposition Index values were significantly higher in the girls (P = 0.002, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Those with IR accounted for a significantly higher proportion of girls than boys (15.5/8.7%; P = 0.027); those with obesity accounted for 9.9/10.7% (boys/girls); and those with IR and obesity accounted for 2.4/4.7%. Those with ID accounted for a significantly higher proportion of boys than girls (20.6/8.8%; P = 0.001), whereas those with ID and obesity accounted for a very small proportion of either group (0.4/0.5%). The presence of IR was higher among the girls. In contrast, ID was more frequent among the boys. The infrequent presence of ID among children might support the presence of non-obese type 2 diabetes adults in Japan. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. A study of insulin resistance by HOMA-IR and its cut-off value to identify metabolic syndrome in urban Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashpal; Garg, M K; Tandon, Nikhil; Marwaha, Raman Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and associated metabolic abnormalities are increasingly being reported in the adolescent population. Cut-off value of homeostasis model of assessment IR (HOMA-IR) as an indicator of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents has not been established. This study aimed to investigate IR by HOMA-IR in urban Indian adolescents and to establish cut-off values of HOMA-IR for defining MS. A total of 691 apparently healthy adolescents (295 with normal body mass index (BMI), 205 overweight, and 199 obese) were included in this cross-sectional study. MS in adolescents was defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. IR was calculated using the HOMA model. Mean height, waist circumference (WC), waist/hip ratio (WHR), waist/height ratio (WHtR), and blood pressure were significantly higher in boys as compared to girls. The HOMA-IR values increased progressively from normal weight to obese adolescents in both sexes. Mean HOMA-IR values increased progressively according to sexual maturity rating in both sexes. HOMA-IR value of 2.5 had a sensitivity of >70% and specificity of >60% for MS. This cut-off identified larger number of adolescents with MS in different BMI categories (19.7% in normal weight, 51.7% in overweight, and 77.0% in obese subjects) as compared to the use of IDF or ATP III criteria for diagnosing MS. Odds ratio for having IR (HOMA-IR of >2.5) was highest with WHtR (4.9, p pHOMA-IR increased with sexual maturity and with progression from normal to obese. A HOMA-IR cut-off of 2.5 provided the maximum sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing MS in both genders as per ATP III and IDF criteria.

  2. Plasma resistin, adiponectin and leptin levels in relation to insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue regulates insulin sensitivity via the circulating adipo cytokines, adiponectin, resistin and leptin. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin in lean and obese subjects and determine the relationship between circulating adipocytokines and insulin resistance. We examined plasma levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin in 20 lean subjects with mean body mass index (BMI) of 24, and, 36 nondiabetic obese individuals with mean BMI 34. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R) formula derived from fasting insulin and glucose levels. Resistin levels were not significantly different between the two groups but were significantly higher in women compared with men, 30.4±6.5 vs. 14.4±2.9 mg/l, P<0.01. Resistin did not correlate with BMI but did significantly correlate with HOMA-R, P < 0.01, and this correlation remained significant after adjustment for gender and BMI. Adiponectin levels were significantly reduced in obese compared with lean subjects, P < 0.005 and higher in women, P< 0.001. Adiponectin levels showed significant correlation with HOMA-R and this correlation remained significant after adjustment for gender and BMI. Leptin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects and women and correlated with resistin, but, didn't correlate with HOMA-R. In this small group of patients we demonstrated that insulin resistance correlated most strongly and reciprocally with adiponectin levels. Significant correlation between resistin levels and insulin resistance was also observed. Although a similar trend was apparent for leptin, the correlation with insulin resistance did not achieve statistical significance

  3. Insulin resistance and associated factors: a cross-sectional study of bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Cattafesta, Monica; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Zandonade, Eliana; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the failure of target cells to respond to normal levels of circulating insulin, and this condition is related to cardiovascular disease. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with markers of metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in bank employees. A cross-sectional study was performed on 498 working men and women aged ≥20 years old. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to determine the presence of insulin resistance based on cut-off values of ≤2.71 for normal insulin levels and >2.71 for insulin resistance, as established for the adult Brazilian population. It was observed that the 52 (10.4%) overweight individuals with insulin resistance were 4.97 times (95%CI 1.31-18.83) more likely to have high HOMA-IR values than the normal-weight participants; among those who were obese, the likelihood increased to 17.87 (95%CI 4.36-73.21). Individuals with large waist circumferences were 3.27 times (95%CI 1.03-10.38) more likely to develop insulin resistance than those who were within normal parameters. The HOMA-IR values differed between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome, with values of 2.83±2.5 and 1.10±0.81 (p=0.001), respectively. The levels of insulin, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein and uric acid were also associated with insulin resistance. The prevalence of insulin resistance among bank employees is high, and insulin resistance is associated with and serves as a marker of metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome-associated metabolic abnormalities were observed, and insulin resistance may be a risk factor in this group of professionals.

  4. Associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....

  5. Poor Sleep Quality is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Postmenopausal Women With and Without Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Hall, Martica H; Buysse, Daniel J; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2018-05-01

    Poor sleep quality has previously been shown to be related to insulin resistance in apparently healthy adults. However, it is unclear whether an association between sleep quality and insulin resistance exists among adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Participants included 347 overweight/obese postmenopausal women without type 2 diabetes (age: 57.5 ± 6.5 years; body mass index [BMI]: 31.7 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ; 54% with MetS). Sleep quality was assessed with the six-item Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale; values were categorized into quartiles. Insulin resistance was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) method. Analysis of covariance models were used to examine the association between sleep quality and HOMA2-IR after accounting for MetS and covariates (e.g., BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness, and energy intake). Women with the worst sleep quality had significantly higher HOMA2-IR values than women in all other quartiles (P ≤ 0.05 for each), and women with MetS had significantly higher HOMA2-IR values than women without MetS (P quality and HOMA2-IR did not differ between those with or without MetS (P = 0.26). Women with MetS in the worst quartile of sleep quality had higher HOMA2-IR values than all other women (P 30 min to fall asleep, frequent restless sleep, and frequent daytime drowsiness were each related to higher HOMA2-IR values (each P quality is an important correlate of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with and without MetS. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether improving sleep improves insulin resistance in populations at elevated cardiometabolic risk.

  6. Increase in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had a strong impact on the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese individuals with impaired insulin secretion: the Saku study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Akiko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Soyano, Fumie; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Sonoda, Nao; Godai, Kayo; Ohno, Yuko; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Deura, Kijyo

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of increase in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) on the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese individuals with impaired insulin secretion (IIS). This study included 2,209 participants aged 30-69 without diabetes at baseline who underwent comprehensive medical check-ups between April 2006 and March 2007 at Saku Central Hospital. Participants were classified into eight groups according to the combination of baseline IIS status (non-IIS and IIS) and category of HOMA-IR change between the baseline and follow-up examinations (decrease, no change/small increase, moderate increase, and large increase). Type 2 diabetes was determined from fasting and 2 h post-load plasma glucose concentrations at the follow-up examination between April 2009 and March 2011. At baseline, 669 individuals (30.3%) were classified as having IIS. At follow-up, 74 individuals developed type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for confounding factors including baseline HOMA-IR values, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for type 2 diabetes in the non-IIS with a decrease (mean change in HOMA-IR: -0.47), non-IIS with a moderate increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.28), non-IIS with a large increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.83), IIS with a decrease (mean change in HOMA-IR: -0.36), IIS with no change/small increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.08), IIS with a moderate increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.27), and IIS with a large increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.73) groups, relative to the non-IIS with no change/small increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.08) group were 0.23 (0.04, 1.11), 1.22 (0.26, 5.72), 2.01 (0.70, 6.46), 1.37 (0.32, 4.28), 3.60 (0.83, 15.57), 5.24 (1.34, 20.52), and 7.01 (1.75, 24.18), respectively. Moderate and large increases in HOMA-IR had a strong impact on the development of type 2 diabetes among individuals with IIS in this Japanese population.

  7. Insulin resistance in human subjects having impaired glucose regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.H.; Khan, F.A.; Ijaz, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine insulin resistance in human subjects having impaired glucose regulation (IGR) by Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). A total of 100 subjects with impaired glucose regulation were selected for evaluation of metabolic syndrome as per the criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP, ATP III), along with 47 healthy age and gender-matched controls. Physical examination to determine blood pressure and waist circumference was carried out and so was sampling for plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and insulin. Insulin resistance was calculated by the HOMA-IR. Finally, subjects with and without metabolic syndrome were compared with controls (n=47), using one-way ANOVA for studying insulin resistance between groups, with Tukey's post-hoc comparison. The frequency of finding metabolic syndrome in cases of IGR remained 47%. The insulin resistance demonstrated stepwise worsening from control population (mean=1.54, 95 % CI: 1.77 - 2.37) to subjects suffering from only IGR (mean=2.07, 95 % CI: 1.77- 2.37) to metabolic syndrome (mean=2.67, 95 %, CI: 2.34 - 3.00) (p < 0.001). Patients with impaired glucose regulation may have significant insulin resistance. It is, thus, recommended that a vigorous search be made to measure insulin resistance in all cases diagnosed to have impaired glucose regulation. (author)

  8. Lipoprotein(a) is not related to markers of insulin resistance in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoric, Jelena; Handisurya, Ammon; Leitner, Karoline; Harreiter, Juergen; Hoermann, Gregor; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2013-10-01

    Dyslipidemia, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease is a common finding in patients with type 2 diabetes and among women with gestational diabetes. Elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, its relationship with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes is controversial and unproven. Here we aimed to clarify whether Lp(a) levels are associated with insulin sensitivity in pregnancy. Sixty-four women with gestational diabetes and 165 with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. Fasting Lp(a) serum levels were measured in all women at 24-28 weeks of gestation. In pregnancy, there was no significant difference in serum Lp(a) concentrations between the two groups. Its level did not correlate with markers of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S%), pancreatic beta-cell function (HOMA-B%) and insulin sensitivity in dynamic conditions (OGIS). In addition, fasting glucose and insulin levels and those throughout an oral glucose tolerance test were independent of Lp(a) concentrations in our study group. Lp(a) levels in pregnant women do not differ with respect to the presence or absence of gestational diabetes. Although influenced by some components of the lipid profile, such as triglycerides and HDL-C, insulin resistance in pregnancy is not affected by Lp(a).

  9. Serum Insulin, Glucose, Indices of Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argirion, Ilona; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius; Mondul, Alison M

    2017-10-01

    Background: Although insulin may increase the risk of some cancers, few studies have examined fasting serum insulin and lung cancer risk. Methods: We examined serum insulin, glucose, and indices of insulin resistance [insulin:glucose molar ratio and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)] and lung cancer risk using a case-cohort study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of Finnish men. A total of 196 cases and 395 subcohort members were included. Insulin and glucose were measured in fasting serum collected 5 to 12 years before diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate the relative risk of lung cancer. Results: The average time between blood collection and lung cancer was 9.6 years. Fasting serum insulin levels were 8.7% higher in subcohort members than cases. After multivariable adjustment, men in the fourth quartile of insulin had a significantly higher risk of lung cancer than those in the first quartile [HR = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.94]. A similar relationship was seen with HOMA-IR (HR = 1.83; 95% CI, 0.99-3.38). Risk was not strongly associated with glucose or the insulin:glucose molar ratio ( P trend = 0.55 and P trend = 0.27, respectively). Conclusions: Higher fasting serum insulin concentrations, as well as the presence of insulin resistance, appear to be associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer development. Impact: Although insulin is hypothesized to increase risk of some cancers, insulin and lung cancer remain understudied. Higher insulin levels and insulin resistance were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Although smoking cessation is the best method of lung cancer prevention, other lifestyle changes that affect insulin concentrations and sensitivity may reduce lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(10); 1519-24. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Triglycerides/glucose index is a useful surrogate marker of insulin resistance among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B; Yang, Y; Lee, E Y; Yang, H K; Kim, H-S; Lim, S-Y; Lee, J-H; Lee, S-S; Suh, B-K; Yoon, K-H

    2017-05-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association between the triglycerides/glucose index (TyG index) and the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the prediction of insulin resistance (IR) among adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 221 Korean adolescents (168 males and 53 females aged 9-13 years) from May to June 2014 in Chung-ju city. The TyG index was calculated as ln [triglycerides (mg dl -1 ) × fasting glucose (mg dl -1 )/2]. IR was defined using HOMA-IR >95th percentile for age and sex. In the IR group, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat, fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride levels and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) were significantly higher than that in the non-IR group. The TG index was significantly different between the IR group (n=22) and non-IR group (n=199), at 8.43±0.45 and 8.05±0.41, respectively (Pindex was well correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.41; Pindex for diagnosis of insulin resistance was 8.18. The TyG index is a simple, cost-effective surrogate marker of insulin resistance among adolescents compared with HOMA-IR.

  11. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance - The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    , and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity......, total energy intake, BMI, and waist circumference. RESULTS - intake of lactose was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0.0001), whereas daily glycemic load and intake of glucose, fructose, dietary fiber, total carbohydrate, fruit, and vegetables were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0...

  12. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and insulin resistance in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, John; Biggs, Mary L.; Niemi, Matt; Ix, Joachim H.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Djoussé, Luc; de Boer, Ian H.; Siscovick, David S.; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive study, the role of vitamin D in insulin resistance and secretion remains unclear. Objective To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and indices of insulin resistance and secretion in older adults. Methods and Results Among 2134 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from cardiovascular disease, we measured serum 25(OH)D concentrations in samples collected in 1992–1993. We examined insulin resistance and secretion using Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) estimates cross-sectionally and among 1469 participants who had repeated HOMA measures four years later (1996–1997). In cross-sectional analysis, each 10 ng/mL increment in 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a 0.09 lower adjusted HOMA-IR [95%CI (−0.17, −0.02), p=0.01]. However, baseline 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with change in HOMA-IR over 4 years of follow up (p=0.48). 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with insulin secretion, as determined by HOMA-β, in either cross-sectional or longitudinal analysis. Conclusions Circulating 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with lower insulin resistance in cross-sectional but not longitudinal analyses. Whether this reflects residual confounding in cross-sectional analyses or the short-term nature of the relationship between vitamin D and insulin sensitivity will require trials with repeated measures of these factors. PMID:23987236

  13. The Relationship of Fetuin-A, Adiponectin, Retinol Binding Protein-4 (RBP-4 and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP with Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in Obese Non Diabetic Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Novianti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central obesity is the accumulation of visceral (intra-abdominal fat and is strongly known to be associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Obesity can cause adipocyte hypertrophy that results in dysregulation of adipokine expression. The abnormal function of adipocytes may play an important role in the development of a chronic low-grade proinflammatory state associated with obesity. Adiponectin, retinol binding protein (RBP-4 and fetuin-A play a role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. Expression of fetuin-A is increased due to fat accumulation in the liver. Elevated concentration of fetuin-A in the circulation can impair insulin signaling in muscle and liver as well as suppress adiponectin secretion, although its molecular mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship of fetuin-A, adiponectin, RBP-4 and hsCRP with insulin resistance in obese non diabetic men. METHODS: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. The study subjects were 64 men with non diabetic abdominal obesity, characterized by waist circumference of 98.47±5.88 cm and fasting blood glucose of 85.75±8.36 mg/dL. RESULTS: This study showed that fetuin-A was positively correlated with HOMA-IR in obese non diabetic men with insulin resistance (r=0.128; p=0.570, although not significant. Fetuin-A was found to be correlated with adiponectin, RBP-4 and hsCRP (r=0.150; p=0.233; r=0.050; p=0.711; r=-0.04; p=0.445, although not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration of fetuin-A showed a tendency to be positively correlated with HOMA-IR and with RBP-4 in obese non diabetic men, although statistically not significant. The concentration of fetuin-A showed a tendency to be negatively correlated with adiponectin and hsCRP although statistically not significant. There was no interrelationship between fetuin-A, adiponectin, RBP-4, hsCRP and HOMA-IR. Elevated concentrations of fetuin

  14. Adipokines and Insulin Resistance According to Characteristics of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eon Ju; Hong, Seong Yeon; Lee, Ji Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate adipokines concentration and insulin resistance according to maternal age or obesity at pregnancy and weight change at diagnosed gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women with GDM. This study included 57 pregnant women who were diagnosed with GDM at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. The subjects were classified into two or three groups according to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and HOMA2-%B were increased in the group with pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m². Leptin and HOMA-IR were positively correlated with BMI both before pregnancy and at screening for GDM. There were no significant correlations between HOMA-IR and adipokines. HOMA-IR showed positive correlation with HOMA2-%B and negative correlation with HOMA2-%S. Leptin and HOMA-IR at diagnosed GDM were increased in the GDM patients with obesity before pregnancy. They were positively correlated with BMI both before pregnancy and at screening for GDM. The effect of maternal age at pregnancy and weight change during pregnancy at GDM screening on adipokines and insulin resistance might be less pronounced than the effect of maternal obesity. Copyright © 2017 Korean Diabetes Association

  15. Birth-weight, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR in newborns at term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simental-Mendía Luis E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated that low and high birth-weight at birth are risk factors of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if the abnormal birth-weight is related with hyperinsulinemia and elevated index of the Homeostasis Model assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR at birth, in at term newborns. Methods Newborns with gestational age between 38 and 41 weeks, products of normal pregnancies of healthy mothers aged 18 to 39 years, were eligible to participate. Small-for-gestational age (SGA and large-for-gestational age (LGA newborns were compared with appropriate-for-gestational (AGA age newborns. Incomplete or unclear data about mother’s health status, diabetes, gestational diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and other conditions that affect glucose metabolism were exclusion criteria. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by serum insulin levels ≥13.0 μU/mL and IR by HOMA-IR ≥2.60. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio (OR that computes the association between birth-weight (independent variable with hyperinsulinemia and HOMA-IR index (dependent variables. Results A total of 107 newborns were enrolled; 13, 22, and 72 with SGA, LGA, and AGA, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia was identified in 2 (15.4%, 6 (27.3%, and 5 (6.9% with SGA, LGA, and AGA (p=0.03, whereas IR in 3 (23.1%, 8 (36.4%, and 10 (13.9% newborns with SGA, LGA and AGA (p=0.06. The LGA showed a strong association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 5.02; CI 95%, 1.15-22.3; p=0.01 and HOMA-IR (OR 3.54; CI 95%, 1.03-12.16; p=0.02; although without statistical significance, the SGA showed a tendency of association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 2.43; CI 95%, 0.43-17.3 p=0.29 and HOMA-IR (OR 1.86; CI 95%, 0.33-9.37; p=0.41. Conclusions Our results suggest that LGA is associated with hyperinsulinemia and elevated HOMA-IR at birth whereas the SGA show a tendency of

  16. Adipocytokines and insulin resistance across various degrees of glucose tolerance in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvarca, A; Tomazic, M; Krhin, B; Blagus, R; Janez, A

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is characterized by progressive insulin resistance. Adipocytokines are thought to be associated with insulin resistance. This cross-sectional study evaluated the associations between serum concentrations of several adipocytokines and insulin resistance at different stages of glucose tolerance in pregnancy, using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as a reference. According to oral glucose tolerance test results, 74 pregnant women were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (n = 25); intermediate glucose tolerance (n = 19); gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 30). Adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays. Groups were comparable regarding age, week of gestation and body mass index before gestation. There were statistically significant between-group differences in HOMA-IR, but no significant differences regarding serum adipocytokine concentrations. Adipo nectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin and RBP4 were not associated with the degree of glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Concentrations of these adipocytokines are not sufficiently sensitive to replace HOMA- IR in pregnancy.

  17. Association between Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Chinese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, X; Song, Zh; Zhao, Ch; Jiang, Y

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young Chinese population and assess the association between HOMA-IR and different components of MetS in young Chinese men. Overall 5576 young Chinese subjects (age range [19-44 yr], 3636 men) were enrolled in, who visited our Health Care Center for a related health checkup from March to December 2008. The international diabetes federation (IDF) definition for MetS was used. The SPSS statistical package, version 11.5 was used for the statistical analysis. The prevalence of MetS was 21.81% in young men and 5.62% in young women. According to suffering from different numbers of MetS components, the male subjects were divided into four groups. Numbers of MetS components were more and HOMA-IR values were significantly higher. In this male population, the quartile of HOMA-IR was higher, values of triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FBG), systolic blood pressure(SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and waist circumference (WC) were all significantly higher, as well as high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) value was significantly lower (P= 0.000). In Spearman's correlation analysis, HOMA-IR was positively correlated with TG, FBG, SBP, DBP and WC, and negatively correlated with HDL-C (r= 0.460, 0.464, 0.362, 0.346, 0.586, -0.357, respectively, all P value= 0.000). The prevalence of MetS in these young Chinese men was obviously high. Insulin resistance played an important role in occurrence and development of MetS. Waist circumference was the best correlation with HOMA-IR among all components of MetS.

  18. Percentiles of fasting serum insulin, glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR in pre-pubertal normal weight European children from the IDEFICS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplies, J; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Savva, S C; Buck, C; Günther, K; Fraterman, A; Russo, P; Iacoviello, L; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; De Henauw, S; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to present age- and sex-specific reference values of insulin, glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and the homeostasis model assessment to quantify insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for pre-pubertal children. The reference population consists of 7074 normal weight 3- to 10.9-year-old pre-pubertal children from eight European countries who participated in at least one wave of the IDEFICS ('identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants') surveys (2007-2010) and for whom standardised laboratory measurements were obtained. Percentile curves of insulin (measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were calculated as a function of age stratified by sex using the general additive model for location scale and shape (GAMLSS) method. Levels of insulin, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR continuously show an increasing trend with age, whereas HbA1c shows an upward trend only beyond the age of 8 years. Insulin and HOMA-IR values are higher in girls of all age groups, whereas glucose values are slightly higher in boys. Median serum levels of insulin range from 17.4 and 13.2 pmol l(-1) in 3-HOMA-IR, median values range from 0.5 and 0.4 in 3-<3.5-year-old girls and boys to 1.7 and 1.4 in 10.5-<11-year-old girls and boys, respectively. Our study provides the first standardised reference values for an international European children's population and provides the, up to now, largest data set of healthy pre-pubertal children to model reference percentiles for markers of insulin resistance. Our cohort shows higher values of Hb1Ac as compared with a single Swedish study while our percentiles for the other glucose metabolic markers are in good accordance with previous studies.

  19. Does cardiorespiratory fitness modify the association between birth weight and insulin resistance in adult life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Aoyama

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lower birth weight is associated with higher insulin resistance in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association of birth weight with insulin resistance in adults. METHODS: The subjects were 379 Japanese individuals (137 males, 242 females aged 20-64 years born after 1943. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which is calculated from fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Birth weight was reported according to the Maternal and Child Health Handbook records or the subject's or his/her mother's memory. RESULTS: The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that birth weight was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = -0.141, p = 0.003, even after adjustment for gender, age, current body mass index, mean blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and smoking status. Further adjustments for VO2max made little difference in the relationship between birth weight and HOMA-IR (β = -0.148, p = 0.001, although VO2max (β = -0.376, p<0.001 was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the association of lower birth weight with higher insulin resistance was little modified by cardiorespiratory fitness in adult life. However, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of insulin resistance than was birth weight, suggesting that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness may have a much more important role in preventing insulin resistance than an individual's low birth weight.

  20. Failure to increase insulin secretory capacity during pregnancy-induced insulin resistance is associated with ethnicity and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne K; Sletner, Line; Vårdal, Mari H; Waage, Christin W; Nakstad, Britt; Vangen, Siri; Birkeland, Kåre I

    2012-10-01

    To assess changes in insulin resistance and β-cell function in a multiethnic cohort of women in Oslo, Norway, from early to 28 weeks' gestation and 3 months post partum and relate the findings to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Population-based cohort study of 695 healthy pregnant women from Western Europe (41%), South Asia (25%), Middle East (15%), East Asia (6%) and elsewhere (13%). Blood samples and demographics were recorded at mean 15 (V1) and 28 (V2) weeks' gestation and 3 months post partum (V3). Universal screening was by 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at V2, GDM with modified IADPSG criteria (no 1-h measurement): fasting plasma glucose (PG) ≥5.1 or 2-h PG ≥8.5 mmol/l. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-β (β-cell function) and HOMA-IR (insulin resistance) were calculated from fasting glucose and C-peptide. Characteristics were comparable across ethnic groups, except age (South Asians: younger, Pinsulin resistant than Western Europeans at V1. From V1 to V2, the increase in insulin resistance was similar across the ethnic groups, but the increase in β-cell function was significantly lower for the East and South Asians compared with Western Europeans. GDM women compared with non-GDM women were more insulin resistant at V1; from V1 to V2, their β-cell function increased significantly less and the percentage increase in β-cell function did not match the change in insulin resistance. Pregnant women from East Asia and South Asia were more insulin resistant and showed poorer HOMA-β-cell function than Western Europeans.

  1. Relationship of serum resistin with insulin resistance and obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, S.I.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adipokines have been implicated in the modulation of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance and have thus gained importance in the study of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Resistin, a unique signalling molecule, is being proposed as a significant factor in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance. However, its relevance to human diabetes mellitus remains uncertain and controversial. This study was therefore planned to compare and correlate the potential role of resistin in obese patients with T2DM and obese non-diabetic controls and also to evaluate the correlation between resistin and marker of obesity and glycaemic parameters. Method: Fasting serum resistin, glucose and insulin were measured in forty obese diabetics (mean±SD BMI 35±5 kg/m2) and forty obese non-diabetics (mean±SD BMI 33±3 kg/m2). Insulin resistance was assessed using the HOMA-IR formula derived from fasting insulin and glucose levels. Results: Serum resistin levels (38±8 ng/ml) were significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients as compared with the controls. Fasting blood glucose (164±46 mg/dl), serum insulin (37±7 μU/ml) and insulin resistance (19±8), were considerably higher among the studied diabetics than in the controls. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed positive correlation between serum resistin and BMI (p=0.001) and HOMA-IR (p=0.561) in diabetic subjects. Similarly, a correlation also existed between serum resistin and BMI (p=0.016) and HOMA-IR (p=0.307) in control obese subjects. However, it was highly significant in diabetics as compared to non-diabetic controls. Conclusion: A significant BMI-dependent association exists between resistin and insulin resistance in patients with T2DM. It appears that resistin may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance and that both of these may contribute to the development of T2DM. (author)

  2. Flaxseed oil supplementation manipulates correlations between serum individual mol % free fatty acid levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics. Insulin resistance and percent remaining pancreatic β-cell function are unaffected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, D E; Mizier-Barre, K A; Griscti, O; Hafez, K

    2016-10-01

    Elevated total serum free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations have been suggested, controversially, to enhance insulin resistance and decrease percent remaining β-cell function. However, concentrations of individual serum FFAs have never been published in terms of their relationship (correlation) to homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and percent remaining β-cell function (HOMA-%β) in the type 2 diabetics (T2Ds). Alpha-linolenic acid consumption has a negative correlation with the insulin resistance, which in turn is negatively correlated with the remaining β-cell function. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there would be different relationship (correlation) between the blood serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β in T2D. The secondary objective was to test the hypothesis that flaxseed oil, previously being shown to be ineffective in the glycemic control in T2Ds, may alter these correlations in a statistically significant manner as well as HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β. Patients were recruited via a newspaper advertisement and two physicians have been employed. All the patients came to visit one and three months later for a second visit. At the second visit, the subjects were randomly assigned (double blind) to flaxseed or safflower oil treatment for three months, until the third visit. Different statistically significant correlations or trends towards among some serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and HOMA-%β, pre- and post-flaxseed and safflower oil supplementation were found. However, flaxseed oil had no impact on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β despite statistically significant alterations in correlations compared to baseline HOMA-IR. The obtained data indicate that high doses of flaxseed oil have no statistically significant effect on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β in T2Ds, probably due to the additive effects of negative and positive correlations.

  3. GCKR variants increase triglycerides while protecting from insulin resistance in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Wu, Lijun; Xi, Bo; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Variants in gene encoding glucokinase regulator protein (GCKR) were found to have converse effects on triglycerides and glucose metabolic traits. We aimed to investigate the influence of GCKR variants for triglycerides and glucose metabolic traits in Chinese children and adults. We genotyped two GCKR variants rs1260326 and rs1260333 in children and adults, and analyzed the association between two variants and triglycerides, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR using linear regression model, and estimated the effect on insulin resistance using logistic regression model. Rs1260326 and rs1260333 associated with increased triglycerides in children and adults (ptriglycerides in Chinese children and adults. Triglycerides-increasing alleles of GCKR variants reduce insulin and HOMA-IR index, and protect from insulin resistance in children. Our results suggested GCKR has an effect on development of insulin resistance in Chinese children.

  4. Comparison of HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and disposition index between US white men and Japanese men in Japan: the ERA JUMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vasudha; Kadowaki, Takashi; Evans, Rhobert W; Kadota, Aya; Okamura, Tomonori; El Khoudary, Samar R; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma J M; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Vishnu, Abhishek; Miura, Katsuyuki; Maegawa, Hiroshi; El-Saed, Aiman; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kuller, Lewis H; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Sekikawa, Akira

    2015-02-01

    At the same level of BMI, white people have less visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and are less susceptible to developing type 2 diabetes than Japanese people. No previous population-based studies have compared insulin resistance and insulin secretion between these two races in a standardised manner that accounts for VAT. We compared HOMA-IR, HOMA of beta cell function (HOMA-β%) and disposition index (DI) in US white men and Japanese men in Japan. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study, comprising 298 white men and 294 Japanese men aged 40-49 years without diabetes. Insulin, glucose, VAT and other measurements were performed at the University of Pittsburgh. We used ANCOVA to compare geometric means of HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and DI, adjusting for VAT and other covariates. White men had higher HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and DI than Japanese men, and the difference remained significant (p HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and DI were significantly higher in white men even after further adjustment for BMI, impaired fasting glucose and other risk factors. The higher VAT-adjusted DI in white men than Japanese men may partly explain lower susceptibility of white people than Japanese people to developing type 2 diabetes. The results, however, should be interpreted with caution because the assessment of insulin indices was made using fasting samples and adjustment was not made for baseline glucose tolerance. Further studies using formal methods to evaluate insulin indices are warranted.

  5. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Bone Structure in Nondiabetic Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The clinical consequences of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia on bone remain largely unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of insulin resistance on peripheral bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 146 postmenopausal, nondiabetic Caucasian women (mean age 60.3 ± 2.7 y) who were participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures: High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to assess bone density and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia. Fasting insulin and glucose were measured and insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), with higher values indicating greater insulin resistance. Results: There was a negative association between HOMA-IR and bone size and a positive association between HOMA-IR and total vBMD, trabecular vBMD, trabecular thickness, and cortical thickness at the radius and tibia. These relationships remained, even after adjusting for body weight and other potential covariates (eg, time since menopause, cigarette smoking, physical activity, prior use of osteoporosis medications or glucocorticoids). Conclusions: In nondiabetic, postmenopausal women, insulin resistance was associated with smaller bone size, greater volumetric bone mineral density, and generally favorable bone microarchitecture at weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing skeletal sites. These associations were independent of body weight and other potential covariates, suggesting that hyperinsulinemia directly affects bone structure independent of obesity and may explain, in part, the higher trabecular bone density and favorable trabecular microarchitecture seen in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27243136

  6. The effect of aerobic training on CXL5, tumor necrosis factor α and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in sedentary obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehsaz, Farzad; Farhangi, Negin; Mirheidari, Lamia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week training program on serum CXC ligand 5, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and insulin resistance index in obese sedentary women. To this end, twenty-four obese sedentary women were evaluated before and after a 12-week exercise program including a brief warm-up, followed by ~45 min per session of aerobic exercise at an intensity of 60-75% of age-predicted maximum heart rate (~300 kcal/day), followed by a brief cool down, five times per week. After the exercise program, body weight, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, percentage body fat mass, fasting glucose and insulin of participants were decreased. Furthermore, serum CXCL5 levels were significantly decreased from 2693.2 ±375.8 to 2290.2 ±345.9 pg/ml (p HOMA-IR (p < 0.001) and TNF-α (p < 0.001). Exercise training induced weight loss resulted in a significant reduction in serum CXCL5 concentrations and caused an improvement in insulin resistance in obese sedentary women.

  7. Optimal Cut-Offs of Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) to Identify Dysglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 15-Year Prospective Study in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Shih, A Z L; Woo, Y C; Fong, C H Y; Leung, O Y; Janus, E; Cheung, B M Y; Lam, K S L

    The optimal reference range of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in normal Chinese population has not been clearly defined. Here we address this issue using the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS), a prospective population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up. In this study, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were defined according to the 1998 World Health Organization criteria. Dysglycemia referred to IFG, IGT or T2DM. This study comprised two parts. Part one was a cross-sectional study involving 2,649 Hong Kong Chinese subjects, aged 25-74 years, at baseline CRISPS-1 (1995-1996). The optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs for dysglycemia and T2DM were determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Part two was a prospective study involving 872 subjects who had persistent NGT at CRISPS-4 (2010-2012) after 15 years of follow-up. At baseline, the optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs to identify dysglyceia and T2DM were 1.37 (AUC = 0.735; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.713-0.758; Sensitivity [Se] = 65.6%, Specificity [Sp] = 71.3%] and 1.97 (AUC = 0.807; 95% CI = 0.777-0.886; Se = 65.5%, Sp = 82.9%) respectively. These cut-offs, derived from the cross-sectional study at baseline, corresponded closely to the 75th (1.44) and 90th (2.03) percentiles, respectively, of the HOMA-IR reference range derived from the prospective study of subjects with persistent NGT. HOMA-IR cut-offs, of 1.4 and 2.0, which discriminated dysglycemia and T2DM respectively from NGT in Southern Chinese, can be usefully employed as references in clinical research involving the assessment of insulin resistance.

  8. Relationship between Serum Lipoprotein Ratios and Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Kui Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the association between serum lipoprotein ratios and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Methods. 105 PCOS patients and 109 controls were randomly enrolled in the study. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol (E2, total testosterone (T, fasting glucose (FBG, fasting insulin (FINS, serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C levels were checked, and then TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C, ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were calculated. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was used to calculate the insulin resistance. Results. All lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher in PCOS patients as compared to healthy controls (<0.05. TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C ratio, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (<0.05. The ROC curve demonstrated that TC/HDL-C ratio had higher sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing PCOS with insulin resistance. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that serum lipoprotein ratio significantly correlates with insulin resistance and can be used as the marker of insulin resistance in PCOS patients.

  9. The effects of a 2 week modified high intensity interval training program on the homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, N; Kenno, K A; Milne, K J

    2014-04-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) induces similar metabolic adaptations to traditional steady state aerobic exercise training. Until recently, most HIIT studies have examined maximum efforts in healthy populations. The current study aimed to examine the effects of a 2 week modified HIIT program on the homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). It was hypothesized that HIIT would improve HOMA-IR. Nine individuals with T2D (age=40.2±9.7 y; BMI=33.9±5.3; fasting plasma glucose [FPG]=8.7±2.9 mmol/L; HbA1C=7.3±1.2%; [mean±SD]) performed 6 individualized training sessions of HIIT (4x30 seconds at 100% of estimated maximum workload followed by 4 minutes of active rest) over 2 weeks. HOMA-IR was calculated from FPG and serum insulin and compared against a prior 2 week baseline period. Blood glucose was reduced immediately after each HIIT session (PHOMA-IR were unchanged after training. However, 6 of the 9 individuals exhibited reduced HOMA-IR values after the training period and there was a significant negative correlation between HOMA-IR value prior to training and change in HOMA-IR after HIIT. These observations tend to support the positive health benefits of HITT for individuals with T2D reported in recently published data using a modified HIIT protocol. However, they suggest that the magnitude of the disease should be assessed when examining the effects of exercise interventions in individuals with T2D.

  10. Evaluation of chronic kidney disease patients for insulin resistance in tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S.; Hayat, A.; Khan, S.A.; Ahmad, T.M.; Majeed, N.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the patients of chronic kidney disease for insulin resistance. Study Design: Cross sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the chemical pathology department of Army Medical College/Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Nov 2016 to Apr 2017. Material and Methods: Fifty patients were recruited for this study with deranged renal functions and/or having any structural renal abnormality for more than 3 months. These patients did not have any history of diabetes and dialysis. Fifty ages matched healthy individuals were included as controls. Renal function tests, lipid profile, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were performed in all subjects. Insulin resistance was calculated by using homeostatic model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results of this study were analyzed on SPSS version 23. Results: Fasting insulin levels were much higher in the patient with chronic kidney disease as compared to controls (p-value=0.001). HOMA-IR in cases was also significantly higher. Statistical comparison of lipid profile showed significant difference of only triglycerides level. Conclusion: HOMA-IR is markedly raised in the patients of chronic kidney disease. This indicates a significant association of chronic kidney disease with insulin resistance. (author)

  11. Urban-Rural Differences Explain the Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Insulin Resistance in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Mi Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies report associations between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level and insulin resistance; however, whether low vitamin D levels directly contribute to increased insulin resistance is unclear. We investigated the impact of residential area on the association between 25(OHD and insulin resistance in elderly Koreans. Using data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly study, we conducted cross-sectional analyses in 1628 participants (505 men and 1123 women. Serum 25(OHD was analyzed as both continuous and categorized variables. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated using fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. In men, 25(OHD level was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (standardized β = −0.133, p < 0.001 after adjustment for age, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and study year. However, we noted significant urban-rural differences in 25(OHD level (43.4 versus 65.6 nmol/L; p < 0.001 and HOMA-IR (1.2 versus 0.8 mmol·pmol/L2; p < 0.001. When we additionally adjusted for residential area, the association between 25(OHD and HOMA-IR was attenuated (standardized β = −0.063, p = 0.115. In women, the association between 25(OHD and HOMA-IR was not significant before or after adjustment for residential area. Environmental or lifestyle differences in urban and rural areas may largely explain the inverse association between serum 25(OHD and insulin resistance.

  12. Validation of insulin resistance indexes in a stable renal transplant population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; van Son, Willem J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of established insulin resistance indexes, based on fasting blood parameters, in a stable renal transplant population. Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and

  13. Validation of insulin resistance indexes in a stable renal transplant population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, LH; De Vries, APJ; Van Son, WJ; Van Der Heide, JJH; Ploeg, RJ; Gansevoort, RT; De Jong, PE; Gans, ROB; Bakker, SJL

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of established insulin resistance indexes, based on fasting blood parameters, in a stable renal transplant population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), the quantitative insulin

  14. Insulin resistance and progression to type 1 diabetes in the European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial (ENDIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Polly J; Mahon, Jeffrey L; Gale, Edwin A M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance can modulate progression to type 1 diabetes in individuals with ongoing islet autoimmunity. We wanted to see whether measures of insulin resistance improved risk assessment in islet cell antibody (ICA)-positive relatives when added to other immune and metabolic markers......-up was 4.21 years, and 105 individuals developed diabetes. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed at baseline; antibodies to GAD, IA-2, and insulin were determined by radioimmunoassay; and insulin resistance was estimated by homeostasis model assessment. Risk was assessed by Cox...... glucose tolerance test (P insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) achieved only borderline significance (P = 0.06). HOMA2-IR was an independent determinant in participants with loss of FPIR (P = 0...

  15. OGTT results in obese adolescents with normal HOMA-IR values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nursel Muratoglu; Kinik, Sibel Tulgar; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate insulin resistance (IR) with OGTT in obese adolescents who have normal fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A total of 97 obese adolescents who had values of HOMA-IR IR using an insulin peak of ≥150 μU/mL (1041.8 pmol/L) and/or ≥75 μU/mL (520.9 pmol/L) 120 min after glucose charge and the sum of insulin levels >2083.5 pmol/L (300 μU/mL) in OGTT. IR risk factors were defined as family history of diabetes mellitus, acanthosis nigricans (AN), and hepatic steatosis. IR was detected in 61 (62.9%) patients. The IR group had significantly more frequent AN (p=0.0001). As the number of risk factors increased, the frequency of IR also increased (p=0.01). We advise to perform OGTT in obese adolescents with normal HOMA-IR, if they have risk factors for IR.

  16. Association of serum sparc with insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, K.; Ahmed, U.; Arif, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of serum SPARC with insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Physiology department and CREAM lab, Army medical college, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Feb 2016 to Oct 2016. Material and Methods: Sixty individuals were recruited in this descriptive study. Thirty diagnosed cases of type- 2 DM were included, while thirty age and gender matched healthy individuals were included as controls through non-probability purposive sampling. Controls were labelled as group A, while cases were labelled as group B. Patients with type-1 DM, type-2 DM on insulin therapy, hyperglycemic states other than DM and inflammatory disorders were excluded from the study. Data were collected after informed and written consent. Blood samples were withdrawn under strict aseptic measures and serum was stored at -20 degree C. Serum insulin levels and serum SPARC levels were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Insulin resistance was determined using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and its value >1.5 was considered significant. Results: Fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in group B as compared with group A, supporting the diagnosis of type-2 DM. HOMA-IR values were greater than 1.5 in group B, thus establishing significant insulin resistance. Serum SPARC levels were significantly higher in group B than group A (17.7 ± 1.14 vs 8.7 ± 1.08 ng/ml) with p-value<0.001. Serum SPARC levels showed positive correlation with fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR values. Conclusion: Our study showed a positive correlation between serum SPARC levels and insulin resistance, which indicates that SPARC plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  17. Low Prevalence of Insulin Resistance among Iranian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghian, Kavous; Lankarani, Kamran B; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Esmailnejad, Atefeh; Peymani, Payam

    2017-07-14

    Association between chronic hepatitis C virus (CHC) infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus has been challenging in recent decades. Despite of extensive research in this area, there is no general agreement on the direct effect of HCV infection on insulin resistance. The study was performed in 52 CHC patients (mean age = 39.48) and 52 and sex‑matched healthy Iranian controls, referred to the Hepatitis Clinic, Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz, Iran, from 2012 to 2015. Fasting blood glucose level, fasting insulin level and insulin resistance defined as a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were determined and compared between two groups. Insulin resistance was present in 26.9% of CHC patients and 34.62% of healthy controls. Mean HOMA index was 1.93 in patients and 2.18 in controls. There were no statistically significant differences between patient and control groups with regard to fasting insulin level, fasting blood glucose, HOMA index and insulin resistance. HOMA index and fasting insulin level were significantly higher in IR CHC patients relative to IR controls. Fasting blood glucose was also significantly higher in controls younger than 40 years. Results obtained in this study showed that chronic hepatitis C cannot be considered as a risk factor for insulin resistance and diabetes in Iranian population. However, regular screening for insulin resistance is recommended in CHC patients with age ≥ 40 years and fasting blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dl. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Insulin-like growth factor 1, liver enzymes, and insulin resistance in patients with PCOS and hirsutism.

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    Çakir, Evrim; Topaloğlu, Oya; Çolak Bozkurt, Nujen; Karbek Bayraktar, Başak; Güngüneş, Aşkın; Sayki Arslan, Müyesser; Öztürk Ünsal, İlknur; Tutal, Esra; Uçan, Bekir; Delıbaşi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are commonly seen in patients with hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. However, it is not yet known whether insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and alanine transaminase (ALT) produced by the liver play roles in hyperinsulinemia and subclinical atherosclerotic process in patients with PCOS and idiopathic hirsutism (IH). This was a prospective case-controlled study. The study population consisted of 25 reproductive-age PCOS women, 33 women with IH, and 25 control subjects. Mean IGF-I levels and median ALT levels were higher in patients with IH and PCOS than controls, but these differences were not statistically significant. The participants who had a homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) greater than 2.7 had significantly higher IGF-1 and ALT levels. ALT levels were positively correlated with body mass index, FG, insulin and HOMA-IR. The study illustrated that IGF-1 and ALT levels were significantly higher in patients with increased insulin resistance. Due to short disease duration in younger participants, we did not observe any correlation between IGF-1 and hyperinsulinemia. These findings suggest that increased hepatic production of IGF-I and ALT might be an early indicator of insulin resistance in hirsutism.

  19. Matsuda-DeFronzo insulin sensitivity index is a better predictor than HOMA-IR of hypertension in Japanese: the Tanno-Sobetsu study.

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    Furugen, M; Saitoh, S; Ohnishi, H; Akasaka, H; Mitsumata, K; Chiba, M; Furukawa, T; Miyazaki, Y; Shimamoto, K; Miura, T

    2012-05-01

    Here we examined whether the Matsuda-DeFronzo insulin sensitivity index (ISI-M) is more efficient than the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for assessing risk of hypertension. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted using normotensive subjects who were selected among 1399 subjects in the Tanno-Sobetsu cohort. In the cross-sectional analysis (n=740), blood pressure (BP) level was correlated with HOMA-IR and with ISI-M, but correlation coefficients indicate a tighter correlation with ISI-M. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted by age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and serum triglyceride level (TG) showed contribution of ISI-M and fasting plasma glucose, but not of HOMA-IR. In the longitudinal analysis (n=607), 241 subjects (39.7%) developed hypertension during a 10-year follow-up period, and multiple logistic regression indicated that age, TG, systolic BP and ISI-M, but not HOMA-IR, were associated with development of hypertension. In subjects HOMA-IR. Non-hepatic IR may be a determinant, which is independent of TG, BP level and BMI, of the development of hypertension.

  20. Determinación del índice de resistencia a la insulina mediante homa y su relación con el riesgo de hipertensión inducida por el embarazo Insulin resistance index assessment by homa and its relation with the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension

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    Jesús Sierra-Laguado

    Full Text Available Objetivo: investigar si el grado de resistencia a la insulina determinado por el índice HOMA, predice de manera temprana el desarrollo de hipertensión inducida por el embarazo en gestantes colombianas. Diseño-métodos: se realizó un estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte prospectiva de 438 mujeres primigestantes, normotensas y con edad gestacional menor de 30 semanas. Se determinó el índice HOMA a partir de la medición de glucemia e insulina plasmática en ayunas, por métodos de glucosa oxidasa y quimioluminiscencia, respectivamente. Resultados: veintitrés mujeres desarrollaron hipertensión inducida por el embarazo (5,25%. Se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria dos embarazadas normotensas como controles por cada caso, pareadas por edad materna y gestacional al momento de su inclusión. Las mujeres que posteriormente desarrollaron hipertensión inducida por el embarazo presentaron mayores niveles de HOMA (1,48 ± 0,98 vs. 0,96 ± 0,70, pObjective: to assess whether insulin resistance determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA is an early predictor of the development of pregnancy induced hypertension in Colombian pregnant women. Methods: we conducted a nested case control study in a prospective cohort of four hundred and thirty eigth normotensive primigravidae women, with gestational age < 30 weeks. The HOMA was calculated using fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin, determined by glucose-oxidase and chemoluminiscence methods, respectively. Results: twenty-three pregnant women developed pregnancy induced hypertension (5.25%. Two normotensive pregnant women were selected as controls for each case, matched by gestational and maternal age at enrollment. The women who subsequently developed pregnancy induced hypertension had higher levels of HOMA (1.48 ± 0.98 vs 0.96 ± 0.70, p<0.001, which was associated with an increased risk of developing pregnancy induced hypertension (OR: 3.8, IC95%: 1.1-12.8 p=0

  1. Circulating Endocannabinoids and Insulin Resistance in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Xiaoya Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma endocannabinoids and insulin resistance (IR in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Methods. A population of 64 with OSA and 24 control subjects was recruited. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, lipids, blood glucose and insulin, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, anandamide (AEA, 1/2-arachidonoylglycerol (1/2-AG, and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI were analyzed. Results. Fasting blood insulin (22.9 ± 7.8 mIU/L versus 18.5 ± 7.2 mIU/L, P<0.05, HOMA-IR (2.9 ± 1.0 versus 2.4 ± 0.9, P<0.01, AEA (3.2 ± 0.7 nmol/L versus 2.5 ± 0.6 nmol/L, P<0.01, and 1/2-AG (40.8 ± 5.7 nmol/L versus 34.3 ± 7.7 nmol/L, P<0.01 were higher in OSA group than those in control group. In OSA group, AEA, 1/2-AG, and HOMA-IR increase with the OSA severity. The correlation analysis showed significant positive correlation between HOMA-IR and AHI (r=0.44, P<0.01, AEA and AHI (r=0.52, P<0.01, AEA and HOMA-IR (r=0.62, P<0.01, and 1/2-AG and HOMA-IR (r=0.33, P<0.01. Further analysis showed that only AEA was significantly correlated with AHI and HOMA-IR after adjusting for confounding factors. Conclusions. The present study indicated that plasma endocannabinoids levels, especially AEA, were associated with IR and AHI in patients with OSA.

  2. Effect of vitamin D on stress-induced hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance in critically ill patients.

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    Alizadeh, N; Khalili, H; Mohammadi, M; Abdollahi, A; Ala, S

    2016-05-01

    Effects of vitamin D supplementation on the glycaemic indices and insulin resistance in diabetic and non-diabetic patients were studied. In this study, effects of vitamin D supplementation on stress-induced hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance were evaluated in non-diabetic surgical critically ill patients. Adult surgical patients with stress-induced hyperglycaemia within the first 24 h of admission to the ICU were recruited. The patients randomly assigned to receive either vitamin D or placebo. Patients in the vitamin D group received a single dose of 600,000 IU vitamin D3 as intramuscular injection at time of recruitment. Besides demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, plasma glucose, insulin, 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels were measured at the time of ICU admission and day 7. Homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homestasis model assessment adiponectin (HOMA-AD) ratio were considered at the times of assessment. Comparing with the baseline, plasma 25(OH) D level significantly increased in the subjects who received vitamin D (p = 0.04). Improvement in fasting plasma glucose levels was detected in day 7 of the study compared with the baseline status in both groups. HOMA-IR showed a decrement pattern in vitamin D group (p = 0.09). Fasting plasma adiponectin levels increased significantly in the vitamin D group (p = 0.007), but not in the placebo group (p = 0.38). Finally, changes in HOMA-AD ratio were not significant in the both groups. Vitamin D supplementation showed positive effect on plasma adiponectin level, as a biomarker of insulin sensitivity in surgical critically ill patients with stress-induced hyperglycaemia. However, effects of vitamin D supplementation on HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD as indicators of insulin resistance were not significant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Insulin resistance and risk of incident cardiovascular events in adults without diabetes: meta-analysis.

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    Karin B Gast

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose, insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR are markers of insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to compare fasting glucose, fasting insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR in strength of association with incident cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March, 2011, and screened reference lists. Cohort studies or nested case-control studies that investigated the association between fasting glucose, fasting insulin or HOMA-IR and incident cardiovascular disease, were eligible. Two investigators independently performed the article selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. Cardiovascular endpoints were coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke or combined cardiovascular disease. We used fixed and random-effect meta-analyses to calculate the pooled relative risk for CHD, stroke and combined cardiovascular disease, comparing high to low concentrations of glucose, insulin or HOMA-IR. Study heterogeneity was calculated with the I(2 statistic. To enable a comparison between cardiovascular disease risks for glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, we calculated pooled relative risks per increase of one standard deviation. RESULTS: We included 65 studies (involving 516,325 participants in this meta-analysis. In a random-effect meta-analysis the pooled relative risk of CHD (95% CI; I(2 comparing high to low concentrations was 1.52 (1.31, 1.76; 62.4% for glucose, 1.12 (0.92, 1.37; 41.0% for insulin and 1.64 (1.35, 2.00; 0% for HOMA-IR. The pooled relative risk of CHD per one standard deviation increase was 1.21 (1.13, 1.30; 64.9% for glucose, 1.04 (0.96, 1.12; 43.0% for insulin and 1.46 (1.26, 1.69; 0.0% for HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: The relative risk of cardiovascular disease was higher for an increase of one standard deviation in HOMA-IR compared to an increase of one standard deviation in fasting

  4. Relationship between increased serum tumor necrosis factor levels and insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weimin; Li Jinliang; Huang Yongqiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with essential by pertension. Methods: Serum TNF-α and free insulin (fINS)levels were measured with RIA in 41 patients with essential hypertension and 38 controls. Insulin resistance was calculated with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: The serum TNF-α levels were significantly higher in patients with essential hypertension than those in the controls (P<0.001). The HOMA-IR was also significantly higher in hypertension group than that in controls (P<0.001). Serum TNF-α levels was positively correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR and SBP both in hypertension group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum TNF-α level was increased in hypertensive patients and positively correlated with obesity and IR. (authors)

  5. Gender differences in factors influencing insulin resistance in elderly hyperlipemic non-diabetic subjects

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    Hrebícek Jirí

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in the prevalence of insulin resistance-related metabolic syndrome, a disorder that greatly increases the risk of diabetes, heart attack and stroke, is alarming. One of the most frequent and early symptoms of metabolic syndrome is hypertriglyceridemia. We examined the gender differences between various metabolic factors related to insulin resistance in elderly non-diabetic men and postmenopausal women of comparable age suffering from hypertriglyceridemia, and compared them with healthy subjects of equal age. Results The indexes of insulin resistance HOMA IR and QUICKI were significantly higher in both hyperlipemic men and women than in controls; 95% confidence limits of hyperlipemic subjects did not overlap with controls. In both normolipemic and hyperlipemic men and women serum leptin correlated significantly with insulin resistance, while HDL-cholesterol correlated inversely with HOMA-IR only in women (both normo- and hyperlipemic, and serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα only in hyperlipemic women. According to results of multiple regression analysis with HOMA-IR as a dependent variable, leptin played a significant role in determining insulin resistance in both genders, but – aside from leptin – triglycerides, TNFα and decreased HDL-cholesterol were significant determinants in women, while body mass index and decreased HDL-cholesterol were significant determinants in men. The coefficient of determination (R2 of HOMA IR by above mentioned metabolic variables was in women above 60%, in men only about 40%. Conclusion The significant role of serum leptin in determination of insulin resistance in both elderly men and postmenopausal women of equal age was confirmed. However, the study also revealed significant gender differences : in women a strong influence of triglycerides, TNFα and decreased HDL-cholesterol, in men only a mild role of BMI and decreased HDL-cholesterol.

  6. Association between insulin resistance and preeclampsia in obese non-diabetic women receiving metformin.

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    Balani, Jyoti; Hyer, Steve; Syngelaki, Argyro; Akolekar, Ranjit; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Johnson, Antoinette; Shehata, Hassan

    2017-12-01

    To examine whether the reduced incidence of preeclampsia in non-diabetic obese pregnant women treated with metformin is mediated by changes in insulin resistance. This was a secondary analysis of obese pregnant women in a randomised trial (MOP trial). Fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured in 384 of the 400 women who participated in the MOP trial. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was compared in the metformin and placebo groups and in those that developed preeclampsia versus those that did not develop preeclampsia. At 28 weeks, median HOMA-IR was significantly lower in the metformin group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that there was a significant contribution in the prediction of preeclampsia from maternal history of chronic hypertension and gestational weight gain, but not HOMA-IR either at randomisation ( p  = 0.514) or at 28 weeks ( p  = 0.643). Reduced incidence of preeclampsia in non-diabetic obese pregnant women treated with metformin is unlikely to be due to changes in insulin resistance.

  7. The triglyceride-glucose index, an insulin resistance marker in newborns?

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    Gesteiro, Eva; Bastida, Sara; Barrios, Laura; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2018-04-01

    The study aims to assess the utility of the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) as a marker of insulin resistance (IR) in neonates. TyG and the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) values were compared in 196 singleton, term normoweight and without distress newborns. A Decision Tree procedure (CHAID) was used to classify cases into groups or predict values of a dependent (Ln HOMA-IR) variable. Three nodes were drawn for TyG: ≤ 6.7, > 6.7-7.8 and > 7.8 (p glucose challenge test (p = 0.138) classifications nor by the TyG node* glucose challenge test and TyG node*gender interactions (p = 0.456 and p = 0.209, respectively). Glucose, HOMA-IR, and the triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio increased progressively from node 1 to 3 for TyG while QUICKI decreased. In conclusion, TyG appears to be a suitable tool for identifying IR at birth, justifying the further insulin determination in those neonates. TyG ≥ 7.8 is recommended as cut-off point in neonates. The need for a follow-up study to confirm the TyG as early IR marker is desirable. • HOMA-IR and the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) show a high correlation. • The TyG has been used as an insulin resistance marker in adults. • This is the first study where TyG has been assessed in neonates. • TyG appears to be a suitable and cheap tool for identifying insulin resistance at birth.

  8. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in non-diabetic adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Jun; Zheng, Shuiping; Luo, Qiuyun; Zhou, Chunmei; Wang, Chaoyang

    2017-10-31

    Studies on elevated fasting insulin or insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular or all-cause mortality risk in non-diabetic individuals have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association of elevated fasting insulin levels or IR as defined by homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in non-diabetic adults. We searched for relevant studies in PubMed and Emabse databases until November 2016. Only prospective observational studies investigating the association of elevated fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality risk in non-diabetic adults were included. Risk ratio (RR) with its 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was pooled for the highest compared with the lowest category of fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR. Seven articles involving 26976 non-diabetic adults were included. The pooled, adjusted RR of all-cause mortality comparing the highest with the lowest category was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.00-1.27; P =0.058) for fasting insulin levels and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.11-1.62; P =0.002) for HOMA-IR, respectively. When comparing the highest with the lowest category, the pooled adjusted RR of cardiovascular mortality was 2.11 (95% CI: 1.01-4.41; P =0.048) for HOMA-IR in two studies and 1.40 (95% CI: 0.49-3.96; P =0.526) for fasting insulin levels in one study. IR as measured by HOMA-IR but not fasting insulin appears to be independently associated with greater risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in non-diabetic adults. However, the association of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with cardiovascular mortality may be unreliable due to the small number of articles included. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Correlation Between Glycated Hemoglobin and Homa Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Prediction of Beta-Cell Function from Glycated Hemoglobin.

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    Al-Hakeim, Hussein Kadhem; Abdulzahra, Mohammed Saied

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to determine the most efficient insulin resistance function related to glycemic control expressed as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM). The other aim is to derive equations for the prediction of beta cell functions containing HbA1c as a parameter in addition to fasting glucose and insulin. T2DM Patients were grouped according to the following: (1) degree of control (good, fair, and poor control) and (2) insulin resistance as observed in obtained data and significant differences revealed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of related parameters (insulin resistance = HOMA2IR, beta-cell function = HOMA%B, and insulin sensitivity = HOMA%S) among groups. Correlations and forecasting regression analysis were calculated. HbA1c was found to be correlated with insulin resistance parameters in T2DM subgroups. This correlation was also significantly correlated with HOMA%B and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in fair and poor control groups. Regression analysis was used to predict the forecasting equations for HOMA%B. The best applicable equations were derived for healthy control (HOMA2%B=-1.76*FBG+5.00*Insulin+4.69*HbA1c+189.84) and poor control groups (HOMA2%B=0.001* FBG+0.5*Insulin-8.67*HbA1c+101.96). These equations could be used to predict β-cell function (HOMA%B) after FBG, insulin and HbA1c values were obtained for healthy and poor control groups. In the good and fair control groups, the applicability of the HOMA model fails to yield appropriate results. Beta-cell function is correlated with QUICKI and HbA1c and could be predicted properly from HbA1c, insulin, and glucose in the healthy and poor control groups. New regression equations were established that involve HbA1c.

  10. A cohort study of incident microalbuminuria in relation to HOMA-IR in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Chun, Hyejin; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won; Cho, Choo Yon; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Ko, Taeg Su; Kim, Eugene; Park, Se-Jin; Park, Jai Hyung; Hong, Seok Jin; Hong, Hyun Pyo

    2015-06-15

    Despite the previous studies showing the relationship between microalbuminuria and insulin resistance, longitudinal effect of insulin resistance on development of microalbuminuria is not clearly identified in non-diabetic population. One thousand six hundred three non-diabetic Korean men without microalbuminuria in 2005 had been followed up for the development of microalbuminuria until 2010. Microalbuminuria was evaluated by urine-albumin creatinine ration, and insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk for microalbuminuria according to the tertile of HOMA-IR. During 5465.8 person-y of average follow-up, microalbuminuria developed in 76 (4.7%) participants. Incidence of microalbuminuria increased in proportion to the level of HOMA-IR (tertile 1: 3.0%, tertile 2: 4.1%, tertile 3: 7.1%, PHOMA-IR was set as reference, hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were 1.15 (0.56-2.35) and 2.07 (1.05-4.09) for those in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of HOMA-IR, even after adjusting multiple covariates, respectively (P for linear trend=0.054). Increased insulin resistance was a predictor of microalbuminuria in Korean men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The correlation of plasma omentin-1 with insulin resistance in non-obese polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Yang, Hai-Yan; Ma, Yan; Lu, Xin-Hong; Liang, Xing-Huan; Suo, Ying-Jun; Huang, Zhen-Xing; Lu, De-Cheng; Qin, Ying-Fen; Luo, Zuo-Jie

    2015-10-01

    Aberrant circulating adipokines are considered to be related to the pathological mechanism of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study aims to evaluate the relationship between plasma omentin-1 levels, metabolic and hormonal parameters in the setting of non-obese Chinese women with PCOS. This was a case-controlled, cross-sectional study of 153 non-obese (BMIovary volume were analyzed in all subjects. Plasma omentin-1 levels of non-obese PCOS individuals were significantly lower than in healthy non-obese controls. Body Mass Index (BMI), homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), LH/FSH ratio and ovary volume (OV) were significantly higher in subjects with PCOS than controls. In the HOMA-IR stratified subgroups, PCOS individuals with insulin resistance had lower omentin-1 than those without insulin resistance after BMI adjustment. Omentin-1 was negatively correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. Multiple linear regressions revealed that BMI contributed to omentin-1 levels. Ovary volume was negatively correlated to HOMA-IR but had no correlation with omentin-1. Plasma omentin-1 concentrations were decreased in the non-obese PCOS group. Insulin resistance could further decrease plasma omentin-1 in non-obese individuals with PCOS independent of BMI status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sae Jeong; Kim, Tae Nyun; Baik, Sei Hyun; Kim, Tae Sun; Lee, Kwan Woo; Nam, Moonsuk; Park, Yong Soo; Woo, Jeong-Teak; Kim, Young Seol; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-05-01

    The aim was to compare the insulin sensitivity and secretion index of pregnant Korean women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT; only one abnormal value according to the Carpenter and Coustan criteria), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,163 pregnant women with positive (1-hour plasma glucose ≥ 7.2 mmol/L) in a 50-g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT). The 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to stratify the participants into three groups: NGT (n = 588), GIGT (n = 294), and GDM (n = 281). The GDM group had higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity index (ISOGTT), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, homeostasis model assessment for estimation of index β-cell secretion (HOMA-B), first and second phase insulin secretion, and insulin secretion-sensitivity index (ISSI) than the NGT group (p ≤ 0.001 for all). Moreover, the GIGT group had lower ISOGTT, HOMA-B, first and second phase insulin secretion, and ISSI than the NGT group (p insulin secretion status than the 3-hour abnormal levels group. Korean women with GDM show impairments of both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In addition, GIGT is associated with both β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance.

  13. Long-term interdisciplinary therapy reduces endotoxin level and insulin resistance in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fábio S; Rosa, Jose C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Santos, Ronaldo V; Carnier, June; Sanches, Priscila L; de Piano, Aline; de Souza, Claudio T; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T; Seelaender, Marília; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia M; Oyama, Lila M; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2012-09-18

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the dietary fat intake, glucose, insulin, Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance HOMA-IR, and endotoxin levels and correlate them with adipokine serum concentrations in obese adolescents who had been admitted to long-term interdisciplinary weight-loss therapy. The present study was a longitudinal clinical intervention of interdisciplinary therapy. Adolescents (n = 18, aged 15-19 y) with a body mass index > 95th percentile were admitted and evaluated at baseline and again after 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy. We collected blood samples, and IL-6, adiponectin, and endotoxin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Food intake was measured using 3-day diet records. In addition, we assessed glucose and insulin levels as well as the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The most important finding from the present investigation was that the long-term interdisciplinary lifestyle therapy decreased dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels and improved HOMA-IR. We observed positive correlations between dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels, insulin levels, and the HOMA-IR. In addition, endotoxin levels showed positive correlations with IL-6 levels, insulin levels and the HOMA-IR. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between serum adiponectin and both dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels. The present results indicate an association between dietary fat intake and endotoxin level, which was highly correlated with a decreased pro-inflammatory state and an improvement in HOMA-IR. In addition, this benefits effect may be associated with an increased adiponectin level, which suggests that the interdisciplinary therapy was effective in improving inflammatory pathways.

  14. Long-term interdisciplinary therapy reduces endotoxin level and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Fábio S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The purpose of the present study was to assess the dietary fat intake, glucose, insulin, Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance HOMA-IR, and endotoxin levels and correlate them with adipokine serum concentrations in obese adolescents who had been admitted to long-term interdisciplinary weight-loss therapy. Design The present study was a longitudinal clinical intervention of interdisciplinary therapy. Adolescents (n = 18, aged 15–19 y with a body mass index > 95th percentile were admitted and evaluated at baseline and again after 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy. We collected blood samples, and IL-6, adiponectin, and endotoxin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Food intake was measured using 3-day diet records. In addition, we assessed glucose and insulin levels as well as the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Results The most important finding from the present investigation was that the long-term interdisciplinary lifestyle therapy decreased dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels and improved HOMA-IR. We observed positive correlations between dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels, insulin levels, and the HOMA-IR. In addition, endotoxin levels showed positive correlations with IL-6 levels, insulin levels and the HOMA-IR. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between serum adiponectin and both dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels. Conclusions The present results indicate an association between dietary fat intake and endotoxin level, which was highly correlated with a decreased pro-inflammatory state and an improvement in HOMA-IR. In addition, this benefits effect may be associated with an increased adiponectin level, which suggests that the interdisciplinary therapy was effective in improving inflammatory pathways.

  15. Validity and reproducibility of HOMA-IR, 1/HOMA-IR, QUICKI and McAuley's indices in patients with hypertension and type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafidis, P A; Lasaridis, A N; Nilsson, P M; Pikilidou, M I; Stafilas, P C; Kanaki, A; Kazakos, K; Yovos, J; Bakris, G L

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, its reciprocal (1/HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and McAuley's index in hypertensive diabetic patients. In 78 patients with hypertension and type II diabetes glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels were determined after a 12-h fast to calculate these indices, and insulin sensitivity (IS) was measured with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. Two weeks later, subjects had again their glucose, insulin and triglycerides measured. Simple and multiple linear regression analysis were applied to assess the validity of these indices compared to clamp IS and coefficients of variation between the two visits were estimated to assess their reproducibility. HOMA-IR index was strongly and inversely correlated with the basic IS clamp index, the M-value (r=-0.572, PHOMA-IR and QUICKI indices were positively correlated with the M-value (r=0.342, PHOMA-IR was the best fit of clamp-derived IS. Coefficients of variation between the two visits were 23.5% for HOMA-IR, 19.2% for 1/HOMA-IR, 7.8% for QUICKI and 15.1% for McAuley's index. In conclusion, HOMA-IR, 1/HOMA-IR and QUICKI are valid estimates of clamp-derived IS in patients with hypertension and type II diabetes, whereas the validity of McAuley's index needs further evaluation. QUICKI displayed better reproducibility than the other indices.

  16. The Usefulness of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) for Detection of Glucose Intolerance in Thai Women of Reproductive Age with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwananuruk, Thanyarat; Rattanachaiyanont, Manee; Leerasiri, Pichai; Indhavivadhana, Suchada; Techatraisak, Kitirat; Angsuwathana, Surasak; Tanmahasamut, Prasong; Dangrat, Chongdee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To study the cut-off point of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) as a screening test for detection of glucose intolerance in Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Subject. Two hundred and fifty Thai PCOS women who attended the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit, during May 2007 to January 2009. Materials and Methods. The paitents were interviewed and examined for weight, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Venous blood samples were drawn twice, one at 12-hour fasting and the other at 2 hours after glucose loading. Results. The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women was 20.0%. The mean of HOMA-IR was 3.53  ±  7.7. Area under an ROC curve for HOMA-IR for detecting glucose intolerance was 0.82. Using the cut-off value of HOMA-IR >2.0, there was sensitivity at 84.0%, specificity at 61.0%, positive predictive value at 35.0%, negative predictive value at 93.8%, and accuracy at 65.6%. Conclusion. HOMA-IR >2.0 was used for screening test for glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women. If the result was positive, a specific test should be done to prove the diagnosis.

  17. Attenuation of insulin-evoked responses in brain networks controlling appetite and reward in insulin resistance: the cerebral basis for impaired control of food intake in metabolic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Karen; Reed, Laurence J; Dunn, Joel T; Bingham, Emma; Hopkins, David; Marsden, Paul K; Amiel, Stephanie A

    2006-11-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is a global challenge. A possible mechanism linking insulin resistance and weight gain would be attenuation of insulin-evoked responses in brain areas relevant to eating in systemic insulin resistance. We measured brain glucose metabolism, using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, in seven insulin-sensitive (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] = 1.3) and seven insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR = 6.3) men, during suppression of endogenous insulin by somatostatin, with and without an insulin infusion that elevated insulin to 24.6 +/- 5.2 and 23.2 +/- 5.8 mU/l (P = 0.76), concentrations similar to fasting levels of the resistant subjects and approximately threefold above those of the insulin-sensitive subjects. Insulin-evoked change in global cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was reduced in insulin resistance (+7 vs. +17.4%, P = 0.033). Insulin was associated with increased metabolism in ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex and with decreased metabolism in right amygdala/hippocampus and cerebellar vermis (P reward. Diminishing the link be-tween control of food intake and energy balance may contribute to development of obesity in insulin resistance.

  18. Use of HOMA-IR in hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslam, M; Kawaguchi, T; Del Campo, J A; Sata, M; Khattab, M Abo-Elneen; Romero-Gomez, M

    2011-10-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) can induce insulin resistance (IR) in a genotype-dependent manner and contributes to steatosis, progression of fibrosis and resistance to interferon plus ribavirin therapy. Our understanding of HCV-induced IR has improved considerably over the years, but certain aspects concerning its evaluation still remain elusive to clinical researchers. One of the most important issues is elucidating the ideal method for assessment of IR in the setting of hepatitis C. The hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp is the gold standard method for determining insulin sensitivity, but is impractical as it is labour intensive and time-consuming. To date, all human studies except for four where IR was evaluated in the HCV setting, an estimation of IR has been used rather than direct measurements of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The most commonly used estimation in the HCV population is the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) which is calculated from a single measurement of fasting insulin and glucose. In this article, we review the use and reporting of HOMA in the literature and provide guidance on its appropriate as well as inappropriate use in the hepatitis setting. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Study of beta-cell function (by HOMA model) in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M K; Dutta, M K; Mahalle, Namita

    2011-07-01

    The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is termed the metabolic syndrome (MS), which strongly predict risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Many studies implicate insulin resistance (IR) in the development of diabetes, but ignore the contribution of beta-cell dysfunction. Hence, we studied beta-cell function, as assessed by HOMA model, in subjects with MS. We studied 50 subjects with MS diagnosed by IDF criteria and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Clinical evaluation included anthropometry, body fat analysis by bioimpedance, biochemical, and insulin measurement. IR and secretion were calculated by HOMA model. Subjects with MS had more IR (HOMA-IR) than controls (3.35 ± 3.14 vs. 1.76 ± 0.53, P = 0.029) and secreted less insulin (HOMA-S) than controls (66.80 ± 69.66 vs. 144.27 ± 101.61, P = 0.0003), although plasma insulin levels were comparable in both groups (10.7 ± 10.2 vs. 8.2 ± 2.38, P = 0.44). HOMA-IR and HOMA-S were related with number of metabolic abnormalities. HOMA-IR was positively associated with body mass index, waist hip ratio, body fat mass, and percent body fat. HOMA-S was negatively associated with waist hip ratio, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol and positively with basal metabolic rate. Percent body fat was an independent predictor of HOMA-IR and waist hip ratio of HOMA-S in multiple regression analysis. Subjects with MS have increased IR and decreased insulin secretion compared with healthy controls. Lifestyle measures have been shown to improve IR, insulin secretion, and various components and effects of MS. Hence, there is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent ongoing epidemic of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  20. Sex Differences in the Association between Level of Childhood Interleukin-6 and Insulin Resistance in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; G McMurray, Robert

    2012-01-01

    followed for 4 years. Anthropometrics and VO(2peak) were measured. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for IL-6, insulin, and glucose. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used as a measure of insulin resistance. Results. For girls but not boys, levels of IL-6 at age 9 yrs correlated with HOMA-IR...... at age 13 yrs: r = 0.223, P = 0.008. Girls with IL-6 levels within the highest quartile at age 9 yrs had an odds ratio of 3.68 (CI = 1.58-8.57) being in the highest quartile of HOMA-IR four years later. Conclusion. In this cohort, IL-6 levels in childhood were related to insulin resistance in adolescence...

  1. The Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we aim to investigate the independent and combined associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF with glucose metabolism. Fasting blood samples of 107 men aged 40–79 years were analyzed for 25(OHD, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated from the fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin. Visceral fat area (VFA was determined by magnetic resonance imaging and CRF by measuring maximal oxygen uptake. Median 25(OHD concentration was 36.3 nmol/L, while the prevalence of 25(OHD deficiency was 74.8%. Participants with high CRF had significantly lower HOMA-IR, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin values than participants with low CRF (p < 0.05. Higher 25(OHD concentration was strongly correlated with lower HOMA-IR and insulin values independent of VFA (p < 0.01 but significantly affected by CRF. In the high CRF group, participants with higher 25(OHD concentration had lower HOMA-IR values than participants with low 25(OHD concentration (p < 0.05. Higher 25(OHD and CRF are crucial for reducing insulin resistance regardless of abdominal fat. In addition, higher 25(OHD concentration may strengthen the effect of CRF on reducing insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men with high CRF.

  2. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women.

  3. Vitamin D and insulin resistance in postmenopausal Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niti Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD level with markers of insulin resistance (IR in postmenopausal Indian women. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted at a Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India. Seventy one postmenopausal women (mean age 56.3 ± 7.6 years were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were known or newly detected diabetics, subjects with chronic renal failure, chronic liver disease or any other chronic inflammatory condition, chronic smokers and chronic alcoholics. Serum calcium (and albumin for calculating corrected calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25-OHD were measured as parameters of calcium homeostasis. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, body mass index (BMI, fasting serum insulin, calculated glucose insulin ratio (GIR, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were studied as parameters of IR. Data was then analyzed for statistical significance. Results: The mean serum 25-OHD level was 12.73 ± 7.63 ng/ml. The mean BMI was 27.78 ± 5.37 kg/m 2 . The mean calculated GIR was 13.14 ± 9.39 and HOMA-IR was 2.31 ± 1.70. Serum 25-OHD was inversely correlated with BMI (correlation coefficient −0.234, P value 0.050 and with HOMA-IR (correlation coefficient −0.237, P value 0.047. However, when 25-OHD was adjusted for BMI the correlation between 25-OHD and HOMA-IR lost its significance. No correlation was found between serum 25-OHD and any other parameters of IR studied. Conclusions: There is a significant negative linear correlation between 25-OHD and BMI. The significant negative linear correlation between 25-OHD and HOMA-IR was confounded by BMI. There is no correlation between 25-OHD and parameters of IR.

  4. Serum uric acid levels are associated with homeostasis model assessment in obese nondiabetic patients: HOMA and uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde-Barrera, Cesar I; Estrada-García, Teresa; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose J; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; López-Saucedo, Catalina; Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F

    2017-10-01

    Hyperuricemia leads to insulin resistance, whereas insulin resistance decreases renal excretion of uric acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a correlation between serum uric acid levels with homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) 1 in nondiabetic patients. We evaluated 88 nondiabetic patients, in whom uric acid levels were measured, in all of them HOMA of β-cell function (HOMA 1B) and HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA 1IR) scores were performed. Uric acid and the HOMA 1 values were correlated using the Pearson coefficient. We did not find any correlation between uric acid levels with both HOMA 1B ( r = 0.102, p = 0.343), nor with HOMA 1IR ( r = 0.158, p = 0.117). When patients were analyzed by sex, we found a significant correlation with HOMA 1IR (0.278, p = 0.01), but not with HOMA 1B (0.138, p = 0.257) in women. We found a correlation with HOMA 1B in men ( r = 0.37, p = 0.044), but not with HOMA 1IR: 0.203, p = 0.283. The analysis performed based on body mass index did not show correlation in the patients with normal weight, (HOMA 1B r = 0.08, p = 0.5, HOMA 1IR = 0.034, p = 0.793), nor in the patients who were overweight (HOMA 1B: r = 0.05, p = 0.76, HOMA 1IR r = 0.145, p = 0.43). However, a significant correlation between uricemia with both HOMA 1B (0.559, p uric acid levels seem to be associated with insulin resistance in women, and in obese patients, but not in nonobese men. Uric acid also modifies β-cell function in men and in obese patients.

  5. Study of Insulin Resistance in Patients With β Thalassemia Major and Validity of Triglyceride Glucose (TYG) Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arif M; Bhat, Kamalakshi G; Dsa, Smitha S; Mahalingam, Soundarya; Joseph, Nitin

    2018-03-01

    Complications like impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus due to iron overload need early identification in thalassemia. We studied the proportion of insulin resistance in thalassemia major patients on chronic transfusion, identified insulin resistance using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride glucose (TYG) index, compared them and validated TYG index. In total, 73 thalassemia patients on regular transfusion for 3 years with serum ferritin >1500 ng/mL were studied. Serum ferritin, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, and insulin levels were measured, HOMA-IR, and TYG index calculated and analyzed. Mean fasting glucose, triglyceride, and serum insulin values were 104 mg/dL, 164.18 mg/dL, and 19.6 m IU/mL, respectively. Mean serum ferritin was 5156 ng/mL. Insulin resistance was prevalent in one third of thalassemia patients and showed increase with age and serum ferritin. Insulin resistance by HOMA-IR was 32% as against 16% by TYG index with a cut-off value of 4.3. Using receiver operating charecteristic curve analysis, it was found that, by lowering the value of TYG index to 4.0215, sensitivity improved to 78.3% (from 39.13%) with specificity of 70%. Hence, we recommend a newer lower cut-off value of 4.0215 for TYG index for better sensitivity and specificity in identifying insulin resistance.

  6. Omentin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing properties, is negatively associated with insulin resistance in normal gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Benny; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Hemi, Rina; Yinon, Yoav; Schiff, Eyal; Mashiach, Roy; Kanety, Hannah; Sivan, Eyal

    2015-05-01

    Omentin, a newly identified adipokine, enhances insulin mediated glucose uptake in human adipocytes, thus, inducing systemic insulin-sensitizing effect. The aims of this study were to determine whether circulating maternal omentin levels are associated with insulin resistance indices and to assess which compartment, maternal, fetal, or placental, is the source of omentin in maternal circulation. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, and omentin were determined in 25 healthy pregnant women at the third trimester, before and 3 days after elective cesarean section. Cord blood omentin was measured in the 25 term neonates. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to evaluate insulin sensitivity before and after delivery. Antepartum maternal omentin levels were negatively correlated with insulin levels (r=-0.41, P=0.04) and positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S; r=0.4, P=0.04). Postpartum omentin levels were negatively correlated with maternal body mass index (r=-0.44, P=0.02). Median maternal omentin levels was comparable before and after delivery (57.2, inter-quartile range: 38.2-76.2 ng/mL vs. 53.4, 39.8-69.4 ng/mL, respectively, P=0.25) and highly correlated (r=0.83, Pinsulin resistance indices, suggesting that this adipokine may play a role in metabolic adaptations of normal gestation. The strong correlation between anteparum and postpartum maternal omentin levels, as well as the lack of association between maternal and neonatal omentin levels, suggest that placental or fetal compartments are unlikely as the main source of circulating maternal omentin.

  7. The Effect of Metformin and Standard Therapy Versus Standard Therapy Alone in Nondiabetic Patients with Insulin Resistance and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): A Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    histology in nondiabetic patients with insulin resistance and NASH. Decrease in BMI through diet and exercise significantly improved HOMA - IR scores, serum...BMI through diet and exercise significantly improved HOMA - IR scores, serum aminotransferases and liver histology. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...insulin resistance (or HOMA - IR ) score was calculated using the formula: fasting insulin (mIU/ml) fasting glu- cose (mg/dl)/405 [Matthews et al. 1985

  8. Adipocytokine Associations with Insulin Resistance in British South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Webb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Adipocytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and may represent identifiable precursors of metabolic disease within high-risk groups. We investigated adiponectin, leptin, and TNF-α and assessed the contribution of these molecules to insulin resistance in south Asians. Hypothesis. South Asians have adverse adipocytokine profiles which associate with an HOMA-derived insulin resistance phenotype. Methods. We measured adipocytokine concentrations in south Asians with newly diagnosed impaired glucose tolerance or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a case-control study. 158 (48.5% males volunteers aged 25–75 years with risk factors for diabetes but no known vascular or metabolic disease provided serum samples for ELISA and bioplex assays. Results. Total adiponectin concentration progressively decreased across the glucose spectrum in both sexes. A reciprocal trend in leptin concentration was observed only in south Asian men. Adiponectin but not leptin independently associated with HOMA-derived insulin resistance after logistic multivariate regression. Conclusion. Diasporic south Asian populations have an adverse adipocytokine profile which deteriorates further with glucose dysregulation. Insulin resistance is inversely associated with adiponectin independent of BMI and waist circumference in south Asians, implying that adipocytokine interplay contributes to the pathogenesis of metabolic disease in this group.

  9. Analysis of IRS-1-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation in the adipose tissue of polycystic ovary syndrome patients complicated with insulin resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongli, Chu [Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai (China). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Hongyu, Qiu; Yongyu, Sun; Min, Li; Hongfa, Li

    2004-04-01

    Objective: To investigate the insulin receptor substance-1 (IRS-1)-mediated phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activity in adipose tissue of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, and to explore molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance of PCOS. Methods: Blood and adipose tissue samples from patients with PCOS with insulin resistance (n=19), PCOS without insulin resistance (n=10) and controls (n=15) were collected. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Fasting insulin (FIN) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was measured by oxidase assay. Insulin resistance index (IR) was calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) to analyze the relationship between these markers and insulin resistance. The tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was measured by immunoprecipitation and enhanced chemiluminescent immunoblotting technique. PI-3 kinase activity was detected by immunoprecipitation, thin-layer chromatography and gamma scintillation counting. The results were analyzed by statistical methods. Results: 1) The levels of serum LH, LH/FSH, T, FIN and HOMA-IR in PCOS without insulin resistance were significantly higher than those of control group (all P<0.05); the levels of serum LH, LH/FSH, T, FIN and HOMA-IR in PCOS with insulin resistance were significantly higher than those of PCOS without insulin resistance (all P<0.05). 2) The tyrosine phosphorylation analysis of IRS-1 showed that IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was significantly decreased in PCOS with insulin resistance compared to that of PCOS without insulin resistance and control groups (P<0.01). 3) PI-3 kinase activity was significantly decreased (P<0.01) and negatively correlated with HOMA-IR. Conclusion: In consequence of the weaker signal caused by the change of upper stream signal molecule IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, PI-3 kinase activity decreased, it affects the insulin signal

  10. Analysis of IRS-1-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation in the adipose tissue of polycystic ovary syndrome patients complicated with insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yongli; Qiu Hongyu; Sun Yongyu; Li Min; Li Hongfa

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the insulin receptor substance-1 (IRS-1)-mediated phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activity in adipose tissue of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, and to explore molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance of PCOS. Methods: Blood and adipose tissue samples from patients with PCOS with insulin resistance (n=19), PCOS without insulin resistance (n=10) and controls (n=15) were collected. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Fasting insulin (FIN) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was measured by oxidase assay. Insulin resistance index (IR) was calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) to analyze the relationship between these markers and insulin resistance. The tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was measured by immunoprecipitation and enhanced chemiluminescent immunoblotting technique. PI-3 kinase activity was detected by immunoprecipitation, thin-layer chromatography and gamma scintillation counting. The results were analyzed by statistical methods. Results: 1) The levels of serum LH, LH/FSH, T, FIN and HOMA-IR in PCOS without insulin resistance were significantly higher than those of control group (all P<0.05); the levels of serum LH, LH/FSH, T, FIN and HOMA-IR in PCOS with insulin resistance were significantly higher than those of PCOS without insulin resistance (all P<0.05). 2) The tyrosine phosphorylation analysis of IRS-1 showed that IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was significantly decreased in PCOS with insulin resistance compared to that of PCOS without insulin resistance and control groups (P<0.01). 3) PI-3 kinase activity was significantly decreased (P<0.01) and negatively correlated with HOMA-IR. Conclusion: In consequence of the weaker signal caused by the change of upper stream signal molecule IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, PI-3 kinase activity decreased, it affects the insulin signal

  11. [Identification of cutoff points for Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance index in adolescents: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maria Izabel Siqueira de; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Lima, Niedja Maria da Silva; Costa, Emília Chagas; Aquino, Nathalia Barbosa de; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de

    2016-06-01

    To identify cutoff points of the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index established for adolescents and discuss their applicability for the diagnosis of insulin resistance in Brazilian adolescents. A systematic review was performed in the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases, using the following descriptors: "Adolescents", "insulin resistance" and "ROC curve". Original articles carried out with adolescents published between 2005 and 2015 in Portuguese, English or Spanish languages, which included the statistical analysis using ROC curve to determine the index cutoff (HOMA-IR) were included. A total of 184 articles were identified and after the study phases were applied, seven articles were selected for the review. All selected studies established their cutoffs using a ROC curve, with the lowest observed cutoff of 1.65 for girls and 1.95 for boys and the highest of 3.82 for girls and 5.22 for boys. Of the studies analyzed, one proposed external validity, recommending the use of the HOMA-IR cutoff >2.5 for both genders. The HOMA-IR index constitutes a reliable method for the detection of insulin resistance in adolescents, as long as it uses cutoffs that are more adequate for the reality of the study population, allowing early diagnosis of insulin resistance and enabling multidisciplinary interventions aiming at health promotion of this population. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of insulin resistance in idiopathic hirsutism compared with polycystic ovary syndrome patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdaran, Shokoufeh; Kiafar, Bita; Barazandeh Ahmadabadi, Fatemeh

    2016-02-01

    Hirsutism is defined as the excessive male-pattern growth of hair in women. Hirsutism is often idiopathic or the consequence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Insulin resistance is common in PCOS (especially in obese patients) but the association between insulin resistance and idiopathic hirsutism (IH) is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of insulin resistance in IH, compared with healthy individuals and patients with PCOS. The study included three groups, patients with idiopathic hirsutism, PCOS and healthy women. Each group included 30 non-obese women. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin level and insulin resistance (estimated by the homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IRIR]) were compared in the three groups. There was a significant difference between the age of the women with IH compared with two other groups. There were no significant difference in levels of serum insulin (P = 0.49, HOMA-IR (P = 0.47) and prevalence of insulin resistance (P = 0.07) in the three groups. The age-adjusted prevalence of insulin resistance was similar in the three groups. Insulin resistance was no more frequent in IH patients than in healthy control groups. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  13. Childhood craniopharyngioma: greater hypothalamic involvement before surgery is associated with higher homeostasis model insulin resistance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivin, Christine; Busiah, Kanetee; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Recasens, Christophe; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Zerah, Michel; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Brauner, Raja

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity seems to be linked to the hypothalamic involvement in craniopharyngioma. We evaluated the pre-surgery relationship between the degree of this involvement on magnetic resonance imaging and insulin resistance, as evaluated by the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA). As insulin-like growth factor 1, leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) and ghrelin may also be involved, we compared their plasma concentrations and their link to weight change. Methods 27 children with craniopharyngioma were classified as either grade 0 (n = 7, no hypothalamic involvement), grade 1 (n = 8, compression without involvement), or grade 2 (n = 12, severe involvement). Results Despite having similar body mass indexes (BMI), the grade 2 patients had higher glucose, insulin and HOMA before surgery than the grade 0 (P = 0.02, craniopharyngioma before surgery seems to determine the degree of insulin resistance, regardless of the BMI. The pre-surgery HOMA values were correlated with the post-surgery weight gain. This suggests that obesity should be prevented by reducing inn secretion in those cases with hypothalamic involvement. PMID:19341477

  14. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood.......RESULTSFor each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed with -11.3% (95% CI, -17.0 to -5.2), -12.2% (-18.2 to -5.7), and -8.9% (-14.4 to -3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal...... lifestyle and demographic factors. Results for CRF were very similar in magnitude, and the magnitude of associations for both exposures was unchanged with additional adjustment for general or abdominal adiposity in youth. Combined associations of muscle strength and CRF with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR...

  15. Insulin resistance, hepatic lipid and adipose tissue distribution in HIV infected men

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Engelson, Ellen S.; Ionescu, Gabriel; Glesby, Marshall J.; Albu, Jeanine B.; Kotler, Donald P.

    2010-01-01

    Background A large proportion of HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral medication develop insulin resistance, especially in the context of fat redistribution. This study investigates the interrelationships among fat distribution, hepatic lipid content, and insulin resistance in HIV-infected men. Design and methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from twenty-three HIV-infected participants in 3 prospective clinical studies. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to quantify hepatic lipid concentrations. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify whole body adipose tissue compartments, i.e., subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes as well as inter-muscular adipose tissue (IMAT) subcompartment, and omental-mesenteric adipose tissue (OMAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT) subcompartments of VAT. Homeostasis model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results Hepatic lipid content correlated significantly with total VAT (r=0.62, p=0.0014) but not with SAT (r=0.053, p=0.81). In univariate analysis, hepatic lipid content was associated with the OMAT (r=0.67, p=0.0004) and RPAT (r=0.53, p=0.009) subcompartments; HOMA-IR correlated with both VAT and hepatic lipid contents (r=0.61, p=0.057 and 0.68, p=0.0012, respectively). In stepwise linear regression models, hepatic lipid had the strongest associations with OMAT and with HOMA-IR. Conclusion Hepatic lipid content is associated with VAT volume, especially the omental-mesenteric subcompartment, in HIV-infected men. Hepatic lipid content is associated with insulin resistance in HIV-infected men. Hepatic lipid content might mediate the relationship between VAT and insulin resistance among treated, HIV-infected men. PMID:18572755

  16. Insulin resistance, hepatic lipid and adipose tissue distribution in HIV-infected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Engelson, Ellen S; Ionescu, Gabriel; Glesby, Marshall J; Albu, Jeanine B; Kotler, Donald P

    2008-01-01

    A large proportion of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral medication develop insulin resistance, especially in the context of fat redistribution. This study investigates the interrelationships among fat distribution, hepatic lipid content, and insulin resistance in HIV-infected men. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 23 HIV-infected participants in three prospective clinical studies. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to quantify hepatic lipid concentrations. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify whole-body adipose tissue compartments: that is, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes, as well as the intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) subcompartment and the omental-mesenteric adipose tissue (OMAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT) subcompartments of VAT. The homeostasis model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Hepatic lipid content correlated significantly with total VAT (r = 0.62, P = 0.0014), but not with SAT (r = 0.053, P = 0.81). In univariate analysis, hepatic lipid content was associated with the OMAT (r = 0.67, P = 0.0004) and RPAT (r = 0.53, P = 0.009) subcompartments; HOMA-IR correlated with both VAT and hepatic lipid contents (r = 0.61, P = 0.057 and r = 0.68, P = 0.0012, respectively). In stepwise linear regression models, hepatic lipid had the strongest associations with OMAT and with HOMA-IR. Hepatic lipid content is associated with VAT volume, especially the OMAT subcompartment, in HIV-infected men. Hepatic lipid content is associated with insulin resistance in HIV-infected men. Hepatic lipid content might mediate the relationship between VAT and insulin resistance among treated, HIV-infected men.

  17. Blueberries’ Impact on Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April J. Stull

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries are a rich source of polyphenols, which include anthocyanin bioactive compounds. Epidemiological evidence indicates that incorporating blueberries into the diet may lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM. These findings are supported by pre-clinical and clinical studies that have shown improvements in insulin resistance (i.e., increased insulin sensitivity after obese and insulin-resistant rodents or humans consumed blueberries. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Additionally, the improvements in glucose tolerance after blueberry consumption were assessed by glucose tolerance tests. However, firm conclusions regarding the anti-diabetic effect of blueberries cannot be drawn due to the small number of existing clinical studies. Although the current evidence is promising, more long-term, randomized, and placebo-controlled trials are needed to establish the role of blueberries in preventing or delaying T2DM.

  18. Insulin Resistance and the IGF-I-Cortical Bone Relationship in Children Ages 9 to 13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Joseph M; Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Oshri, Assaf; Jenkins, Nathan T; Isales, Carlos M; Hamrick, Mark W; Ding, Ke-Hong; Hausman, Dorothy B; McCabe, George P; Martin, Berdine R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Warden, Stuart J; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro; Lewis, Richard D

    2017-07-01

    IGF-I is a pivotal hormone in pediatric musculoskeletal development. Although recent data suggest that the role of IGF-I in total body lean mass and total body bone mass accrual may be compromised in children with insulin resistance, cortical bone geometric outcomes have not been studied in this context. Therefore, we explored the influence of insulin resistance on the relationship between IGF-I and cortical bone in children. A secondary aim was to examine the influence of insulin resistance on the lean mass-dependent relationship between IGF-I and cortical bone. Children were otherwise healthy, early adolescent black and white boys and girls (ages 9 to 13 years) and were classified as having high (n = 147) or normal (n = 168) insulin resistance based on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Cortical bone at the tibia diaphysis (66% site) and total body fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST) were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. IGF-I, insulin, and glucose were measured in fasting sera and HOMA-IR was calculated. Children with high HOMA-IR had greater unadjusted IGF-I (p insulin resistance as a potential suppressor of IGF-I-dependent cortical bone development, though prospective studies are needed. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. The Effect of Different Doses of Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastegar Hoseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and vitamin D deficiency are both too common during menopause. Since the effect of different doses of vitamin D supplements on blood sugar, insulin concentration  and insulin resistance are unknown, the present study aimed at investigating the effects of different doses of the vitamin D supplements on visceral fat, blood sugar, insulin concentration,  and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods: In this randomized experimental study, 32 female Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal groups  as follows: three groups . that received vitamin D supplements (high, moderate, and low dose and one control group. After 8 weeks of different doses of vitamin D supplementation plasma concentration of glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were measured  in the three groups. The obtained data  was statistically analyzed by means of dependent t-test and ANOVA . at the significance level of P<0.05. Results: After a period of eight-week  intervention, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat, insulin, blood glucose and HOMA-IR at high, moderate, and low doses of vitamin D supplementation were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05. High dose of vitamin D compared with moderate and low doses significantly caused reduction in insulin, blood glucose, and HOMA-IR (P<0.001 for all three variables. Conclusion: The findings of the current study showed that a high dose of vitamin D causes significant improvements in FPG, insulin, and insulin resistance  evaluated by HOMA-IR. It was also found that adding vitamin D supplements can improve glucose control in menopause model of rats.

  20. The Usefulness of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR for Detection of Glucose Intolerance in Thai Women of Reproductive Age with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyarat Wongwananuruk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the cut-off point of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR as a screening test for detection of glucose intolerance in Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Subject. Two hundred and fifty Thai PCOS women who attended the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit, during May 2007 to January 2009. Materials and Methods. The paitents were interviewed and examined for weight, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Venous blood samples were drawn twice, one at 12-hour fasting and the other at 2 hours after glucose loading. Results. The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women was 20.0%. The mean of HOMA-IR was 3.53  ±  7.7. Area under an ROC curve for HOMA-IR for detecting glucose intolerance was 0.82. Using the cut-off value of HOMA-IR >2.0, there was sensitivity at 84.0%, specificity at 61.0%, positive predictive value at 35.0%, negative predictive value at 93.8%, and accuracy at 65.6%. Conclusion. HOMA-IR >2.0 was used for screening test for glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women. If the result was positive, a specific test should be done to prove the diagnosis.

  1. The relationship between vitronectin and hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Li, Xinyu; Lu, Chong; Zhan, Xiaorong

    2018-05-18

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 300 million people will suffer from diabetes mellitus by 2025. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is much more prevalent. T2DM comprises approximately 90% of diabetes mellitus cases, and it is caused by a combination of insulin resistance and inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response. In this study, we aimed to compare the plasma vitronectin (VN) levels between patients with T2DM and insulin resistance (IR) and healthy controls. Seventy patients with IR and 70 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The insulin, Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), C-peptide (CP) and VN levels of all participants were examined. The homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistence index (HOMA-IR (CP)) formula was used to calculate insulin resistance. The levels of BMI, fasting plasma gluose (FPG), 2-hour postprandial glucose (2hPG), glycated hemoglobins (HbA1c), and HOMA-IR (CP) were significantly elevated in case group compared with controls. VN was found to be significantly decreased in case group. (VN Mean (Std): 8.55 (2.92) versus 12.88 (1.26) ng/mL p insulin resistance in patients with T2DM.

  2. Relationship between insulin resistance and plasma endothelin in hypertension patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yongqiang; Wang Zuobing; Yu Hui; Cao Wei; Wang Jing; Li Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    To explore the relationship between plasma endothelin and hypertension insulin resistance, and the improvement of insulin resistance in hypertension patients treated with captopril and l-amlodipine, 25 patients with primary hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance were selected and treated by captopril and l-amlodipine. Systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin and insulin antibody were measured before and after treatment and compared with healthy controls. The results showed that the plasma ET-1 level in hypertension group was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (P<0.01), and he plasma ET-1 level was positively correlated with FPG, FINS, Anti-INS, HOMA-IR. The systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin, insulin antibody and insulin resistance index in hypertension patients were decreased significantly after treatment (P<0.05). There is a good correlation between endothelin and insulin resistance index in hypertension patients. Captopril and l-amlodipine had obvious improvement effect on insulin resistance in hypertension patients. (authors)

  3. Diet-induced increases in chemerin are attenuated by exercise and mediate the effect of diet on insulin and HOMA-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jesse W; Zerfass, Kristy M; Heckstall, Ebony M; Evans, Kristin A

    2015-10-01

    Chemerin concentrations are elevated in obesity and associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Exercise improves insulin sensitivity, which may be facilitated by changes in chemerin. We explored the effects of chronic exercise on chemerin levels in diet-induced obese mice. We divided 40 mice into 4 groups: high-fat diet/exercise, high-fat diet/sedentary, normal diet/exercise, and normal diet/sedentary. A 9-week dietary intervention was followed by a 12-week exercise intervention (treadmill run: 11 m/min for 30 min, 3×/week). We analyzed blood samples before and after the exercise intervention. We used t-tests and linear regression to examine changes in chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers, and associations between changes in chemerin and all other biomarkers. Chemerin increased significantly across all mice over the 12-week intervention (mean ± SD = 40.7 ± 77.8%, p = 0.01), and this increase was smaller in the exercise versus sedentary mice (27.2 ± 83.9% versus 54.9 ± 70.5%, p = 0.29). The increase among the high-fat diet/exercise mice was ~44% lower than the increase among the high-fat diet/sedentary mice (55.7 ± 54.9% versus 99.8 ± 57.7%, p = 0.12). The high-fat diet mice showed significant increases in insulin (773.5 ± 1286.6%, p HOMA-IR; 846.5 ± 1723.3%, p HOMA-IR. Chronic exercise may attenuate diet-driven increases in circulating chemerin, and the insulin resistance associated with a high-fat diet may be mediated by diet-induced increases in chemerin.

  4. Parity and increased risk of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women: the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hwi; Lee, Sung Jong

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association between parity and insulin resistance in nondiabetic, postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey administered by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. A total of 1,243 nondiabetic postmenopausal women were included in this study and subdivided into three groups according to parity (1-2, 3-4, and ≥5 live births). Insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The relationship between parity and insulin resistance was investigated using analysis of covariance. HOMA-IR showed a positive relationship with parity. Mean HOMA-IR (geometric mean and 95% CI) increased according to increasing parity group (1-2, 3-4, and ≥5 live births) after adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income, and body mass index as follows: 2.1 (2.0-2.2) insulin resistance was accompanied by obesity. The mean parity of the obese and insulin-resistant group was significantly higher than that of the nonobese insulin-sensitive group (3.6 ± 0.1 vs 3.2 ± 0.1, P = 0.047). Our study provides the first evidence that parity is significantly associated with insulin resistance in nondiabetic postmenopausal women. Further prospective longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the impact of parity on insulin resistance.

  5. Association between HOMA-IR, fasting insulin and fasting glucose with coronary heart disease mortality in nondiabetic men: a 20-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurl, Sudhir; Zaccardi, Francesco; Onaemo, Vivian N; Jae, Sae Young; Kauhanen, Jussi; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2015-02-01

    Whether glucose and insulin are differently associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is unclear. We aimed to estimate the association between insulin resistance (estimated by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, HOMA-IR), fasting serum insulin (FI) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with incident CHD mortality in a prospective study including middle-aged nondiabetic Finnish men. During an average follow-up of 20 years, 273 (11 %) CHD deaths occurred. In a multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, serum LDL-cholesterol, cigarette smoking, history of CHD, alcohol consumption, blood leukocytes and plasma fibrinogen, the hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD mortality comparing top versus bottom quartiles were as follows: 1.69 (95 % CI: 1.15-2.48; p = 0.008) for HOMA-IR; 1.59 (1.09-2.32; p = 0.016) for FI; and 1.26 (0.90-1.76; p = 0.173) for FPG. These findings suggest that IR and FI, but not FPG, are independent risk factors for CHD mortality. Further studies could help clarify these results in terms of screening and risk stratification, causality of the associations, and therapeutical implications.

  6. The association between n-3 fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes and insulin resistance: The Inuit Health in Transition Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseng, Trine; Witte, Daniel R; Vistisen, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    and ethnicity were answered. Insulin resistance was estimated using the HOMA-IR index based on fastingglucose and fasting-insulin. Results. We found an inverse association between C20:5 n-3 (EPA), C22:3 n-3, the n-3/n-6 ratio and HOMA-IR and a positive association between C18:3 n-3 cis and HOMA-IR. When...

  7. Prediction of insulin resistance with anthropometric measures: lessons from a large adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedin WK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available William K Wedin,1 Lizmer Diaz-Gimenez,1 Antonio J Convit1,21Department of Psychiatry, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY, USAObjective: The aim of this study was to describe the minimum number of anthropometric measures that will optimally predict insulin resistance (IR and to characterize the utility of these measures among obese and nonobese adolescents.Research design and methods: Six anthropometric measures (selected from three categories: central adiposity, weight, and body composition were measured from 1298 adolescents attending two New York City public high schools. Body composition was determined by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA. The homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR, based on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, was used to estimate IR. Stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to predict HOMA-IR based on the six selected measures, while controlling for age.Results: The stepwise regression retained both waist circumference (WC and percentage of body fat (BF%. Notably, BMI was not retained. WC was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than BMI was. A regression model using solely WC performed best among the obese II group, while a model using solely BF% performed best among the lean group. Receiver operator characteristic curves showed the WC and BF% model to be more sensitive in detecting IR than BMI, but with less specificity.Conclusion: WC combined with BF% was the best predictor of HOMA-IR. This finding can be attributed partly to the ability of BF% to model HOMA-IR among leaner participants and to the ability of WC to model HOMA-IR among participants who are more obese. BMI was comparatively weak in predicting IR, suggesting that assessments that are more comprehensive and include body composition analysis could increase detection of IR during adolescence, especially among those who are lean, yet insulin-resistant.Keywords: BMI, bioelectrical impedance

  8. A study of the pancreatic islet β-cell function and insulin resistance of type2 diabetic gastroparesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Gang; Shao Hao; Lu Zeyuan; Ding Yuzhen; Chen Guanrong; Fu Juan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the pancreatic islet β-cell function and insulin resistance of diabetic gastroparesis (DGP). Methods: 31 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 32 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 38 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 31 subjects with DGP were en-rolled in the study, assessed by steamed bread meal tests, the plasma glucose and insulin at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were respectively measured by using glucose oxidase and radioimmunoassay, investigate the changes of area under insulin cure (INSAUC), Homa-insulin resistance (Homa-IR) index and modified β-cell function index (MBCI). Results: The INSAUC of IGT, T2DM, NGT and DGP fell in turn, there were signif-icantly differences among the groups. The Homa-IR index of NGT, IGT, DGP and T2DM rose in turn, there were significantly differences among the groupsexcept between T2DM and DGP. Conclusions: The pancreatic islet β-cell function of DGP was worse that NGT, IGT and T2DM, and the insulin resistance was stronger than NGT and IGT. (authors)

  9. Vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance as risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Meltem; Bostan Gayret, Özlem; Hamilçıkan, Şahin; Can, Emrah; Yiğit, Özgu L

    2017-04-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the major complications of obesity; vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are attending metabolic complications in dyslipidemic obese children. Objective. To determine if vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children. This study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics at Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey between 2014 and 2015. Obese patients whose age range was 8-14 were included in the study. The serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, insulin, alanine aminotransferase, vitamin D levels were measured; a liver ultrasonography was performed. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), was used to calculate insulin resistance. 108 obese children were included; 39 (36.11%) had dyslipidemia. The average fasting blood glucose (88.74 ± 7.58 vs. 95.31 ± 6.82; p= 0.0001), insulin level (14.71 ± 12.44 vs. 24.39 ± 15.02; p= 0.0001) and alanine aminotransferase level (23.45 ± 11.18 vs. 30.4 ± 18.95; p= 0.018) were significantly higher in the children with dyslipidemia. In the dyslipidemic obese children, the average hepatosteatosis rate and HOMA-IR level were higher; 28 (71.9%) had hepatosteatosis, 37 (94.87%) had insulin resistance; the vitamin D levels were dyslipidemia. Obese children in our region exhibit low vitamin D and increased HOMA-IR levels, which are efficient risk factors of dyslipidemia.

  10. Poor zinc status is associated with increased risk of insulin resistance in Spanish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Aparicio, A; Jiménez, A I; López-Sobaler, A M; González-Rodríguez, L G; Andrés, P

    2012-02-01

    Zn plays a key role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The aim of the present work was to determine whether a poorer Zn status was associated with insulin resistance in a group of 357 Spanish schoolchildren. Zn intake was determined by using a 3 d food record (i.e. Sunday to Tuesday). The body weight, height and waist and hip circumferences of all subjects were recorded and fasting plasma glucose, insulin and Zn concentrations were determined. Insulin resistance was determined using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) marker. Children (11·5 %) with Zn deficiency (serum Zn concentration 3·16 made a significantly smaller contribution to the coverage of those recommended (59·7 (sd 14·7) %) than observed in children with lower HOMA values (73·6 (sd 18·2) %; P health and nutritional status of these children, and thus contribute to diminish problems of insulin resistance.

  11. Circulating ApoJ is closely associated with insulin resistance in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji A; Kang, Min-Cheol; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Kim, Sang Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Choe, Charles; Hwang, Won Min; Lim, Dong Mee; Farr, Olivia; Mantzoros, Christos; Henry, Robert R; Kim, Young-Bum

    2018-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. ApolipoproteinJ (ApoJ) has been implicated in altered pathophysiologic states including cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease. However, the function of ApoJ in regulation of glucose homeostasis remains unclear. This study sought to determine whether serum ApoJ levels are associated with insulin resistance in human subjects and if they change after interventions that improve insulin sensitivity. Serum ApoJ levels and insulin resistance status were assessed in nondiabetic (ND) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. The impacts of rosiglitazone or metformin therapy on serum ApoJ levels and glucose disposal rate (GDR) during a hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp were evaluated in a separate cohort of T2D subjects. Total ApoJ protein or that associated with the HDL and LDL fractions was measured by immunoblotting or ELISA. Fasting serum ApoJ levels were greatly elevated in T2D subjects (ND vs T2D; 100±8.3 vs. 150.6±8.5AU, Pinsulin, HOMA-IR, and BMI. ApoJ levels were significantly and independently associated with HOMA-IR, even after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI. Rosiglitazone treatment in T2D subjects resulted in a reduction in serum ApoJ levels (before vs. after treatment; 100±13.9 vs. 77±15.2AU, P=0.015), whereas metformin had no effect on ApoJ levels. The change in ApoJ levels during treatment was inversely associated with the change in GDR. Interestingly, ApoJ content in the LDL fraction was inversely associated with HOMA-IR. Serum ApoJ levels are closely correlated with the magnitude of insulin resistance regardless of obesity, and decrease along with improvement of insulin resistance in response only to rosiglitazone in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HOMA-IR and the risk of hyperuricemia: a prospective study in non-diabetic Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Morikawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Nakashima, Motoko; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2014-10-01

    To examine the relation of insulin resistant status determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with the risk of incident hyperuricemia. The study participants included 2071 Japanese men without hyperuricemia and diabetes, aged 35-54 years. The participants had undergone annual heath examinations for 6 years to compare incident hyperuricemia (serum uric acid >416.4μmol/L (7.0mg/dL) and/or taking medication for hyperuricemia) in four groups based on quartiles of baseline HOMA-IR. During follow-up there were 331 incident cases of hyperuricemia. The hazard ratios for hyperuricemia, compared with HOMA-IR ≤0.66, were 1.42 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.98) for HOMA-IR 0.67-0.98, 1.20 (0.86-1.68) for HOMA-IR 0.99-1.49 and 1.44 (1.04-1.98) for HOMA-IR ≥1.50 after adjustment for baseline serum uric acid, creatinine, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension status, age, alcohol intake, and smoking and exercise habits. The hazard ratio associated with an increase of one standard deviation in lnHOMA-IR (1.85 as one geometric standard deviation of HOMA-IR) was 1.14 (1.03-1.28) (p for trend=0.02). Increased HOMA-IR independently predicted the subsequent development of hyperuricemia. Insulin resistance itself or compensatory hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the development of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between insulin resistance and c-reactive protein among Peruvian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelaye Bizu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Insulin resistance (IR, a reduced physiological response of peripheral tissues to the action of insulin, is one of the major causes of type 2 diabetes. We sought to evaluate the relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation, and prevalence of IR among Peruvian adults. Methods This population based study of 1,525 individuals (569 men and 956 women; mean age 39 years old was conducted among residents in Lima and Callao, Peru. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and CRP concentrations were measured using standard approaches. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model (HOMA-IR. Categories of CRP were defined by the following tertiles: 2.53 mg/l. Logistic regression procedures were employed to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Elevated CRP were significantly associated with increased mean fasting insulin and mean HOMA-IR concentrations (p 2.53 mg/l (upper tertile had a 2.18-fold increased risk of IR (OR = 2.18 95% CI 1.51-3.16 as compared with those in the lowest tertile ( Conclusion Our observations among Peruvians suggest that chronic systemic inflammation, as evidenced by elevated CRP, may be of etiologic importance in insulin resistance and diabetes.

  14. Gender difference and relationship of insulin resistance with microalbuminuria type-2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Ahmad, A.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the relationship of insulin resistance with microalbuminuria in patients of type-2 Diabetes mellitus and observe gender difference if any. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Diabetes Clinic of Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt, from April to August 2007. Methodology: One hundred and fifty five patients of type-2 Diabetes mellitus were included in the study who had either microalbuminuria or normo albuminuria. Body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure were recorded. Fasting venous blood sample was collected for plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin, total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and HbA1c. Urine albumin excretion was determined using urine albumin to creatinine ratio. Insulin resistance was calculated from fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin levels, using homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Correlation and association testing was carried out with significance at p < 0.05. Results: Microalbuminuria was found to be significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.33, p < 0.001), serum insulin (r = 0.28, p = < 0.001), body mass index (r = 0.18, p = 0.02) and waist circumference (r = 0.21, p = 0.008). This correlation was more significant in women (n = 85, r = 0.48, p = < 0.0001) as compared to men (n = 70, r = 0.14, p = 0.12). The correlation between HOMA-IR and urine albumin excretion remained highly significant (p = 0.001) after controlling for gender, age, duration of diabetes, waist circumference, hypertension, triglycerides and HbA1c. Conclusion: Urinary albumin excretion in patients of type-2 diabetes is strongly associated with insulin resistance and related cardiovascular risk factors. This association appears to be stronger in women than the men, in our population. (author)

  15. The impact of pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination treatment on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee Jae; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Sang Gyune; Lee, Yun Nah; Jeong, Soung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

    2014-03-01

    Lipid profile and insulin resistance (IR) are associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and may predict the chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment response. The aim of this study was to determine the association between CHC treatment response and lipid profile and IR change during treatment. In total, 203 CHC patients were reviewed retrospectively between January 2005 and December 2011 at Soon Chun Hyang University Hospital. The lipid profile, homeostasis model for assessment (HOMA) of IR (HOMA-IR), and HOMA of β cells (HOMA-β) were evaluated before interferon plus ribavirin therapy (BTx), at the end of treatment (DTx), and 24 weeks after the end of treatment (ATx). A sustained virologic response (SVR) was achieved by 81% of all patients (49/60), 60% (n=36) of whom possessed genotype 1, with the remainder being non-genotype-1 (40%, n=24). Apart from age, which was significantly higher in the non-SVR group (SVR, 48.0 ± 11.2 years, mean ± SD; non-SVR, 56.6 ± 9.9 years; PC) had significantly changed at DTx and ATx compared to BTx. In addition, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were significantly changed at DTx in the SVR group. Among those with a high baseline insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >2.5), HOMA-IR was significantly changed at DTx in the SVR group. LDL-C appears to be associated with HCV treatment in SVR patients. Furthermore, eradication of HCV may improve whole-body IR and insulin hypersecretion, as well as high baseline insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >2.5).

  16. Circulating omentin-1 levels and its association with insulin resistance in newly diagnosed impaired glucose tolerant subjects

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    L Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue derived a novel adipokine; omentin -1, w hich has recently been characterized as a potent insulin-sensitizing agent, but its pathophysiologic role in the development of insulin resistance among the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT su bjects remains largely unknow n. The present study has been undertaken to explore the relationship of serum omentin -1 w ith insulin resistance in new ly diagnosed IGT subjects of Bangladeshi population. Fifty-five subjects w ith IGT and 50 (age, sex and body m ass index (BMI matched healthy control subjects w ere recruited in this study. Serum insulin and omentin-1 w ere measured by the ELISA technique. Insulin resistance (IR w as calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. HOMA-IR w as significantly higher (p < 0.001 as w ell as log transformed omentin-1 w as significantly low er (p = 0.031 in IGT subjects compared to the control. Pearson′s correlation analysis show ed a significant negative correlation of log omentin -1 w ith HOMA-IR (r = -0.290, p = 0.008 in all subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis show ed a significant negative association of HOMA-IR w ith log omentin-1 (β = -0.285, p = 0.017 in IGT subjects after adjusting the effects of potential confounders of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and triglyceride (TG. Binary logistic regression analysis show ed that log omentin-1 [odds ratio (OR = 0.631, p = 0.038] and HOMA-IR (OR = 1.998, p = 0.029 w ere found to be significant determinants of IGT after adjusting the effect of HbA1c and TG. Serum concentration of omentin-1 is decreased in the state of insulin resistance of IGT subjects and this reduction seemed to be mediated by adiposity and hyperglycemia among these subjects.

  17. The impact of insulin resistance on clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildizhan, Begum; Anik Ilhan, Gokce; Pekin, Tanju

    2016-10-01

    This study was performed to assess insulin resistance (IR) in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Retrospective analysis of 100 consecutive lean (body mass index PCOS subjects was performed. Subjects were divided into two groups according to homeostasis model assessment IR index (HOMA-IR), as IR + and IR-. A HOMA-IR value >2.5 was used to indicate IR. A total of 100 lean PCOS subjects were enrolled in the study, of which 47% were insulin resistant. Comparison of group means showed significantly higher values for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), diastolic blood pressure and Ferriman-Gallwey score (FGS) in IR + group. HOMA-IR values were found to be positively correlated with WHR (r = 0.500, p PCOS subjects, the insulin resistant group should be separated as unique and IR should also be evaluated in lean women with PCOS.

  18. Association of leptin and insulin resistance in PCOS: A case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namavar Jahromi, Bahia; Dabaghmanesh, Mohammad Hassan; Parsanezhad, Mohammad Ebrahim; Fatehpoor, Faranak

    2017-07-01

    Endocrine abnormalities related to polycystic ovary Syndrome (PCOS) are important problems. To compare serum leptin levels between infertile women with and without PCOS. To rank sensitivity of six indirect methods for detection of insulin resistance (IR) and to evaluate the association between leptin and IR in PCOS group. This Case-controlled study performed on 189 infertile women referred to Shiraz Mother and Child Hospital during 2012-2015. Ninety-nine PCOS cases according to Rotterdam criteria were compared to 90 cases without PCOS. Serum leptin, body mass index (BMI), several hormones, and their correlation coefficients with leptin were compared. IR in PCOS women was measured by indirect methods, including fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin (FI), glucose/insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and MacAuley index. Association between IR and leptin was evaluated. Independent sample t-test and Pearson's test were used. Infertile women with PCOS had higher BMI (26.47±3.62 vs. 24.82±5.18 kg/m 2 ) and serum leptin levels (41.79±187.89 vs. 19.38±12.57 ng/mL). Leptin showed significant association with weight and BMI in both groups (pPCOS group. HOMA-IR showed the highest rate of IR followed by FI and QUICKI methods. The mean leptin levels had positive association with IR assessed by HOMA-IR (pPCOS infertile women. HOMA-IR followed by FI and QUICKI is the most sensitive test for detection of IR.

  19. Reduction of insulinotropic properties of GLP-1 and GIP after glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marie; Jensen, David H; Tribler, Siri

    2015-01-01

    . In addition, first-phase insulin responses were determined at 7 mmol/l and 15 mmol/l and second-phase insulin responses at 7 mmol/l. RESULTS: After dexamethasone treatment, all 19 participants had increased insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and insulin sensitivity index [M/I] values) and 2 h plasma glucose...

  20. Serum acylated ghrelin is negatively correlated with the insulin resistance in the CODING study.

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    Peyvand Amini

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid orexigenic peptide synthesized mainly in the stomach. Acute administration of ghrelin has been found to decrease insulin secretion. However, little data is available regarding whether ghrelin contributes to the long-term regulation of insulin resistance at the population level. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between circulating ghrelin and insulin resistance in a large population based study.A total of 2082 CODING study (Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics subjects were assessed. Subjects were of at least third generation Newfoundland descent, between the ages of 20 and 79 years, and had no serious metabolic, cardiovascular, or endocrine diseases. Ghrelin was measured with an Enzyme Immunoassay method. Insulin and fasting glucose were measured by Immulite 2500 autoanalyzer and Lx20 clinical chemistry analyzer, respectively. Homeostatic Model Assessment of β cell function (HOMA-β and Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR and Quantitative Insulin-sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI were used for measurement of insulin resistance.Partial correlation analyses showed a significant negative correlation between circulating ghrelin and insulin level and insulin resistance in the entire cohort and also in men and women separately. The aforementioned correlation was independent of age, percentage of trunk fat and HDL-cholesterol. According to menopausal status, only pre-menopausal women revealed negative correlations.Our results suggest that except for postmenopausal women, high circulating ghrelin level is associated with lower insulin resistance in the general population.

  1. Inverse association between soya food consumption and insulin resistance in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Mariko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Sakai, Tohru; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between soya food consumption and insulin resistance using baseline data of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima, Japan. This cross-sectional study included 1274 subjects, aged 34-70 years at baseline, living in Tokushima Prefecture between 2008 and 2013. Fasting blood samples were collected and information on lifestyle characteristics including soya food intake and medical history were obtained using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured and those with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 were defined as having insulin resistance. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between soya product intake and the prevalence of insulin resistance. Rural communities located in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, between 2008 and 2013. A total of 1148 adults (565 men and 583 women), aged 34-70 years. The frequency of intake of miso soup, total non-fried soya products and total soya products showed significant inverse dose-response relationships with insulin resistance, after adjustments for potential confounders. When soya product intake was calculated as soya protein and isoflavone, the odds ratios of insulin resistance decreased significantly as the estimated intake of soya protein increased. Furthermore, significant inverse dose-response relationships were observed for total non-fried soya products and total soya products, after adjustment for total vegetable or total fibre consumption. The present results indicate that the intake of soya products and non-fried soya products is associated with reduced insulin resistance in the Japanese population.

  2. Association between insulin resistance and plasma amino acid profile in non-diabetic Japanese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Chizumi; Kondo, Masumi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Shibata, Takeo; Nagai, Yoko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Oroguchi, Takashige; Ishii, Naoaki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Elevation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), valine, leucine and isoleucine; and the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine, has been observed in obesity-related insulin resistance. However, there have been few studies on Asians, who are generally less obese and less insulin-resistant than Caucasian or African-Americans. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma ami...

  3. Association between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Rui; Xiao, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that the consumption of chilli-containing foods can influence iron absorption and affect serum insulin and glucose concentrations, which may help to alleviate diabetes or prediabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric data, and chilli food habit data collected from 8433 adults (aged 18 to 99), in 2009, as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a large-scale longitudinal, household-based survey in China. Chilli food habits were assessed using chilli food eating frequencies (no eating, sometimes eating, often eating, and usually eating) and chilli food types (a little bit hot, moderately hot, and very hot). Fasting serum ferritin, insulin, and fasting plasma glucose were also measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Compared with the chilli-eating group, the no eating group had higher HOMA-IR levels for both men and women (Pfood types. However, there was no significant difference in the ferritin level and HOMA-IR components for different chilli food eating frequencies in both sex groups. Chilli food habits, especially the different hotness levels of chilli food, were associated with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference.

  4. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

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    Amanda Oliva Gobato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032 and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006. All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01. In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance.

  5. Comparison of the Usefulness of the Updated Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) with the Original HOMA1 in the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Young Seok; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Park, Cheol-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background The original homeostasis model assessment (HOMA1) and the updated HOMA model (HOMA2) have been used to evaluate insulin resistance (IR) and ?-cell function, but little is known about the usefulness of HOMA2 for the prediction of diabetes in Koreans. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of HOMA2 as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Koreans without diabetes. Methods The study population consisted of 104,694 Koreans enrolled at a health checkup program and ...

  6. Comparison of the Usefulness of the Updated Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) with the Original HOMA1 in the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Young Seok Song; You-Cheol Hwang; Hong-Yup Ahn; Cheol-Young Park

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThe original homeostasis model assessment (HOMA1) and the updated HOMA model (HOMA2) have been used to evaluate insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell function, but little is known about the usefulness of HOMA2 for the prediction of diabetes in Koreans. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of HOMA2 as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Koreans without diabetes.MethodsThe study population consisted of 104,694 Koreans enrolled at a health checkup program and fol...

  7. Pengaruh pemberian ekstrak kedelai hitam (Glycine soja. berbagai dosis terhadap kadar glukosa darah, kadar insulin, dan HOMA-IR

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    Dewi M Kurniawati

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: There are differences on insulin levels and HOMA – IR in 500 and 750 mg/kgBW dosages groups. However, there is no difference on blood glucose before and after black soybean extract treatment. The most decreased levels of blood glucose, insulin and HOMA- IR were in 750mg/kgBW dosage.

  8. Longitudinal Changes in Insulin Resistance, Beta-Cell Function and Glucose Regulation Status in Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Hee; Bae, Sung-Jin; Choe, Jaewon; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2018-01-01

    The changes in insulin resistance and insulin secretion and their association with changes in glucose regulation status in Asians with prediabetes remain uncertain. We included Korean adults (aged 20-79 years) with prediabetes who underwent routine medical check-ups at a mean interval of 5 years. Prediabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 5.6-6.9mmol/l or HbA1c 5.7-6.4% (39-46mmol/mol). Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA-%B) indices were assessed by homeostasis model assessment. Incident diabetes was defined as FPG ≥ 7.0mmol/l, HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (48mmol/mol), or initiation of antidiabetic medications. Among the 7,208 participants with prediabetes, 4,410 (61.2%) remained as prediabetes (control group), 2,123 (29.5%) reverted to normal glucose regulation (regressors), and 675 (9.4%) progressed to type 2 diabetes (progressors) after 5 years. Compared with the control group, the progressors had higher baseline HOMA-IR (2.48 ± 1.45 versus 2.06 ± 1.20, P prediabetes, longitudinal change in insulin resistance was the predominant factor in Koreans. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement and Correlation of Indices of Insulin Resistance in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Morris, Kelli R; Deger, Serpil Muge; Hung, Adriana M; Egbert, Phyllis Ann; Ellis, Charles D; Graves, Amy; Shintani, Ayumi; Ikizler, T Alp

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is common in maintenance dialysis patients and is associated with excess mortality. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp (HEGC) is the gold standard for measuring IR. There are limited studies using HEGC for comparison to other indirect indices of IR in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, nor have there been direct comparisons between patients receiving PD and those on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) with regard to severity of IR, methods of measurement, or factors associated with the development of IR. ♦ This is a cross-sectional, single-center study performed in 10 prevalent PD patients of median age 48 years (range 41 - 54); 50% were female and 60% were African American. Insulin resistance was assessed by HEGC (glucose disposal rate [GDR]), homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), HOMA-IR corrected by adiponectin (HOMA-AD), leptin adiponectin ratio (LAR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), McAuley's index, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at each time point for a total of 18 studies. Retrospective analysis compared this cohort to 12 hemodialysis patients who had previously undergone similar testing. ♦ The median GDR was 6.4 mg/kg/min (interquartile range [IQR] 6.0, 7.8) in the PD cohort compared with the MHD group, which was 5.7 mg/kg/min (IQR 4.3, 6.6). For both the PD and MHD cohorts, the best predictors of GDR by HEGC after adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI), were HOMA-AD (PD: r = -0.69, p = 0.01; MHD: r = -0.78, p = 0.03) and LAR (PD: r = -0.68, p failed to have strong predictive value. Eight of 10 PD patients had at least 1 abnormal OGTT, demonstrating impaired glucose tolerance. ♦ Insulin resistance is highly prevalent in PD patients. The adipokine based formulas, HOMA-AD and LAR, correlated well in both the PD and MHD populations in predicting GDR by HEGC, outperforming HOMA-IR. The use of these novel markers could be considered for large-scale, epidemiological outcome

  10. Insulin Resistance Negatively Influences the Muscle-Dependent IGF-1-Bone Mass Relationship in Premenarcheal Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, J M; Pollock, N K; Laing, E M; Jenkins, N T; Oshri, A; Isales, C; Hamrick, M; Lewis, R D

    2016-01-01

    IGF-1 promotes bone growth directly and indirectly through its effects on skeletal muscle. Insulin and IGF-1 share a common cellular signaling process; thus, insulin resistance may influence the IGF-1-muscle-bone relationship. We sought to determine the effect of insulin resistance on the muscle-dependent relationship between IGF-1 and bone mass in premenarcheal girls. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a university research center involving 147 girls ages 9 to 11 years. Glucose, insulin, and IGF-1 were measured from fasting blood samples. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from glucose and insulin. Fat-free soft tissue (FFST) mass and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Our primary outcome was BMC/height. In our path model, IGF-1 predicted FFST mass (b = 0.018; P = .001), which in turn predicted BMC/height (b = 0.960; P IGF-1 predicted BMC/height (b = 0.001; P = .002), but not after accounting for the mediator of this relationship, FFST mass. The HOMA-IR by IGF-1 interaction negatively predicted FFST mass (b = -0.044; P = .034). HOMA-IR had a significant and negative effect on the muscle-dependent relationship between IGF-1 and BMC/height (b = -0.151; P = .047). Lean body mass is an important intermediary factor in the IGF-1-bone relationship. For this reason, bone development may be compromised indirectly via suboptimal IGF-1-dependent muscle development in insulin-resistant children.

  11. Light-intensity physical activity is associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women independent of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, Yuko; Murakami, Haruka; Kawakami, Ryoko; Tanaka, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2014-02-01

    It is unclear whether light physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance, similar to moderate and/or vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the relationship between the amount of light physical activity, as determined with a triaxial accelerometer, and insulin resistance. A total of 807 healthy men and women participated in this study. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer worn for 28 days and summarized as light intensity (1.1-2.9 METs) or moderate to vigorous intensity (≥ 3.0 METs). Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA_R (FPG [mg/dL] × IRI [μU/mL]/405). The daily time spent in light physical activity was inversely associated with HOMA_R (r = -0.173, P physical activity and HOMA_R remained statistically significant (β = -0.119, P physical activity remained significantly associated with HOMA_R following further adjustment for moderate to vigorous intensity activity (β = -0.125, P physical activity was modeled as quartiles, especially in elderly women. These cross-sectional data suggest that light-intensity physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women.

  12. The Cut-off Value of Blood Mercury Concentration in Relation to Insulin Resistance

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    Seok-Hoon Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Increased blood mercury concentration is associated with inflammation, and chronic inflammation can cause insulin resistance. We examined the cut-off value of blood mercury in relation to an increased score on the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Methods : We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010. Relevant data from 5,184 subjects (2,523 men and 2,661 women were analyzed cross-sectionally. General linear analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration. In addition, we determined the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased HOMA-IR score (> 2.34 using an ROC curve. Results : The mean value of blood mercury concentration in men and women was 5.88 μg/L and 4.11 μg/L, respectively. In men, comparing to the first quartile, HOMA-IR score increased significantly in the third and fourth blood mercury quartiles. In women, however, the increase in HOMA-IR score was not significant. The cut-off value that best represented the association between increased HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration in men was found to be 4.71 μg/L. Conclusion : Blood mercury concentration was associated with increased HOMA-IR score in men, and the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration that was correlated with increased HOMA-IR score was around 4.71 μg/L.

  13. Relationship between HOMA-IR and serum vitamin D in Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingli; Wang, Huiyan; Wen, Huaikai; Tao, Hongqun; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level in Chinese children and adolescents. Anthropometric indices, lipid metabolic profile, and serum levels of glucose, insulin and 25-OHD were determined among 278 healthy prepubertal and pubertal, normal and overweight/obese children and adolescents aged 8-18 years between March 2014 and February 2015. HOMA-IR was significantly different across vitamin D statuses (pHOMA-IR negatively correlated with serum 25-OHD level for all subjects (R2=0.148, pHOMA-IR and BMI and serum 25-OHD level (R2=0.654, pHOMA-IR. Our findings supported that lower vitamin D status is strongly associated with worse HOMA-IR.

  14. Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus Improves Insulin Resistance During and After Peginterferon and Ribavirin Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Cheng-Hung; Lin, Chih-Lang; Hu, Ching-Chih; Chang, Jia-Jang; Chien, Rong-Nan

    2015-12-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at a greater risk of developing insulin resistance (IR). However, little is known about when insulin sensitivity may improve during or after treatment for hepatitis C. In this study, we examined the effect of combination therapy with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin on IR in patients with chronic HCV infection. We also analyzed factors associated with changes in insulin sensitivity. IR was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). HOMA-IR was measured before therapy, during therapy (12 and 24 weeks), and at the end of therapy (EOT; 24 or 48 weeks). We analyzed 78 HCV patients receiving combination therapy. Twenty-two patients (28.2%) exhibited pretreatment IR (HOMA-IR >2.5). In all patients, HOMA-IR was not significantly different from baseline values at 12 weeks (P = 0.823), 24 weeks (P = 0.417), or at EOT (P = 0.158). In patients with pretreatment IR, a significant decrease in HOMA-IR was observed at 12 weeks (P = 0.023), 24 weeks (P = 0.008), and at EOT (P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model showed that baseline HOMA-IR is the only factor associated with the decline in HOMA-IR during and after therapy. The eradication of HCV infection was associated with improved insulin sensitivity among patients with pretreatment IR. This significant improvement in insulin sensitivity may occur as early as 12 weeks after the initiation of antiviral therapy.

  15. Ancestral effect on HOMA-IR levels quantitated in an American population of Mexican origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hui-Qi; Li, Quan; Lu, Yang; Hanis, Craig L; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2012-12-01

    An elevated insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) is more commonly seen in the Mexican American population than in European populations. We report quantitative ancestral effects within a Mexican American population, and we correlate ancestral components with HOMA-IR. We performed ancestral analysis in 1,551 participants of the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort by genotyping 103 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs). These AIMs allow determination of the percentage (0-100%) ancestry from three major continental populations, i.e., European, African, and Amerindian. We observed that predominantly Amerindian ancestral components were associated with increased HOMA-IR (β = 0.124, P = 1.64 × 10(-7)). The correlation was more significant in males (Amerindian β = 0.165, P = 5.08 × 10(-7)) than in females (Amerindian β = 0.079, P = 0.019). This unique study design demonstrates how genomic markers for quantitative ancestral information can be used in admixed populations to predict phenotypic traits such as insulin resistance.

  16. Childhood craniopharyngioma: greater hypothalamic involvement before surgery is associated with higher homeostasis model insulin resistance index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainte-Rose Christian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity seems to be linked to the hypothalamic involvement in craniopharyngioma. We evaluated the pre-surgery relationship between the degree of this involvement on magnetic resonance imaging and insulin resistance, as evaluated by the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA. As insulin-like growth factor 1, leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R and ghrelin may also be involved, we compared their plasma concentrations and their link to weight change. Methods 27 children with craniopharyngioma were classified as either grade 0 (n = 7, no hypothalamic involvement, grade 1 (n = 8, compression without involvement, or grade 2 (n = 12, severe involvement. Results Despite having similar body mass indexes (BMI, the grade 2 patients had higher glucose, insulin and HOMA before surgery than the grade 0 (P = 0.02, The data for the whole population before and 6–18 months after surgery showed increases in BMI (P Conclusion The hypothalamic involvement by the craniopharyngioma before surgery seems to determine the degree of insulin resistance, regardless of the BMI. The pre-surgery HOMA values were correlated with the post-surgery weight gain. This suggests that obesity should be prevented by reducing inn secretion in those cases with hypothalamic involvement.

  17. Optimal cut-off values for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and pre-diabetes screening: Developments in research and prospects for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Xueqin; Song, Peipei; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) appears to be increasing rapidly, threatening to reduce life expectancy for humans around the globe. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has estimated that there will be 642 million people living with the disease by 2040 and half as many again who will be not diagnosed. This means that pre-DM screening is a critical issue. Insulin resistance (IR) has emerged as a major pathophysiological factor in the development and progression of DM since it is evident in susceptible individuals at the early stages of DM, and particularly type 2 DM (T2DM). Therefore, assessment of IR via the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) is a key index for the primary prevention of DM and is thus found in guidelines for screening of high-risk groups. However, the cut-off values of HOMA-IR differ for different races, ages, genders, diseases, complications, etc. due to the complexity of IR. This hampers the determination of specific cut-off values of HOMA-IR in different places and in different situations. China has not published an official index to gauge IR for primary prevention of T2DM in the diabetic and non-diabetic population except for children and adolescents ages 6-12 years. Hence, this article summarizes developments in research on IR, HOMA-IR, and pre-DM screening in order to provide a reference for optimal cut-off values of HOMA-IR for the diagnosis of DM in the Chinese population.

  18. Six months training alone or combined with diet alters HOMA-AD, HOMA-IR and plasma and adipose tissue adiponectin in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdar, Nadia; Denguezli, Myriam; Zaouali, Monia; Zbidi, Abdelkrim; Tabka, Zouhair; Bouassida, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of 6 months aerobic training alone or in combination with diet on adiponectin in circulation and in adipose abdominal tissue (AT) in obese women. Twenty obese subjects were randomized into a 24 weeks intervention: 1) training (TR) and 2) training and diet (TRD). Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 12 wk and 24 wk. AT biopsies were obtained only at baseline and after 24 wk. In the TRD group the fat loss was after 12 wk -13.74% (pHOMA-IR and HOMA-AD for assessing insulin resistance were strongly affected by protocols. HOMA-IR decreased (pHOMA-AD increased in both groups after 12 (pHOMA-IR.

  19. FOXC2 mRNA Expression and a 5' untranslated region polymorphism of the gene are associated with insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridderstråle, Martin; Carlsson, Emma; Klannemark, Mia

    2002-01-01

    with subcutaneous fat from obese subjects (12 +/- 4-fold; P = 0.0001), and there was a correlation between whole-body insulin sensitivity and FOXC2 mRNA levels in visceral fat (fS-insulin R = -0.64, P = 0.01, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] R = -0.68, P = 0.007) and skeletal muscle...... (fS-insulin R = -0.57, P = 0.03, and HOMA-IR R = -0.55, P = 0.04). Mutation screening of the FOXC2 gene identified a common polymorphism in the 5' untranslated region (C-512T). The T allele was associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR P = 0.007) and lower plasma triglyceride levels...

  20. Alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase ratio is the best surrogate marker for insulin resistance in non-obese Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamoto Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to examine how liver markers are associated with insulin resistance in Japanese community-dwelling adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 587 men aged 58 ± 14 (mean ± standard deviation; range, 20–89 years and 755 women aged 60 ± 12 (range, 21–88 years. The study sample consisted of 998 (74.4% non-obese [body mass index (BMI 2] and 344 (25.6% overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 subjects. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR of at least 2.5, and HOMA-IR and potential confounders were compared between the groups. Areas under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC were used to compare the power of these serum markers. Results In non-obese subjects, the best marker of insulin resistance was alanine aminotransferase (ALT/aspartate aminotransferase (AST ratio of 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.63-0.77. In overweight subjects, AUC values for the ALT/AST ratio and ALT were 0.66 (0.59-0.72 and 0.66 (0.59-0.72, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses for HOMA-IR showed that ALT/AST ratios were independently and significantly associated with HOMA-IR as well as other confounding factors in both non-obese and overweight subjects. The optimal cut-off point to identifying insulin resistance for these markers yielded the following values: ALT/AST ratio of ≥0.82 in non-obese subjects and ≥1.02 in overweight subjects. In non-obese subjects, the positive likelihood ratio was greatest for ALT/AST ratio. Conclusions In non-obese Japanese adults, ALT/AST ratio may be the best reliable marker of insulin resistance.

  1. The Associations Between Increasing Degrees of HOMA-IR and Measurements of Adiposity Among Euglycemic U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, William R; Johnson, Tammie M; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael R; Churilla, James R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between increasing degrees of insulin resistance (using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and two measures of adiposity in a nationally representative sample of euglycemic U.S. adults. Sample included adult participants (≥ 20 years of age) [N = 1586 (body mass index, BMI model), N = 1577 (waist circumference, WC model)] from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). HOMA-IR was categorized into quartiles. BMI and WC were examined continuously as the dependent variables. Following adjustment for covariates, those with HOMA-IR values in the second, third, and fourth quartiles had significantly higher BMIs (P HOMA-IR (P HOMA-IR and BMI (R(2) = 0.4171, P HOMA-IR and WC (R(2) = 0.4826, P HOMA-IR value is associated with higher BMI and WC values in euglycemic subjects.

  2. A higher score on the Aging Males' Symptoms scale is associated with insulin resistance in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanoue, Nobuya; Tanabe, Makito; Tanaka, Tomoko; Akehi, Yuko; Murakami, Junji; Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2017-05-30

    An age-associated androgen decrease and its pathological conditions are defined as late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Among the various symptoms associated with LOH, a visceral fat increase is strongly associated with relatively low levels of testosterone. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scores and metabolic abnormalities. Thus, we aimed to clarify this relationship by investigating the relationship between AMS scores and various markers in blood. During routine health examinations in 241 middle-aged males (52.7±7.5 years of age, mean±SD), 150 males (62.2%) displayed higher AMS values than normal. No statistical association was observed between total AMS scores and any testosterone value. All mental, physical and sexual AMS subscales were significantly positively correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Only sexual subscale scores were significantly inversely associated with free or bioavailable testosterone level. Males with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR≥2.5) demonstrated significantly higher AMS scores than those with normal insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IRinsulin and HOMA-IR values. Interestingly, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that HOMA-IR≥2.5 was a significant predictor for detection of moderately severe AMS values (AMS≥37), whereas AMS≥37 was not a predictor of metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criterion. In conclusion, almost 60% of healthy male subjects displayed abnormal AMS scores. AMS values were not associated with testosterone values but rather were related to insulin resistance, particularly in subjects with moderately severe AMS values. Insulin resistance-related general unwellness might be reflected by AMS values.

  3. Effect of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on insulin resistance in pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Z; Samimi, M; Tabassi, Z; Naghibi Rad, M; Rahimi Foroushani, A; Khorammian, H; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2013-01-01

    Owing to excess body weight and increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines primarily during the third trimester, pregnancy is associated with elevated insulin resistance. To our knowledge, no report is available indicating the effects of probiotic yoghurt consumption on serum insulin levels in pregnant women. This study was designed to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on insulin resistance and serum insulin levels of Iranian pregnant women. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 70 primigravida pregnant women with singleton pregnancy at their third trimester were participated. We randomly assigned participants to consume 200 g per day of conventional (n=33) or the probiotic group (n=37) for 9 weeks. The probiotic yoghurt was a commercially available product prepared with the starter cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, enriched with probiotic culture of two strains of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium animalis BB12) with a total of min 1 × 10⁷ colony-forming units. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 9-week intervention to measure fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin levels. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance score. Although consumption of probiotic yogurt for 9 weeks did not affect serum insulin levels and HOMA-IR score, significant differences were found comparing changes in these variables between probiotic and conventional yogurts (changes from baseline in serum insulin levels: +1.2±1.2 vs +5.0±1.1 μIU/ml, respectively, P=0.02; and in HOMA-IR score: -0.2±0.3 vs 0.7±0.2, respectively, P=0.01). It is concluded that in contrast to conventional yogurt, daily consumption of probiotic yogurt for 9 weeks maintains serum insulin levels and might help pregnant women prevent developing insulin resistance.

  4. Association of insulin resistance and coronary artery remodeling: an intravascular ultrasound study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Moon, Jae-Youn; Lim, Yeong Min; Kim, Kyung Ho; Yang, Woo-In; Sung, Jung-Hoon; Yoo, Seung Min; Kim, In Jai; Lim, Sang-Wook; Cha, Dong-Hun; Cho, Seung-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few studies that investigated the correlation between insulin resistance (IR) and the coronary artery remodeling. The aim of the study is to investigate the association of IR measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and coronary artery remodeling evaluated by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods A total of 298 consecutive patients who received percutaneous coronary interventions under IVUS guidance were retrospectively enrolled. The val...

  5. Utilidad del índice HOMA-IR con una sola determinación de insulinemia para diagnosticar resistencia insulínica Usefulness of HOMA-IR index with an only insulinemia determination to diagnose an insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arturo Hernández Yero

    2011-08-01

    . Conclusiones: una sola determinación de insulinemia para estudiar el HOMA-IR es de utilidad en la práctica diaria, aunque resulta de mucha mayor precisión aplicar la fórmula original para una mejor reproducibilidad.Introduction: HOMA-IR index is a simple and not much invasive procedure allowing by a validated and well established formula to specify exactly a value expression of insulin resistance. To estimate the HOMA-IR index with an only numerical value of insulinemia could to present a greater variability, something that could be solved with at least the mean of three insulinemias, according to original formula. En some studies it is habitual to perform it with a single insulinemia determination. Thus, we conducted a study in patients presenting type 2 diabetes and to compare the results as regards the sensitivity and specificity with a single blood determination for insulinemia and glycemia. Objectives: to assess the sensitivity and specificity of each of insulinemia determinations performed each 5 min versus the mean of these determinations during the application of formula for HOMA-IR index. Methods: sixty patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes attended in the Center for Diabetic Care of La Habana were studied. They had a diabetes course time lower than 5 years as average with predominance of body excess weight recruited during 6 months in a consecutive way and the carrying out of fasting insulinemias and glycemias determinations by trocar and venous blood extraction at 0,5 and 10 min for a calculation of Mathews's hemostatic model known as HOMA-IR. Results: a 88,3 % had a HOMA-IR greater than 3,2. The sensitivity of a single sample of insulinemia, although high to confirm the insulin resistance diagnosis, it is variable and specificity of one of samples was low with a 14%. There is an appropriate concordance among the positive predictor values with sensitivity and the negative predictive values with the test specificity. Conclusions: a single insulinemia

  6. Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jina Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeGonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa is used as a therapeutic agent for central precocious puberty (CPP; however, increased obesity may subsequently occur. This study compared body mass index (BMI and insulin resistance during the first year of GnRHa treatment for CPP.MethodsPatient group included 83 girls (aged 7.0–8.9 years with developed breasts and a peak luteinizing hormone level of ≥5 IU/L after GnRH stimulation. Control group included 48 prepubertal girls. BMI and insulin resistance-related indices (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI] were used to compare the groups before treatment, and among the patient group before and after GnRHa treatment.ResultsNo statistical difference in BMI z-score was detected between the 2 groups before treatment. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were increased in the patient group; fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio and QUICKI were increased in the control group (all P<0.001. In normal-weight subjects in the patient group, BMI z-score was significantly increased during GnRHa treatment (−0.1±0.7 vs. 0.1±0.8, P<0.001, whereas HOMA-IR and QUICKI exhibited no differences. In overweight subjects in the patient group; BMI z-score and HOMA-IR were not significantly different, whereas QUICKI was significantly decreased during GnRHa treatment (0.35±0.03 vs. 0.33±0.02, P=0.044.ConclusionGirls with CPP exhibited increased insulin resistance compared to the control group. During GnRHa treatment, normal-weight individuals showed increased BMI z-scores without increased insulin resistance; the overweight group demonstrated increased insulin resistance without significantly altered BMI z-scores. Long-term follow-up of BMI and insulin resistance changes in patients with CPP is required.

  7. The impact of parental history of type 2 diabetes on hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in subjects from central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Negrete, Ana Paula; Porchia, Leonardo M; Gonzalez-Mejia, M Elba; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Solis-Cano, Dania G; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are both associated with the development of Type 2 Diabetes and other pathologies; however, the influence of parental history of Type 2 diabetes (PH-T2D) has yet to be investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of PH-T2D has on the risk of developing hyperinsulinemia and IR. 1092 subjects (703 non-pregnant females and 389 males) were enrolled for a cross-sectional study. Clinical and biochemical parameters were collected. Subjects were allocated according to their PH-T2D: no parents, one parent, or both parents. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA1 equation (HOMA1-IR). Logistic regression was used to determine the association (odds ratio) between PH-T2D and hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance. Increasing degrees of PH-T2D were associated with significant increases in fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and HOMA1-IR (p insulin resistance (odds ratio=1.47, 95%CI: 1.08-2.00 and odds ratio=1.77, 95%CI: 1.09-2.87, respectively), when adjusting for age, sex, BMI, fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides. The presences of PH-T2D significantly increased the risk of developing hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mid-gestational serum uric acid concentration effect on neonate birth weight and insulin resistance in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri, Khadijeh; Razavi, Maryamsadat; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Reza; Mashhadi, Esmat; Chehrei, Ali; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between mid-gestational serum uric acid and birth weight in diabetic pregnant women with or without insulin resistance. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, fasting uric acid, blood glucose, and serum insulin were measured in 247 pregnant women between 20-22 weeks of gestational period. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Stratification analysis and independent t-test was used to ass...

  9. Prevalence and predictors of overweight and insulin resistance in offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerschmann, Heike; Pflüger, Maren; Henneberger, Lydia; Ziegler, Anette-G; Hummel, Sandra

    2010-08-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with high birth weight in the offspring. This may lead to overweight and insulin resistance during childhood. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of GDM on overweight risk and insulin resistance in offspring. BMI measurements were collected at age 2, 8, and 11 years from 232 offspring of mothers with GDM (OGDM) and compared with those from 757 offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes (OT1D) and 431 offspring of nondiabetic mothers (ONDM) born between 1989 and 2000. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) was determined at age 8 and 11 years in 751 children (74 OGDM). Overweight was defined as BMI percentile >or=90; insulin resistance was defined by HOMA-IR. Overweight prevalence was increased in OGDM compared with OT1D and to ONDM throughout childhood (age 11 years 31.1, 15.8, and 15.5%; P = 0.005). Maternal obesity was an important predictor of overweight risk in children (age 11 years odds ratio 7.0 [95% CI 1.8-27.7]; P = 0.006); birth size and maternal smoking during pregnancy were inconsistently associated with and treatment of GDM during pregnancy did not affect overweight risk. HOMA-IR was increased in OGDM compared with offspring of ONDM mothers (P = 0.01, adjusted for sex and age) and was associated with the child's BMI (P = 0.004). Overweight and insulin resistance in children is increased in OGDM compared with OT1D or ONDM. The finding that overweight risk is associated mainly with maternal obesity suggests that familial predisposition contributes to childhood growth in these offspring.

  10. Insulin resistance in Chileans of European and indigenous descent: evidence for an ethnicity x environment interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Celis-Morales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban, adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant "ethnicity x environment" interaction for HOMA(IR (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p((interaction = 0.0003, such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMA(IR was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004 with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMA(IR, with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance.

  11. Insulin resistance in young adults born small for gestational age (SGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzker, Stephanie; Bechtold-Dalla Pozza, Susanne; Kugler, Karl; Schwarz, Hans P; Bonfig, Walter

    2014-03-01

    This work aimed to assess glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in young adults born small for gestational age (SGA) as well as to measure the body composition and adipocytokines of these subjects. A total of 108 out of 342 SGA-born participants were invited for reexamination from the former Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS), in which 7505 risk-newborns of the years 1985 to 1986 were prospectively followed. Of these, 76 (34 female/42 male) participants at the age of 19.7±0.5 years were enrolled. Clinical examination and oral glucose tolerance testing (oGTT) was performed with assessment of insulin resistance indices, HbA1c, body mass index (BMI), adipocytokines, and body composition by bioimpedance analysis (BIA). A total of 25 out of 76 (32.9%) patients had abnormal fasting and/or glucose-stimulated insulin levels. Glucose values measured during oGTT showed no abnormalities, except one participant who had impaired glucose tolerance. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was 1.92±4.2, and insulin sensitivity index by Matsuda (ISI(Matsuda)) showed mean values of 7.85±4.49. HOMA-IR>2.5 was found in 8 patients (10.5%), and 20 patients (26.3%) had an ISI(Matsuda)range for both genders and correlated significantly with BMI (r=0.465, p0.001), but not with adiponectin. Insulin resistance correlated with change in weight-for-height Z-score during the first 3 months of age, indicating that weight gain during that early phase might be a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance in children born SGA. A high percentage of insulin-resistant subjects were reconfirmed in a large German cohort of young adults born SGA. Therefore, regular screening for disturbances in glucose metabolism is recommended in these subjects.

  12. Insulin resistance in Chileans of European and indigenous descent: evidence for an ethnicity x environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Ibañes, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Hormazabal, Edison; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Bailey, Mark E S; Gill, Jason M R

    2011-01-01

    Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban), adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry), cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant "ethnicity x environment" interaction for HOMA(IR) (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p((interaction)) = 0.0003), such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMA(IR) was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all pMapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance.

  13. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin is associated with insulin resistance, but not adiponectin, during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichomkwun, Panudda; Houngngam, Natnicha; Pasatrat, Sophitsachi; Tharavanij, Thipaporn; Wattanachanya, Lalita; Khovidhunkit, Weerapan

    2016-07-01

    In mice, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity through adiponectin. In humans, levels of total osteocalcin (OC) and ucOC were negatively correlated with insulin resistance (IR) indices in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether ucOC plays a role in glucose homeostasis and whether its effect is mediated through adiponectin during pregnancy is unclear. Serum levels of total OC, ucOC, and adiponectin were measured in 130 pregnant women with varying degrees of IR [gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), n = 74 and non-GDM, n = 56]. In all participants, total OC and ucOC levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR and HOMA-%B, and negatively correlated with QUICKI. In contrast, adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and positively correlated with QUICKI (P insulin secretion and IR indices, but not adiponectin levels, in pregnant women. Changes in OC might be a sensitive response to increased IR during pregnancy, which was not mediated through adiponectin.

  14. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R(2)=0.751, Pinsulin resistance.

  15. Status of serum adiponectin related to insulin resistance in prediabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, S.; Ahmed, S.D.H.; Nauman, K

    2014-01-01

    Obejctive: To find the status of serum adiponectin in individuals progressing towards Type 2 diabetes mellitus and compare it with normal glucose tolerant subjects to determine the stage where alteration of adiponectin occurred. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, during January to August 2008. Subjects were invited through various diabetes screening camps. A total of 608 subjects >30 years of age without prior history of diabetes were screened through fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Forty randomly selected pre-diabetic subjects and 40 age and gender-matched subjects were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements were done. Serum insulin and adiponectin were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance mathematically. Result: Mean fasting and two-hour plasma glucose, body mass index, waist, hip circumference and blood pressure were significantly raised in pre-diabetics compared to those with normal glucose tolerance. Adiponectin was significantly decreased, while insulin and HOMA-IR were raised significantly in the pre-diabetics. Adiponectin showed significant negative correlation with body mass index (r=-0.31, p=0.005), fasting plasma glucose (r=-0.24, p= 0.032), 2-hour plasma glucose (r=-0.42, p<0.0001)), insulin (r-0.43, p<0.0001) and HOMA-IR (r= -0.43, p<0.0001) and remained significant after adjustment of body mass index, gender and insulin level in pre-diabetics. Conclusion: Adiponectin estimation may help in earlier identification of impending diabetes. However, casual link between adiponectin and pre-diabetes remained unexplored due to the study design and small sample size that warrants longitudinal large-scale studies. (author)

  16. Insulin resistance change and antiretroviral therapy exposure in HIV-infected and uninfected Rwandan women: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimura, Eugene; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Dusingize, Jean Claude; Sinayobye, Jean D'Amour; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    We longitudinally assessed predictors of insulin resistance (IR) change among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected (ART-initiators and ART-non-initiators) Rwandan women. HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women provided demographic and clinical measures: age, body mass index (BMI) in Kg/(height in meters)2, Fat-Mass (FMI) and Fat-Free-Mass (FFMI) index, fasting serum glucose and insulin. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) was calculated to estimate IR change over time in log10 transformed HOMA measured at study enrollment or prior to ART initiation in 3 groups: HIV- (n = 194), HIV+ ART-non-initiators (n=95) and HIV+ ART-initiators (n=371). ANCOVA linear regression models of change in log10-HOMA were fit with all models included the first log10 HOMA as a predictor. Mean±SD log10-HOMA was -0.18±0.39 at the 1st and -0.21±0.41 at the 2nd measure, with mean change of 0.03±0.44. In the final model (all women) BMI at 1st HOMA measure (0.014; 95% CI=0.006-0.021 per kg/m2; pchange in BMI from 1st to 2nd measure (0.024; 95% CI=0.013-0.035 per kg/m2; pchange. When restricted to subjects with FMI measures, FMI at 1st HOMA measure (0.020; 95% CI=0.010-0.030 per kg/m2; pchange in FMI from 1st to 2nd measure (0.032; 95% CI=0.020-0.043 per kg/m2; pchange in HOMA. While ART use did not predict change in log10-HOMA, untreated HIV+ women had a significant decline in IR over time. Use or duration of AZT, d4T and EFV was not associated with HOMA change in HIV+ women. Baseline BMI and change in BMI, and in particular fat mass and change in fat mass predicted insulin resistance change over ~3 years in HIV-infected and uninfected Rwandan women. Exposure to specific ART (d4T, AZT, EFV) did not predict insulin resistance change in ART-treated HIV-infected Rwandan women.

  17. Association of Insulin Resistance With Cerebral Glucose Uptake in Late Middle-Aged Adults at Risk for Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Auriel A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Starks, Erika J; Birdsill, Alex C; Johnson, Sterling C; Christian, Bradley T; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce P; Koscik, Rebecca L; Jonaitis, Erin M; Sager, Mark A; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) involves insulin signaling impairment. Patients with AD and individuals at risk for AD show reduced glucose metabolism, as indexed by fludeoxyglucose F 18-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). To determine whether insulin resistance predicts AD-like global and regional glucose metabolism deficits in late middle-aged participants at risk for AD and to examine whether insulin resistance-predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism is associated with worse cognitive performance. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 150 cognitively normal, late middle-aged (mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.8] years) adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) study, a general community sample enriched for AD parental history. Participants underwent cognitive testing, fasting blood draw, and FDG-PET at baseline. We used the homeostatic model assessment of peripheral insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Regression analysis tested the statistical effect of HOMA-IR on global glucose metabolism. We used a voxelwise analysis to determine whether HOMA-IR predicted regional glucose metabolism. Finally, predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism was regressed against cognitive factors. Covariates included age, sex, body mass index, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, AD parental history status, and a reference region used to normalize regional uptake. Regional glucose uptake determined using FDG-PET and neuropsychological factors. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower global glucose metabolism (β = -0.29; P factor scores. Our results show that insulin resistance, a prevalent and increasingly common condition in developed countries, is associated with significantly lower regional cerebral glucose metabolism, which in turn may predict worse memory performance. Midlife may be a critical period for initiating treatments to lower peripheral insulin resistance to maintain neural metabolism

  18. Correlation of insulin resistance with serum C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yangqiang; Wang Zuobing; Yu Hui

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin (APN), leptin (Leptin) levels, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) disease susceptibility. Methods: The plasma leptin and insulin (FINS) levels in the DM patients were determined by RIA, and the serum ANP levels were determined by ELSIA. The CRP, conventional serum fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were determine by automatic biochemistry analyzer. The insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, FPG x FINS/22.5) was calculated. The result was analyzed with normal healthy control group. Results: The serum CRP and leptin, HOMA-IR levels in T2DM group were significantly higher than that of in control group (P< 0.01), and the serum ANP was significantly lower than in control group (P<0.01). The HOMA-IR in T2DM was positively correlated with serum CRP (r= 0.36, P<0.05) and leptin(r= 0.39, P<0.05), and was negatively correlated with serum APN (r=0.32, P<0.05). Conclusion: The high serum CRP and leptin and low APN levels hyperlipidaemia might be factors for diabetes, and their metabolic disorders may be closely related with insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. (authors)

  19. Effect of rosiglitazone on insulin resistance, growth factors, and reproductive disturbances in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Susana H; Graffigna, Mabel N; Oneto, Adriana; Otero, Patricia; Schurman, Leon; Levalle, Oscar A

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of rosiglitazone on insulin resistance, growth factors, and reproductive disturbances in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective study. Women with PCOS attending as outpatients of the Endocrine Division, Hospital Durand, Buenos Aires. Twenty-four insulin-resistant women with PCOS. Hormonal evaluations and a standardized oral glucose tolerance test before and after a 3-month trial of 4 mg of rosiglitazone daily. Serum LH, FSH, T, IGF-1, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, leptin, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, insulin, and glucose concentrations. The area under insulin curve (AUC-insulin), the HOMA index (insulin resistance), the QUICKI index (insulin sensitivity), and the beta-cell function were calculated. Body mass index (BMI) and the waist/hip ratio were evaluated. A significant decrease was observed in serum fasting insulin, AUC insulin, HOMA index, beta-cell function, IGF-1, LH, and waist/hip ratio. The QUICKI index and IGFBP-1 increased significantly. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin, androgens, leptin, IGFBP-3, and BMI remained unchanged. Twenty-two of 23 females had their menses restored, and three patients became pregnant. One patient was excluded because she became pregnant at the second month. Associated with the decrease in LH, rosiglitazone improved insulin-resistance parameters and normalized the menstrual cycle, which suggests that this drug could improve the endocrine-reproductive condition in insulin-resistant women with PCOS.

  20. Sex differences in the association between dietary restraint, insulin resistance and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Gaiser, Edward C; Gu, Peihua; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-04-01

    Restrained food consumption may alter metabolic function and contribute to eventual weight gain; however, sex differences in these relationships have not been assessed. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between restrained eating and insulin resistance and the influence of body mass index and sex on this relationship in a large community sample of both men and women. We hypothesized that restrained eating would be related to insulin resistance and this relationship would be influenced by sex and body mass index. In this cross-sectional, observational study, we studied 487 individuals from the community (men N = 222, women N = 265), who ranged from lean (body mass index 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2), N = 173), overweight (body mass index 25-29.9 kg/m(2), N = 159) to obese (body mass index >30 kg/m(2), N = 155) weight categories. We assessed restrained eating using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire and obtained fasting morning plasma insulin and glucose on all subjects. In men, but not in women, restrained eating was related to homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, HOMA-IR was significantly higher in men who were high- versus low-restrained eaters (p = 0.0006). This study is the first to report sex differences with regard to the relationship between restrained eating and insulin resistance. Our results suggest that high restrained eating is associated with insulin resistance in men but not in women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Retinol binding protein 4, obesity, and insulin resistance in adolescents

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    Ronaldi Noor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a global problem. Even in poor and developing countries, obesity has reached alarming levels. In childhood, obesity may lead to insulin resistance. Retinol binding protein (RBP4, secreted primarily by liver and adipose tissues, was recently proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. The role of RBP4 in pediatric obesity and its relationship with insulin resistance have not been well elucidated. Objective To compare RBP4 levels in obese and lean adolescents and to assess for a relationship between RBP4 levels and insulin resistance. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in three senior high schools in Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Subjects were adolescents aged 14-18 years, who were obese or normal weight (n=56. We measured subjects’ body mass index (BMI and serum RBP4 concentrations. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index. Results Similar RBP4 levels were found in the obese and normoweight groups (P>0.05. Higher RBP4 levels were found in the insulin resistant compared to the non-insulin resistant group, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion There is no significant difference in mean RBP4 levels in obese adolescents compared to normoweight adolescents. Nor are mean RBP4 levels significantly different between obese adolescents with and without insulin resistance.

  2. The effect of different doses of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance during pregnancy.

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    Soheilykhah, Sedigheh; Mojibian, Mahdieh; Moghadam, Maryam Jannati; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Low serum vitamin D levels are correlated with insulin resistance during pregnancy. We have assessed the effects of different doses of vitamin D on insulin resistance during pregnancy. A randomized clinical trial was done on 120 women with a gestational age of less than 12 weeks. The women were divided into three groups randomly. Group A received 200 IU vitamin D daily, group B 50,000 IU vitamin D monthly and group C 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks from 12 weeks of pregnancy until delivery. The serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured before and after intervention. We used the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. The mean ± standard deviation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased in group C from 7.3 ± 5.9 to 34.1 ± 11.5 ng/ml and in group B it increased from 7.3 ± 5.3 to 27.23 ± 10.7 ng/ml, but the level of vitamin D in group A increased from 8.3 ± 7.8 to 17.7 ± 9.3 ng/ml (p insulin and HOMA-IR before and after intervention in groups A and C were significant (p = 0.01, p = 0.02). This study has shown that supplementation of pregnant women with 50 000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks improved insulin resistance significantly.

  3. [HOMA-IR in patients with chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botshorishvili, T; Vashakidze, E

    2012-02-01

    The aim of investigation was to study the frequency of IR in type of viral hepatitis C, correlation with the degree of hepatic lesion and liver cirrhosis. 130 patients were investigated: 20 with acute hepatitis C; 38 with chronic hepatitis C; 72 with cirrhosis: among them 10 with Stage A, 14 with Stage B and 48 with Stage C. Also we used 30 healthy people as the controls. The study demonstrates significant changes of insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR type of viral hepatitis C, correlation with the degree of hepatic lesion and liver cirrhosis. In patients with liver cirrhosis levels of HOMA-IR is higher than in patients with chronic hepatitis C. In patients with acute hepatitis C levels of HOMA-IR was normal as in the control group. The results showed that various types of chronic viral hepatitis C and stages of cirrhosis set to increase HOMA-IR versus the controls., which were the most prominent in cases of severe hepatic lesion, which indicates that insulin resistance is a frequent companion of CHC.

  4. Insulin resistance and bone strength: findings from the study of midlife in the United States.

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    Srikanthan, Preethi; Crandall, Carolyn J; Miller-Martinez, Dana; Seeman, Teresa E; Greendale, Gail A; Binkley, Neil; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2014-04-01

    Although several studies have noted increased fracture risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this association are not known. We hypothesize that insulin resistance (the key pathology in T2DM) negatively influences bone remodeling and leads to reduced bone strength. Data for this study came from 717 participants in the Biomarker Project of the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS II). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting morning blood glucose and insulin levels. Projected 2D (areal) bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the lumbar spine and left hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Femoral neck axis length and width were measured from the hip DXA scans, and combined with BMD and body weight and height to create composite indices of femoral neck strength relative to load in three different failure modes: compression, bending, and impact. We used multiple linear regressions to examine the relationship between HOMA-IR and bone strength, adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, menopausal transition stage (in women), and study site. Greater HOMA-IR was associated with lower values of all three composite indices of femoral neck strength relative to load, but was not associated with BMD in the femoral neck. Every doubling of HOMA-IR was associated with a 0.34 to 0.40 SD decrement in the strength indices (p<0.001). On their own, higher levels of fasting insulin (but not of glucose) were independently associated with lower bone strength. Our study confirms that greater insulin resistance is related to lower femoral neck strength relative to load. Further, we note that hyperinsulinemia, rather than hyperglycemia, underlies this relationship. Although cross-sectional associations do not prove causality, our findings do suggest that insulin resistance and in particular, hyperinsulinemia, may negatively affect bone strength relative to

  5. Identifying metabolic syndrome in African American children using fasting HOMA-IR in place of glucose.

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    Sharma, Sushma; Lustig, Robert H; Fleming, Sharon E

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing among young people. We compared the use of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with the use of fasting blood glucose to identify MetS in African American children. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from a sample of 105 children (45 boys, 60 girls) aged 9 to 13 years with body mass indexes at or above the 85th percentile for age and sex. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured. We found that HOMA-IR is a stronger indicator of MetS in children than blood glucose. Using HOMA-IR as 1 of the 5 components, we found a 38% prevalence of MetS in this sample of African American children and the proportion of false negatives decreased from 94% with blood glucose alone to 13% with HOMA-IR. The prevalence of MetS was higher in obese than overweight children and higher among girls than boys. Using HOMA-IR was preferred to fasting blood glucose because insulin resistance was more significantly interrelated with the other 4 MetS components.

  6. Adiposity and Insulin Resistance in Children from a Rural Community in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Cortes, Lourdes; Villasis-Keever, Miguel Angel; Del Prado-Manriquez, Martha; Lopez-Alarcon, Mardia

    2015-04-01

    The study of the incidence of overweight and obesity as well as body composition and insulin resistance in children from rural communities is scarce. The aims of the study were a) to characterize the adiposity and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in school-age children from a rural community and b) to determine factors associated with fat mass and HOMA-IR in this population. A total of 41 school-aged children (15 males and 26 females; 9.9 ± 2.5 years old) from a Mexican rural community was studied. Trained observers had previously assessed the children's nutritional status during the first 6 months of life. Anthropometry, energy intake, physical activity, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 7.3%. The mean energy intake of children was below international recommendations (1,235 ± 400 kcal/day). A higher percentage of fat mass was observed in females (20.3 ± 8.5) than in males (14.1 ± 5.1) (p = 0.006). There were seven children with IR, but we did not observe a correlation between HOMA and BMI percentiles (Pearson's r = 0.09, p = 0.57). In a regression model, gender (females) was the primary factor associated with the percentage of fat mass. The growth velocity during the first 6 months of life was associated with HOMA-IR. There is a low frequency of overweight and obesity in children from rural communities in Mexico. However, these children appear to have increased risk of adiposity and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR in the differentiation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy individuals Índice de resistência insulínica (HOMA-IR na diferenciação entre pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica e indivíduos saudáveis

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    Ana Lúcia Farias de Azevedo Salgado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Due to its good correlation to glycemic clamp, HOMA-IR has been widely utilized as insulin resistance index in clinical and epidemiological studies involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers. However, values used for this parameter have shown large variability. OBJECTIVE: To identify the HOMA-IR cut value that best distinguishes non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients from a control group. METHODS: One hundred sixteen non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were studied, diagnosed by clinical, biochemical, and liver image or biopsy criteria, and 88 healthy individuals, without any liver disease and testing for oral glucose tolerance within normality. These groups did not differ in age and gender. All were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test and blood samples were collected for glucose and insulin measurements by immunofluorometric method. HOMA-IR was calculated according to the formula: fasting insulin (µU/L x fasting glucose (nmol/L/22.5. RESULTS: NAFLD patients showed higher insulin, glycemia, and HOMA-IR values than control group, even when excluding glucose intolerant and diabetes mellitus patients by their glycemic curves. HOMA-IR 75th percentile for control group was 1.78 and the best area under the curve index was obtained for HOMA-IR values of 2.0 [AUC= 0.840 (0.781-0.899 CI 95%, sensitivity (Se: 85%, specificity (Sp: 83%] while value 2.5 showed best specificity without important loss in sensitivity [AUC=0,831 (0.773-0.888 Se = 72%, Sp = 94%]. CONCLUSION: HOMA-IR values above or equal to 2.0 or 2.5 show enhanced diagnostic value in distinguishing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers from control group individuals.CONTEXTO: Pela sua boa correlação com o "clamp" glicêmico, o HOMA-IR tem sido largamente utilizado como índice de resistência insulínica em estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos em pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica. Porém os valores utilizados para

  8. Índices HOMA1-IR e HOMA2-IR para identificação de resistência à insulina e síndrome metabólica: Estudo Brasileiro de Síndrome Metabólica (BRAMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Geloneze, Bruno; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Stabe, Christiane França Camargo; Pareja, José Carlos; Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez de Lima; Queiroz, Elaine Cristina de; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. METHODS: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. RESULTS: In the he...

  9. Tyrosine Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Obese Children

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    Christian Hellmuth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In obese children, hyperinsulinaemia induces adverse metabolic consequences related to the risk of cardiovascular and other disorders. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA and acylcarnitines (Carn, involved in amino acid (AA degradation, were linked to obesity-associated insulin resistance, but these associations yet have not been studied longitudinally in obese children. We studied 80 obese children before and after a one-year lifestyle intervention programme inducing substantial weight loss >0.5 BMI standard deviation scores in 40 children and no weight loss in another 40 children. At baseline and after the 1-year intervention, we assessed insulin resistance (HOMA index, fasting glucose, HbA1c, 2 h glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test, AA, and Carn. BMI adjusted metabolite levels were associated with clinical markers at baseline and after intervention, and changes with the intervention period were evaluated. Only tyrosine was significantly associated with HOMA (p<0.05 at baseline and end and with change during the intervention (p<0.05. In contrast, ratios depicting BCAA metabolism were negatively associated with HOMA at baseline (p<0.05, but not in the longitudinal profiling. Stratified analysis revealed that the children with substantial weight loss drove this association. We conclude that tyrosine alterations in association with insulin resistance precede alteration in BCAA metabolism. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00435734.

  10. Insulin resistance, its association with diastolic left ventricular disease and aorta elasticity in hypertensive patients

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    E.I. Shorikov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accepted threshold of insulin resistance value in arterial hypertension (AH is absent, thus it is relevant to determine its degree in patients with AH, and to determine the interaction between the insulin resistance (IR syndrome and the target organs injury. The purpose of our study was to set the threshold of IR in patients with AH, to define association between the IR parameters, presence of diastolic dysfunction and the state of aorta elasticity. Materials and methods. Investigation included 229 patients with AH and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, as well as 108 patients with the isolated AH. There were used clinical, instrumental, biochemical (HOMA-2 model, HOMA-IR indices, statistical methods. Results. The course of the isolated AH and AH with concomitant type 2 DM is associated with IR development, that it is well-proven in the model of HOMA-2 (р < 0.001. In patients with comorbid patho­logy the sensitiveness of peripheral tissues to insulin depends on severity of AH (р < 0.001. Presence of IR in HOMA-IR model was revealed in patients with the isolated AH in 26.6 % of cases. The level of plasma insulin grows substantially, and the tissues sensitiveness to insulin declined at the third type of diastolic dysfunction (р < 0.05. The coefficients of aorta elasticity have a reverse correlation with all parameters of НОМА-2 model determined by the levels of glucose (р < 0.001, insulin (p < 0.05, coefficient НОМА-IR (p < 0.05 and direct association with the degree of peri­pheral tissues sensitivity to insulin (p < 0.01. Conclusions. The threshold of IR by HOMA-2 model in patients was set at the level of 1.87; the increase of aorta inflexibility and diastolic dysfunction severity depend on IR severity.

  11. Adipose tissue CIDEA is associated, independently of weight variation, to change in insulin resistance during a longitudinal weight control dietary program in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastier, Emilie; Déjean, Sébastien; Le Gall, Caroline; Saris, Wim H M; Langin, Dominique; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss reduces risk factors associated with obesity. However, long-term metabolic improvement remains a challenge. We investigated quantitative gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals and its relationship with low calorie diet and long term weight maintenance induced changes in insulin resistance. Three hundred eleven overweight and obese individuals followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-week low calorie diet followed by a 6-month ad libitum weight-maintenance diet. Individuals were clustered according to insulin resistance trajectories assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of 267 genes selected for regulation according to obesity, metabolic status and response to dieting was assessed using high throughput RT-qPCR. A combination of discriminant analyses was used to identify genes with regulation according to insulin resistance trajectories. Partial correlation was used to control for change in body mass index. Three different HOMA-IR profile groups were determined. HOMA-IR improved during low calorie diet in the 3 groups. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, groups A and B had reduced HOMA-IR by 50%. In group C, HOMA-IR had returned to baseline values. Genes were differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of individuals according to groups but a single gene, CIDEA, was common to all phases of the dietary intervention. Changes in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels paralleled variations in insulin sensitivity independently of change in body mass index. Overall, CIDEA was up-regulated in adipose tissue of individuals with successful long term insulin resistance relapse and not in adipose tissue of unsuccessful individuals. The concomitant change in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels and insulin sensitivity suggests a beneficial role of adipose tissue CIDEA in long term glucose homeostasis, independently of weight variation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  12. Insulin resistance in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with C-reactive protein independent of abdominal obesity

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    Feng Xiaocheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is debate as to whether the association between C-reactive protein (CRP and insulin resistance is independent of body fatness, particularly central obesity. Therefore, the association among CRP, insulin resistance and obesity was analyzed in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study included 520 Chinese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with CRP levels not exceeding 10 mg/L. The degree of insulin resistance was determined with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The CRP levels were categorized into quartiles from the lowest to the highest concentrations (Q1-Q4. Results Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC were both higher in Q4, Q3 and Q2 than those in Q1. HOMA-IR was higher in Q2, Q3 and Q4 than that in Q1 (Q1 vs Q4, P Conclusion These findings showed that insulin resistance was associated with CRP levels independent of abdominal obesity in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that abdominal obesity could only partly explain the link between subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance.

  13. Genetic evidence of a causal effect of insulin resistance on branched-chain amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Yuvaraj; Jonsson, Anna; Have, Christian T; Allin, Kristine H; Witte, Daniel R; Jørgensen, Marit E; Grarup, Niels; Pedersen, Oluf; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Hansen, Torben

    2017-05-01

    Fasting plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with insulin resistance, but it remains unclear whether there is a causal relation between the two. We aimed to disentangle the causal relations by performing a Mendelian randomisation study using genetic variants associated with circulating BCAA levels and insulin resistance as instrumental variables. We measured circulating BCAA levels in blood plasma by NMR spectroscopy in 1,321 individuals from the ADDITION-PRO cohort. We complemented our analyses by using previously published genome-wide association study (GWAS) results from the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC) (n = 46,186) and from a GWAS of serum BCAA levels (n = 24,925). We used a genetic risk score (GRS), calculated using ten established fasting serum insulin associated variants, as an instrumental variable for insulin resistance. A GRS of three variants increasing circulating BCAA levels was used as an instrumental variable for circulating BCAA levels. Fasting plasma BCAA levels were associated with higher HOMA-IR in ADDITION-PRO (β 0.137 [95% CI 0.08, 0.19] p = 6 × 10 -7 ). However, the GRS for circulating BCAA levels was not associated with fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR in ADDITION-PRO (β -0.011 [95% CI -0.053, 0.032] p = 0.6 and β -0.011 [95% CI -0.054, 0.031] p = 0.6, respectively) or in GWAS results for HOMA-IR from MAGIC (β for valine-increasing GRS -0.012 [95% CI -0.069, 0.045] p = 0.7). By contrast, the insulin-resistance-increasing GRS was significantly associated with increased BCAA levels in ADDITION-PRO (β 0.027 [95% CI 0.005, 0.048] p = 0.01) and in GWAS results for serum BCAA levels (β 1.22 [95% CI 0.71, 1.73] p = 4 × 10 -6 , β 0.96 [95% CI 0.45, 1.47] p = 3 × 10 -4 , and β 0.67 [95% CI 0.16, 1.18] p = 0.01 for isoleucine, leucine and valine levels, respectively) and instrumental variable analyses in ADDITION

  14. Ketosis Onset Type 2 Diabetes Had Better Islet β-Cell Function and More Serious Insulin Resistance

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    Hongyun Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic ketosis had been identified as a characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, but now emerging evidence has identified that they were diagnosed as T2DM after long time follow up. This case control study was aimed at comparing the clinical characteristic, β-cell function, and insulin resistance of ketosis and nonketotic onset T2DM and providing evidence for treatment selection. 140 cases of newly diagnosed T2DM patients were divided into ketosis (62 cases and nonketotic onset group (78 cases. After correction of hyperglycemia and ketosis with insulin therapy, plasma C-peptide concentrations were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours after 75 g glucose oral administration. Area under the curve (AUC of C-peptide was calculated. Homoeostasis model assessment was used to estimate basal β-cell function (HOMA-β and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Our results showed that ketosis onset group had higher prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD than nonketotic group (P=0.04. Ketosis onset group had increased plasma C-peptide levels at 0 h, 0.5 h, and 3 h and higher AUC0–0.5, AUC0–1, AUC0–3 (P<0.05. Moreover, this group also had higher HOMA-β and HOMA-IR than nonketotic group (P<0.05. From these data, we concluded that ketosis onset T2DM had better islet β-cell function and more serious insulin resistance than nonketotic onset T2DM.

  15. Brain natriuretic peptide and insulin resistance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, F; Biggs, M L; Kizer, J R; Brutsaert, E F; de Filippi, C; Newman, A B; Kronmal, R A; Tracy, R P; Gottdiener, J S; Djoussé, L; de Boer, I H; Psaty, B M; Siscovick, D S; Mukamal, K J

    2017-02-01

    Higher levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have been associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in adults, but whether BNP is related to insulin resistance in older adults has not been established. N-terminal of the pro hormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) was measured among Cardiovascular Health Study participants at the 1989-1990, 1992-1993 and 1996-1997 examinations. We calculated measures of insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), Gutt index, Matsuda index] from fasting and 2-h concentrations of glucose and insulin among 3318 individuals with at least one measure of NT-proBNP and free of heart failure, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease, and not taking diabetes medication. We used generalized estimating equations to assess the cross-sectional association of NT-proBNP with measures of insulin resistance. Instrumental variable analysis with an allele score derived from nine genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms) within or near the NPPA and NPPB loci was used to estimate an un-confounded association of NT-proBNP levels on insulin resistance. Lower NT-proBNP levels were associated with higher insulin resistance even after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and other risk factors (P insulin resistance (P = 0.38; P = 0.01 for comparison with the association of measured levels of NT-proBNP). In older adults, lower NT-proBNP is associated with higher insulin resistance, even after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Because related genetic variants were not associated with insulin resistance, the causal nature of this association will require future study. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  16. Chronic hepatitis C infection is associated with insulin resistance and lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chia-Yen; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Chung-Feng; Hou, Chen-Hsiu; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Huang, Jee-Fu; Lin, I-Ling; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Chern; Wang, Liang-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Tung, Hung-Da

    2015-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been suggested to be associated with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and lipid profiles. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationships of insulin resistance (IR) and lipid profiles with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients in Taiwan. We enrolled 160 hospital-based CHC patients with liver biopsy and the 480 controlled individuals without CHC and chronic hepatitis B from communities without known history of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), alanine aminotransferase, and serum insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were tested. When comparing factors between CHC patients, and sex- and age-matched controls who had no HCV infection, patients with HCV infection had a significantly higher alanine aminotransferase level, fasting plasma glucose level, insulin level, and HOMA-IR (P C and LDL-C levels (all P  2.5]), a high body mass index, TGs, and HCV RNA level are independent factors significantly associated with high HOMA-IR in multivariate logistic analyses. Chronic HCV infection was associated with metabolic characteristics including IR and lipid profile. IR was also associated with virological characteristics. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Increased plasma levels of FABP4 and PTEN is associated with more severe insulin resistance in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-yuan; Xiao, Rui; Li, Cai-ping; Huangfu, Jian; Mao, Jiang-feng

    2015-02-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and insulin resistance in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Plasma FABP4 and PTEN were determined by ELISA in GDM patients (GDM group, n=30) and in euglycemic pregnant women (control group, n=30). The clinical features, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid profiles were compared between the 2 groups. The influence of risk factors on insulin resistance, including BMI, lipid profiles, FABP4, and PTEN, were further investigated by multiple-factor stepwise regression analysis. Higher levels of BMI, ΔBMI, triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG), fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, FABP4, PTEN, and lower level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were found in the GDM patients than in the controls (all Pinsulin resistance. GDM patients have more severe insulin resistance compared to euglycemic pregnant women. Higher levels of plasma FABP4 and PTEN are associated with increased insulin resistance and may participate in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance during gestation.

  18. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Ashraf, Haleh; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Zandieh, Ali; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Rashidi, Armin; Haghazali, Mehrdad; Asgari, Fereshteh

    2010-04-07

    We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes. Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available for 3,071 adult Iranian individuals aging 25-64 years were analyzed. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. HOMA-IR cut-offs from the 50th to the 95th percentile were calculated and sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio for MetS diagnosis were determined. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of HOMA-IR for MetS diagnosis were depicted, and the optimal cut-offs were determined by two different methods: Youden index, and the shortest distance from the top left corner of the curve. The area under the curve (AUC) (95%CI) was 0.650 (0.631-0.670) for IDF-defined MetS and 0.683 (0.664-0.703) with the ATPIII definition. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for the diagnosis of IDF- and ATPIII-defined MetS in non-diabetic individuals was 1.775 (sensitivity: 57.3%, specificity: 65.3%, with ATPIII; sensitivity: 55.9%, specificity: 64.7%, with IDF). The optimal cut-offs in diabetic individuals were 3.875 (sensitivity: 49.7%, specificity: 69.6%) and 4.325 (sensitivity: 45.4%, specificity: 69.0%) for ATPIII- and IDF-defined MetS, respectively. We determined the optimal HOMA-IR cut-off points for the diagnosis of MetS in the Iranian population with and without diabetes.

  19. Early insulin resistance in severe trauma without head injury as outcome predictor? A prospective, monocentric pilot study

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    Bonizzoli Manuela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia following major trauma is a well know phenomenon related to stress-induced systemic reaction. Reports on glucose level management in patients with head trauma have been published, but the development of insulin resistance in trauma patients without head injury has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the prognostic role of acute insulin-resistance, assessed by the HOMA model, in patients with severe trauma without head injury. Methods All patients consecutively admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a tertiary referral center (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, IT for major trauma without head injury (Jan-Dec 2010 were enrolled. Patients with a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy or metabolism alteration were excluded from the analysis. Patients were divided into “insulin resistant” and “non-insulin resistant” based on the Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA IR. Results are expressed as medians. Results Out of 175 trauma patients admitted to the ICU during the study period, a total of 54 patients without head trauma were considered for the study, 37 of whom met the inclusion criteria. In total, 23 patients (62.2% resulted insulin resistant, whereas 14 patients (37.8% were non-insulin resistant. Groups were comparable in demographic, clinical/laboratory characteristics, and severity of injury. Insulin resistant patients had a significantly higher BMI (P=0.0416, C-reactive protein (P=0.0265, and leukocytes count (0.0301, compared to non-insulin resistant patients. Also ICU length of stay was longer in insulin resistant patients (P=0.0381. Conclusions Our data suggest that admission insulin resistance might be used as an early outcome predictor.

  20. Effect of vitamins C and E on insulin resistance in diabetes: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaeian, Mehrnoosh; Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Farzadfar, Farshad; Amini, Peyvand; Larijani, Bagher

    2015-11-01

    Data regarding the effect of vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are controversial. We aimed to systematically review the current data on this topic. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to assess the effect of VC and/or VE on insulin resistance in diabetes published in Google Scholar and PubMed web databases until January 2014 were included. Exclusion criteria were studies conducted in animal, type 1 DM, children or pregnant women. Main outcome measure was insulin resistance by homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. According to degree of heterogeneity, fixed- or random-effect model was employed by stata software (11.0). We selected 14 RCTs involving 735 patients with T2DM. VE or mixture-mode supplementation did not have any significant effect on HOMA with a standardized mean difference (SMD): 0·017, 95% CI: -0·376 to 0·411 (P = 0·932); and SMD: -0·035, 95% CI: -0·634 to 0·025 (P = 0·070), respectively, by random-effect model. VC supplement alone did not improve insulin resistance with a SMD: -0·150, 95% CI: -0·494 to 0·194 (P = 0·391), by fixed-effect model. Meta-regression test demonstrated that HOMA index may have not been influenced by the year of publication, dosage or duration of treatment. The sole intake of VC, VE or their combination with other antioxidants could not improve insulin resistance in diabetes. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  1. Dietary intake and cardiometabolic biomarkers in relation to insulin resistance and hypertension in a middle-aged and elderly population in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Hong, Zhongxin; Wu, Li; Ding, Bingjie; Bi, Yanxia; Gu, Zhongyi; Li, Wei

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the relationships of dietary intake and cardiometabolic biomarkers with insulin resistance and hypertension in rural middle-aged and elderly people in China. One hundred and eight middle-aged and elderly adults were recruited in Zhangfang village in May 2014. We measured blood pressure, anthropometric parameters, and biochemical indexes, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), glucose, insulin, and blood lipids. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was assessed on the basis of fasting glucose and insulin. We recorded participant demographic characteristics, dietary intake, and lifestyle using questionnaires. Hypertensive participants had higher levels of triglycerides (TG), hsCRP, sICAM-1, body fat percentage (BF%), arm muscle circumference (AMC) and HOMA-IR than nonhypertensive individuals. Hypertensive participants had higher carbohydrate intake but lower intakes of protein and fat. Carbohydrate intake was positively correlated with hsCRP, sICAM-1, TG, BF%, and HOMA-IR, and was negatively correlated with AMC. Protein and fat intakes were negatively correlated with hsCRP and sICAM-1. Protein intake was also significantly negatively correlated with TG and HOMA-IR, and positively correlated with AMC. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with hsCRP, sICAM-1, TG and BF%, and negatively correlated with AMC. Multivariable linear regression indicated that TG, sICAM-1, and hsCRP were significantly associated with HOMA-IR. In conclusion, in a rural Chinese population, high intake of carbohydrate and low intake of fat and protein were associated with insulin resistance and hypertension, possibly by increasing inflammatory factors such as sICAM-1 and hsCRP, increasing BF% and increasing the level of plasma TG.

  2. The correlation of insulin resistance with the cerebral injury and stress reaction in patients with traumatic brain injury

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    Zhan Lan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of insulin resistance with the cerebral injury and stress reaction in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods: 78 patients who were diagnosed with acute traumatic brain injury in our hospital between May 2014 and August 2016 were selected as the TBI group, and 90 healthy volunteers who received physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group. The peripheral blood was collected to detect glucose, insulin and nerve injury marker molecules, stress hormones as well as oxidative stress reaction products, and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated. Results: The HOMA-IR index of TBI group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05; serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1, S100β, myelin basic protein (MBP, glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, malondialdehyde (MDA and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdGlevels of TBI group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum NSE, UCH-L1, S100β, MBP, glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, MDA and 8-OHdG levels of patients with high HOMA-IR were significantly higher than those of patients with low HOMA-IR (P<0.05. Conclusion: The insulin resistance increases significantly in patients with traumatic brain injury, and is closely related to the degree of cerebral injury and stress reaction.

  3. Determination of Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in Healthy Obese and Non-obese Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, A.; Sattar, A.; Tariq, K. M.; Najamussahar; Hashim, R.; Almani, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine insulin resistance and beta cell function in healthy obese and nonobese individuals of the local population. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: AFIP Rawalpindi in collaboration with department of medicine military hospital(MH) Rawalpindi, from Aug 2008 to Mar 2009. Methods: Eighty obese(n=40) and non-obese(n=40) subjects were selected by non-probability convenience sampling. Plasma insulin, glucose, and serum total cholestrol were estimated in fasting state. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and beta cell function by HOMA- equation. Results: Significant differences were observed between obese and non-obese individuals regarding insulin resistance, beta cell function, and BMI and serum total cholesterol. Mean insulin resistance in obese group was found to be 11.1 +- 5.1(range 7.0-16.2) and in non-obese group it was 0.9+-0.4 (range 0.5-1.3). This difference was highly significant (p=0.001). There was a highly significant difference between the two groups in term of beta cell function with mean rank 60.1 for obese group and 20.9 non obese groups (Asym sig. 2 tailed 0.000). Also the correlation (r = 0.064) between insulin resistance and beta cell function in obese group is highly significant (p = 0.000). Mean serum leptin levels were lower (6.3 ng/ml) in non-obese, and high (57.2 ng/ml) in the obese group. Conclusions: Insulin resistance is found higher in obese individuals. Beta cell function is significantly different between obese and non-obese groups. (author)

  4. Predicting gestational diabetes mellitus during the first trimester using anthropometric measurements and HOMA-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Hüsnü; Çizmecioğlu, Ahmet; Işık, Hatice; Cengiz, Türkan; Yildiz, Murat; Iyisoy, Mehmet Sinan

    2016-05-01

    To determine the predictability of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during the first trimester using the degree of insulin resistance and anthropometric measurements and to assign the risk of developing GDM by weight gained during pregnancy (WGDP). A total of 250 singleton pregnancies at 7-12 gestational weeks were studied. Body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio (WHR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores and WGDP were determined. The backward stepwise method was applied to estimate possible associations with GDM. Cutoff points were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. GDM was found in 20 of 227 singleton pregnancies (8.8 %). The calculated HOMA-IR, QUICKI, BMI, WHR, WGDP, and parity were significantly associated with GDM. Logistic regression analyses showed that three covariates (HOMA-IR, BMI, WGDP) remained independently associated with GDM. It was calculated as OR 1.254 (95 % CI 1.006-1.563), AUC 0.809, sensitivity 90 %, specificity 61 % with cutoff = 2.08 for HOMA-IR; OR 1.157 (CI 1.045-1.281), AUC 0.723, sensitivity 80 %, specificity 58 % with cutoff = 25.95 for BMI; OR 1.221, (CI 1.085-1.374), AUC 0.654, sensitivity 80 %, specificity 46 % with cutoff = 4.7 for WGDP. Despite a HOMA-IR score of >3.1 in pregnant women, GDM was detected in only three of 29 patients (10.3 %) if WGDP was HOMA-IR. In particular, if BMI is >25.95 kg/m(2) and the HOMA-IR score >2.08, controlling weight gain may protect against GDM.

  5. Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy results in insulin resistance in rat offspring, which is associated with inflammation and Iκbα methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaqi; Chu, Xia; Huang, Yifan; Li, Gang; Wang, Yuxia; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy on insulin resistance in male offspring and examine its mechanism. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a vitamin-D-free diet with ultraviolet-free light during pregnancy (early-VDD group). Insulin resistance in the male offspring was assessed by HOMA-IR, OGTT and euglycaemic clamp. NEFA, oxidative stress and inflammation levels were estimated as risk factors for insulin resistance. DNA methylation was examined by bisulfate sequencing PCR analysis. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to validate the effect of DNA methylation. The offspring in the early-VDD group had significantly higher fasting insulin and HOMA-IR levels, markedly reduced glucose tolerance and significantly lower tissue sensitivity to exogenous insulin at 16 weeks (all p insulin resistance in the offspring, which is associated with persistently increased inflammation. Persistently decreased Iκbα expression, potentially caused by changes in Iκbα methylation, plays an important role in persistent inflammation.

  6. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue and prospective changes in body weight and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; de Courten, Barbora; Wake, Deborah J

    2006-01-01

    Increased mRNA and activity levels of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) in human adipose tissue (AT) are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to investigate whether 11betaHSD1 expression or activity in abdominal subcutaneous AT of non-diab......-diabetic subjects are associated with subsequent changes in body weight and insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]....

  7. HOMA-IR Values are Associated With Glycemic Control in Japanese Subjects Without Diabetes or Obesity: The KOBE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takumi; Higashiyama, Aya; Kubota, Yoshimi; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kadota, Aya; Nishida, Yoko; Imano, Hironori; Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that insulin resistance was a major risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals without diabetes or obesity. We aimed to clarify the association between insulin resistance and glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study including 1083 healthy subjects (323 men and 760 women) in an urban area. We performed multivariate regression analyses to estimate the association between the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and markers of glycemic control, including glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, after adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with the lowest tertile of HOMA-IR values, the highest tertile was significantly associated with HbA1c and FPG levels after adjustment for potential confounders, both in men (HbA1c: β = 1.83, P = 0.001; FPG: β = 0.49, P HOMA-IR values was inversely associated with 1,5-AG levels compared with the lowest tertile (β = -18.42, P = 0.009) only in men. HOMA-IR values were associated with markers of glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. Insulin resistance may influence glycemic control even in a lean, non-diabetic Asian population.

  8. Insulin resistance and serum parameters of iron status in type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, U.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a predominant public health concern worldwide, accounting for 90% of the cases of diabetes globally. Pathogenesis of T2DM involves insulin resistance, defective insulin secretion and increased glucose production by the liver. Subclinical haemochromatosis has been considered as one of the probable causes of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to determine and correlate insulin resistance and serum parameters of iron status (serum ferritin and transferrin saturation) in type 2 diabetics. Methods: It was a correlational study. This study was conducted on sixty male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fasting blood sample was taken from each subject and analysed for glucose, haemoglobin, insulin, iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) and ferritin. Insulin resistance was determined by HOMA-IR index. Transferrin saturation was calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data was analysed using SPSS-17. Results: There was significant positive correlation between insulin resistance and transferrin saturation, but there was no significant correlation of insulin resistance with blood haemoglobin, serum iron and serum ferritin in type 2 diabetics. Conclusion: Correlation between insulin resistance and transferrin saturation reveals that iron has negative impact on insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetics. (author)

  9. Protective Effects of Withania somnifera Root on Inflammatory Markers and Insulin Resistance in Fructose-Fed Rats

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    Zahra Samadi Noshahr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated the effects of Withania somnifera root (WS on insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in fructose-fed rats. Methods: Forty-eight Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12; Group I as control, Group II as sham-treated with WS by 62.5mg/g per diet, Group III fructose-fed rats received 10%W/V fructose, and Group IV fructose- and WS-fed rats. After eight weeks blood samples were collected to measure glucose, insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in sera. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were all significantly greater in the fructose-fed rats than in the controls. Treatment with WS significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited the fructose-induced increases in glucose, insulin, HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α. Conclusion: Our data suggest that WS normalizes hyperglycemia in fructose-fed rats by reducing inflammatory markers and improving insulin sensitivity.

  10. Different Criteria for the Definition of Insulin Resistance and Its Relation with Dyslipidemia in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Purpose to compare cut off points corrected for age and gender (COOP) with fixed cut off points (FCOP) for fasting plasma insulin and Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of IR in obese children and adolescents and their correlation with dyslipidemia. Methods A multicenter, cross-sectional study including 383 subjects aged 7 to 18 years, evaluating fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and lipid profile. Subjects with high insulin levels and/or HOMA-IR were considered as having IR, based on two defining criteria: FCOP or CCOP. The frequency of metabolic abnormalities, the presence of IR, and the presence of dyslipidemia in relation to FCOP or CCOP were analyzed using Fisher and Mann-Whitney exact tests. Results Using HOMA-IR, IR was diagnosed in 155 (40.5%) and 215 (56.1%) patients and, using fasting insulin, 150 (39.2%) and 221 (57.7%), respectively applying FCOP and CCOP. The use of CCOP resulted in lower insulin and HOMA-IR values than FCOP. Dyslipidemia was not related to FCOP or CCOP. Blood glucose remained within normal limits in all patients with IR. There was no difference in the frequency of IR identified by plasma insulin or HOMA-IR, both for FCOP and CCOP. Conclusion The CCOP of plasma insulin or of HOMA-IR detected more cases of IR as compared to the FCOP, but were not associated with the frequency of dyslipidemia. As blood glucose has almost no fluctuation in this age group, even in the presence of IR, fasting plasma insulin detected the same cases of IR that would be detected by HOMA-IR. PMID:29383306

  11. HOMA-IR and QUICKI: decide on a general standard instead of making further comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössner, Sophia M; Neovius, Martin; Mattsson, Anna; Marcus, Claude; Norgren, Svante

    2010-11-01

    To limit further comparisons between the two fasting indices Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI), and to examine their robustness in assessing insulin sensitivity. A total of 191 obese children and adolescents (age 13.9 ± 2.9 years, BMI SDS 6.1 ± 1.6), who had undergone a Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (FSIVGTT), were included. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to compare indices in detecting insulin resistance and Bland-Altman plots to investigate agreement between three consecutive fasting samples when compared to using single samples. ROC analysis showed that the diagnostic accuracy was identical for QUICKI and HOMA-IR [area under the curve (AUC) boys 0.80, 95%CI 0.70-0.89; girls 0.80, 0.71-0.88], while insulin had a nonsignificantly lower AUC (boys 0.76, 0.66-0.87; girls 0.75, 0.66-0.84). Glucose did not perform better than chance as a diagnostic test (boys 0.47, 0.34-0.60; girls 0.57, 0.46-0.68). Indices varied with consecutive sampling, mainly attributable to fasting insulin variations (mean maximum difference in HOMA-IR -0.8; -0.9 to -0.7). Using both HOMA-IR and QUICKI in further studies is superfluous as these indices function equally well as predictors of the FSIVGTT sensitivity index. Focus should be on establishing a general standard for research and clinical purposes. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  12. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in the high normal range is associated with lower prevalence of insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jujić, Amra; Nilsson, Peter M; Persson, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    was inversely associated with insulin resistance calculated as HOMA-IR (per 1 SD change β= -0.066, p-value 0.001) at follow-up. Logistic regression analysis showed that each 1 SD increment of baseline ANP levels resulted in lower risk of belonging to upper quartile of HOMA-IR at follow-up (OR 0.88; CI 95 % 0...

  13. Six-month exenatide improves HOMA hyperbolic product in type 2 diabetic patients mostly by enhancing beta-cell function rather than insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preumont, V; Hermans, M-P; Brichard, S; Buysschaert, M

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to determine whether or not the improvement of glycaemic control with 6-month exenatide therapy in type 2 diabetic patients with secondary failure to combined oral therapy is related to amelioration of β-cell function and/or insulin sensitivity and their combined product. Thirty-three patients with type 2 diabetes were investigated. Their β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were measured using Homoeostasis Model Assessment [HOMA-B, HOMA-S and HOMA hyperbolic product (BxS)]. Additional endpoints included changes in weight, HbA(1c) and plasma adiponectin, as well as baseline clinical and biological characteristics, as potential predictors of HbA(1c) response. After 6 months, unadjusted HOMA-B increased from 33 ± 24% to 43 ± 23% (P=0.0210), whereas there was no significant change in HOMA-S (from 58 ± 35% to 61 ± 40%). The hyperbolic product increased by a relative 70% (from 15 ± 7% to 22 ± 15%; P=0.0055). Body mass index decreased from 32.2 ± 5.1 kg/m(2) to 31.0 ± 4.8 kg/m(2) (PHOMA-B and hyperbolic product over a 6-month treatment period with no overall change in insulin sensitivity, despite weight loss. Thus, improved β-cell function rather than increased insulin sensitivity accounts for the bulk of HbA(1c) reduction following 6 months of exenatide treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between Myeloperoxidase Levels and Risk of Insulin Resistance in Egyptian Obese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Moushira; Basha, Walaa; Reyad, Hanaa; Mohamed, Ramy; Hassan, Naglaa; Kholousi, Shams

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases. AIM: The current study aimed to investigate serum MPO levels in obese Egyptian women and assess its relation with insulin resistance (IR) and other biochemical risk parameters. METHODS: The study included 80 obese women and 50 age-and-sex-matched healthy controls. Insulin resistance (IR) was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Serum MPO, fasting glucose, insulin and blood lipids and anthropometry were measured. Obese cases were divided into three groups based on MPO tertiles. ROC analysis was performed to obtain the optimal cut-off values of MPO to predicate IR in obese women. RESULTS: The mean serum MPO was significantly higher in obese cases than controls. Cases in the highest MPO tertile had higher HOMA-IR, blood lipids and pressure levels compared with those in the lower tertile. The cutoff point of MPO was > 87.8 (ng/mL) and area under curves was 0.82 (p < 0.01) for diagnosis of IR. MPO levels were higher in obese Egyptian women than healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Elevation of MPO was associated with abnormal metabolic parameters. MPO might be used as an earlier biomarker for IR and metabolic disturbance in obese women. PMID:29731928

  15. Epigenome-wide association study of fasting measures of glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Bertha; Irvin, M Ryan; Sha, Jin; Zhi, Degui; Aslibekyan, Stella; Absher, Devin; Tiwari, Hemant K; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Ordovas, Jose M; Arnett, Donna K

    2014-02-01

    Known genetic susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) explain only a small proportion of heritable T2D risk. We hypothesize that DNA methylation patterns may contribute to variation in diabetes-related risk factors, and this epigenetic variation across the genome can contribute to the missing heritability in T2D and related metabolic traits. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study for fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) among 837 nondiabetic participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study, divided into discovery (N = 544) and replication (N = 293) stages. Cytosine guanine dinucleotide (CpG) methylation at ∼470,000 CpG sites was assayed in CD4(+) T cells using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 Beadchip. We fit a mixed model with the methylation status of each CpG as the dependent variable, adjusting for age, sex, study site, and T-cell purity as fixed-effects and family structure as a random-effect. A Bonferroni corrected P value of 1.1 × 10(-7) was considered significant in the discovery stage. Significant associations were tested in the replication stage using identical models. Methylation of a CpG site in ABCG1 on chromosome 21 was significantly associated with insulin (P = 1.83 × 10(-7)) and HOMA-IR (P = 1.60 × 10(-9)). Another site in the same gene was significant for HOMA-IR and of borderline significance for insulin (P = 1.29 × 10(-7) and P = 3.36 × 10(-6), respectively). Associations with the top two signals replicated for insulin and HOMA-IR (P = 5.75 × 10(-3) and P = 3.35 × 10(-2), respectively). Our findings suggest that methylation of a CpG site within ABCG1 is associated with fasting insulin and merits further evaluation as a novel disease risk marker.

  16. Association between markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatollah Asemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and lipid profiles are known to be associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the association of markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid profiles with insulin resistance in pregnant women in Kashan, Iran. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, serum insulin, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured among 89 primigravida singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to assess their relationships with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: We found that among biochemical indicators of pregnant women, serum hs-CRP and total cholesterol levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.05, P = 0.006 for hs-CRP and β = 0.006, P = 0.006 for total cholesterol. These associations remained significant even after mutual effect of other biochemical indicators were controlled (β = 0.04, P = 0.01 for hs-CRP and β = 0.007, P = 0.02 for total cholesterol. Further adjustment for body mass index made the association of hs-CRP and HOMA-IR disappeared; however, the relationship for total cholesterol remained statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that serum total cholesterol is independently correlated with HOMA-IR score. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Keywords: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Insulin Resistance, Pregnancy

  17. Comparison of Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Dysfunction Between the Young and the Elderly in Normal Glucose Tolerance and Prediabetes Population: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Shi, L; Cai, L; Lin, W; Huang, H; Liang, J; Li, L; Lin, L; Tang, K; Chen, L; Lu, J; Bi, Y; Wang, W; Ning, G; Wen, J

    2017-02-01

    Insulin resistance and β-cell function are different between the young and elderly diabetes individuals, which are not well elaborated in the nondiabetic persons. The aims of this study were to compare insulin resistance and β-cell function between young and old adults from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to prediabetes [which was subdivided into isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), and a combination of both (IFG/IGT)], and compare the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the above prediabetes subgroups between different age groups after 3 years. A total of 1 374 subjects aged below 40 or above 60 years old with NGT or prediabetes were finally included in this study. Insulin resistance and β-cell function from homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and interactive, 24-variable homeostatic model of assessment (iHOMA2) were compared between different age groups. The rate of transition to diabetes between different age groups in all pre-diabetes subgroups was also compared. Compared with the old groups, young i-IFG and IFG/IGT groups exhibit higher log HOMA-IR and log HOMA2-S, whereas the young i-IGT groups experienced comparable log HOMA-IR and log HOMA2-S when compared with old i-IFG and IFG/IGT groups. Three prediabetes subgroups all had similar log HOMA-B and log HOMA2-B between different age groups. In addition, the prevalence of diabetes in young i-IFG was statistically higher than that in old i-IFG after 3 years. Age is negatively related to log HOMA2-B in both age groups. Considering an age-related deterioration of β-cell function, young i-IFG, young i-IGT, and young IFG/IGT all suffered a greater impairment in insulin secretion than the old groups. Young i-IFG and IFG/IGT have more severe insulin resistance than the old groups. In addition, young i-IFG characterized with a higher incidence of DM than the old i-IFG. These disparities highlight that the prevention to slow progression from prediabetes to

  18. Markers of insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis. A comparison of the homeostasis model assessment and triglyceride glucose index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, C; Carallo, C; Scavelli, F B; De Franceschi, M S; Esposito, T; Tripolino, C; Gnasso, A

    2013-07-01

    The present investigation was designed to test the association between carotid atherosclerosis and two simple markers of insulin resistance, i.e. HOMA-Index and TyG-Index. The study was performed in two different cohorts. In the first cohort, 330 individuals were enrolled. Blood pressure, lipids, glucose, waist and cigarette smoking were evaluated. HOMA-IR and TyG-Index were calculated as markers of prevalent hepatic and muscular insulin resistance respectively. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by Doppler ultrasonography. The association between cardiovascular risk factors, markers of insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analyses. In the second cohort, limited to the evaluation of TyG-Index, 1432 subjects were studied. In the first cohort, TyG-Index was significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis in a model including age, sex, diabetes, cigarette smoking and LDL cholesterol, while HOMA-IR was not. When components of metabolic syndrome were added to the model as dichotomous variables (absent/present), TyG-Index retained its predictive power. The same result was obtained when the metabolic syndrome was added to the model (absence/presence). The association between TyG-Index and carotid atherosclerosis was confirmed in the second cohort. The present findings suggest that TyG-Index is better associated with carotid atherosclerosis than HOMA-IR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Insulin resistance, adipokine profile and hepatic expression of SOCS-3 gene in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Kamila; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Omulecka, Aleksandra; Piekarska, Anna

    2014-08-14

    To analyze adipokine concentrations, insulin resistance and hepatic expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 with normal body weight, glucose and lipid profile. The study group consisted of 31 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 9 healthy subjects. Total levels of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, omentin, osteopontin and insulin were measured using an ELISA kit. The hepatic expression of SOCS-3 was determined by the use of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were significantly higher in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients without metabolic disorders compared to healthy controls (2.24 vs 0.59, P = 0.0003). Hepatic steatosis was observed in 32.2% of patients with HCV infection and was found in patients with increased HOMA-IR index (2.81 vs 1.99, P = 0.05) and reduced adiponectin level (5.96 vs 8.37, P = 0.04). Inflammatory activity (G ≥ 2) was related to increased osteopontin concentration (34.04 vs 23.35, P = 0.03). Advanced liver fibrosis (S ≥ 2) was associated with increased levels of omentin and osteopontin (436.94 vs 360.09, P = 0.03 and 32.84 vs 20.29, P = 0.03) and reduced resistin concentration (1.40 vs 1.74, P = 0.047). No correlations were reported between adipokine profile, HOMA-IR values and hepatic expression of the SOCS-3 gene. We speculated that no relationship between adipokines and HOMA-IR values may indicate that HCV can induce insulin resistance itself. Some adipokines appear to be biochemical markers of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fiber Intake and Insulin Resistance in 6374 Adults: The Role of Abdominal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Tucker

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate the relationship between fiber intake and insulin resistance, indexed using HOMA (homeostatic model assessment, in a National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES sample of 6374 U.S. adults. Another purpose was to test the influence of covariates on the association. A third aim was to compare HOMA levels between two groups based on the recommended intake of 14 g of fiber per 1000 kilocalories (kcal. Fiber intake was measured using a 24-h recall. With demographic variables controlled, results showed that HOMA differed across High, Moderate, and Low fiber categories (F = 5.4, p = 0.0072. Adjusting for the demographic variables, the possible misreporting of energy intake, smoking, and physical activity strengthened the relationship (F = 8.0, p = 0.0009, which remained significant after adjusting for body fat (F = 7.0, p = 0.0019 and body mass index (BMI (F = 4.9, p = 0.0108, with the other covariates. However, the fiber–HOMA relationship was eliminated after adjusting for waist circumference (F = 2.3, p = 0.1050. Dividing participants based on the recommended 14-g standard resulted in meaningful HOMA differences (F = 16.4, p = 0.0002, and the association was not eliminated after controlling for waist circumference. Apparently, adults with high fiber consumption have less insulin resistance than their counterparts. However, much of the association is due to differences in waist circumference, unless the recommended intake of fiber is attained.

  1. The association between TNF-α and insulin resistance in euglycemic women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-10-01

    Chronic low levels of inflammation have links to obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance. We sought to assess the relationship between cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and insulin resistance in a healthy, euglycemic population. This is a prospective study of 574 non-diabetic mother and infant pairs. Maternal body mass index (BMI), TNF-α, glucose and insulin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA index. At delivery birthweight was recorded and cord blood analysed for fetal C-peptide and TNF-α. In a multivariate model, maternal TNF-α in early pregnancy was predicted by maternal insulin resistance at the same time-point, (β=0.54, p<0.01), and maternal TNF-α at 28 weeks was predicted by maternal insulin resistance in early pregnancy (β=0.24, p<0.01) and at 28 weeks (β=0.39, p<0.01). These results, in a large cohort of healthy, non-diabetic women have shown that insulin resistance, even at levels below those diagnostic of gestational diabetes, is associated with maternal and fetal inflammatory response. These findings have important implications for defining the pathways of fetal programming of later metabolic syndrome and childhood obesity.

  2. The association of osteopenia with levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HOMA-IR values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldemir, T; Yavuz, D G

    2014-06-01

    To determine the association of osteopenia with levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HOMA-IR values in postmenopausal women. Methods One hundred healthy postmenopausal women were included in a cross-sectional study. Venous blood was collected after an overnight fast and 25-hydroxyvitamin D, glucose and insulin levels were measured. HOMA-IR was calculated. Bone mineral density was measured with a dual X-ray absorptiometer. There was no difference in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and HOMA-IR values between the two groups. A weak positive correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and osteopenia was detected. Insulin resistance had a weak negative association with osteopenia. The correlations between osteopenia and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and HOMA-IR values were weak among early postmenopausal women.

  3. White blood cells levels and PCOS: direct and indirect relationship with obesity and insulin resistance, but not with hyperandogenemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalou, Olga; Livadas, Sarantis; Karachalios, Athanasios; Tolia, Nikoleta; Kokkoris, Panayiotis; Tripolitakis, Konstantinos; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-01-01

    To study white blood cells count (WBC) in women suffering from PCOS and compare these results with age and BMI-matched healthy women. The specific aim of this study was to assess the possible correlations of WBC with the major components of PCOS, obesity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Anthropometrical, metabolic and hormonal data were analyzed from 203 women with PCOS (NIH criteria) and 76 age-matched controls. In the total population studied (N=279), WBC was significantly higher (P=0.003) in the PCOS group compared with age-matched healthy women and was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.461, pPCOS women, the role of central adiposity is assessed only in this group. Multiple regression analysis in the PCOS group, including WHR, revealed BMI, SHBG and TGL as the main predicting factors of WBC. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was also conducted and overweight/obesity was the sole independent risk factor for elevated WBC (higher tertile) (OR:0.907 CI:0.85-0.96, p=0.002). After dividing the sample based on BMI in the lean subgroups, WBC did not differ significantly between PCOS and controls, while multiple regression analysis indicated SHBG as the main predicting factor of WBC. Finally, we picked out the group of overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) women with PCOS and conducted another classification based on HOMA score (HOMA-IR≤2: insulin-sensitive women, HOMA-IR>2: insulin-resistant women) in the group of overweight and obese women with PCOS separately. In overweight women with PCOS, WBC, although higher in the group of insulin-resistant, did not differ significantly between the two groups, while in the subcategory of overweight women WBC was significantly (p=0.02) higher in the group of insulin-resistant women (HOMA-IR >2). Chronic low-grade inflammation and increased white cell count do occur in PCOS. Obesity and insulin resistance are the two leading parameters that act accumulatively in the development of leucocytosis, whereas

  4. [Current options of insulin resistence correction in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova, T Iu; Ametov, A S; Titova, O I

    2006-01-01

    To study thiasolidindion drug pioglitazone for efficacy in metabolic syndrome (MS). Twenty patients with MS were examined at baseline and after 12 week therapy with pioglitazone. The examination included estimation of fasting and postprandial glycemia, insulin resistance index, HOMA-IR index, HbAlc, lipid profile, microalbuminuria (MAU), blood pressure, endothelium-related vasodilation. Pioglitazone therapy for 12 weeks significantly reduced HbAlc, fasting and postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, HOMA-IR, improved blood lipid spectrum, reduced visceral obesity. Positive effects were also achieved on blood pressure, MAU and endothelium-related vasodilation.

  5. Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jina; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) is used as a therapeutic agent for central precocious puberty (CPP); however, increased obesity may subsequently occur. This study compared body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance during the first year of GnRHa treatment for CPP. Patient group included 83 girls (aged 7.0-8.9 years) with developed breasts and a peak luteinizing hormone level of ≥5 IU/L after GnRH stimulation. Control group included 48 prepubertal girls. BMI and insulin resistance-related indices (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI]) were used to compare the groups before treatment, and among the patient group before and after GnRHa treatment. No statistical difference in BMI z -score was detected between the 2 groups before treatment. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were increased in the patient group; fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio and QUICKI were increased in the control group (all P resistance compared to the control group. During GnRHa treatment, normal-weight individuals showed increased BMI z -scores without increased insulin resistance; the overweight group demonstrated increased insulin resistance without significantly altered BMI z -scores. Long-term follow-up of BMI and insulin resistance changes in patients with CPP is required.

  6. Regional Brain Glucose Hypometabolism in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Possible Link to Mild Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Nugent, Scott; Tremblay, Sébastien; Fortier, Mélanie; Imbeault, Hélène; Duval, Julie; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) is altered in normal weight young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who exhibit mild insulin resistance. Seven women with PCOS were compared to eleven healthy female controls of similar age, education and body mass index. Regional brain glucose uptake was quantified using FDG with dynamic positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and its potential relationship with insulin resistance assessed using the updated homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2-IR). A battery of cognitive tests was administered to evaluate working memory, attention and executive function. The PCOS group had 10% higher fasting glucose and 40% higher HOMA2-IR (p ≤ 0.035) compared to the Controls. The PCOS group had 9-14% lower CMRglu in specific regions of the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices (p ≤ 0.018). A significant negative relation was found between the CMRglu and HOMA2-IR mainly in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices as well as in the hippocampus and the amygdala (p ≤ 0.05). Globally, cognitive performance was normal in both groups but scores on the PASAT test of working memory tended to be low in the PCOS group. The PCOS group exhibited a pattern of low regional CMRglu that correlated inversely with HOMA2-IR in several brain regions and which resembled the pattern seen in aging and early Alzheimer's disease. These results suggest that a direct association between mild insulin resistance and brain glucose hypometabolism independent of overweight or obesity can exist in young adults in their 20s. Further investigation of the influence of insulin resistance on brain glucose metabolism and cognition in younger and middle-aged adults is warranted.

  7. Regional Brain Glucose Hypometabolism in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Possible Link to Mild Insulin Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian-Alexandre Castellano

    Full Text Available To investigate whether cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu is altered in normal weight young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS who exhibit mild insulin resistance.Seven women with PCOS were compared to eleven healthy female controls of similar age, education and body mass index. Regional brain glucose uptake was quantified using FDG with dynamic positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and its potential relationship with insulin resistance assessed using the updated homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2-IR. A battery of cognitive tests was administered to evaluate working memory, attention and executive function.The PCOS group had 10% higher fasting glucose and 40% higher HOMA2-IR (p ≤ 0.035 compared to the Controls. The PCOS group had 9-14% lower CMRglu in specific regions of the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices (p ≤ 0.018. A significant negative relation was found between the CMRglu and HOMA2-IR mainly in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices as well as in the hippocampus and the amygdala (p ≤ 0.05. Globally, cognitive performance was normal in both groups but scores on the PASAT test of working memory tended to be low in the PCOS group.The PCOS group exhibited a pattern of low regional CMRglu that correlated inversely with HOMA2-IR in several brain regions and which resembled the pattern seen in aging and early Alzheimer's disease. These results suggest that a direct association between mild insulin resistance and brain glucose hypometabolism independent of overweight or obesity can exist in young adults in their 20s. Further investigation of the influence of insulin resistance on brain glucose metabolism and cognition in younger and middle-aged adults is warranted.

  8. Adiponectin and waist circumference as predictors of insulin-resistance in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Graciela A; Pedrozo, Williams R; Berg, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The initial disturbance of insulin resistance seems to focus on adipose tissue is a dynamic organ involved in many physiological and metabolic processes. Expresses and secretes a variety of active peptides, adipocytokines. To evaluate the prevalence of insulin-resistance in an healthy urban middle age population and to explore the role of adiponectin, inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of the insulin-resistance state. We studied of 176 participants (117 women and 59 men, 25-74 years), individuals with diabetes, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, infectious disease, renal, or hepatic neoplasms and pregnant women were excluded. We evaluated glucose, insulin, adiponectin and hs-CRP. We found that 17.2% of individuals presented insulin-resistance. Correlation was found between waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure and HOMA index (pinsulin-resistance (pinsulin-resistance in men. Besides, postmenopausal women presented higher adiponectin levels than premenopausal 7.63 (4.46-9.58) vs 5.50 (3.83-7.40) μg/ml, p=0.01. Adiponectin and waist circumference are important predictors of insulin-resistance even in healthy non-diabetic women, they may open a new opportunity to improve current risk estimation. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Diagnosis of insulin resistance by indirect methods in obese school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Nerkis; de Szarvas, Sobeida Barbella; Mathison, Yaira; Hadad, Erika; González, Dora; Hernández, Ana; Guevara, Harold

    2013-06-01

    Obesity leads to a deterioration of glucose tolerance and the action of insulin. The purpose of this study was to determine insulin resistance (IR) by indirect methods, and its correlation with clinical, anthropometric and biochemical variables in obese normoglycemic school children. This was a descriptive-correlational study of 72 school prepubescent children, who attended the ambulatory "El Concejo" of the University of Carabobo (UC) and at the Gastroenterology and Pediatric Nutrition service of the city hospital "Enrique Tejera" (CHET), in Valencia, Venezuela, between January-April 2011. exogenous obesity. We assessed personal and family history, presence of Acanthosis Nigricans and nutritional and biochemical status. We found a higher percentage of IR, through the use of the QUICKI method (66.7%), followed by the HOMA (55.6%) and basal insulin (45.9%). The mean (chi) indexes of body mass and waist circumference were significantly greater (p method detected significant differences (p methods. In conclusion, the evaluated techniques, QUICKI, HOMA and basal insulin indexes, were most effective for detecting the IR.

  10. Detecting insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome: purposes and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Castracane, V Daniel; Kauffman, Robert P

    2004-02-01

    Approximately 50% to 70% of all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have some degree of insulin resistance, and this hormone insensitivity probably contributes to the hyperandrogenism that is responsible for the signs and symptoms of PCOS. Although uncertainty exists, early detection and treatment of insulin resistance in this population could ultimately reduce the incidence or severity of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Even if that proves to be the case, there are still several problems with our current approach to insulin sensitivity assessment in PCOS, including the apparent lack of consensus on what defines PCOS and "normal" insulin sensitivity, ethnic and genetic variability, the presence of other factors contributing to insulin resistance such as obesity, stress, and aging, and concern about whether simplified models of insulin sensitivity have the precision to predict treatment needs, responses, and future morbidity. Although the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique is the gold standard for measuring insulin sensitivity, it is too expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive to be of practical use in an office setting. Homeostatic measurements (fasting glucose/insulin ratio or homeostatic model assessment [HOMA] value) and minimal model tests (particularly the oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) represent the easiest office-based assessments of insulin resistance in the PCOS patient. The OGTT is probably the best simple, office-based method to assess women with PCOS because it provides information about both insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. The diagnosis of glucose intolerance holds greater prognostic and treatment implications. All obese women with PCOS should be screened for the presence of insulin resistance by looking for other stigmata of the insulin resistance syndrome such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, central obesity, and glucose intolerance.

  11. Heart Rate Variability, Insulin Resistance, and Insulin Sensitivity in Japanese Adults: The Toon Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Saito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although impaired cardiac autonomic function is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians, evidence in Asian populations with a lower body mass index is limited. Methods: Between 2009–2012, the Toon Health Study recruited 1899 individuals aged 30–79 years who were not taking medication for diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was used to diagnose type 2 diabetes, and fasting and 2-h-postload glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. We assessed the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and Gutt’s insulin sensitivity index (ISI. Pulse was recorded for 5 min, and time-domain heart rate variability (HRV indices were calculated: the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN and the root mean square of successive difference (RMSSD. Power spectral analysis provided frequency domain measures of HRV: high frequency (HF power, low frequency (LF power, and the LF:HF ratio. Results: Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models showed decreased SDNN, RMSSD, and HF, and increased LF:HF ratio were associated significantly with increased HOMA-IR and decreased ISI. When stratified by overweight status, the association of RMSSD, HF, and LF:HF ratio with decreased ISI was also apparent in non-overweight individuals. The interaction between LF:HF ratio and decreased ISI in overweight individuals was significant, with the odds ratio for decreased ISI in the highest quartile of LF:HF ratio in non-overweight individuals being 2.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.41–3.10. Conclusions: Reduced HRV was associated with insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity. Decreased ISI was linked with parasympathetic dysfunction, primarily in non-overweight individuals.

  12. The correlation of adiponectin, IL-6 with insulin resistance and macrovascular lesion in type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Bimin; Cheng Xingbo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the serum level changes of adiponectin and IL-6 and their relation with macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes before and after thiazolidinediones intervention. Methods: Serum adiponectin and IL-6 level were examined using ELISA method in 16 patients with obese type 2 diabetes, 24 patients with diabetes with normal body weight, and 14 controls. Their body mass index (BMI) and HOMA-IR were calculated and the internal membrane thickness (IMT) of carotid artery was also observed. These indexes were reexamined after thiazolidinediones (Avandia) intervention and correlation analysis was performed. Results: A decreased serum concentration of adiponectin and an elevated level of IL-6 and HOMA-IR were found in diabetes group especially in those with obesity (P<0.01). Serum adiponectin was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR, BMI, IL-6 and IMT while IL-6 was positively correlated with the above-mentioned indexes. After treatment with thiazolidinediones, the insulin resistance state and adponectin and IL-6 were significantly improved especially in those with obesity (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: Adiponectin is closed correlated with obesity (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: Adiponectin is closed correlated with obesity, insulin resistance and macrovascular lesions. IL-6 may be involved in the mechanism of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients especially in the obese diabetes group. In addition to enhance the sensitivity of insulin, thiazolidinediones may play a potential role in anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis and immuno-regulation. (authors)

  13. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  14. Effect of atorvastatin on pancreatic Beta-cell function and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Aman; Singh, Surender; Tandon, Nikhil; Gupta, Nandita; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Statins are commonly used for the management of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could modulate the beta-cell function by altering the levels of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic lipoproteins and could also have an effect on insulin resistance. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of atorvastatin 10 mg on pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin resistance in patients with hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes by using the homeostasis model assessment-2 (HOMA2) index. Fifty-one type 2 diabetes patients receiving oral antidiabetes drugs, not taking statins, with baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between 2.6 mmol/L and 4.1 mmol/L were included. Forty-three patients (21 in placebo group and 22 in atorvastatin group) completed the study and were taken up for final analysis. Fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline and at 12 weeks to determine levels of blood glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-peptide and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C). Atorvastatin nonsignificantly increased fasting serum insulin (+14.29%, p=0.18), accompanied by marginal nonsignificant increases in fasting plasma glucose and A1C. There was a decrease in HOMA2 percent beta-cell function (-2.9%, p=0.72) and increase in HOMA2 insulin resistance (+14%, p=0.16) in the atorvastatin group as compared with baseline, but the difference was not statistically significant. Atorvastatin in the dose used failed to produce significant change in pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients as assessed by the HOMA2 index. The possible explanations include absence of lipotoxicity at prevailing levels of dyslipidemia at baseline or inadequacy of statin dose used in the study. (Clinical Trials Registry-India: CTRI/2008/091/000099). Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations between insulin action and integrity of brain microstructure differ with familial longevity and with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van den Berg, Annette; van Buchem, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    [fasted glucose and glucose area-under-the-curve (AUC)], insulin resistance [fasted insulin, AUCinsulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], and pancreatic Beta cell secretory capacity (insulinogenic index). 3 Tesla MRI and Magnetization Transfer (MT) imaging MT-ratio (MTR......-height in gray and white matter was inversely associated with AUCinsulin, fasted insulin, HOMA-IR and insulinogenic-index (all p 65 years): in younger controls, significantly stronger inverse associations were observed between MTR peak-height and fasted glucose......, AUCglucose, fasted insulin, AUCinsulin and HOMA-IR in gray matter; and for AUCglucose, fasted insulin and HOMA-IR in white matter (all P-interaction

  16. Plasma levels of lysine, tyrosine, and valine during pregnancy are independent risk factors of insulin resistance and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Ju Hong; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    This study compared plasma concentrations of amino acids in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and identified the association between plasma amino acid levels and GDM, insulin resistance, and insulin secretion at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. Circulating amino acid levels were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy in 25 non-GDM and 64 GDM women after adjusting for covariates such as maternal age, body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, BMI and gestational age at screening GDM, and daily caloric intake. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of developing GDM, and homeostatic model assessments for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-B). Circulating levels of amino acids except threonine and tyrosine were significantly higher in GDM women than non-GDM women. Along with the intakes of energy, protein, and fat from animal sources, the intakes of each amino acid were significantly higher in the GDM group without a direct correlation to plasma amino acid levels. The variation in GDM development was explained by maternal age, diastolic blood pressure, and plasma lysine levels (R(2)=0.691). Height, BMI before pregnancy, systolic blood pressure, and plasma tyrosine and valine levels accounted for the variation in HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.589). The 53.3% variation of HOMA-B was explained by maternal age, BMI at GDM screening, plasma insulin level at 1 h during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and plasma valine level. Circulating concentrations of lysine, tyrosine, and valine were independently and positively associated with GDM through modifying insulin resistance and secretion.

  17. Insulin Resistance Is Associated With Smaller Cortical Bone Size in Nondiabetic Men at the Age of Peak Bone Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verroken, Charlotte; Zmierczak, Hans-Georg; Goemaere, Stefan; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Lapauw, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fracture risk is increased despite preserved areal bone mineral density. Although this apparent paradox may in part be explained by insulin resistance affecting bone structure and/or material properties, few studies have investigated the association between insulin resistance and bone geometry. We aimed to explore this association in a cohort of nondiabetic men at the age of peak bone mass. Nine hundred ninety-six nondiabetic men aged 25 to 45 years were recruited in a cross-sectional, population-based sibling pair study at a university research center. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), with insulin and glucose measured from fasting serum samples. Bone geometry was assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the distal radius and the radial and tibial shafts. In age-, height-, and weight-adjusted analyses, HOMA-IR was inversely associated with trabecular area at the distal radius and with cortical area, periosteal and endosteal circumference, and polar strength strain index at the radial and tibial shafts (β ≤ -0.13, P insulin-like growth factor 1, or sex steroid levels. In this cohort of nondiabetic men at the age of peak bone mass, insulin resistance is inversely associated with trabecular and cortical bone size. These associations persist after adjustment for body composition, muscle size or function, or sex steroid levels, suggesting an independent effect of insulin resistance on bone geometry. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  18. Association between insulin resistance and oxidative stress parameters in obese adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgon, Özgür; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Çekmez, Ferhat; Kurku, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common chronic liver diseases in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of oxidative stress with insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in obese adolescents with NAFLD. Forty-six obese adolescents (23 girls and 23 boys, mean age: 12.8 ± 2.2 years) and 29 control subjects (15 girls and 14 boys, mean age: 12.7 ± 2.7 years) were enrolled in the study. The obese subjects were divided into two groups (NAFLD group and non-NAFLD group) based on the elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>30 IU/L) and the presence or absence of liver steatosis detected by ultrasonography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) from fasting samples. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) level measurements (REL Assay Diagnostics) were done in all participants. The ratio of TOS to TAS was regarded as an oxidative stress index (OSI), an indicator of the degree of OS. Fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR values in the NAFLD group were significantly higher than in the non-NAFLD and control groups. TAS measurements were decreased in both obese groups (NAFLD and non-NAFLD) in comparison with the control group. TOS and OSI measurements were higher in the NAFLD group than in the non-NAFLD and control groups. OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.67, p=0.01) and HOMA-IR (r=0.71, p=0.02) in the NAFLD obese group. In this cross-sectional study, elevated OS markers in obese adolescents with NAFLD were associated with insulin resistance. This data suggest that an antioxidant therapy might have a potential for treating NAFLD associated with insulin resistance.

  19. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Vafaeimanesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (HP is a common worldwide infection with known gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal complications. One of the gastrointestinal side effects posed for this organism is its role in diabetes and increased insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HP and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetics. This cross-sectional study was carried out from May to December 2013 on 211 diabetic patients referred to diabetes clinic of Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Qom and 218 patients without diabetes. HP was evaluated using serology method and insulin resistance was calculated using HOMA-IR. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 55.8% and 44.2% in diabetics and nondiabetics (P=0.001. The study population was divided into two HP positive and negative groups. Among nondiabetics, insulin resistance degree was 3.01±2.12 and 2.74±2.18 in HP+ and HP− patients, respectively P=0.704. Oppositely, insulin resistance was significantly higher in diabetic HP+ patients rather than seronegative ones (4.484±2.781 versus 3.160±2.327, P=0.013. In diabetic patients, in addition to higher prevalence of HP, it causes a higher degree of insulin resistance.

  20. Exposure of Pregnant Mice to Triclosan Causes Insulin Resistance via Thyroxine Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xu; Cao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Li; Sun, Peng; Chen, Ling

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial agent, during pregnancy is associated with hypothyroxinemia and decreases in placental glucose transporter expression and activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of TCS on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in gestational mice (G-mice) and nongestational female mice (Ng-mice) as a control. Herein, we show that the exposure of G-mice to TCS (8 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to GD17 significantly increased their levels of fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin, and insulin content in pancreatic β-cells with reduced homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-β index and increased HOMA-IR index. Area under curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin tolerance tests in TCS (8 mg/kg)-treated G-mice were markedly larger than controls. When compared with controls, TCS (8 mg/kg)-treated G-mice showed a significant decrease in the levels of thyroxine and triiodothyroninelevels, PPARγ and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression, and Akt phosphorylation in adipose tissue and muscle. Replacement of L-thyroxine in TCS (8 mg/kg)-treated G-mice corrected their insulin resistance and recovered the levels of insulin, PPARγ and GLUT4 expression, and Akt phosphorylation. Activation of PPARγ by administration of rosiglitazone recovered the decrease in Akt phosphorylation, but not GLUT4 expression. Although exposure to TCS (8 mg/kg) in Ng-mice reduced thyroid hormones levels, it did not cause the insulin resistance or affect PPARγ and GLUT4 expression, and Akt phosphorylation. The findings indicate that the exposure of gestational mice to TCS (≥8 mg/kg) results in insulin resistance via thyroid hormones reduction. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Nasal insulin changes peripheral insulin sensitivity simultaneously with altered activity in homeostatic and reward-related human brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heni, M; Kullmann, S; Ketterer, C; Guthoff, M; Linder, K; Wagner, R; Stingl, K T; Veit, R; Staiger, H; Häring, H-U; Preissl, H; Fritsche, A

    2012-06-01

    Impaired insulin sensitivity is a major factor leading to type 2 diabetes. Animal studies suggest that the brain is involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. We investigated whether insulin action in the human brain regulates peripheral insulin sensitivity and examined which brain areas are involved. Insulin and placebo were given intranasally. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide were measured in 103 participants at 0, 30 and 60 min. A subgroup (n = 12) was also studied with functional MRI, and blood sampling at 0, 30 and 120 min. For each time-point, the HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated as an inverse estimate of peripheral insulin sensitivity. Plasma insulin increased and subsequently decreased. This excursion was accompanied by slightly decreased plasma glucose, resulting in an initially increased HOMA-IR. At 1 h after insulin spray, the HOMA-IR subsequently decreased and remained lower up to 120 min. An increase in hypothalamic activity was observed, which correlated with the increased HOMA-IR at 30 min post-spray. Activity in the putamen, right insula and orbitofrontal cortex correlated with the decreased HOMA-IR at 120 min post-spray. Central insulin action in specific brain areas, including the hypothalamus, may time-dependently regulate peripheral insulin sensitivity. This introduces a potential novel mechanism for the regulation of peripheral insulin sensitivity and underlines the importance of cerebral insulin action for the whole organism.

  2. Ovulation induction with myo-inositol alone and in combination with clomiphene citrate in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Zdravko; Kolarov, Georgi; Gateva, Antoaneta; Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Genazzani, Alessandro D

    2015-02-01

    Insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). One of the methods for correcting insulin resistance is using myo-inositol. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of myo-inositol alone or in combination with clomiphene citrate for (1) induction of ovulation and (2) pregnancy rate in anovulatory women with PCOS and proven insulin resistance. This study included 50 anovulatory PCOS patients with insulin resistance. All of them received myo-inositolduring three spontaneous cycles. If patients remained anovulatory and/or no pregnancy was achieved, combination of myo-inositol and clomiphene citrate was used in the next three cycles. Ovulation and pregnancy rate, changes in body mass index (BMI) and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index and the rate of adverse events were assessed. After myo-inositol treatment, ovulation was present in 29 women (61.7%) and 18 (38.3%) were resistant. Of the ovulatory women, 11 became pregnant (37.9%). Of the 18 myo-inositol resistant patients after clomiphene treatment, 13 (72.2%) ovulated. Of the 13 ovulatory women, 6 (42.6%) became pregnant. During follow-up, a reduction of body mass index and HOMA index was also observed. Myo-inositol treatment ameliorates insulin resistance and body weight, and improves ovarian activity in PCOS patients.

  3. Association of paraoxonase-1 gene polymorphisms with insulin resistance in South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathi, Panneerselvam; Iyer, Anandi Chandramouli; Murugan, Ponniah Senthil; Sasikumar, Sundaresan; Raj, Nancy Bright Arul Joseph; Ganesan, Divya; Nallaperumal, Sivagnanam; Murugan, Maruthamuthu; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2018-04-15

    Insulin resistance plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, paraoxonase-1(PON1) is reported to have an ability to reduce insulin resistance by promoting glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) expression in vitro. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PON1 is associated with variability in enzyme activity and concentration. Based on this we aimed to investigate the association of PON1 (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms with the risk of developing insulin resistance in adult South Indian population. Two hundred and eighty seven (287) Type 2 diabetes patients and 293 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. All the study subjects were genotyped for PON1 (Q192R and L55M) missense polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP) method. Fasting serum insulin level was measured by ELISA. The distribution of QR/RR and LM/MM genotypes were significantly higher in type 2 diabetes patients compared with healthy controls. Moreover, the R and M alleles were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes with an Odds Ratio of 1.68 (P  R genotypes were found to be significantly associated with higher BMI, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR. Further, the mutant allele or genotypes of PON1 L55M were associated with higher BMI, triglycerides, VLDL, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR among adult type 2 diabetes patients. PON1 (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms may play a crucial role in pathogenesis and susceptibility of insulin resistance thus leads to the development of type 2 diabetes in South Indian population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of adrenomedullin gene delivery on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats

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    Hoda Y. Henein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders that ultimately afflicts large number of individuals. Adrenomedullin (AM is a potent vasodilator peptide; previous studies reported development of insulin resistance in aged AM deficient mice. In this study, we employed a gene delivery approach to explore its potential role in insulin resistance. Four groups were included: control, diabetic, non-diabetic injected with the AM gene and diabetic injected with the AM gene. One week following gene delivery, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin and corticosterone were measured as well as the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR. Soleus muscle glucose uptake and RT-PCR of both AM and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT 4 gene expressions were assessed. A single tail vein injection of adrenomedullin gene in type 2 diabetic rats improved skeletal muscle insulin responsiveness with significant improvement of soleus muscle glucose uptake, HOMA-IR, serum glucose, insulin and triglycerides and significant increase in muscle GLUT 4 gene expression (P < 0.05 compared with the non-injected diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of AM gene delivery were accompanied by a significant increase in the serum level of adiponectin (2.95 ± 0.09 versus 2.33 ± 0.17 μg/ml in the non-injected diabetic group as well as a significant decrease in leptin and corticosterone levels (7.51 ± 0.51 and 262.88 ± 10.34 versus 10.63 ± 1.4 and 275.86 ± 11.19 ng/ml respectively in the non-injected diabetic group. The conclusion of the study is that AM gene delivery can improve insulin resistance and may have significant therapeutic applications in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Association between omentin levels and insulin resistance in pregnancy.

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    Aktas, G; Alcelik, A; Ozlu, T; Tosun, M; Tekce, B K; Savli, H; Tekce, H; Dikbas, O

    2014-03-01

    Omentin is a new adipokine secreted mainly from visceral adipose tissue. Serum omentin is found to be reduced in patients with impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and insulin resistant states. Despite the fact that pregnancy is also characterized with hyperinsulinemia, literature is lacking about data of omentin levels and its association with insulin resistance in pregnant women. We aimed to evaluate the association of omentin levels and insulin resistance in pregnant women and to compare these levels with those of non-pregnant, non-diabetic women. Uncomplicated pregnant women who admit to our outpatient clinics for routine follow-up were included in the study group. Non-pregnant women without diabetes mellitus were served as control group. Fasting glucose, insulin, omentin levels and HOMA IR were recorded. SPSS 15.0 for Windows was used for statistical analysis. There were 36 pregnant women in the study group and 37 healthy, non-pregnant women in the control group. Serum omentin and fasting glucose levels were significantly decreased and fasting insulin was significantly increased in the study group compared to control group. Omentin might be an indicator of insulin resistance in pregnant women. Larger prospective studies are needed to claim whether omentin can have a clinical use for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Definition of insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) in IVF patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to the Rotterdam criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebić, Miro Šimun; Bulum, Tomislav; Stojanović, Nataša; Duvnjak, Lea

    2014-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women are more insulin resistant than general population. Prevalence data on insulin resistance (IR) in PCOS vary depending on population characteristics and methodology used. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether IR in PCOS is exclusively associated with body mass and to assess the prevalence of IR in lean and overweight/obese PCOS. Study included 250 consecutive women who attended a Department of Human Reproduction diagnosed as having PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. Control group comprised 500 healthy women referred for male factor infertility evaluation during the same period as the PCOS women. PCOS women (n = 250) were more insulin resistant than controls (n = 500) even after adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.03). Using logistic regression analysis, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (OR 6.0; 95 % CI 3.3-11.0), PCOS (OR 2.2; 95 % CI 1.4-3.5) and waist circumference ≥ 80 cm (OR 2.0; 95 % CI 1.1-3.8) were identified as independent determinants of IR (P IR was more prevalent in overweight/obese controls (n = 100) than in lean PCOS women (n = 150), 31 versus 9.3 %, but less prevalent than in overweight/obese PCOS (n = 100), 31 versus 57 %. The prevalence of IR between lean controls (5 %) and lean PCOS (9.3 %) did not significantly differ. Both PCOS-specific and obesity-related IR independently contribute to IR in PCOS. Using HOMA-IR cutoff value of 3.15 specific for Croatian women in our clinical setting, the assessed prevalence of IR in lean and overweight/obese PCOS women was 9.3 and 57 %, respectively.

  7. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in relation to the poor functional outcomes in nondiabetic patients with ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siou; Yin, Changhao; Zhao, Weina; Zhu, Haifu; Xu, Dan; Xu, Qing; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Xue; Qiao, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Whether insulin resistance (IR) predicts worse functional outcome in ischemic stroke is still a matter of debate. The aim of the present study is to determine the association between IR and risk of poor outcome in 173 Chinese nondiabetic patients with acute ischemic stroke. This is a prospective, population-based cohort study. Insulin sensitivity, expressed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin sensitivity (HOMA index = (fasting insulin × fasting glucose)/22.5). IR was defined by HOMA-IR index in the top quartile (Q4). Functional impairment was evaluated at discharge using the modified Rankin scale (mRS). The median (interquartile range) HOMA-IR was 2.14 (1.17–2.83), and Q4 was at least 2.83. There was a significantly positive correlation between HOMA-IR and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (r = 0.408; PIR group were associated with a higher risk of poor functional outcome (odds ratio (OR) = 3.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.75–5.08; P=0.001). In multivariate models comparing the third and fourth quartiles against the first quartile of the HOMA-IR, levels of HOMA-IR were associated with poor outcome, and the adjusted risk of poor outcome increased by 207% (OR = 3.05 (95% CI 1.70–4.89), P=0.006) and 429% (5.29 (3.05–9.80), PHOMA-IR to clinical examination variables (P=0.02). High HOMA-IR index is associated with a poor functional outcome in nondiabetic patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:29588341

  8. Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Heme Oxygenase-1, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Morbid Obesity with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Raquel; Masdeu, Maria José; Vigil, Laura; Rigla, Mercedes; Luna, Alexis; Rebasa, Pere; Pareja, Rocío; Hurtado, Marta; Caixàs, Assumpta

    2017-09-01

    Morbid obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) interact at an inflammatory level. Bariatric surgery reduces inflammatory responses associated with obesity. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme with anti-inflammatory properties, which might be increased in morbid obesity or OSA. We studied morbidly obese patients with OSA to determine: (a) HO-1 plasma concentrations according to OSA severity and their relationship with insulin resistance and inflammation and (b) the impact of bariatric surgery on HO-1 and parameters of insulin resistance and inflammation. We analyzed the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA) and plasma concentrations of HO-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-1-beta, C reactive protein (CRP), and adiponectin according to polysomnography findings in 66 morbidly obese patients before bariatric surgery and 12 months after surgery. Before surgery, HO-1 plasma concentrations were similar in three groups of patients with mild, moderate, and severe OSA, and correlated with HOMA (r = 0.27, p = 0.02). Twelve months after surgery, low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance had decreased in all the groups, but HO-1 plasma concentration had decreased only in the severe OSA group (p = 0.02). In this group, the reduction in HO-1 correlated with a reduction in CRP concentrations (r = 0.43, p = 0.04) and with improved HOMA score (r = 0.37, p = 0.03). Bariatric surgery decreases HO-1 concentrations in morbid obesity with severe OSA, and this decrease is associated with decreases in insulin resistance and in inflammation.

  9. Assessment of insulin resistance in Chinese PCOS patients with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Zhou, Li; Hong, Jie; Chen, Chen

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate insulin resistance (IR) status in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and further to evaluate feasible diagnostic method for those patients. Three hundred and twenty-five PCOS women with NGT and ninety-five healthy age-matched controls were recruited with Rotterdam criterion and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR status was estimated following a glycemic and insulinemic OGTT (0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min). A modified HOMA-IR formula was applied to each time-course value of glycemia and insulinemia. The predictive performance of each IR index was analyzed with the use of ROC curves. Compared with healthy controls, both non-obese and obese PCOS patients with NGT had a higher BMI, serum glucose, insulin value (p PCOS-NGT was a HOMA-M30 value of 20.36 or more (AUC: 0.753). In obese PCOS-NGT population, the best predictive performance was obtained by a HOMA-M60 value of 32.17 or more (AUC: 0.868). IR was common in Chinese PCOS women with NGT, and the early assessment of IR should be heeded. We recommended HOMA-M30 (Cutoff: 20.36) and HOMA-M60 (Cutoff: 32.17) as the best predictive parameters for non-obese and obese PCOS-NGT patients, respectively.

  10. The Relationship between Changes in Weight Status and Insulin Resistance in Youth

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    Evenson Kelly

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in insulin resistance (IR in 120 youth over two years. IR was quantified via homeostatic model (HOMA-IR, and weight status changes were quantified via body mass index (BMI. When all participants were considered, the mean HOMA-IR and BMI increased 13.4% and 1.65 units, respectively. Change in BMI z-score and percent change in HOMA-IR were moderately associated (. Follow-up analyses were performed for the following weight groups: NN (normal at baseline and two years later, NO (normal to overweight, ON (overweight to normal, and OO (overweight at both points. The NO group had a greater change in HOMA-IR (+50% compared to other groups: ON (8%, NN (+2%, and OO (0.1% (. The association between changes in BMI z-score and HOMA-IR was when only the NO and ON groups were included. These results reinforce the importance of preventing youth from becoming overweight to control IR.

  11. Insulin resistance in first-trimester pregnant women with pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Xie, Q X; Chen, C Y; Yang, C; Li, Y Z; Chen, D M; Xie, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) has been reported to play an important role in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, scanted materials exist regarding the independent effect of IR on RSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the status of IR in first trimester pregnant patients with normal pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of RSA. This two-center case-control study enrolled totally 626 first trimester pregnant women including 161 patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion, who were pre-pregnantly glucose-tolerant according to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and 465 women with no history of abnormal pregnancies of any kind. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were simultaneously measured in all participants. Serum beta-HCG, estradiol, progesterone, fasting plasma glucose and fasting plasma insulin levels, as well, the calculated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma glucose/insulin ratio(G/I) and pregnancy outcome were analyzed and compared. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were found to be significantly lower in RSA group compared to controls. Subjects in RSA group were found to have higher HOMA-IR and lower G/I ratio than those in control group. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR, and positively with G/I ratio even after adjustment for BMI. The spontaneous abortion rate within first trimester pregnancy of RSA patients was significantly higher than that in controls. In conclusion, woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion and normal pre-pregnant glucose metabolism tends to be more insulin resistant during first trimester pregnancy than healthy controls, no matter whether she has PCOS or not. Insulin resistance might be one of the direct causes that lead to recurrent abortion.

  12. The association between insulin resistance, metabolic variables, and depressive symptoms in Mexican-American elderly: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Breno S; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; McCormick, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among older adults with obesity and diabetes. Nonetheless, the mechanisms for this association are not clear but may involve changes in the insulin cascade signaling. We aimed to investigate the association, and potential mediators, between obesity, insulin resistance, and depressive symptoms among older adults from a homogenous cohort of Mexican-Americans. We included a total of 500 Mexican-American older adults assessed in the Cameron County Health Study. We evaluated depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Survey Depression Scale (CES-D). Central obesity was defined by waist circumference. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the HOMA-IR index. We estimated the association between obesity, insulin resistance, and depressive symptoms by carrying out univariate and multivariate regression analyses. In unadjusted regression analysis, HOMA-IR (unstandardized β = 0.31 ± 0.12, P = 0.007), waist circumference (unstandardized β = 0.066 ± 0.0.028, P = 0.017), and Hb1Ac levels (unstandardized β = 0.52 ± 0.24, P = 0.03) were significantly associated with CES-D scores. The association of HOMA-IR and CES-D remained statistically significant after controlling for socio-demographic and clinical variables in multivariate analysis (unstandardized β = 0.28 ± 0.11, P = 0.01). Our results suggest that depressive symptoms are associated with insulin resistance in older Mexican-American adults. In addition, poorer glucose control and obesity are important mediators of this relationship. Additional studies are needed to evaluate whether interventions that increase insulin sensitivity can also reduce depressive symptoms in this population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Mid-gestational serum uric acid concentration effect on neonate birth weight and insulin resistance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Khadijeh; Razavi, Maryamsadat; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Reza; Mashhadi, Esmat; Chehrei, Ali; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between mid-gestational serum uric acid and birth weight in diabetic pregnant women with or without insulin resistance. In a prospective cohort study, fasting uric acid, blood glucose, and serum insulin were measured in 247 pregnant women between 20-22 weeks of gestational period. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Stratification analysis and independent t-test was used to assess the association between uric acid and birth weights regarding to insulin resistance. The means of the mid-gestational serum uric acid concentrations were not significantly different in women with and without insulin resistance. But stratification analysis showed that there was a significant difference between uric acid concentration and macrosomic birth in diabetic women without insulin resistance. Higher mid - gestation serum uric acid concentration, even if it does not exceed the normal range, is accompanied by lower birth weight only in non-insulin resistance women. Insulin resistance could have a negative confounding effect on hyperuriemia and birth weight.

  14. A Follow-up Study on BMI-SDS and Insulin Resistance in Overweight and Obese Children at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soulmaz Fazeli Farsani PharmD, MSc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS, insulin sensitivity, and progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in children at risk for T2DM approximately 3 years after being diagnosed with overweight/obesity and insulin resistance (measured by Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance [HOMA-IR]. Methods. Out of 86 invited children, 44 (mean age 15.4 ± 3.6 years participated. Medical history, physical examination, and laboratory workup were performed. Results. While the mean BMI-SDS significantly increased from 2.9 to 3.4, the mean HOMA-IR significantly decreased from 5.5 to 4.6 (baseline vs follow-up visit. Change in HOMA-IR was only due to a decrease in mean fasting plasma insulin (24.1 vs 21.1, P = .073. Conclusions. Although increase in BMI-SDS in these children is worrisome, the American Diabetes Association recommended screening interval of 3 years for children at risk for T2DM is not too long based on the fact that none of our study participants developed T2DM.

  15. Investigation of vitamin D status and its correlation with insulin resistance in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Wang, Xiaojin; Wang, Ningjian; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Zhu, Chunfang; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Pu, Xiaoqi; Cang, Zhen; Zhu, Chaoxia; Lu, Meng; Meng, Ying; Guo, Hui; Chen, Chi; Tu, Weiping; Li, Bin; Hu, Ling; Wang, Bingshun; Lu, Yingli

    2017-06-01

    Although many studies worldwide have focused on the relationship between vitamin D and insulin resistance, results remain controversial. Furthermore, concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the Chinese population are unclear. We aimed to investigate vitamin D status and its correlation with insulin resistance among a Chinese adult population. Serum 25(OH)D, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and other metabolic parameters were assessed. Neck circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, weight and height were also measured. Lifestyle factors including smoking and drinking status were obtained. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by HbA1c according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria. Eastern China. Of 7200 residents included, 6597 individuals were ultimately analysed. We enrolled 2813 males (mean age 52·7 (sd 13·5) years) and 3784 females (52·3 (sd 13·5) years); mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 43·1 (sd 11·6) and 39·6 (sd 9·8) nmol/l, respectively. Additionally, 83·3 % of participants were 25(OH)D deficient. A significant difference in 25(OH)D was observed between males and females in winter and spring (Pinsulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the overweight and pre-diabetic populations. After adjusting for several variables, 25(OH)D was significantly associated with HOMA-IR in winter. When 25(OH)D values were categorized into quartiles, HOMA-IR was significantly associated with decreasing 25(OH)D. The majority of the Chinese population was vitamin D deficient and this deficiency was negatively associated with insulin resistance, particularly in the overweight and pre-diabetic populations. Moreover, these associations might be more evident in the winter.

  16. Importance of Lean Muscle Maintenance to Improve Insulin Resistance by Body Weight Reduction in Female Patients with Obesity

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    Yaeko Fukushima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt has recently been suggested that skeletal muscle has an important role in insulin resistance in obesity, in addition to exercise tolerance and the fat index. The aim of this study was to identify body composition factors that contribute to improvement of insulin resistance in female patients with obesity who reduce body weight.MethodsWe studied 92 female obese patients (age 40.9±10.4 years, body mass index 33.2±4.6 kg/m2 who reduced body weight by ≥5% after an intervention program including diet, exercise therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Before and after the intervention, body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was measured as an index of insulin resistance. Cardiopulmonary exercise was also performed by all patients.ResultsThere were significant improvements in body weight (–10.3%±4.5%, exercise tolerance (anaerobic threshold oxygen uptake 9.1%±18.4%, peak oxygen uptake 11.0%±14.2%, and HOMA-IR (–20.2%±38.3%. Regarding body composition, there were significant decreases in total body fat (–19.3%±9.6%, total fat-free mass (–2.7%±4.3%, and % body fat (–10.1%±7.5%, whereas % skeletal muscle significantly increased (8.9%±7.2%. In stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with change in HOMA-IR as the dependent variable, the change in % skeletal muscle was identified as an independent predictor (β=–0.280, R2=0.068, P<0.01.ConclusionImprovement of insulin resistance in female obese patients requires maintenance of skeletal muscle mass.

  17. Lower adiponectin levels at first trimester of pregnancy are associated with increased insulin resistance and higher risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the associations between adiponectin levels and 1) the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and 2) insulin resistance/sensitivity, β-cell function, and compensation indices in a prospective cohort representative of the general population of pregnant women. We performed anthropometric measurements and collected blood samples at 1st (6-13 weeks) and 2nd (24-28 weeks) trimesters. Diagnosis of GDM was made at 2nd trimester based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria). Insulin was measured (ELISA; Luminex) to estimate homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), insulin secretion (AUC(insulin/glucose)), and β-cell compensation (insulin secretion sensitivity index-2). Adiponectin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Among the 445 participants included in this study, 38 women developed GDM. Women who developed GDM had lower 1st-trimester adiponectin levels (9.67 ± 3.84 vs. 11.92 ± 4.59 µg/mL in women with normal glucose tolerance). Lower adiponectin levels were associated with higher risk of developing GDM (OR, 1.12 per 1 µg/mL decrease of adiponectin levels; P = 0.02, adjusted for BMI and HbA1c at 1st trimester). Adiponectin levels at 1st and 2nd trimesters were associated with HOMA-IR (both: r = -0.22, P insulin/glucose). Pregnant women with lower adiponectin levels at 1st trimester have higher levels of insulin resistance and are more likely to develop GDM independently of adiposity or glycemic measurements.

  18. Insulin resistance according to β-cell function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Do Kyeong; Hong, Young Sun; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Lee, Hyejin

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. IR is recognized as a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, few studies have investigated IR in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance. The objective of this study was to evaluate IR and β-cell function in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance. Additionally, we sought to evaluate the usefulness of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived IR indices in lean women with PCOS. We recruited 100 women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance and 100 age- and BMI-matched women as controls. IR and insulin secretory indices, including the homeostasis-model assessment (HOMA)-IR, HOMA-M120, HOMA-F and the Stumvoll index, were calculated from an OGTT. Increased β-cell function was defined as>75th percentile for the HOMA-F in control women. Women with PCOS had higher values for post-load 2-hour glucose, fasting insulin, post-load 2-hour insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-M120, HOMA-F and lower values for the Stumvoll index than the controls (all PsWomen with PCOS and increased β-cell function showed lower Stumvoll index values than the matched controls (Plean women with PCOS (all PsWomen with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance showed higher IR than controls matched for age, BMI, and β-cell function. β-cell function was increased in women with PCOS when compared to the matched controls, but not when the lean subjects were compared to the matched controls separately. Therefore, early evaluation of IR in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance may be needed.

  19. Study on the relationship between blood glucose level and insulin resistance as pancreatic β-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiaoping; Huang Huijian; Xu Ning; Huang Haibo; Zhuang Huiqin; Su Cainu; Hao Zhiqiang; He Haoming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum immuno-reactive peptide (IR-CP) and true insulin (TI), pro-insulin (PI), immuno-reactive insulin (IR-I) contents and to calculate the insulin resistance (Home-IR), β-cell function (Homa-β) from these data in DM2 patients with different levels of fasting blood sugar (FBG<8.8 and ≥8.8 mmol/L). Methods: Fasting and 2h post- prandial serum TI, PI (with ELISA), IR-I, IR-CP (with RIA) contents were measured in 73 patients with DM2 and Homa-IR, Homa-β were calculated with Homa-model from these data, The 73 DM2 patients were of two groups: Group A, FBG≥8.8 mmol/L, n=46; Group B, FBG<8.8 mmol/L, n=27. Results: The Homa-β calculated from either TI or IR-I was significantly different in Group A and Group B patients. Homa-IR calculated from IR-I was also significantly different in the two groups of patients; however, Homa-IR calculated from TI was about the same in the two groups. relationship between C peptide and TI, PI, IR-I was less obvious in Group A than that in Group B. Both fasting and 2h TI in Group B were significantly higher than those in Group A; the other parameters tested were not much different. Conclusion: The higher FBG levels developed in Group A patients were mostly due to deterioration of β-cell function rather than increase of insulin resistance, as Homa-IR calculated from TI was not much different in the two groups. Further study on the management of diabetes should lay more emphasis on the change of β-cell function. (authors)

  20. PEDIATRIC VISCERAL ADIPOSITY INDEX ADAPTATION CORRELATES WITH HOMA-IR, MATSUDA, AND TRANSAMINASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, María José Garcés; Klünder, Miguel; Nieto, Nayely Garibay; Alvarenga, Juan Carlos López; Gil, Jenny Vilchis; Huerta, Samuel Flores; Siccha, Rosa Quispe; Hernandez, Joselin

    2018-03-01

    Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical model associated with cardiometabolic risk in adults, but studies on children failed to support this association. Our group has proposed a pediatric VAI model using pediatric ranges, but it has not yet been evaluated and needs further adjustments. The objective of this study was to further adjust the proposed pediatric VAI by age, creating a new pediatric metabolic index (PMI), and assess the correlation of the PMI with insulin resistance indexes and hepatic enzymes. A cross-sectional design with data from 396 children (age 5 to 17 years) was analyzed with a generalized linear model to find the coefficients for triglycerides, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and waist circumference-body mass index quotient. The model was constructed according to sex and age and designated PMI. A cross-validation analysis was performed and a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine cut-off points. Significant moderate correlation was found between PMI and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ( r = 0.452; P = .003), Matsuda ( r = -0.366; P = .019), alanine aminotransferase ( r = 0.315, P = .045), and γ-glutamyltransferase ( r = 0.397; P = .010). A PMI score >1.7 was considered as risk. PMI correlates with HOMA-IR, Matsuda, and hepatic enzymes. It could be helpful for identifying children at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. ALT = alanine transaminase BMI = body mass index GGT = γ-glutamyltransferase HDL-C = high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol HOMA-IR = homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance hs-CRP = high sensitivity C-reactive protein ISI = insulin sensitivity index NAFLD = nonalcoholic fatty liver disease PMI = pediatric metabolic index QUICKI = quantitative insulin sensitivity check index ROC = receiver operating characteristic TG = triglyceride TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor-alpha VAI = visceral adiposity index VAT = visceral adipose tissue WC = waist circumference.

  1. Glucokinase regulatory protein genetic variant interacts with omega-3 PUFA to influence insulin resistance and inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

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    Pablo Perez-Martinez

    Full Text Available Glucokinase Regulatory Protein (GCKR plays a central role regulating both hepatic triglyceride and glucose metabolism. Fatty acids are key metabolic regulators, which interact with genetic factors and influence glucose metabolism and other metabolic traits. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA have been of considerable interest, due to their potential to reduce metabolic syndrome (MetS risk.To examine whether genetic variability at the GCKR gene locus was associated with the degree of insulin resistance, plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP and n-3 PUFA in MetS subjects.Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, plasma concentrations of C-peptide, CRP, fatty acid composition and the GCKR rs1260326-P446L polymorphism, were determined in a cross-sectional analysis of 379 subjects with MetS participating in the LIPGENE dietary cohort.Among subjects with n-3 PUFA levels below the population median, carriers of the common C/C genotype had higher plasma concentrations of fasting insulin (P = 0.019, C-peptide (P = 0.004, HOMA-IR (P = 0.008 and CRP (P = 0.032 as compared with subjects carrying the minor T-allele (Leu446. In contrast, homozygous C/C carriers with n-3 PUFA levels above the median showed lower plasma concentrations of fasting insulin, peptide C, HOMA-IR and CRP, as compared with individuals with the T-allele.We have demonstrated a significant interaction between the GCKR rs1260326-P446L polymorphism and plasma n-3 PUFA levels modulating insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in MetS subjects. Further studies are needed to confirm this gene-diet interaction in the general population and whether targeted dietary recommendations can prevent MetS in genetically susceptible individuals.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00429195.

  2. Anti-Mullerian hormone and insulin resistance in classic phenotype lean PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Gamze Sinem; Kahyaoglu, Inci; Pabuccu, Recai; Demirtas, Selda; Seker, Rabia

    2013-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the correlation between AMH levels and IR in normal weight PCOS women. This prospective study was conducted on 55 patients, who were admitted to obstetrics and gynecology department of a university clinic. Study group was consisted of 34 patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to the Rotterdam Criteria, whereas control group was consisted of 21 healthy volunteers without any features of clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism, who had regular menstrual cycles. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) were considered overweight and obese and excluded. Blood samples were obtained during days 2-3 after spontaneous menses or progesterone-induced withdrawal bleeding after overnight fasting for at least 12 h. The weight, height, hip and waist circumferences of the patients were measured. Fasting insulin and glucose (FPG) levels were used for calculating different insulin resistance indexes (Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR), Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI)). No significant difference was found between PCOS and control groups regarding the mean age, BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), mean values of FPG, FPG/insulin ratio and HOMA B (p > 0.05). AMH values were significantly higher in PCOS cases when compared with controls (4.7 vs. 3.4 ng/mL) (p PCOS cases when compared with controls. E2 levels were significantly lower and Total-T were significantly higher in PCOS patients. When PCOS cases are categorized according to the existence of IR, no difference in Total-T and AMH levels between both groups. Although not statistically significant, a negative correlation of AMH with HOMA-IR and a positive correlation with QUICKI index were found. Among the hormone parameters, AMH was found to be positively correlated with Total-T (r = 0.332, p = 0.013). Although the relation between AMH and androgen production is supported by current evidence, the mechanism underlying the relation between AMH and insulin

  3. Insulin resistance according to β-cell function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyeong Song

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is associated with insulin resistance (IR and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. IR is recognized as a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, few studies have investigated IR in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance. The objective of this study was to evaluate IR and β-cell function in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance. Additionally, we sought to evaluate the usefulness of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-derived IR indices in lean women with PCOS.We recruited 100 women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance and 100 age- and BMI-matched women as controls. IR and insulin secretory indices, including the homeostasis-model assessment (HOMA-IR, HOMA-M120, HOMA-F and the Stumvoll index, were calculated from an OGTT. Increased β-cell function was defined as>75th percentile for the HOMA-F in control women.Women with PCOS had higher values for post-load 2-hour glucose, fasting insulin, post-load 2-hour insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-M120, HOMA-F and lower values for the Stumvoll index than the controls (all Ps<0.05. Women with PCOS and increased β-cell function showed lower Stumvoll index values than the matched controls (P<0.05. The HOMA-F was significantly associated with the HOMA-M120 and Stumvoll index when adjusted for age and BMI in a multiple regression analysis (all Ps<0.05. The HOMA-M120 was positively correlated with triglycerides and free testosterone, and the Stumvoll index was negatively correlated with triglycerides and free testosterone in lean women with PCOS (all Ps<0.05.Women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance showed higher IR than controls matched for age, BMI, and β-cell function. β-cell function was increased in women with PCOS when compared to the matched controls, but not when the lean subjects were compared to the matched controls separately. Therefore, early evaluation of IR in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance may be needed.

  4. Acupuncture Alters Expression of Insulin Signaling Related Molecules and Improves Insulin Resistance in OLETF Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yu Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine effect of acupuncture on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats and to evaluate expression of insulin signaling components. Rats were divided into three groups: Sprague-Dawley (SD rats, OLETF rats, and acupuncture+OLETF rats. Acupuncture was subcutaneously applied to Neiguan (PC6, Zusanli (ST36, and Sanyinjiao (SP6; in contrast, acupuncture to Shenshu (BL23 was administered perpendicularly. For Neiguan (PC6 and Zusanli (ST36, needles were connected to an electroacupuncture (EA apparatus. Fasting blood glucose (FPG was measured by glucose oxidase method. Plasma fasting insulin (FINS and serum C peptide (C-P were determined by ELISA. Protein and mRNA expressions of insulin signaling molecules were determined by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. OLETF rats exhibit increased levels of FPG, FINS, C-P, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which were effectively decreased by acupuncture treatment. mRNA expressions of several insulin signaling related molecules IRS1, IRS2, Akt2, aPKCζ, and GLUT4 were decreased in OLETF rats compared to SD controls. Expression of these molecules was restored back to normal levels upon acupuncture administration. PI3K-p85α was increased in OLETF rats; this increase was also reversed by acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture improves insulin resistance in OLETF rats, possibly via regulating expression of key insulin signaling related molecules.

  5. Importance of Lean Muscle Maintenance to Improve Insulin Resistance by Body Weight Reduction in Female Patients with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yaeko; Kurose, Satoshi; Shinno, Hiromi; Cao Thu, Ha; Takao, Nana; Tsutsumi, Hiromi; Kimura, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    It has recently been suggested that skeletal muscle has an important role in insulin resistance in obesity, in addition to exercise tolerance and the fat index. The aim of this study was to identify body composition factors that contribute to improvement of insulin resistance in female patients with obesity who reduce body weight. We studied 92 female obese patients (age 40.9±10.4 years, body mass index 33.2±4.6 kg/m²) who reduced body weight by ≥5% after an intervention program including diet, exercise therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Before and after the intervention, body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured as an index of insulin resistance. Cardiopulmonary exercise was also performed by all patients. There were significant improvements in body weight (-10.3%±4.5%), exercise tolerance (anaerobic threshold oxygen uptake 9.1%±18.4%, peak oxygen uptake 11.0%±14.2%), and HOMA-IR (-20.2%±38.3%). Regarding body composition, there were significant decreases in total body fat (-19.3%±9.6%), total fat-free mass (-2.7%±4.3%), and % body fat (-10.1%±7.5%), whereas % skeletal muscle significantly increased (8.9%±7.2%). In stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with change in HOMA-IR as the dependent variable, the change in % skeletal muscle was identified as an independent predictor (β=-0.280, R²=0.068, Pmaintenance of skeletal muscle mass.

  6. HOMA insulin sensitivity index and the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease events in the general population: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, E L M; Cameron, A J; Balkau, B; Zimmet, P Z; Welborn, T A; Tonkin, A M; Shaw, J E

    2010-01-01

    We assessed whether the relationships between insulin sensitivity and all-cause mortality as well as fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are independent of elevated blood glucose, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and body composition in individuals without diagnosed diabetes. Between 1999 and 2000, baseline fasting insulin, glucose and lipids, 2 h plasma glucose, HbA(1c), anthropometrics, blood pressure, medication use, smoking and history of CVD were collected from 8,533 adults aged >35 years from the population-based Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S). Deaths and fatal or non-fatal CVD events were ascertained through linkage to the National Death Index and medical records adjudication. After a median of 5.0 years there were 277 deaths and 225 CVD events. HOMA-%S was not associated with all-cause mortality. Compared with the most insulin-sensitive quintile, the combined fatal or non-fatal CVD HR (95% CI) for quintiles of decreasing HOMA-%S were 1.1 (0.6-1.9), 1.4 (0.9-2.3), 1.6 (1.0-2.5) and 2.0 (1.3-3.1), adjusting for age and sex. Smoking, CVD history, hypertension, lipid-lowering medication, total cholesterol and waist-to-hip ratio moderately attenuated this relationship. However, the association was rendered non-significant by adding HDL. Fasting plasma glucose, but not HOMA-%S significantly improved the prediction of CVD, beyond that seen with other risk factors. In this cohort, HOMA-%S showed no association with all-cause mortality and only a modest association with CVD events, largely explained by its association with HDL. Fasting plasma glucose was a better predictor of CVD than HOMA-%S.

  7. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

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    Erika Ibarra-Pastrana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ13CO2 (‰, r=-0.41 (P=0.001. After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ13CO2 (‰ and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7 and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9. Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention.

  8. Insulin-resistance HCV infection-related affects vascular stiffness in normotensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perticone, Maria; Maio, Raffaele; Tassone, Eliezer Joseph; Tripepi, Giovanni; Di Cello, Serena; Miceli, Sofia; Caroleo, Benedetto; Sciacqua, Angela; Licata, Anna; Sesti, Giorgio; Perticone, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS. Arterial stiffness evaluated as pulse wave velocity, is an early marker of vascular damage and an independent predictor for cardiovascular events. We investigated if the insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia chronic hepatitis C virus infection-related could influence arterial stiffness. METHODS. We enrolled 260 outpatients matched for age, body mass index, gender, ethnicity: 52 with never-treated uncomplicated chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV(+)), 104 never-treated hypertensives (HT) and 104 healthy subjects (NT). Pulse wave velocity was evaluated by a validated system employing high-fidelity applanation tonometry. We also measured: fasting plasma glucose and insulin, total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, e-GFR-EPI, HOMA, quantitative HCV-RNA. RESULTS. HCV(+) patients with respect to NT had an increased pulse wave velocity (7.9 ± 2.1 vs 6.4 ± 2.1 m/s; P direct correlation between HOMA and pulse wave velocity in HCV(+) patients, similar to that observed in hypertensives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Insulin resistance is associated with the aggressiveness of pancreatic ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugnani, Erica; Balzano, Gianpaolo; Pasquale, Valentina; Scavini, Marina; Aleotti, Francesca; Liberati, Daniela; Di Terlizzi, Gaetano; Gandolfi, Alessandra; Petrella, Giovanna; Reni, Michele; Doglioni, Claudio; Bosi, Emanuele; Falconi, Massimo; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2016-12-01

    To study whether insulin resistance accelerates the development and/or the progression of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we hypothesized that patients with insulin resistance, compared with those without insulin resistance, show: (1) a younger age and more advanced PDAC stage at diagnosis and (2) a shorter disease-free and overall survival after PDAC diagnosis. Prospective observational study of patients admitted to a referral center for pancreatic disease. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR value greater than the 66th percentile value of the patients included in this study. Survival was estimated according to Kaplan-Meier and by Cox regression. Of 296 patients with PDAC, 99 (33 %) met criteria for being classified as insulin resistant at diagnosis. Median follow-up time after diagnosis was 5.27 ± 0.23 years. Patients with insulin resistance received a diagnosis of PDAC at a similar age compared to patients without insulin resistance (67.1 ± 9 vs. 66.8 ± 10 years, p = 0.68), but were more likely to have a cancer stage ≥3 (23.2 vs. 14.2 %, p = 0.053) and a residual disease after surgery (R1 56.4 vs. 38 %; p = 0.007). The median overall survival was 1.3 ± 0.14 and 1.79 ± 0.11 years for the patients with and without insulin resistance, respectively (p = 0.016). Results did not change when patients with diabetes at PDAC diagnosis were excluded from the analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that insulin resistance was independently associated with overall survival. Insulin resistance is associated with the aggressiveness of PDAC.

  10. Synergistic association of changes in serum uric acid and triglycerides with changes in insulin resistance after walking exercise in community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Katoh, Takeaki; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori; Kohara, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) and triglyceride (TG) levels are strongly correlated with insulin resistance; however, the association after a walking exercise program in community-dwelling older women has not been investigated. The present study included 100 postmenopausal women (mean ± standard deviation, 68 ± 7 years) from a rural village in Japan. The Nordic walking program of 120 min per week was performed for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, SUA, TG, various relevant factors and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that baseline TG and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were significantly associated with baseline HOMA-IR. After the 12-week training program, changes in TG, SUA and GGT were significantly associated with changes in HOMA-IR. In addition to their direct associations, we observed a synergistic association between changes in TG and SUA and changes in HOMA-IR. Participants were divided into three groups (tertiles) according to changes in TG and SUA. The tertiles of changes in SUA correlated significantly with changes in HOMA-IR in participants in the tertile with the greatest decrease in TG (r = 0.525, p = 0.001), but not in the other two tertiles of change in TG (r = 0.049, p = 0.699). There was a significant interaction between SUA and TG for changes in HOMA-IR (β = 0.281, p = 0.005). These results suggest that changes in TG and SUA are synergistic factors associated with changes in insulin resistance after a 12-week walking exercise program in community-dwelling older women.

  11. [Associations of insulin resistance and pancreatic beta-cell function with plasma glucose level in type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Xiaoping; Sun, Gaisheng; Dou, Chunmei; Hou, Hongbo; Fan, Xiuping; Yu, Hongmei; Ma, Ling; He, Bingxian

    2002-06-10

    To investigate the influence of insulin resistance and pancreatic beta-cell function on plasma glucose level in type 2 diabetes so as to provide theoretical basis for reasonable selection of hypoglycemic agents. The plasma non-specific insulin (NSINS), true insulin (TI) and glucose in eight-one type 2 diabetics, 38 males and 43 females, with a mean age of 53 years, were examined 0, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after they had 75 grams of instant noodles. The patients were divided into two groups according to their fasting plasma glucose (FPG): group A (FPG = 8.89 mmol/L). The insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR, the beta-cell function was evaluated by HOMA-beta formula and the formula deltaI(30)/deltaG(30) = (deltaI(30)-deltaI(0))/(deltaG(30)-deltaG(0)). The insulin area under curve (INSAUC) was evaluated by the formula INSAUC=FINS/2+INS(30)+INS(60)+INS(120)/2. The mean FPG was 6.23 mmol/L in group A and 12.6 mmol/L in group B. PG2H was 11.7 mmol/L in group A and 19.2 mmol/L in group B. The TI levels in group B at 0, 30, 60, 120 min during standard meal test were significantly higher than those in group A: 6.15 +/- 1.06 vs 4.77 +/- 1.06, 9.76 +/- 1.1 vs 5.88 +/- 1.1,14.68 +/- 1.11 vs 6.87 +/- 1.1 and 17.13 +/- 1.12 vs 8.0 +/- 1.1 microU/dl (all P< 0.01). The NSINS showed the same trend. The insulin resistance in group B was 1.5 times that in group A. With the insulin resistance adjusted, the beta cell function in group A was 5 to 6 times that in group B. The INSAUC in group A was 1.66 times larger than that in group B, especially the INSAUC for true insulin (2 times larger). The contribution of insulin resistance and beta cell function to PG2H was half by half in group A and 1:8 in group B. beta cell function calculated by insulin (Homa-beta) explained 41% of the plasma glucose changes in group A and 54% of the plasma glucose changes in group B. The contribution of insulin deficiency to plasma glocose was 3.3.times that of insulin resistance in group A and was 9

  12. Relation with HOMA-IR and thyroid hormones in obese Turkish women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, S; Yerlikaya, E; Akin, F; Kaptanoglu, B; Erürker, T

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and thyroid function in obese pre- and postmenopausal women with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). 141 obese women were divided into two groups, HOMA-IRHOMA-IR>2.7, to evaluate relation with HOMA-IR and fatness, hormone and blood parameters. They were then divided into four groups as pre- and postmenopausal with or without MetS. Various fatness, hormone and blood parameters were examined. Statistically significant difference was found in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat%, fasting insulin, TSH, FT3, FT4, FSH, Anti-microsomal antibody (ANTIM) and triglycerides levels in HOMA-IRHOMA-IR>2.7 obese Turkish women. This study showed that age, weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat%, fasting insulin, FT3, ANTIM, FSH, LH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, HOMA-IR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were related in preand post menopausal status in obese women with or without MetS. Obesity may influence the levels of thyroid hormones and increases the risk of MetS in women. Postmenopausal status with MetS is associated with an increased TSH, FT3 and FT4 levels and HOMA-IR in obese women. Strong relation was observed with MetS and TSH and FT3 levels.

  13. Correlation of urodynamic characteristics with insulin resistance and serum damage media in diabetic patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

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    Zhong-Ping Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of urodynamic characteristics with insulin resistance and serum damage media in patients with diabetes and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Methods: 45 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and BPH treated in our hospital between May 2014 and August 2016 were selected as DM+BPH group, 58 patients with BPH alone were selected as BPH group, and 50 healthy volunteers were selected as control group. Urodynamic tester was used to measure the maximum flow rate (MFR, postvoid residual (PVR and detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate (Pdet, and serum was collected to determine insulin resistance indexes and oxidative stress indexes. Results: MFR and Pdet of DM+BPH group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05 while PVR was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05; MFR of BPH group was significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05 while PVR and Pdet were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05; MFR and Pdet of DM+BPH group were significantly lower than those of BPH group (P<0.05 while PVR was significantly higher than that of BPH group (P<0.05; insulin secretion index (HOMA-β, insulin sensitive index (ISI as well as serum manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels of DM+BPH group and BPH group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05 while insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR as well as serum thioredoxin (Trx and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP levels was significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05; HOMA-β, ISI as well as serum MnSOD, CuZnSOD and GPx levels of DM+BPH group were significantly lower than those of BPH group (P<0.05, positively correlated with MFR and Pdet, and negatively correlated with MFR, and HOMA-IR as well as serum Trx and TXNIP levels was significantly higher than those of BPH group (P<0.05, negatively correlated with MFR

  14. Genetic evidence of a causal effect of insulin resistance on branched-chain amino acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahendran, Yuvaraj; Jonsson, Anna; Have, Christian T

    2017-01-01

    variable for insulin resistance. A GRS of three variants increasing circulating BCAA levels was used as an instrumental variable for circulating BCAA levels. RESULTS: Fasting plasma BCAA levels were associated with higher HOMA-IR in ADDITION-PRO (β 0.137 [95% CI 0.08, 0.19] p = 6 × 10(-7)). However......, the GRS for circulating BCAA levels was not associated with fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR in ADDITION-PRO (β -0.011 [95% CI -0.053, 0.032] p = 0.6 and β -0.011 [95% CI -0.054, 0.031] p = 0.6, respectively) or in GWAS results for HOMA-IR from MAGIC (β for valine-increasing GRS -0.012 [95% CI -0.069, 0......(-4), and β 0.67 [95% CI 0.16, 1.18] p = 0.01 for isoleucine, leucine and valine levels, respectively) and instrumental variable analyses in ADDITION-PRO indicated that HOMA-IR is causally related to higher circulating fasting BCAA levels (β 0.73 [95% CI 0.26, 1.19] p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our...

  15. Icodextrine and insulin resistance in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbakan, Mustafa; Sahin, Gülizar Manga

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance is commonly observed in uremic patients. Glucose-based peritoneal dialysis solutions have long-term metabolic complications like hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the insulin resistance in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) with standard glucose and icodextrin containing solutions. The entire non diabetic CAPD patients of our center were studied: forty-four patients in all who were on CAPD treatment for 36.2 +/- 23.7 months. Twenty-seven of them (11 male and 16 female) with a mean age of 46 +/- 16 years were treated with standard glucose solutions (glucose group). The other 17 patients (10 male and 7 female) with a mean age of 49 +/- 16 years were treated with standard glucose solutions during the day and icodextrin dwell during the night, for a median of 12 +/- 6.3 months (icodextrin group). Morning fasting serum insulin levels were 20.59 +/- 17.86 in the glucose group and 10.15 +/- 6.87 in the icodextrin group (p = 0.0001). Homeostasis Model Assessment Method scores of the glucose group were significantly higher (4.8+/-4.1 vs 2.3+/- 1.7; p = 0.025) than the icodextrin group. A significant positive correlation of HOMA score with insulin, fasting plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels were found in HOMA (IR+) patients. Twenty patients of the icodextrin group (74%) and 15 patients of the glucose group (88%) were hypertensive, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.13). The groups showed no significant differences for body mass index and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and fibrinogen. In conclusion, the use of icodextrin in the long nighttime dwell can reduce serum insulin levels and increase insulin sensitivity in CAPD patients.

  16. HOMA-IR is associated with significant angiographic coronary artery disease in non-diabetic, non-obese individuals: a cross-sectional study.

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    Mossmann, Márcio; Wainstein, Marco V; Gonçalves, Sandro C; Wainstein, Rodrigo V; Gravina, Gabriela L; Sangalli, Marlei; Veadrigo, Francine; Matte, Roselene; Reich, Rejane; Costa, Fernanda G; Bertoluci, Marcello C

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major component of metabolic syndrome, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Although important in T2DM, its role as a predictor of CAD in non-diabetic patients is less studied. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the association of HOMA-IR with significant CAD, determined by coronary angiography in non-obese, non-T2DM patients. We also evaluate the association between 3 oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) based insulin sensitivity indexes (Matsuda, STUMVOLL-ISI and OGIS) and CAD. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 54 non-obese, non-diabetic individuals referred for coronary angiography due to suspected CAD. CAD was classified as the "anatomic burden score" corresponding to any stenosis equal or larger than 50 % in diameter on the coronary distribution. Patients without lesions were included in No-CAD group. Patients with at least 1 lesion were included in the CAD group. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with measurements of plasma glucose and serum insulin at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min was obtained to calculate insulin sensitivity parameters. HOMA-IR results were ranked and patients were also categorized into insulin resistant (IR) or non-insulin resistant (NIR) if they were respectively above or below the 75th percentile (HOMA-IR > 4.21). The insulin sensitivity tests results were also divided into IR and NIR, respectively below and above each 25th percentile. Chi square was used to study association. Poisson Regression Model was used to compare prevalence ratios between categorized CAD and IR groups. Fifty-four patients were included in the study. There were 26 patients (48 %) with significant CAD. The presence of clinically significant CAD was significant associated with HOMA-IR above p75 (Chi square 4.103, p = 0.0428) and 71 % of patients with HOMA-IR above p75 had significant CAD. Subjects with CAD had increased prevalence ratio of HOMA-IR above p75 compared to subjects without

  17. Insulin Resistance and Hyperinsulinemia in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Valter Donadon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To investigate the role of insulin resistance (IR and insulin plasma levels (IRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Methods We recruited the following patients: 125 with HCC, 128 with liver cirrhosis (LC and 133 with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. IR was assessed by the HOMA-IR method. To define IR and hyperinsulinemia we selected as a cut-off level, the value of the 80th percentile for HOMA-IR (2.72 and IRI (11.18 in 113 healthy subjects. Results The mean levels of HOMA-IR and IRI increase progressively among CHC (2.7 ± 2.9 and 11.5 ± 10.5, respectively, LC (5.4 ± 4.5 and 17.6 ± 11.2 and HCC (6.4 ± 9.8 and 18.2 ± 18.8. In the upper quintiles for HOMA-IR and IRI, the frequency of patients in the LC and HCC groups was twice as much in CHC cases. HCC with DM2 have the greatest percentage above the 80th percentile of HOMA-IR, their quintiles distribution is inverted and HOMA-IR mean values are significantly higher in comparison with HCC without DM2 cases. Discussion Our study shows that the association between IR and CLD begins in the early stages of liver fibrosis. DM2 increases HOMA-IR and IRI mean levels in HCC patients and these metabolic factors could play a major role in the link between diabetes mellitus and hepatocarcinoma.

  18. Peripheral insulin resistance rather than beta cell dysfunction accounts for geographical differences in impaired fasting blood glucose among sub-Saharan African individuals: findings from the RODAM study.

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    Meeks, Karlijn A C; Stronks, Karien; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Addo, Juliet; Bahendeka, Silver; Beune, Erik; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Danquah, Ina; Galbete, Cecilia; Henneman, Peter; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Osei, Kwame; Schulze, Matthias B; Spranger, Joachim; Smeeth, Liam; Agyemang, Charles

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction account for differences in impaired fasting blood glucose (IFBG) levels in sub-Saharan African individuals living in different locations in Europe and Africa. We also aimed to identify determinants associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction among this population. Data from the cross-sectional multicentre Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study were analysed. Participants included Ghanaian individuals without diabetes, aged 18-96 years old, who were residing in Amsterdam (n = 1337), Berlin (n = 502), London (n = 961), urban Ghana (n = 1309) and rural Ghana (n = 970). Glucose and insulin were measured in fasting venous blood samples. Anthropometrics were assessed during a physical examination. Questionnaires were used to assess demographics, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and energy intake. Insulin resistance and beta cell function were determined using homeostatic modelling (HOMA-IR and HOMA-B, respectively). Logistic regression analysis was used to study the contribution of HOMA-IR and inverse HOMA-B (beta cell dysfunction) to geographical differences in IFBG (fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify determinants associated with HOMA-IR and inverse HOMA-B. IFBG was more common in individuals residing in urban Ghana (OR 1.41 [95% CI 1.08, 1.84]), Amsterdam (OR 3.44 [95% CI 2.69, 4.39]) and London (OR 1.58 [95% CI 1.20 2.08), but similar in individuals living in Berlin (OR 1.00 [95% CI 0.70, 1.45]), compared with those in rural Ghana (reference population). The attributable risk of IFBG per 1 SD increase in HOMA-IR was 69.3% and in inverse HOMA-B was 11.1%. After adjustment for HOMA-IR, the odds for IFBG reduced to 0.96 (95% CI 0.72, 1.27), 2.52 (95%CI 1.94, 3.26) and 1.02 (95% CI 0.78, 1.38) for individuals in Urban Ghana

  19. The ergogenic supplement β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) attenuates insulin resistance through suppressing GLUT-2 in rat liver.

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    Sharawy, Maha H; El-Awady, Mohammed S; Megahed, Nirmeen; Gameil, Nariman M

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of the ergogenic supplement β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on insulin resistance induced by high-fructose diet (HFD) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed 60% HFD for 12 weeks and HMB (320 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), orally) for 4 weeks. HFD significantly increased fasting insulin, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1C), liver glycogen content, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, while it decreased glucose and insulin tolerance. Furthermore, HFD significantly increased serum triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels, while it significantly decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, HFD significantly increased mRNA expression of glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) but decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) in liver. Aortic relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) was impaired and histopathology showed severe hepatic steatosis. HMB significantly increased insulin tolerance and decreased fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HBA1C, hepatic glycogen content, serum TG, LDL-C, and VLDL-C. Additionally, HMB enhanced ACh-induced relaxation, ameliorated hepatic steatosis, and decreased mRNA expression of GLUT-2. In conclusion, HMB may attenuate insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis through inhibiting GLUT-2 in liver.

  20. Sitagliptin down-regulates retinol-binding protein 4 and reduces insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized and double-blind trial.

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    Sun, Xia; Zhang, Zhendong; Ning, Hui; Sun, Hong; Ji, Xianghong

    2017-06-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition that affects increasing number of pregnant women worldwide. Sitagliptin was reported to alleviate symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing serum levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4). We investigated the effectiveness of sitagliptin on insulin sensitivity parameters in GDM patients. Pregnant GDM women in the 2nd trimester were recruited for this study. Participants were then assigned randomly to sitagliptin treatment group or placebo treatment group, and administered sitagliptin or placebo daily for 16 weeks. Glucose and insulin profiles, as well as serum RBP-4 level, were measured at both baseline and end of the study. After 16 weeks of treatment, participants in the STL group exhibited significantly improved levels of fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin, homeostasis model of assessment of β cell function (HOMA-β) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), compared with those in the placebo group. Serum levels of RBP-4 were also markedly decreased in the sitagliptin treatment group, and more importantly it was positively correlated with improved insulin resistance parameters. Our study supports a potentially promising role of sitagliptin in improving insulin resistance by decreasing RBP-4 in GDM-affected women.

  1. Insulin resistance is associated with lower arterial blood flow and reduced cortical perfusion in cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults

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    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Berman, Sara E; Rivera-Rivera, Leonardo A; Krause, Rachel A; Oh, Jennifer M; Beeri, Michal S; Rowley, Howard A; Wieben, Oliver; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C; Schrage, William G

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with poor cerebrovascular health and increased risk for dementia. Little is known about the unique effect of IR on both micro- and macrovascular flow particularly in midlife when interventions against dementia may be most effective. We examined the effect of IR as indexed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) on cerebral blood flow in macro- and microvessels utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. We hypothesized that higher HOMA-IR would be associated with reduced flow in macrovessels and lower cortical perfusion. One hundred and twenty cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults (57 ± 5 yrs) underwent fasting blood draw, phase contrast-vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction (PC VIPR) MRI, and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower arterial blood flow, particularly within the internal carotid arteries (ICAs), and lower cerebral perfusion in several brain regions including frontal and temporal lobe regions. Higher blood flow in bilateral ICAs predicted greater cortical perfusion in individuals with lower HOMA-IR, a relationship not observed among those with higher HOMA-IR. Findings provide novel evidence for an uncoupling of macrovascular blood flow and microvascular perfusion among individuals with higher IR in midlife. PMID:27488909

  2. Association of Serum Ferritin Levels with Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance.

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    Padwal, Meghana K; Murshid, Mohsin; Nirmale, Prachee; Melinkeri, R R

    2015-09-01

    The impact of CVDs and Type II DM is increasing over the last decade. It has been estimated that by 2025 their incidence will double. Ferritin is one of the key proteins regulating iron homeostasis and is a widely available clinical biomarker of iron status. Some studies suggest that prevalence of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance increases significantly with increasing serum ferritin. Metabolic syndrome is known to be associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis as well as insulin resistance. The present study was designed to explore the association of serum ferritin levels with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The present study was prospective, cross sectional. The study protocol was approved by IEC. The study group consisted of 90 participants (50 cases of metabolic syndrome and 40 age and sex matched controls). Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was done as per NCEP ATP III criteria. Estimation of serum Ferritin and Insulin was done by Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) while Glucose by Glucose Oxidase and Peroxidase (GOD-POD) method. Insulin Resistance was calculated by HOMA IR score. Data obtained was statistically analysed by using student t-test. We found statistically significant rise in the levels of serum ferritin (p=syndrome as compared with controls. High serum ferritin levels though within normal range are significantly associated with both metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.

  3. Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and differences in curves of plasma glucose and insulin in the intermediate points of the standard glucose tolerance test in adults with cystic fibrosis.

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    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-02-01

    diabetes has become a co-morbidity with a negative impact on nutritional status, lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. To identify any changes in intermediate points after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. It was carried out a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 64 patients affected of cystic fibrosis, older than 14 years, using the first pathological OGTT. Peripheral insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and pancreatic β-cell function was calculated according to Wareham. Time to maximum plasma insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC0-120) were also measured. Twenty-eight women and 36 men with a mean age of 26.8 years were enrolled, of whom 26.7% had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 18.3% cystic fibrosis-related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD w/o FPG), 10% indeterminate (INDET), and 45% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HOMA-IR values were not significantly different between the diagnostic categories. Patients with any pathological change had worse β cell function, with a significant delay in insulin secretion, although there were no differences in total insulin production (AUC0-120). Time to maximum glucose levels was significantly shorter in NGT patients as compared to other categories, with glucose AUC0-120 being higher in the different diagnostic categories as compared to NGT. In over half the cases, peak blood glucose levels during a standard OGTT are reached in the intermediate time points, rather than at the usual time of 120minutes. Patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose metabolism have a delayed insulin secretion during the standard OGTT due to loss of first-phase insulin secretion, with no differences in total insulin production. Absence of significant changes in HOMA-IR suggests that β-cell dysfunction is the main pathogenetic

  4. Insulin resistance in H pylori infection and its association with oxidative stress.

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    Aslan, Mehmet; Horoz, Mehmet; Nazligul, Yasar; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, F Fusun; Selek, Sahbettin; Celik, Hakim; Erel, Ozcan

    2006-11-14

    To determine the insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative status in H pylori infection and to find out if there is any relationship between these parameters and insulin resistance. Fifty-five H pylori positive and 48 H pylori negative patients were enrolled. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to assess insulin resistance. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined in all subjects. The total antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in H pylori positive group than in H pylori negative group (1.36 +/- 0.33 and 1.70 +/- 0.50, respectively; P total oxidant status and oxidative stress index were significantly higher in H pylori positive group than in H pylori negative group (6.79 +/- 3.40 and 5.08 +/- 0.95, and 5.42 +/- 3.40 and 3.10 +/- 0.92, respectively; P total antioxidant capacity (r = -0.251, P total oxidant status (r = 0.365, P antioxidant vitamins to H pylori eradication therapy on insulin resistance during H pylori infection.

  5. [Relationship between the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, insulin resistance index and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa Barrios, Marlene; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela; Valeri, Lenin; Velázquez-Maldonado, Elsy

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the triglyceride/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-c) ratio, insulin resistance index and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The present crosssectional study analyzed 62 women with PCOS and 48 healthy women (control group) aged 17- 35 years old. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure were registered. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-c were measured. TheTG/HDL-c ratio, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Women with PCOS showed significantly higher values of the TG/HDL-c ratio and HOMA(IR), and a significantly lower QUICKI value. These differences were related to BMI and WC, with the highest values being observed in obese patients. The 50th percentile for the TG/HDL-c ratio was 3.64; the TG/cHDL ratio was positively correlated with BMI, WC and HOMA(IR) (r=0.48, pglucose > 100 mg/dl (10% vs 3%; ptriglycerides>150 mg/dl (55% vs 20%; p80 cm (82.3% vs 43.8%; pindexes (HOMA(IR), QUICKI). The TG/HDL-c ratio could be considered as a useful and practical method to identify an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with PCOS.

  6. Low-birth-weight, but not catch-up growth, correlates with insulin resistance and resistin level in SGA infants at 12 months.

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    Giapros, Vasileios; Vavva, Efthymia; Siomou, Ekaterini; Kolios, Georgios; Tsabouri, Sofia; Cholevas, Vasileios; Bairaktari, Eleni; Tzoufi, Meropi; Challa, Anna

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the insulin resistance status in SGA infants at 12 months and its relationship with auxological and metabolic parameters. One group of 45 SGA and one of 50 appropriate for gestational age infants were followed from birth to the end of the first year of life. At 12 months, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and blood levels of glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein 4, IGFs, lipids profile were determined, and the HOMA-IR index was calculated. The SGAs had increased insulin (5.2 ± 2.7 versus 2.9 ± 2.4 μIU/ml, p = 0.012) and HOMA-IR (1.09 ± 0.9 versus 0.59 ± 0.55, p = 0.016). In multiple regression, insulin resistance indices were independently correlated with low-birth-weight (β = -2.92, p = 0.015 for insulin, β = -2.98, p = 0.011 for HOMA-IR) but not with catch-up growth in either height or weight or any other metabolic parameter. Resistin was higher in the SGAs (5.1 ± 2.1 versus 3.9 ± 2.1 ng/ml, p = 0.03) and independently correlated with low-birth-weight but not insulin resistance. Resistin was negatively correlated with total cholesterol (R = -0.33, p = 0.007) and positively with lipoprotein(a) (R = 0.49, p = 0.001). Low-birth-weight, but not catch-up growth or adiposity tissue hormones, was correlated with insulin resistance at 12 months in non-obese SGA infants. The higher resistin in SGA infants and its correlation with total cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) need further clarification.

  7. Association between markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance in pregnant women.

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    Asemi, Zatollah; Jazayeri, Shima; Najafi, Mohammad; Samimi, Mansooreh; Shidfar, Farzad; Tabassi, Zohreh; Shahaboddin, Mohamadesmaeil; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-05-01

    Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and lipid profiles are known to be associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the association of markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid profiles with insulin resistance in pregnant women in Kashan, Iran. In a cross-sectional study, serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G), total cholesterol, triglyceride, High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured among 89 primigravida singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to assess their relationships with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We found that among biochemical indicators of pregnant women, serum hs-CRP and total cholesterol levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.05, P = 0.006 for hs-CRP and β = 0.006, P = 0.006 for total cholesterol). These associations remained significant even after mutual effect of other biochemical indicators were controlled (β = 0.04, P = 0.01 for hs-CRP and β = 0.007, P = 0.02 for total cholesterol). Further adjustment for body mass index made the association of hs-CRP and HOMA-IR disappeared; however, the relationship for total cholesterol remained statistically significant. Our findings showed that serum total cholesterol is independently correlated with HOMA-IR score. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  8. High Dietary Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Low Insulin Resistance in the Newfoundland Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jennifer; Wadden, Danny; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnesium plays a role in glucose and insulin homeostasis and evidence suggests that magnesium intake is associated with insulin resistance (IR). However, data is inconsistent and most studies have not adequately controlled for critical confounding factors. Objective The study investigated the association between magnesium intake and IR in normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB) along with pre- and post- menopausal women. Design A total of 2295 subjects (590 men and 1705 women) were recruited from the CODING study. Dietary magnesium intake was computed from the Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Adiposity (NW, OW and OB) was classified by body fat percentage (%BF) measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry according to the Bray criteria. Multiple regression analyses were used to test adiposity-specific associations of dietary magnesium intake on insulin resistance adjusting for caloric intake, physical activity, medication use and menopausal status. Results Subjects with the highest intakes of dietary magnesium had the lowest levels of circulating insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-ß and subjects with the lowest intake of dietary magnesium had the highest levels of these measures, suggesting a dose effect. Multiple regression analysis revealed a strong inverse association between dietary magnesium with IR. In addition, adiposity and menopausal status were found to be critical factors revealing that the association between dietary magnesium and IR was stronger in OW and OB along with Pre-menopausal women. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that higher dietary magnesium intake is strongly associated with the attenuation of insulin resistance and is more beneficial for overweight and obese individuals in the general population and pre-menopausal women. Moreover, the inverse correlation between insulin resistance and dietary magnesium intake is stronger when adjusting for %BF than BMI. PMID:23472169

  9. The Correlation of Plasma Levels of Apelin-13 with Insulin Resistance Index and Plasma Leptin of Diabetic Male Rats after 8-Week Aerobic Exercise

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    Fahimeh Kazemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The physiological role of apelin, an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes has been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of plasma levels of apelin-13 with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR and plasma leptin of diabetic male rats after 8-week aerobic exercise. Materials and Methods: Peresent study was an experimental study with animal model. Twenty eight diabetic male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: Non-diabetic (n=9, control diabetic (n=9 and trained diabetic (n=10. Type 2 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. The trained diabetic rat ran 8-week on treadmill progressively. After the training period, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, leptin and apelin-13 were measured and HOMA-IR was calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation were used for analyzing data. p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A significant decrease in plasma levels of glucose, insulin and leptin and HOMA-IR in trained diabetic vs control diabetic rats, a significant increase in plasma levels of apelin in trained diabetic vs non-diabetic and control diabetic rats and a significant negative correlation of plasma levels of apelin with HOMA-IR and plasma leptin in trained diabetic rats was observed. Conclusion: In present study, 8-week aerobic training by improvement of insulin sensitivity (decrease of HOMA-IR and plasma leptin increased plasma levels of apelin-13 in diabetic male rats.

  10. Genetic and environmental relationships between change in weight and insulin resistance: the Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between weight change from 20 years of age and insulin resistance (IR), and genetic and environmental relationships between these traits. In 594 Korean twins and family members (209 men, 385 women, 44.0 ± 10.8 years old), the percentage of weight change was calculated using self-reported body weight at 20 years of age and currently measured bodyweight. IR traits were assessed using fasting plasma glucose and insulin, the homeostasis model assessment of IR index (HOMA-IR), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Linear mixed analysis was applied after adjusting for household, body mass index (BMI) at the age of 20 years, age, sex, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and caloric intake. Heritabilities and genetic and environmental correlations were estimated after adjusting for covariates. In 55 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for HOMA-IR level by >0.3, a conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted regarding weight change. Increases in glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR and a decrease in QUICKI were associated with a higher percentage of weight change (p change since 20 years old, after adjusting for lifestyle-related factors. In conclusion, both genetic and environmental influences played significant roles in the positive association between weight change from 20 years of age and IR.

  11. Serum glycine is associated with regional body fat and insulin resistance in functionally-limited older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Lustgarten

    Full Text Available Metabolic profiling may provide insight into biologic mechanisms related to age-related increases in regional adiposity and insulin resistance.The objectives of the current study were to characterize the association between mid-thigh intermuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue (IMAT, SCAT, respectively and, abdominal adiposity with the serum metabolite profile, to identify significant metabolites as further associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and, to develop a HOMA-IR associated metabolite predictor set representative of regional adiposity, in 73 functionally-limited (short physical performance battery ≤10; SPPB older adults (age range, 70-85 y.Fasting levels of 181 total metabolites, including amino acids, fatty acids and acylcarnitines were measured with use of an untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression was used in all analyses.Thirty-two, seven and one metabolite(s were found to be associated with IMAT, abdominal adiposity and, SCAT, respectively, including the amino acid glycine, which was positively associated with SCAT and, negatively associated with both IMAT and abdominal adiposity. Glycine and four metabolites found to be significantly associated with regional adiposity were additionally associated with HOMA-IR. Separate stepwise regression models identified glycine as a HOMA-IR associated marker of both IMAT (model R(2 = 0.51, p<0.0001 and abdominal adiposity (model R(2 = 0.41, p<0.0001.Our findings for a positive association between glycine with SCAT but, a negative association between glycine with IMAT and abdominal adiposity supports the hypothesis that SCAT metabolic processes are different from that found in other fat depots. In addition, because of the significant associations found between glycine with HOMA-IR, IMAT, SCAT and abdominal adiposity, our results suggest glycine as a serum biomarker of both insulin sensitivity

  12. The contribution of SHBG to the variation in HOMA-IR is not dependent on endogenous oestrogen or androgen levels in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Susan R; Robinson, Penelope J; Moufarege, Alain; Bell, Robin J

    2012-10-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a robust predictor of insulin resistance. Whether this is independent of circulating sex steroid levels remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the determinants of SHBG in postmenopausal women and whether the relationship between SHBG and insulin resistance is independent of oestrogen and androgen levels. A cross-sectional study of naturally and surgically menopausal women. Seven hundred and sixty three postmenopausal women not using any systemic hormone therapy, mean age 54·4 ± 5·8 years, recruited in the US, Canada, Australia, UK and Sweden between July 2004 and February 2005. Relationships between log-transformed (ln) SHBG and ln homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were explored, taking into account age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP) and circulating oestradiol, oestrone, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Taking into account age, race, years since menopause, menopause type, BMI, BP, prior postmenopausal hormone use and the sex steroids measured, 34·4% of the variation in SHBG could be explained by the model that included negative contributions by HOMA-IR, BMI and diastolic BP, and a positive contribution by total testosterone (P HOMA-IR, which was best explained by the model that included BMI, SHBG, systolic BP and surgical menopause, with each variable being positively related to HOMA-IR (r(2) = 0·3152, P = 0·03). The relationship between SHBG and HOMA-IR, as an estimate of insulin resistance, is not explained by endogenous oestrogen and androgen levels and is, at least in part, independent of BMI in postmenopausal women. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Response of osteocalcin and insulin resistance after a hypocaloric diet in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Perez Castrillon, J L; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Bachiller, C

    2015-06-01

    Osteocalcin is a hormone with a complex cross-talk between adipose tissue and the skeleton. The aim of the present study was to explore the change of osteocalcin, insulin resistance, and adipocytokines after hypocaloric diet in obese patients. A population of 178 obese patients was analyzed. At basal time and 2 months after the dietary intervention, weight, fat mass, body mass index, basal glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, TNF alpha and osteocalcin levels were measured. After dietary treatment, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, systolic pressure, glucose, HOMA, triglycerides, total cholesterol, leptin and LDL cholesterol decreased significantly. Osteocalcin levels have a significant decrease after weight loss (Osteocalcin (ng/ml); 9.76 ± 5.3 vs 9.31 ± 4.1: p < 0.05). In correlation analysis, a negative association was detected among osteocalcin and age, BMI, fat mass, glucose, C reactive protein, interleukin-6. In the linear regression with age-, sex-, BMI, fat mass- and insulin- adjusted, only C reactive protein concentrations are related with osteocalcin levels -0.21 (CI 95%: -0.40 -0.009). Osteocalcin decreased after a weight loss treatment. Moreover, osteocalcin levels, before and after treatment, were related in a negative way with CRP fat mass, body mass index, age and glucose levels.

  14. The Relationship between Changes in Weight Status and Insulin Resistance in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin S. Ondrak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in insulin resistance (IR in 120 youth over two years. IR was quantified via homeostatic model (HOMA-IR, and weight status changes were quantified via body mass index (BMI. When all participants were considered, the mean HOMA-IR and BMI increased 13.4% and 1.65 units, respectively. Change in BMI z-score and percent change in HOMA-IR were moderately associated (r=0.39. Follow-up analyses were performed for the following weight groups: NN (normal at baseline and two years later, NO (normal to overweight, ON (overweight to normal, and OO (overweight at both points. The NO group had a greater change in HOMA-IR (+50% compared to other groups: ON (−8%, NN (+2%, and OO (−0.1% (P<.05. The association between changes in BMI z-score and HOMA-IR was r=0.49 when only the NO and ON groups were included. These results reinforce the importance of preventing youth from becoming overweight to control IR.

  15. Diet-induced increases in chemerin are attenuated by exercise and mediate the effect of diet on insulin and HOMA-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jesse W.; Zerfass, Kristy M.; Heckstall, Ebony M.; Evans, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Chemerin concentrations are elevated in obesity and associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Exercise improves insulin sensitivity, which may be facilitated by changes in chemerin. We explored the effects of chronic exercise on chemerin levels in diet-induced obese mice. Methods: We divided 40 mice into 4 groups: high-fat diet/exercise, high-fat diet/sedentary, normal diet/exercise, and normal diet/sedentary. A 9-week dietary intervention was followed by a 12-week exercise intervention (treadmill run: 11 m/min for 30 min, 3×/week). We analyzed blood samples before and after the exercise intervention. We used t-tests and linear regression to examine changes in chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers, and associations between changes in chemerin and all other biomarkers. Results: Chemerin increased significantly across all mice over the 12-week intervention (mean ± SD = 40.7 ± 77.8%, p = 0.01), and this increase was smaller in the exercise versus sedentary mice (27.2 ± 83.9% versus 54.9 ± 70.5%, p = 0.29). The increase among the high-fat diet/exercise mice was ~44% lower than the increase among the high-fat diet/sedentary mice (55.7 ± 54.9% versus 99.8 ± 57.7%, p = 0.12). The high-fat diet mice showed significant increases in insulin (773.5 ± 1286.6%, p diet-induced increases in insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion: Chronic exercise may attenuate diet-driven increases in circulating chemerin, and the insulin resistance associated with a high-fat diet may be mediated by diet-induced increases in chemerin. PMID:26445641

  16. Sex differences in insulin resistance in GABAB1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, M M; Rodriguez, D; Ferreira, M L; Crivello, M; Repetto, E M; Bettler, B; Libertun, C; Lux-Lantos, V A

    2013-02-27

    We have previously demonstrated that the absence of functional GABA B receptors (GABABRs) disturbs glucose homeostasis in GABAB1KO mice. The aim of this work was to extend our studies of these alterations in GABAB1KO mice and investigate the sexual differences therein. Male and female, GABAB1KO and WT mice were used. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT and ITT), and insulin and glucagon secretion tests (IST and GST) were performed. Blood glucose, serum insulin and hyperglycemic hormones were determined, and HOMA-IR calculated. Skeletal muscle insulin receptor β subunit (IRβ), insulin receptor substrates 1/2 (IRS1, IRS2) and hexokinase-II levels were determined by Western blot. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was assessed by in vivo insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation (Western blot). Food intake and hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression (by qPCR) were also evaluated. Fasted insulin and HOMA-IR were augmented in GABAB1KO males, with no alterations in females. Areas under the curve (AUC) for GTT and ITT were increased in GABAB1KO mice of both genders, indicating compromised insulin sensitivity. No genotype differences were observed in IST, GST or in IRβ, IRS1, IRS2 and hexokinase-II expression. Akt activation was severely impaired in GABAB1KO males while no alterations were observed in females. GABAB1KO mice showed increased food intake and NPY expression. Glucose metabolism and energy balance disruptions were more pronounced in GABAB1KO males, which develop peripheral insulin resistance probably due to augmented insulin secretion. Metabolic alterations in females were milder and possibly due to previously described reproductive disorders, such as persistent estrus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Distribution of HOMA-IR among children and adolescent in Zhangzhou and Zhongshan cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinshui; Lin, Guomo; Zhang, Yugui; Ye, Xiaoling; Liu, Fuxing; Liu, Linyong

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the distribution of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) among children and adolescent in Zhangzhou city and Zhongshan city. Total of 3102 children and adolescent aged 6 to 18-year-old were recruited, which were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. A total of 1528 (49.26%) girls and 1574 (50.74%) boys were included in this study. The concentrations of insulin and fasting glucose gradually increased from 6 to 18 years of age, there was no statistical difference between boys ang girls. The mean values for the BMI were similar in age-matched boys and girls from 6 to 18-year-old ,but for 12 to 15-year-old children was significantly higher in the girls compared with the boys and conversely for 16 to 18-year-old (P HOMA-IR gradually increased with age and reached a plateau at 12 years of age and there was no markedly differential in gender. The glucose levels, insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR exhibited a gradual increase with age. It was suggested that the evaluation of IR in children should be based on percentiles of the HOMA-IR rather than a dichotomous value derived from a single cutoff point.

  18. HOMA-S is associated with greater HbA1c reduction with a GLP-1 analogue in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, A H; Narayanan, R P; Lowes, D; Jarman, E; Onyekwelu, E; Qureshi, Z; Laing, I; Anderson, S G

    2012-07-01

    Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, is an effective glucoregulator for treating overweight individuals, not at target HbA1 c. This prospective study aimed to determine whether estimates of beta cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) predict response to Exenatide treatment.Prospective data on 43 type 2 diabetes patients were collected for up to 2.8 years in UK primary care. HOMA-B and HOMA-S were estimated prior to initiating Exenatide, with monitoring of cardio-metabolic risk factors.Mean (SD) age and BMI pre-treatment were 54.1±10.5 years and 35.7±7.5 kg/m2 respectively. HbA1c decreased (mean reduction 0.9%, p=0.04; p for trend=0.01) in 61% of patients. In univariate analyses, HOMA-S as a measure of insulin sensitivity was inversely (β=- 0.41, p 0.009) related to change in HbA1c, with no relation for HOMA-B.In a random effects regression model that included age at baseline, weight, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides, change in HbA1c (β= - 0.14, pHOMA-S were 45% more likely to have a fall in HbA1c with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.55 (95% CI 0.47-0.66) p<0.0001 (log likelihood ratio for the model χ2=71.6, p<0.0001).Patients with greater measured insulin sensitivity achieve greater reduction in HbA1c with Exenatide. Determination of insulin sensitivity may assist in guiding outcome expectation in overweight patients treated with GLP-1 analogues. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Tyrosine levels are associated with insulin resistance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Miwa; Nishino, Ken; Oka, Takahito; Urata, Noriyo; Nakamura, Jun; Suehiro, Mitsuhiko; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Yamada, Gotaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Amino acid imbalance is often found in patients with cirrhosis, and this imbalance is associated with insulin resistance. However, the mechanism underlying the relationship between amino acid imbalance and insulin resistance remains unclear. We evaluated serum amino acid concentrations in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to determine if any of the levels of amino acids were associated with the biochemical markers and fibrosis stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods In 137 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who underwent liver biopsy, plasma levels of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), tyrosine (Tyr), and the BCAA-to-Tyr ratio values were determined using mass spectroscopy. These values were then assessed for associations with fibrosis stage, anthropometric markers (age, sex, and body mass index), biochemical markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, albumin, platelet count, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glycosylated hemoglobin), and relevant disease-specific biomarkers (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], serum iron, ferritin, leptin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hyaluronic acid). Results Serum albumin levels, plasma BCAA levels, and BCAA-to-Tyr ratio values were negatively associated with the fibrosis stage. In contrast, Tyr levels increased with increasing fibrotic staging. Tyr levels were also correlated with HOMA-IR results. Conclusion Plasma BCAA levels in patients with NASH decreased with increasing liver fibrosis, while Tyr levels increased with increasing fibrotic stage. These results suggest that amino acid imbalance and insulin resistance are intimately involved in a complex pathogenic mechanism for NASH. PMID:26082668

  20. Intrinsic factors rather than vitamin D deficiency are related to insulin resistance in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, S; Eroglu, M; Selcuk, S; Turkgeldi, L; Kozali, S; Davutoglu, S; Muhcu, M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the correlation between insulin resistance (IR) and serum 25-OH-Vit D concentrations and hormonal parameters in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). 50 lean women with PCOS and 40 body mass index (BMI) matched controls were compared in terms of fasting insulin and glucose, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-OH-Vit D, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides and Ferriman-Gallway (FG) scores. Correlation analyses were performed between HOMA-IR and metabolic and endocrine parameters. 30% of patients with PCOS demonstrated IR. Levels of 25-OH-Vit D, hsCRP, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride and fasting glucose did not differ between the study and control groups. Fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, LH, total testosterone, and DHEA-S levels were higher in PCOS group. HOMA-IR was found to correlate with hs-CRP and total testosterone but not with 25-OH-Vit D levels in lean patients with PCOS. An association between 25-OH-Vit D levels and IR is not evident in lean women with PCOS. hs-CRP levels do not indicate to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in this population of patients. Because a strong association between hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism exists in lean women with PCOS, it is advisable for this population of patients to be screened for metabolic disturbances, especially in whom chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism are observed together.

  1. Metformin reduces insulin resistance and the tendency toward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2018-05-11

    May 11, 2018 ... insulin concentrations, in addition to urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio, Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) for ... affecting the insulin synthesis and secretion of ... Likewise, no dog with increased Blood Urea Nitrogen.

  2. The relationship of urocortin-2 with insulin resistance patients having PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temur, Muzaffer; Yılmaz, Özgür; Aksun, Saliha; Calan, Mehmet; Özün Özbay, Pelin; Kumbasar, Serkan; Sever, Erman

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the serum urocortin-2 (UCN2) levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy women. Thirty-eight patients with PCOS and 41 healthy women were included in the study whose age and BMI matched. The fasting serum glucose, insulin, free testosterone, hs-CRP and UCN2 levels of the all participants were examined. HOMA-IR formula was used in order to calculate the insulin resistance. Circulating UCN2 levels were significantly elevated in women with PCOS compared with controls (142.93 ± 59.48 versus 98.56 ± 65.01 pg/ml, p = 0.002). FBG, serum insulin, hs-CRP and HOMA-IR levels were found to be increased in women with PCOS. There was a positive correlation between UCN2 and free-testosterone in only PCOS group (r = 0.235, p = 0.027). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds ratio for PCOS was 2.31 for patients in the highest quartile of UCN2 compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.88-2.83, p=0.021). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that HOMA-IR, hs-CRP and free-testosterone independently predicted UCN2 levels (p PCOS cases when compared to control group. UCN2 is thought to be effective on pathophysiology of PCOS by paracrine and autocrine pathways.

  3. Daily chocolate consumption is inversely associated with insulin resistance and liver enzymes in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Stranges, Saverio

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the association of chocolate consumption with insulin resistance and serum liver enzymes in a national sample of adults in Luxembourg. A random sample of 1153 individuals, aged 18-69 years, was recruited to participate in the cross-sectional Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study. Chocolate consumption (g/d) was obtained from a semi-quantitative FFQ. Blood glucose and insulin levels were used for the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Hepatic biomarkers such as serum γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GT), serum aspartate transaminase and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) (mg/l) were assessed using standard laboratory assays. Chocolate consumers (81·8 %) were more likely to be younger, physically active, affluent people with higher education levels and fewer chronic co-morbidities. After excluding subjects taking antidiabetic medications, higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower HOMA-IR (β=-0·16, P=0·004), serum insulin levels (β=-0·16, P=0·003) and γ-GT (β=-0·12, P=0·009) and ALT (β=-0·09, P=0·004), after adjustment for age, sex, education, lifestyle and dietary confounding factors, including intakes of fruits and vegetables, alcohol, polyphenol-rich coffee and tea. This study reports an independent inverse relationship between daily chocolate consumption and levels of insulin, HOMA-IR and liver enzymes in adults, suggesting that chocolate consumption may improve liver enzymes and protect against insulin resistance, a well-established risk factor for cardiometabolic disorders. Further observational prospective research and well-designed randomised-controlled studies are needed to confirm this cross-sectional relationship and to comprehend the role and mechanisms that different types of chocolate may play in insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders.

  4. Daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and insulin resistance in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondaki, Katerina; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Jiménez-Pavón, David; De Henauw, Stefaan; González-Gross, Marcela; Sjöstrom, Michael; Gottrand, Frédéric; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Kafatos, Anthony; Gilbert, Chantal; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the consumption of selected food groups and insulin resistance, with an emphasis on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The present research is a large multicentre European study in adolescents, the HELENA-CSS (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study). Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Several anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Dietary assessment was conducted by using a short FFQ. The participants were a subset of the original sample (n 546) with complete data on glucose, insulin and FFQ. All participants were recruited at schools. Median (25th, 75th percentile) HOMA-IR was 0.62 (0.44, 0.87). Mean HOMA-IR was significantly higher among adolescents consuming brown bread ≤1 time/week than among those consuming 2-6 times/week (P = 0·011). Mean values of HOMA-IR were also higher in adolescents consuming SSB >5 times/week compared with those consuming less frequently, although a statistically significant difference was detected between those consuming SSB 5-6 times/week and 2-4 times/week (P = 0.049). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the frequency of SSB consumption was significantly associated with HOMA-IR after controlling for potential confounders. In particular, it was found that HOMA-IR levels were higher among adolescents consuming SSB 5-6 times/week and ≥1 time/d compared with those consuming ≤1 time/week by 0.281 and 0.191 units, respectively (P = 0.009 and 0.046, respectively). The present study revealed that daily consumption of SSB was related with increased HOMA-IR in adolescents.

  5. Genetics of variation in HOMA-IR and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C; Nath, Subrata D; Rainwater, David L; Bauer, Richard; Cole, Shelley A; Maccluer, Jean W; Blangero, John; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2008-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a major biochemical defect underlying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mexican-Americans are known to have an unfavorable cardiovascular profile. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic effect on variation in HOMA-IR and to evaluate its genetic correlations with other phenotypes related to risk of CVD in Mexican-Americans. The homeostatic model assessment method (HOMA-IR) is one of several approaches that are used to measure insulin resistance and was used here to generate a quantitative phenotype for genetic analysis. For 644 adults who had participated in the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS), estimates of genetic contribution were computed using a variance components method implemented in SOLAR. Traits that exhibited significant heritabilities were body mass index (BMI) (h (2) = 0.43), waist circumference (h (2) = 0.48), systolic blood pressure (h (2) = 0.30), diastolic blood pressure (h (2) = 0.21), pulse pressure (h (2) = 0.32), triglycerides (h (2) = 0.51), LDL cholesterol (h (2) = 0.31), HDL cholesterol (h (2) = 0.24), C-reactive protein (h (2) = 0.17), and HOMA-IR (h (2) = 0.33). A genome-wide scan for HOMA-IR revealed significant evidence of linkage on chromosome 12q24 (close to PAH (phenylalanine hydroxylase), LOD = 3.01, p HOMA-IR with BMI (rho (G) = 0.36), waist circumference (rho (G) = 0.47), pulse pressure (rho (G) = 0.39), and HDL cholesterol (rho (G) = -0.18). Identification of significant linkage for HOMA-IR on chromosome 12q replicates previous family-based studies reporting linkage of phenotypes associated with type 2 diabetes in the same chromosomal region. Significant genetic correlations between HOMA-IR and phenotypes related to CVD risk factors suggest that a common set of gene(s) influence the regulation of these phenotypes.

  6. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance as a predictor of metabolic syndrome: Consequences of obesity in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa Fathy Barseem

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: HOMA-IR might be a reliable surrogate measure of insulin resistance and a strong predictor of type 2 diabetes in obese adolescents allowing the development of preventive measures and treatment when needed.

  7. The Effect of Tianmai Xiaoke Pian on Insulin Resistance through PI3-K/AKT Signal Pathway

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    Nana Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the clinical setting, given the potential adverse effects of thiazolidinediones and biguanides, we often have difficulty in treatment that no other insulin sensitizers are available for use in type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM patients. Tianmai Xiaoke Pian (TMXKP is a traditional Chinese medicine tablet, which is comprised of chromium picolinate, Tianhuafen, Maidong, and Wuweizi. To understand its mechanism of action on insulin resistance, TMXKP (50 mg/kg orally was tested in T2DM rats (induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin. Eight weeks later, fasting blood glucose (FBG and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were performed. Area under the curve (AUC and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were calculated, and PI3-K/AKT signal pathway-related genes and proteins were tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot analysis in muscle, adipose, and liver tissues, respectively. TMXKP significantly reduced FBG, OGTT, AUC, and HOMA-IR in diabetic rats P<0.05. Furthermore, we also observed that TMXKP could significantly decrease IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3-K p85α, and AKT2 gene expression and also IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3-K, AKT2, and p-AKT2 protein expression levels P<0.05 in diabetic rats. These findings confirm that TMXKP can alleviate insulin resistance in T2DM rats through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus TMXKP appears to be a promising insulin sensitizer.

  8. Ketosis Onset Type 2 Diabetes Had Better Islet β-Cell Function and More Serious Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongyun; Hu, Fang; Zeng, Yingjuan; Zou, Lingling; Luo, Shunkui; Sun, Ying; Liu, Hong; Sun, Liao

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic ketosis had been identified as a characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but now emerging evidence has identified that they were diagnosed as T2DM after long time follow up. This case control study was aimed at comparing the clinical characteristic, β-cell function, and insulin resistance of ketosis and nonketotic onset T2DM and providing evidence for treatment selection. 140 cases of newly diagnosed T2DM patients were divided into ketosis (62 cases) and nonketotic onset group (78 cases). After correction of hyperglycemia and ketosis with insulin therapy, plasma C-peptide concentrations were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours after 75 g glucose oral administration. Area under the curve (AUC) of C-peptide was calculated. Homoeostasis model assessment was used to estimate basal β-cell function (HOMA-β) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Our results showed that ketosis onset group had higher prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) than nonketotic group (P = 0.04). Ketosis onset group had increased plasma C-peptide levels at 0 h, 0.5 h, and 3 h and higher AUC0–0.5, AUC0–1, AUC0–3 (P ketosis onset T2DM had better islet β-cell function and more serious insulin resistance than nonketotic onset T2DM. PMID:24829925

  9. Association of oral contraceptive and metformin did not improve insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Chiharu Iwata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Objective: to compare clinical and laboratory parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS using metformin or combined oral contraceptive (COC after 6 months. Methods: retrospective study analyzing records of patients with PCOS using the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS Society criteria. The groups were: I-COC (21 tablets, pause of 7 days; n=16; II-metformin (850mg 12/12h, n=16; III-COC plus metformin (n=9. Body mass index (BMI, acne (% of improvement, modified Ferriman-Gallway index and menstrual cycle index (MCI, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, total testosterone (TT, androstenedione (A and homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index were assessed Results: isolated use of COC compared to metformin was better regarding to acne, Ferriman index, MCI, LH, TT and A levels. On the other hand, metformin was better in the HOMA-IR index (4.44 and 1.67 respectively, p=0.0007. The association COC plus metformin, compared to metformin alone shows the maintenance of improvement of acne, Ferriman index, MCI, and testosterone levels. The HOMA-IR index remained lower in the metformin alone group (4.19 and 1.67, respectively; p=0,046. The comparison between COC plus metformin and COC alone, in turn, shows no difference in the improvement of acne, Ferriman index, MCI, LH, TT and A levels, indicating that the inclusion of metformin did not lead to additional benefits in these parameters. Still, the HOMA-IR index was similar in both groups (4.19 and 4.44 respectively; p=0.75, showing that the use of metformin associated with COC may not improve insulin resistance as much as it does if used alone. Conclusion: our data suggest that the combination of metformin and contraceptive does not improve insulin resistance as observed with metformin alone.

  10. The Triglycerides and Glucose Index rather than HOMA-IR is more associated with Hypogonadism in Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Chen, Yi; Liu, Lijie; Lu, Meng; Cheng, Jing; Gao, Fengbin; Wang, Ningjian; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2017-11-20

    Previous studies have reported that insulin resistant and low testosterone are related. The triglyceride and glucose index (TyG) well mirrors insulin sensitivity. No study investigated the application of TyG in male hypogonadism. We aimed to explore whether TyG was associated with hypogonadism, and also evaluate the ability of TyG compared to HOMA-IR as a possible hypogonadism predictor. A total of 4299 male subjects were enrolled from 22 sites in East China. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone HOMA-IR (0.68, 95% CI 0.66,0.70). Thus, the TyG was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of hypogonadism in Chinese men. TyG had a better predictive power for hypogonadism than HOMA-IR.

  11. The association of the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio with insulin resistance in White European and South Asian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Samiul A; Davies, Melanie J; Morris, Danielle H; Yates, Tom; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Webb, David; Brady, Emer; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    There is recent interest surrounding the use of the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance in clinical practice, as it may identify people at high risk of developing diabetes or its complications. However, it has been suggested using this lipid ratio may not be appropriate for measuring insulin resistance in African-Americans, particularly women. We investigated if this inconsistency extended to South Asian women in a UK multi-ethnic cohort of White Europeans and South Asians. Cross-sectional analysis was done of 729 participants from the ADDITION-Leicester study from 2005 to 2009. The association between tertiles of triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio to fasting insulin, homeostatic model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA1-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and glucose: insulin ratio was examined with adjustment for confounding variables. Incremental tertiles of the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio demonstrated a significant positive association with levels of fasting insulin, HOMA1-IR, glucose: insulin ratio and a negative association with QUICKI in White European men (n = 255) and women (n = 250) and South Asian men (n = 124) (all pAsian women (n = 100). A significant interaction was demonstrated between sex and triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio tertiles in South Asians only (pwomen, South Asian men and women respectively. The optimal cut-points for detecting insulin resistance were 0.9-1.7 in mmol/l (2.0-3.8 in mg/dl) for the triglyceride-to-HDL ratio. In South Asian women the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio was not associated with insulin resistance; therefore there may be limitations in its use as a surrogate marker in this group.

  12. Healthy Chilean Adolescents with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 Have Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: Association with Genetic, Biological, and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Burrows

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the optimal cutoff of the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS in adolescents and examine whether insulin resistance (IR, determined by this method, was related to genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Methods. In 667 adolescents (16.8 ± 0.3 y, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, diet, and physical activity were measured. Fat and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Family history of type 2 diabetes (FHDM was reported. We determined the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR to diagnose MetS (IDF criteria using ROC analysis. IR was defined as HOMA-IR values above the cutoff. We tested the influence of genetic, biological, and environmental factors on IR using logistic regression analyses. Results. Of the participants, 16% were obese and 9.4 % met criteria for MetS. The optimal cutoff for MetS diagnosis was a HOMA-IR value of 2.6. Based on this value, 16.3% of participants had IR. Adolescents with IR had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, fasting hyperglycemia, and MetS compared to those who were not IR. FHDM, sarcopenia, obesity, and low adiponectin significantly increased the risk of IR. Conclusions. In adolescents, HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 was associated with greater cardiometabolic risk.

  13. Healthy Chilean Adolescents with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 Have Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: Association with Genetic, Biological, and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R; Correa-Burrows, P; Reyes, M; Blanco, E; Albala, C; Gahagan, S

    2015-01-01

    To determine the optimal cutoff of the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents and examine whether insulin resistance (IR), determined by this method, was related to genetic, biological, and environmental factors. In 667 adolescents (16.8 ± 0.3 y), BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, diet, and physical activity were measured. Fat and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Family history of type 2 diabetes (FHDM) was reported. We determined the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR to diagnose MetS (IDF criteria) using ROC analysis. IR was defined as HOMA-IR values above the cutoff. We tested the influence of genetic, biological, and environmental factors on IR using logistic regression analyses. Of the participants, 16% were obese and 9.4 % met criteria for MetS. The optimal cutoff for MetS diagnosis was a HOMA-IR value of 2.6. Based on this value, 16.3% of participants had IR. Adolescents with IR had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, fasting hyperglycemia, and MetS compared to those who were not IR. FHDM, sarcopenia, obesity, and low adiponectin significantly increased the risk of IR. In adolescents, HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 was associated with greater cardiometabolic risk.

  14. Effects of febuxostat on insulin resistance and expression of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with primary gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Juan; Li, Yanchun; Yuan, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yuewu

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of febuxostat on IR and the expression of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with primary gout. Forty-two cases of primary gout patients without uric acid-lowering therapy were included in this study. After a physical examination, 20 age- and sex-matched patients were included as normal controls. The levels of fasting insulin (INS), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and hs-CRP were determined. IR was assessed using the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Gout patients had higher levels of UA, INS, HOMA-IR, and hs-CRP than normal controls (P gout patients and implicate that febuxostat can effectively control the level of serum UA and increase insulin sensitivity in primary gout patients.

  15. Adiponectin, insulin resistance, and left ventricular structure in dipper and nondipper essential hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Mea, Paolo; Lupia, Mario; Bandolin, Valentina; Guzzon, Samuele; Sonino, Nicoletta; Vettor, Roberto; Fallo, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived protein with insulin-sensitizing and antiatherogenic properties. Failure to decrease blood pressure (BP) normally during night in hypertensive patients has been independently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy. We examined the relationship between adiponectin levels, insulin sensitivity, and left ventricular structure in 40 newly diagnosed never-treated patients with essential hypertension, including 20 patients with a normal night-time pressure decrease (ie, dippers) and 20 patients with BP persistently elevated throughout the 24-h period (ie, nondippers). All subjects had grade 1-2 hypertension, aged 18 to 65 years, no diabetes mellitus, no obesity, no hyperlipidemia, and no cardiopulmonary, renal, or hepatic disease. The two groups of patients were similar for age, sex, body mass index, and had no differences for clinic, 24-h, and diurnal BP, and 24-h, diurnal, and nocturnal heart rate, as well as glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Plasma insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index) were higher (P < .01), and adiponectin levels were lower (P < .005) in nondippers than in dippers. Adiponectin correlated inversely with HOMA index and insulin levels (r = -0.58, and r = -0.62, respectively, P < .001) in the entire population. Nondippers showed left ventricular mass, relative wall thickness, and measure of early and late diastolic peak flow velocity ratio similar to those of dippers. In the absence of major cardiovascular risk factors, nondipper essential hypertensive patients show more prominent insulin resistance and lower adiponectin compared to dippers. Therapeutic modulation of adiponectin or insulin resistance might provide additional benefit to the conventional antihypertensive treatment.

  16. Spectrum of lipid and lipoprotein indices in human subjects with insulin resistance syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.H.; Khan, F.A.; Mohammad, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndrome or metabolic syndrome is one of the major metabolic threats our recently urbanized society is going to face in near future. The management of this syndrome requires a very effective biochemical marker for screening. The objective of this cross sectional study were to compare various lipid and lipoprotein indices in human subjects with insulin resistance syndrome This study was carried out between April 2004 to January 2006 at the department of chemical pathology and endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi. A total of forty-seven subjects with metabolic syndrome were selected as per the criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP, ATP III) from a target population diagnosed to have impaired glucose regulation at AFIP. Forty-seven age and sex-matched healthy controls were also included in the study. Insulin resistance was calculated by the method of HOMA-IR, using the formula of Mathew's et al. The various lipid and lipoproteins, their ratios and log-transformed versions were evaluated for differences between subjects with metabolic syndrome and controls. Finally the diagnostic performances of these candidate lipid markers were evaluated. Results between subjects with metabolic syndrome and controls were found to be significant for serum triglyceride (p<0.05), HDL-C (p<0.05), triglyceride/HDLC (p<0.01), Log triglyceride/HDL-C (p<0.01), total cholesterol/HDL-C (p<0.01), LDL-C/HDL-C (p<0.01). However there was weak correlation between these lipid based markers and HOMA-IR ((serum triglyceride: r= 0.225), (HDL-C: r= -0.235), (triglyceride/HDL-C: r= 0.333), (total cholesterol/HDL-C: r= 0.239)). The AUCs for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome remained highest for HOMA-IR (0.727 (95%CI: 0.642-0.812)), followed by triglyceride/HDL-C (0.669 (95%CI: 0.572-0.766)) and LDLC/ HDL-C (0.639 (95%CI: 0.537-0.742)). The differences for lipids and lipoproteins between subjects with metabolic

  17. Chronic hepatitis c genotype-4 infection: role of insulin resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hashem Abdel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major cause of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and different HCV genotypes show characteristic variations in their pathological properties. Insulin resistance (IR occurs early in HCV infection and may synergize with viral hepatitis in HCC development. Egypt has the highest reported rates of HCV infection (predominantly genotype 4 in the world; this study investigated effects of HCV genotype-4 (HCV-4 on prevalence of insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C (CHC and HCC in Egyptian patients. Methods Fifty CHC patients, 50 HCC patients and 20 normal subjects were studied. IR was estimated using HOMA-IR index and HCV-4 load determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hepatitis B virus was excluded by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Standard laboratory and histopathological investigations were undertaken to characterize liver function and for grading and staging of CHC; HCC staging was undertaken using intraoperative samples. Results HCC patients showed higher IR frequency but without significant difference from CHC (52% vs 40%, p = 0.23. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed HOMA-IR index and International Normalization Ratio independently associated with fibrosis in CHC; in HCC, HbA1c, cholesterol and bilirubin were independently associated with fibrosis. Fasting insulin and cholesterol levels were independently associated with obesity in both CHC and HCC groups. Moderate and high viral load was associated with high HOMA-IR in CHC and HCC (p Conclusions IR is induced by HCV-4 irrespective of severity of liver disease. IR starts early in infection and facilitates progression of hepatic fibrosis and HCC development.

  18. Sibutramine and L-carnitine compared to sibutramine alone on insulin resistance in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Salvadeo, Sibilla A T; Ferrari, Ilaria; Gravina, Alessia; Mereu, Roberto; D'Angelo, Angela; Palumbo, Ilaria; Randazzo, Sabrina; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of one year of treatment with sibutramine plus L-carnitine compared to sibutramine on body weight, glycemic control, and insulin resistance state in type 2 diabetic patients. Two hundred and fifty-four patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) >8.0%] in therapy with different oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin were enrolled in this study and randomised to take sibutramine 10 mg plus L-carnitine 2 g or sibutramine 10 mg in monotherapy. We evaluated at baseline, and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months these parameters: body weight, body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (Tg), retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4), resistin, visfatin, high sensitivity-C reactive protein (Hs-CRP). There was a decrease in body weight, BMI, HbA(1c), FPI, HOMA-IR, and RBP-4 in both groups, even when the values obtained with sibutramine plus L-carnitine were lower than the values obtained in sibutramine group. There was a faster decrease of FPG, PPG, TC, LDL-C, resistin and Hs-CRP with sibutramine plus L-carnitine even when no differences between the two groups were obtained. Furthermore, only sibutramine plus L-carnitine improved Tg, and visfatin. Sibutramine plus L-carnitine gave a faster improvement of lipid profile, insulin resistance parameters, glycemic control, and body weight compared to sibutramine.

  19. The rs1862513 Variant in Resistin Gene-Modified Insulin Resistance and Insulin Levels after Weight Loss Secondary to Hypocaloric Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Mulero, Ines; Aller, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms of a single nucleotide in RETN have been associated with indexes of insulin resistance. Our aim was to analyze the effects of the rs1862513 RETN gene polymorphism on insulin resistance, insulin levels, and resistin levels changes after 3 months of a low-fat hypocaloric diet. A Caucasian population of 133 obese patients was analyzed before and after 3 months on a low-fat hypocaloric diet. Fifty-six patients (42.1%) had the genotype GG (wild group) and 77 (57.9%) patients had the other genotypes; GC (59 patients, 44.4%) or CC (18 patients, 13.5%; mutant group). In wild and mutant genotype groups, weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure decreased. In the wild genotype group, the decrease in total cholesterol was -13.1 ± 25.3 mg/dL (vs. -4.4 ± 13.7 mg/dL in mutant group: p = 0.004 for group deltas), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol was -13.0 ± 21.5 mg/dL (-4.3 ± 10.5 mg/dL: p = 0.007), glucose -7.2 ± 3.5 mg/dL (-0.8 ± 0.2 mg/dL: p = 0.01), insulin -5.6 ± 2.5 mUI/L (-2.9 ± 1.2 mUI/L: p = 0.03) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) -2.5 ± 1.1 (-0.6 ± 1.4: p = 0.02). Leptin levels decreased in both genotypes (-10.1 ± 9.5 ng/dL in wild type group vs. -13.1 ± 0.2 ng/dL in mutant type group: p > 0.05). The present study suggests that the G/G genotype of RETN rs1862513 could be a predictor of the reduction of HOMA-IR, insulin, fasting glucose and LDL cholesterol secondary to a hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effect of metformin combined with clomiphene on insulin resistance, oxidative stress response and T cell immune response in patients with PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lian Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of metformin combined with clomiphene on insulin resistance, oxidative stress response and T cell immune response in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Methods: A total of 94 patients who were diagnosed with PCOS in Jingzhou Second People’s Hospital between September 2014 and October 2016 were selected and randomly divided into the combined group who received the metformin combined with clomiphene therapy and the control group who received clomiphene therapy. The insulin resistance, oxidative stress response and T cell immune response were evaluated before treatment and 3 menstrual cycles after treatment. Results: 3 menstrual cycles after treatment, HOMA-IR level, serum F-Ins, F-CP, TOS, MDA, AOPP and IL-17 contents as well as peripheral blood RORγt mRNA expression of combined group were significantly lower than those before treatment while HOMA-β level, serum TAS, SOD, GSH-Px, VitC, VitE, IL-10 and TGF-β1 contents as well as peripheral blood Foxp3 mRNA expression were significantly higher than those before treatment; HOMA-IR and HOMA-β levels, serum F-Ins, F-CP, TOS, MDA, AOPP, IL-17, TAS, SOD, GSH-Px, VitC, VitE, IL-10 and TGF-β1 contents as well as peripheral blood Foxp3 and RORγt mRNA expression of control group were not different from those before treatment. Conclusion: Metformin combined with clomiphene can significantly improve the insulin resistance, oxidative stress response and T cell immune response in patients with PCOS.

  1. Estimating Rate of Insulin Resistance in Patients with Preeclampsia Using HOMA-IR Index and Comparison with Nonpreeclampsia Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Abhari, Farideh Rezaei; Ghanbari Andarieh, Maryam; Farokhfar, Asadollah; Ahmady, Soleiman

    2014-01-01

    Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the exper...

  2. [CORRELATION OF ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE WITH HORMONAL AND OVARIAN MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN PATIENTS WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME WITH AND WITHOUT INSULIN RESISTANCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanidze, E; Khristesashvili, J; Pkhaladze, L; Barbakadze, L

    2018-02-01

    PCOS has a leading place in women's infertility. Based on the data of recent researches, Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has been considered as one of the diagnostic criteria for PCOS. The aim of study was to determine the correlation of Anti-Mullerian hormone with hormonal and ovarian morphological characteristics in patients with PCOS, with and without insulin resistance. 110 women with diagnosis of PCOS were involved in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: PCOS patients with insulin resistance (60 women) and PCOS patients without insulin resistance (50 women). All patients underwent hormonal investigation (AMH, FSH, LH, T, FT, HOMA- IR, FAI and SHBG). The volume of ovaries and the number of antral follicles (AFC) were determined by ultrasound imaging. Сorrelation between AMH and the ovarian hormonal and morphological characteristics has been shown. In particular, a significant positive correlation between AMH and the volume of the ovaries in both groups was demonstrated. In the group of patients with PCOS and insulin resistance a positive correlation between AMH and the volum of ovary, AFC was shown, as well as a negative correlation between AMH and SHBG. In the same group a tendency of the positive correlation between AMH and TT, HOMA-IR and IRI was seen. In the group of patients with PCOS without insulin resistence a positive correlation between AMH and the volum of ovary was observed, as well as the tendency of positive correlation between AMH and AFC, TT, HOMA-IR, IRI. Additionally, a negative correlation between AMH and SHBG was seen in the later patient group. Increased levels of AMH in all PCOS patients in our study, in comparison with the accepted norm, indicates on possibility of using this data in the diagnosis of PCOS. AMH levels in PCOS patients with and without insulin resistance do not differ significantly. The correlation between AMH and the morphological characteristics of ovaries has been established.

  3. Effects of pomegranate seed oil followed by resistance exercise on insulin resistance and lipid profile in non-athletic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shahidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some studies have reported the health-related benefits for the pomegranate seed oil (PSO, there is not enough information on its combined effect with exercise. Therefore, in this study the effect of supplementation with pomegranate seed oil followed by resistance exercise on insulin resistance and lipid profile was considered in non-athletes men. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental double-blind randomized study non-athletic male (n=14 were divided into two groups: Exercise+Supplementation (n=7 and Exercise +Placebo (n=7. Both groups performed resistance training for 4 weeks (3 sessions per week. The experimental group consumed 2 capsules of pomegranate seed oil (400 mg and the control group received 2 placebo capsules daily. Glucose, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis formula (HOMA-IR. Results: While the average concentration of HDL-C in Supplement+Exercise group was significantly increased compared to pre-test, no significant increase was seen compared to Placebo + Exercise group (P<0.05. Between and within group comparison for the changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance was not significant. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that 4 weeks of resistance training followed by PSO supplementation, except for HDL-C, has no significant effect on the other lipid profiles and insulin resistance in healthy non-athlete men.

  4. Correlation of Serum Lipoprotein Ratios with Insulin Resistance in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisa Ghaffarzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR, occurring in most infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess the relationships between lipoprotein ratios and IR in PCOS women. Materials and Methods: Thirty six infertile women with PCOS selected based on Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria and 29 healthy women matched for age were recruited to this case-control study. After physical measurements, fasting serum glucose (Glu, insulin and lipid profile levels [triglycerides (TGs, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C] were measured, while lipoprotein ratios (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C were calculated. IR was also calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. The optimal cutoffs of lipoprotein ratios in relation to HOMA-IR were calculated based on the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the area under curve (AUC. Results: Waist circumference (WC, insulin levels, HOMA-IR, TG levels, and all lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher, while HDL-C was lower in PCOS group as compared to healthy controls. All lipoprotein ratios, TG levels, and WC are significantly correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Among lipoprotein ratios, the highest AUC of the ROC belonged to TG/HDL-C ratio with sensitivity of 63.6% and specificity of 84.4% (TG/HDL-C>3.19 as a marker of IR in infert ile PCOS women. Conclusion: Lipoprotein ratios, particularly TG/HDL-C, are directly correlated with insulin levels and can be used as a marker of IR (HOMA-IR in infertile PCOS patients.

  5. Correlation of Serum Lipoprotein Ratios with Insulin Resistance in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarzad, Aisa; Amani, Reza; Mehrzad Sadaghiani, Mahzad; Darabi, Masoud; Cheraghian, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR), occurring in most infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess the relationships between lipoprotein ratios and IR in PCOS women. Thirty six infertile women with PCOS selected based on Androgen Excess Society (AES) criteria and 29 healthy women matched for age were recruited to this case-control study. After physical measurements, fasting serum glucose (Glu), insulin and lipid profile levels [triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)] were measured, while lipoprotein ratios (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C) were calculated. IR was also calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR. The optimal cutoffs of lipoprotein ratios in relation to HOMA-IR were calculated based on the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis using the area under curve (AUC). Waist circumference (WC), insulin levels, HOMA-IR, TG levels, and all lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher, while HDL-C was lower in PCOS group as compared to healthy controls. All lipoprotein ratios, TG levels, and WC are significantly correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Among lipoprotein ratios, the highest AUC of the ROC belonged to TG/HDL-C ratio with sensitivity of 63.6% and specificity of 84.4% (TG/HDL-C>3.19) as a marker of IR in infertile PCOS women. Lipoprotein ratios, particularly TG/HDL-C, are directly correlated with insulin levels and can be used as a marker of IR (HOMA-IR) in infertile PCOS patients.

  6. Longitudinal associations of lifestyle factors and weight status with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in preadolescent children: the large prospective cohort study IDEFICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplies, Jenny; Börnhorst, Claudia; Günther, Kathrin; Fraterman, Arno; Russo, Paola; Veidebaum, Toomas; Tornaritis, Michael; De Henauw, Stefaan; Marild, Staffan; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2016-09-02

    This study investigates prospective associations of anthropometrical and lifestyle indices with insulin resistance (IR) in European children from the IDEFICS cohort. Insulin resistance (IR) is a growing concern in childhood obesity and a central aspect of the metabolic syndrome (MS). It most likely represents the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. This longitudinal study included 3348 preadolescent children aged 3 to 10.9 years from 8 European countries who were observed from 2007/2008 to 2009/2010. The main outcome measure in the present analysis is HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment as a common proxy indicator to quantify IR) at follow-up and in its longitudinal development. Anthropometrical measures and lifestyle indices, including objectively determined physical activity, were considered, among others factors, as determinants of IR. Prospective associations between IR at follow-up and anthropometrical and lifestyle indices were estimated by logistic regression models. Country-specific prevalence rates of IR in the IDEFICS cohort of European children showed a positive trend with weight category. Prospective multivariate analyses showed the strongest positive associations of IR with BMI z-score (OR = 2.6 for unit change from the mean, 95 % CI 2.1-3.1) and z-score of waist circumference (OR = 2.2 for unit change from the mean, 95 % CI 1.9-2.6), which were analysed in separate models, but also for sex (OR = 2.2 for girls vs. boys, 95 % CI 1.5-3.1 up to OR 2.5, 95 % CI 1.8-3.6 depending on the model), audio-visual media time (OR = 1.2 for an additional hour per day, 95 % CI 1.0-1.4 in both models) and an inverse association of objectively determined physical activity (OR = 0.5 for 3(rd) compared to 1(st) quartile, 95 % CI 0.3-0.9 in both models). A longitudinal reduction of HOMA-IR was accompanied with a parallel decline in BMI. This study is, to our knowledge, the first prospective study on IR in a preadolescent children

  7. Subcutaneous rather than visceral adipose tissue is associated with adiponectin levels and insulin resistance in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies on the association between adiponectin, body composition, and insulin resistance (IR) have been conflicting. AIM: Our aim was to evaluate the impact of body composition on adiponectin and IR determined by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) in a population-based study......, and IR was determined using HOMA. Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and thigh fat area (TFA) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Using multiple linear...... regression analysis, adiponectin correlated negatively with CFM (r = -0.27; P HOMA-IR (dependent variable...

  8. Differences in homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) values and insulin levels after vitamin D supplementation in healthy men: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, S; Shahar, D R; Geva, D; Ish-Shalom, S

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D is thought to play a role in glucose metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on markers of insulin sensitivity and inflammation in men without diabetes with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. In this 1-year double-blind randomized controlled trial, 130 men aged 20-65 years (mean age 47.52 ± 11.84 years) with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels HOMA-IR) values between groups. Levels of insulin and HOMA-IR values remained steady during the study period in the treatment group but increased by 16% in the control group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.048, respectively). Vitamin D supplementation administered for 12 months in healthy men maintained insulin levels and HOMA-IR values relative to the increase in the control group. Further studies are needed to establish the long-term effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of diabetes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Influence of lifestyle habits, nutritional status and insulin resistance in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolti, Marcella; Battistini, Nino Carlo; Miglioli, Lucia; Bagni, Ilaria; Borelli, Luca; Marino, Mariano; Scaglioni, Federica; Bellentani, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance (IR). The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between IR, anthropometry, lifestyle habits, resting energy expenditure (REE) and degree of fatty liver at ultrasound in 48 overweight patients with NAFLD as compared to 24 controls without fatty liver, matched for age. Nutritional status, alcohol intake and physical activity were assessed by skinfold thickness measurements, a 7-day diary, and SenseWear armband (SWA). REE was assessed by both SWA (REE-SWA) and a Vmax metabolic cart (REE-Vmax). Fatty liver was measured by US and the Doppler Power Index was calculated. IR was assessed using the HOMA index. There was significant correlation between waist circumference, HOMA, Doppler power index and fatty liver grade at US. Multivariate analysis showed that alteration of waist circumference, Doppler power index, and HOMA were the major significant predictors of fatty liver. Our data demonstrated a significant association between NAFLD and central adiposity and IR.

  10. Acupuncture treatment for insulin sensitivity of women with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Hu, Zhenxing; Shao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Meifang; Lai, Maohua; Xie, Changcai; Su, Nianjun; Yu, Chuyi; Liu, Jia; Wu, Taixiang; Ma, Hongxia

    2017-03-09

    Our prospective pilot study of acupuncture affecting insulin sensitivity on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) combined with insulin resistance (IR) showed that acupuncture had a significant effect on improving the insulin sensitivity of PCOS. But there is still no randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of acupuncture on the insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS and IR. In this article, we present the protocol of a randomized controlled trial to compare the effect of true acupuncture on the insulin sensitivity of these patients compared with metformin and sham acupuncture. Acupuncture may be an effective therapeutic alternative that is superior to metformin and sham acupuncture in improving the insulin sensitivity of PCOS combined with IR. This study is a multi-center, controlled, double-blind, and randomized clinical trial aiming to evaluate the effect of acupuncture on the insulin sensitivity in PCOS combined with IR. In total 342 patients diagnosed with PCOS and IR will be enrolled. Participants will be randomized to one of the three groups: (1) true acupuncture + metformin placebo; (2) sham acupuncture + metformin, and (3) sham acupuncture + metformin placebo. Participants and assessors will be blinded. The acupuncture intervention will be given 3 days per week for a total of 48 treatment sessions during 4 months. Metformin (0.5 g per pill) or placebo will be given, three times per day, and for 4 months. Primary outcome measures are changes in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and improvement rate of HOMA-IR by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin releasing test (Ins). Secondary outcome measures are homeostasis model assessment-β (HOMA-β), area under the curve for glucose and insulin, frequency of regular menstrual cycles and ovulation, body composition, metabolic profile, hormonal profile, questionnaires, side effect profile, and expectation and credibility of treatment. Outcome measures are

  11. Serum zonulin is elevated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and correlates with insulin resistance and severity of anovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmei; Zhang, Li; Yue, Fangzhi; Zheng, Yingying; Russell, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that increased gut permeability may be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Human zonulin is currently the only physiological mediator known to reversibly regulate gut permeability by disassembling intestinal tight junctions. So far, no data on serum zonulin levels in patients with PCOS are available. This study aimed to determine circulating serum zonulin levels in women with PCOS and discuss the relationship between zonulin, insulin resistance, and menstrual disorders in this group. A case-control study. The study includes 78 women recently diagnosed with PCOS and 63 age-matched healthy controls recruited. Serum zonulin levels were determined by ELISA. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda and DeFronzo's insulin sensitivity index (ISI). PCOS women had higher serum zonulin levels (P=0.022). After adjustment for age and BMI, zonulin levels significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and ISI. Furthermore, PCOS women with more severe menstrual disorders had significantly higher zonulin levels and displayed an inverse correlation between zonulin and the number of menstrual cycles per year (r=-0.398, Pzonulin, a biomarker for gut permeability, is increased in PCOS women and correlates with insulin resistance and severity of menstrual disorders. It suggests that alterations in gut permeability may play a role in the pathophysiology of PCOS, and serum zonulin might be used as a biomarker for both risk stratification and therapeutic outcomes in PCOS women. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  12. A Calcium-Deficient Diet in Rat Dams during Gestation Decreases HOMA-β% in 3 Generations of Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Junji; Yamanouchi, Sohsaku; Tanabe, Yuko; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal malnutrition can affect the phenotype of offspring by altering epigenetic regulation. Calcium (Ca) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome. We hypothesized that a Ca-deficient diet during pregnancy would alter insulin resistance and secretion in more than 1 generation of offspring. Female Wistar rats consumed either a Ca-deficient or a control diet ad libitum from 3 weeks before conception to 21 days after parturition and were mated with control males. Randomly selected F1 and F2 females were mated with males of each generation on postnatal day 70. The F1 and F2 dams were fed a control diet ad libitum during pregnancy and lactation. All offspring were fed a control diet starting at the time of weaning and were sacrificed on day 180. HOMA-β% decreased in F1 through F3, and levels in F2 and F3 males and females were significantly lower than in controls. The mean levels of insulin and HOMA-IR were higher in F1 males but lower in F3 males than in control males. The HOMA-IR did not differ between any of the female offspring and controls. Maternal Ca restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation influences insulin secretion in 3 generations of offspring. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Recovery of BMIPP uptake and regional wall motion in insulin resistant patients following angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Takayuki; Ishii, Yoshinao; Takeuchi, Toshiharu; Hirasawa, Kunihiko; Tateda, Kunihiko; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2003-09-01

    The effect of insulin resistance (IR) on the fatty acid metabolism of myocardium, and therefore on the recovery of left ventricular (LV) wall motion, has not been established in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of consecutive 58 non-diabetic AMI patients who had successfully undergone emergency coronary angioplasty were analyzed retrospectively. They were categorized into 2 groups, normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The parameters of OGTT, myocardial scintigraphy (n=58) (thallium-201 (Tl) and iodine-123-beta-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP)) and left ventriculography (n=24) were compared in the 2 groups after reperfusion (acute phase) and 3-4 weeks after the AMI (chronic phase). The insulin resistance (IR), estimated by the serum concentration of insulin at 120 min (IRI 120') of the OGTT and by the HOMA (the homeostasis model assessment) index, was higher in the IGT group than in NGT group. An inverse correlation was found between the recovery of regional LV wall motion in the ischemic lesion and the IRI 120' and HOMA index. Although the recovery of BMIPP uptake from the acute to the chronic phase was higher in the IGT group, it was only correlated with the degree of IRI 120', not with the HOMA. IR accompanied by IGT can negatively influence the recovery of regional LV wall motion.

  14. IGF-1 and Insulin Resistance Are Major Determinants of Common Carotid Artery Thickness in Morbidly Obese Young Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Anca; Nicolae, Horia; Martin, Sorina; Barbu, Carmen; Copaescu, Catalin; Florea, Suzana; Panea, Cristina; Fica, Simona

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the relationship between insulin resistance, serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, and common carotid intima-media thickness (CC-IMT) in morbidly obese young patients. A total of 249 patients (aged 37.9 ± 9.8 years, body mass index [BMI] 45.6 ± 8.3 kg/m(2)) were evaluated (metabolic tests, serum IGF-1 measurements, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and ultrasonographically assessed CC-IMT) in a research program for bariatric surgery candidates. After adjusting for age, gender, BMI, systolic blood pressure, uric acid, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic class, both HOMA-IR and IGF-1 z-score were significantly associated with CC-IMT. These results were confirmed in logistic regression analysis, in which age (β = 1.11, P = .001), gender (β = 3.19, P = .001), HOMA-IR (β = 1.221, P = .005), and IGF-1 z-score (β = 1.734, P = .009) were the only independent determinants of abnormal CC-IMT, presumably modulating the effect of the other risk factors included in the regression. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the model was 0.841 (confidence interval: 0.776-0.907; P IGF-1 z-score are significantly associated with CC-IMT, independent of other major cardiovascular risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Effects of one year treatment of sibutramine on insulin resistance parameters in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Ferrari, Ilaria; Palumbo, Ilaria; Randazzo, Sabrina; D'Angelo, Angela; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of the effects of one year treatment with sibutramine compared to placebo on insulin resistance parameters, body weight, glycemic control, and lipid profile, in type 2 diabetic patients. Two hundred and forty-six patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus in therapy with different oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin were enrolled in this study and randomised to take sibutramine 10 mg or placebo for one year. We evaluated at baseline, and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months these parameters: homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4), resistin, visfatin, and high sensitivity-C reactive protein (Hs-CRP), body weight, body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA(₁c)), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (T(g)). A faster decrease of HOMA-IR, resistin, and RBP-4 was recorded with sibutramine compared to the control group. We observed a significant decrease of Hs-CRP in both groups, and a faster improvement of HbA(₁c), FPG and PPG with sibutramine compared to the control group; furthermore we recorded a decrease of FPI, TC, LDL-C, body weight, and BMI in the sibutramine group, but not in the control group. Sibutramine gave a faster improvement of insulin resistance parameters and glycemic control compared to placebo; furthermore sibutramine gave also an improvement of lipid profile, and body weight.

  16. Relationship of hypovitaminosis d and insulin resistance in patients with coronary heart disease and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Orlovsky

    2013-08-01

    compared to patients with isolated CHD, the average concentration of 25(OHD was 43,8±1,82 vs 60,1±2,17 nmol/l. In this study, we observed significant correlation of serum 25(OHD with concentration of glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance indexes HOMA-IR, QUCKI and HOMA% S (p<0,001. Patients with CHD and MS had more close correlation between vitamin D and components of carbohydrate metabolism. In the present study shown that first quartile patients with the most pronounced hypovitaminosis D have higher levels of blood glucose, fasting insulin, indexes IR (HOMA-IR, QUCKI and the lowest sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin (HOMA% S compared with patients who had a level of 25 (OH D above 54.5 nmol/l.CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is common disorder in patients with CHD with high prevalence in patients with MS. Low vitamin D concentration was associated with insulin resistance. Discovered deficiency and insufficiency of vitamin D may be an additional pathogenic factor in the etiology and progression of CHD, which requires further investigation. Further studies are warranted the assotiation of hypovitaminosis D with the MS components, markers of subclinical inflammation and effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation.

  17. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p lipids content is greater in subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  18. Insulin resistance induced by hydrocortisone is increased in patients with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Patrice; Dadoun, Frédéric; Boullu-Ciocca, Sandrine; Grino, Michel; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Dutour, Anne

    2006-11-01

    Glucocorticoids hypersensitivity may be involved in the development of abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Eight normal weight and eight obese women received on two occasions a 3-h intravenous infusion of saline or hydrocortisone (HC) (1.5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Plasma cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels were measured every 30 min from time(-30) (min) (time(-30)) to time(240). Free fatty acids, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were measured at time(-30), time(180), and time(240). At time(240), subjects underwent an insulin tolerance test to obtain an index of insulin sensitivity (K(ITT)). Mean(30-240) cortisol level was similar in control and obese women after saline (74 +/- 16 vs. 75 +/- 20 microg/l) and HC (235 +/- 17 vs. 245 +/- 47 microg/l). The effect of HC on mean(180-240) insulin, mean(180-240) insulin resistance obtained by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), and K(ITT) was significant in obese (11.4 +/- 2.0 vs. 8.2 +/- 1.3 mU/l, P obese women (+25%) than in controls (+12%) (P obese women than in controls. These deleterious effects are correlated with the amount of visceral fat.

  19. Alteration of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level in gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with in insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Gang; Li Cuiyin; Shao Hao; Lu Zeyuan; Lai Liping; Liu Lan; Hu Xiaorong; Ma Jiangtao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the dynamic of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and its correlation with insulin resistance (IR) during different stages of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: Thirty-two subjects with GDM and thirty-one cases of normal glucose tolerance (NGT) pregnant women were enrolled in the study, fasting insulin (FINS) were determined by radioimmunoassay, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured by using glucose oxidase, immunoturbidimetry performed to evaluate serum hs-CRP levels. Tests repeated for each group according different stages of prenatal 25-28 weeks, 29- 32 weeks, 37-38 weeks and postpartum 6-8 weeks. IR was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: (1)Serum hs-CRP levels in NGT and GDM had few change with gestational age, but both significantly decreased at postpartum. (2)Serum hs-CRP levels in GDM significantly increased than NGT in the same stage (t was 7.31, 7.78, 6.33, respectively, P<0.01 ). (3) HOMA-IR in GDM significantly increased than NGT in the same gestational stage (t was 31.18, 31.10, 28.39, respectively, P<0.01). (4)Pearson correlation analysis showed that FBG, FINS and hs-CRP had significant association with HOMA-IR (regression coefficient of 0.478, 0.902, 0.293, respectively, P<0.01). Multiple regression analysis identified FINS, FBG and hs-CRP as the factors significantly affecting HOMA-IR (regression coefficient of 0.441, 0.876, 0.261, respectively, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum hs-CRP levels in GDM had few change with gestational age, but all significantly increased than NGT in the same stage, and which were the most significant factors affecting HOMA-IR. (authors)

  20. Vitamin D Deficiency in Obese Children and Its Relationship to Insulin Resistance and Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Roth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] are associated with insulin resistance in adults. Less data are available in pediatric populations. Serum 25(OHD serum concentrations were assessed in 125 obese and 31 nonobese children (age 11.9±2.7 y, range 6–16 y, 49% male living in Bonn, Germany. The relationship between 25(OHD, measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and measures of insulin sensitivity and adipokines adiponectin and resistin were analyzed. Seventy-six % of subjects were 25(OHD deficient (<20 ng/mL. Higher insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR r=−0.269, P=0.023, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c as well as lower quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI r=0.264, P=0.030 values were found in obese children with lower 25(OHD concentrations even after adjustment for gender, age, and body mass index. Furthermore, 25(OHD correlated significantly with adiponectin, but not with resistin. Our results suggest that hypovitaminosis D is a risk factor for developing insulin resistance independent of adiposity.

  1. Insulin resistance in pregnant women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome, and measures of body composition in offspring at birth and 3 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnbogadóttir, Sara Kristín; Glintborg, Dorte; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2017-01-01

    model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) assessments were comparable in women with and without PCOS. However, the subgroup of overweight women with PCOS had significantly higher levels of HOMA-IR than overweight women without PCOS (mean ±2SD): 4.4 (3.1) vs. 3.6 (3.4), p = 0.004. Maternal PCOS...

  2. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21, Free Fatty Acid (FFA, High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hsCRP and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR Among Indonesian Obese Non-Diabetic Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Lina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21 is known as an important endocrine and paracrine regulator of metabolic homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that FGF21 attenuates lipolysis in human adipocytes, which is suggested as a FGF21's mechanism as anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hyperglycemia and anti-obesity. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between FGF21, FFA, hsCRP and HOMA-IR among Indonesian obese non diabetic males. METHODS: The study was observational with cross sectional design. The analysis was done in 137 subjects aged 30-60 years with non diabetic abdominal obesity. We measured the biochemical markers FGF21, FFA, hsCRP, fasting insulin and fasting glucose. We also measured weight, height, waist circumrefence (WC, creatinine, serum glutamin oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. Correlation between markers was measured using Pearson and Spearman's analysis. RESULTS: There were significant positive correlations between FGF21-HOMA-IR (r=0.314, p=0.000; FGF21-WC (r=0.173, p=0.043; FFA=hsCRP r=0.270, p=0.001; and WC-HOMA-IR (r=0.279, p=0.001. There was significant negative correlation between FGF21-FFA (r=-0.038, p=0.657 and FGF21-hsCRP (r=-0.061, p=0.482. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that although there was no significant correlation, FGF21 might act as an anti-lipolytic and anti-inflammation agent among Indonesian obese non-diabetic males. Our findings agree with results of previous studies that the positive correlation between FGF21-WC and FGF21-HOMA-IR might occur as a compensatory mechanism or resistance to FGF21 in obesity. KEYWORDS: obesity, FGF21, FFA, hsCRP, HOMA-IR.

  3. Red wine polyphenols do not improve obesity-associated insulin resistance: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; Del Rio, Daniele; Calani, Luca; Eringa, Etto C; Smulders, Yvo M; Serné, Erik H

    2018-01-01

    Preclinical studies have suggested that polyphenols extracted from red wine (RWPs) favourably affect insulin sensitivity, but there is controversy over whether RWPs exert similar effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether RWPs improve insulin sensitivity in obese volunteers. Obese (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ) volunteers were randomly allocated to RWPs 600 mg/d (n = 14) or matched placebo (n = 15) in a double-blind parallel-arm study for 8 weeks. The participants were investigated at baseline and at the end of the study. Insulin sensitivity was determined using a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (M-value), a mixed-meal test (Matsuda index), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RWPs elicited no significant changes in M-value (RWP group: median [interquartile range; IQR] baseline 3.0 [2.4; 3.6]; end of study 3.3 [2.4; 4.8] vs placebo group: median [IQR] baseline 3.4 [2.8; 4.4]; end of study 2.9 [2.8; 5.9] mg/kg/min; P = .65), in Matsuda index (RWP group: median [IQR] baseline 3.3 [2.2; 4.8]; end of study 3.6 [2.4; 4.8] vs placebo group: median [IQR] baseline 4.0 [3.0; 6.0]; end of study 4.0 [3.0; 5.2]; P = .88), or in HOMA-IR. This study showed that 8 weeks of RWP supplementation did not improve insulin sensitivity in 29 obese volunteers. Our findings were not consistent with the hypothesis that RWPs ameliorate insulin resistance in human obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Adipocytokines, neuropeptide Y and insulin resistance in overweight women with gynoid and android type of adipose tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbetzova, Maria M; Koleva, Daniela I; Mitkov, Mitko D; Atanassova, Iliana B; Nikolova, Julia G; Atanassova, Pepa K; Genchev, Gencho D

    2012-01-01

    The AIM of the study was to compare the levels of certain adipose tissue hormones in women with the two main morphological types of obesity - android and gynoid obesity. The study included 2 groups of age- and weight-matched women with android (n = 32) and gynoid (n = 27) type of obesity, and a group of age-matched healthy women (n = 24) with normal weight and body constitution. Leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), neuropeptide Y (NPY), glucose and insulin were measured. HOMA index was calculated. Leptin levels in the women with gynoid obesity did not differ significantly from those in the controls and the women with android obesity. The controls had significantly lower leptin levels compared with the android obesity women. NPY was significantly higher in the control women compared to the women with android obesity and did not differ significantly between the two groups of obese women. TNFalpha levels in all groups were very similar. Resistin did not show significant differences between all groups but tended to have the lowest levels in the controls. In the women with android obesity, insulin was significantly higher than that in the women with gynoid obesity and the controls. Insulin resistance was found in the women with android obesity only. Basal insulin and HOMA index in the women with gynoid obesity did not differ significantly from the values in the control group. The results from this study contribute to understanding the association of adipose tissue hormones and insulin resistance in obesity. When adipose tissue is predominantly distributed in the abdominal area at similar amount and percentage of body fats, leptin production is higher and insulin resistance develops. In the gynoid type of adipose tissue predisposition, overt insulin resistance is not found, leptin levels does not differ significantly from those in the control group.

  5. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha infusion produced insulin resistance but no change in the incretin effect in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Solomon, Thomas P J; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Lars; Holst, Jens Juul; Møller, Kirsten

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Although TNF-α infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce peripheral insulin resistance, the influence of this cytokine on the incretin effect is unknown. We investigated whether systemic inflammation induced by TNF-α infusion in healthy volunteers alters the incretin hormone response to oral and intravenous glucose loads in a crossover study design with ten healthy male volunteers (mean age 24 years, mean body mass index 23.7 kg/m(2) ). The study consisted of four study days: days 1 and 2, 6-h infusion of saline; days 3 and 4, 6-h infusion of TNF-α; days 1 and 3, 4-h oral glucose tolerance test; and days 2 and 4, 4-h corresponding intravenous isoglycaemic glucose tolerance test. Glucose tolerance tests were initiated after 2 h of saline/TNF-α infusion. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α, interleukin 6, glucose, incretin hormones, and cortisol, and serum concentrations of C-peptide and insulin were measured throughout the study days. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Prehepatic insulin secretion rates were calculated. TNF-α infusion induced symptoms of systemic inflammation; increased plasma levels of cortisol, TNF-α, and interleukin 6; and increased the HOMA-IR. The secretion of incretin hormones as well as the incretin effect remained unchanged. In healthy young male volunteers, acute systemic inflammation induced by infusion of TNF-α is associated with insulin resistance with no change in the incretin effect. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Insulin-resistance and metabolic syndrome are related to executive function in women in a large family-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuur (Maaike); P. Henneman (Peter); J.C. van Swieten (John); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); I. de Koning (Inge); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); R.R. Frants (Rune); B.A. Oostra (Ben); J.A.P. Willems van Dijk (Ko); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWhile type 2 diabetes is well-known to be associated with poorer cognitive performance, few studies have reported on the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and contributing factors, such as insulin-resistance (HOMA-IR), low adiponectin-, and high C-reactive protein (CRP)- levels.

  7. Association of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Xu, Wen Ming; Zhang, Dan

    2014-10-01

    To study the expression of insulin signaling-related genes and oxidative stress markers in the visceral adipose tissue obtained from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and healthy control subjects and to investigate the relationships among abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress at the tissue level. Case-control study. University teaching hospital. In total, 30 PCOS patients and 30 healthy control subjects, who underwent laparoscopic surgery, were included in the study. Abdominal obesity was defined based on waist circumference (WC). The homeostasis model index was used to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Gene expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the parameters of oxidative stress, such as superoxide dismutase, enzyme glutathione reductase, and dimethylarginine, were measured, and the expression of protein oxidative damage product 3-nitro-tyrosine residues (nitrotyrosine) in VAT was identified with the use of immunohistochemistry. PCOS was associated with lower expression of GLUT4 and IRS1 and a higher level of oxidative stress in VAT, which was strongly correlated with WC and HOMA-IR. Presence of abdominal obesity further intensified the correlations observed in our measurements. The nitrotyrosine expression in VAT was stronger in PCOS patients. The strong correlation of insulin resistance with oxidative stress at the VAT level suggests that local oxidative stress and abnormalities of insulin signaling in adipose tissue play critical roles in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma Asprosin Concentrations Are Increased in Individuals with Glucose Dysregulation and Correlated with Insulin Resistance and First-Phase Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuren Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adipokines are reported to participate in many common pathologic processes of glucose dysregulation, such as insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and chronic inflammation. Objective. To detect the concentrations of plasma asprosin in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (nT2DM and its relationship to parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and pancreatic β-cell function. Methods. 143 eligible participants were included and were divided into three groups including normal glucose regulation (NGR, n=52, IGR (n=40, and nT2DM group (n=51. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT and clinical and biochemical parameters were measured in all participants. Results. Plasma asprosin levels were higher in IGR (82.40 ± 91.06 ng/mL, P<0.001 and nT2DM (73.25 ± 91.69 ng/mL, P<0.001 groups compared with those in the NGR (16.22 ± 9.27 ng/mL group, especially in IGR subjects. Correlation analysis showed that plasma asprosin levels were positively correlated with waist circumference (Wc, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, postchallenge plasma glucose (2hPG, HbA1c, triglyceride (TG, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β, area under the curve of the first-phase (0–10 min insulin secretion (AUC, acute insulin response (AIR, and glucose disposition index (GDI (all P<0.05. Multiple logistical regression analyses revealed that plasma asprosin concentrations were significantly correlated with IGR and nT2DM after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and WHR. Conclusions. Circulating asprosin might be a predictor of early diagnosis in DM and might be a potential therapeutic target for prediabetes and T2DM.

  9. Correlation of blood glucose, serum chemerin and insulin resistance with NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengjun; Wang, Jijun; Wang, Hongmei

    2018-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a form of clinical syndrome characterized by the fatty degeneration in liver histology and should be further investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of blood glucose, serum chemerin and insulin resistance on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to provide a basis for the prevention and treatment thereof. In total, 300 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated and admitted into the Endocrinology Department of our hospital from June 2015 to June 2017 were enrolled and divided into the simple type 2 diabetes mellitus (group A) and concurrent NAFLD (group B) groups. The sex, age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood biochemical indexes and chemerin level were compared between the two groups. The patients in group B were further divided into the mild fatty liver (group B1), moderate fatty liver (group B2) and severe fatty liver (group B3) groups. The sex, age, BMI blood pressure, blood biochemical indexes and chemerin level were also compared among the three groups. Finally, the risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by NAFLD were analyzed via logistic regression. The BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-prandial plasma glucose (2hPG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA-β indexes and serum chemerin level in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (Pdiabetes mellitus complicated by NAFLD is closely associated with severe glucose-lipid metabolism disorder and insulin resistance, and BMI, FPG, TC, LDL-c, FINS, HOMA-IR and chemerin constitute risk factors of concurrent NAFLD.

  10. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Srikanthan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528. Sarcopenia was identified from bioelectrical impedance measurement of muscle mass. Obesity was identified from body mass index. Outcomes were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C, and prevalence of pre-diabetes (6.0≤ HbA1C<6.5 and not on medication and type 2 diabetes. Covariates in multiple regression were age, educational level, ethnicity and sex.Sarcopenia was associated with insulin resistance in non-obese (HOMA IR ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26 to 1.52 and obese individuals (HOMA-IR ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18. Sarcopenia was associated with dysglycemia in obese individuals (HbA1C ratio 1.021, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.043 but not in non-obese individuals. Associations were stronger in those under 60 years of age. We acknowledge that the cross-sectional study design limits our ability to draw causal inferences.Sarcopenia, independent of obesity, is associated with adverse glucose metabolism, and the association is strongest in individuals under 60 years of age, which suggests that low muscle mass may be an early predictor of diabetes susceptibility. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, further research is urgently needed to develop interventions to prevent sarcopenic obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  11. Metformin reduces insulin resistance and the tendency toward hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Daniel Miceli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypercortisolism induces a state of insulin resistance that can occur concurrently with fasting hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus. Metformin reduces hepatic glucose production and insulin resistance of the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on the control of metabolic disorders of dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC. Twenty-three dogs with HAC were randomly divided into two groups, consisting of a control group and a metformin group (10 mg metformin/kg/12 h. Both groups received the same treatment for HAC. At baseline and 3 months, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin concentrations, in addition to urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio, Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA for insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were measured. Dogs treated with metformin showed significantly reduced glycaemia, cholesterolaemia and triglyceridaemia. They also presented reduced hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance, as well as improved pancreatic β-cell function. The implementation of metformin as an adjuvant therapy is effective for the normalisation of metabolic disorders of dogs with HAC.

  12. High-fat diet induces hepatic insulin resistance and impairment of synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Liu

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity is associated with insulin resistance, which may affect brain synaptic plasticity through impairment of insulin-sensitive processes underlying neuronal survival, learning, and memory. The experimental model consisted of 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice fed either a normal chow diet (control group or a HFD (60% of calorie from fat; HFD group for 12 weeks. This model was characterized as a function of time in terms of body weight, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR values, and plasma triglycerides. IRS-1/Akt pathway was assessed in primary hepatocytes and brain homogenates. The effect of HFD in brain was assessed by electrophysiology, input/output responses and long-term potentiation. HFD-fed mice exhibited a significant increase in body weight, higher fasting glucose- and insulin levels in plasma, lower glucose tolerance, and higher HOMA-IR values. In liver, HFD elicited (a a significant decrease of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 phosphorylation on Tyr608 and increase of Ser307 phosphorylation, indicative of IRS-1 inactivation; (b these changes were accompanied by inflammatory responses in terms of increases in the expression of NFκB and iNOS and activation of the MAP kinases p38 and JNK; (c primary hepatocytes from mice fed a HFD showed decreased cellular oxygen consumption rates (indicative of mitochondrial functional impairment; this can be ascribed partly to a decreased expression of PGC1α and mitochondrial biogenesis. In brain, HFD feeding elicited (a an inactivation of the IRS-1 and, consequentially, (b a decreased expression and plasma membrane localization of the insulin-sensitive neuronal glucose transporters GLUT3/GLUT4; (c a suppression of the ERK/CREB pathway, and (d a substantial decrease in long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of hippocampus (indicative of impaired synaptic plasticity. It may be surmised that 12 weeks fed with HFD induce a systemic insulin resistance that impacts

  13. Assessment of insulin sensitivity/resistance and their relations with leptin concentrations and anthropometric measures in a pregnant population with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozgur; Kucuk, Mert; Ilgin, Aydin; Dagdelen, Muride

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-six pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 42 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) pregnant women between 26 and 36 gestational weeks were included in the study prospectively. The body fat percentage (BFP) was calculated using the Siri formula from skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements. Both groups were comparable for gestational age, height, weight, and body mass index (P>.05). Insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) method was significantly higher in GDM patients compared to their NGT weight-matched control group. In contrast, the insulin sensitivity calculated from quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI-IS) equation was significantly lower in GDM group. Calculated lean body mass was found to be similar in between both groups. Body fat percentage derived from SFT parameters was significantly higher in women with GDM. Women with GDM had significantly higher levels of serum insulin and leptin concentrations when compared with the NGT group. All SFT measurements were higher in GDM group when compared to those in NGT women. We did not find any correlation between leptin levels and insulin resistance; we found negative correlation between leptin levels and insulin sensitivity. Thus, we observed that leptin may contribute development of GDM by decreasing insulin sensitivity but not increasing insulin resistance. Also, we observed that the BFP estimated by the Siri formula from SFT measurements correlated significantly with HOMA-IR and QUICKI-IS and leptin concentrations in pregnant women. We suggest that by simply evaluating SFT, we may hold a view about BFP and leptin concentrations and insulin sensitivity in pregnant women.

  14. Effects of insulin resistance on white matter microstructure in middle-aged and older adults

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    Coutu, Jean-Philippe; Rosas, H. Diana; Salat, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and white matter (WM) microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in cognitively healthy middle-aged and older adults. Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging was acquired from 127 individuals (age range 41–86 years). IR was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Participants were divided into 2 groups based on HOMA-IR values: “high HOMA-IR” (≥2.5, n = 27) and “low HOMA-IR” (HOMA-IR group demonstrated decreased axial diffusivity broadly throughout the cerebral WM in areas such as the corpus callosum, corona radiata, cerebral peduncle, posterior thalamic radiation, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus, and WM underlying the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, as well as decreased fractional anisotropy in the body and genu of corpus callosum and parts of the superior and anterior corona radiata, compared with the low HOMA-IR group, independent of age, WM signal abnormality volume, and antihypertensive medication status. These regions additionally demonstrated linear associations between diffusion measures and HOMA-IR across all subjects, with higher HOMA-IR values being correlated with lower axial diffusivity. Conclusions: In generally healthy adults, greater IR is associated with alterations in WM tissue integrity. These cross-sectional findings suggest that IR contributes to WM microstructural alterations in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:24771537

  15. Association of insulin resistance with near peak bone mass in the femur and lumbar spine of Korean adults aged 25-35: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

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    Choo, Min Soo; Choi, Se Rin; Han, Jun Hyun; Lee, Seong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance and the bone mineral density (BMD) of femur and lumbar spine in Korean adults who are expected to exhibit near peak bone mass. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010 were analyzed. A total of 2,750 participants aged 25−35 years were included. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum fasting insulin. Results In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the HOMA-IR was significantly inversely associated with the BMD of the total hip (TH, β = −0.052, P = 0.002), femoral neck (FN, β = −0.072, Pinsulin was significantly inversely associated with the BMD of the TH (β = −0.055, P = 0.001), FN (β = −0.072, Pinsulin resistance may be independently and inversely associated with the near peak bone mass of the femur and lumbar spine. PMID:28704413

  16. Alteration of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Gang; Li Cuiyin; Shao Hao; Lu Zeyuan; Lai Liping; Liu Lan; Hu Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the dynamic of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)and its correlation with insulin resistance (IR)during different stages of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: Thirty-two subjects with GDM and 31 cases of normal pregnant women nonnal glucose tolerance, NGT were enrolled in the study, serum TNF-α and insulin were determined by radioimmunoassay. The plasma glucose was measured by using glucose oxidase. Tests repeated for each group according different stages of prenatal 25-28 weeks, 29-32 weeks, 37-38 weeks and postpartum 6-8 weeks. IR was assessed by the homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: (1)Serum TNF-α levels in CDM and NGT group rose with gestational age, and both significantly decreased at postpartum. (2) Serum TNF-α levels in GDM of above-mentioned four stages respectively were (7.05±0.67) ng/L, (7.11± 0.75) ng/L, (7.36±0.79) ng/L, (5.46±0.37) ng/L respectively. All significantly increased than those in the same stage group (t=7.81, 7.05, 7.15, P<0.01). (3) Maternal serum TNF-α levels were in positive correlation with HOMA-IR in GDM (r=0.571, P<0.05). Conclusions: Serum TNF-α levels in GDM rose with gestational age, but significantly decreased at postpartum. The dynamic changes of serum TNF-α contribute to occurrence of insulin resistance. (authors)

  17. The triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio fails to predict insulin resistance in African-American women: an analysis of Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Anne E; Harman, Jane L; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Miller, Bernard V; Tambay, Anita V; Wyatt, Sharon B; Taylor, Herman A; Rotimi, Charles N; Sarpong, Daniel F

    2010-12-01

    Compared to whites, insulin-resistant African Americans have worse outcomes. Screening programs that could identify insulin resistance early enough for intervention to affect outcome often rely on triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Racial differences in TG and HDL-C may compromise the efficacy of these programs in African Americans. A recommendation currently exists to use the TG/HDL-C ratio ≥2.0 to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. The validity of this recommendation needs examination. Therefore, our aim was to determine the ability of TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. In 1,903 African Americans [895 men, 1,008 women, age 55 ± 12 years, mean ± standard deviation (SD), range 35-80 years, body mass index (BMI) 31.0 ± 6.4 kg/m(2), range 18.5-55 kg/m(2)] participating in the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based study of African Americans, Jackson, Mississippi tricounty region, insulin resistance was defined by the upper quartile (≥4.43) of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of >0.70 was required for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C. The optimal test cutoff was determined by the Youden index. HOMA-IR was similar in men and women (3.40 ± 2.03 vs. 3.80 ± 2.46, P = 0.60). Women had lower TG (94 ± 49 vs. 109 ± 65 mg/dL P Heart Study can help determine the efficacy of screening programs in African-Americans.

  18. Glucose but not insulin or insulin resistance is associated with memory performance in middle-aged non-diabetic women: a cross sectional study.

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    Backeström, Anna; Eriksson, Sture; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Olsson, Tommy; Rolandsson, Olov

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of plasma glucose appear to play a role in memory impairment, and it has been suggested that insulin might also have a negative effect on cognitive function. Our aim was to study whether glucose, insulin or insulin resistance are associated with episodic or semantic memory in a non-diabetic and non-demented population. We linked and matched two population-based data sets identifying 291 participants (127 men and 164 women, mean age of 50.7 ± 8.0 years). Episodic and semantic memory functions were tested, and fasting plasma insulin, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour glucose were analysed along with other potential influencing factors on memory function. Since men and women display different results on memory functions they were analysed separately. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA-IR method. A higher fasting plasma glucose concentration was associated with lower episodic memory in women (r = -0.08, 95% CI -0.14; -0.01), but not in men. Plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance were not associated with episodic or semantic memory in women or in men after adjustments for age, fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, BMI, education, smoking, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholesterol, and physical activity. This indicates that fasting glucose but not insulin, might have impact on episodic memory in middle-aged women.

  19. [Evaluation of the nutritional status, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in a population of adolescents in the cities of Granada and Almeria (Spain)].

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    Montero Alonso, Miguel A; González-Jiménez, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to evaluat